Science.gov

Sample records for root canal filling materials

  1. Physicochemical Properties of Root Canal Filling Materials for Primary Teeth.

    PubMed

    Segato, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Pucinelli, Carolina Maschietto; Ferreira, Danielly Cunha Araújo; Daldegan, Andiara De Rossi; Silva, Roberto S da; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Léa A B da

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated physiochemical proprieties of a calcium hydroxide-based paste (Calen®) combined with a zinc oxide cement at different ratios (1:0.5, 1:0.65, 1:0.8 and 1:1). Materials were compared regarding setting time, pH variation, radiopacity, solubility, dimensional changes, flow and release of chemical elements. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Longer setting time and higher dimensional changes and solubility values were exhibited by 1:0.65 and 1:0.5 ratios (p<0.05). The 1:0.5 and 1:0.65 ratios exhibited the highest pH values at all time points. All materials exhibited high radiopacity values. Significant differences were found only between 1:0.5 and 1:1 ratios for calcium and zinc release (p<0.05), whereas the amount of zirconium was similar among all groups (p>0.05). Considering the evaluated proprieties, combinations of Calen® paste with ZO at 1:0.5 and 1:0.65 ratios had the best results as root canal filling materials for use in primary teeth. PMID:27058384

  2. Microstructure and wettability of root canal dentine and root canal filling materials after different chemical irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar; Brajkovic, Denis; Ilic, Dragan; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Djuric, Marija; Busse, Björn

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various irrigation solutions on root canal dentine and gutta-percha surface properties. In addition, the effects of disinfectant chemicals on the wettability and surface morphological properties of the filling materials were evaluated. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and ozone were employed as irrigation solutions for dentine and gutta-percha treatment. Thereafter, the samples' microstructure, degree of mineralization, and mechanical properties were assessed by means of quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and reference point indentation (RPI). A contact angle analyzer was used to measure adhesion on the tested materials. Here, EDTA had the most significant affect on both the mechanical properties and the adhesive behavior of dentine. Citric acid did not affect dentine wettability, whereas the indentation properties and the mineralization were reduced. Similar effects were observed when ozone was used. The dentinal tubules were significantly widened in citric acid compared to the ozone group. EDTA causes considerable micromechanical surface alteration of dentine and gutta-percha, but represents the best option in clinical cases where a high adhesiveness of the filling materials is desired.

  3. Tissue response to potential root-end filling materials in infected root canals.

    PubMed

    Chong, B S; Ford, T R; Kariyawasam, S P

    1997-03-01

    The tissue responses to two potential root-end filling materials, a light-cured glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond) and a reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol cement (Kalzinol) were compared with that to amalgam. In 27 premolar teeth of beagle dogs (54 roots), a collection of endodontic pathogenic bacteria was first inoculated into the root canals to induce periapical lesions. On each root, an apicectomy was performed and root-end cavities prepared to receive fillings of each material. The teeth and surrounding jaw were removed after 8 weeks (24 roots) and 4 weeks (30 roots); and they were prepared for histological examination. The tissue response to amalgam fillings after 4 and 8 weeks was marked by moderate or severe inflammation on all roots, and extended > 0.5 mm in 10 out of 18 roots. In contrast, after 8 weeks, the majority of roots filled with Kalzinol showed little or moderate inflammation while the tissue response to Vitrebond was the best of the three materials, and was also less extensive. After 4 weeks, the overall best tissue response was with Kalzinol, followed closely by Vitrebond. The differences between materials for both time periods with either none or few inflammatory cells when compared with that with either moderate or severe inflammation were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Similarly, the differences between materials for both time periods with no inflammation or inflammation extending < 0.2 mm when compared with that with inflammation extending > 0.2 mm (< or = 0.5 mm or > 0.5 mm) were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Both Vitrebond and Kalzinol have potential as root-end filling materials as the tissue response was considerably more favourable than that to amalgam.

  4. Biocompatibility of dental materials used in contemporary endodontic therapy: a review. Part 2. Root-canal-filling materials.

    PubMed

    Hauman, C H J; Love, R M

    2003-03-01

    Root-canal-filling materials are either placed directly onto vital periapical tissues or may leach through dentine. The tissue response to these materials therefore becomes important and may influence the outcome of endodontic treatment. This paper is a review of the biocompatibility of contemporary orthograde and retrograde root-canal-filling materials. PMID:12657140

  5. Short-term tissue response to potential root-end filling materials in infected root canals.

    PubMed

    Chong, B S; Pitt Ford, T R; Kariyawasam, S P

    1997-07-01

    The short-term tissue responses to two potential root-end filling materials, a light-cured glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond) and a reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol cement (Kalzinol), were compared with that to amalgam using a previously devised experimental model. In 24 premolar teeth of beagle dogs (47 roots), a collection of endodontic pathogenic bacteria was first inoculated into the root canals to induce periradicular lesions. On each root, an apicoectomy was performed and root-end cavities prepared to receive fillings of each material. The teeth and surrounding jaw were removed after 2 weeks (23 roots) and 1 week (24 roots); they were then prepared for histological examination. The tissue response to amalgam fillings after 2 weeks and 1 week was marked by moderate or severe inflammation on all roots, and extended to < or = 0.5 mm or > 0.5 mm in 15 out of 16 roots. In contrast, after 2 weeks, the majority of roots filled with Kalzinol showed little or moderate inflammation, while the tissue response to Vitrebond was the best of the three materials, and was also the least extensive. After 1 week, the overall best tissue response was with Vitrebond, followed by Kalzinol. The differences between materials for both time periods with either none or few inflammatory cells when compared with that with either moderate or severe inflammation were not statistically significant (P < 0.02). However, the differences between materials for both time periods with no inflammation or inflammation extending < 0.2 mm when compared with that with inflammation extending > 0.2 mm (< or = 0.5 mm or > 0.5 mm) were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Apart from amalgam, in which healing was marked by the persistence of a localized focus of inflammation adjacent to the root-end filling, even though there were intersample variations, there was little overall difference in the temporal and qualitative healing response to Vitrebond and Kalzinol. Both Vitrebond and Kalzinol have potential as

  6. [Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis based on overextension of root canal filling material].

    PubMed

    Badarne, O; Koudstaal, M J; van Elswijk, J F A; Wolvius, E B

    2012-10-01

    In a 48-year-old woman and a 35-year-old man, a sinusitis maxillaris resulting from overextension of root canal filling material after an endodontic treatment ofa maxillary molar could be diagnosed through computed tomography. The woman complained of nasal congestion and in the man 2 radiopaque abnormalities in the maxillary sinus were discovered coincidentally. The corpora aliena were removed surgically. Root canal filling materials containing zinc oxide or hydrocortisone may cause aspergillosis of the maxillary sinus because they encountergrowth of Aspergillus species. In case ofmaxillary sinusitis, surgical removal of overextended root canal filling material from the maxillary sinus is indicated. No treatment consensus consists for cases without maxillary sinusitis symptoms.

  7. Cleaning efficacy of reciprocal and rotary systems in the removal of root canal filling material

    PubMed Central

    Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Türker, Sevinç Aktemur; Sağlam, Baran Can

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of hand file, nickel titanium rotary instrument, and two reciprocating instruments for removing gutta-percha and sealer from the root canals. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight mandibular premolar teeth were used. The root canals were shaped and filled with gutta-percha and a resin-based sealer. The specimens were divided into four groups according to the technique by which the root filling material was removed: Group 1 — Wave One; Group 2 — Reciproc; Group 3 — ProTaper; and Group 4 — Gates-Glidden burs and stainless steel hand file. Then teeth were split longitudinally and photographed. The images were transferred to a computer. The ratio of remaining filling material to the root canal periphery was calculated with the aid of ImageJ software. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. Results: A significant difference was found among all groups (P < 0.001). The WaveOne group demonstrated significantly less remaining filling material. The greatest amount of filling material was found in specimens where gutta-percha was removed with Gates-Glidden burs and stainless steel hand file. Conclusion: The reciprocating files were found to be significantly more effective in removing the filling material from the canal walls compared to the rotational file and hand file. PMID:27099429

  8. Identification of incinerated root canal filling materials after exposure to high heat incineration.

    PubMed

    Bonavilla, Joseph D; Bush, Mary A; Bush, Peter J; Pantera, Eugene A

    2008-03-01

    With the increase in global terrorism there is a higher probability of having to identify victims of incineration events secondary to incendiary explosive devices. The victims of incineration events challenge forensic odontologists when coronal restorations are no longer present to compile postmortem data. With 40 million root canals being completed annually in the United States, a very large pool of antemortem data is available to the forensic odontologist to make positive identifications. When complete and thorough dental records exist, individuals that have undergone surgical and nonsurgical root canal therapy may have materials present in the canal that may aid in identification. This study provides elemental fingerprints of root canal obturation materials to be utilized as a forensic identification aid. This study used scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) to assess the elemental composition of materials before and after high temperature incineration. Sixteen endodontic materials were analyzed pre-incineration and placed in extracted teeth. The filled teeth were subjected to incineration at 900 degrees C for 30 min to simulate incineration events or cremation. Incinerated materials were radiographed and re-analyzed to determine if they retained their original elemental composition. Endodontic sealers, gutta percha, root-end filling materials, silver points, and separated files were distinguishable in the canal and traceable after incineration. The authors present a fingerprint of the endodontic obturation materials that are capable of withstanding high heat incineration to be used as an aid for postmortem identification. This work represents the initial stage of database generation for root canal filling materials for use as an aid in forensic identification. PMID:18298492

  9. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  13. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Nica, Luminita; Ionita, Ciprian; Marcauteanu, Corina; Goguta, Luciana; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2010-04-01

    Endodontic therapy consists in cleaning and shaping the root canal system, removing organic debris and sealing the intra-canal space with permanent filling materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various root canal fillings in order to detect material defects, the marginal adaptation at the root canal walls and to assess the quality of the apical sealing. 21 extracted single-root canal human teeth were selected for this study. We instrumented all roots using NiTi rotary instruments. All canals were enlarged with a 6% taper size 30 GT instrument, 0,5 mm from the anatomical apex. The root canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the instrumentation was completed, the root canals were obturated using a thermoplasticizable polymer of polyesters. In order to assess the defects inside the filling material and the marginal fit to the root canal walls, the conebeam micro-computed tomography (CBμCT) was used first. After the CBμCT investigation, time domain optical coherence tomography working in en face mode (TDefOCT) was employed to evaluate the previous samples. The TDefOCT system was working at 1300 nm and was doubled by a confocal channel at 970 nm. The results obtained by CBμCT revealed no visible defects inside the root-canal fillings and at the interfaces with the root-canal walls. TDefOCT investigations permit to visualize a more complex stratificated structure at the interface filling material/dental hard tissue and in the apical region.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification... for use during endodontic therapy to fill the root canal of a tooth. (b) Classification. (1) Class...

  15. Comparison of bacterial leakage resistance of various root canal filling materials and methods: Confocal laser-scanning microscope study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji Hee; Chung, Jin; Na, Hee-Sam; Park, Eunjoo; Kwak, Sangwon; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the bacterial leakage resistance and root canal lining efficacy of various root canal filling materials and methods by using confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM). Sixty extracted human premolars with mature apex and single root canal were randomly divided into 2 control groups and 4 experimental groups. Group CW was filled with continuous wave technique using gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. Group GC was coated with AH-Plus sealer and then obturated with soften GuttaCore. Group GF was obturated using GuttaFlow and gutta-percha. Group EM was filled with EndoSeal MTA and gutta-percha using ultrasonic vibration. The AH-Plus, GuttaFlow, and EndoSeal were labeled with Hoechst 33342 to facilitate fluorescence. The obturated root tip was incubated with Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-stained E. faecalis for 14 days. CLSM was performed to evaluate the sealer distribution and bacterial leakage for the apical 1-, 2-, 3-mm specimens. Statistically significant differences were determined by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test and Pearson's correlation analysis. Group EM showed the better sealer distribution score than the other groups (p < 0.05). Group CW and group GC exhibited the less bacterial leakage than the group GF, while group EM showed the similar bacterial leakage score with the groups CW and GC. There was no significant correlation between the sealer distribution and bacterial leakage (p > 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, different root canal filling materials and methods showed different efficacy for canal distribution and bacterial leakage resistance.

  16. A Systematic Review of Root Canal Filling Materials for Deciduous Teeth: Is There an Alternative for Zinc Oxide-Eugenol?

    PubMed Central

    Barja-Fidalgo, Fernanda; Moutinho-Ribeiro, Michele; Oliveira, Maria Angelina Amorim; de Oliveira, Branca Heloísa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether there is a root canal filling for deciduous teeth equally or more effective than zinc oxide-eugenol cement (ZOE). Six clinical trials selected for inclusion were independently reviewed by two researchers. Only two showed statistically significant different success rates between the test and the control groups. One found that an iodoform paste with calcium hydroxide (IP + Ca) performed better than ZOE, and the other found that ZOE performed similarly to IP + Ca. The other four studies compared ZOE with an iodoform paste (IP), a calcium hydroxide cement (Ca(OH)2), or IP + Ca. In these trials, the success rates in the ZOE groups were slightly lower than in the other groups. There seems to be no convincing evidence to support the superiority of any material over ZOE, and both ZOE and IP + Ca appear to be suitable as root canal fillings for deciduous teeth. PMID:21991471

  17. Delayed tooth replantation: MTA as root canal filling.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Saito, Célia Tomiko Matida Hamata; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2014-01-01

    MTA has been investigated as a root-end filling material. Its mechanism of action has some similarities to that of Ca(OH)2. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repair process taking place in the delayed replantation of monkey teeth using calcium hydroxide and MTA as root canal filling materials. Five monkeys had their lateral incisors extracted and bench-dried for 60 minutes. After root canal preparation, the teeth were assigned to two groups according to root canal filling material: I, calcium hydroxide; and II, MTA. The same treatment sequence was followed for both groups: coronal seal, periodontal ligament removal, immersion of the tooth in 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride, irrigation of the socket with saline and replantation. Both groups exhibited replacement resorption, areas of ankylosis and absence of inflammatory root resorption. Statistically similar results (p > 0.05) were observed for both groups regarding replacement root resorption, but the groups differed significantly (p < 0.05) regarding the occurrence of ankylosis. MTA may be a viable clinical option for filling teeth submitted to delayed replantation, and is an acceptable option for treating replanted permanent teeth in order to prevent tooth resorption, particularly when dressing changes are not possible. PMID:25337936

  18. Efficacy of Different Methods for Removing Root Canal Filling Material in Retreatment - An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mariswamy, Annapoorna Ballagere

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although success of endodontic therapy has significantly improved in the last few decades due to the introduction of novel materials and techniques, failures of endodontic therapy requiring re-treatment still comprise a significant percentage of patients requiring root canal treatment. Aim To evaluate and compare the effective removal of gutta percha and sealer, amount of apical debris extrusion and time required for gutta percha removal using various endodontic files. Materials and Methods Total 48 extracted mandibular premolars were mounted on acrylic blocks and endodontic procedure was carried out using size 40 K file and obturated using guttapercha and zinc oxide eugenol sealer. After one month storage, samples were decoronated, mounted on screw capped vials and subjected to removal of obturated material by four instruments: H files, safe sided H files, protaper universal retreatment rotary system and ultrasonic retreatment tip, grouped as 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Only 2mm of obturated material from the coronal part was removed using no. 3 Gates Glidden drill, guttapercha was softened with a drop of xylene for 2 mins for each canal and retreatment was performed. The retreatment procedure was said to be complete when no visible debris were observed on the instrument flutes. The samples split into two halves and examined under stereomicroscope, photographed, assessed using AUTOCAD software and percentage of remaining filling material in coronal, middle, apical thirds of the canal was calculated in mm2. Retreatment time was recorded in seconds and apically extruded debris was assessed by microbalance in grams for each tooth. The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Scheffe’s post hoc test through SPSS for windows (v 16.0). Results The ultrasonic retreatment tip had less percentage of residual guttapercha/sealer, shorter mean operating time and little apical extrusion with a significant difference (p<0.05) between the

  19. The mysterious appearance of enterococci in filled root canals.

    PubMed

    Zehnder, M; Guggenheim, B

    2009-04-01

    In this narrative review, the potential reasons for the high occurrence of enterococci in filled root canals are explored. The pulpless root canal appears to be a habitat for these bacteria, particularly for Enterococcus faecalis. However, re-surveying the literature in caries research, it can be concluded that, contrary to earlier belief, enterococci are rare if ever found at the advancing front of dentinal lesions. The same is the case for true primary endodontic infections, but some uncertainty remains, because the coronal seal and the history of teeth harbouring enterococci have rarely been accurately investigated. Furthermore, from longitudinal studies with a known infection at the initiation of treatment, which was carried out under controlled asepsis, it is questionable whether enterococci are as difficult to eliminate from the canal system as is commonly held. A more likely explanation for the high occurrence of enterococci in filled root canals is that they enter after treatment, but from which source? The intriguing finding in this context is that enterococci do not appear to be colonizers of the oral cavity. They are merely transient oral bacteria, unless there is a predilection site such as the unsealed necrotic or filled root canal. The origin of this infection is most likely food. Using the example of enterococci in filled root canals, this paper highlights the possible importance of transient microorganisms in the oral cavity and changes in a microenvironment that can create favourable conditions for infection. PMID:19220511

  20. Penetration of a resin-based filling material into lateral root canals and quality of obturation by different techniques.

    PubMed

    Michelotto, André Luiz da Costa; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Araki, Angela Toshie; Akisue, Eduardo; Sydney, Gilson Blitzkow

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the penetration of a resin/polyester polymer-based material (Resilon Real Seal; SybronEndo Corp., Orange, USA) into simulated lateral canals, and the quality of obturations by different techniques. A total of 30 standardized simulated canals were divided into three groups according to the technique of obturation used: MS (McSpadden), SB (SystemB/Obtura II), and LC (Lateral Condensation). To analyze the penetration of the filling material, the simulated canals were digitalized and the images were analyzed using the Leica QWIN Pro v2.3 software. The data of the middle and apical thirds were separately submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey's test for the comparison of the techniques. Results showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups (LC < SB) in the middle third, and a significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups (LC < SB and MS < SB) in the apical third. To analyze the quality of the obturations, the canals were radiographed and evaluated by three examiners. The Kappa test on interexaminer agreement and the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant difference between filling techniques. It was concluded that Resilon achieves greater levels of penetration when associated with thermoplastic obturation techniques.

  1. Penetration of a resin-based filling material into lateral root canals and quality of obturation by different techniques.

    PubMed

    Michelotto, André Luiz da Costa; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Araki, Angela Toshie; Akisue, Eduardo; Sydney, Gilson Blitzkow

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the penetration of a resin/polyester polymer-based material (Resilon Real Seal; SybronEndo Corp., Orange, USA) into simulated lateral canals, and the quality of obturations by different techniques. A total of 30 standardized simulated canals were divided into three groups according to the technique of obturation used: MS (McSpadden), SB (SystemB/Obtura II), and LC (Lateral Condensation). To analyze the penetration of the filling material, the simulated canals were digitalized and the images were analyzed using the Leica QWIN Pro v2.3 software. The data of the middle and apical thirds were separately submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey's test for the comparison of the techniques. Results showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups (LC < SB) in the middle third, and a significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups (LC < SB and MS < SB) in the apical third. To analyze the quality of the obturations, the canals were radiographed and evaluated by three examiners. The Kappa test on interexaminer agreement and the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant difference between filling techniques. It was concluded that Resilon achieves greater levels of penetration when associated with thermoplastic obturation techniques. PMID:25466332

  2. An in-vitro comparative study for assessment of apical sealing ability of Epiphany/AH Plus sealer with Resilon/gutta-percha root canal filling materials

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Meraj; Musani, Mohammad A.; Ahmed, Iffat M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Endodontic treatment is directed to eliminate microbial challenges from the root canal system and to create a complete seal. The aim of this study was to assess the apical sealing ability of resin-based Epiphany-Resilon root canal filling system and to compare it with the sealing abilities of different combinations of AH Plus, gutta-percha, Epiphany, and Resilon. Materials and Methods: One hundred extracted human maxillary incisor roots were treated endodontically. The samples were divided into groups A, B, C, and D, with each group containing 25 samples. Group A: Canals obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer; Group B: Canals obturated with Resilon and Epiphany; Group C: Canals obturated with gutta-percha and Epiphany; Group D: Control group canals obturated with gutta-percha without a sealer. The sealing ability of each of the obturation techniques was tested using the dye penetration method followed by the clearing method using alcohol. Stereo microscope was used to measure the extent of dye penetration. Statistical data analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Tukey tests. Results: Microleakage was found in all the four groups. Apical extent of mean microleakage was maximum for gutta-percha, followed by Gutta-percha + AH-plus and Gutta-percha + Epiphany, and the least with Resilon + Epiphany. Statistically significant difference (P < 0.01) was seen in the apical leakage. Conclusion: All the samples tested showed microleakage. The “Epiphany soft resin endodontic obturation system” showed a superior result compared to other obturation materials. PMID:27583220

  3. Susceptibility of a polycaprolactone-based root canal filling material to degradation using an agar-well diffusion assay

    PubMed Central

    Hiraishi, Noriko; Sadek, Fernanda T.; King, Nigel M.; Ferrari, Marco; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cholesterol esterase is both a component of salivary hydrolases as well as an inflammatory cell-derived enzyme and has been shown to cause biodegradation of methacrylate-based resin composites. This study examined whether Resilon, a polycaprolactone-based thermoplastic root filling material is susceptible to biodegradation by cholesterol esterase using agar-well diffusion assay of serially-diluted aqueous Resilon emulsions that were dispersed in agar. Materials and methods Emulsions of Resilon and polycaprolactone were prepared and dispersed in agar on culture plates. Two different concentrations of a cholesterol esterase (0.3 and 1.2 U/mL) were prepared and fed to wells prepared in the agar plates using an agar-well diffusion assay for examination the degradation of polymeric materials. Results Degradation of the emulsified Resilon was manifested as the formation of clear zones of different sizes around the agar wells. No clear zones were observed in agar wells that contain sterile distilled water as the negative control. Clinical significance Although dispersion Resilon into an emulsion is not the way in which this material is employed as a root filling material, the potential for Resilon to be degraded by cholesterol esterase is of potential concern as one cannot limit the degradation of extruded Resilon from a root apex by monocyte-derived macrophages to just the anatomical root apex. As the present study employed a high concentration of cholesterol esterase, further studies should be directed to examining the degradation of Resilon using macrophage cell cultures. PMID:18578181

  4. Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials: recent update

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Newaskar, Vilas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of a root-end filling is to establish a seal between the root canal space and the periradicular tissues. As root-end filling materials come into contact with periradicular tissues, knowledge of the tissue response is crucial. Almost every available dental restorative material has been suggested as the root-end material of choice at a certain point in the past. This literature review on root-end filling materials will evaluate and comparatively analyse the biocompatibility and tissue response to these products, with primary focus on newly introduced materials. PMID:24010077

  5. Susceptibility of a polycaprolactone-based root canal filling material to degradation. II. Gravimetric evaluation of enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Yau, Joyce Y Y; Yiu-fai, Mak; Loushine, Robert J; Weller, R Norman; Kimbrough, W Frank; King, Nigel M

    2005-10-01

    Polycaprolactone is susceptible to enzymatic biodegradation via ester bond cleavage. This study examined the susceptibility of Resilon, a polycaprolactone-based root filling material to enzymatic hydrolysis. Resilon, gutta-percha, and polycaprolactone disks, prepared by compression molding, were incubated in phosphate-buffered saline, lipase PS or cholesterol esterase at 37 degrees C for 96 h. They were retrieved at different time intervals for gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The materials exhibited slight weight gains when incubated in phosphate-buffered saline that can be attributed to water sorption. Gutta-percha showed similar weight gains in the two enzymes. Conversely, Resilon and polycaprolactone exhibited extensive surface thinning and weight losses after incubation in lipase PS and cholesterol esterase. Glass filler particles in Resilon were exposed following surface dissolution of the polymer matrix, creating rough surface topography. Biodegradation of Resilon by bacterial and salivary enzymes warrants further investigation of their activities using cultures of endodontically relevant microbes and human saliva extracts.

  6. Reliability of assessing dye penetration along root canal fillings using methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Souza, Erick Miranda; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldes; Shemesh, Hagay; Bonanato-Estrela, Cristiane; Bonetti-Filho, Idomeo

    2009-12-01

    Methylene blue (MB) remains the most frequently used tracer for dye penetration tests of endodontic fillings, despite its chemical reactions with different materials. This study checked whether dye penetration displayed by MB is comparable to Rhodamine B (RB). One hundred and seventy-two root canals were filled with gutta-percha and six sealers. Samples were covered with nail varnish except for the apical area, and immersed in MB or RB solutions under negative pressure. After 24 h, roots were bisected, photographed and the maximal dye penetration recorded. Dye penetrations displayed by MB and RB were compared (Newman-Keuls test). MB and RB displayed comparable results for groups filled with AH Plus, EndoREZ and Polifil (P > 0.05). For Endofill, Sealer 26 and Sealapex, a significant lower dye penetration was observed when MB was used (P < 0.05). Laboratory tests using MB for measuring dye penetration through filled root canals can result in misleading conclusions.

  7. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Cheng-Fei; Chu, Chun-Hung; Zhu, Xiao-Fei

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of patients requiring endodontic retreatment for apical periodontitis. Patients with apical periodontitis who were referred for endodontic retreatment were examined. The type and quality of the restoration, symptoms, quality of obturation were recorded. During retreatment, an oral rinse sample and root canal sample were cultured using brain-heart infusion agar and bile esculinazide agar to select for E. faecalis. The 16S rRNA technique was used to identify E. faecalis. A total of 32 women and 22 men (mean age: 38 years; s.d.: 11 years) and 58 teeth were studied. The prevalence of E. faecalis was 19% in the saliva and 38% in the root canals. The odds that root canals harbored E. faecalis were increased if the saliva habored this bacterium (odds ratio=9.7; 95% confidence interval=1.8–51.6; P<0.05). Teeth with unsatisfactory root obturation had more cultivable bacterial species in root canals than teeth with satisfactory root obturation (P<0.05). E. faecalis is more common in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis than in saliva. The prevalence of E. faecalis in root canals is associated with the presence of E. faecalis in saliva. PMID:22422085

  8. Extraoral Retrograde Root Canal Filling of an Orthodontic-induced External Root Resorption Using CEM Cement

    PubMed Central

    Kheirieh, Sanam; Fazlyab, Mahta; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Eghbal, Mohamad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory external root resorption (IERR) after orthodontic treatments is an unusual complication. This case report describes a non-vital maxillary premolar with symptomatic extensive IERR (with a crown/root ratio of 1:1) after receiving orthodontic treatment. The first appointment included drainage, chemo-mechanical preparation of the canal and intra-canal medication with calcium hydroxide (CH) along with prescription of analgesic/antibiotic. The subsequent one-week follow-up revealed the persistence of symptoms and formation of a sinus tract. Finally, extraoral endodontic treatment was planned; the tooth was atraumatically extracted and retrograde root canal filling with calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement was placed followed by tooth replantation. Clinical signs/symptoms subsided during 7 days postoperatively. The sinus tract also resolved after one week. Six-month and one-year follow-ups revealed complete healing and a fully functional asymptomatic tooth. This case study showed favorable outcomes in a refractory periapical lesion associated with orthodontically induced extensive IERR. The chemical as well as biological properties of CEM cement may be a suitable endodontic biomaterial for these cases. PMID:24688586

  9. Effect of root canal filling techniques on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealers.

    PubMed

    Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Souza, Angélica Moreira; Macedo, Luciana Martins Domingues; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Silva, Bruno Marques; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different root canal filling techniques on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealers. Sixty single-rooted canines were prepared using ProTaper (F5) and divided into the following groups based on the root filling technique: Lateral Compaction (LC), Single Cone (SC), and Tagger Hybrid Technique (THT). The following subgroups (n = 10) were also created based on sealer material used: AH Plus and Sealer 26. Two-millimeter-thick slices were cut from all the root thirds and subjected to push-out test. Data (MPa) was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The push-out values were significantly affected by the sealer, filling technique, and root third (p < 0.05). AH Plus (1.37 ± 1.04) exhibited higher values than Sealer 26 (0.92 ± 0.51), while LC (1.80 ± 0.98) showed greater bond strength than THT (1.16 ± 0.50) and SC (0.92 ± 0.25). The cervical (1.45 ± 1.14) third exhibited higher bond strength, followed by the middle (1.20 ± 0.72) and apical (0.78 ± 0.33) thirds. AH Plus/LC (2.26 ± 1.15) exhibited the highest bond strength values, followed by AH Plus/THT (1.32 ± 0.61), Sealer 26/LC (1.34 ± 0.42), and Sealer 26/THT (1.00 ± 0.27). The lowest values were obtained with AH Plus/SC and Sealer 26/SC. Thus, it can be concluded that the filling technique affects the bond strength of sealers. LC was associated with higher bond strength between the material and intra-radicular dentine than THT and SC techniques. PMID:26910020

  10. Effect of intracanal medicament on the sealing ability of root canals filled with Resilon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching S; Debelian, Gilberto J; Teixeira, Fabricio B

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of the use of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal dressing on the sealing ability of a thermoplastic synthetic polymer-based root filling (Resilon). Forty-seven single rooted teeth were decoronated and instrumented to ISO sizes 40. The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups of 15 roots each. Group 1 was immediately filled. Group 2 and group 3 had calcium hydroxide paste placed with lentulo-spiral filler. After 7 days, calcium hydroxide was removed from the canals with two different techniques: #15 K-file agitated irrigation with 17% Ethylenediaminetetracitic acid (EDTA) (group 2) or ultrasonically agitated irrigation with 17% EDTA (group 3) for 2 min. All teeth were filled with Resilon points and the resin sealer (Ephiphany root canal sealant) using lateral condensation technique. Two teeth were immediately filled with Resilon master point size 40/.04 without sealer to act as a positive control. A split chamber microbial leakage model using Streptococcus mutans was used and the leakage was evaluated daily for a period of 30 days. Overall, 6 of 44 (14%) of samples filled with Resilon points and the resin sealer had microbial leakage. Three samples in group 1 (21%), two samples in group 2 (13%), and one specimen in group 3 (7%) had bacterial leakage. Using the Fisher's Exact test, there was no statistically significant difference in leakage between the groups with calcium hydroxide dressing and the group without calcium hydroxide (p > 0.05). Under the condition of this study, calcium hydroxide did not adversely affect the seal of the root-canal system filled with Resilon. PMID:16728244

  11. Evaluation of the Apical Sealability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement as Root Canal Filling Cements: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Rekab, M.S.; Ayoubi, H. Rushdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: One of the principle purposes of root canal obturation is to obtain hermetic sealing of the root canal system. According to the development of technology, many materials are now used in root canal filling. An in vitro dye leakage study was performed to evaluate the apical sealability of White-colored Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (WMTA) and Gray-colored Portland Cement (GPC) when used alone or as a sealer with gutta-percha points in root canal filling. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five single-rooted extracted human teeth were used in this study. After cleaning and shaping, the teeth were randomly divided into five equal groups of 15 teeth each based on the root canal filling material used; Group 1, (WMTA) alone; Group 2, (GPC) alone; Group 3, (Gutta-percha points + WMTA); Group 4, (Gutta-percha points + GPC); Group 5, (Gutta-percha points + AH26). Methylene blue was used to determine the apical leakage. After sectioning the teeth longitudinally, linear dye penetration was measured with a caliper under the stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA tests with (P ≤ 0.05) as the level of significance. Results: The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences among the materials of five groups. Conclusion: (WMTA) alone, (Gutta-percha points + WMTA), (GPC) alone and (Gutta-percha points + GPC) may be used in the root canal filling. PMID:21998797

  12. Comparison of root canal filling quality by mineral trioxide aggregate and gutta percha cones/AH plus sealer.

    PubMed

    Jho, Wonkyung; Park, Jeong-Won; Kim, Euiseong; Song, Minju; Seo, Deok-Gyu; Yang, Dong-Kyu; Shin, Su-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of canal filling using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and gutta-percha (GP) in root canals, and to investigate the differences in the percentage of voids between mesial and distal canals by using microcomputed tomography. Twenty-two extracted human mandibular molars were instrumented using rotary files. Two teeth without canal fillings served as negative controls, and the other teeth were obturated with either ProRoot(®) MTA or gutta-percha and AH Plus(®) sealer. Obturated teeth were scanned with microcomputed tomography, and the percentage of voids (V%) was calculated. These specimens were also examined under a scanning electron microscope. The MTA group showed a significantly higher V% than the GP groups (p<0.05). The mesial canal groups showed significantly higher V% than did the distal canal groups (p<0.05). In orthograde filling, MTA exhibited significantly lower filling quality than did GP.

  13. Root canal filling: fracture strength of fiber-reinforced composite-restored roots and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Marília Pivetta; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of root canal filling techniques on root fracture resistance and to analyze, by finite element analysis (FEA), the expansion of the endodontic sealer in two different root canal techniques. Thirty single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with rotary files to a standardized working length of 14 mm. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin using plastic cylinders as molds, and allocated into 3 groups (n=10): G(lateral) - lateral condensation; G(single-cone) - single cone; G(tagger) - Tagger's hybrid technique. The root canals were prepared to a length of 11 mm with the #3 preparation bur of a tapered glass fiber-reinforced composite post system. All roots received glass fiber posts, which were adhesively cemented and a composite resin core was built. All groups were subjected to a fracture strength test (1 mm/min, 45°). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. FEA was performed using two models: one simulated lateral condensation and Tagger's hybrid technique, and the other one simulated the single-cone technique. The second model was designed with an amount of gutta-percha two times smaller and a sealer layer two times thicker than the first model. The results were analyzed using von Mises stress criteria. One-way ANOVA indicated that the root canal filling technique affected the fracture strength (p=0.004). The G(lateral) and G(tagger) produced similar fracture strength values, while G(single-cone) showed the lowest values. The FEA showed that the single-cone model generated higher stress in the root canal walls. Sealer thickness seems to influence the fracture strength of restored endodontically treated teeth. PMID:24474359

  14. Root canal filling: fracture strength of fiber-reinforced composite-restored roots and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Marília Pivetta; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of root canal filling techniques on root fracture resistance and to analyze, by finite element analysis (FEA), the expansion of the endodontic sealer in two different root canal techniques. Thirty single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with rotary files to a standardized working length of 14 mm. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin using plastic cylinders as molds, and allocated into 3 groups (n=10): G(lateral) - lateral condensation; G(single-cone) - single cone; G(tagger) - Tagger's hybrid technique. The root canals were prepared to a length of 11 mm with the #3 preparation bur of a tapered glass fiber-reinforced composite post system. All roots received glass fiber posts, which were adhesively cemented and a composite resin core was built. All groups were subjected to a fracture strength test (1 mm/min, 45°). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. FEA was performed using two models: one simulated lateral condensation and Tagger's hybrid technique, and the other one simulated the single-cone technique. The second model was designed with an amount of gutta-percha two times smaller and a sealer layer two times thicker than the first model. The results were analyzed using von Mises stress criteria. One-way ANOVA indicated that the root canal filling technique affected the fracture strength (p=0.004). The G(lateral) and G(tagger) produced similar fracture strength values, while G(single-cone) showed the lowest values. The FEA showed that the single-cone model generated higher stress in the root canal walls. Sealer thickness seems to influence the fracture strength of restored endodontically treated teeth.

  15. Shear modulus and thermal properties of gutta percha for root canal filling.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, G; Tanaka, T; Torii, M; Inoue, K

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the rheological properties of four commercially available gutta perchas for root canal filling. The relaxation modulus [Gr(0): instantaneous shear modulus] and specific volume of their materials were examined. In addition, the quantity of heat was also studied by differential scanning calorimeter. In a lower temperature range than the first-order transition temperature (melting point), the Gr(0) values of each material were almost identical. A marked decrease of Gr(0) was observed at the melting point, and the range of the first-order transition temperature at heating was from 42.0 to 60.0 degrees C. At higher temperatures than the first-order transition temperature of each material, a considerable difference in Gr(0) values was observed. The transition temperatures obtained by the results of the Gr(0), specific volume and quantity of heat agreed with one another. A marked specific volume change was observed at the first-order transition temperature. The technique using melted gutta percha may not be favourable compared with the conventional lateral condensation technique because melted gutta percha undergoes a large amount of shrinkage during setting. PMID:15525394

  16. Measurement of the percentage of root filling in oval-shaped canals obturated with Thermafil Obturators and Beefill 2in1: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Castellanos, Nicolás; Alegre-Domingo, Teresa; Dolz-Solsona, María; Faus-Matoses, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to measure the percentage of root canal fillings in long oval canals obturated with thermoplasticized gutta-percha techniques, Beefill 2in1® and Thermafil Obturators®. Material and Methods Fifty four mandibular incisors were selected after bucco-lingual and mesio-distal radiographs showed at 5 mm from apex an internal long:short diameter ≥2. Teeth were instrumented with Protaper Universal and divided in two groups of 27. Group 1 was obturated with Thermafil Obturators® and group 2 with Beefill 2in1®. Two horizontal sections were cut at 5 and 7 mm from the apex and photographed in a stereo-microscope. The total area of the canal and filled canal in cross-sections were measured with AutoCad and the percentages of gutta-percha-sealer and voids in the canal were obtained. Results Both systems achieved high percentage of filled canal, Thermafil 96.8% and Beefill 2in1 98.9%. The percentages of voids in both groups were very low. No significant differences were found between the two groups . The percentage obtained at 5 and 7 mm from the apex in both groups showed no significant difference. Conclusions The percentages of filled canal (gutta-percha-sealer) were high and these two thermoplasticized techniques are suitable for long oval canals obturation. Key words:Long oval canal, oval canal, thermoplasticized obturation. PMID:26155350

  17. Bacterial leakage of GuttaFlow-filled root canals compared with Resilon/Epiphany and Gutta-percha/AH26-filled root canals.

    PubMed

    Kangarlou, Ali; Dianat, Omid; Esfahrood, Zeinab Rezaei; Asharaf, Hengameh; Zandi, Babak; Eslami, Gita

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess bacterial apical leakage in root canals obturated with GuttaFlow and compare this with the leakage of root canals obturated with Resilon/Epiphany or Gutta-percha/AH26. A total of 55 single-rooted human teeth were divided randomly into three experimental (n = 15) and two control groups (n = 5). Following a standardised preparation, the teeth were obturated with either GuttaFlow, Resilon/Epiphany or Gutta-percha/AH26. A two-chamber bacterial model using Enterococcus faecalis was employed to assess bacterial apical leakage for a period of 60 days. A Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant differences between the seal of root canals obturated with GuttaFlow, Resilon/Ephiphany or Gutta-percha/AH26. PMID:22432820

  18. Ability of Three Endodontic Sealers to Fill the Root Canal System in Association with Gutta-Percha

    PubMed Central

    Ormiga, Fabiola; Ferreira de Assis, Danielle; de Andrade Risso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The present study compared the ability of the endodontic sealers AH Plus, Pulp Canal Sealer and EndoREZ to fill the root canal system in association with gutta-percha. Methods: Ninety mandibular premolars were accessed, prepared and divided into three groups of 30 teeth each, according to the sealer used to fill the canals: AH Plus, Pulp Canal Sealer and EndoREZ. All the teeth were filled using the continuous wave of condensation technique. The specimens were then decalcified, dehydrated, rendered transparent, and analyzed by three independent evaluators with 8x magnification. Chi-squared test (χ2, p < 0.05) was used to compare the groups in relation to the totally filled, the partially filled and the non filled ramifications. The same test was used to compare the directions of filled ramifications and the number of ramifications among the three thirds of the roots. Results: EndoREZ filled a significantly higher number of ramifications than AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer (χ2, p < 0.05). All the groups showed higher number of totally filled ramifications than partially filled and unfilled ramifications. The ramifications were more frequently detected in the apical third, followed by medium and coronal thirds, respectively (χ2, p < 0.05). The ramifications were more frequently detected towards lingual direction (χ2, p < 0.05). Conclusion: EndoREZ presented higher ability to fill the root canal system in association with gutta-percha when compared to AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer. The ramifications were more frequently detected in the apical third, running in a lingual direction. PMID:27006719

  19. In vitro study of the apical microleakage with resilon root canal filling using different final endodontic irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Farré, Magí; Pumarola, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Background Endodontic microleakage or microfiltration refers to the percolation of fluids and micro-organisms at the interface of the obturation material and the walls of the root canal system. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare apical microfiltration of Resilon root canal filling by employing three different final irrigant solutions. Material and Methods 128 single-rooted teeth were employed. The crowns were sectioned horizontally at the cemento-enamel junction and instrumented with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% EDTA gel to obtain an instrumented 040 apical caliber. An intermediate irrigation was performed with distilled water. The roots were then randomly assigned to three experimental groups with three different final irrigants: (A) 20% citric acid (CA); (B) 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX); and (C) 5.25% NaOCl, plus two control groups (positive and negative). They were then dried, obturated with RealSeal™, and cleared by Robertson’s technique. Apical microleakage was measured by the dye penetration method and assessed with a 4.5x stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA and post hoc analysis for multiple comparisons. Results Mean and standard deviations for apical microleakage were: 2% CHX (0.24 mm ± 0.22), 20% CA (0.25 mm ± 0.20), and 5.25% NaOCl (0.87 mm ± 0.32). Significant differences were reported among the group irrigated with NaOCl, CHX and CA (P<0.001). Conclusions A higher rate of apical microleakage was observed when the final irrigation was performed with NaOCl whilst lower rates were reported for CHX and CA. Key words:Apical filtration, endodontic irrigation, resin-based sealers, adhesion, root canal filling. PMID:26155335

  20. Evaluation of Marginal Adaptation of Root-End Filling Materials Using Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Helder Fernandes; Gonçalves Alencar, Ana Helena; Poli Figueiredo, José Antônio; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; de Almeida Decurcio, Daniel; Estrela, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The importance of perfect apical seal in endodontics, more specifically in periradicular surgery, is the motivation/reason for development of root-end filling materials with favorable physical, chemical and biological characteristics. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of root-end filling materials using scanning electron microscopy. Materials and Methods Twenty five human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared using a K-File #50 to 1 mm short of the apical foramen and filled with gutta-percha and Sealapex using the lateral compaction technique. The apical 3 mm of the roots were sectioned perpendicularly to the long axis of the teeth. A 3-mm-deep root-end cavity was prepared using ultrasonic tips powered by an Enac ultrasonic unit. The teeth were randomly assigned to five groups according to the materials tested including IRM, amalgam, ProRoot MTA, Super-EBA and Epiphany/Resilon. Root-end cavities were filled with the materials prepared according to the manufacturers’ instructions. The root apices were carefully prepared for sputter coating and later evaluation using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The images of root-end fillings were divided into four quadrants and distributed into five categories according to the level of marginal adaptation between the root-end material and the root canal walls. The Fisher exact test with Bonferroni correction was used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at P = 0.005. Results SEM images showed the presence of gaps in the root-end filling materials. No significant difference was observed between the tested materials (P > 0.005). Conclusion ProRoot MTA, IRM, amalgam, Super-EBA and Epiphany/Resilon showed similar marginal adaptation as root-end filling materials. PMID:24171026

  1. Root surface temperature rise of mandibular first molar during root canal filling with high-temperature thermoplasticized Gutta-Percha in the dog.

    PubMed

    Lipski, M; Woźniak, K; Lichota, D; Nowicka, A

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the temperature rise on the outer root surface of the mandibular first molar following root canal filling using the high-temperature, thermoplasticized, Gutta-Percha technique (HTTG) (BeeFill) in the dog. Twelve extracted dog mandibular first molars were used. After root canal preparation, the teeth were filled with thermoplasticized Gutta-Percha and root canal sealer. Temperature changes on the vestibular surfaces of the mesial and distal roots of mandibular first molars were measured using a thermal imaging camera. The results of this in vitro study showed that using HTTG to fill mandibular first molars in dogs produces a safe temperature rise on the root surface and, therefore, should not damage the periodontal ligament and/or surrounding tissues.

  2. Effect of bleaching agents on sealing properties of different intraorifice barriers and root filling materials

    PubMed Central

    Canoglu, Ebru; Gulsahi, Kamran; Sahin, Cem; Altundasar, Emre

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of intracoronal bleaching agents on the sealing properties of different intraorifice barriers and root filling materials. Study Design: The root canals of extracted human premolars (n=180) were prepared by using System GT rotary files and filled with either gutta-percha+AH Plus or Resilon+Epiphany sealer. In both groups, the coronal 3mm of root filling was removed and replaced with one of the following materials applied as intraorifice barriers (n=30/group): 1. ProProot-MTA; 2. Conventional Glass ionomer cement; and 3. Hybrid resin composite. In each subgroup, intracoronal bleaching was performed using either sodium perborate with distilled water or 35% hydrogen peroxide gel for 3 weeks. The leakage of specimens was measured using fluid-filtration and dye penetration tests. The data were analyzed statistically with One-way ANOVA, Repeated Measures t-test and Independent Samples t-test (p=0.05). Results: The fluid conductance values of the test groups were not influenced by the type of the bleaching agent, the intraorifice barrier, or the root filling material (all p>0.05). However, the extent of dye leakage was significantly affected by the type of intraorifice barrier material (p<0.05), which showed the following statistical ranking: glass ionomer cement > resin composite > ProRoot-MTA (p<0.05). Conclusions: The effect of 35% hydrogen peroxide gel or sodium perborate/distilled water on the sealing properties of tested intraorifice barriers and root filling materials varied conforming leakage assessment. These properties were not affected by using fluid filtration test, while the glass ionomer barrier showed the greatest amount of dye leakage in both gutta-percha and Resilon root-filled teeth. Key words:Tooth Bleaching, root canal filling materials, glass ionomer cement, mineral trioxide aggregate, micro leakage PMID:22322509

  3. Physicochemical and biological properties of a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Zuo, Yi; Zhao, Minghui; Jiang, Jiaxing; Man, Yi; Wu, Jun; Hu, Yunjiu; Liu, Changlei; Li, Yubao; Li, Jidong

    2015-01-01

    A root canal sealer with antibacterial activity can be efficacious in preventing reinfection that results from residual microorganisms and/or the leakage of microorganisms. In the present study, a series of injectable, self-curing polyurethane (PU)-based antibacterial sealers with different concentrations of silver phosphate (Ag3PO4) were fabricated. Subsequently, their physicochemical properties, antibacterial abilities, and preliminary cytocompatibilities were evaluated. The results indicated that the fabricated PU-based sealers can achieve a high conversion rate in a short amount of time. More than 95% of the isocyanate group of PU sealers with 3 wt% (PU3) and 5 wt% (PU5) concentrations of Ag3PO4 were included in the curing reaction after 7 hours. With the exception of those for film thickness for PU5, the results of setting time, film thickness, and solubility were able to meet the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization. The antibacterial tests showed that PU3 and PU5 exhibit stronger antimicrobial effects than that achieved with 1 wt% Ag3PO4 (PU1) and AH Plus (positive control) against Streptococcus mutans. The cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that the PU1 and PU3 sealers possess good cytocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that the PU3 sealer offers good physicochemical and antimicrobial properties along with cytocompatibility, which may hold great application potential in the field of root canal fillings. PMID:25653518

  4. Effect of various zinc oxide materials as root-end fillings on healing after replantation.

    PubMed

    Pitt Ford, T R; Andreasen, J O; Dorn, S O; Kariyawasam, S P

    1995-11-01

    This study examined the effect of various zinc oxide materials as root-end fillings of teeth in a replantation model. A total of 35 molar teeth were used from 19 monkeys. After extraction, root ends were resected, the canals contaminated with oral bacteria, root-end cavities prepared and fillings placed prior to replantation. After 8 weeks the teeth and surrounding jaw were removed and prepared for histological examination. Twelve roots were filled with IRM plus dentine chips, and six with Cavit; the tissue response around root ends filled with these materials as assessed by inflammation was similar to that previous reported to IRM and Super EBA cement and was characterized by little or no inflammation of limited extent. In contrast, more severe inflammation was observed around root ends filled with plain zinc oxide-eugenol or Kalzinol; however, the reaction was neither as severe nor as extensive as that to amalgam root-end fillings. Giant cells were observed most often on the surface of fillings with Cavit and zinc oxide-eugenol. It is concluded that the tissue response to IRM with or without added dentine, Super EBA and Cavit was similar and mild; it was less severe than that to zinc oxide-eugenol and Kalzinol. All these materials had a much more favourable response than amalgam

  5. How to bond to root canal dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  6. Theoretical distribution of gutta-percha within root canals filled using cold lateral compaction based on numeric calculus.

    PubMed

    Min, Yi; Song, Ying; Gao, Yuan; Dummer, Paul M H

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to present a new method based on numeric calculus to provide data on the theoretical volume ratio of voids when using the cold lateral compaction technique in canals with various diameters and tapers. Twenty-one simulated mathematical root canal models were created with different tapers and sizes of apical diameter, and were filled with defined sizes of standardized accessory gutta-percha cones. The areas of each master and accessory gutta-percha cone as well as the depth of their insertion into the canals were determined mathematically in Microsoft Excel. When the first accessory gutta-percha cone had been positioned, the residual area of void was measured. The areas of the residual voids were then measured repeatedly upon insertion of additional accessary cones until no more could be inserted in the canal. The volume ratio of voids was calculated through measurement of the volume of the root canal and mass of gutta-percha cones. The theoretical volume ratio of voids was influenced by the taper of canal, the size of apical preparation and the size of accessory gutta-percha cones. Greater apical preparation size and larger taper together with the use of smaller accessory cones reduced the volume ratio of voids in the apical third. The mathematical model provided a precise method to determine the theoretical volume ratio of voids in root-filled canals when using cold lateral compaction.

  7. Theoretical distribution of gutta-percha within root canals filled using cold lateral compaction based on numeric calculus.

    PubMed

    Min, Yi; Song, Ying; Gao, Yuan; Dummer, Paul M H

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to present a new method based on numeric calculus to provide data on the theoretical volume ratio of voids when using the cold lateral compaction technique in canals with various diameters and tapers. Twenty-one simulated mathematical root canal models were created with different tapers and sizes of apical diameter, and were filled with defined sizes of standardized accessory gutta-percha cones. The areas of each master and accessory gutta-percha cone as well as the depth of their insertion into the canals were determined mathematically in Microsoft Excel. When the first accessory gutta-percha cone had been positioned, the residual area of void was measured. The areas of the residual voids were then measured repeatedly upon insertion of additional accessary cones until no more could be inserted in the canal. The volume ratio of voids was calculated through measurement of the volume of the root canal and mass of gutta-percha cones. The theoretical volume ratio of voids was influenced by the taper of canal, the size of apical preparation and the size of accessory gutta-percha cones. Greater apical preparation size and larger taper together with the use of smaller accessory cones reduced the volume ratio of voids in the apical third. The mathematical model provided a precise method to determine the theoretical volume ratio of voids in root-filled canals when using cold lateral compaction. PMID:27465338

  8. High conversion self-curing sealer based on a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bin; Zuo, Yi; Li, Jidong; Wang, Li; Tang, Kuangyun; Huang, Di; Du, Jingjing; Luo, Peipei; Li, Yubao

    2013-08-01

    Low monomer-polymer conversion is the key factor leading to cytotoxicity for resin-containing restorative materials. This paper provides a new root canal filling system based on self-curing injectable polyurethane which can achieve high conversion in a short time. Traced FTIR spectra show more than 90% NCO group participated in the curing reaction after 4h, and only about 5% remained after 24h. The calculated data also testified the curing process supports a third-order reaction, and this efficient and sufficient reaction is postulated to weaken the toxic stimulation. By culturing with L929 murine fibroblasts, the PU sealer is shown to be favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. Then physicochemical properties of the injectable PU-based sealer were evaluated according to the Standard [ISO 6876:2001 (E)] for clinical application. A series of physicochemical properties of PU sealer have been tested comparing with AH Plus and Apexit Plus. And the results present that the self-curing PU sealer could not only match the clinic requirements, but even has better properties than the other two commercial sealers. We expect the high conversion PU sealer has a tremendous potential in the field of root canal filling after further biological evaluation.

  9. Microleakage of adhesive resinous materials in root canals

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jason Gilbert; Caputo, Angelo Anthony; Li, Ping; White, Shane Newport

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro micro-leakage resistance of adhesive resin materials to long-used zinc oxide-eugenol and epoxy resin sealers. Materials and Methods: Seven materials, five test (Real Seal, Real Seal XT, Panavia F 2.0, Infinity Syringeable, GCEM) and two controls (Tubliseal, AH Plus), were evaluated for micro-leakage resistance in a bovine incisor root model, with 12 roots per material. Teeth were root canal treated, stored in water, artificially aged by thermal-cycling, stained with silver nitrate, sectioned to yield eight measurement points per tooth (four coronal and four apical), giving 672 measurement points. Stain penetration was measured using digital positioners and a toolmakers microscope; then analyzed using descriptive statistics, two-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons testing (P < 0.05). Results: All modern adhesive resinous materials leaked significantly less than long-used zinc oxide-eugenol and epoxy resin sealers (P < 0.05). Mean leakage values and their associated (standard deviations) in mm were: Infinity Syringeable 2.5 (1.5), Real Seal XT 3.2 (1.4), Real Seal 3.4 (1.6), Panavia F 2.0 3.8 (2.7), GCEM 4.2 (1.8), Tubli-seal 5.4 (2.8), AH Plus 6.3 (2.3). Overall, more leakage occurred apically than coronally (P < 0.0001). Many materials exhibited dimensional instability: Marked contraction, expansion, or lack of cohesion. Conclusion: A variety of adhesive resinous materials, endodontic sealers and crown cements, reduced micro-leakage in comparison to long and widely used zinc oxide- eugenol and epoxy sealers. PMID:23833453

  10. SEM evaluation of the interface between filling and root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Rosa, R A; Santini, M F; Heiden, K; Só, B B; Kuga, M C; Pereira, J R; Só, M V R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the presence of gaps at the interface between filling material and three root-end filling materials. Thirty human upper molars disto-buccal roots were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha and eugenol-based sealer. The apicoectomy was performed 2 mm from the apex and retrograde cavities were prepared with ultrasonic points (3 mm in deep). The samples were divided into three experimental groups (n = 10): Group I-white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); Group II-Super EBA; and Group III-Portland cement. The root-end filling materials were inserted into the retocavities using a MTA carrier. After 48 h, the roots were transversally sectioned in order to obtain the apical 5 mm. Next, each specimen was prepared longitudinally with crescent granulation of abrasives water-wet sandpapers in order to expose the filling and root-end filling materials. Then, the specimens were subjected to slow dehydration with silica gel, mounted onto specific stubs and coated with paladium coverage for SEM analysis of the interface between filling and root-end filling materials. The percentage of gaps at the interfacial area was calculated by using Image Tool 3.0 software. Super EBA presented the higher percentage of gaps (1.5 ± 0.67%), whereas MTA presented the lowest values (0.33 ± 0.20%; p = 0.0004). Despite the statistical differences observed between Super EBA and MTA, all the root-end filling materials presented great adaptation to the filling material, presenting small amount of gaps. PMID:23733414

  11. Comparison of vertical forces during root canal filling with three different obturation techniques.

    PubMed

    Katalinić, Ivan; Baraba, Anja; Glavicić, Snjezana; Segović, Sanja; Anić, Ivica; Miletić, Ivana

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and compare vertical forces exerted during root canal obturation with the cold lateral condensation technique, Thermafil technique and ProTaper guttapercha. Fourty-five single-rooted permanent teeth were used in the study. All specimens were instrumented using the ProTaper rotating technique and were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 per group). In the first group, root canals were obturated using the cold lateral condensation technique. In the second group, the Thermafil technique was used to obturate root canals. In the last group, a ProTaper gutta-percha of the same taper as the instrumented root canals was used for root canal obturation. Vertical forces were measured using the device developed for simulation of endodontic treatment. The results showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0001) for vertical forces when cold lateral condensation obturation technique was used in comparison to other techniques. No statistically significant difference was found for vertical forces during obturation with Thermafil and ProTaper gutta-percha (p = 0.16). The cold lateral condensation technique exerted higher vertical forces in comparison to the Thermafil and ProTaper obturation techniques.

  12. New methodology to evaluate bond strength of root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Marques, Jorge Henrique Stefaneli; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; da Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa; Steier, Liviu; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the bond strength of root-end filling materials to root-end cavities using a new methodology. Twenty maxillary central incisors were subjected to biomechanical preparation (#80 hand file) and sectioned transversally 2 mm short of the apex and 4 mm coronally to this point. The root cylinders were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. Two groups (n=10) were formed according to the root-end filling material: MTA and Super EBA. A gutta-percha cone (#80) was tug-backed at the limit between the canal and the root-end cavity. The cavity was filled and the gutta-percha cone was removed after complete setting of the sealer. The specimens were placed in an Instron machine with the root-end filling turned downwards. The push-out shaft was inserted in the space previously occupied by the gutta-percha cone and run at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min for pushing out the root-end filling material. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (α=5%). Super EBA (6.03±1.31) presented higher bond strength (MPa) than MTA (1.81±0.45) (p>0.05). There was a predominance of cohesive failures for Super EBA and mixed for MTA. The protocol of specimen preparation is effective and introduces a specific methodology for assessing bond strength of root-end filling materials to dentin. Among the materials, Super EBA presented the highest bond strength. PMID:26200155

  13. Efficacy of Twisted File Adaptive, Reciproc and ProTaper Universal Retreatment instruments for root-canal-filling removal: A cone-beam computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Makbule Bilge; Akman, Melek; Terlemez, Arslan; Magat, Guldane; Sener, Sevgi; Shetty, Heeresh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Twisted File (TF) Adaptive, Reciproc, and ProTaper Universal Retreatment (UR) System instruments for removing root-canal-filling. Sixty single rooted teeth were decoronated, instrumented and obturated. Preoperative CBCT scans were taken and the teeth were retreated with TF Adaptive, Reciproc, ProTaper UR, or hand files (n=15). Then, the teeth were rescanned, and the percentage volume of the residual root-canal-filling material was established. The total time for retreatment was recorded, and the data was statistically analyzed. The statistical ranking of the residual filling material volume was as follows: hand file=TF Adaptive>ProTaper UR=Reciproc. The ProTaper UR and Reciproc systems required shorter periods of time for retreatment. Root canal filling was more efficiently removed by using Reciproc and ProTaper UR instruments than TF Adaptive instruments and hand files. The TF Adaptive system was advantageous over hand files with regard to operating time.

  14. Root canal filling in primary molars without successors: Mineral trioxide aggregate versus gutta-percha/AH-Plus.

    PubMed

    Bezgin, Tugba; Ozgul, Betul Memiş; Arikan, Volkan; Sari, Saziye

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographical success of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and gutta-percha/AH-Plus used as a root canal filling material in primary second molars without successors. A total of 16 patients (9 girls, 7 boys) aged 6-13 years (mean: 10.5) were selected and randomly distributed into the treatment groups. Children were recalled for clinical and radiographic examination at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months. Differences in treatment outcomes were analysed using chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. Clinically, there was no significant difference in the success rates between the groups at the end of a 3-year follow-up period (MTA: 100%; Gutta-percha/AH-Plus: 70%) (P > 0.05). However, radiographically, there was a significant difference between the groups (MTA: 80%; gutta-percha/AH-Plus: 30%) (P < 0.05). The present study showed that MTA can be recommended for use in root canal treatment of primary molars without successors based on better radiographic success.

  15. Ability of New Obturation Materials to Improve the Seal of the Root Canal System – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Olsen, Mark; De-Deus, Gustavo; Eid, Ashraf A.; Chen, Ji-hua; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives New obturation biomaterials have been introduced over the past decade to improve the seal of the root canal system. However, it is not clear whether they have really produced a three-dimensional impervious seal that is important for reducing diseases associated with root canal treatment. Methods A review of the literature was performed to identify models that have been employed for evaluating the seal of the root canal system. Results and Significance In-vitro and in-vivo models are not totally adept at quantifying the seal of root canals obturated with classic materials. Thus, one has to resort to clinical outcomes to examine whether there are real benefits associated with the use of recently-introduced materials for obturating root canals. However, there is no facile answer because endodontic treatment outcomes are influenced by a host of other predictors that are more likely to take precedence over the influence of obturation materials. From the perspective of clinical performance, classic root filling materials have stood the test of time. Because many of the recently-introduced materials are so new, there is not enough evidence yet to support their ability to improve clinical performance. This emphasizes the need to translate anecdotal information into clinically relevant research data on new biomaterials. PMID:24321349

  16. Effects of Clinical Training and Case Difficulty on the Radiographic Quality of Root Canal Fillings Performed by Dental Students in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaimani, Reem Siraj; Al-Manei, Kholod Khalil; A. Alsubait, Sara; AlAqeely, Razan Shafik; A. M. Al-Shehri, Sharifa; M. Al-Madi, Ebtissam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of training duration and case difficulty on the radiographic quality of root canal fillings performed by dental students in Saudi Arabia. Methods and Materials: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted at King Saud University. Root canal treatments performed by 55 dental students from 2012-2014 were included in the study. Each student treated at least five teeth during the first year of clinical endodontic training and another five teeth during the second year. Case difficulty was assessed based on tooth position in the dental arch and preoperative conditions. The radiographic quality of the root canal filling was evaluated by two endodontists blinded to treatment completion date. The evaluation criteria were adequate obturation, presence of mishaps and preparation taper. The data were statistically analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses; and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Inadequate obturation and mishaps were significantly less prevalent in teeth treated after 2 years of clinical training. The odds ratios for inadequate obturation and mishaps increased significantly as tooth position moved posteriorly. Inadequate obturation and more mishaps were significantly more prevalent in teeth with preoperative conditions. Preparation taper was not significantly affected by training duration or case difficulty. Conclusion: The quality of root canal fillings performed by Saudi students was adversely affected by case difficulty. The radiographic quality of root canal fillings improved significantly after 2 years of clinical training. Preparation taper outcome is likely dependent on the preparation technique and instrument taper. PMID:26523143

  17. Influence of the length of remaining root canal filling and post space preparation on the coronal leakage of Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Mozini, Alexandra Conca Alves; Vansan, Luis P.; Sousa Neto, Manoel D.; Pietro, Rosimeire

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of different lengths of remaining root canal filling and post space preparation against coronal leakage of Enterococcus faecalis. Forty-one roots of maxillary incisors were biomechanically prepared, maintaining standardized canal diameter at the middle and coronal thirds. The roots were autoclaved and all subsequent steps were undertaken in a laminar flow chamber. The canals of 33 roots were obturated with AH Plus sealer and gutta-percha. The root canal fillings were reduced to 3 predetermined lengths (n=11): G1=6 mm, G2=4 mm and G3=2 mm. The remaining roots served as positive and negative controls. Bacterial leakage test apparatuses were fabricated with the roots attached to Eppendorf tubes keeping 2 mm of apex submerged in BHI in glass flasks. The specimens received an E. faecalis inoculum of 1 x 107 cfu/mL every 3 days and were observed for bacterial leakage daily during 60 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA, Tukey’s test and Fisher’s test. At 60 days, G1 (6 mm) and G2 (4 mm) presented statistically similar results (p>0.05) (54.4% of specimens with bacterial leakage) and both groups differed significantly (p<0.01) from G3 (2 mm), which presented 100% of specimens with E. faecalis leakage. It may be concluded that the shortest endodontic obturation remnant leaked considerably more than the other lengths, although none of the tested conditions avoids coronal leakage of E. faecalis. PMID:24031339

  18. Influence of the canal contents on the electrical assisted determination of the length of root canals.

    PubMed

    Pommer, Oliver; Stamm, Oliver; Attin, Thomas

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of the root canal status on the determination of the root canal length by an electronic apex locator in vital and necrotic canals and canals with root canal filling retrieval. One hundred seven teeth with a total of 171 canals with various contents (105 vital pulp, 47 necrotic pulp, and 19 retrieval of root canal filling materials) were measured for root canal length in vivo with the AFA Apex Finder. The distance between the file tip and the radiographic apex was also determined on radiographs. In 86% of the evaluated roots, the file tip position as indicated by the Apex Finder was located within 0.5 mm of a point 1.0-mm short of the radiographic apex. The Apex Finder showed higher accuracy for determining the apical constriction in vital canals (93.9%) than in necrotic canals (76.6%), and this difference was statistically significant (p < or = 0.05). The Apex Finder indicated the point -1 mm +/- 0.5 mm in canals with retrieval of root canal filling materials in 68.4% of these cases, but because of the small number of retrieval cases, this is not comparable statistically with vital and necrotic cases. The authors concluded that the AFA Apex Finder is highly accurate in vital canals.

  19. Push-out strength of fiber posts depending on the type of root canal filling and resin cement.

    PubMed

    Dimitrouli, Maria; Günay, Hüsamettin; Geurtsen, Werner; Lührs, Anne-Katrin

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the push-out strength of two fiber post systems/resin cements (RelyX Unicem/RelyX Fiber Post (RLX) and Variolink II/DT Light SL (VL)) depending on the root canal filling (RF). One hundred sixty extracted human teeth were divided into four groups: gutta-percha/AH Plus (GP), gutta-percha/Guttaflow (GF), pre-existing root canal filling (PRF), and without root canal filling (WRF). After root canal treatment, fiber posts were inserted using either RelyX® or Variolink II®/Excite DSC®. Half of the specimens were thermocycled (TC, 5,000 cycles, 5-55°C). All specimens were subjected to the push-out test (crosshead speed 1 mm/min). Three-way ANOVA showed a significant influence of either the RF or the resin cement/post system (p < 0.001). The highest bond strength was measured for VL-WRF without TC (16.5 ± 6.4 MPa). TC had no significant influence within the RLX groups. For groups PRF and WRF, significant differences were documented between VL and RLX (PRF 16.3 ± 6.0 vs 7.0 ± 2.4 MPa, p = 0.001; WRF 16.5 ± 6.4 vs 8.0 ± 5.0, p = 0.004) before TC. No differences were found after TC. The fracture mode analysis for VL showed mainly adhesive fractures between post and cement. For RLX, mixed fractures between post and tooth and between tooth and cement were predominantly determined. The adhesion of resin cements/post systems could be dependent on the type of RF. Higher bond strength values were found for the conventional ("etch and rinse") adhesive than for the "self-adhesive resin cement."

  20. Effect of thermoplastic filling techniques on the push-out strength of root sealing materials.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Zigomar Hideo Fecchio Nasser; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa; Raucci Neto, Walter; Rached-Junior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Silva, Silvio Rocha Corrêa da; Alfredo, Edson

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of two thermoplastic obturation systems (MicroSeal and Obtura II) on bond strength of different sealers to intraradicular dentin. Sixty root canals of human canines were prepared using ProTaper rotary files (crown-down technique) and irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA. The root canals were filled by MicroSeal, Obtura II, or lateral compaction techniques using AH Plus and Epiphany SE. 1.5 mm thick root slices were subjected to the push-out test. ANOVA and Tukey's test showed that the bond strength values (MPa) observed in the groups obturated with MicroSeal (2.96 ± 2.72) and Obtura II (2.68 ± 2.18) did not significantly differ from each other (p > 0.05) but were significantly higher than that observed in the group obturated with lateral condensation (2.01 ± 1.48; p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in strength (p > 0.05) among the root canal thirds (cervical: 2.44 ± 2.03; middle: 2.50 ± 2.27; and apical: 2.70 ± 2.34). Adhesive failures were predominant (60%) in all groups. In conclusion, MicroSeal and Obtura II techniques, using AH plus sealer, increased the resistance to displacement of the filling material, when compared with lateral compaction. Moreover, when used with Epiphany SE, these obturation systems did not affect the bond strength of the material to root dentin. PMID:26676199

  1. Root canal

    MedlinePlus

    Endodontic therapy ... the root of a tooth. Generally, there is pain and swelling in the area. The infection can ... You may have some pain or soreness after the procedure. An over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drug, such as ibuprofen or naproxen, can help relieve ...

  2. [Behavior of different strains of Staphylococcus aureus against root canal filling cements].

    PubMed

    Pumarola, J; Berástegui, E; Canalda, C; Brau, E

    1991-01-01

    The mean goal of this study is the determination of the conduct of 120 strains of Staphylococcus aureus against seven root canal sealers: Traitement Spad, Endométhasone, N2 Universal, AH26 with silver, Diaket-A, Tubli Seal and Sealapex. The agar diffusion test was employed in the determination of its bacterial growth inhibition. The results obtained have demonstrated values very different between the tested strains. Therefore we recommended to employ strains with reference in the investigation of the bacterial growth inhibition in order to repeat equal experimentation conditions.

  3. [Behavior of different strains of Staphylococcus aureus against root canal filling cements].

    PubMed

    Pumarola, J; Berástegui, E; Canalda, C; Brau, E

    1991-01-01

    The mean goal of this study is the determination of the conduct of 120 strains of Staphylococcus aureus against seven root canal sealers: Traitement Spad, Endométhasone, N2 Universal, AH26 with silver, Diaket-A, Tubli Seal and Sealapex. The agar diffusion test was employed in the determination of its bacterial growth inhibition. The results obtained have demonstrated values very different between the tested strains. Therefore we recommended to employ strains with reference in the investigation of the bacterial growth inhibition in order to repeat equal experimentation conditions. PMID:1659856

  4. Solubility and bacterial sealing ability of MTA and root-end filling materials

    PubMed Central

    ESPIR, Camila Galletti; GUERREIRO-TANOMARU, Juliane Maria; SPIN-NETO, Rubens; CHÁVEZ-ANDRADE, Gisselle Moraima; BERBERT, Fabio Luiz Camargo Villela; TANOMARU-FILHO, Mario

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate solubility and sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and root-end filling materials. Material and Methods The materials evaluated were: MTA, Calcium Silicate Cement with zirconium oxide (CSC/ZrO2), and zinc oxide/eugenol (ZOE). Solubility test was performed according to ANSI/ADA. The difference between initial and final mass of the materials was analyzed after immersion in distilled water for 7 and 30 days. Retrograde cavities in human teeth with single straight root canal were performed by using ultrasonic tip CVD 9.5107-8. The cavities were filled with the evaluated materials to evaluate sealing ability using the bacterial leakage test with Enterococcus faecalis. Bacterial leakage was evaluated every 24 hours for six weeks observing the turbidity of Brain Heart infusion (BHI) medium in contact with root apex. Data were submitted to ANOVA followed by Tukey tests (solubility), and Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (sealing ability) at a 5% significance level. Results For the 7-day period, ZOE presented highest solubility when compared with the other groups (p<0.05). For the 30-day period, no difference was observed among the materials. Lower bacterial leakage was observed for MTA and CSC/ZrO2, and both presented better results than ZOE (p<0.05). Conclusion MTA and CSC/ZrO2 presented better bacterial sealing capacity, which may be related to lower initial solubility observed for these materials in relation to ZOE. PMID:27119759

  5. The efficacy of the Self-Adjusting File versus WaveOne in removal of root filling residue that remains in oval canals after the use of ProTaper retreatment files: A cone-beam computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Ajinkya M; Thakur, Bhagyashree; Metzger, Zvi; Kfir, Anda; Pawar, Mansing

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The current ex vivo study compared the efficacy of removing root fillings using ProTaper retreatment files followed by either WaveOne reciprocating file or the Self-Adjusting File (SAF). Materials and Methods: Forty maxillary canines with single oval root canal were selected and sectioned to obtain 18-mm root segments. The root canals were instrumented with WaveOne primary files, followed by obturation using warm lateral compaction, and the sealer was allowed to fully set. The teeth were then divided into two equal groups (N = 20). Initial removal of the bulk of root filling material was performed with ProTaper retreatment files, followed by either WaveOne files (Group 1) or SAF (Group 2). Endosolv R was used as a gutta-percha softener. Preoperative and postoperative high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the volume of the root filling residue that was left after the procedure. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test. Results: The mean volume of root filling residue in Group 1 was 9.4 (±0.5) mm3, whereas in Group 2 the residue volume was 2.6 (±0.4) mm3, (P < 0.001; t-test). Conclusions: When SAF was used after ProTaper retreatment files, significantly less root filling residue was left in the canals compared to when WaveOne was used. PMID:26957798

  6. Root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ‘root canal irrigants’ and ‘endodontic irrigants.’ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:21217955

  7. Root apex sealing with different filling materials photopolymerized with argon ion laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupato Conrado, Luis Augusto; Frois, Iris M.; Amaro Zangaro, Renato; Munin, Egberto

    2003-06-01

    The present study evaluates the seal quality in apex delta of single root human teeth filled with light-curing materials (Ultrablend Calcium-hydroxide, Vitremer glass ionomer and Flow-Fill Magic composite). 45 roots prepared by the endo PTC/Dakin technique were used. All prepared samples received photopolymerization with the blue 488 nm argon ion laser light. A 200 μm optical fiber introduced into the root canal delivered 100 mW of light power to the light-curing material. The fiber tip was positioned 5 mm away from the apex. Light was applied for 20 seconds. After curing, the samples received impermeabilization with ethyl-cyanoacrylate, leaving only the apex exposed, and then immersed in a methylene-blue dye solution for 24 hours. The samples were cut longitudinally and analyzed under a stereoscopic microscope for dye infiltration. It was found that those samples sealed with Ultrablend Calcium-hydroxide or the glass ionomer presented the best results, as compared to those samples sealed with the Flow-Fill Magic composite. No statistically significant difference was observed between the group treated with Ultrablend Calcium-hydroxide and the group treated with the glass ionomer, for a significance level of 0.05.

  8. IN VITRO EVALUATION OF APICAL MICROLEAKAGE USING DIFFERENT ROOT-END FILLING MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; Carvalho, Alessandra Sverberi; Gama, Eduardo Ramalho Pereira

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the apical leakage of retrograde cavities filled with Portland Cement (Concrebrás S/A-MG-Brazil), ProRoot MTA™ (Dentsply International, Johnson City, TN, USA) and Sealapex (Kerr Corporation, Orange, California, USA) with addition of zinc oxide (Odahcam Herpo Produtos Dentários Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil). Forty-two extracted single-rooted human teeth were decoronated and used for this study. The root canals were instrumented at 1.0mm short of the apical foramen using the step-back technique to an apical ISO size 60. The roots were obturated with gutta-percha points and sealer Sealapex (Kerr Corporation-USA) and then 3mm of each root apex was sectioned at a 90° angle. Ultrasonic retrograde preparation was performed with a diamond tip to 3mm depth and the roots were randomly divided into 3 groups according to the filling material: G1-Portland, G2-ProRoot MTA, G3- Sealapex zinc oxide-added cement. The root surfaces were covered with nail varnish up to 2mm from the apical foramen, immersed in simulated tissue fluid for 30 days, and then immersed in 0.2% Rhodamine B solution for 24 hours for evaluation of marginal leakage. The results showed mean leakage of 0.75, 0.35 and 0.35 for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively; however, Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that there was no statistically significant difference among the results (p>0.05). PMID:19089030

  9. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  10. Sealing ability of MTA, Super EBA, Vitremer and amalgam as root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cecília Luiz; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the root-end sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA Angelus), reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol cement (Super EBA), resin-modified glass ionomer (Vitremer) and zinc-free amalgam (GS-80) (control). The root canals of eighty human lower molars were accessed, cleansed, shaped and obturated. Apexes were resected and cavities were prepared. Teeth were divided into 4 groups of 40 cavities, root-end filled with the materials, and immersed in methylene blue for 72 h at 37 degrees C. Roots were then sectioned transversally at each millimeter and evaluated under magnification, observing the dye penetration in each section. Data were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis test at a 5% level of significance, showing the differences among all materials (p < 0.001). The crescent order of microleakage was MTA < Vitremer < Super EBA < amalgam. Higher leakage levels were observed in the first millimeter sections of amalgam, Vitremer and MTA, when compared with the third millimeter section (p < 0.05).

  11. Qualitative SEM/EDS analysis of microleakage and apical gap formation of adhesive root-filling materials

    PubMed Central

    SOUZA, Soraia de Fátima Carvalho; FRANCCI, Carlos; BOMBANA, Antonio C.; KENSHIMA, Silvia; BARROSO, Lúcia P.; D'AGOSTINO, Liz Z.; LOGUERCIO, Alessandro D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the correspondence between gap formation and apical microleakage in root canals filled with epoxy resin-based (AH Plus) combined or not with resinous primer or with a dimethacrylate-based root canal sealer (Epiphany). Material and Methods Thirty-nine lower single-rooted human premolars were filled by the lateral condensation technique (LC) and immersed in a 50-wt% aqueous silver nitrate solution at 37ºC (24 h). After longitudinal sectioning, epoxy resin replicas were made from the tooth specimens. Both the replicas and the specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The gaps were observed in the replicas. Apical microleakage was detected in the specimens by SEM/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The data were analyzed statistically using an Ordinal Logistic Regression model and Analysis of Correspondence (α=0.05). Results Epiphany presented more regions containing gaps between dentin and sealer (p<0.05). There was correspondence between the presence of gaps and microleakage (p<0.05). Microleakage was similar among the root-filling materials (p>0.05). Conclusions The resinous primer did not improve the sealing ability of AH Plus sealer and the presence of gaps had an effect on apical microleakage for all materials. PMID:22858699

  12. An in vitro model to investigate filling of lateral canals.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Mauro; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Prati, Carlo; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2005-12-01

    Aims of this work were to examine lateral canals in extracted teeth, to propose a new technique to produce artificial lateral canals, and to compare two obturation techniques. Cleared roots were examined to record measure and shape of lateral canals. Artificial lateral canals were prepared on human demineralized teeth before final clearing. Specimens were divided in two groups: canals of group 1 were filled with Schilder's technique, canals of group 2 were filled with vertical compaction with apical backfilling. Stereomicroscopic analysis of lateral canal filling revealed lower filling rates in apical canals compared to coronal ones and higher filling rates with "vertical compaction with apical backfilling" compared to Schilder's group. The tested procedure appears to be a reliable technique to obtain standardized lateral canals and to compare filling procedures.

  13. Bacterial coronal leakage after obturation with three root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Timpawat, S; Amornchat, C; Trisuwan, W R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of root canals obturated with three root canal sealers, using Endodontalis faecalis as a microbial tracer to determine the length of time for bacteria to penetrate through the obturated root canal to the root apex. Seventy-five, single-rooted teeth with straight root canals had the crown cut off at the cementoenamel junction. Root canals were instrumented by a step-back technique. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 19 teeth each and another 2 groups as positive and negative controls (9 teeth each). The experimental groups were dependent on the sealer used: AH-Plus, Apexit, and Ketac-Endo. The root canals were obturated using a lateral condensation technique. After 24 h the teeth were attached to microcentrifuge tubes with 2 mm of the root apex submerged in Brain Heart Infusion broth in glass test tubes. The coronal portions of the root canal filling materials were placed in contact with E. faecalis. The teeth were observed for bacterial leakage daily for 30 and 60 days. With the chi2 test for comparing pairs of groups at the 0.05 level (p < 0.05), there was no statistical difference between Ketac-Endo and AH-Plus (p > 0.06), but Apexit had significantly higher leakage (p < 0.05) at 30 days. After 60 days there was no statistical difference between Ketac-Endo and Apexit (p > 0.05), but Apexit leaked more than AH-Plus. The conclusion drawn from this experiment was that epoxy resin root canal sealer was found to be more adaptable to the root canal wall and filling material than a calcium hydroxide sealer when bacterial coronal leakage was studied.

  14. To evaluate the influence of smear layer with different instruments and obturation methods on microleakage of root canal filled teeth: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Likhitkar, Manoj S.; Kulkarni, Shantaram V.; Burande, Aravind; Solanke, Vishal; Kumar, C. Sushil; Kamble, Babasaheb

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The success of root canal treatment depends on proper debridement, instrumentation, proper accessibility, and proper restoration. The presence of a smear layer is considered to be a significant factor. This in vitro study was conducted to assess the effect of the presence/absence of a smear layer on the microleakage of root canal filled teeth using different instruments and obturation methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred extracted mandibular premolars with closed apices and single roots were chosen and then divided into six groups, A to F, consisting of 15 teeth each. The control group included 10 teeth; 5 positive and 5 negative. The teeth were decoronated at the cementoenamel junction. Groups A, B, C, and D were instrumented with engine-driven rotary Protaper NiTi files. Groups E and F were instrumented with conventional stainless steel hand files. Groups A, C, and E were flushed with 3 ml of 17% EDTA to remove the smear layer prior to obturation. All teeth were flushed with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution and obturated with AH-Plus sealer with lateral condensation technique for Groups C, D, E, F and with thermoplasticized gutta-percha technique for Groups A and B. Using an electrochemical technique, leakages in the obturated canals were assessed for 45 days. The results were tabulated using Student's t-test (paired and unpaired t-test) with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software Version 21 (IBM Company, New York, USA). Results: Group A showed the lowest mean value at intervals of 10, 20, 30, and 45 days. There was no current flow in the negative controls during the test period. There was leakage in the positive controls within a few minutes of immersion. Conclusion: The results showed that rotary instrumentation contributed toward an exceptional preparation of root canals compared to hand instrumentation. Elimination of the smear layer enhanced the resistance to microleakage; thermoplasticized gutta

  15. Comparison between two methods of working length determination and its effect on radiographic extent of root canal filling: a clinical study [ISRCTN71486641

    PubMed Central

    Smadi, L

    2006-01-01

    Background Obtaining a correct working length is critical to the success of endodontic therapy. Different methods have been used to identify this crucial measurement. The Aim of this clinical study was to compare the effect of working length determination using apex locator alone or in combination with working length radiograph on the apical extent of root canal filling. Methods A total number of 66 patients, 151 canals were randomized into two groups, In group (I) working length was determined by apex locator alone, while in group (II) working length was determined by apex locator confirmed by working length radiograph, length of obturation was assessed, and the total number of radiographs was recorded. The data were analyzed using SAS system and T. tests were carried out. Statistical significance was considered to be P ≤ 0.05. Results Sixty seven canals in group I were treated with a mean distance from the tip of root canal filling to radiographic apex -0.5 mm ± 0.5 and a mean of a total number of radiographs of 2.0, while in group II eighty four canals were treated with a mean distance from the tip of root canal filling to radiographic apex -0.4 mm ± 0.5 and a mean of a total number of radiographs of 3.2. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean distance from the tip of root filling to radiographic apex between group I and group II (P > 0.05). Conclusion The practice of using electronic apex locator in the determination of working length is useful and reliable with no statistical difference of the radiographic extent of root canal filling when using apex locator alone or in combination with working length radiograph. Under the clinical conditions of this study, it is suggested that the correct use of an apex locator alone could prevent the need for further diagnostic radiographs for determination of working length. This method can be useful in patients who need not to be exposed to repeated radiation because of mental, medical or oral

  16. Sealing ability of MTA used as a root end filling material: effect of the sonic and ultrasonic condensation.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Bernabé, Daniel Galera; Nery, Mauro Juvenal; Otoboni-Filho, José Arlindo; Dezan-Jr, Eloi; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Despite the excellent properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), the condensation technique may have some influence in its sealing ability. The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of sonic and ultrasonic setting of MTA. Thirty-four extracted human teeth had their canals prepared and filled with Sealapex sealer and gutta-percha using the active lateral condensation technique. The teeth were rendered waterproof and apicoectomy performed at 3 mm from the apex. Root-end cavities (3.0 mm deep and 1.4 mm diameter) were prepared with diamond ultrasonic tips. The root-end cavities were filled with Pro-Root MTA® with ultrasonic vibration, sonic vibration or no vibration. The positive control group did not receive any material while the negative control group was totally rendered waterproof. After material set, the specimens were immersed in Rodhamine B for 24 h, under vacuum in the first 15 min, then washed, dried and split longitudinally for evaluating the infiltration at the dentin/material interface. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. Sonic vibration promoted the lowest infiltration values (p<0.05). It was concluded that sonic vibration could be considered an efficient aid to improve the sealing ability of MTA when used as root-end filling material. PMID:23780366

  17. Efficacy of ultrasonic activation of NaOCl and orange oil in removing filling material from mesial canals of mandibular molars with and without isthmus

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; da Rosa, Ricardo Abreu; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Duarte, Marco Antônio Húngaro; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Só, Marcos Vinícius Reis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the volume of remaining filling material after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and orange oil in mesial canals of mandibular molars, with and without isthmus. Material and Methods Thirty mesial roots of mandibular molars were divided according to the presence or absence of isthmus. Canals were prepared and filled (Micro-CT #1). Filling was removed using rotary instruments, and specimens were sub-divided into three groups according to the irrigation procedures: Conventional – conventional irrigation with NaOCl, PUI/NaOCl – PUI of NaOCl (three activations, 20 seconds each), and PUI/orange oil – PUI of orange oil (Micro-CT#2). Specimens were enlarged using the X2 and X3 ProTaper Next instruments and submitted to the same irrigation protocols (Micro-CT #3). Results No differences were found between the experimental groups in each stage of assessment (P>0.05). The volume of residual filling material was similar to those in Micro-CT #2 and Micro-CT #3, but lower than those observed in Micro-CT #1 (P<0.05). When groups were pooled according to the presence or absence of an isthmus, volume of residual filling material was higher in specimens presenting isthmus (P<0.05). Conclusions PUI of NaOCl or orange oil did not improve filling removal. Isthmus consists in an anatomical obstacle that impairs the removal of filling material. PMID:26200525

  18. Nanodiamond-Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K; Ho, Dean

    2015-11-24

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes.

  19. Effect of Synthetic Tissue Fluid on Microleakage of Grey and White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate as Root-End Filling Materials

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Mehrdad; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Rahimi, Saeed; Zand, Vahid; Reyhani, Mohammad Forough; Samiei, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Negin; Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Azimi, Shahram; Shokohinejad, Noushin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The success of endodontic surgery has been shown to depend partly on the apical seal. Grey mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA) produces hydroxyapatite twice as often as white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) when suspended in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the microleakage phenomenon of gray and white mineral trioxide aggregates as root-end filling materials after immersion in synthetic tissue fluid (STF). Methods: 55 single-rooted extracted maxillary anterior human teeth were divided into two experimental groups of 20 teeth each, plus 3 groups of 5 teeth each as two negative and one positive control groups. The root canals were cleaned, shaped, and laterally compacted with gutta-percha. The root ends were resected and 3 mm deep cavities were prepared. The root-end preparations were filled with GMTA or WMTA in the experimental groups. Leakage was determined using a dye penetration method. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean dye leakage was 0.40 ± 0.1 mm for GMTA and 0.50±0.1 mm for WMTA groups, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two experimental groups (P = 0.14). Conclusion: Despite the different properties and behaviours of GMTA and WMTA in STF, there were no significant differences in microleakage when using GMTA or WMTA. PMID:22912925

  20. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal full) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  1. Adhesion to root canal dentine using one and two-step adhesives with dual-cure composite core materials.

    PubMed

    Foxton, R M; Nakajima, M; Tagami, J; Miura, H

    2005-02-01

    The regional tensile bond strengths of two dual-cure composite resin core materials to root canal dentine using either a one or two-step self-etching adhesive were evaluated. Extracted premolar teeth were decoronated and their root canals prepared to a depth of 8 mm and a width of 1.4 mm. In one group, a one-step self-etching adhesive (Unifil Self-etching Bond) was applied to the walls of the post-space and light-cured for 10 s. After which, the post-spaces were filled with the a dual-cure composite resin (Unifil Core) and then half the specimens were light-cured for 60 s and the other half placed in darkness for 30 min. In the second group, a self-etching primer (ED Primer II) was applied for 30 s, followed by an adhesive resin (Clearfil Photo Bond), which was light-cured for 10 s. The post-spaces were filled with a dual-cure composite resin (DC Core) and then half the specimens were light-cured for 60 s and the other half placed in darkness for 30 min. Chemical-cure composite resin was placed on the outer surfaces of all the roots, which were then stored in water for 24 h. They were serially sliced perpendicular to the bonded interface into 8, 0.6 mm-thick slabs, and then transversely sectioned into beams, approximately 8 x 0.6 x 0.6 mm, for the microtensile bond strength test (muTBS). Data were divided into two (coronal/apical half of post-space) and analysed using three-way anova and Scheffe's test (P < 0.05). Failure modes were observed under an scanning electron microscope (SEM) and statistically analysed. Specimens for observation of the bonded interfaces were prepared in a similar manner as for bond strength testing, cut in half and embedded in epoxy resin. They were then polished to a high gloss, gold sputter coated, and after argon ion etching, observed under an SEM. For both dual-cure composite resins and curing strategies, there were no significant differences in muTBS between the coronal and apical regions (P > 0.05). In addition, both dual

  2. Comparative evaluation of sealing ability of glass ionomer-resin continuum as root-end filling materials: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chohan, Hitesh; Dewan, Harisha; Annapoorna, B. M.; Manjunath, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Root-end filling is a prudent procedure aimed at sealing the root canal to prevent penetration of tissue fluids into the root canals. An ideal root-end filling material should produce a complete apical seal. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the leakage behavior of four different root-end filling materials. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight maxillary central incisors were obturated with laterally condensed gutta-percha and AH plus sealer. The roots were resected at the level of 3 mm perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. Root-end cavities were prepared with straight fissure stainless steel bur. The teeth were then divided into four experimental and two control groups, and cavities restored as per the groupings. The teeth were immersed in methylene blue for 48 h, split longitudinally, and dye penetration was measured. Results: A highly significant difference existed in the mean dye penetration of Group I (conventional glass ionomer) and the other groups (resin-modified glass ionomer, polyacid-modified composite, and composite resin). There was no statistically significant difference among the three groups. Conclusions: (1) Significant difference was found in the dye penetration values of conventional glass ionomer cement and other groups. (2) No statistically significant difference was found in the dye penetration values of groups II, III, and IV. PMID:26759803

  3. Solubility of Two Root-End Filling Materials over Different Time Periods in Synthetic Tissue Fluid: a Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shojaee, Nooshin Sadat; Sahebi, Safoora; Karami, Elahe; Sobhnamayan, Fereshte

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Insolubility is an important criterion for an ideal root-end filling material to both prevent any microleakage between the root canal and the periradicular space and provide sealing ability. Purpose Many recent studies have shown that mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) have acceptable sealing ability. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the solubility of these root-end filling materials. Materials and Method Forty stainless steel ring moulds with an internal diameter of 10±1 mm and a height of 2±0.1 mm were selected. Samples of MTA and CEM were mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions and inserted into the moulds. The specimens were divided into 4 experimental groups and kept in synthetic tissue fluid (STF) for 2 different time periods (7 and 28 days). The control group contained 8 empty rings. The moulds’ weights were recorded before and after immersion in STF. The changes in the weight of the samples were measured and compared using a two- way ANOVA test at a significance level of 5%. Specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at a magnification of 500×. Results There was no significant difference in weight changes between MTA and CEM samples (p> 0.05). Conclusion MTA and CEM have similar solubility in STF in different time periods. PMID:26331148

  4. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Three Root-End Filling Materials in Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Coaguila-Llerena, Hernán; Vaisberg, Abraham; Velásquez-Huamán, Zulema

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the cytotoxicity on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts of three root-end filling materials: MTA Angelus®, EndoSequence Root Repair Material Putty® and Super EBA®. A primary culture of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts was previously obtained in order to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the three extracts from the root-end filling materials after 2 and 7 days of setting. Serial dilutions of these extracts (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8) were evaluated at 1, 3 and 7 days using the methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay. Cell viability was evaluated as percentage of the negative control group, which represented 100% cell viability. Statistical analyses were done with t-test, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. It was found that the main difference among root-end filling materials was in the higher dilutions (p<0.05), but there was a similar behavior in lower dilutions (p>0.05). Cell viability of MTA Angelus® was superior for 2-day setting (p<0.05), compared with the other two root-end fillings. There were no statistically significant differences between 7-day set MTA Angelus® and EndoSequence Root Repair Material Putty®. Super EBA® showed the lowest percentage of cell viability at higher dilutions (p<0.05). Therefore, MTA Angelus® and EndoSequence Root Repair Material Putty® were less cytotoxic in the highest dilution (1:1) compared with Super EBA®. PMID:27058382

  5. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Three Root-End Filling Materials in Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Coaguila-Llerena, Hernán; Vaisberg, Abraham; Velásquez-Huamán, Zulema

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the cytotoxicity on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts of three root-end filling materials: MTA Angelus®, EndoSequence Root Repair Material Putty® and Super EBA®. A primary culture of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts was previously obtained in order to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the three extracts from the root-end filling materials after 2 and 7 days of setting. Serial dilutions of these extracts (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8) were evaluated at 1, 3 and 7 days using the methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay. Cell viability was evaluated as percentage of the negative control group, which represented 100% cell viability. Statistical analyses were done with t-test, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. It was found that the main difference among root-end filling materials was in the higher dilutions (p<0.05), but there was a similar behavior in lower dilutions (p>0.05). Cell viability of MTA Angelus® was superior for 2-day setting (p<0.05), compared with the other two root-end fillings. There were no statistically significant differences between 7-day set MTA Angelus® and EndoSequence Root Repair Material Putty®. Super EBA® showed the lowest percentage of cell viability at higher dilutions (p<0.05). Therefore, MTA Angelus® and EndoSequence Root Repair Material Putty® were less cytotoxic in the highest dilution (1:1) compared with Super EBA®.

  6. Filling of simulated lateral canals with gutta-percha or thermoplastic polymer by warm vertical compaction.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna-Junior, Arnaldo; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Martelo, Roberta Bosso; Silva, Guilherme Ferreira da; Tanomaru Filho, Mário

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of gutta-percha and a thermoplastic synthetic polymer (Resilon) to fill simulated lateral canals, using warm vertical compaction. Forty-five single-rooted human teeth were prepared using the rotary crown-down technique. Artificial lateral canals were made at 2, 5, and 8 mm from the working length (WL) in each root. The specimens were divided into three groups (n = 15), according to the filling material: Dentsply gutta-percha (GD), Odous gutta-percha (GO), and Resilon cones (RE). The root canals were obturated using warm vertical compaction, without endodontic sealer. The specimens were subjected to a tooth decalcification and clearing procedure. Filling of the lateral canals was analyzed by digital radiography and digital photographs, using the Image Tool software. The data were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests at 5% significance. RE had the best filling ability in all root thirds (p < 0.05), with similar results for GO in the coronal third. In the middle and apical thirds, GD and GO had similar results (p > 0.05). Resilon may be used as an alternative to gutta-percha as a solid core filling material for use with the warm vertical compaction technique. The study findings point to the potential benefit of the warm vertical compaction technique for filling lateral canals, and the study provides further information about using Resilon and gutta-percha as materials for the warm vertical compaction technique.

  7. SEALING ABILITY OF CASTOR OIL POLYMER AS A ROOT-END FILLING MATERIAL

    PubMed Central

    de Martins, Giovana Ribeiro; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Valera, Marcia Carneiro; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Buso, Leonardo; Carvalho, Alessandra Sverberi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of castor oil polymer (COP), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and glass ionomer cement (GIC) as root-end filling materials. Forty-five single-rooted human teeth were cleaned and prepared using a step-back technique. The apical third of each root was resected perpendicularly to the long axis direction. All teeth were obturated with gutta-percha and an endodontic sealer. After, a root-end cavity with 1.25-mm depth was prepared using a diamond bur. The specimens were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=15), according to the root-end filling material used: G1) COP; G2) MTA; G3) GIC. The external surfaces of the specimens were covered with epoxy adhesive, except the root-end filling. The teeth were immersed in rhodamine B dye for 24 hours. Then, the roots were sectioned longitudinally and the linear dye penetration at the dentin/material interface was determined using a stereomicroscope. ANOVA and Tukey's tests were used to compare the three groups. The G1 group (COP) presented smaller dye penetration, statistically different than the G2 (MTA) and G3 (GIC) groups (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference in microleakage was observed between G2 and G3 groups (p>0.05). The results of this study indicate that the COP presented efficient sealing ability when used as a root-end filling material showing results significantly better than MTA and GIC. PMID:19466255

  8. Biological and chemical-physical properties of root-end filling materials: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Colombo, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to evaluate and compare the biological and chemical-physical properties of four different root-end filling materials. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity towards murine odontoblasts cells (MDPC-23) was evaluated using the Transwell insert methodology by Alamar blue test. Streptococcus salivarius, S. sanguis, and S. mutans strains were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion test. Solubility was determined after 24 h and 2 months. pH values were measured after 3 and 24 h. To evaluate radiopacity, all materials were scanned on a GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy. Results: Excellent percentage of vitality were obtained by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based materials and Biodentine. MTA-Angelus, ProRoot MTA, and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) showed the highest values for the inhibition zones when tested for S. mutans, while Biodentine showed the largest inhibition zone when tested for S. sanguis. All the materials fulfilled the requirements of the International Standard 6876, demonstrating low solubility with a weight loss of less than 3%. No significant reduction in pH value was demonstrated after 24 h. ProRoot MTA and MTA-Angelus showed the highest values of radiographic density. Conclusions: The differences showed by the root-end filling materials tested do not cover completely the ideal clinical requests. PMID:25829684

  9. Tissue and cell reactions to implanted root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Huang, Tsui-Hsien

    2006-09-01

    The use of root-end filling materials designed to stimulate hard and soft tissue repair in periradicular tissues is highly recommended. The materials should demonstrate good cell and tissue compatibility. The aim of the present study was to compare in vitro biocompatibility and in vivo tissue reaction with calcium hydroxide-based, eugenol-based and mineral trioxide aggregate root-end filling materials. The human osteosarcoma cell line was treated with immersed root end filling materials. The test materials were implanted in rats and the results observed at 6 and 8 weeks. In vitro, the highest survival rate was demonstrated for the mineral trioxide aggregate (p<0.05). In vivo, a radiopaque ring was evident in the calcium hydroxide implants on the eight-week radiograph. Histopathology revealed eugenol-based material with the inflammatory cells around the implant, with fibrous connective tissue forming around the calcium hydroxide-based analog. The mineral trioxide aggregate appears to be well tolerated by the tissue.

  10. Root canal anatomy of mandibular second molars. Part I.

    PubMed

    Manning, S A

    1990-01-01

    The root canal anatomy of 149 mandibular second molars was studied using a technique in which the pulp was removed, the canal space filled with black ink and the roots demineralized and made transparent. Of the 149 teeth, 22 per cent had single roots, 76 per cent had two roots and 2 per cent had three roots. In the single-rooted teeth, three canals were most common, while in the mesial root of the two-rooted teeth, two canals that joined near the apex and one canal in the distal root were most frequent. Round canals were most common in two-rooted teeth and C-shaped canals in single-rooted teeth. Transverse anastomoses were found in 33 per cent of roots, most commonly in the middle third of the root. Lateral canals were found in 72 per cent of roots, most commonly in the apical third of the root. The apical foramen was positioned at the apex in only 33 per cent of roots, and apical deltas were found in 35 per cent. The patient's age and race affected canal shape, with more round canals present in patients over 35 years of age, and more C-shaped canals in Asians. The sex of the patient and the side of the mouth affected the presence of apical deltas, with more being found in males and on the left side. Single-rooted teeth had more complex root canal systems than two-rooted teeth, with more lateral canals, transverse anastomoses, apical deltas and C-shaped canals.

  11. Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

    1992-06-01

    Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

  12. Nanodiamond–Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes. PMID:26452304

  13. Nanodiamond-Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K; Ho, Dean

    2015-11-24

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes. PMID:26452304

  14. Microorganism penetration in dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal walls. In vitro SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sulaiman, Alaa; Al-Rasheed, Fellwa; Alnajjar, Fatimah; Al-Abdulwahab, Bander; Al-Badah, Abdulhakeem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This in vitro study aimed to investigate the ability of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) to penetrate dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal surface of split human teeth. Materials and Methods Sixty intact extracted human single-rooted teeth were divided into 4 groups, negative control, positive control without canal instrumentation, instrumented, and retreated. Root canals in the instrumented group were enlarged with endodontic instruments, while root canals in the retreated group were enlarged, filled, and then removed the canal filling materials. The teeth were split longitudinally after canal preparation in 3 groups except the negative control group. The teeth were inoculated with both microorganisms separately and in combination. Teeth specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the depth of penetration into the dentinal tubules was assessed using the SMILE view software (JEOL Ltd). Results Penetration of C. albicans and E. faecalis into the dentinal tubules was observed in all 3 groups, although penetration was partially restricted by dentin debris of tubules in the instrumented group and remnants of canal filling materials in the retreated group. In all 3 groups, E. faecalis penetrated deeper into the dentinal tubules by way of cell division than C. albicans which built colonies and penetrated by means of hyphae. Conclusions Microorganisms can easily penetrate dentinal tubules of root canals with different appearance based on the microorganism size and status of dentinal tubules. PMID:25383343

  15. In vitro evaluation of efficacy of different rotary instrument systems for gutta percha removal during root canal retreatment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Mercy; Malhotra, Amit; Rao, Murali; Sharma, Abhimanyu; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete removal of old filling material during root canal retreatment is fundamental for predictable cleaning and shaping of canal anatomy. Most of the retreatment methods tested in earlier studies have shown inability to achieve complete removal of root canal filling. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of three different rotary nickel titanium retreatment systems and Hedstrom files in removing filling material from root canals. Material and Methods Sixty extracted mandibular premolars were decoronated to leave 15 mm root. Specimen were hand instrumented and obturated using gutta percha and AH plus root canal sealer. After storage period of two weeks, roots were retreated with three (Protaper retreatment files, Mtwo retreatment files, NRT GPR) rotary retreatment instrument systems and Hedstroem files. Subsequently, samples were sectioned longitudinally and examined under stereomicroscope. Digital images were recorded and evaluated using Digital Image Analysing Software. The retreatment time was recorded for each tooth using a stopwatch. The area of canal and the residual filling material was recorded in mm2 and the percentage of remaining filling material on canal walls was calculated. Data was analysed using ANOVA test. Results Significantly less amount of residual filling material was present in protaper and Mtwo instrumented teeth (p < 0.05) compared to NRT GPR and Hedstrom files group. Protaper instruments also required lesser time during removal of filling material followed by Mtwo instruments, NRT GPR files and Hedstrom files. Conclusions None of the instruments were able to remove the filling material completely from root canal. Protaper universal retreatment system and Mtwo retreatment files were more efficient and faster compared to NRT GPR fles and Hedstrom files. Key words:Gutta-percha removal, nickel titanium, root canal retreatment, rotary instruments. PMID:27703601

  16. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  17. Effect of root canal preparation, type of endodontic post and mechanical cycling on root fracture strength

    PubMed Central

    RIPPE, Marília Pivetta; SANTINI, Manuela Favarin; BIER, Carlos Alexandre Souza; BALDISSARA, Paolo; VALANDRO, Luiz Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the type of root canal preparation, intraradicular post and mechanical cycling on the fracture strength of roots. Material and Methods eighty human single rooted teeth were divided into 8 groups according to the instruments used for root canal preparation (manual or rotary instruments), the type of intraradicular post (fiber posts- FRC and cast post and core- CPC) and the use of mechanical cycling (MC) as follows: Manual and FRC; Manual, FRC and MC; Manual and CPC; Manual, CPC and MC; Rotary and FRC; Rotary, FRC and MC; Rotary and CPC; Rotary, CPC and MC. The filling was performed by lateral compactation. All root canals were prepared for a post with a 10 mm length, using the custom #2 bur of the glass fiber post system. For mechanical cycling, the protocol was applied as follows: an angle of incidence of 45°, 37°C, 88 N, 4 Hz, 2 million pulses. All groups were submitted to fracture strength test in a 45° device with 1 mm/ min cross-head speed until failure occurred. Results The 3-way ANOVA showed that the root canal preparation strategy (p<0.03) and post type (p<0.0001) affected the fracture strength results, while mechanical cycling (p=0.29) did not. Conclusion The root canal preparation strategy only influenced the root fracture strength when restoring with a fiber post and mechanical cycling, so it does not seem to be an important factor in this scenario. PMID:25025556

  18. Dentinal defects before and after rotary root canal instrumentation with three different obturation techniques and two obturating materials

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, Ponnuswamy; Sivapriya, Elangovan; Indhramohan, Jamuna; Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Savadamoorthi, K Subramani; Pradeepkumar, Angambakkam Rajasekharan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the role of rotary root canal instrumentation followed by obturation with three different techniques and two different materials on the incidence of dentinal defects. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty mandibular premolars were divided into eight groups (n = 20). Group I was left untreated and served as control. The other seven groups were prepared with profile rotary instruments till #40.06 taper. After preparation, group II was left unfilled, groups III, IV, and V were obturated with Gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using passive technique, lateral compaction and warm vertical compaction, respectively. Groups VI, VII, and VIII were obturated with Resilon and Realseal sealer using passive technique, lateral compaction, and warm vertical compaction, respectively. Roots were then sectioned at 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex and inspected under a stereomicroscope (50×) for dentinal defects. Chi-square test was performed to compare the incidence of dentinal defects between the groups (P < 0.05). Results: The unprepared control group had no dentinal defects. The instrumentation group (group II) and the obturation group (groups III-VIII) showed significantly more defects than the uninstrumented control group (group I) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the root canal obturating techniques (group III-VIII) when compared with the instrumentation group (group II). On inter group comparison among the obturation groups the number of defects after lateral compaction with Gutta-percha (group IV) was significantly larger than passive Gutta-percha obturation (group III) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results suggest that root canal instrumentation significantly influenced the incidence of dentinal defects or fracture. Dentinal defects were more significantly attributed to the role of root canal instrumentation rather than the type of obturation technique or material. Lateral compaction with Gutta-percha significantly produces more

  19. Radiopacity evaluation of root-end filling materials by digitization of images.

    PubMed

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Duarte, Marco Antonio Húngaro; Gonçalves, Marcelo; Tanomaru, Juliane Maria Guerreiro

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of 5 root-end filling materials (white MTA-Angelus, grey MTA-Angelus, IRM, Super EBA and Sealer 26). Five specimens (10 mm diameter X 1 mm thickness) were made from each material and radiographed next to an aluminum stepwedge varying in thickness from 2 to 16 mm. Radiographs were digitized and the radiopacity of the materials was compared to that of the aluminum stepwedge using VIXWIN 2000 software in millimeters of aluminum (mm Al). Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. Radiopacity values varied from 3 mm Al to 5.9 mm Al. Sealer 26 and IRM presented the highest radiopacity values (p<0.05), while white/grey MTA and Super EBA presented the lowest radiopacity values (p<0.05). The tested root-end filling materials presented different radiopacities, white/grey MTA and Super EBA being the least radiopaque materials. PMID:19082394

  20. Quality improvement of photopolimerizable-cement root canal obturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupato Conrado, Luis A.; Frois, Iris M.; Amaro Zangaro, Renato; Munin, Egberto; Kuranaga, Carlos; Dias da Silva, Marcos; do Carmo de Andrade Nono, Maria; Cerquiera Rezende, Mirabel

    2003-06-01

    The sealing cements commonly used for endodontic applications are of the type cured through chemical reactions. During the polymerization process, mechanical contractions are not uncommon, leading to a non-perfect sealing. Photopolymerizable cements usually presents superior performance as compared to those chemically activated. However, difficulties in carrying the light to difficult-to-reach regions like the dental apex preclude those material of being accepted in the dental office routine. This work reports on a novel technique which allow the light curing of photopolymerizable cements in endodontic applications. A special light guide had been developed to allow the curing light to reach and polymerize the sealing cement in the apex region. The technique was tested by using single-root human teeth with normal canal morphology. The Ultradent EndoREZ root canal sealer and a resin-based photopolymerizable filler specially developed for the current application had been used. The cone-shaped light guide was introduced into treated canals filled with the photopolymerizable material, up to the apical region. Light from an argon laser was launched onto the light guide for polymerization. All test samples were immersed in methylene-blue solution for microleakage testing. All samples treated with the self-polymerizable material presented dye penetration to some extent. No sample within the group which had the filling material polymerized by using the light guide presented dye penetration through the canal wall.

  1. Sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate when used as root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Shahriar; Rahimi, Saeed; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Shakouie, Sahar; Nezafati, Saeed; Abdolrahimi, Majid

    2007-12-01

    This in vitro study used dye penetration to compare the sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate when used as root-end filling materials. Ninety-six single-rooted human teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 root canal sealer. The apical 3 mm of each root was resected, and 3-mm deep root-end cavity preparations were made. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups, each containing 20 teeth, and 2 negative and positive control groups, each containing 8 teeth. Root-end cavities in the experimental groups were filled with the experimental materials. After decoronation of the teeth and application of nail polish, the teeth were exposed to India ink for 72 hours and longitudinally sectioned, and the extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences among the 4 experimental groups. PMID:18037052

  2. [Endodontics in motion: new concepts, materials and techniques 3. The role of irrigants during root canal treatment].

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, L W M

    2015-10-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm) and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root canal system and their chemical dissolution or disruption. Each of the endodontic irrigation systems has its own irrigant flow characteristics, which should fulfill these aims. Without flow (convection), the irrigant would have to be distributed through diffusion. This process is slow and depends on temperature and concentration gradients. On the other hand, convection is a faster and more efficient transport mechanism. During irrigant flow, frictional forces will occur, for example between the irrigant and the root canal wall (wall shear stress). These frictional forces have a mechanical cleaning effect on the root canal wall. These frictional forces are the result of the flow characteristics related to the different irrigation systems.

  3. [Endodontics in motion: new concepts, materials and techniques 3. The role of irrigants during root canal treatment].

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, L W M

    2015-10-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm) and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root canal system and their chemical dissolution or disruption. Each of the endodontic irrigation systems has its own irrigant flow characteristics, which should fulfill these aims. Without flow (convection), the irrigant would have to be distributed through diffusion. This process is slow and depends on temperature and concentration gradients. On the other hand, convection is a faster and more efficient transport mechanism. During irrigant flow, frictional forces will occur, for example between the irrigant and the root canal wall (wall shear stress). These frictional forces have a mechanical cleaning effect on the root canal wall. These frictional forces are the result of the flow characteristics related to the different irrigation systems. PMID:26465016

  4. Stereomicroscopic Evaluation of Sealing Ability of Four Different Root Canal Sealers- An invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandak, Manoj; Jain, Pradeep; Patni, Mona Jain; Jain, Sumeet; Mishra, Prashant; Jain, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most commonly used core material for root canal filling is gutta-percha and as the gutta-percha by itself cannot obturate the complete root canal system, owing to its poor sealing properties hence, a sealer is used in combination with root filling material. Sealer is more important than the core obturating material. Sealer plays a secondary role by merely reinforcing (binding or luting) the gutta-percha to the canal walls, however, it is now confirmed that the sealer has a prime role in sealing the canal by blocking the irregularities between the canal space and the core filling material. Aim To investigate the effectiveness of the apical seal obtained by different sealers used in conjugation with cold lateral condensation technique of obturation using gutta-percha under stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods One hundred single-rooted extracted human permanent teeth with a single root canal were used in this in-vitro study. The sealers tested were conventional Zinc oxide eugenol sealer, Apexit, AH-Plus and Roekoseal Automix (RSA). The specimens were examined under a stereomicroscope. For the analysis of data Snedocor’s F test for the quality of variances among the experimental group and control group (One-Way ANOVA) were employed. Results The polydimethylsiloxane endodontic root canal sealer RSA provided a significantly better apical seal followed by AH plus and Apexit whereas conventional zinc oxide eugenol showed the lowest sealing ability. Conclusion It was concluded that there were statistically significant differences amongst the experimental groups. The shrinkage related to setting and potential dissolution might risk the proper seal of the root canal leading to treatment failure. PMID:27656560

  5. Comparison of the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement used as root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Shahriar; Yavari, Hamid R; Rahimi, Saeed; Eskandarinezhad, Mahsa; Shakouei, Sahar; Unchi, Mahsa

    2011-12-01

    Inadequate apical seal is the major cause of surgical endodontic failure. The root-end filling material used should prevent egress of potential contaminants into periapical tissue. The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of four root-end filling materials: white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), gray MTA, white Portland cement (PC) and gray PC by dye leakage test. Ninety-six human single-rooted teeth were instrumented, and obturated with gutta-percha. After resecting the apex, an apical cavity was prepared. The teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups (A: white MTA, B: gray MTA, C: white PC and D: gray PC; n = 20) and two control groups (positive and negative control groups; n = 8). Root-end cavities in the experimental groups were filled with the experimental materials. The teeth were exposed to Indian ink for 72 hours. The extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope at 16× magnification. The negative controls showed no dye penetration and dye penetration was seen in the entire root-end cavity of positive controls. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the four experimental groups (P > 0.05). All retrograde filling materials tested in this study showed the same microleakage in vitro. Given the low cost and apparently similar sealing ability of PC, PC could be considered as a substitute for MTA as a root-end filling material.

  6. Solubility of a new calcium silicate-based root-end filling material

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shishir; Podar, Rajesh; Dadu, Shifali; Kulkarni, Gaurav; Purba, Rucheet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare solubility of a new calcium silicate-based cement, Biodentine with three commonly used root-end filling materials viz. glass-ionomer cement (GIC), intermediate restorative material (IRM), and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Materials and Methods: Twenty stainless steel ring molds were filled with cements corresponding to four groups (n = 5). The weight of 20 dried glass bottles was recorded. Samples were transferred to bottles containing 5 ml of distilled water and stored for 24 h. The bottles were dried at 105΀C and weighed. This procedure was repeated for 3, 10, 30, and 60 days. Data was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test (P < 0.05). Results: Biodentine demonstrated significantly higher solubility than MTA for 30- and 60-day immersion periods. Statistical difference was noted between the solubility values of Biodentine samples amongst each of the five time intervals. Conclusions: Biodentine exhibited higher solubility in comparison with all other cements. PMID:25829696

  7. Healing after Root-end Microsurgery by Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and a New Calcium Silicate–based Bioceramic Material as Root-end Filling Materials in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ian; Karabucak, Bekir; Wang, Cong; Wang, Han-Guo; Koyama, Eiki; Kohli, Meetu R.; Nah, Hyun-Duck; Kim, Syngcuk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare healing after root-end surgery by using grey mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and EndoSequence Root Repair Material (RRM) as root-end filling material in an animal model. Methods Apical periodontitis was induced in 55 mandibular premolars of 4 healthy beagle dogs. After 6 weeks, root-end surgeries were performed by using modern microsurgical techniques. Two different root-end filling materials were used, grey MTA and RRM. Six months after surgery, healing of the periapical area was assessed by periapical radiographs, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), micro computed tomography (CT), and histology. Results Minimal or no inflammatory response was observed in the majority of periapical areas regardless of the material. The degree of inflammatory infiltration and cortical plate healing were not significantly different between the 2 materials. However, a significantly greater root-end surface area was covered by cementum-like, periodontal ligament–like tissue, and bone in RRM group than in MTA group. When evaluating with periapical radiographs, complete healing rate in RRM and MTA groups was 92.6% and 75%, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P = .073). However, on CBCT and micro CT images, RRM group demonstrated significantly superior healing on the resected root-end surface and in the periapical area (P = .000 to .027). Conclusions Like MTA, RRM is a biocompatible material with good sealing ability. However, in this animal model RRM achieved a better tissue healing response adjacent to the resected root-end surface histologically. The superior healing tendency associated with RRM could be detected by CBCT and micro CT but not periapical radiography. PMID:25596728

  8. The Influence of Root-End Filling Materials on Bone Healing – An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    KUI, ANDREEA GULIE; BERAR, ANTONELA; LASCU, LIANA; BOLFA, POMPEI; BOSCA, BIANCA; MIHU, CARMEN; BACIUT, MIHAELA; AVRAM, RAMONA; BADEA, MÂNDRA

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this experimental study is to assess the bone healing phenomenon produced in the presence of several dental materials: a polycarboxylate cement, a glass-ionomer cement, a composite resin and MTA (mineral trioxide aggregate) based cement. Methods. The biocompatibility of four root-end fillings materials, used in periapical surgery was investigated after intra-osseous implantation of the materials in rats’ calvaria. Tissue reaction was studied at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks after implantation. We took into consideration the presence of inflammatory cells (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes and giant cells) and classified the aspects of the histological samples according to the following scale: 0 - no inflammation, 1 – mild, isolated inflammation, 2 - moderate, localized inflammatory reaction, 3 - severe, diffuse and intense inflammatory reaction. Results. The inflammatory reaction was present at the six intervals for all the tested materials, but at 12 week interval, the reaction was minimal in all cases. Also, a dissolution reaction was observed for all the materials, less intense for glass-ionomer cement and polycarboxilate cement. Conclusions. At the end of the experimental period, glass-ionomer cement and polycarboxilate cement suffered a lesser dissolution reaction as compared to the second group of tested materials. PMID:26528034

  9. Monoblocks in root canals - a hypothetical or a tangible goal

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2007-01-01

    The term “monoblock” has become a familiar term in the endodontic literature with recent interest in the application of dentin adhesive technology to endodontics. Endodontic “monoblocks” have generated controversial discussions among academicians and clinicians as to whether they are able to improve the quality of seal in root fillings and to strengthen roots. This review attempts to provide a broader meaning to the term “monoblock” and see how this definition may be applied to the materials that have been used in the past and present for rehabilitation of the root canal space. The potential of currently available bondable materials to achieve mechanically homogeneous units with root dentin is then discussed in relation to the classical concept in which the term “monoblock” was first employed in restorative dentistry, and subsequently in endodontics. PMID:17368325

  10. Mandibular first molar with single root and single root canal

    PubMed Central

    Munavalli, Anil; Kambale, Sharnappa; Ramesh, Sachhi; Ajgaonkar, Nishant

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable anatomic complexities and abnormalities with respect to number of roots and root canals. Clinicians should be aware that there is a possibility of the existence of a fewer number of roots and root canals than the normal root canal anatomy. Mandibular first molar with a single root and single canal was diagnosed with the aid of dental operating microscope and multiple angled radiographs. This case report presents a rare case of successful endodontic management of mandibular first molar with a single root and root canal. PMID:26180424

  11. Physicochemical properties and interfacial adaptation of root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Cañadas, Piedad S; Berástegui, Ester; Gaton-Hernández, Patrícia; Silva, Léa A B; Leite, Giselle A; Silva, Roberto S

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the physicochemical properties and interfacial adaptation to canal walls of Endo-CPM-Sealer, Sealapex and Activ GP with the well-established AH Plus sealer. The following analyses were performed: radiopacity, pH variation and solubility using samples of each material and scanning electron microscopy of root-filled bovine incisors to evaluate the interfacial adaptation. Data were analyzed by the parametric and no-parametric tests (α=0.05). All materials were in accordance with the ANSI/ADA requirements for radiopacity. Endo-CPM-Sealer presented the lowest radiopacity values and AH Plus was the most radiopaque sealer (p=0.0001). Except for ActiV GP, which was acidic, all other sealers had basic chemical nature and released hydroxyl ions. Regarding solubility, all materials met the ANSI/ADA recommendations, with no statistically significant difference between the sealers (p=0.0834). AH Plus presented the best adaptation to canal walls in the middle (p=0.0023) and apical (p=0.0012) thirds, while the sealers Activ GP and Endo-CPM-Sealer had poor adaptation to the canal walls. All sealers, except for ActiV GP, were alkaline and all of them fulfilled the ANSI/ADA requirements for radiopacity and solubility. Regarding the interfacial adaptation, AH Plus was superior to the others considering the adaptation to the bovine root canal walls.

  12. Root canal retreatment using reciprocating and continuous rotary nickel-titanium instruments

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Patricia Fonseca; Oliveira Goncalves, Leonardo Cantanhede; Franco Marques, Andre Augusto; Sponchiado Junior, Emilio Carlos; Roberti Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca; de Carvalho, Fredson Marcio Acris

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The complete filling material removal during endodontic retreatment is a clinical procedure difficult to achieve. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of reciprocating and continuous rotary nickel-titanium instruments used in root canal retreatment. Materials and Methods: Forty freshly extracted human premolars were cleaned and shaped by the crown-down technique, followed by filling by the lateral compaction technique. The teeth were randomly separated into two groups (n = 20), according to the system used for filling material removal: G1 - Reciproc and G2 - ProTaper Universal Retreatment System. The teeth were photographed under operating microscope at ×8 magnification; and the total area of the root canal and remaining filling material were quantified. Results: No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in residual filling material was observed between groups; however, the time required for filling removal was significantly shorter for Reciproc system (P < 0.05). Conclusions: It was observed remaining filling material in all teeth, irrespective of the system used; however, root canal retreatment was faster when reciprocating motion was used. PMID:26038656

  13. Comparison of the Root End Sealing Ability of Four Different Retrograde Filling Materials in Teeth with Root Apices Resected at Different Angles – An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ponnappa, K.C.; Yadav, Pankaj; Rao, Yogesh; Relhan, Nikhil; Gupta, Priyanka; Choubey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Shivanshu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insufficient apical seal is the significant reason for surgical endodontic disappointment. The root-end filling material utilized should avoid egress of potential contaminants into periapical tissue. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the sealing ability of four root-end filling materials MTA, Portland cement, IRM, RMGIC in teeth with root apices resected at 0 and 45 angle using dye penetration method under fluorescent microscope. Materials and Methods Hundred extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were sectioned horizontally at the cement-enamel junction. After cleaning, shaping and obturation with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer, the tooth samples were randomly divided in two groups (the root apices resected at 0° and 45° to the long axis of the root). The root resections were carried out by removing 2 mm and 1 mm in both the groups. Following which 3 mm deep root-end cavities were prepared at the apices and the root were coated with nail varnish except the tip. The teeth in both the group were randomly divided into four subgroups each (Pro root MTA, Portland cement, IRM and Light cure nano GIC Ketac N-100). All the retrofilled samples were stored in acrydine orange for 24 hours after which they were cleaned and vertically sectioned buccolingually. The sectioned root samples were observed under fluorescent microscope. Results The root apex sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) was superior to Portland cement, Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) and LC GIC. IRM demonstrated the maximum apical leakage value among all the materials. Portland cement and LC GIC showed comparable sealing ability. Conclusion The angulation whether 0° or 45° angle did not affect the sealing ability of all the four materials used, MTA proved to be one of the superior materials for root-end filling. PMID:26894168

  14. Fluoride Varnish as Root Canal Sealer: A Scanning Electron Microscopy and Bacterial Penetration Study

    PubMed Central

    Parirokh, Masoud; Talebizad, Mohammad; Forghani, Farshid Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akabar; Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Goddousi, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study was carried out to evaluate the bacterial leakage of root canal fillings when cavity varnish containing 5% fluoride (Duraflur) was used as root canal sealer. Methods and Materials: Root canals of 88 straight single-rooted teeth were prepared. Eighty teeth were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n=20) and two positive and negative control groups of ten each. The roots in group I and II were obturated with gutta-percha and AH-26 sealer using lateral condensation technique. The root canal walls in group II were coated with a layer of varnish before obturation. In group III the canals were obturated with gutta-percha and fluoride varnish as the sealer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) was used to determine the bacterial leakage during 90 days. The Kaplan Meier survival analysis was used for assessing the leakage and log rank test was used for pairwise comparison. The rest of eight single rooted teeth were selected for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation with 5000× magnification. Results: Leakage occurred between 20 to 89 days. Group III showed significantly less bacterial penetration than groups I and II (P=0.001 and P=0.011, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between group I and II (P>0.05). SEM evaluation showed that the varnish had covered all dentinal tubules. Conclusion: The present study showed promising results for the use of fluoride varnish as root canal sealer but further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed. PMID:25598813

  15. Root surface temperature rises in vitro during root canal obturation using hybrid and microseal techniques.

    PubMed

    Lipski, Mariusz

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to measure the temperature rise on the outer surface of roots during filling with hybrid technique and Microseal. Twenty extracted human maxillary and mandibular premolars with a single canal were randomly divided into two groups of 10 teeth each. In the first group, the teeth were filled with hybrid technique (thermomechanical compaction with Engine Plugger used following lateral condensation of the apical part of the canal), the second group was filled using Microseal. After root canal obturation the filling material was removed and the obturation procedure was repeated. A total of 20 obturations in each group were performed. Temperature changes were measured using a thermal imaging camera. The temperature of certain regions of the mesial surface was analyzed and the highest temperature values were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. The mean increase of temperature during the hybrid technique with Engine Plugger was 23.8 degrees C, while during Microseal it was significantly lower (p = 0.000001) at 5.5 degrees C. The temperature rise generated by Microseal was below the critical level and should not damage supporting structures, however, the hybrid technique generated a relatively high temperature rise that may cause periodontal tissue damage.

  16. Sealing ability of three root-end filling materials prepared using an erbium: Yttrium aluminium garnet laser and endosonic tip evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nanjappa, A Salin; Ponnappa, KC; Nanjamma, KK; Ponappa, MC; Girish, Sabari; Nitin, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (1) To compare the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine, and Chitra-calcium phosphate cement (CPC) when used as root-end filling, evaluated under confocal laser scanning microscope using Rhodamine B dye. (2) To evaluate effect of ultrasonic retroprep tip and an erbium:yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser on the integrity of three different root-end filling materials. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 80 extracted teeth were instrumented and obturated with gutta-percha. The apical 3 mm of each tooth was resected and 3 mm root-end preparation was made using ultrasonic tip (n = 30) and Er:YAG laser (n = 30). MTA, Biodentine, and Chitra-CPC were used to restore 10 teeth each. The samples were coated with varnish and after drying, they were immersed in Rhodamine B dye for 24 h. The teeth were then rinsed, sectioned longitudinally, and observed under confocal laser scanning microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc Tukey's test at P < 0.05 (R software version 3.1.0). Results: Comparison of microleakage showed maximum peak value of 0.45 mm for Biodentine, 0.85 mm for MTA, and 1.05 mm for Chitra-CPC. The amount of dye penetration was found to be lesser in root ends prepared using Er:YAG laser when compared with ultrasonics, the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Root-end cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and restored with Biodentine showed superior sealing ability compared to those prepared with ultrasonics. PMID:26180420

  17. Root Canal Therapy of a Mandibular First Molar with Five Root Canals: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reyhani, Mohammad Frough; Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar

    2007-01-01

    A mandibular first molar requiring root canal therapy was found with five canals, three mesial canals, and two distal canals. Initially, four canals (mesiobuccal, mesiolingual, distobuccal, and distolingual) were identified. The mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals were found in their normal locations, and a fifth canal was noted between these two. This case demonstrates a rare anatomical configuration and supplements previous reports of the existence of such configurations in mandibular first molars. PMID:24298291

  18. Biodentine versus Mineral Trioxide Aggregate versus Intermediate Restorative Material for Retrograde Root End Filling: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Soundappan, Saravanapriyan; Sundaramurthy, Jothi Latha; Raghu, Sandhya; Natanasabapathy, Velmurugan

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of Biodentine in comparison with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), as a root end filling material, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Thirty permanent maxillary central incisors were chemo-mechanically prepared and obturated. Three millimetres of the root end were resected and 3mm retro cavity preparation was done using ultrasonic retrotips. The samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) and were restored with root end filling materials: Group I – MTA, Group II – Biodentine, Group III – IRM. The root ends were sectioned transversely at 1mm and 2mm levels and evaluated for marginal adaptation using SEM. The gap between dentin and retro filling material was measured at four quadrants. The mean gap at 1mm level and 2mm level from the resected root tip and combined mean were calculated. The data were statistically analyzed, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test for intergroup analysis and paired t-test for intragroup analysis. Results: The overall results showed no statistically significant difference between MTA and IRM but both were superior when compared to Biodentine. At 1mm level there was no statistically significant difference among any of the tested materials. At 2mm level MTA was superior to both IRM and Biodentine. Conclusion: In overall comparison, MTA and IRM were significantly superior when compared to Biodentine in terms of marginal adaptation, when used as retrograde filling material. PMID:24910689

  19. Management of Six Root Canals in Mandibular First Molar

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Fabio de Almeida; Sousa, Bruno Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system. This clinical case describes conventional root canal treatment of an unusual mandibular first molar with six root canals. The prognosis for endodontic treatment in teeth with abnormal morphology is unfavorable if the clinician fails to recognize extra root canals. PMID:25685156

  20. Efficacy of different solvents in removing gutta-percha from curved root canals: a micro-computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Baran Can; Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Türker, Sevinç Aktemur; Koçak, Sibel

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the root filling material that remained after retreatment of curved root canals with chloroform and Endosolv R as solvents. The evaluation employed micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. Thirty-six extracted molar teeth with curved roots were selected. After preparation with ProTaper rotary instruments, the canals were filled with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to solvent used (n = 12) as follows: group 1: chloroform; group 2: Endosolv R; group 3: no solvent (negative control). ProTaper Universal Retreatment files were used to remove each root canal filling and then the self-adjusting file was applied for two minutes. Preoperative and postoperative micro-CT images were used to assess the percentage of residual filling material. The mean percentage of residual filling material was quantified. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of percentage volume of residual root canal filling.

  1. Root Canal Treatment of a Maxillary Second Premolar with Two Palatal Root Canals: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Golmohammadi, Maryam; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the root canal morphology and anatomy is essential for thorough shaping and cleaning of the entire root canal system and consequent successful treatment. This report describes a case of maxillary second premolar with two roots and three root canals (two mesial and distal palatal canals). The case report underlines the importance of complete knowledge about root canal morphology and possible variations, coupled with clinical and radiographic examination in order to increase the ability of clinicians to treat difficult cases. PMID:27471538

  2. Push-out bond strength and dentinal tubule penetration of different root canal sealers used with coated core materials

    PubMed Central

    Purali, Nuhan; Coşgun, Erdal; Calt, Semra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the push-out bond strength and dentinal tubule penetration of root canal sealers used with coated core materials and conventional gutta-percha. Materials and Methods A total of 72 single-rooted human mandibular incisors were instrumented with NiTi rotary files with irrigation of 2.5% NaOCl. The smear layer was removed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Specimens were assigned into four groups according to the obturation system: Group 1, EndoRez (Ultradent Product Inc.); Group 2, Activ GP (Brasseler); Group 3, SmartSeal (DFRP Ltd. Villa Farm); Group 4, AH 26 (Dentsply de Trey)/gutta-percha (GP). For push-out bond strength measurement, two horizontal slices were obtained from each specimen (n = 20). To compare dentinal tubule penetration, remaining 32 roots assigned to 4 groups as above were obturated with 0.1% Rhodamine B labeled sealers. One horizontal slice was obtained from the middle third of each specimen (n = 8) and scanned under confocal laser scanning electron microscope. Tubule penetration area, depth, and percentage were measured. Kruskall-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. Results EndoRez showed significantly lower push-out bond strength than the others (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found amongst the groups in terms of percentage of sealer penetration. SmartSeal showed the least penetration than the others (p < 0.05). Conclusions The bond strength and sealer penetration of resin-and glass ionomer-based sealers used with coated core was not superior to resin-based sealer used with conventional GP. Dentinal tubule penetration has limited effect on bond strength. The use of conventional GP with sealer seems to be sufficient in terms of push-out bond strength. PMID:27200279

  3. Clinical management of infected root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Love, R M

    1996-08-01

    Several hundred different species of bacteria are present in the human intraoral environment. Bacterial penetration of root canal dentin occurs when bacteria invade the root canal system. These bacteria may constitute a reservoir from which root canal reinfection may occur during or after endodontic treatment. The learning objective of this article is to review endodontic microbiology, update readers on the role of bacteria in pulp and periapical disease, and discuss the principles of management of infected root canal dentin. Complete debridement, removal of microorganisms and affected dentin, and chemomechanical cleansing of the root canal are suggested as being the cornerstones of successful endodontic therapy, followed by intracanal medication to remove residual bacteria, when required. PMID:9242125

  4. Cytotoxicity of newly developed pozzolan cement and other root-end filling materials on human periodontal ligament cell

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minju; Yoon, Tae-Sun; Kim, Sue-Youn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity of the pozzolan cement and other root-end filling materials using human periodontal ligament cell. Materials and Methods Endocem (Maruchi), white ProRoot MTA (Dentsply), white Angelus MTA (Angelus), and Super EBA (Bosworth Co.) were tested after set completely in an incubator at 37℃ for 7 days, Endocem was tested in two ways: 1) immediately after mixing (fresh specimens) and 2) after setting completely like other experimental materials. The methods for assessment included light microscopic examination, cell counting and WST-1 assay on human periodontal ligament cell. Results In the results of microscopic examination and cell counting, Super EBA showed significantly lower viable cell than any other groups (p < 0.05). As the results of WST-1 assay, compared with untreated control group, there was no significant cell viability of the Endocem group. However, the fresh mixed Endocem group had significantly less cell viability. The cells exposed to ProRoot MTA and Angelus MTA showed the highest viability, whereas the cells exposed to Super EBA displayed the lowest viability (p < 0.05). Conclusions The cytotoxicity of the pozzolan cement (Endocem) was comparable with ProRoot MTA and Angelus MTA. Considering the difficult manipulation and long setting time of ProRoot MTA and Angelus MTA, Endocem can be used as the alternative of retrofilling material. PMID:24516828

  5. Sealing ability of MTA, CPM, and MBPc as root-end filling materials: a bacterial leakage study

    PubMed Central

    MEDEIROS, Paulo Leal; BERNARDINELI, Norberti; CAVENAGO, Bruno Cavalini; TORRES, Sérgio Aparecido; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; BRAMANTE, Clovis Monteiro; MARCIANO, Marina Angélica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the sealing ability of three root-end filling materials (white MTA, CPM, and MBPc) using an Enterococcus faecalis leakage model. Material and Methods Seventy single-root extracted human teeth were instrumented and root-ends were resected to prepare 3 mm depth cavities. Root-end preparations were filled with white MTA, CPM, and MBPc cements. Enterococcus faecalis was coronally introduced and the apical portion was immersed in BHI culture medium with phenol red indicator. The bacterial leakage was monitored every 24 h for 4 weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon-Gehan test (p<0.05). Results All cements showed bacterial leakage after 24 hours, except for the negative control group. The MBPc showed significantly less bacterial leakage compared with the MTA group (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between the CPM and the other groups. Conclusions The epoxy resin-based cement MBPc had lower bacterial leakage compared with the calcium silicate-based cements MTA and CPM. PMID:27119763

  6. Comparison of the radiopacities of different root-end filling and repair materials.

    PubMed

    Tanalp, Jale; Karapınar-Kazandağ, Meriç; Dölekoğlu, Semanur; Kayahan, Mehmet Baybora

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the radiopacity of 3 repair materials, Biodentine, MM-MTA, and MTA Angelus. Standardized cylindrical rings were prepared. Samples of Biodentine MM-MTA and MTA Angelus were prepared (n = 10 in each group), filled into the rings, and preserved at 37°C until setting. A 1 mm thick dentin slice was used as control. All set specimens were removed and radiographed along with the dentine slice and a graduated aluminium step wedge. Digital images were transferred to the computer using a software. The radiographic densities of the specimens were determined, and the values were converted into millimetres of aluminium (mm Al). One-way ANOVA was used for intergroup comparison, whereas Tukey HSD test was used for detecting the group with the difference. The mean radiopacities of Biodentine, MTA Angelus, and MM-MTA were 2.8 ± 0.48, 4.72 ± 0.45, and 5.18 ± 0.51 mm Al, respectively. The radiopacity of Biodentine was significantly lower compared to other materials (P = 0.001), whereas no significant difference was noted between MTA Angelus and MM-MTA (P = 0.109). All materials had significantly higher radiopacities compared to dentine. The relatively lower radiopacity of Biodentine can be improved to achieve more reliable results in procedures such as retrograde fillings.

  7. Comparison of the Radiopacities of Different Root-End Filling and Repair Materials

    PubMed Central

    Tanalp, Jale; Karapınar-Kazandağ, Meriç; Kayahan, Mehmet Baybora

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the radiopacity of 3 repair materials, Biodentine, MM-MTA, and MTA Angelus. Standardized cylindrical rings were prepared. Samples of Biodentine MM-MTA and MTA Angelus were prepared (n = 10 in each group), filled into the rings, and preserved at 37°C until setting. A 1 mm thick dentin slice was used as control. All set specimens were removed and radiographed along with the dentine slice and a graduated aluminium step wedge. Digital images were transferred to the computer using a software. The radiographic densities of the specimens were determined, and the values were converted into millimetres of aluminium (mm Al). One-way ANOVA was used for intergroup comparison, whereas Tukey HSD test was used for detecting the group with the difference. The mean radiopacities of Biodentine, MTA Angelus, and MM-MTA were 2.8 ± 0.48, 4.72 ± 0.45, and 5.18 ± 0.51 mm Al, respectively. The radiopacity of Biodentine was significantly lower compared to other materials (P = 0.001), whereas no significant difference was noted between MTA Angelus and MM-MTA (P = 0.109). All materials had significantly higher radiopacities compared to dentine. The relatively lower radiopacity of Biodentine can be improved to achieve more reliable results in procedures such as retrograde fillings. PMID:24260018

  8. Electrical impedance measurements of root canal length.

    PubMed

    Meredith, N; Gulabivala, K

    1997-06-01

    Electronic methods are now widely used during endodontic treatment for the assessment of root canal length. These commonly measure the electrical resistance or impedance between the root canal and the buccal mucosa. A number of studies have been undertaken to determine the accuracy of commercially available instruments. The aims of this investigation were to determine the electrical impedance characteristics of the root canal and periapical tissues in vivo, measure the changes relative to the distance of an endodontic instrument from the apical constriction and propose an equivalent circuit modelling the periapical tissues. The length of the root canals of 20 previously untreated teeth were determined using radiographic and electronic methods. Minimal canal preparation was carried out and measurements were made with a size 10 K-Flex file. A microprocessor-controlled LCR analyser was used to measure the electrical impedance characteristics of each root canal. The instrument measured the series and parallel resistive (RS, RP) and capacitance (CS, CP) component of the tissues at two test frequencies, 100 Hz and 1 kHz. Measurements were made for each root canal when the diagnostic file was placed at the apical constriction and repeated when the file was withdrawn to -0.5, -1.0, -1.5, -2.0 and -5.0 mm from the foramen. Readings were taken for each canal after the canal had been dried with paper points, and flooded first with deionised water and then with sodium hypochlorite. The root canals were then prepared, cleaned and obturated using standard endodontic procedures. The LCR analyser selected the series resistance component as the major measurement parameter. There was a clear increase in series resistance (RS) with increasing distance from the radiographic apex for dry canals and those containing deionised water and sodium hypochlorite. The mean resistance for dry canals was markedly higher than for those containing fluid, ranging from 22.19 k omega to 92.07 k omega

  9. Biointeractivity-related versus chemi/physisorption-related apatite precursor-forming ability of current root end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Taddei, Paola; Modena, Enrico; Siboni, Francesco; Prati, Carlo

    2013-10-01

    Commercial root end filling materials, namely two zinc oxide eugenol-based cements [intermediate restorative material (IRM), Superseal], a glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond) and three calcium-silicate mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based cements (ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, and Tech Biosealer root end), were examined for their ability to: (a) release calcium (Ca(2+) ) and hydroxyl (OH(-) ) ions (biointeractivity) and (b) form apatite (Ap) and/or calcium phosphate (CaP) precursors. Materials were immersed in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1-28 days. Ca(2+) and OH(-) release were measured by ion selective probes, surface analysis was performed by environmental scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis, micro-Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IRM and Superseal released small quantities of Ca(2+) and no OH(-) ions. Uneven sparse nonapatitic Ca-poor amorphous CaP (ACP) deposits were observed after 24 h soaking. Vitrebond did not release either Ca(2+) or OH(-) ions, but uneven nonapatitic Ca-poor CaP deposits were detected after 7 days soaking. ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, and Tech Biosealer root end released significant amounts of Ca(2+) and OH(-) ions throughout the experiment. After 1 day soaking, nanospherulites of CaP deposits formed by amorphous calcium/magnesium phosphate (ACP) Ap precursors were detected. A more mature ACP phase was present on ProRoot MTA and on Tech Biosealer root end at all times. In conclusion, zinc oxide and glass ionomer cements had little or no ability to release mineralizing ions: they simply act as substrates for the possible chemical bonding/adsorption of environmental ions and precipitation of nonapatitic Ca-poor ACP deposits. On the contrary, calcium-silicate cements showed a high calcium release and basifying effect and generally a pronounced formation of more mature ACP apatitic precursors correlated with their higher ion-releasing ability.

  10. Root canal morphology of South Asian Indian maxillary molar teeth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shishir; Pawar, Mansing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the root canal morphology of South Asian Indian Maxillary molars using a tooth clearing technique. Materials and Methods: Hundred teeth each comprising of first, second, and third molars collected from different dental schools and clinics in India were subjected to standard dye penetration, decalcification and clearing procedure before being studied. Results: The first molar mesiobuccal roots exhibited 69% Type I, 24% Type II, 4% Type IV, 2% Type V, and 1% exhibited a Vertuccis Type VIII canal anatomy. In the group with three separate roots the second molar mesiobuccal roots in exhibited 80.6% Type I, 15.3% Type II, 2.7% Type IV, and 1.4% Type V canal anatomy while the third molars mesiobuccal roots exhibited 57.4% Type I, 32% Type II, 2.1% Type III, 8.5% Type IV, 1% had a Type V canal anatomy in the similar group. Conclusion: A varied root canal anatomy was seen in the mesiobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars. PMID:25713497

  11. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  16. Evaluation of root morphology and root canal configuration of premolars in the Turkish individuals using cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Duygu Goller; Kose, Emre; Ozcan, Gozde; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Canger, Emin Murat; Sisman, Yıldıray

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study is to assess the root and root canal morphology of maxillary and mandibular premolars in a Turkish population by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: In this study, CBCT images of 2134 premolars (987 maxillary, 1147 mandibular) were obtained from 404 patients. Details of gender, age, number of roots and canals, and canal configuration in each root were recorded. The canal configuration was classified and evaluated according to Vertucci's criteria. Results: The majority of maxillary premolars had two separate roots; although, three roots were identified in 1% of maxillary first premolars. However, most of the mandibular premolars had a single root. The two canals (69.9%) and type I (62.6%) and type II (34.1%) configuration for upper first premolar, one canal (82.1%) and type I (77.6%) canal configuration for second premolar was the most prevalent root canal frequency. The most prevalent root canal frequency was the one canal (96.2%) and type I (94.2%) and type V (3.2%) configuration for mandibular first premolar, one canal (98.9%) and type I (98.9%) canal configuration for second premolar. There was no difference in the root canal configurations and the numbers of canals between the left and the right side of both females and males (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Recognition of morphology and anatomy of the root canal system is one of the most important factors for successful endodontic treatment. Preoperative CBCT examination allows determination of root canal configuration of premolar teeth and helps clinicians in root canal treatment. PMID:26929695

  17. Resistance to fracture of dental roots obturated with different materials.

    PubMed

    Celikten, Berkan; Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Gulsahi, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the vertical fracture resistance of roots obturated with different root canal filling materials and sealers. Crowns of 55 extracted mandibular premolar teeth were removed to provide root lengths of 13 mm. Five roots were saved as negative control group (canals unprepared and unfilled). Fifty root canals were instrumented and then five roots were saved as positive control group (canals prepared but unfilled). The remaining 45 roots were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 root/group) and obturated with the following procedures: in group 1, glass ionomer-based sealer and cone (ActiV GP obturation system); in group 2, bioceramic sealer and cone (EndoSequence BC obturation system); and in group 3, roots were filled with bioceramic sealer and cone (Smartpaste bio obturation system). All specimens were tested in a universal testing machine for measuring fracture resistance. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. The statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc test. There were no significant differences between the three experimental groups. The fracture values of three experimental and negative control groups were significantly higher than the positive control group. Within the limitations of this study, all materials increased the fracture resistance of instrumented roots. PMID:25756048

  18. Resistance to Fracture of Dental Roots Obturated with Different Materials

    PubMed Central

    Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Gulsahi, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the vertical fracture resistance of roots obturated with different root canal filling materials and sealers. Crowns of 55 extracted mandibular premolar teeth were removed to provide root lengths of 13 mm. Five roots were saved as negative control group (canals unprepared and unfilled). Fifty root canals were instrumented and then five roots were saved as positive control group (canals prepared but unfilled). The remaining 45 roots were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 root/group) and obturated with the following procedures: in group 1, glass ionomer-based sealer and cone (ActiV GP obturation system); in group 2, bioceramic sealer and cone (EndoSequence BC obturation system); and in group 3, roots were filled with bioceramic sealer and cone (Smartpaste bio obturation system). All specimens were tested in a universal testing machine for measuring fracture resistance. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. The statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc test. There were no significant differences between the three experimental groups. The fracture values of three experimental and negative control groups were significantly higher than the positive control group. Within the limitations of this study, all materials increased the fracture resistance of instrumented roots. PMID:25756048

  19. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Calcium Silicate-Based Endodontic Cement as Root-End Filling Materials.

    PubMed

    Küçükkaya, Selen; Görduysus, Mehmet Ömer; Zeybek, Naciye Dilara; Müftüoğlu, Sevda Fatma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of three types of calcium silicate-based endodontic cement after different incubation periods with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured from extracted third molars and seeded in 96-well plates. MTA, calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and Biodentine were prepared and added to culture insert plates which were immediately placed into 96-well plates containing cultured cells. After incubation periods of 24, 48, and 72 hours, cell viability was determined with WST-1 assay. Data were analysed statistically by ANOVA with repeated measures and Bonferroni tests. There was no significant difference in cell viability amongst the test materials after each incubation period (P > 0.05). MTA and CEM presented more than 90% cell viability after 24 and 48 hours of incubation and showed statistically significant decrease in cell viability after 72 hours of incubation (P < 0.05). Biodentine showed significantly less cell viability (73%) after 24 hours of incubation, whereas more than 90% cell viability was seen after 48 and 72 hours of incubation (P < 0.05). Despite the significant changes in cell viability over time, materials presented similar cytotoxicity profile. Biodentine and CEM can be considered as alternative materials for root-end surgery procedures.

  20. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Calcium Silicate-Based Endodontic Cement as Root-End Filling Materials

    PubMed Central

    Küçükkaya, Selen; Görduysus, Mehmet Ömer; Zeybek, Naciye Dilara; Müftüoğlu, Sevda Fatma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of three types of calcium silicate-based endodontic cement after different incubation periods with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured from extracted third molars and seeded in 96-well plates. MTA, calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and Biodentine were prepared and added to culture insert plates which were immediately placed into 96-well plates containing cultured cells. After incubation periods of 24, 48, and 72 hours, cell viability was determined with WST-1 assay. Data were analysed statistically by ANOVA with repeated measures and Bonferroni tests. There was no significant difference in cell viability amongst the test materials after each incubation period (P > 0.05). MTA and CEM presented more than 90% cell viability after 24 and 48 hours of incubation and showed statistically significant decrease in cell viability after 72 hours of incubation (P < 0.05). Biodentine showed significantly less cell viability (73%) after 24 hours of incubation, whereas more than 90% cell viability was seen after 48 and 72 hours of incubation (P < 0.05). Despite the significant changes in cell viability over time, materials presented similar cytotoxicity profile. Biodentine and CEM can be considered as alternative materials for root-end surgery procedures. PMID:26904364

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Adaptation of BiodentineTM and Other Commonly Used Root End Filling Materials-An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    P.V., Ravichandra; Vemisetty, Harikumar; K., Deepthi; Reddy S, Jayaprada; D., Ramkiran; Krishna M., Jaya Nagendra; Malathi, Gita

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of three root-end filling materials Glass ionomer cement, Mineral trioxide aggregate and BiodentineTM. Methodology: Thirty human single-rooted teeth were resected 3 mm from the apex. Root-end cavities were then prepared using an ultrasonic tip and filled with one of the following materials Glass ionomer cement (GIC), Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and a bioactive cement BiodentineTM. The apical portions of the roots were then sectioned to obtain three 1 mm thick transversal sections. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to determine area of gaps and adaptation of the root-end filling materials with the dentin. The Post hoc test, a multiple comparison test was used for statistical data analysis. Results: Statistical analysis showed lowest marginal gaps (11143.42±967.753m2) and good marginal adaptation with BiodentineTM followed by MTA (22300.97±3068.883m2) and highest marginal gaps with GIC (33388.17±12155.903m2) which were statistically significant (p<0.0001). Conclusion: A new root end filling material BiodentineTM showed better marginal adaptation than commonly used root end filling materials PMID:24783148

  2. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and crossing - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  3. Efficacy of ProTaper and Mtwo Retreatment Files in Removal of Gutta-percha and GuttaFlow from Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Khedmat, Sedigheh; Azari, Abbas; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza; Fadae, Mehdi; Bashizadeh Fakhar, Hoorieh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of ProTaper retreatment (ProTaper R) and Mtwo retreatment (Mtwo R) files in removing gutta-percha and GuttaFlow from endodontically treated straight root canals. Methods and Materials: The root canals of 60 human mandibular single-rooted premolars were prepared and randomly divided into two groups (n=30). In groups A and B the root canals were obturated using lateral condensation of gutta-percha plus AH 26 and GuttaFlow, respectively. The canal orifices were temporarily sealed and the roots were incubated for 3 months at 37ºC and 100% humidity. Primary cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were taken after incubation period. The specimens in each group were randomly divided into two subgroups (n=15). ProTaper R files (D1, D2, and D3) were used in groups A1 and B1 while Mtwo R files (25/0.05 and 15/0.05) were used in groups A2 and B2. The time required to extirpate the root filling was also recorded. After retreatment, another CBCT scan was taken at the same position. The volume of remaining filling materials inside the canals was calculated before and after retreatment. The data was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and independent t-test. Results: The remaining filling materials in the canals treated with ProTaper were less than Mtwo. The remaining volume of GuttaFlow was less than gutta-percha regardless of the system applied. Mtwo R files removed root fillings faster than ProTaper R. Conclusion: ProTaper R removed filling material more efficiently compared to Mtwo R which required less time to remove root filling material. PMID:27471528

  4. Reaction of inflamed periapical tissue to intracanal medicaments and root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Tepel, J; Darwisch el Sawaf, M; Hoppe, W

    1994-10-01

    The effects of different intracanal medicaments and zinc oxide-eugenol based root canal sealers on an experimentally induced apical periodontitis were studied histologically in mesial roots of lower molars of Wistar rats. After root canal instrumentation each canal was filled either with an intracanal medicament twice for 3 days each time or with a sealer for 21 days. The intracanal medicament chlorophenol caused periapical tissue damage. P-chloroxylenol-camphor lead to periapical improvement as did 5% sodium-hypochlorite. 12% sodium-hypochlorite gave tissue damage. After intracanal medication with an aqueous suspension of calcium hydroxide periapical repair was clearly visible. A combination of a corticoid and an antibiotic appeared to induce damage of the periapical tissues. The root canal sealers Endomethasone and N2 essentially impaired periapical repair. The results were acceptable for Aptal-Zink-Harz root canal fillings after 21 days as well as after 56 days.

  5. Effect of spreader size on microleakage of roots filled with cold lateral compaction technique

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Tugba; Piskin, Beyser; Orucoglu, Hasan; Aydin, Berdan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of spreader size on apical leakage of maxillary incisor teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 permanent human teeth with no carious and no fracture or crack were used for this study. After removing the crown from the cementoenamel junction and the standardization of the root lengths, the specimens were randomly divided into five groups: Group 1 - Roots were not instrumented. Group 2 - Root canals were enlarged using the step-back technique to a #40 file and filled using cold lateral compaction (CLC) of gutta-percha (GP). Group 3 - During the filling procedure, the first spreader used was size 40. Group 4 - The first spreader used was size 35. Group 5 - The initial spreader used was size 25. The amount of leakage through the filled root canals was evaluated by computerized fluid filtration model. Statistical analyzes were done using Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney test (P < 0.05). Results: There were statistically significant differences among the groups (P < 0.05). While the uninstrumented group (Group 1) had no leakage, instrumented but not filled roots (Group 2) demonstrated the highest leakage values. There were no differences between Group 3 and 4. Group 5 showed significantly less leakage than Group 3 and 4. Conclusion: Spreader size used during CLC of GP appeared to be a significant factor on apical leakage of roots. Using smaller size spreader during CLC may provide relatively less leakage. PMID:26430366

  6. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    PubMed

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  7. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    PubMed

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  8. Microhardness of different resin cement shades inside the root canal

    PubMed Central

    Vignolo, Valeria; Fuentes, Maria V.; Garrido, Miguel A.; Rodríguez, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare microhardness along the root canal post space of two resin cements in different shades and a dual-cure resin core material. Study Design: Root canals of 21 bovine incisors were prepared for post space. Translucent posts (X•Post, Dentsply DeTrey) were luted using one the following resin luting agent: Calibra (Dentsply DeTrey) in Translucent, Medium and Opaque shades, RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE) in Translucent, A2 and A3 shades and the dual-cure resin core material Core•X flow. All materials were applied according to manufacturers’ instructions and were all photopolymerized (Bluephase LED unit, Ivoclar Vivadent, 40s). After 24 hours, roots were transversally cut into 9 slices 1 mm thick from the coronal to apical extremes, three corresponding to each root third. Then, VHNs were recorded (100 gf, 30 s) on the resin luting materials along the adhesive interface in all sections. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and SNK tests (α=0.05). Results: A significant influence on microhardness of resin luting material in their respective shades (p<0.001), root third (p<0.001) and interactions between them was detected (p<0.001). RelyX Unicem cement showed the highest microhardness values and Calibra the lowest, regardless of the shade selected. All resin luting materials tested exhibited a significantly higher microhardness in the cervical third. Conclusions: Microhardness of resin luting agents tested inside the canal is dependent on material brand and resin cement shade seems to be a less relevant factor. Microhardness decreased along the root canal, regardless of the shade selected. Key words:Cement shade, degree of conversion, dual-cured resin cements, fiber posts, microhardness, root thirds. PMID:22322514

  9. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jaju, Sushma; Jaju, Prashant P.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation. PMID:22190936

  10. The Comparative Efficacy of Different Files in The Removal of Different Sealers in Simulated Root Canal Retreatment- An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanaparthy, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Root canal treatment enjoys a high success rate all over the world and has saved billions of teeth from extraction. However, there are instances of failure, the main causes being insufficient cleaning and inadequate obturation. In such cases the most conservative treatment option would be non-surgical retreatment. It requires regaining access to the entire root canal system through removal of the original root canal filling thus permitting further cleaning and re- obturation. Removal of gutta-percha and sealer becomes a critical step to gain access to the root canal system, remove necrotic tissue debris, bacteria and infected dentin. Aim To compare and evaluate the efficacy of manual hand Hedstrom files and two rotary retreatment file systems ProTaper Universal retreatment files and MtwoR (retreatment) files in the removal of root canal filling material during root canal retreatment and the influence of the type of sealers zinc oxide eugenol and AH plus on the presence of remaining debris in the reinstrumented canals in the apical, middle and coronal third. Materials and Methods Sixty single rooted human premolar teeth were divided into 3 Groups of 20 teeth each Group I (20 Teeth): prepared using hand K Files, Group II (20 Teeth): prepared using ProTaper rotary system and Group III (20 Teeth): prepared using Mtwo rotary system. In Groups- IA, IIA, IIIA: (10 teeth each) Obturation was done using Zinc Oxide Eugenol sealer and gutta percha. In Groups- IB, IIB, IIIB: (10 teeth each) obturation was done with AH Plus sealer and gutta percha. All the teeth were subjected to retreatment. Groups IA and IB with Hedstrom files, Groups IIA and IIB with ProTaper retreatment files and for Groups IIIA and IIIB with Mtwo retreatment Files. The roots were longitudinally split and were observed under a stereomicroscope for remaining amount of filling material on the canal walls. Statistical analysis was done using One–way ANOVA (Analysis of variance) test and Tukey

  11. Root and Canal Morphology of Mandibular Third Molars in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kuzekanani, Maryam; Haghani, Jahangir; Nosrati, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims A through knowledge of the root canal morphology is required for successful endodontic ther-apy. The aim of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of mandibular third molars in Kerman, a prov-ince in southeast of Iran. Materials and methods One-hundred-fifty extracted mandibular third molars were collected randomly from different dental clinics in Kerman. The root canal anatomy and morphology of each tooth was carefully studied using a clearing tech-nique. Root number and morphology, number of canals per root, root canal configuration according to Vertucci classifica-tion, and incidence of dilacerated roots and C-shaped canals in mandibular third molars were evaluated under stereomicro-scope with ×2 to ×3 magnifications. Results From the total of 150 mandibular third molars studied, 21% had one root. The majority of teeth (73%) had two roots. 5.5% of the teeth had three roots. The incidence of C-shaped canal was 3.5% in this study and 8% of the teeth had at least one dilacerated root. Conclusion Although root canal anatomy and morphology of mandibular third molars is very variable having two roots seems to be the normal anatomy for these teeth. PMID:22991643

  12. In vitro comparison of passive and continuous ultrasonic irrigation in curved root canals

    PubMed Central

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Varela-Patiño, Purificación; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Domínguez-Perez, Ana; Ruíz-Piñón, Manuel; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy of endodontic irrigation procedures can be compromised by the complexity of the root canal system. Delivering irrigants to the apical third of curved canals presents a particular challenge to endodontists. This study compared the effects of two ultrasonic irrigation techniques on the penetration of sodium hypochlorite into the main canal and simulated lateral canals of curved roots in extracted teeth. Material and Methods Two sets of simulated lateral canals were created at 2, 4, and 6 mm from the working length in 60 single-rooted teeth (6 canals/tooth, n = 360 canals). The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental irrigation groups: group 1 (n = 20), positive pressure irrigation (PPI); group 2 (n = 20), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI); and group 3 (n = 20), continuous ultrasonic irrigation (CUI). To assess the irrigation solution penetration, 20% Chinese ink (Sanford Rotring GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) was added to a 5% sodium hypochlorite solution and delivered into the curved root canals. The penetration of contrast solution into the simulated lateral canals was scored by counting the number of lateral canals (0-2) penetrated to at least 50% of the total length. Results The CUI group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) irrigant penetration into the lateral canals and into the apical third of the main canals. The PPI group showed significantly lower sodium hypochlorite penetration (P < 0.001) into the main and lateral canals compared with that in the CUI and PUI groups. Significantly higher irrigant penetration was observed in the PUI group than the PPI group. Conclusions Using CUI as the final rinse significantly increased the penetration of irrigant solution into the simulated lateral canals and apical third of curved roots. Key words:Continuous ultrasonic irrigation, curved root canals, passive ultrasonic irrigation, positive pressure irrigation, root canal irrigation. PMID:27703613

  13. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Parul; Nikhil, Vineeta; Goyal, Ayush; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps. PMID:27563190

  14. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Parul; Nikhil, Vineeta; Goyal, Ayush; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps. PMID:27563190

  15. Effect of Intra-Orifice Depth on Sealing Ability of Four Materials in the Orifices of Root-Filled Teeth: An Ex-Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghulman, Motaz Ahmad; Gomaa, Madiha

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of orifice cavity depth on the sealing ability of Fusio, Fuji II, Fuji IX, and MTA“G”. Materials and Methods. Ninety-two canals in extracted mandibular premolars were prepared, obturated, and randomly grouped into 4 groups. Each group was subgrouped for a 2 mm and 3 mm orifice cavity depth (n = 10). The remaining roots were divided to serve as positive and negative controls (n = 6). Cavities of the 4 experimental groups were filled with the respective materials and subjected to methylene blue dye leakage. Linear leakage was measured in mm using a stereomicroscope. Statistical Analysis. Kruskall-Wallis test was used at P < 0.05, and t-test was done to compare 2 mm and 3 mm. Results. All tested materials leaked to various degrees. Significantly higher leakage score was found for Fuji IX, Fusio, Fuji II, and MTA “G” in a descending order, when the materials were placed at 3 mm depths. A significant difference was found in the leakage score between the 2 mm and 3 mm depths in all tested materials with the 3 mm depth showing a greater leakage score in all tested materials. Exception was in MTA “G” at 2 mm and 3 mm depths (0.551 mm ± 0.004 mm and 0.308 mm ± 0.08 mm, resp.). Conclusion. The null hypothesis should be partially rejected. Fusio and MTA “G” were affected by orifice cavity depth with regard to their sealing ability. MTA “G” had the least leakage when placed at 2 or 3 mm depths, and Fusio is the next when placed at 2 mm depth. Two millimeters orifice cavity depth is suitable for most adhesive orifice barrier materials. PMID:22675356

  16. Root filling bond strength using reciprocating file-matched single-cones with different sealers.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carla Cristina Camilo; Brito-Júnior, Manoel; Faria-E-Silva, André Luís; Pereira, Rodrigo Dantas; Silva-Sousa, Yara Terezinha; Cruz-Filho, Antônio Miranda; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2016-05-20

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bond strength (BS) of root canal fillings to root dentin using the reciprocating file-matched single-cone or lateral compaction techniques with resin-based and calcium-silicate-based sealers. Maxillary canine roots were prepared and filled using one of the following approaches: Reciproc R40 file and R40 single cone, WaveOne Large file and Large single cone, or ProTaper up to F4 file with lateral compaction. The root filling was performed using AH Plus, Epiphany SE or MTA Fillapex (n = 10). Three 1-mm-thick slices were obtained from each third of each root. Two slices were subjected to a push-out test, and the other slices were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the dentin-sealer interface. Data (in MPa) from the push-out tests were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Failure modes (adhesive, cohesive or mixed) were evaluated at ×25 magnification. The single-cone techniques resulted in lower BS values than the lateral compaction technique. For lateral compaction, AH Plus and Epiphany SE showed the highest and lowest BS values, respectively. Slight differences were observed between sealers when the single-cone techniques were used. A tendency to reduce the BS toward the apical third was observed. Adhesive failures were predominant for all experimental conditions. A closer adaption of the filling material on the root dentin was observed for the AH Plus and lateral compaction techniques. The Reciproc and WaveOne techniques were associated with lower BS values than the lateral compaction technique. However, the effect of the root canal filling technique appears to be sealer-dependent.

  17. Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Marginal Adaptation of Four Root-End Filling Materials in Presence and Absence of Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bolhari, Behnam; Ashofteh Yazdi, Kazem; Sharifi, Farnood; Pirmoazen, Salma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Biodentine and BioAggregate in presence of normal saline and human blood. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, 80 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. After resecting the root-end, apical cavity preparation was done and the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (N=20)(a total of 8 subgroups). Root-end filling materials were placed in 3mm root-end cavities prepared ultrasonically. Half the specimens in each group were exposed to normal saline and the other half to fresh whole human blood. After 4 days, epoxy resin replicas of the apical portion of samples were fabricated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to find gaps in the adaptation of the root-end filling materials at their interface with dentin. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis of data with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: There were no significant differences in marginal adaptation of the 8 tested groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results, blood contamination does not affect the marginal adaptation of MTA, CEM cement, Biodentine or BioAggregate. PMID:26622276

  18. Cytotoxicity of Two Bioactive Root Canal Sealers

    PubMed Central

    Pezelj-Ribaric, Sonja; Roguljić, Marija; Miletic, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of two different bioactive root canal sealers: one based on mineral trioxide aggregate, MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Solucoes Odontologicas, Londrina, PR, Brazil), and the other based on bioceramics, Endosequence BC Sealer (Brasseler, Savannah, Georgia, USA), in culture of mouse L929 fibroblasts. Materials and methods Mouse fibroblasts (L929), obtained from subcutaneous connective tissue of mouse line C3Hf, were cultivated in plastic culture flasks in an incubator at 37şC, with 5% CO2 and 90% humidity. Freshly mixed Endosequence BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex (0.1 g each) were placed on sterile teflon discs, 6 mm in diameter. Teflon discs with the materials as well as empty discs serving as control were placed in wells of 12-well plate. After incubation times of 1, 6, 20 and 24 hours, the teflon discs were removed from the wells and the number of viable cells was determined using trypan blue in Neubauer chamber. Results In comparison to the control group, MTA Fillapex had significantly less viable cells for all incubation periods (p≤0.05), while Endosequence BC sealer had significantly less viable cells after 6, 20, and 24 hours of incubation (p≤0.05). MTA Fillapex comprised significantly less viable cells in comparison to Endosequence BC sealer after the first hour and after 20 hours of incubation (p≤0.05), while for the other incubation periods there were no significant differences (p≥0.05). Conclusion MTA Fillapex and Endosequence BC sealer were both cytotoxic in cultures of mouse L929 fibroblasts.

  19. Cytotoxicity of Two Bioactive Root Canal Sealers

    PubMed Central

    Pezelj-Ribaric, Sonja; Roguljić, Marija; Miletic, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of two different bioactive root canal sealers: one based on mineral trioxide aggregate, MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Solucoes Odontologicas, Londrina, PR, Brazil), and the other based on bioceramics, Endosequence BC Sealer (Brasseler, Savannah, Georgia, USA), in culture of mouse L929 fibroblasts. Materials and methods Mouse fibroblasts (L929), obtained from subcutaneous connective tissue of mouse line C3Hf, were cultivated in plastic culture flasks in an incubator at 37şC, with 5% CO2 and 90% humidity. Freshly mixed Endosequence BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex (0.1 g each) were placed on sterile teflon discs, 6 mm in diameter. Teflon discs with the materials as well as empty discs serving as control were placed in wells of 12-well plate. After incubation times of 1, 6, 20 and 24 hours, the teflon discs were removed from the wells and the number of viable cells was determined using trypan blue in Neubauer chamber. Results In comparison to the control group, MTA Fillapex had significantly less viable cells for all incubation periods (p≤0.05), while Endosequence BC sealer had significantly less viable cells after 6, 20, and 24 hours of incubation (p≤0.05). MTA Fillapex comprised significantly less viable cells in comparison to Endosequence BC sealer after the first hour and after 20 hours of incubation (p≤0.05), while for the other incubation periods there were no significant differences (p≥0.05). Conclusion MTA Fillapex and Endosequence BC sealer were both cytotoxic in cultures of mouse L929 fibroblasts. PMID:27688421

  20. Retreatability of Root Canals Obturated Using Gutta-Percha with Bioceramic, MTA and Resin-Based Sealers

    PubMed Central

    Uzunoglu, Emel; Yilmaz, Zeliha; Sungur, Derya Deniz; Altundasar, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the retreatability of root canals obturated with gutta-percha (GP) and three different endodontic sealers [iRoot SP (bioceramic sealer), MTA Fillapex (MTA-based sealer) and AH-26 (epoxy resin-based sealer)] using the ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR) system. Methods and Materials: Forty extracted single-rooted human teeth were prepared with universal ProTaper files up to F4 (40/0.06). Specimens were randomly divided into four groups according to obturation technique/material: single-cone GP/AH-26, lateral compaction of GP/AH-26, single-cone GP/iRoot SP, and single-cone GP/MTA Fillapex. Root fillings were removed with PTR. The time taken to reach the working-length (TWL) was recorded. Roots were longitudinally sectioned and each half was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Three observers scored each third of all specimen. Obtained data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Welch and Games-Howell tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: In single-cone GP/MTA Fillapex group the TWL was significantly shorter. The remnant of filling material in the apical and middle thirds of groups was similar and higher than the coronal thirds. Conclusion: None of the tested sealers were completely removed from the root canal system. PMID:25834591

  1. Recontamination of coronally unsealed root canals medicated with camphorated paramonochlorophenol or calcium hydroxide pastes after saliva challenge.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, J F; Lopes, H P; de Uzeda, M

    1998-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the ability of some medications to prevent recontamination of coronally unsealed root canals by bacteria from saliva. The medications tested were camphorated paramonochlorophenol (CPMC) applied in cotton pellets in the pulp chamber; calcium hydroxide/saline solution paste filling the root canal; and calcium hydroxide/CPMC/glycerin paste also filling the root canal. Medicated canals were exposed to saliva, and the number of days required for total recontamination to occur was recorded. Canals medicated with CPMC in cotton pellets were thoroughly recontaminated within an average of 6.9 days. Canals filled with calcium hydroxide/saline solution and calcium hydroxide/CPMC/glycerin showed entire recontamination within an average of 14.7 and 16.5 days, respectively. Calcium hydroxide pastes were significantly more effective than CPMC (p < 0.05). PMID:9487858

  2. IS GUTTACORE MORE EASILY REMOVED FROM THE ROOT CANAL THAN THERMAFIL? AN EX-VIVO STUDY.

    PubMed

    Nevares, Giselle; de Albuquerque, Diana Santana; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches

    2015-01-01

    GuttaCore is a new cross-linked gutta-percha carrier. Its handling time and ease of removal were compared with those of a plastic carrier (Thermafil) and the continuous wave of condensation technique (control). Forty-five maxillary central incisors were randomly divided 3 groups according to filling technique and retreatment was carried out in all samples with NiTi rotary files, hand files and ultrasonic inserts. Time required for filling removal was recorded. Roots were then split longitudinally and photographed under 5x magnification, and residual filling material was quantified. Removal time was significantly longer for Thermafil (7.10 minutes) than GuttaCore (2.91 minutes) and the control group (1.93 minutes) (p < 0.001). The amount of residual filling material did not differ among the groups: Thermafil 8.31%, GuttaCore 6.27 and control 8.68% (p > 0.05). In conclusion, replacing plastic core with cross-linked gutta-percha allows easier removal of carrier from the root canal. The remnants of filling material in all samples illustrate that retreatment remains a challenge in endodontics.

  3. Rigidity and retention of carbon fibre versus stainless steel root canal posts.

    PubMed

    Purton, D G; Love, R M

    1996-07-01

    Two of the main requirements of a root canal post are that it is rigid so as to resist flexing under functional load, and that it is well retained in the root. This study compared these properties in two different 1-mm diameter root canal posts--smooth carbon fibre posts (Endopost) and serrated stainless steel posts (Parapost). Ten posts of each type were tested for rigidity in a three-point bend test. Ten posts of each type were cemented with resin cement into the roots of endodontically treated, extracted teeth. The tensile force required to remove the posts was recorded. The Paraposts proved to be significantly more rigid under load (P < 0.001) and significantly more strongly retained in the tooth roots (P < 0.005). The Parapost appears to be a mechanically superior post for the restoration of root-filled teeth with narrow diameter root canals. PMID:9206443

  4. The effect of different root canal medicaments on the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dammaschke, Till; Jung, Nina; Harks, Inga; Schafer, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine gel (CHX-G) 2%, chlorhexidine powder (CHX-P) 1%, povidone-iodine (PVP-I), polyhexanide and camphorated-and-mentholated chlorophenol (ChKM) ex vivo. Materials and Methods: For every medicament group 10 root segments (15 mm long) of extracted human teeth were prepared to ISO-size 45 and sterilized (n = 50). The root segments were then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and aerobically incubated at 37°C. After 1 week, ten root canals were filled with one of the medicaments, respectively and aerobically incubated at 37°C for another week. Ten teeth served as positive controls and were filled with sterile saline solution. After 7 days, the medicaments were inactivated and all root canals were instrumented to ISO-size 50. The obtained dentin samples were dispersed in Ringer solution followed by the preparation of serial dilutions. 10 μl per sample were applied to an agar plate and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The colony forming units were counted and the reduction factors (RFs) were calculated and statistically analyzed. Results: Compared with the positive controls all medicaments exhibited an antibacterial effect against E. faecalis. The RFs for CHX-G, CHX-P and ChKM were significantly higher compared to PVP-I and polyhexanide (P < 0.05). In contrast to PVP-I and polyhexanide, CHX-G, CHX-P and ChKM were able to eliminate E. faecalis from all dentin samples. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this ex vivo investigation, 2% CHX-G and CHX-P were as effective as ChKM against E. faecalis. Thus, when choosing a root canal medicament the better biocompatibility of CHX compared with ChKM should be taken in consideration. PMID:24932119

  5. Conservative Management of Unset Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Root-End Filling: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Parirokh, Masoud; Farzaneh, Sedigheh; Hallajmofrad, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    This case report presents conservative management of unset mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) after being placed as a root-end filling material following periapical surgery. Periapical surgery was indicated for a maxillary lateral incisor of a 15-year-old male due to persistent exudate and a large periapical lesion. During surgery Angelus MTA was placed as root-end filling. The next session it was noticed that MTA had failed to completely set. In an orthograde approach, calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was used to obturate the root canal space. The patient was followed up for 27 months and did not exhibit any clinical signs and symptoms. Radiographic images showed complete healing of the lesion. PMID:27471540

  6. A comparison in vitro of two ultrasonic root canal preparation techniques.

    PubMed

    Yap, S Y; Stock, C J

    1992-11-01

    Two ultrasonic techniques were compared for their ability to clean and shape root canals in extracted human teeth. One technique was recommended by the manufacturer (Cavi-Endo, Dentsply), while the other was a modification by the authors of the stepdown technique. Mesiobuccal root canals of molars were instrumented using these techniques, after which a silicone impression material was injected into the prepared canals. The roots were then split longitudinally and one half was stained for debris scoring while the silicone impressions were assessed for shape. The results showed that the modified technique produced significantly cleaner canals than the recommended technique. The shaping ability of both techniques was difficult to evaluate because of the complex morphology of molar root canals. The final shape of the prepared canal depended more on the initial shape than on the instrumentation technique. PMID:1306862

  7. Endodontic Management of Maxillary First Molar with Five Root Canals, Including Two Distobuccal Root Canals: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Sinha, Ashish Amit; Prakash, Prem; Jaiswal, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Multiple canals in the root are part of the normal morphology of the tooth. A canal may sometimes be overlooked, however, and this may lead to failure of treatment. The first step in successful endodontic treatment, therefore, is gaining access to the pulp chamber and locating all the canals. In order to achieve this goal, practitioners need to be familiar with all possible variations in root canal morphology, and should thoroughly explore roots to ensure that all canals are identified, debrided, and obturated. Here, we report the diagnosis, treatment planning, and endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with five root canals, including two distobuccal root canals, in a 22-year-old woman. PMID:26961335

  8. Deciduous Mandibular Second Molar with Supernumerary Roots and Root Canals Associated with Missing Mandibular Permanent Premolar

    PubMed Central

    Shafi, Shabina; Gambhir, Natasha; Rehani, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Morphological variations like additional roots and root canals in human deciduous dentition are rare. Knowledge of the morphology, variation of root and root canals of deciduous teeth are useful for successful endodontic treatment and exodontia. Presented here is a case report of the supernumerary roots and additional root canals of deciduous mandibular second molar (85) with congenitally bilateral missing of mandibular permanent second premolar (35 and 45) tooth bud.

  9. In vitro comparison of the biocompatibility of mineral trioxide aggregate, 4META/MMA-TBB resin, and intermediate restorative material as root-end-filling materials.

    PubMed

    Yoshimine, Yoshito; Ono, Makiko; Akamine, Akifumi

    2007-09-01

    This study compared the effects of three root-end-filling materials: mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (Super-bond), and intermediate restorative material (IRM) on osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and matrix formation. MC3T3-E1 cells were inoculated on set material specimens, and the number of cells adhered to each material was assessed at 6 hours and at 3 days of incubation by using Hoechst 33258 staining under a fluorescence microscope. Furthermore, on day 21 of culture, areas in contact with each material surface were observed at light and electron microscopic levels. Cultured cells that adhered to MTA and Super-bond proliferated significantly between 6 hours and 3 days of culture. In addition, on day 21, they produced a thick matrix layer directly on the material surfaces. In contrast, the number of cells that adhered to IRM significantly decreased with time. These cells appeared round in shape, and no matrix formation was found. These results suggest that MTA and Super-bond have good biocompatibility and allow hard-tissue forming cells to create a matrix layer, which might enhance apical tissue regeneration.

  10. Efficacy of laser-based irrigant activation methods in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities.

    PubMed

    Deleu, Ellen; Meire, Maarten A; De Moor, Roeland J G

    2015-02-01

    In root canal therapy, irrigating solutions are essential to assist in debridement and disinfection, but their spread and action is often restricted by canal anatomy. Hence, activation of irrigants is suggested to improve their distribution in the canal system, increasing irrigation effectiveness. Activation can be done with lasers, termed laser-activated irrigation (LAI). The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of different irrigant activation methods in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities. Twenty-five straight human canine roots were embedded in resin, split, and their canals prepared to a standardized shape. A groove was cut in the wall of each canal and filled with dentin debris. Canals were filled with sodium hypochlorite and six irrigant activation procedures were tested: conventional needle irrigation (CI), manual-dynamic irrigation with a tapered gutta percha cone (manual-dynamic irrigation (MDI)), passive ultrasonic irrigation, LAI with 2,940-nm erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser with a plain fiber tip inside the canal (Er-flat), LAI with Er:YAG laser with a conical tip held at the canal entrance (Er-PIPS), and LAI with a 980-nm diode laser moving the fiber inside the canal (diode). The amount of remaining debris in the groove was scored and compared among the groups using non-parametric tests. Conventional irrigation removed significantly less debris than all other groups. The Er:YAG with plain fiber tip was more efficient than MDI, CI, diode, and Er:YAG laser with PIPS tip in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities.

  11. Effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on smear layer removal from the root canals: A scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Khalid; Masoodi, Ajaz; Nabi, Shahnaz; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Farooq, Riyaz; Purra, Aamir Rashid; Ahangar, Fayaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canals. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 mandibular premolars were decoronated to working the length of 12 mm and prepared with protaper rotary files up to size F3. Group A canals irrigated with 1 ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group B canals irrigated with 1 ml of 17% EDTA followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group C canals lased with a diode laser. Group D canals were initially irrigated with 0.8 ml of 17% EDTA the remaining 0.2 ml was used to fill the root canals, and diode laser application was done. Group E canals were irrigated with 1 ml distilled water with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group F canals were irrigated with 1 ml EDTA with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Scanning electron microscope examination of canals was done for remaining smear layer at coronal middle and apical third levels. Results: Ultrasonics with EDTA had the least smear layer scores. Conclusion: Diode laser alone performed significantly better than ultrasonics. PMID:27656060

  12. Effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on smear layer removal from the root canals: A scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Khalid; Masoodi, Ajaz; Nabi, Shahnaz; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Farooq, Riyaz; Purra, Aamir Rashid; Ahangar, Fayaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canals. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 mandibular premolars were decoronated to working the length of 12 mm and prepared with protaper rotary files up to size F3. Group A canals irrigated with 1 ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group B canals irrigated with 1 ml of 17% EDTA followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group C canals lased with a diode laser. Group D canals were initially irrigated with 0.8 ml of 17% EDTA the remaining 0.2 ml was used to fill the root canals, and diode laser application was done. Group E canals were irrigated with 1 ml distilled water with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group F canals were irrigated with 1 ml EDTA with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Scanning electron microscope examination of canals was done for remaining smear layer at coronal middle and apical third levels. Results: Ultrasonics with EDTA had the least smear layer scores. Conclusion: Diode laser alone performed significantly better than ultrasonics.

  13. Influence of root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques on intra-operative pain during endodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Martín-González, Jenifer; Echevarría-Pérez, Marta; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; Tarilonte-Delgado, Maria L.; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; López-Frías, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the influence of root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques on intra-operative pain experienced by patients during endodontic therapy. Method and Materials: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Ponferrada and Sevilla, Spain, including 80 patients (46 men and 34 women), with ages ranged from 10 to 74 years, randomly recruited. Patient gender and age, affected tooth, pulpal diagnosis, periapical status, previous NSAID or antibiotic (AB) treatment, and root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques were recorded. After root canal treatment (RCT), patients completed a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) that ranked the level of pain. Results were analysed statistically using the Chi-square and ANOVA tests and logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean pain level during root canal treatment was 2.9 ± 3.0 (median = 2) in a VAS between 0 and 10. Forty percent of patients experienced no pain. Gender, age, arch, previous NSAIDs or AB treatment and anaesthetic type did not influence significantly the pain level (p > 0.05). Pain during root canal treatment was significantly greater in molar teeth (OR = 10.1; 95% C.I. = 1.6 - 63.5; p = 0.013). Root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques did not affect significantly patient’s pain during root canal treatment (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Patients feel more pain when RCT is carried out on molar teeth. The root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques do not affect significantly the patients’ pain during RCT. Key words:Anaesthesia, endodontic pain, pulpitis, root canal instrumentation, root canal obturation, rotary files. PMID:22549694

  14. Root canal treatment of a maxillary first premolar with three roots

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Josey; Devadathan, Aravindan; Syriac, Gibi; Shamini, Sai

    2015-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment needs a thorough knowledge of both internal and external anatomy of a tooth. Variations in root canal anatomy constitute an impressive challenge to the successful completion of endodontic treatment. Undetected extra roots and canals are a major reason for failed root canal treatment. Three separate roots in a maxillary first premolar have a very low incidence of 0.5–6%. Three rooted premolars are anatomically similar to molars and are sometimes called “small molars or radiculous molars.” This article explains the diagnosis and endodontic management of a three rooted maxillary premolar with separate canals in each root highlighting that statistics may indicate a low incidence of abnormal variations in root canal morphology of a tooth, but aberrant anatomy is a possibility in any tooth. Hence, modern diagnostics like cone beam computed tomography, and endodontic operating microscope may have to be used more for predictable endodontic treatment. PMID:26538958

  15. Root canal instruments are poorly standardized.

    PubMed

    Stenman, E; Spångberg, L S

    1993-07-01

    In an earlier study we demonstrated that root canal instruments vary greatly in their effectiveness in removing substrates. To further analyze the reason for this variation of results, the dimensions of the instruments used were considered of interest as their matching effectiveness may be size dependent. Nine different brands of Hedstrom files, seven brands of K files, and four brands of special files were examined. The measurements were done in a computerized measuring microscope and the data were compared with earlier reported data on machining. Although the dimensions of the instruments varied greatly, no correlation could be found between the machining and dimensions. Only one brand of files was completely within allowable size range. PMID:8245754

  16. Alternative techniques in root canal debridement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luca, Ruxandra; Todea, Carmen; Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Nica, Luminita; Armani, Giacomo; Locovei, Cosmin

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that conventional chemo-mechanical preparation is limited regarding the decontamination of the endodontic space, which is why alternative techniques such as laser radiation have their importance in the modern endodontic treatment. The present study aims to assess the possibility of improving the debridement of the root canals by removing smear layer using Er: YAG laser radiation. We used 18 extracted teeth, which were subjected to the same initial protocol and then divided into 5 study groups: the control group has not been treated with laser; the other 4 groups were exposed to laser radiation using two different geometries peaks of quartz and two energy levels. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed an increased efficiency in the debridement of all interested areas when using PIPS and XPulse tips at proper energy. In the two groups treated with inferior laser energy, the debridement didn't prove to be superior to the conventional treatment.

  17. A comparative evaluation of the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation in curved root canals by three rotary systems: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Prasanthi, Nalam NVD; Rambabu, Tanikonda; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, K Madhu; Satish, R Kalyan; Padmaja, M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation after biomechanical preparation at 1, 3, and 5 mm short of the apex with three different rotary systems in both continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary motions. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with mesial root canal curvatures between 20° and 30° were included in the study. Teeth were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 20). Biomechanical preparations were done in all the mesial canals. In Group 1, instrumentation was done with ProTaper universal rotary files, Group 2, with K3XF rotary files, and Group 3, with LSX rotary files. Each group was further subdivided into subgroups A and B (n = 10) where instrumentation was done by continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques, respectively. Increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation was measured using the preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey pairwise multiple comparison tests. Results: Increase in root canal surface area was significantly more (P < 0.05) in ProTaper and K3XF groups when compared to LSX group. Canal transportation was significantly more (P < 0.05) in ProTaper group when compared to K3XF and LSX groups. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in increase of root canal surface area and canal transportation between continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques for ProTaper Universal, K3XF and LSX groups. Conclusion: LSX rotary system showed minimal increase of root canal surface area and minimal canal transportation when compared to ProTaper and K3XF rotary systems.

  18. A comparative evaluation of the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation in curved root canals by three rotary systems: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Prasanthi, Nalam NVD; Rambabu, Tanikonda; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, K Madhu; Satish, R Kalyan; Padmaja, M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation after biomechanical preparation at 1, 3, and 5 mm short of the apex with three different rotary systems in both continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary motions. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with mesial root canal curvatures between 20° and 30° were included in the study. Teeth were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 20). Biomechanical preparations were done in all the mesial canals. In Group 1, instrumentation was done with ProTaper universal rotary files, Group 2, with K3XF rotary files, and Group 3, with LSX rotary files. Each group was further subdivided into subgroups A and B (n = 10) where instrumentation was done by continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques, respectively. Increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation was measured using the preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey pairwise multiple comparison tests. Results: Increase in root canal surface area was significantly more (P < 0.05) in ProTaper and K3XF groups when compared to LSX group. Canal transportation was significantly more (P < 0.05) in ProTaper group when compared to K3XF and LSX groups. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in increase of root canal surface area and canal transportation between continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques for ProTaper Universal, K3XF and LSX groups. Conclusion: LSX rotary system showed minimal increase of root canal surface area and minimal canal transportation when compared to ProTaper and K3XF rotary systems. PMID:27656062

  19. Evaluation of Root Canal Preparation Using Rotary System and Hand Instruments Assessed by Micro-Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Muhaxheri, Edmond

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete mechanical preparation of the root canal system is rarely achieved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files using micro-computed tomography. Material/Methods Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and divided into 2 groups of 30 teeth each. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-computed tomography. Thirty teeth were prepared with the ProTaper system and the other 30 with stainless steel files. After preparation, the untouched surface and root canal straightening were evaluated with micro-computed tomography. The percentage of untouched root canal surface was calculated in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. We also calculated straightening of the canal after root canal preparation. Results from the 2 groups were statistically compared using the Minitab statistical package. Results ProTaper rotary files left less untouched root canal surface compared with manual preparation in coronal, middle, and apical sector (p<0.001). Similarly, there was a statistically significant difference in root canal straightening after preparation between the techniques (p<0.001). Conclusions Neither manual nor rotary techniques completely prepared the root canal, and both techniques caused slight straightening of the root canal. PMID:26092929

  20. Clinical microscopic analysis of ProTaper retreatment system efficacy considering root canal thirds using three endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; De Figueiredo, Jose Antônio Poli; Freitas Fachin, Elaine Vianna; Húngaro Duarte, Marco Antônio; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Da Rosa, Ricardo Abreu

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system and the influence of sealer type on the presence of filling debris in the reinstrumented canals viewed in an operative clinical microscope. Forty-five palatal root canals of first molars were filled with gutta-percha and one of the following sealers: G1, EndoFill; G2, AH Plus; G3, Sealapex. The canals were then reinstrumented with ProTaper Universal rotary system. Roots were longitudinally sectioned and examined under an operative clinical microscope (10×), and the amount of filling debris on canal walls was analyzed using the AutoCAD 2004 software. A single operator used a specific software tool to outline the canal area and the filling debris area in each third (cervical, middle, and apical), as well as the total canal area. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Tukey test at P < 0.05. Sealapex demonstrated significant differences in the average of filling debris area/canal among the 3 thirds. This group revealed that apical third showed more debris than the both cervical and middle third (P < 0.0001). Endofill presented significantly more filling debris than Sealapex in the cervical third (P < 0.05). In the middle (P = 0.12) and apical third (P = 0.10), there were no differences amongst groups. Debris was left in all canal thirds, regardless of the retreatment technique. The greatest differences between techniques and sealers were found in the cervical third.

  1. Does MTA affect fiber post retention in repaired cervical root canal perforations?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rodrigo Dantas; Brito-Júnior, Manoel; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Guimarães, Karine Rodrigues; Mendes, Laís de Oliveira; Soares, Carlos José; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2016-06-14

    This study evaluated the effect of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on the retention of fiber posts in repaired root canal perforations. Ten-millimeter post spaces were prepared in 60 endodontically treated bovine incisors. Root perforations were created in half of the root canals in the cervical area prior to being filled with white MTA-Angelus. Fiber posts were luted into the root canals with two self-adhesive (RelyX Unicem or Set) or self-etching (Panavia F) resin cements. The posts were submitted to a pull-out test, and the data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05). The fiber posts exhibited reduced retention in MTA-repaired root canal perforations, regardless of the type of resin cement that was used (p < 0.001). Self-adhesive resin cements provided higher bond strength values than Panavia F, while no difference was observed between RelyX Unicem and Set (p > 0.05). The presence of MTA in repaired root perforations negatively affected post retention. In addition, self-adhesive cements seemed to be the best option to lute fiber posts within a root canal in these cases.

  2. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  3. Mandibular Second Molar with a Single Root and a Single Canal: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Anna; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Suresh, Nandhini

    2013-01-01

    The variability of root canal system morphology of multirooted teeth represents a continuous challenge to endodontic diagnosis and therapeutics. This report extends the range of known possible anatomical variations to include teeth with lesser number of root and root canals. Variations of root canal systems need not always be in the form of extra canals. Clinicians should be aware that there is a possibility of existence of fewer number of roots and root canals than the normal root canal anatomy. Thus the aim of this article is to present three cases of endodontically managed mandibular second molars with a single root and root canal. PMID:24392427

  4. Modeling and measurement of root canal using stereo digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Mostafa; Krisnamurthy, Satthya; Brown, Cecil

    2000-04-01

    Determining root canal length is a crucial step in success of root canal treatment. Root canal length is commonly estimated based on pre-operation intraoral radiography. 2D depiction of a 3D object is the primary source of error in this approach. Techniques based on impedance measurement are more accurate than radiographic approaches, but do not offer a method for depicting the shape of canal. In this study, we investigated a stererotactic approach for modeling and measurement of root canal of human dentition. A weakly perspective model approximated the projectional geometry. A series of computer-simulated objects was used to test accuracy of this model as the first step. The, to assess the clinical viability of such an approach, endodontic files inserted in the root canal phantoms were fixed on an adjustable platform between a radiographic cone and an image receptor. Parameters of projection matrix were computed based on the relative positions of image receptors, focal spot, and test objects. Rotating the specimen platform from 0 to 980 degrees at 5-degree intervals set relative angulations for stereo images. Root canal is defined as the intersection of two surfaces defined by each projection. Computation of error for length measurement indicates that for angulations greater than 40 degrees the error is within clinically acceptable ranges.

  5. Dynamic intratubular biomineralization following root canal obturation with pozzolan‐based mineral trioxide aggregate sealer cement

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yeon‐Jee; Baek, Seung‐Ho; Kum, Kee‐Yeon; Shon, Won‐Jun; Woo, Kyung‐Mi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The application of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) cement during the root canal obturation is gaining concern due to its bioactive characteristic to form an apatite in dentinal tubules. In this regard, this study was to assess the biomineralization of dentinal tubules following root canal obturation by using pozzolan‐based (Pz‐) MTA sealer cement (EndoSeal MTA, Maruchi). Sixty curved roots (mesiobuccal, distobuccal) from human maxillary molars were instrumented and prepared for root canal obturation. The canals were obturated with gutta‐percha (GP) and Pz‐MTA sealer by using continuous wave of condensation technique. Canals obturated solely with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental) or Pz‐MTA sealer were used for comparison. In order to evaluate the biomineralization ability under different conditions, the PBS pretreatment before the root canal obturation was performed in each additional samples. At dentin‐material interfaces, the extension of intratubular biomineralization was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. When the root canal was obturated with GP and Pz‐MTA sealer, enhanced biomineralization of the dentinal tubules beyond the penetrated sealer tag was confirmed under the SEM observation (p < 0.05). Mineralized apatite structures (calcium/phosphorous ratio, 1.45–1.89) connecting its way through the dentinal tubules were detected at 350–400 μm from the tubule orifice, and the pre‐crystallization seeds were also observed along the intra‐ and/or inter‐tubular collagen fiber. Intratubular biomineralization depth was significantly enhanced in all PBS pretreated canals (p < 0.05). Pz‐MTA cement can be used as a promising bioactive root canal sealer to enhance biomineralization of dentinal tubules under controlled environment. SCANNING 38:50–56, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Scanning Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26179659

  6. Dynamic intratubular biomineralization following root canal obturation with pozzolan-based mineral trioxide aggregate sealer cement.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Baek, Seung-Ho; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Shon, Won-Jun; Woo, Kyung-Mi; Lee, WooCheol

    2016-01-01

    The application of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) cement during the root canal obturation is gaining concern due to its bioactive characteristic to form an apatite in dentinal tubules. In this regard, this study was to assess the biomineralization of dentinal tubules following root canal obturation by using pozzolan-based (Pz-) MTA sealer cement (EndoSeal MTA, Maruchi). Sixty curved roots (mesiobuccal, distobuccal) from human maxillary molars were instrumented and prepared for root canal obturation. The canals were obturated with gutta-percha (GP) and Pz-MTA sealer by using continuous wave of condensation technique. Canals obturated solely with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental) or Pz-MTA sealer were used for comparison. In order to evaluate the biomineralization ability under different conditions, the PBS pretreatment before the root canal obturation was performed in each additional samples. At dentin-material interfaces, the extension of intratubular biomineralization was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. When the root canal was obturated with GP and Pz-MTA sealer, enhanced biomineralization of the dentinal tubules beyond the penetrated sealer tag was confirmed under the SEM observation (p < 0.05). Mineralized apatite structures (calcium/phosphorous ratio, 1.45-1.89) connecting its way through the dentinal tubules were detected at 350-400 μm from the tubule orifice, and the pre-crystallization seeds were also observed along the intra- and/or inter-tubular collagen fiber. Intratubular biomineralization depth was significantly enhanced in all PBS pretreated canals (p < 0.05). Pz-MTA cement can be used as a promising bioactive root canal sealer to enhance biomineralization of dentinal tubules under controlled environment.

  7. Reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of canal preparation

    PubMed Central

    Moshari, Amir Abbas; Akhlaghi, Nahid Mohammadzadeh; Rahimifard, Nahid; Darmiani, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of the canal preparation. Materials and Methods: Mandibular first molars (n = 103) with curved mesiobuccal canals were divided into one control (n = 5) and 7 experimental (n = 14) groups, were inoculated with E. faecalis (ATTC 29212) and prepared with the following RaCe files (FKG Dentaire) as master apical file: Groups: 25.04, 25.06, 30.04, 30.06, 35.04, 35.06 and 40.06. All the experimental groups were irrigated with 2 mL of 1% sodium hypochlorite during instrumentation and finally rinsed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (2 mL) followed by 5.25% NaOCl (2 mL) and sterile distilled water. Colony counting was performed after incubation. Statistical Analysis Used: Resulting data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test, (P < 0.05). Results and Conclusions: All the experimental groups showed significant bacterial reduction (P < 0.001). Although the greater the size/taper or both led to more decreased amount of bacteria, differences between the groups with the identical size and different tapers, and among the groups with the same taper and different sizes were not significant. Based on this study, 25.04 along with using 2 mL of 1% NaOCl during instrumentation, and using 17% EDTA and 5.25% NaOCl as final rinse successively after the termination of preparation, can effectively reduce intra-canal bacteria and preserve root structure. PMID:26180416

  8. Effect of Peracetic Acid as A Final Rinse on Push Out Bond Strength of Root Canal Sealers to Root Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Gaddala, Naresh; Veeramachineni, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    Background Smear layer which was formed during the instrumentation of root canals hinders the penetration of root canal sealers to root dentin and affect the bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. Final irrigant such as demineralizing agents are used to remove the inorganic portion of the smear layer. In the present study, peracetic acid used as a final rinse, to effect the bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. Aim The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of peracetic acid as a final irrigant on bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. Materials and Methods Sixty six freshly extracted human single rooted mandibular premolars were used for this study. After decoronation the samples were instrumented with Protaper upto F3 and irrigated with 5.25% NaOcl. The teeth were then divided into three groups based on final irrigant used: Group-1(control group) Canals were irrigated with distilled water. Group-2: Canals were irrigated with peracetic acid. Group-3: Canals were irrigated with smear clear. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (n=30) based on the sealer used to obturate the canals. Subgroup-1: kerr, Subgroup-2: Apexit plus, Subgroup-3: AH PLUS. Each sealer was mixed and coated to master cone and placed in the canal. The bonding between sealer and dentin surface was evaluated using push out bond strength by universal testing machine. The mean bond strength values of each group were statistically evaluated using Two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc test. Results Significant difference was found among the bond strength of the sealers. But, there is no statistically significant difference between the groups irrigated with peracetic acid and smear clear compared to control group. AH Plus showed highest bond strength irrespective of the final irrigant used. Conclusion Peracetic acid when employed as final irrigant improved the bond strength of root canal sealers compared to control group but

  9. [Step-back method for intracanal preparation with multiple length determination of the tooth root canal].

    PubMed

    Tamarut, T; Blasković, V; Cindrić, N; Maricić, B

    1989-01-01

    A procedure of intracanal preparation of a cuneiform with cervical extension using a step-back technique is described. The length of the root canal is determined by multiple electric measurement. First, the initial measurement of the canal length (I1) is performed. The measured length is then transferred to the initial extender (No. 15), whereafter extirpation of the pulp and removal of circumpulpal dentin begin. Then the extender NO. 20 is reduced by 1 mm, and the extender No. 25 by 2 mm. When the canal have been narrowed and bent, further extenders are used to additionally reduce the working length by 1 mm more. When the pulp has been extirpated, the second canal length measurement (12) is performed, then starting to form the canal. In phase 1, the apical third from the initial (IAF) to the leading file (MAF) is treated and the cervical extension of the canal prepared by a bur drill. In further instrumentation, each next file is reduced by 1 mm of the measured canal length (12), thus shaping the canal by filling, using a step-back method. Files according to Hedström should be used thereby. Shaping of the canal is completed by a file by four numbers greater than the leading (MAF) one.

  10. Various Strategies for Pain-Free Root Canal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Parirokh, Masoud; V. Abbott, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Achieving successful anesthesia and performing pain-free root canal treatment are important aims in dentistry. This is not always achievable and therefore, practitioners are constantly seeking newer techniques, equipments, and anesthetic solutions for this very purpose. The aim of this review is to introduce strategies to achieve profound anesthesia particularly in difficult cases. Materials and Methods: A review of the literature was performed by electronic and hand searching methods for anesthetic agents, techniques, and equipment. The highest level of evidence based investigations with rigorous methods and materials were selected for discussion. Results: Numerous studies investigated to pain management during root canal treatment; however, there is still no single technique that will predictably provide profound pulp anesthesia. One of the most challenging issues in endodontic practice is achieving a profound anesthesia for teeth with irreversible pulpitis especially in mandibular posterior region. Conclusion: According to most investigations, achieving a successful anesthesia is not always possible with a single technique and practitioners should be aware of all possible alternatives for profound anesthesia. PMID:24396370

  11. Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Mandibular Premolars in Iranian Population: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinpour, Sepanta; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Khayat, Akbar; Naseri, Mandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is essential for clinicians to have knowledge about root canal configuration, although its morphology varies largely in different ethnicities and even in different individuals within the same ethnic group. The current study reviewed the root canal configuration of root canals in mandibular first and second premolars among Iranian population based on independent epidemiological studies. Methods and Materials: A comprehensive search was conducted on retrieved articles related to root canal configuration and prevalence of each types of root canal in mandibular premolars based on Vertucci’s classification. An electronic search was conducted in Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar from January 1984 to September 2015. Results: In eleven studies conducted in eight provinces, 1644 mandibular first premolars and 1268 second premolars were investigated. Within mandibular first premolars, 70.9% were Vertucci's type I, followed by 10.4% type III, 7.18% type IV, 5.23% type II and 5.16% type V. In addition, among mandibular second premolars, 82.86% were type I, 6.25 type III, 5.32% type II, 4.27% type IV, and 0.69% type V. Conclusion: These results highlight the necessity of searching for additional possible root canals by clinicians. Moreover, these results indicated the ethnical characteristics of Iranian population regarding the morphology of mandibular premolars compared to other populations. PMID:27471522

  12. Early resin luting material damage around a circular fiber post in a root canal treated premolar by using micro-computerized tomographic and finite element sub-modeling analyses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lee, Hao; Lin, Chun-Li

    2015-11-01

    This study utilizes micro-computerized tomographic (micro-CT) and finite element (FE) sub-modeling analyses to investigate the micro-mechanical behavior associated with voids/bubbles stress behavior at the luting material layer to understand the early damage in a root canal treated premolar. 3-dimensional finite element (FE) models of a macro-root canal treated premolar and two sub-models at the luting material layer to provide the void/bubble distribution and dimensions were constructed from micro-CT images and simulated to receive axial and lateral forces. The boundary conditions for the sub-models were determined from the macro-premolar model results and applied in sub-modeling analysis. The first principal stresses for the dentin, luting material layer and post in macro-premolar model and for luting material void/bubble in sub-models were recorded. The simulated results revealed that the macro-premolar model dramatically underestimated the luting material stress because the voids/bubbles at the adhesive layer cannot be captured due to coarse mesh and high stress gradient and the variations between sub- and macro-models ranging from 2.65 to 4.5 folds under lateral load at the mapping location. Stress concentrations were found at the edge of the voids/bubbles and values over 20 MPa in sub-modeling analysis immediately caused the luting material failure/micro-crack. This study establishes that micro-CT and FE sub-modeling techniques can be used to simulate the stress pattern at the micro-scale luting material layer in a root canal treated premolar, suggesting that attention must be paid to resin luting material initial failure/debonding when large voids/bubbles are generated during luting procedures. PMID:26253208

  13. Early resin luting material damage around a circular fiber post in a root canal treated premolar by using micro-computerized tomographic and finite element sub-modeling analyses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lee, Hao; Lin, Chun-Li

    2015-11-01

    This study utilizes micro-computerized tomographic (micro-CT) and finite element (FE) sub-modeling analyses to investigate the micro-mechanical behavior associated with voids/bubbles stress behavior at the luting material layer to understand the early damage in a root canal treated premolar. 3-dimensional finite element (FE) models of a macro-root canal treated premolar and two sub-models at the luting material layer to provide the void/bubble distribution and dimensions were constructed from micro-CT images and simulated to receive axial and lateral forces. The boundary conditions for the sub-models were determined from the macro-premolar model results and applied in sub-modeling analysis. The first principal stresses for the dentin, luting material layer and post in macro-premolar model and for luting material void/bubble in sub-models were recorded. The simulated results revealed that the macro-premolar model dramatically underestimated the luting material stress because the voids/bubbles at the adhesive layer cannot be captured due to coarse mesh and high stress gradient and the variations between sub- and macro-models ranging from 2.65 to 4.5 folds under lateral load at the mapping location. Stress concentrations were found at the edge of the voids/bubbles and values over 20 MPa in sub-modeling analysis immediately caused the luting material failure/micro-crack. This study establishes that micro-CT and FE sub-modeling techniques can be used to simulate the stress pattern at the micro-scale luting material layer in a root canal treated premolar, suggesting that attention must be paid to resin luting material initial failure/debonding when large voids/bubbles are generated during luting procedures.

  14. Synergistic growth effect among bacteria recovered from root canal infections

    PubMed Central

    Moreira Júnior, Gil; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino; Bambirra, Bernardo Henrique Silva; Bambirra, Felipe Henrique Silva; Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Farias, Luiz Macedo; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Moreira, Elizabeth Spangler

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ecological relationships between bacterial species that colonize infected root canals. Root canal bacteria recovered from one patient with pulp canal necrosis were evaluated in vitro for synergistic and antagonistic activities determined by mono and co-culture growth kinetics and the production of bacteriocin-like substances using the double layer diffusion method. Peptostreptococcus prevotii triggered a significant increase of Fusobacterium nucleatum growth, while the former bacteria did not affect the growth of P. prevotii. The bacterial species did not produce antagonism activity against itself or against any of the other two species. Despite many studies have demonstrated the capability of root canal microorganisms to produce antagonistic substances, these in vitro experimental tests show the synergistic effect of P. prevotii on the growth of F. nucleatum. PMID:24031714

  15. Shaping Ability of the Fifth Generation Ni-Ti Rotary Systems for Root Canal Preparation in Curved Root Canals using Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepak; Medha, Ashish; Patil, Neelam; Kadam, Nilam; Yadav, Vandana; Jagadale, Harshal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various root canal systems are available commercially with each manufacturer stating superior characteristics of their respective systems. The fifth generation root canal systems claim to have better flexibility and superior debris elimination due to their offset design. This study aims to compare the effects of fifth generation rotary systems on canal curvature, transportation and centering ratio of curved mesial root canals of mandibular molar via cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging. Materials and Methods: With curvature ranging from 20° to 40°, 60 mandibular first molars with mesiobuccal root angle were divided into three groups with 20 canals each. Before instrumentation, the groups were balanced with respect to the angle of canal curvature based on CBCT images taken. All root canals were shaped to an apical size of 25: OneShape (OS) (Micro Mega, Besancon, France), ProTaper Next (PTN) (Dentsply Maillefer), Revo S (RS) (Micro Mega, Besancon, France). CBCT assessment was done post instrumentation. SPSS version 16 software was used for statistical analysis. The significance level was set at P = 0.05. Results: The RS system maintained better canal centricity and less transportation as compared to PTN and OS. There was no significant difference among the three groups in canal curvature after instrumentation. Conclusions: All file systems used straightened the root canal curvature similarly. RS instrumentation exhibited superior performance compared with the OS and PTN systems with respect to transportation and centering ratio. PMID:26225107

  16. The effect of chloroform, orange oil and eucalyptol on root canal transportation in endodontic retreatment.

    PubMed

    Karataş, Ertuğrul; Kol, Elif; Bayrakdar, İbrahim Şevki; Arslan, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of solvents on root canal transportation in endodontic retreatment. Sixty extracted human permanent mandibular first molars with curved root canals were selected. All of the root canals were prepared using Twisted File Adaptive instruments (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) using the cold lateral compaction technique. The teeth were assigned to four retreatment groups as follows (n = 15): eucalyptol, chloroform, orange oil and control. The canals were scanned using cone-beam computed tomography scanning before and after instrumentation. The chloroform group showed a significantly higher mean transportation value than the orange oil and control groups at the 3 and 5 mm levels (P = 0.011 and P = 0.003, respectively). There was no significant difference among the orange oil, eucalyptol and control groups in terms of canal transportation (P > 0.61). The chloroform led to more canal transportation than the eucalyptol and orange oil during endodontic retreatment. PMID:26420757

  17. EVALUATION OF THE APICAL INFILTRATION AFTER ROOT CANAL DISRUPTION AND OBTURATION

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, João Eduardo; Hopp, Renato Nicolás; Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada; Nery, Mauro Juvenal; Otoboni, José Arlindo; Dezan, Elói

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two root canal filling techniques used in teeth that had their apical foramen disrupted and compare the apical infiltration with an ideal clinical situation. Twenty-seven freshly extracted single-rooted teeth were selected and radiographed to confirm the existence of a single and straight root canal. The crowns were removed at a mean distance of 11 mm from the apex. The teeth had the root canals instrumented and were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=9): ND group - root canals were filled using the lateral compaction technique and no disruption was performed; DRF group - the apical constriction was disrupted by advancing a #40 K-file 1 mm beyond the original working length, the canals were reinstrumented to create an apical ledge at 1 mm from the apical foramen and were obturated with a master gutta-percha cone with same size as the last file used for reinstrumentation; DF group - the teeth had the apical constriction disrupted and the canals were obturated with a master gutta-percha cone that fit at 1 mm from the apex. The teeth were submitted to dye leakage test with Rhodamine B for 7 days, using vaccum on the initial 5 min. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally and the leakage was measured in a linear fashion from apex to crown. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the groups that had the apical foramen disrupted (DF, DRF), but significant difference was found between the disrupted groups and the non-disrupted one (p<0.01). In conclusion, none of the evaluated techniques was able to prevent apical infiltration, so working length so the working length determination has to be established and maintained carefully. PMID:19089232

  18. Use of a new retrograde filling material (Biodentine) for endodontic surgery: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Caron, Grégory; Azérad, Jean; Faure, Marie-Odile; Machtou, Pierre; Boucher, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is considered at the present time as the gold standard for root-end filling in endodontic surgery. However, this biocompatible material presents several drawbacks such as a long setting time and handling difficulties. The aim of this article is to present a new commercialized calcium silicate-based material named Biodentine with physical improved properties compared to MTA in a clinical application. Two endodontic microsurgeries were performed by using specific armamentarium (microsurgical instrumentation, ultrasonic tips) under high-power magnification with an operatory microscope. Biodentine was used as a root-end filling in order to seal the root canal system. The two cases were considered completely healed at 1 year and were followed for one more year. The 2-year follow-up consolidated the previous observation with absence of clinical symptoms and radiographic evidence of regeneration of the periapical tissues.

  19. Mandibular lateral incisor with Vertucci Type IV root canal morphological system: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Kanika

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the root canal anatomy are commonly occurring phenomenon. A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy and its variation is necessary for successful completion of endodontic treatment. Mandibular anteriors are known for having extra canals. The role of genetics and racial variations may result in difference of incidence of root number and canal number. This paper attempts at explaining a rare case of successful endodontic management of two-rooted lateral incisor with awareness of data pertaining to number of canals, knowledge of canal morphology, correct radiographic interpretation, and tactile examination of canal wall which are important in detecting the presence of multiple canals. PMID:27003981

  20. Accessory roots and root canals in human anterior teeth: a review and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, H M A; Hashem, A A

    2016-08-01

    Anterior teeth may have aberrant anatomical variations in the number of roots and root canals. A review of the literature was conducted using appropriate key words in major endodontic journals to identify the available reported cases as well as experimental and clinical investigations on accessory roots and root canals in anterior teeth. After retrieving the full text of related articles, cross-citations were identified, and the pooled data were then discussed. Results revealed a higher prevalence in accessory root/root canal variations in mandibular anterior teeth than in maxillary counterparts. However, maxillary incisor teeth revealed the highest tendency for accessory root/root canal aberrations caused by anomalies such as dens invaginatus and palato-gingival groove. Primary anterior teeth may also exhibit external and internal anatomical variations in the root, especially maxillary canines. Therefore, dental practitioners should thoroughly assess all teeth scheduled for root canal treatment to prevent the undesirable consequences caused by inadequate debridement of accessory configurations of the root canal system. PMID:26174943

  1. Adhesive Approach Using Internal Coping for Vertical Root Fractured Teeth with Flared Root Canals.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Shuhei; Sekita, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Vertical root fractures are often observed in teeth with endodontic treatment and post space preparation. Frequently, because such teeth have flared root canals with thin dentin walls, conventional treatments are disadvantageous in terms of adhesiveness, sealability and risk of refracture. Here we devised an intentional replantation method that uses internal resin coping, with a reinforcing effect on thin root canal dentin. In two patients treated with this method, satisfactory conditions have been maintained. This report suggests that an intentional replantation method in which an internal resin coping is employed may be a useful therapy for fractured teeth with flared root canals.

  2. Adhesive Approach Using Internal Coping for Vertical Root Fractured Teeth with Flared Root Canals.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Shuhei; Sekita, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Vertical root fractures are often observed in teeth with endodontic treatment and post space preparation. Frequently, because such teeth have flared root canals with thin dentin walls, conventional treatments are disadvantageous in terms of adhesiveness, sealability and risk of refracture. Here we devised an intentional replantation method that uses internal resin coping, with a reinforcing effect on thin root canal dentin. In two patients treated with this method, satisfactory conditions have been maintained. This report suggests that an intentional replantation method in which an internal resin coping is employed may be a useful therapy for fractured teeth with flared root canals. PMID:26373031

  3. Endodontic treatment of a C-shaped mandibular second premolar with four root canals and three apical foramina: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Thikamphaa

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a unique C-shaped mandibular second premolar with four canals and three apical foramina and its endodontic management with the aid of cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT). C-shaped root canal morphology with four canals was identified under a dental operating microscope. A CBCT scan was taken to evaluate the aberrant root canal anatomy and devise a better instrumentation strategy based on the anatomy. All canals were instrumented to have a 0.05 taper using 1.0 mm step-back filing with appropriate apical sizes determined from the CBCT scan images and filled using a warm vertical compaction technique. A C-shaped mandibular second premolar with multiple canals is an anatomically rare case for clinicians, yet its endodontic treatment may require a careful instrumentation strategy due to the difficulty in disinfecting the canals in the thin root area without compromising the root structure. PMID:26877993

  4. Effect of gutta-percha solvents on fiberglass post bond strength to root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Orlando A; Chaves, Gustavo S; Alencar, Ana H G; Borges, Alvaro H; Estrela, Cyntia R A; Soares, Carlos J; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gutta-percha solvents on the bond strength of fiberglass post to root canal dentin. Forty bovine incisors were decoronated, prepared, filled, and randomly distributed into four groups (n = 10) according to the gutta-percha solvent used: control, xylene, eucalyptol and orange oil. After root canal treatment, the posts were cemented into the prepared root canals using a resin-based cement. A micro push-out test was executed, and the patterns of failure were assessed with microscopy. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. The control group exhibited greater bond strength compared to the eucalyptol group in the cervical and middle thirds of the root (P < 0.05); however, it did not differ significantly from the xylene and orange oil groups (P > 0.05). No difference was observed in the values of the xylene, orange oil, and eucalyptol groups (P > 0.05). The cervical third had higher values than the apical third for all tested solvents (P < 0.05). Adhesive failure between resin cement and dentin was the most frequent type of failure. The use of xylene and orange oil as gutta-percha solvents did not influence the bond strength of fiberglass posts to root canal dentin.

  5. Shaping Ability of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments in Curved Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Ali; Moradi, Saeed; Forghani, Maryam; Monajemzadeh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Disinfection and subsequent obturation of the root canal space require adequate mechanical enlargement of the canals. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the shaping ability of Mtwo, RaCe and Medin rotary instruments during the preparation of curved root canals. Materials and Methods Sixty mesiobuccal root canals of mandibular molars with severe curvatures between 25-35° and radius of 4-9 mm were randomly divided into three groups of 20 canals each. Using pre- and post-instrumentation radiographs, straightening of the canal and the apical transportation were determined with AutoCAD software. The data were analyzed using Chi square, analysis of variance, and post-hoc tests and the significance level was set at P<0.05. Results Mtwo instruments maintained the canal curvature significantly better than Race and Medin instruments (P<0.05). There was significant difference between the rotary instruments for iatrogenic transportation of the major foramen (P>0.05). Conclusions Under the conditions of this in vitro study, Mtwo instruments seemed superior to the two other rotary instruments. PMID:23717330

  6. Apical crown technique to model canal roots. A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tortini, D; Colombo, M; Gagliani, M

    2007-09-01

    The goals of endodontic therapy are to shape and clean the root canal system in order to receive a three-dimensional and hermetic filling of the entire endodontic space. The aim of this review is to analyze the development of the different canal shaping techniques from the manual stainless-steel instruments to the recently developed rotary Ni-Ti systems. The need to provide instruments of a suitable size to reach the apex of curved root canals drove the development of preparation techniques with a greater focus on the apical part. The Crown-Down technique involves the widening of the canal orifices with Gates-Glidden drills followed by the incremental removal of organic canal contents proceeding from the canal orifice to the apical portion using manual files. Files are used from larger to smaller with no apical pressure. Nevertheless, the term ''Crown-Down'' does not define the technique in the strictest sense, nor does it provide a specific sequence for the use of instruments, but rather defines a way to use the instruments. The preparation of root canals has been revolutionised by the development of Ni-Ti alloys. The features of this alloy give instruments profound flexibility and allow the manufacture of more tapered instruments compared with traditional stainless-steel instruments. In the second part of this review, numerous examples are provided concerning the comparison between different Ni-Ti systems and their techniques for use. A Crown-Down approach provides certain advantages including early organic debris removal, the creation of a large reservoir for irrigating solutions, a straighter access to the apical region of curved canals, and greater precision with regard to the exact working length and apical size.

  7. The comparison of microbial leakage in roots filled with resilon and gutta-percha: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shashidhar, C; Shivanna, Vasundhara; Shivamurthy, GB; Shashidhar, Jyothi

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective: The objective of this study was to compare bacterial leakage using streptococcus mutans through gutta-percha and a thermoplastic synthetic polymer based root canal filling material (Resilon) using two filling techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 single-rooted extracted human teeth were subjected for the study. Teeth were divided into 6 groups of 10 and 3 control groups of 10 teeth each. All the samples were decoronated and the coronal surfaces of the roots were prepared perpendicular to the long axis of the root with a high-speed handpiece and a multipurpose bur using air water spray. The length of all the roots was prepared approximately 16 mm from the coronal surface to the apex of the root. Roots were filled using lateral and vertical condensation techniques with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer (Group 1 and 2) or with gutta-percha and epiphany sealer (Group 3 and 4). Group 5 and 6 were filled with Resilon and epiphany sealer using the lateral and vertical condensation techniques. A split chamber microbial leakage model was used in which S. mutans placed in the upper chamber could reach the lower chamber only through the filled root canal. Group 7 and 8 (positive control) were filled with Resilon and gutta-percha without sealer and tested with bacteria, whereas Group 7 (negative control) was sealed with wax to test the seal between the chambers. Data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U test. Results: All positive groups (Group 7 and 8) showed leakage within 1 hour of the start of the study (100%), whereas none of the negative control (Group 9) leaked. The roots obturated with Resilon and epiphany (Group 5 and 6) showed minimal leakage, i.e., each with 6 leakages, which was significantly less than gutta-percha (Group 1–4), in which approximately 80% of specimens with either sealer or techniques leaked. Kruskal–Wallis test showed statistical significance when all groups were compared (P<0.05). Mann

  8. Variations in the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Mandibular First Molars in a Sri Lankan Population

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Roshan; Malwatte, Uthpala; Abayakoon, Janak; Wettasinghe, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the number of roots and morphology of the root canal system of permanent mandibular first molars (M1) in a Sri Lankan population. Sample of 529 M1 teeth was used. The number of roots was examined and the lengths of the mesial and distal roots were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. Vacuum injection protocol was used to inject China ink into the root canal system, making it transparent. Root canal morphology was recorded using Vertucci's classification. Presence of furcation canals, position of lateral canals, intercanal communications, level of bifurcation, and convergence of the root canal system were recorded. M1 showed three roots in 4.1% of the sample. Commonest root canal morphology of the mesial root was type IV and the distal root was type I. The level of bifurcation of the root canals was commonly observed in the cervical one-third of the root while convergence was observed in the apical one-third in both roots. Prevalence of three rooted mandibular first molars is less than 5%. Mesial root showed the most variable canal morphology. Prevalence of furcation canals was 1.5% while that of middle mesial canals was 0.2%. PMID:26351583

  9. Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Che Ab Aziz, Zeti A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioceramic-based root canal sealers are considered to be an advantageous technology in endodontics. The aim of this review was to consider laboratory experiments and clinical studies of these sealers. An extensive search of the endodontic literature was made to identify publications related to bioceramic-based root canal sealers. The outcome of laboratory and clinical studies on the biological and physical properties of bioceramic-based sealers along with comparative studies with other sealers was assessed. Several studies were evaluated covering different properties of bioceramic-based sealers including physical properties, biocompatibility, sealing ability, adhesion, solubility, and antibacterial efficacy. Bioceramic-based sealers were found to be biocompatible and comparable to other commercial sealers. The clinical outcomes associated with the use of bioceramic-based root canal sealers are not established in the literature. PMID:27242904

  10. Influence of Root Canal Tapering on Smear Layer Removal.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mina; Javidi, Maryam; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Tanbakuchi, Behrad; Zadeh, Mohsen Movahed; Mohammadi, Marzieh Maghadam

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to compare the influence of root canal taper on the efficacy of irrigants and chelating agents in smear layer removal. Eighty mesial roots of molar teeth were selected and prepared with rotary instruments. In group A, file 30/0.02 and in group B, file 30/0.4 were placed at working length and the smear layer was removed. In groups C and D, root canal preparation was the same as in groups A and B, respectively, except that the smear layer was not removed. The amount of the smear layer was quantified using a scanning electron microscope. Greater smear layer was detected in the apical portion of each group, whereas no significant difference was detected between groups in other portions. No statistical difference was found between canals with different tapers. PMID:27348950

  11. Endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with six root canal systems

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Dilip; Reddy, Smitha; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Kamishetty, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Internal anatomy of pulp is complex. The first mandibular molars typically have two roots, one mesial with two root canals and another distal root, which contains one or two canals. A 20-year-old female patient reported with intermittent pain and incomplete root canal treatment in left lower back region since 1-week. Refined access cavity revealed initially two canals in mesial and two canals in the distal root. With operating microscope and cone beam computerized tomography, two additional canals (L-mesio-buccal and B-mesio-lingual) were identified in mesial root. One-year follow-up showed patient was asymptomatic and complete healing of periapical radiolucency. PMID:26430309

  12. Endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with six root canal systems.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dilip; Reddy, Smitha; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Kamishetty, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Internal anatomy of pulp is complex. The first mandibular molars typically have two roots, one mesial with two root canals and another distal root, which contains one or two canals. A 20-year-old female patient reported with intermittent pain and incomplete root canal treatment in left lower back region since 1-week. Refined access cavity revealed initially two canals in mesial and two canals in the distal root. With operating microscope and cone beam computerized tomography, two additional canals (L-mesio-buccal and B-mesio-lingual) were identified in mesial root. One-year follow-up showed patient was asymptomatic and complete healing of periapical radiolucency. PMID:26430309

  13. Evaluation of the Root and Canal Morphology of Maxillary Permanent Molars and the Incidence of the Second Mesiobuccal Root Canal in Greek Population Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nikoloudaki, Georgia E.; Kontogiannis, Taxiarchis G.; Kerezoudis, Nikolaos P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography is an alternative imaging technique which has been recently introduced in the field of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology. It has rapidly gained great popularity among clinicians due to its ability to detect lesions and defects of the orofacial region and provide three-dimensional information about them. In the field of Endodontics, CBCT can be a useful tool to reveal tooth morphology irregularities, additional root canals and vertical root fractures. The objective of this study is to evaluate the root and root canal morphology of the maxillary permanent molars in Greek population using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography. Materials and Methods : 273 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were examined. The number of roots and root canals of the first and second maxillary molars were evaluated. Root canal configuration was classified according to Weine’s classification by two independent examiners and statistical analysis was performed. Results : A total of 812 molars (410 first and 402 second ones) were evaluated. The vast majority of both first and second molars had three roots (89.26% and 85.07%, respectively). Most first molars had four canals, while most second molars had three. In the mesiobuccal roots, one foramen was recorded in 80.91% of all teeth. Other rare morphologic variations were also found, such as fusion of a maxillary second molar with a supernumerary tooth. Conclusion : Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that more attention should be given to the detection of additional canals during root canal treatment in maxillary permanent molars. Towards this effort, CBCT can provide the clinician with supplemental information about the different root canal configurations for successful Root Canal Treatment. PMID:26464594

  14. Clinical microscopic analysis of ProTaper retreatment system efficacy considering root canal thirds using three endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; De Figueiredo, Jose Antônio Poli; Freitas Fachin, Elaine Vianna; Húngaro Duarte, Marco Antônio; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Da Rosa, Ricardo Abreu

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system and the influence of sealer type on the presence of filling debris in the reinstrumented canals viewed in an operative clinical microscope. Forty-five palatal root canals of first molars were filled with gutta-percha and one of the following sealers: G1, EndoFill; G2, AH Plus; G3, Sealapex. The canals were then reinstrumented with ProTaper Universal rotary system. Roots were longitudinally sectioned and examined under an operative clinical microscope (10×), and the amount of filling debris on canal walls was analyzed using the AutoCAD 2004 software. A single operator used a specific software tool to outline the canal area and the filling debris area in each third (cervical, middle, and apical), as well as the total canal area. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Tukey test at P < 0.05. Sealapex demonstrated significant differences in the average of filling debris area/canal among the 3 thirds. This group revealed that apical third showed more debris than the both cervical and middle third (P < 0.0001). Endofill presented significantly more filling debris than Sealapex in the cervical third (P < 0.05). In the middle (P = 0.12) and apical third (P = 0.10), there were no differences amongst groups. Debris was left in all canal thirds, regardless of the retreatment technique. The greatest differences between techniques and sealers were found in the cervical third. PMID:22496039

  15. Evaluation of pre-fabricated root canal posts.

    PubMed

    Hew, Y S; Purton, D G; Love, R M

    2001-03-01

    In this in vitro study, properties of a titanium alloy post recently introduced to the market (IntegraPost), were compared with those of a clinically proven stainless steel post (ParaPost). The IntegraPost has a unique, perforated, spherical head and a microknurled shank surface. The posts were tested for rigidity, for retention within the root canals of extracted teeth and for ability to retain composite resin cores. The two post types exhibited similar properties in core and root canal retention, however, the IntegraPost was significantly less rigid than the ParaPost. PMID:11350574

  16. Optodynamic Phenomena During Laser-Activated Irrigation Within Root Canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukač, Nejc; Gregorčič, Peter; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-07-01

    Laser-activated irrigation is a powerful endodontic treatment for smear layer, bacteria, and debris removal from the root canal. In this study, we use shadow photography and the laser-beam-transmission probe to examine the dynamics of laser-induced vapor bubbles inside a root canal model and compare ultrasonic needle irrigation to the laser method. Results confirm important phenomenological differences in the two endodontic methods with the laser method resulting in much deeper irrigation. Observations of simulated debris particles show liquid vorticity effects which in our opinion represents the major cleaning mechanism.

  17. Polymicrobial coronal leakage of super EBA root-end fillings following two methods of root-end preparation.

    PubMed

    Chailertvanitkul, P; Saunders, W P; Saunders, E M; MacKenzie, D

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compose in vitro coronal leakage of a super EBA root-end filling material after two root-end cavity preparation techniques. A mixed anaerobic microbial marker was used. Forty-five extracted human teeth with straight, single root canals were prepared chemo-mechanically to a size 40 master apical file. The teeth were divided into experimental groups (35 teeth) and control groups (10 teeth). Forty teeth (35 experimental teeth and five negative control teeth) were obturated by lateral condensation of cold gutta-percha with Tubliseal EWT sealer. The remaining five teeth were not obturated and served as positive controls. These teeth were stored for 6 months in artificial saliva. The apical 3-4 mm of each root was resected perpendicular to the long axis of the root and a root-end cavity prepared to a depth of 3 mm using either a size 008 rosehead burr or an ultrasonic retroprep tip. Freshly mixed EBA cement was placed into the root-end cavity. The entire root surface of each tooth, except the cutting surface of the apical end, was sealed with nail varnish. The coronal part of each root canal was sealed with the cut end of a tube and placed in a bottle containing sterile Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB). A marker consisting of Anaerobic streptococci and Fusobacterium nucleatum in BHIB was placed in each coronal chamber at 7-day intervals and daily observations were made for bacterial growth in the apical chamber for 60 days. All positive control teeth exhibited bacterial leakage within 48 h, whilst the apical chamber of negative control teeth remained uncontaminated throughout the test period. Fifty-nine percent (n = 10) of the specimens prepared with a burr showed leakage after 90 days, whilst only 22% (n = 4) of the ultrasonically prepared group showed leakage after the same time. The group prepared with ultrasonic tips showed statistically significant less specimens with leakage (P < 0.05) than the group prepared with burrs.

  18. Periapical tissue healing after post space preparation with or without use of a protection plug and root canal exposure to the oral environment. Study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Holland, Roberto; Manne, Luciana Noronha; de Souza, Valdir; Murata, Sueli Satomi; Dezan Júnior, Eloi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of coronal leakage on the healing of dogs' periapical tissues after root canal filling, post space preparation and protection or not with a temporary sealer plug. Forty root canals of dogs' teeth were instrumented and filled by the lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Endomethasone or CRCS sealers. After post space preparation, the remaining filling material was protected or not with a plug of temporary Coltosol sealer and exposed to the oral environment for 90 days. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the specimens were removed and prepared for histomorphological and histobacteriological analysis. The findings revealed 35% of microbial leakage in the groups without plugs and 15% of leakage in the groups with plugs. Statistical analysis showed that the use of a Coltosol plug improved significantly the histomorphological results regardless of the type of root canal sealer (p=0.05) and that CRCS and Endomethasone sealers showed similar results (p>0.05).

  19. Retrospective study of root canal configurations of maxillary third molars in Central India population using cone beam computed tomography Part- I

    PubMed Central

    Rawtiya, Manjusha; Somasundaram, Pavithra; Wadhwani, Shefali; Munuga, Swapna; Agarwal, Manish; Sethi, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of maxillary third molars in Central India population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) analysis. Materials and Methods: CBCT images of 116 maxillary third molars were observed, and data regarding the number of roots, the number of canals, and Vertucci's Classification in each root was statistically evaluated. Results: Majority of Maxillary third molars had three roots (55.2%) and three canals (37.9%). Most MB root (43.8%), DB root (87.5%), and palatal root (100%) of maxillary third molars had Vertucci Type I. Mesiobuccal root of three-rooted maxillary third molars had Vertucci Type I (43.8%) and Type IV (40.6%) configuration. Overall prevalence of C-shaped canals in maxillary third molars was 3.4%. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of three-rooted maxillary molars with three canals. PMID:27011747

  20. Fine-tuning of bioactive glass for root canal disinfection.

    PubMed

    Waltimo, T; Mohn, D; Paqué, F; Brunner, T J; Stark, W J; Imfeld, T; Schätzle, M; Zehnder, M

    2009-03-01

    An ideal preparation of 45S5 bioactive glass suspensions/slurries for root canal disinfection should combine high pH induction with capacity for continuing release of alkaline species. The hypothesis of this study was that more material per volume of bioactive glass slurry is obtained with a micrometric material (< 5 microm particle size) or a micrometric/ nanometric hybrid, rather than a solely nanometric counterpart. This should correlate with alkaline capacity and antimicrobial effectiveness. Slurries at the plastic limit were prepared with test and reference materials in physiological saline. Total mass and specific surface area of glass material per volume were determined. Continuous titration with hydrochloric acid was performed, and antimicrobial effectiveness was tested in extracted human premolars mono-infected with E. faecalis ATTC 29212 (N = 12 per material). While the nanometric slurry had a 12-fold higher specific surface area than the micrometric counterpart, the latter had a considerably higher alkaline capacity and disinfected significantly better (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.05). The hybrid slurry behaved similarly to the micrometric preparation.

  1. Cytotoxicity and Initial Biocompatibility of Endodontic Biomaterials (MTA and Biodentine™) Used as Root-End Filling Materials.

    PubMed

    Escobar-García, Diana María; Aguirre-López, Eva; Méndez-González, Verónica; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and cellular adhesion of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine (BD) on periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL). Methods. PDL cells were obtained from nonerupted third molars and cultured; MTS cellular profusion test was carried out in two groups: MTA and BD, with respective controls at different time periods. Also, the LIVE/DEAD assay was performed at 24 h. For evaluation of cellular adhesion, immunocytochemistry was conducted to discern the expression of Integrin β1 and Vinculin at 12 h and 24 h. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results. MTA and BD exhibited living cells up to 7 days. More expressions of Integrin β1 and Vinculin were demonstrated in the control group, followed by BD and MTA, which also showed cellular loss and morphological changes. There was a significant difference in the experimental groups cultured for 5 and 7 days compared with the control, but there was no significant statistical difference between both cements. Conclusions. Neither material was cytotoxic during the time evaluated. There was an increase of cell adhesion through the expression of focal contacts observed in the case of BD, followed by MTA, but not significantly.

  2. Cytotoxicity and Initial Biocompatibility of Endodontic Biomaterials (MTA and Biodentine™) Used as Root-End Filling Materials

    PubMed Central

    Escobar-García, Diana María; Aguirre-López, Eva; Méndez-González, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and cellular adhesion of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine (BD) on periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL). Methods. PDL cells were obtained from nonerupted third molars and cultured; MTS cellular profusion test was carried out in two groups: MTA and BD, with respective controls at different time periods. Also, the LIVE/DEAD assay was performed at 24 h. For evaluation of cellular adhesion, immunocytochemistry was conducted to discern the expression of Integrin β1 and Vinculin at 12 h and 24 h. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results. MTA and BD exhibited living cells up to 7 days. More expressions of Integrin β1 and Vinculin were demonstrated in the control group, followed by BD and MTA, which also showed cellular loss and morphological changes. There was a significant difference in the experimental groups cultured for 5 and 7 days compared with the control, but there was no significant statistical difference between both cements. Conclusions. Neither material was cytotoxic during the time evaluated. There was an increase of cell adhesion through the expression of focal contacts observed in the case of BD, followed by MTA, but not significantly.

  3. Cytotoxicity and Initial Biocompatibility of Endodontic Biomaterials (MTA and Biodentine™) Used as Root-End Filling Materials

    PubMed Central

    Escobar-García, Diana María; Aguirre-López, Eva; Méndez-González, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and cellular adhesion of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine (BD) on periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL). Methods. PDL cells were obtained from nonerupted third molars and cultured; MTS cellular profusion test was carried out in two groups: MTA and BD, with respective controls at different time periods. Also, the LIVE/DEAD assay was performed at 24 h. For evaluation of cellular adhesion, immunocytochemistry was conducted to discern the expression of Integrin β1 and Vinculin at 12 h and 24 h. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results. MTA and BD exhibited living cells up to 7 days. More expressions of Integrin β1 and Vinculin were demonstrated in the control group, followed by BD and MTA, which also showed cellular loss and morphological changes. There was a significant difference in the experimental groups cultured for 5 and 7 days compared with the control, but there was no significant statistical difference between both cements. Conclusions. Neither material was cytotoxic during the time evaluated. There was an increase of cell adhesion through the expression of focal contacts observed in the case of BD, followed by MTA, but not significantly. PMID:27595108

  4. Root canal anatomy of mandibular first premolars in an Emirati subpopulation: A laboratory study

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sheela Balu; Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the root canal anatomy of mandibular first premolar teeth in an Emirati subpopulation using a decalcification and clearing method. Materials and Methods: One hundred permanent mandibular first premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes from an Emirati subpopulation from the United Arab Emirates were used for this study. They were subjected to decalcification and clearing. The tooth length, the canal orifice shape, mesial invagination, canal pattern, the location of apex, presence of lateral canals, and intercanal communications were determined. Results: The most common canal pattern was the Vertucci Type I (65%) followed by Type V (14%) and Type IV (13%). The most common type of canal orifice seen was the oval shape (36%) followed by the round shape (25%). Mesial invaginations were seen in 44% of the teeth. The mean tooth length was 19.9 mm, and apical deltas were seen in 24% of teeth. Conclusion: The Vertucci Type I canal pattern was the most prevalent in the mandibular first premolars while the occurrence of multiple canals was noted in 35% of this population. PMID:26929684

  5. Root Canal Treatment of a Two-Rooted C-Shaped Maxillary First Molar: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Paksefat, Sara; Rahimi, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The most difficult maxillary teeth for endodontic treatment are the maxillary first molars (MFM) due to their complex root canal anatomy. The presence of two roots and C-shaped canals in MFMs has been reported in rare cases. The present case reports root canal treatment of MFM with two roots, where the palatal and buccal roots were joined together in a C-shaped configuration. PMID:25386214

  6. Long-term outcome of non-surgical root canal treatment: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Chiara; Chersoni, Stefano; Montebugnoli, Lucio; Prati, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the long-term clinical outcome of root canal treatment. 240 root-treated teeth (n = 61 patients) were initially classified on the basis of radiographic presence/absence of initial apical periodontitis (IAP) and clinical data. The final outcome measure was the periapical healing (healed/disease). The outcome at 6-9 months was correlated with the outcome at 10 years following treatment. Prognostic factors for the periapical healing were assessed. Extraction data were recorded. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk indicators for apical periodontitis (AP) development. Chi-square analysis was performed to evaluate a possible relationship between the 6-9 months outcome and the final outcome related to IAP. Mean observation time was 14 ± 3.7 years. Survival rate was 84.6% and healing rate was 79% (10-19 years). Predictors of outcome (p < .05) were considered statistically significant. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that initial pulpal and periapical status and the quality of root canal filling as assessed two-dimensionally were independent predictors of outcome. The 6-9 months evaluation appears to be an indicator for the final outcome of primary root canal treatment both in the presence and in the absence of IAP. An initial radiolucency associated with an unsatisfactory quality and extent of root canal filling significantly diminishes the possibility of achieving long-term radiographic success. For those with uncertain healing at 6-9 months (91%), clinicians should consider the high healing rate when estimating the prognosis and adjust the decision making accordingly.

  7. Endodontic Treatment of Maxillary Premolar with Three Root Canals Using Optical Microscope and NiTi Rotatory Files System.

    PubMed

    Relvas, João Bosco Formiga; de Carvalho, Fredsom Marcio Acris; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Sponchiado, Emílio Carlos; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report a clinical case of endodontic treatment of a maxillary first premolar with three root canals using an optical microscope and rotary instrumentation technique. The main complaint of the patient, a 16-year-old girl, was pain in tooth 14. After clinical and radiographic examination, irreversible pulpitis was diagnosed. An alteration in the middle third of the pulp chamber radiographically observed suggested the presence of three root canals. Pulp chamber access and initial catheterization using size number 10 K-files were performed. The optical microscope and radiographic examination were used to confirm the presence of three root canals. PathFiles #13, #16, and #19 were used to perform catheterization and ProTaper files S1 and S2 for cervical preparation. Apical preparation was performed using F1 file in the buccal canals and F2 in the palatal canal up to the working length. The root canals were filled with Endofill sealer by thermal compaction technique using McSpadden #50. The case has been receiving follow-up for 12 months and no painful symptomatology or periapical lesions have been found. The use of technological tools was able to assist the endodontic treatment of teeth with complex internal anatomy, such as three-canal premolars.

  8. Adaptation and penetration of resin-based root canal sealers in root canals irradiated with high-intensity lasers.

    PubMed

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Palo, Renato Miotto; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Marques, Marcia Martins

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzed the quality of resin-based sealer adaptation after intracanal laser irradiation. Extracted teeth (n = 168) were root canal treated and divided into four groups, according to dentin surface treatment: no laser; Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz); diode laser (2.5 W in CW), and Er:YAG laser (1 W, 100 mJ, 10 Hz). The teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the sealer used: AH Plus, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and EpiphanySE. For testing the sealing after root canal obturation, the penetration of silver nitrate solution was measured, whereas to evaluate the adaptation and penetration of the sealer into the dentin, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used. The ESEM images were analyzed using a four-grade criteria score by three evaluators. The inter-examiner agreement was confirmed by Kappa test and the scores statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis' test (p < 0.05). Both adaptation and sealer penetration in root canals were not affected by the laser irradiation. Nd:YAG and diode laser decreased the tracer penetration for AH Plus, whereas EndoREZ and EpiphanySE performances were affected by Nd:YAG irradiation (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that intracanal laser irradiation can be used as an adjunct in endodontic treatment; however, the use of hydrophilic resin sealers should be avoided when root canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser.

  9. Adaptation and penetration of resin-based root canal sealers in root canals irradiated with high-intensity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Palo, Renato Miotto; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Pameijer, Cornelis H.; Marques, Marcia Martins

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzed the quality of resin-based sealer adaptation after intracanal laser irradiation. Extracted teeth (n=168) were root canal treated and divided into four groups, according to dentin surface treatment: no laser; Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz) diode laser (2.5 W in CW), and Er:YAG laser (1 W, 100 mJ, 10 Hz). The teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the sealer used: AH Plus, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and EpiphanySE. For testing the sealing after root canal obturation, the penetration of silver nitrate solution was measured, whereas to evaluate the adaptation and penetration of the sealer into the dentin, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used. The ESEM images were analyzed using a four-grade criteria score by three evaluators. The inter-examiner agreement was confirmed by Kappa test and the scores statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis' test (p<0.05). Both adaptation and sealer penetration in root canals were not affected by the laser irradiation. Nd:YAG and diode laser decreased the tracer penetration for AH Plus, whereas EndoREZ and EpiphanySE performances were affected by Nd:YAG irradiation (p<0.05). It can be concluded that intracanal laser irradiation can be used as an adjunct in endodontic treatment; however, the use of hydrophilic resin sealers should be avoided when root canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser.

  10. Thermographic assessment of root canal obturation using thermomechanical compaction.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, J J; Biagioni, P A; Lamey, P J; Hussey, D L

    1997-05-01

    The temperature changes on the root surface of 30 extracted human premolar teeth during thermomechanical root canal obturation with gutta-percha were determined using an infrared thermal imaging camera. Three handpiece rotational speeds of 8, 12 and 16 x 10(3) r.p.m. were used, in conjunction with a Gutta Condensor. On completion of the procedure, the quality of tooth canal obturation was examined radiographically. Under the conditions of this experiment, surface root temperature rises of > 97 degrees C were recorded during all three speed settings. The radiographic quality of obturation between the groups appeared not to be significantly different. The clinical relevance of these findings is uncertain, but the temperatures reported are of a magnitude to be of biological importance.

  11. Efficacy of an organic solvent and ultrasound for filling material removal.

    PubMed

    Müller, Gabriela Guardiola; Schönhofen, Ânielle Pinheiro; Móra, Patrícia Maria Poli Kopper; Grecca, Fabiana Soares; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Bodanezi, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a final rinse with Endosolv R® solvent and ultrasound resulted in cleaner root canal walls during endodontic retreatment. A total of 56 extracted premolar teeth were manually instrumented using a step-back flare technique and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. After 9 months, the canals were retreated by removing the gutta-percha and sealer with ProTaper Universal Retreatment and rotary preparation with ProTaper Universal System up to an F5 file. As a final step, the teeth were randomly divided in 4 groups (n=14) and were subjected to passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) with either Endosolv R or distilled water. In the control groups, the irrigants were left undisturbed. Roots were cleaved and examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the amount of filling remnants on the canal walls was assessed by two calibrated examiners in a blinded fashion. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test (α=0.05). All groups presented filling debris in the three root canal thirds after retreatment. There were no significant differences between the groups or among the root canal thirds within each group (p>0.05). PUI with Endosolv R was not effective in the removal of filling debris from root canal walls.

  12. Comparison of marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and intermediate restorative material as root-end filling materials, using scanning electron microscope: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Gundam, Sirisha; Patil, Jayaprakash; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Yadanaparti, Sravanthi; Maddu, Radhika; Gurram, Sindhura Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study compares the marginal adaption of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) as root-end filling materials in extracted human teeth using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Thirty single rooted human teeth were obturated with Gutta-percha after cleaning and shaping. Apical 3 mm of roots were resected and retrofilled with MTA, GIC and IRM. One millimeter transverse section of the retrofilled area was used to study the marginal adaptation of the restorative material with the dentin. Mounted specimens were examined using SEM at approximately 15 Kv and 10-6 Torr under high vacuum condition. At 2000 X magnification, the gap size at the material-tooth interface was recorded at 2 points in microns. Statistical Analysis: One way ANOVA Analysis of the data from the experimental group was carried out with gap size as the dependent variable, and material as independent variable. Results: The lowest mean value of gap size was recorded in MTA group (0.722 ± 0.438 μm) and the largest mean gap in GIC group (1.778 ± 0.697 μm). Conclusion: MTA showed least gap size when compared to IRM and GIC suggesting a better marginal adaptation. PMID:25506146

  13. Five root canals in peg lateral incisor with dens invaginatus: A case report with new nomenclature for the five canals

    PubMed Central

    Jaikailash, Shanmugam; Kavitha, Mahendran; Ranjani, Muthukrishnan Sudharshana; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes endodontic treatment completed in a peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor, with single root and five root canals of which, one is due to dens invaginatus. Cone beam computed tomogram scanning confirmed the unique morphology of the tooth. New nomenclature for the five canals is proposed. PMID:25125854

  14. Decalcifying capability of irrigating solutions on root canal dentin mineral content

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Dagna, Alberto; Vinci, Andrea; Beltrami, Riccardo; Cucca, Lucia; Giardino, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chelating agents are believed to aid root canal irrigation and to be able to remove the inorganic smear layer. Aims: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and to compare the decalcifying capability of different irrigating solutions (Tubuliclean, Largal Ultra, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 17%, Tetraclean, Tetraclean NA). Materials and Methods: Sixty maxillary central incisors were used. Root canals were instrumented and irrigated. From each root, four comparable slices of cervical dentin were obtained. At three successive 5-min interval immersion times, the concentration of calcium extracted from root canal dentin was assessed with an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by means of Kruskal Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. Significance was predetermined at P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: For all irrigating solutions, the maximum amount of Ca2+ extracted from root canal dentin samples was reached after 10 min contact time except for citric acid-based agents (Tetraclean and Tetraclean NA) which induced a higher and still increasing calcium release even after 10 min contact time. In order to obtain an efficient decalcifying action on dentin and to facilitate the biomechanical procedures, citric acid-based irrigants can be applied. PMID:26097355

  15. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of resin-based root canal sealers in rat periapical tissue.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Noriko; Satoh, Takenori; Watabe, Hirotaka; Tani-Ishii, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the biocompatibility of resin-based root canal sealers (RCSs) in the periapical tissues of rats. Wistar rats underwent tooth replantation for reproducing the response of periapical tissue with RCSs. The resin-based Epipany SE, AH Plus Jet, the eugenol-based sealer (Canals) and a control group were employed. The upper right first molar was extracted and applied with RCSs on apices, and then the tooth was repositioned. Histological evaluation demonstrated that mild inflammation occurred in the periapical tissue with Epiphany and AH Plus Jet sealers on day 7, whereas Canals induced severe-to-moderate inflammation. The statistical analyses demonstrated that the significant differences were observed between Canals and the other groups on day 7 regarding inflammatory response. On day 14, the lesions induced by all sealers were healed and replaced predominantly by fibrous connective tissue. Our results suggest that Epiphany SE and AH Plus Jet are good biocompatible materials. PMID:23719002

  16. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of resin-based root canal sealers in rat periapical tissue.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Noriko; Satoh, Takenori; Watabe, Hirotaka; Tani-Ishii, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the biocompatibility of resin-based root canal sealers (RCSs) in the periapical tissues of rats. Wistar rats underwent tooth replantation for reproducing the response of periapical tissue with RCSs. The resin-based Epipany SE, AH Plus Jet, the eugenol-based sealer (Canals) and a control group were employed. The upper right first molar was extracted and applied with RCSs on apices, and then the tooth was repositioned. Histological evaluation demonstrated that mild inflammation occurred in the periapical tissue with Epiphany and AH Plus Jet sealers on day 7, whereas Canals induced severe-to-moderate inflammation. The statistical analyses demonstrated that the significant differences were observed between Canals and the other groups on day 7 regarding inflammatory response. On day 14, the lesions induced by all sealers were healed and replaced predominantly by fibrous connective tissue. Our results suggest that Epiphany SE and AH Plus Jet are good biocompatible materials.

  17. A Clinical Update on the Different Methods to Decrease the Occurrence of Missed Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Asgary, Saeed; Shalavi, Sousan; V. Abbott, Paul

    2016-01-01

    One of the main causes of endodontic treatment failure is the clinician’s inability to localize all the root canals. Due to the complex anatomy of the root canal system, missed canals are not uncommon. There are several strategies to decrease the possibility of missed root canals starting with good pre-operative radiographies. In order to overcome the limitations of conventional radiographies, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can be considered. A correct access cavity preparation is of pivotal importance in localizing the orifices of the root canals. Furthermore, ultrasonics are very important devices to find missed canals. Increasing magnification and illumination enhance the possibility of finding all root canals during root canal treatment. The purpose of the present paper was to review all of the above techniques and devices. PMID:27471533

  18. C&O Canal prism, with towpath (left) and fill under WM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    C&O Canal prism, with towpath (left) and fill under WM roadbed (right), milepost 142 vicinity, looking southwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  19. Diode laser irradiation effects on the sealing ability of root canal sealers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. C.; Nogueira, G. E. C.; Mayer, M. P. A.; Antoniazzi, J. H.; Zezell, D. M.

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that dentine alterations induced by 810 nm-diode laser may affect the interaction between root canal sealers and the dentin wall. Seventy-two single root human teeth were selected and root canals were enlarged with K-files. Dentine was treated with 0.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA-T and irradiated (laser group) by diode laser (810 nm/ P = 2.5W/ I = 1989 W/cm2) or remained non-irradiated (control group). Six samples per group were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The remaining samples of each group were divided into three subgroups ( n = 10) and sealed with one of the tested sealers (N-Rickert/AHPlus™/Apexit®). Apical leakage was estimated by evaluating penetration of 0.5% methylene-blue dye. SEM analysis revealed that dentine at the apical third in irradiated samples was melted and fusioned whereas non-irradiated samples exhibited opened dentinal tubules. Despite the morphological changes induced by irradiation, laser did not affect the sealing ability of N-Rickert and AHPlusTM sealers. However, the length of apical leakage in roots filled with Apexit® was lower in irradiated root canals than in non-irradiated samples ( p < 0.05). Morphological changes of root canal walls promoted by diode laser irradiation may improve de sealing ability of Apexit®, a calcium hydroxide-based sealer, suggesting that improved sealing promoted by irradiation may represent an additional factor contributing to the endodontic clinical outcome.

  20. Fracture strength of roots instrumented with three different single file systems in curved root canals

    PubMed Central

    Nur, Bilge Gulsum; Ok, Evren; Altunsoy, Mustafa; Tanriver, Mehmet; Capar, Ismail Davut

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strength of roots instrumented with three different single file rotary systems in curved mesial root canals of maxillary molars. Materials and Methods: Curvatures of 25°–35° on mesial roots of 60 maxillary molar teeth were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction to obtain roots 11 mm in length. The roots were balanced with respect to buccolingual and mesiodistal diameter and weight. They were distributed into three experimental groups and one control group (no instrumentation) (n = 15): Reciproc rotary file (R25, VDW, Munich, Germany), WaveOne Primary rotary file (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, UK) and OneShape (Micro-Mega, Besancon, France) rotary file. Vertical load was applied until fracture occurred. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance test (P < 0.05). Results: The mean fracture load was 412 ± 72 Newton (N) for the control group, 395 ± 69 N for the Reciproc group, 373 ± 63 N for the WaveOne group and 332 ± 68 N for the OneShape group. The fracture load differences among three experimental groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05.) Whereas, the fracture loads of control and OneShape groups were significantly different (P = 0.012). Conclusions: Fracture resistance of the roots instrumented with WaveOne and Reciproc file systems were similar to the control group whereas it was observed that OneShape rotary file systems enhance the fracture strength of standardized curved roots when compared with the control group. PMID:26038648

  1. The efficacy of the self-adjusting file and ProTaper for removal of calcium hydroxide from root canals

    PubMed Central

    FARIA, Gisele; KUGA, Milton Carlos; RUY, Alessandra Camila; ARANDA-GARCIA, Arturo Javier; BONETTI-FILHO, Idomeo; GUERREIRO-TANOMARU, Juliane Maria; LEONARDO, Renato Toledo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Self-Adjusting File (SAF) and ProTaper for removing calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] from root canals. Material and Methods Thirty-six human mandibular incisors were instrumented with the ProTaper system up to instrument F2 and filled with a Ca(OH)2-based dressing. After 7 days, specimens were distributed in two groups (n=15) according to the method of Ca(OH)2 removal. Group I (SAF) was irrigated with 5 mL of NaOCl and SAF was used for 30 seconds under constant irrigation with 5 mL of NaOCl using the Vatea irrigation device, followed by irrigation with 3 mL of EDTA and 5 mL of NaOCl. Group II (ProTaper) was irrigated with 5 mL of NaOCl, the F2 instrument was used for 30 seconds, followed by irrigation with 5 mL of NaOCl, 3 mL of EDTA, and 5 mL of NaOCl. In 3 teeth Ca(OH)2 was not removed (positive control) and in 3 teeth canals were not filled with Ca(OH)2 (negative control). Teeth were sectioned and prepared for the scanning electron microscopy. The amounts of residual Ca(OH)2 were evaluated in the middle and apical thirds using a 5-score system. Results None of the techniques completely removed the Ca(OH)2 dressing. No difference was observed between SAF and ProTaper in removing Ca(OH)2 in the middle (P=0.11) and the apical (P=0.23) thirds. Conclusion The SAF system showed similar efficacy to rotary instrument for removal of Ca(OH)2 from mandibular incisor root canals. PMID:24037074

  2. An In Vitro Comparison of Root Canal Transportation by Reciproc File With and Without Glide Path

    PubMed Central

    Nazarimoghadam, Kiumars; Daryaeian, Mohammad; Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of ideal canal preparation is to prevent iatrogenic aberrations such as transportation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the root canal transportation by Reciproc file with and without glide path. Materials and Methods: Thirty acrylic-resin blocks with a curvature of 60° and size#10 (2% taper) were assigned into two groups (n= 15). In group 1, the glide path was performed using stainless steel k-files size#10 and 15 at working length In group 2, canals were prepared with Reciproc file system at working length. By using digital imaging software (AutoCAD 2008), the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation digital images were superimposed over, taking the landmarks as reference points. Then the radius of the internal and external curve of the specimens was calculated at three α, β and γ points (1mm to apex as α, 3mm to apex as β, and 5mm to apex as γ). The data were statically analyzed using the independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test by SPSS version 16. Results: Glide path was found significant for only external curve in the apical third of the canal; that is, 5mm to apex (P=0.005). But in the other third, canal modification was not significant (P> 0.008). Conclusion: Canal transportation in the apical third of the canal seems to be significantly reduced when glide path is performed using reciprocating files. PMID:25628682

  3. Presence of Candida Albicans in Root Canal System of Teeth Requiring Endodontic Retreatment with and without Periapical Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hengameh; Samiee, Mohammad; Eslami, Gita; Ghodse Hosseini, Mohammad Reza

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An important consideration in endodontic treatment is the elimination of microorganisms, including fungi, from the complex three- dimensional root canal system. Candida Albicans (CA) has a major role in endodontic treatment failure as the most important fungus isolated from the root canal system. The present study was carried out to evaluate the presence of CA in the teeth requiring endodontic retreatment, with or without periapical lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out on 60 root canals from human molars requiring endodontic retreatment. The root canals were randomly divided into two equal groups of 30 canals with versus without periapical lesions. Samples were collected from the root canals and cultured on MacConkey and blood agar culture media. The samples suspected of having CA were streaked on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA) and evaluated under a light microscope. Data was analyzed and compared using Chi- square and Kappa tests. RESULTS: CA was found in 11 patients (36.7%) with periapical lesions. In the patients without periapical lesions only 4 samples demonstrated CA in the root canal systems (13.3%). The difference between the two groups as to the presence of CA was statistically significant (p<0.037). In addition, evaluation of salivary samples revealed 15 cases (50%) of CA presence in the patients with periapical lesions and 16 cases (53.3%) of CA in the patients without periapical lesions, demonstrating no statistically significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Considering the fact that the presence of CA in the root canal systems of teeth with periapical lesions was more noticeable and statistically significant compared to the teeth without periapical lesions, the elimination of this microorganism from the root canal system, using appropriate intracanal solutions and medications is of utmost importance. PMID:24348654

  4. Efficacy of different treatments of root canal walls on the pull-out bond strength of the fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hakan; Yılmaz, Cenk Burak; Karatas, Ertugrul; Barutcigil, Cagatay; Topcuoglu, Hüseyin Sinan; Yeter, Kübra Yesildal

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different irrigation protocols, including laser, on the retention of the fiber-reinforced composite posts to root canal dentinal walls using pull-out tests. Root canals of 60 single-rooted human teeth were filled and post spaces were prepared. Finally, specimens were divided randomly into five groups, each consisting of 12 specimens as follows: 5% NaOCl (control group), 17% EDTA, ultrasonic with 17% EDTA, single 1.5-W Er:YAG laser application, and the combined use of Er:YAG laser and 17% EDTA. After the root canal procedures, fiber posts were cemented to the root canal. Pull-out tests were performed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test (p = 0.05). Irradiation by the Er:YAG laser with/without EDTA positively affected the pull-out bond strength (p < 0.001). The pull-out strength was significantly higher in the ultrasonic group than that of the single irrigation with NaOCl or EDTA (p < 0.001). Er:YAG laser irradiation with/without EDTA enhanced the bond strength of fiber posts to root canal dentin walls. Additionally, ultrasonic-EDTA combination increased the bond strength.

  5. 3D root canal modeling for advanced endodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Shane Y.; Dong, Janet

    2002-06-01

    More than 14 million teeth receive endodontic (root canal) treatment annually. Before a clinician's inspection and diagnosis, destructive access preparation by removing teeth crown and dentin is usually needed. This paper presents a non-invasive method for accessing internal tooth geometry by building 3-D tooth model from 2-D radiographic and endoscopic images to be used for an automatic prescription system of computer-aided treatment procedure planning, and for the root canal preparation by an intelligent micro drilling machine with on-line monitoring. It covers the techniques specific for dental application in the radiographic images acquirement, image enhancement, image segmentation and feature recognition, distance measurement and calibration, merging 2D image into 3D mathematical model representation and display. Included also are the methods to form references for irregular teeth geometry and to do accurately measurement with self-calibration.

  6. Treponema diversity in root canals with endodontic failure

    PubMed Central

    Nóbrega, Leticia M. M.; Delboni, Maraisa G.; Martinho, Frederico C.; Zaia, Alexandre A; Ferraz, Caio C. R.; Gomes, Brenda P. F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to investigate the prevalence of eight oral Treponemas (Treponema denticola, T. amylovorum, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. pectinovorum, T. socranskii, T. vicentii and T. lecithinolyticum) in teeth with endodontic treatment failure and periapical lesion. Methods: Samples were taken from 40 root canals presenting endodontic failure and periapical lesion. DNA extraction was performed and Nested-PCR technique was used for the detection of Treponema species using specific primers. Results: Treponemas was detected in 56.5% of the samples analyzed (22/39). Individual root canals yielded a maximum of 6 target Treponema species. T. denticola (30.8%) and T. maltophilum (30.8%) were the most frequently detected species followed by T. medium (20.5%), T. socranskii (20.5%), T. pectinovorum (17.9%) and T. vicentii (17.9%). Positive association was verified between T. denticola and T. maltophilum such as T. medium (P<.05). T. lecithinolyticum was positively associated with intraradicular post (P<.05). Conclusion: The present study revealed that a wide variety of Treponema species plays a role in persistent/secondary infection turning the root canal microbiota even more complex than previously described by endodontic literature. PMID:23408792

  7. Bacterial penetration after obturation with four different root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Ali Cağin; Güler, Eda; Güler, Ahmet Umut; Ertaş, Ertan

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare bacterial penetration after obturation with lateral compaction technique using four different root canal sealers. This study was performed on 100 teeth including negative control (n = 10), positive control (n = 10), and experimental groups (n = 80). 80 teeth were randomly divided into five groups of 20 teeth each and obturated with AH 26 (A), AH Plus (AP), Sealapex (S), Ketac-Endo (K) root canal sealers. Evaluation was carried out for 60 days. After 30 days of comparing the bacterial penetration values, total penetration was observed in 85% of the Group AP, and group K, 80% of the group S, and 75% of the group A. According to the results of chi(2) test, there was no statistically significant difference observed between any groups (p > 0.05). After 60 days of comparing the bacterial penetration values, total penetration was observed in 100% of the group AP, group K, and group S and 95% of the group A. It may be concluded that under the conditions of this study, there was no difference in the bacterial penetration of the four root canal sealers tested at 30 and 60 days.

  8. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals. PMID:27640530

  9. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals. PMID:27640530

  10. [Treatment of a fractured endodontical instrument in the root canal].

    PubMed

    Schipper, M; Peters, L B

    2015-12-01

    A 53-year-old woman with continuing pain coming from a lower first molar was diagnosed with apical periodontitis, with a retained fractured instrument in the root canal. There are a variety of treatment options for dealing with a corpus alienum in a root canal. In this case it was decided to treat the tooth endodontically, and leave the fractured instrument fragment in situ. The selection of this treatment option was made on the basis of knowledge of the original diagnosis and the success rates of the various treatment options as described in the relevant literature, weighed against the possible risks and their effects on the prognosis. This suggested that the use of a dental operating microscope has a positive impact on the success rates of endodontic treatment The prognosis for endodontic treatment when a fractured instrument fragment is left within the root canal, as in this case, is not significantly reduced. The presence of preoperative periapical pathology, however, is a more clinically significant prognostic indicator. PMID:26665200

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Diode Laser and Sodium Hypochlorite in Enterococcus Faecalis-Contaminated Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Khosrow; Sooratgar, Aidin; Zolfagharnasab, Kaveh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the disinfection ability of 980-nm diode laser in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as a common root canal irrigant in canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Methods and Materials: The root canals of 18 extracted single-rooted premolars were prepared by rotary system. After decoronation, the roots were autoclaved. One specimen was chosen for the negative control, and the remaining teeth were incubated with E. faecalis suspension for two weeks. Subsequently, one specimen was selected as the positive control and the remaining samples were divided into two groups (n=8). The samples of the first group were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and the second group were treated with a 980-nm diode laser. Microbial samples were taken from the root canals and bacterial cultivation was carried out. The average value and the standard deviation of colony-forming units (CFU) of each specimen were measured using descriptive statistics. The student’s t-test was used to compare the reduction in CFU in each group. The equality of variance of CFU was measured by the Levene’s test. Results: NaOCl resulted in 99.87% removal of the bacteria and showed significantly more antibacterial effect compared to the 980-nm diode laser which led to 96.56% bacterial reduction (P<0.05). Conclusion: Although 5.25% NaOCl seems to reduce E. faecalis more effectively, the diode laser also reduced the bacterial count. Therefore a 980-nm diode laser could be considered as a complementary disinfection method in root canal treatment. PMID:26843870

  12. Stress Distribution Changes after Root Canal Therapy in Canine Model: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Geramy, Allahyar; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Ehsani, Sara

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth compared to vital ones has long been a source of controversy. It is not clear how root canal therapy affects the stress distribution in teeth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in stress distribution after root canal therapy in a human maxillary canine by finite element analysis (FEM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two 3D FEM models of a maxillary canine were created; one represented a virgin tooth and the other represented the same tooth after root canal therapy. A single force of 14.1 N was applied 45 degrees to horizontal plane to the center of the palatal surface; stress distribution was then analyzed in both models. RESULTS: SEQV (VonMises stress) analysis demonstrated an obvious decrease after root canal therapy and the regions near cementoenamel junction (CEJ) showed the highest displacement. The endodontically treated tooth demonstrated higher deflection than the vital one. CONCLUSION: Maximum stress and displacement was repeatedly found in the cervical area, hence more emphasis should be placed on the reinforcement of this region. PMID:24082903

  13. Three-dimensional analysis of mesiobuccal root canal of Japanese maxillary first molar using Micro-CT.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masashi; Ide, Yoshinobu; Matsunaga, Satoru; Kato, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Kan-Ichi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to three-dimensionally observe the morphological characteristics of mesiobuccal root canals of Japanese maxillary first molars using microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) and classify root canal variations. This study used 90 maxillary first molars. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed using data obtained by Micro-CT, and cross-sections of the root canals were observed. Moreover, the root canal morphology was classified by the configuration and root canal diameter, and was evaluated for occurrence using the classification by Weine et al. (1969) as a reference. Overall, single root canals were observed in 44.4%, incomplete separation root canals in 22.3%, and completely separate root canals (upper and lower separation root canals) in 33.3%. Mesiobuccal root canals often had intricate configurations, and accessory root canals (lateral canals and apical ramifications) were observed in most of the mesiobuccal root canals (76.7%), irrespective of whether there were ramifications of the main root canals. While there were no marked differences in the incidence of root canal ramifications between this study and earlier reports, the incidence of accessory root canals was higher in this study. This result may be explained by the far more superior visualization ability of Micro-CT than conventional methods, which allowed the detection of microscopic apical ramifications previously difficult to observe. PMID:21701120

  14. Root Canal Shaping by Single-File Systems and Rotary Instruments: a Laboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Bane, Khaly; Faye, Babacar; Sarr, Mouhamed; Niang, Seydina O; Ndiaye, Diouma; Machtou, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the shaping ability of two single-file systems and conventional rotary instruments in severely curved root canals of extracted human molars. Methods and Materials: Mesiobuccal canals of 120 mandibular molars with angles of curvature ranging between 25° and 35° and radii of curvature from 5 to 9 mm, were divided into three groups (n=40). In each group the canals were instrumented with either WaveOne (W), Reciproc (R) or ProTaper (P). The time required for canal shaping and the frequency of broken instruments were recorded. The standardized pre and post-instrumentation radiographs were taken to determine changes in working length (WL) and straightening of canal curvature. The presence of blockage or perforation was also evaluated. Data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey’s test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Both single-instrument systems reduced the canal preparation time by approximately 50% (P<0.05). No incidence of broken instruments from single-file systems was reported; however, two F2 instruments in the P group were broken (P<0.05). Reduction in WL and straightening of canal curvature was observed in all three systems with the highest scores belonging to P system (P<0.05). No case of blockage or perforation was found during shaping in any group. Conclusion: Single-file systems shaped curved canals with substantial saving in time and a significant decrease in incidence of instrument separation, change in WL, and straightening of canal curvature. PMID:25834600

  15. Evaluation of sealing ability of three materials used as barriers over the remaining filling material after post space preparation.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lorena V; Faria-e-Silva, André L; Soares, Giulliana P; Aguiar, Flávio H; Ribeiro, Maria A

    2013-01-01

    The filling material remaining after post space preparation may not be enough to prevent the contamination of periapical tissues when the root canal is exposed to saliva. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate leakage through three different materials used as barriers over the remaining filling. Thirty-two human premolars were selected for this study. Following the endodontic treatment, post spaces were prepared, leaving 4 mm of filling material. A barrier 1 mm high was placed over the filling material using Cotosol, VitoFil or MTA (n = 8). Absence of barrier was used as control. The specimens were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye for 12 hours, after which they were sectioned immediately below the barriers and the apical portions were ground into powder in a mill for hard tissues. The powder was immersed in absolute alcohol to dilute the dye and then the dye concentration was analyzed using an absorbance spectrophotometer. Dye concentration was classified according to scores from 0 to 4, and the scores were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey's post-hoc tests (alpha = 0.05). Only Cotosol and MTA reduced the leakage when compared to control. Vitrofil showed leakage values similar to both MTA and control, but higher than Cotosol. In conclusion, the material used as a barrier can have an effect on leakage through the remaining filling material.

  16. Indirect longitudinal cytotoxicity of root canal sealers on L929 cells and human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Araki, K; Suda, H; Spångberg, L S

    1994-02-01

    The cytotoxicity of two root canal sealers was evaluated in vitro. The powder components of both sealers, mainly zinc, were the same. The liquid for one sealer, Canals, was clove oil (included eugenol in more than 80%) and other materials. For the other, Canals-N, the liquid was composed of higher fatty acids and glycol. The experiments included two cell lines, heteroploid L929 mouse fibroblasts and diploid human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the radiochromium release method with 4-h exposure time. The assay involved using insert chambers in multiwell arrays to produce indirect contact of materials with the cell monolayer at a controlled distance of approximately 1 mm. This model also allowed for the longitudinal study of the same material sample to assess time-dependent changes in toxicity. Freshly mixed Canals was highly toxic (p < 0.01) to both cell lines. On and after 24 h of setting no toxicity was detected. At no time could cytotoxicity be observed when experimenting with Canals-N. These results indicate that both materials have a low content of water diffusible toxic components. Substituting eugenol can further decrease the toxicity of the sealer. PMID:8006567

  17. Rare Root Canal Configuration of Bilateral Maxillary Second Molar Using Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Scanning.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chang; Shen, Ya; Guan, Xiaoyue; Wang, Xin; Fan, Mingwen; Li, Yuhong

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this article was to present a right maxillary second molar with an unusual root canal morphology of 4 roots and 5 canals as confirmed by cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging. The tooth had a C-shaped mesiobuccal root (CBCT imaging revealed that the root was closer to the palate than the buccal side) with 2 canals, 2 fused distobuccal roots with 2 separate canals, and 1 normal bulky palatal root with 1 canal. After thoroughly examining the rare anatomy, root canal treatment was applied on the tooth. This article shows the complexity of maxillary second molar variation and shows the significance of CBCT imaging in the confirmation of the 3-dimensional anatomy of teeth and endodontic treatment.

  18. Endodontic management of permanent mandibular molars with 6 root canals: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Amit; Ahlawat, Jyoti; Bansal, Chirag; Tahiliani, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Aberrations in the internal dental anatomy present challenges for clinicians performing endodontic therapy. These challenges have been partly resolved in recent years by a more comprehensive knowledge of root canal anatomy as well as advancements in the endodontic armamentarium. The aim of this case series is to describe successful root canal treatment, under magnification, in 3 cases of mandibular first molars with 6 root canals. Two of these teeth had 2 roots (mesial and distal) with 3 canals in each root; the third tooth had 3 root canals located mesially and 3 present distally as well as a radix entomolaris. A distal root with 3 canals is rare; however, it is important to look for such anatomical variations to ensure successful endodontic therapy. PMID:27599288

  19. Photoactivated disinfection (PAD) of dental root canal system – An ex-vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Dennis; Maruthingal, Sunith; Indira, Rajamani; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Durgesh, B.H.; Basavarajappa, Santhosh; John, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the efficacy of photo activated disinfection (PAD) in reducing colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in infected dental root canals. The study compared the efficacy of PAD with conventional endodontic treatment (CET) and also a combination of CET along with PAD. Material and Methods 53 maxillary incisors were taken for the study. Teeth were divided into 3 groups, CET (Group I) (n = 11), PAD (Group II) (n = 21), and a combination of CET and PAD (Group III) which consisted of (n = 21) samples, Group II and Group III were further divided into 2 subgroups, Group IIa, IIb and Group IIIa, IIIb. Strains of E. faecalis were inoculated in all the root canals. CET group samples were treated by chemo-mechanical preparation (CMP) alone, PAD samples were treated with laser alone at 2 different exposure time (4 min and 2 min). In the combination treatment, samples were treated initially by CET and then by PAD for a time period of 4 min and 2 min. Contents of the root canal were aspirated, diluted and plated in Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB) and plates were incubated for 24 h to observe the bacterial regrowth. Results Showed PAD used along with CMP reduced the bacterial load of E. faecalis by 99.5% at 4 min and 98.89% at 2 min. Conclusion PAD may be an adjunctive procedure to kill residual bacteria in the dental root canal systems after standard endodontic root canal preparation. PMID:26858548

  20. Efficacy of different techniques for removal of calcium hydroxide-chlorhexidine paste from root canals.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; Leal, Flávia Martins; Silva, Gleyce Oliveira; de Oliveira, Tatiana Rocha; Madureira, Paloma Grasso; Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different techniques for removal of combined calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and chlorhexidine paste from root canals. Fifty single-rooted human teeth were prepared by oscillatory and rotary systems and filled with a paste of Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel. After incubation for 14 days, the specimens were divided into 5 groups (n = 10), and the medication was removed by 1 of 5 different procedures. In group 1 (control), removal procedures involved a master apical file, foraminal debridement, and 5 mL of saline solution applied with the NaviTip irrigation needle. Group 2 was treated the same as group 1, but in addition 0.5 mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was used for 3 minutes. In group 3, ultrasonic agitation was performed for 1 minute. Group 4 was treated as group 2, but the NaviTip FX needle was used for irrigation. In group 5, a master apical file, foraminal debridement, and 3-minute application of 5 mL of citric acid were used. After the root-cleaning procedures, the crowns were removed at the cementoenamel junction, and the roots were split longitudinally into halves. The success of intracanal medicament removal was observed under stereoscopic microscope and scanning electron microscope. Remnants of Ca(OH)2 were found in all experimental groups, regardless of the removal technique used. There was no statistically significant difference in cleanliness in the apical third of the root canal among groups 1, 2, and 3. Group 4 showed the best and group 5 the worst results with statistically significant differences. Overall, the NaviTip FX irrigation needle technique was more efficient in removing a Ca(OH)2-chlorhexidine paste from the root canal. PMID:26943099

  1. Discrimination potential of root canal treated tooth in forensic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Khalid, K; Yousif, S; Satti, A

    2016-07-01

    Forensic Odontology is a vital component of forensic science and one branch involves the application of dental science to the identification of unknown human remains. The aim of this study is to investigate the discriminatory potential for identification of the radiographic morphology of obturated single root canals. Thirty periapical radiographs of patients having endodontic treatment of single rooted canals were selected randomly from the data bank of the digital X- ray system present in the restorative department, University of Science and Technology, Sudan. The post-operative radiographs were considered as an ant-mortem data "Set 1". Ten radiographs from the thirty were reprinted, labelled from (A-J) and considered as a post-mortem data "Set 2". This post-mortem group of 10 radiographs "Set 2" would be compared with the ante-mortem group of 30 radiographs comprising "Set 1". These two sets of radiographs would be examined by 40 dentally trained personnel. The thirty radiographs comprising "Set 1" and the 10 radiographs comprising "Set 2" were provided to each of the examiners who were asked to match the individual post-mortem radiographs ("Set 2") with the ante-mortem radiographs ("Set1"). The result demonstrated that 34 examiners achieved a success rate of 100%, 4 examiners achieved a success rate of 97.5% (1 mismatch) and 2 examiners achieved a success rate of 95% (2 mismatches). The radiographic images of obturated single-rooted teeth in this study were shown to have highly- specific morphological features. It is proposed that, in cases where the ante and post-mortem radiographs of a single-rooted obturated canal show similar morphology, this commonality of morphology can be used as a tool in the identification process.

  2. Stem length and canal filling in uncemented custom-made total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sakai, T; Sugano, N; Nishii, T; Haraguchi, K; Ochi, T; Ohzono, K

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed 60 custom-made femoral components of two different lengths : 125 mm (group A) and 100 mm (group B), in order to investigate the relationship between stem length and canal filling in uncemented custom-made total hip arthroplasty. There were no statistical differences between the two groups in age, gender, height, body weight, canal flare index, or bowing angle of the femur. Postoperatively there was no statistical difference between the two groups in the proximal canal filling, but significant difference in the distal canal filling (75.5% vs 85.8% on the anteroposterior view and 76.0% vs 82.5% in the lateral view, P<0.001). The distal canal filling inversely correlated with the ratio of the proximal portion and the distal portion of the stem curvature on the lateral view (lateral curve ratio of the stem, P=0.002). We conclude that superior filling at both the proximal and the distal levels can be obtained by using 100-mm custom made components with a small lateral curve ratio. PMID:10591939

  3. Root canal disinfection of immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis: Comparison of three different protocols

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Benítez, Soledad; Stambolsky Guelfand, Carlos; Martín-Jiménez, Milagros

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The present in vivo study was designed to assess the efficacy of 3 root canal disinfection protocols in immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis (AP). Material and Methods: Forty immature premolars with pulp necrosis and AP of five Beagle dogs were used. Three experimental disinfection protocols were established. After irrigation with 40 ml 5.25% sodium hypochlorite using the Endovac system, in Group 1 canals were flushed with QMix solution; in Group 2, canals were flushed with QMix solution and 2% chlorhexidine gel dressing was placed for two weeks; and in Group 3, triantibiotic paste dressing was placed for two weeks. Canals were sampled after periapical lesions were radiographically visible (S1), after the first disinfection session (S2) and, in groups 2 and 3, after dressing (S3). Results: After the first session of the disinfection protocol (S2), there was significant (p < 0.05) bacterial reduction in the three experimental groups. Microorganisms were absent in 100% of S2 samples in groups 1 and 2, and in 75% of group 3 (p > 0.05). After dressing, 87.5% of the S3 samples showed increased bacterial count: in group 2, CFU counts (median = 891) were significantly higher than in group 3 (median = 18) (p = 0.03). Conclusions: In immature dog teeth with AP, root canal irrigation using QMix solution, with or without chlorhexidine gel dressing, or a triantibiotic paste dressing, provides the same level of disinfection than irrigation with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite alone in only one session. Key words:Apical periodontitis, chlorhexidine, Endovac, immature teeth, QMix solution, root canal disinfection, triantibiotic paste. PMID:25593656

  4. Bilateral presence of two root canals in maxillary central incisors: A rare case study.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, M; Gokul, Kannan; Ramaprabha, B; Lakshmi, Amudha

    2014-04-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning and shaping followed by complete obturation of the canal system. Therefore, endodontic therapy requires specific and complete knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy, and its variations in presentation. The internal anatomy of the maxillary central incisor is well-known and usually presents one root canal system. This case report describes an endodontic treatment of traumatized both maxillary central incisors with two canal systems. Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for proper endodontic practice. When root canal treatment is performed, the clinician should be aware that both external and internal anatomy may be abnormal.

  5. The effect of serrations on carbon fibre posts-retention within the root canal, core retention, and post rigidity.

    PubMed

    Love, R M; Purton, D G

    1996-01-01

    The retention in root canals of serrated carbon fibre Composiposts and stainless steel Paraposts was tested under tensile load. Twenty unrestored human roots were endodontically prepared and root filled. Two groups of 10 roots received 1.4-mm Composiposts or 1.25-mm Paraposts luted with a resin cement. The specimens were then embedded in acrylic resin and mounted in an Instron machine. The tensile force (kg) required to dislodge the posts was recorded and analysed with Student's test. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the retention of either post (P > .05). The rigidty of 10 1.4-mm serrated Composiposts was tested in a three-point bend test in an Instron machine, and the retention of composite cores to 10 of these posts under tensile force was also tested. The results from these tests were compared to previous data from the authors' laboratory and revealed that the serrations significantly reduced the rigidity of the post (P < .001) and increased the retention of a core material (P < .001). PMID:9108751

  6. Quality of Root Canals Performed by the Inaugural Class of Dental Students at Libyan International Medical University

    PubMed Central

    Elemam, Ranya F.; Abdul Majid, Ziad Salim; Groesbeck, Matt; Azevedo, Álvaro F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to radiographically evaluate technical quality of root canal fillings performed by dental undergraduates at Libyan International Medical University in Libya. Methods. Root canal cases were treated at university dental clinic from the fall of 2012 to the fall of 2013 by the fourth and fifth year dental students. Students used step-back preparation and cold lateral compaction in the treatment. Radiographs were reviewed over a two-year period from initial procedure to final restoration. Radiographs were evaluated for adequacy or inadequacy by length, density, and taper. Length inadequacy was classified as short or overextended. Overall quality was considered “adequate” based on all three variables. Chi-square tested differences between teeth groupings and adequacy classification. Significant p value results were adjusted by Bonferroni correction. Results. Adequate length of root canal fillings were observed in roughly half of all samples (48.6%). Density was adequate in 75.8% of the samples. Taper was observed as adequate in 68.8%. Higher quality was evident in anterior teeth (plus premolars) versus molars (65.6% versus 43.3%, resp.; p < 0.04). Conclusion. Overall quality of endodontic treatment performed by undergraduate dental students was adequate in 53.9% of the cases. Significant opportunity exists to improve the quality of root canals provided by dental students. PMID:26124834

  7. In vivo antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Podar, Rajesh; Kulkarni, Gaurav P.; Dadu, Shifali S.; Singh, Shraddha; Singh, Shishir H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as root canal irrigants. Materials and Methods: Thirty nonvital maxillary anteriors were randomly assigned to one of the three groups corresponding to the irrigant to be tested; 6% Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ) (n = 10), A. indica (n = 10) and 3% NaOCl (n = 10). After the root canal access opening a root canal culture sample was taken with two paper points and cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Cleaning and shaping were completed with irrigation by 10 mL of respective irrigants and 5 mL of final rinse. The patients were recalled after 3 days and canals were rinsed again with 5 mL of the test irrigants. This was followed by obtaining a posttreatment root canal culture sample and culturing and analyzed by counting the colony forming units (CFUs). Results: Six percentage MCJ, A. indica, and 3% NaOCl showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the mean CFU counts for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria between baseline and 3 days. Conclusion: There was no difference in the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% M. citrifolia, A. indica, and 3% NaOCl as root canal irrigants. PMID:26929692

  8. Effectiveness of conventional syringe irrigation, vibringe, and passive ultrasonic irrigation performed with different irrigation regimes in removing triple antibiotic paste from simulated root canal irregularities

    PubMed Central

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Aktı, Ahmet; Topçuoğlu, Gamze; Düzgün, Salih; Ulusan, Özge; Akpek, Firdevs

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the efficacy of a sonic device (Vibringe), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and conventional syringe irrigation (CSI) in the removal of triple antibiotic paste (TAP) from artificial standardized grooves in the apical and coronal thirds of a root canal. Materials and Methods: One-hundred eighteen root canals were prepared using the ProTaper system. The roots were split longitudinally, and a standardized groove was prepared in the apical and coronal parts of one segment. The grooves were filled with TAP, and the roots were reassembled. The roots were randomly divided into nine experimental groups and two control groups, according to the following irrigation methods: (1) CSI with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) + ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), (2) CSI/EDTA, (3) CSI/NaOCl, (4) PUI/NaOCl + EDTA, (5) PUI/EDTA, (6) PUI/NaOCl, (7) Vibringe/NaOCl + EDTA, (8) Vibringe/EDTA, and (9) Vibringe/NaOCl. The amount of remaining medicament was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Results: In the apical third, Vibringe/NaOCl + EDTA and PUI/NaOCl + EDTA were superior to the other groups (P < 0.05); there was no significant difference between the other experimental groups (P > 0.05). In the coronal third, there was no significant difference between the experimental groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The use of the NaOCl/EDTA combination together with sonic or ultrasonic agitation improved the removal of TAP from the apical third. PMID:27563179

  9. Rethinking root canal treatment: understanding the difference between preventing and treating endodontic infection.

    PubMed

    El-Ma'aita, A M; Qualtrough, A J E; Darcey, J; Hunter, M J

    2015-07-10

    Root canal treatment is a frequently performed procedure aimed to address pulpal and peri-radicular disease. It comprises a number of clinical steps regardless of the initial diagnosis. The emphasis of each step varies according to whether there is a vital pulp (non-infected) or if the pulp system contains necrotic, infected tissue and there is peri-apical pathology. This article aims to discuss the differences in performing root canal treatments on teeth with vital and non-vital pulps. The reader should understand the differences between performing a root canal treatment in teeth with vital pulps and those with infected root canal spaces and peri-radicular pathology.

  10. Washout resistance of fast-setting pozzolan cement under various root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ga-Yeon; Park, Su-Jung; Heo, Seok-Mo; Yu, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Fast-setting pozzolan cement (Endocem, Maruchi) was recently developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various root canal irrigants on the washout of Endocem in comparison to the previously marketed mineral trioxide aggregate (ProRoot; Dentsply) in a furcal perforation model. Materials and Methods ProRoot and Endocem were placed into acrylic molds on moist Oasis. Each mold was then immediately exposed to either physiologic saline, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), or 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) under gentle shaking for five minutes. Washout testing was performed by scoring scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Results Endocem exhibited higher washout resistance compared to ProRoot, especially in the NaOCl group. Conclusions These results suggest that Endocem can be considered a useful repair material for furcal perforation, especially in a single-visit scenario. PMID:24303361

  11. Three-dimensional analysis of root canal geometry by high-resolution computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Peters, O A; Laib, A; Rüegsegger, P; Barbakow, F

    2000-06-01

    A detailed understanding of the complexity of root canal systems is imperative to ensure successful root canal preparation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential and accuracy of a three-dimensional, non-destructive technique for detailing root canal geometry by means of high-resolution tomography. The anatomy of root canals in 12 extracted human maxillary molars was analyzed by means of a micro-computed tomography scanner (microCT, cubic resolution 34 microm). A special mounting device facilitated repeated precise repositioning of the teeth in the microCT. Surface areas and volumes of each canal were calculated by triangulation, and means were determined. Model-independent methods were used to evaluate the canals' diameters and configuration. The calculated and measured volumes and the areas of artificial root canals, produced by the drilling of precision holes into dentin disks, were well-correlated. Semi-automated repositioning of specimens resulted in near-perfect matching (< 1 voxel) when outer canal contours were assessed. Root canal geometry was accurately assessed by this innovative technique; therefore, variables and indices presented may serve as a basis for further analyses of root canal anatomy in experimental endodontology. PMID:10890720

  12. Gender difference and root canal morphology in mandibular premolars: A cone-beam computed tomography study in an Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Kazemipoor, Maryam; Hajighasemi, Afrooz; Hakimian, Roqayeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mandibular premolars are of the most difficult teeth to treat endodontically. Aims: To compare the root canal morphology of mandibular premolars between two genders in an Iranian population. Settings and Design: Totally, 230 cone-beam computed tomography images of the mandibles belonged to 115 males and 115 females were evaluated in the three spatial planes. Materials and Methods: The total number of roots and canals in the mandibular premolars was counted, and the difference between males and females were analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using Chi-square test. The significance level was set as P < 0.05. Results: The majority of mandibular first and second premolars had one root (85.7% and 94.8%, respectively) and one canal (63.9% and 78.3%, respectively). The number of roots in the mandibular first premolars had statistically significant difference between two genders (P = 0.001). There was no significant difference between two genders in the number of roots (P = 0.208) and canals (P = 0.498) in the mandibular second premolars. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the root canal morphology in the mandibular first premolars had statistically significant difference between two genders. PMID:26321843

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE ASSOCIATED WITH INTRACANAL MEDICATION FOR Candida albicans AND Enterococcus faecalis INOCULATED IN ROOT CANALS

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; da Silva, Katy Costa Godinho; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Carvalho, Cláudio Antonio Talge; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; Silva e Lima, Raphael

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the action of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with an intracanal medication against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. Material and Methods: Thirty-six human single-rooted teeth with single root canals were used. The canals were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days and were then instrumented with 1% NaOCl. The roots were divided into 3 groups (n=12) according to the intracanal medication applied: calcium hydroxide paste, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel, and 2% CHX gel associated with calcium hydroxide. The following collections were made from the root canals: a) initial sample (IS): 21 days after contamination (control), b) S1: after instrumentation, c) S2: 14 days after intracanal medication placement; S3: 7 days after intracanal medication removal. The results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5% significance level. Results and Conclusions: Both 1% NaOCl irrigation and the intracanal medications were effective in eliminating E. faecalis and C. albicans inoculated in root canals. PMID:20027425

  14. Root Canal Cleaning Efficacy of Rotary and Hand Files Instrumentation in Primary Molars

    PubMed Central

    Nazari Moghaddam, Kiumars; Mehran, Majid; Farajian Zadeh, Hamideh

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pulpectomy of primary teeth is commonly carried out with hand files and broaches; a tricky and time consuming procedure. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the cleaning efficacy and time taken for instrumentation of deciduous molars using hand K-files and Flex Master rotary system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 68 canals of 23 extracted primary molars with at least two third intact roots and 7-12 mm length were selected. After preparing an access cavity, K-file size #15 was introduced into the root canal and India ink was injected with an insulin syringe. Sixty samples were randomly divided in to experimental groups in group I (n=30), root canals were prepared with hand K-files; in group II (n=30), rotary Flex Master files were used for instrumentation, and in group III 8 remained samples were considered as negative controls. After clearing and root sectioning, the removal of India ink from cervical, middle, and apical thirds was scored. Data was analyzed using student's T-test and Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between experimental groups cleaning efficacy at the cervical, middle and apical root canal thirds. Only the coronal third scored higher in the hand instrumented group (P<0.001). Instrumentation with Flex Master rotary files was significantly less time consuming (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Although there was no difference in cleanliness efficacy at the apical and middle thirds, the coronal third was more effectively cleaned with hand files. Predictably, time efficiency was a significant advantage with rotary technique. PMID:23940486

  15. Outcomes of root canal treatment in Dental PBRN practices

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregg H.; Tilashalski, Ken R.; Litaker, Mark S.; McNeal, Sandre F.; Boykin, Michael J.; Kessler, Allen W.

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose was to quantify the incidence of root canal treatment (RCT) failure and identify its predictors in root canals done in or referred from general dentistry practices in a practice-based research network (PBRN). A retrospective cohort study of 174 endodontically-treated teeth was conducted. Mean duration of follow-up was 8.6 years. Permanent restorations were ultimately placed in 89% of teeth; mean (S.D.) number of days to permanent restoration was 215.4 (609.1). Although RCT had been completed, 18% of teeth were ultimately extracted anyway. Receipt of a permanent restoration was a significant predictor of treatment failure, whether it was determined clinically or radiographically. This study of PBRN practices suggests a higher failure rate than reported from studies in highly-controlled environments or populations with high levels of dental insurance. Also, the probability of receipt of a permanent restoration is not optimal -- and strongly predicts RCT failure. Appropriately, no RCT was done on teeth with severe periodontal bone loss. PMID:20129890

  16. Marginal adaptation of newer root canal sealers to dentin: A SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Polineni, Swapnika; Bolla, Nagesh; Mandava, Pragna; Vemuri, Sayesh; Mallela, Madhusudana; Gandham, Vijaya Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This in vitro study evaluated and compared the marginal adaptation of three newer root canal sealers to root dentin. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted human single-rooted teeth with completely formed apices were taken. Teeth were decoronated, and root canals were instrumented. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) based upon the sealer used. Group 1 - teeth were obturated with epoxy resin sealer (MM-Seal). Group 2 - teeth were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) based sealer (MTA Fillapex), Group 3 - teeth were obturated with bioceramic sealer (EndoSequence BC sealer). Later samples were vertically sectioned using hard tissue microtome and marginal adaptation of sealers to root dentin was evaluated under coronal and apical halves using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and marginal gap values were recorded. Results: The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post hoc test. The highest marginal gap was seen in Group 2 (apical-16680.00 nm, coronal-10796 nm) and the lowest marginal gap was observed in Group 1 (apical-599.42 nm, coronal-522.72 nm). Coronal halves showed superior adaptation compared to apical halves in all the groups under SEM. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study epoxy resin-based MM-Seal showed good marginal adaptation than other materials tested. PMID:27563187

  17. Accuracy of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Determining the Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular First Molars

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Hadi; Niknami, Mahdi; Mokhtari Zonouzi, Hamid Reza; Sohrabi, Aydin; Ghasemi, Negin; Akbari Golzar, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in determining root canal morphology of mandibular first molars in comparison with staining and clearing technique. Methods and Materials: CBCT images were taken from 96 extracted human mandibular first molars and the teeth were then evaluated based on Vertucci’s classification to determine the root canal morphology. Afterwards, access cavities were prepared and India ink was injected into the canals with an insulin syringe. The teeth were demineralized with 5% nitric acid. Finally, the cleared teeth were evaluated under a magnifying glass at 5× magnification to determine the root canal morphology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software. The Fisher’s exact test assessed the differences between the mesial and distal canals and the Cohen’s kappa test was used to assess the level of agreement between the methods. Statistical significance was defined at 0.05. Results: The Kappa coefficient for agreement between the two methods evaluating canal types was 0.346 (95% CI: 0.247-0.445), which is considered a fair level of agreement based on classification of Koch and Landis. The agreement between CBCT and Vertucci’s classification was 52.6% (95% CI: 45.54-59.66%), with a significantly higher agreement rate in the mesial canals (28.1%) compared to the distal canals (77.1%) (P<0.001). Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, clearing technique was more accurate than CBCT in providing accurate picture of the root canal anatomy of mandibular first molars. PMID:27141216

  18. Anatomic and Diagnostic Challenges of C-Shaped Root Canal System

    PubMed Central

    Raisingani, Deepak; Gupta, Shailendra; Mital, Prachi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Successful root canal treatment depends on the thorough management of the canal anatomy. The use of periapical radiographs is essential to identify and monitor the canal's morphological variations. The C-shaped single canaled man-dibular 2nd molar probably requires a different regimen of treatment from the two rooted, three canaled version, as it is rare. Because of the importance of its true diagnosis and treatment, a comprehensive review of published information and investigations about it in addition to approaches for its treatment is necessary. In this article, a detailed review and three case reports with different C-shaped canal configurations have been described which were successfully negotiated, pre­pared and obturated. How to cite this article: Raisingani D, Gupta S, Mital P, Khullar P. Anatomic and Diagnostic Challenges of C-Shaped Root Canal System. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):35-39. PMID:25206235

  19. Effect of 95% Ethanol as a Final Irrigant before Root Canal Obturation in Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvenkadam, G; John, Baby; Priya, PR Geetha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Successful obturation in the primary teeth demands complete dryness of the root canal system. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 95% ethanol as the final irrigant before root canal obturation in primary teeth. Materials and methods: A total of 20 extracted primary mandibular canines were biomechanically prepared and pre-obturated volume of each tooth was assessed using spiral computed tomography (CT). The specimens were divided into two groups (n = 10): group 1, Metapex group; group 2, zinc oxide eugenol group. Each group was further divided randomly into two subgroups (n = 5): subgroup 1, canals were dried with 95% ethanol; subgroup 2, canals were blot dried with paper points with the last one appearing dry. All canals were obturated and the postobturated volume of each tooth was measured. The percentage of obturated volume (POV) was calculated using the formula: (postobturated volume/preobturated volume) × 100. The POV between the groups was statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon Signed rank test appropriately. Results: Root canals that were dried with ethanol showed better obturation than using paper points alone and the difference was statistically significant in both group 1 (p < 0.001) and group 2 (p < 0.002). Conclusion: Drying of the root canal system with 95% ethanol can result in better obturation in the primary teeth. How to cite this article: Thiruvenkadam G, Asokan S, John B, Geetha Priya PR. Effect of 95% Ethanol as a Final Irrigant before Root Canal Obturation in Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):21-24. PMID:27274150

  20. Maxillary lateral incisors with two canals and two separate curved roots

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ajit George; Rajesh, Ebenezar A. V.; George, Liza; Sujathan; Josy, Susan Ann

    2012-01-01

    Variation in the roots and root canal anatomy seems to be the norm rather than an exception. For a successful endodontic treatment, a clinician should have a thorough knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy and its variations. Maxillary lateral incisors usually exhibit single canal with a single root. In this case, clinical examination and radiographs clearly demonstrates the presence of two root canals with two separate curved roots. This case report emphasizes the need for attention during endodontic management of maxillary lateral incisors. PMID:23633825

  1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation of sealing ability of MTA and EndoSequence as root-end filling materials with chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) as retrograde smear layer removing agents

    PubMed Central

    Nagesh, Bolla; Jeevani, Eppala; Sujana, Varri; Damaraju, Bharagavi; Sreeha, Kaluvakolanu; Ramesh, Penumaka

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and EndoSequence with chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) as retrograde smear layer removing agents using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Forty human single rooted teeth were taken. Crowns were decoronated and canals were obturated. Apically roots were resected and retrograde cavities were done. Based on the type of retrograde material placed and the type of smear layer removal agent used for retrograde cavities, they were divided into four groups (N = 10): Group I chitosan with EndoSequence, group II chitosan with MTA, group III CMC with EndoSequence, and Group IV CMC with MTA. All the samples were longitudinally sectioned, and the SEM analysis was done for marginal adaptation. Statistical Analysis: Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Witney analysis tests. Results: SEM images showed the presence of less gaps in group III, i.e., CMC with EndoSequence when compared to other groups with statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Within the limited scope of this study, it was concluded that EndoSequence as retrograde material showed better marginal sealing ability. PMID:27099420

  2. Vitality of Enterococcus faecalis inside dentinal tubules after five root canal disinfection methods

    PubMed Central

    Vatkar, Niranjan Ashok; Hegde, Vivek; Sathe, Sucheta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the vitality of Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules after subjected to five root canal disinfection methods. Materials and Methods: Dentin blocks (n = 60) were colonized with E. faecalis. After 4 weeks of incubation, the dentin blocks were divided into one control and five test groups (n = 10 each). The root canals of test groups were subjected to one of the disinfection methods, namely, normal saline (NS), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser, and diode laser. The effect of disinfection methods was assessed by LIVE/DEAD BacLight stain under the confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine the “zone of dead bacteria” (ZDB). Mean values were calculated for ZDB and the difference between groups was established. Results: Penetration of E. faecalis was seen to a depth of >1000 μm. Viable bacteria were detected with NS irrigation. NaOCl and CHX showed partial ZDB. When the root canals were disinfected with Nd: YAG and diode lasers, no viable bacteria were found. Conclusion: E. faecalis has the ability to colonize inside dentinal tubules to a depth of >1000 μm. In contrast to conventional irrigants, both Nd: YAG and diode lasers were effective in eliminating the vitality of E. faecalis. NS, NaOCl, and CHX showed viable bacteria remaining in dentinal tubules.

  3. Vitality of Enterococcus faecalis inside dentinal tubules after five root canal disinfection methods

    PubMed Central

    Vatkar, Niranjan Ashok; Hegde, Vivek; Sathe, Sucheta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the vitality of Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules after subjected to five root canal disinfection methods. Materials and Methods: Dentin blocks (n = 60) were colonized with E. faecalis. After 4 weeks of incubation, the dentin blocks were divided into one control and five test groups (n = 10 each). The root canals of test groups were subjected to one of the disinfection methods, namely, normal saline (NS), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser, and diode laser. The effect of disinfection methods was assessed by LIVE/DEAD BacLight stain under the confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine the “zone of dead bacteria” (ZDB). Mean values were calculated for ZDB and the difference between groups was established. Results: Penetration of E. faecalis was seen to a depth of >1000 μm. Viable bacteria were detected with NS irrigation. NaOCl and CHX showed partial ZDB. When the root canals were disinfected with Nd: YAG and diode lasers, no viable bacteria were found. Conclusion: E. faecalis has the ability to colonize inside dentinal tubules to a depth of >1000 μm. In contrast to conventional irrigants, both Nd: YAG and diode lasers were effective in eliminating the vitality of E. faecalis. NS, NaOCl, and CHX showed viable bacteria remaining in dentinal tubules. PMID:27656064

  4. Effect of Object Position in Cone Beam Computed Tomography Field of View for Detection of Root Fractures in Teeth with Intra-Canal Posts

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Vasegh, Zahra; Rezapanah, Samin; Safi, Yaser; Khaeazifard, Mohamad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vertical root fracture (VRF) is a common problem in endodontically treated teeth. Due to its poor prognosis, a reliable technique must be used to make an accurate diagnosis. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been recently introduced for maxillofacial imaging. Despite the high diagnostic value of this method, metal artifacts resulting from intra-canal posts still make the detection of VRFs challenging. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of object position in the field of view (FOV) of CBCT on detection of VRFs in teeth with intra-canal posts. Materials and Methods: The crowns of 60 extracted premolar teeth were cut at the level of cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Root canals were filled with gutta-percha and filling of the coronal 2/3 of the root canals was subsequently removed to fabricate intra-canal cast posts. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups of 30. Fracture was induced in group one using an Instron machine. Group two was considered as the control group with no fracture. All teeth were then randomly positioned and scanned in five different positions starting at the center of the FOV as well as right, left anterior and posterior relative to the center (3, 9, 12, and 6 O’clock) via the New Tom VGI CBCT unit. Two observers evaluated images for VRFs. Sensitivity and specificity of fracture diagnosis in each position was calculated in comparison with the gold standard. Wilcoxon test was used for data analysis. Results: Considering deterministic and probabilistic diagnostic parameters, probabilistic sensitivity was similar in all positions; but probabilistic specificity of the center position (65.1%) was significantly higher than that of 6 and 12 O’clock positions. Considering the deterministic diagnostic parameters, the overall sensitivity and specificity values decreased in all positions in FOV, but sensitivity of the center position of FOV was significantly higher than that of other positions; specificity was

  5. Application of 17% EDTA Enhances Diffusion of (45)Ca-labeled OH(-) and Ca(2+) in Primary Tooth Root Canal.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Marcos; Cavalcanti Taguchi, Carolina Mayumi; Triches, Thaisa Cezaria; Sartori, Neimar; Pereira Dias, Luis Alberto; de Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti; Cardoso, Mariane

    2016-01-01

    Proper cleaning of the root canal is key to the success of endodontic treatment as it allows more effective diffusion of medication throughout the dentinal tubules. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the efficacy of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in enhancing diffusion of hydroxyl (OH(-)) and calcium ions (Ca(2+)) throughout the root canal in primary teeth. The canals of 25 primary tooth roots were cleaned with endodontic files and 1% sodium hypochlorite. Three groups (G) were then established: GI, in which final irrigation was performed with 1% sodium hypochlorite; GII, in which 17% EDTA was used; and GIII, in which no irrigation was performed. The roots canals in GI and GII were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste labeled with the radioisotope calcium-45. Diffusion of OH(-) was detected with pH strips and Ca(2+) analyzed by measuring radioactivity in counts per min. Group II differed statistically from the other groups in diffusion of OH(-) at 24 hr (p<0.05), but no significant difference among groups was found at the day 7 evaluation; GII also differed statistically from the other groups in diffusion of Ca(2+) at 24 hr (p<0.05). These results suggest that application of 17% EDTA in primary tooth enhances diffusion of OH(-) and Ca(2+). PMID:26961333

  6. Effect of energy (J) on temperature changes at apical root surface when using Er:YAG laser to enlarge root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, Jesus D.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Daghastanli, Naser A.; Silva, Reginaldo S.

    2000-03-01

    The use of lasers for cleaning, shaping and disinfecting root canals must not produce heat which damages periapical tissue and alveolar bone. The aim of the present study was to determine the increase of external temperature at the apical surface of the root canal after Er:YAG laser irradiation with a 250 micrometer diameter fiberoptic guide with and without distilled and deionized water at 3 different total energies. Thirty single-rooted teeth were instrumented to #25 K-file using distilled and deionized water for irrigation. They were divided into three groups according to total energy (15J, 30J and 45J with 15 Hz and 140 mJ per pulse). Each group was irradiated with water and then without water. The increase in temperature at the apical root surface was measured with a multimeter and a thermocouple. Changes in apical temperature were significantly different in all groups (p less than 0.01; 15 J less than 45 J less than 30 J). Less time was necessary for return to initial room temperature at 15 J. We conclude that in vitro use of the Er:YAG laser (total energy of 15, 30, and 45 J) increased external apical root temperature and that the root canal must be filled with distilled and deionized water to reduce the risk of an increase in temperature.

  7. Retreatment of a Maxillary Lateral Incisor With Two Separate Root Canals Confirmed With Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Seda; Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Sinanoglu, Alper; Ozel, Emre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a maxillary lateral incisor exhibiting two separate root canals confirmed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A 65-year-old female patient with an esthetic complaint regarding her maxillary left lateral incisor was referred to our clinic. During a radiographical examination, an endodontically treated root canal and an extra root canal with an apical lesion were observed. The retreatment was performed. CBCT findings confirmed the root canal mophology of the maxillary left lateral with two distinct canals. We conclude that the CBCT imaging is an adjunctive tool for better assessment of complex root canal systems. PMID:26015823

  8. Tooth discoloration induced by a novel mineral trioxide aggregate-based root canal sealer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Sung; Lim, Myung-Jin; Choi, Yoorina; Rosa, Vinicius; Hong, Chan-Ui; Min, Kyung-San

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth discoloration caused by contact with a novel injectable mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based root canal sealer (Endoseal; Maruchi, Wonju, Korea) compared with a widely used resin-based root canal sealer (AHplus; Dentsply De Trey, Konstanz, Germany) and conventional MTA (ProRoot; Dentsply, Tulsa, OK, USA). Materials and Methods: Forty standardized bovine tooth samples were instrumented and divided into three experimental groups and one control group (n = 10/group). Each material was inserted into the cavity, and all specimens were sealed with a self-adhesive resin. Based on CIE Lab system, brightness change (ΔL) and total color change (ΔE) of each specimen between baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks were obtained. Results: At all time points, Endoseal showed no significant difference in ΔL and ΔE compared to AHplus and control group (P > 0.05), whereas the ProRoot group showed significantly higher ΔL and ΔE values than the Endoseal group at 2, 4, and 8 weeks (P < 0.05). Therefore, Endoseal showed less discoloration than conventional MTA and a similar color change to AHplus. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, our data indicate that the MTA-based sealer produces a similar amount of tooth discoloration as AHplus which is considered to be acceptable. PMID:27403062

  9. Flexural and fatigue strengths of root canal posts.

    PubMed

    Peutzfeldt, A; Asmussen, E

    1990-12-01

    This study measured the flexural and fatigue strengths of root canal posts of different alloy, design, and diameter. Fixed posts were loaded up to a preset force and the number of loadings endured until fracture was recorded at each loading force. The flexural strength was defined as the maximum force a post could endure before fracture when loaded once. The fatigue strength was determined as the maximum force a post could endure when loaded 10,000 times. Both modes of strength were found to increase with increasing diameter. Aluminum posts had lower flexural and fatigue strengths than posts of titanium, stainless steel, and a Ag-Pd alloy, all of which had strength values of about the same magnitude. Among the investigated brands, Triax and Radix were stronger than the others at comparable diameters. The high strength of Triax may be explained by the design of the post, whereas a superior alloy may account for the high strength of Radix.

  10. Stress distribution on dentin-cement-post interface varying root canal and glass fiber post diameters. A three-dimensional finite element analysis based on micro-CT data

    PubMed Central

    LAZARI, Priscilla Cardoso; de OLIVEIRA, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; ANCHIETA, Rodolfo Bruniera; de ALMEIDA, Erika Oliveira; FREITAS JUNIOR, Amilcar Chagas; KINA, Sidney; ROCHA, Eduardo Passos

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of root canal and glass fiber post diameters on the biomechanical behavior of the dentin/cement/post interface of a root-filled tooth using 3D finite element analysis. Material and Methods Six models were built using micro-CT imaging data and SolidWorks 2007 software, varying the root canal (C) and the glass fiber post (P) diameters: C1P1-C=1 mm and P=1 mm; C2P1-C=2 mm and P=1 mm; C2P2-C=2 mm and P=2 mm; C3P1-C=3 mm and P=1 mm; C3P2-C=3 mm and P=2 mm; and C3P3-C=3 mm and P=3 mm. The numerical analysis was conducted with ANSYS Workbench 10.0. An oblique force (180 N at 45º) was applied to the palatal surface of the central incisor. The periodontal ligament surface was constrained on the three axes (x=y=z=0). Maximum principal stress (σmax) values were evaluated for the root dentin, cement layer, and glass fiber post. Results: The most evident stress was observed in the glass fiber post at C3P1 (323 MPa), and the maximum stress in the cement layer occurred at C1P1 (43.2 MPa). The stress on the root dentin was almost constant in all models with a peak in tension at C2P1 (64.5 MPa). Conclusion The greatest discrepancy between root canal and post diameters is favorable for stress concentration at the post surface. The dentin remaining after the various root canal preparations did not increase the stress levels on the root. PMID:24473716

  11. A comparison of molar root canal preparations using six instruments and instrumentation techniques.

    PubMed

    Roig-Cayón, M; Basilio-Monné, J; Abós-Herrándiz, R; Brau-Aguadé, E; Canalda-Sahli, C

    1997-06-01

    Six different instruments (Flexofile, Canal Master U, Heliapical, Flexogate, Ultraflex, and Lightspeed) were evaluated in 240 mesial canals of extracted mandibular molars (40 canals per instrument type). After instrumentation, the roots were cross-sectioned 2, 5, and 9 mm from the apex. The cross sections were evaluated to determine the quality of canal preparation (round, oval, irregular). The best results were obtained with nickel-titanium, a short cutting blade and a rotary rather than a filing motion. The Canal Master U, Flexogate, and Lightspeed instruments had significantly more round canals than the Flexofile, Heliapical and Ultraflex instruments at all levels. The Lightspeed had the largest number of round canals at all levels. Instrumentation time was also recorded. The Canal Master U and Flexogate were significantly slower than the Flexofile, heliapical, Ultraflex, and Lightspeed instruments. There were no statistically significant differences within the faster group.

  12. A preliminary study of the antibacterial potential of cetylpyridinium chloride in root canals infected by E. faecalis.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Carlos; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Alves, Denise Ramos Silveira; Alencar, Ana Helena Gonçalves; Santos, Tatiane Oliveira; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to verify the antibacterial potential of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in root canals infected by Enterococcus faecalis. Forty human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared and inoculated with E. faecalis for 60 days. The teeth were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1: Root canal preparation (RCP) + 0.1% CPC with positive-pressure irrigation (PPI, Conventional, NaviTip(®)); 2: RCP + 0.2% CPC PPI; 3: RCP + 2.5% NaOCl PPI; 4: RCP + 2.5% NaOCl with negative-pressure irrigation system (NPI, EndoVac(®)); 5: Positive control; and 6: Negative control. Four teeth of each experimental group were evaluated by culture and 4 by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In all teeth, the root canals were dried and filled with 17% EDTA (pH 7.2) for 3 min for smear layer removal. Samples from the infected root canals were collected and immersed in 7 mL of Letheen Broth (LB), followed by incubation at 37°C for 48 h. Bacterial growth was analyzed by turbidity of culture medium and then observed with a UV spectrophotometer. The irrigating solutions were further evaluated for antimicrobial effect by an agar diffusion test.The statistical data were treated by means, standard deviation, Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance. Significance level was set at 5%. The results showed the presence of E. faecalis after root canal sanitization. The number of bacteria decreased after the use of CPC. In the agar diffusion test, CPC induced large microbial inhibition zones, similar to 2% chlorhexidine and large than 2.5% NaOCl. In conclusion, cetylpyridinium chloride showed antibacterial potential in endodontic infection with E. faecalis.

  13. Rigidity and retention of ceramic root canal posts.

    PubMed

    Purton, D G; Love, R M; Chandler, N P

    2000-01-01

    Ceramic root-canal posts offer potential advantages over other types with respect to aesthetics and biocompatibility. Any post must be sufficiently rigid and retentive to withstand functional forces. Ceraposts (1.2 mm coronal diameter, ceramic, tapering, smooth posts) and Paraposts (1.25 mm, stainless-steel, parallel, serrated posts) were tested for rigidity by means of a three-point bending test. To test retention in roots, ceramic posts were cemented using one of three protocols: (1) glass-ionomer cement, (2) silane coupling agent and resin cement, or (3) sandblasted post surface, silane coupling agent, and resin cement. Stainless-steel posts were cemented with resin. The tensile force required to dislodge the posts, following four weeks of storage in water, was recorded. Data were compared using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U analysis. Ceraposts were significantly more rigid than Paraposts (p < 0.001). Paraposts cemented with resin were significantly more strongly retained than Ceraposts following any cementation protocol (p < 0.001). Retention of the ceramic posts was significantly greater with a silane coupling agent and resin cement than with glass-ionomer cement (p < 0.001). Sandblasting the ceramic posts produced variable results and needs further investigation before it could be recommended.

  14. Rigidity and retention of ceramic root canal posts.

    PubMed

    Purton, D G; Love, R M; Chandler, N P

    2000-01-01

    Ceramic root-canal posts offer potential advantages over other types with respect to aesthetics and biocompatibility. Any post must be sufficiently rigid and retentive to withstand functional forces. Ceraposts (1.2 mm coronal diameter, ceramic, tapering, smooth posts) and Paraposts (1.25 mm, stainless-steel, parallel, serrated posts) were tested for rigidity by means of a three-point bending test. To test retention in roots, ceramic posts were cemented using one of three protocols: (1) glass-ionomer cement, (2) silane coupling agent and resin cement, or (3) sandblasted post surface, silane coupling agent, and resin cement. Stainless-steel posts were cemented with resin. The tensile force required to dislodge the posts, following four weeks of storage in water, was recorded. Data were compared using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U analysis. Ceraposts were significantly more rigid than Paraposts (p < 0.001). Paraposts cemented with resin were significantly more strongly retained than Ceraposts following any cementation protocol (p < 0.001). Retention of the ceramic posts was significantly greater with a silane coupling agent and resin cement than with glass-ionomer cement (p < 0.001). Sandblasting the ceramic posts produced variable results and needs further investigation before it could be recommended. PMID:11203820

  15. Influence of antimicrobial solutions in the decontamination and adhesion of glass-fiber posts to root canals

    PubMed Central

    HARAGUSHIKU, Gisele Aihara; BACK, Eduardo Donato Eing Engelke; TOMAZINHO, Paulo Henrique; BARATTO, Flares; FURUSE, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of root canal disinfectants on the elimination of bacteria from the root canals, as well as their effect on glass-fiber posts bond strength. Material and Methods Fifty-three endodontically treated root canals had post spaces of 11 mm in length prepared and contaminated with E. faecalis. For CFU/ml analysis, eight teeth were contaminated for 1 h or 30 days (n=4). Teeth were decontaminated with 5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or distilled water. As control, no decontamination was conducted. After decontamination, sterile paper points were used to collect samples, and CFU/ml were counted. For push-out, three groups were evaluated (n=15): irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or sterile distilled water. A bonding agent was applied to root canal dentin, and a glass-fiber post was cemented with a dual-cured cement. After 24 h, 1-mm-thick slices of the middle portion of root canals were obtained and submitted to the push-out evaluation. Three specimens of each group were evaluated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s T3 test (α=0.05). Results The number of CFU/ml increased from 1 h to 30 days of contamination in control and sterile distilled water groups. Decontamination with NaOCl was effective only when teeth were contaminated for 1 h. CHX was effective at both contamination times. NaOCl did not influence the bond strength (p>0.05). Higher values were observed with CHX (p<0.05). SEM showed formation of resin tags in all groups. Conclusion CHX showed better results for the irrigation of contaminated root canals both in reducing the bacterial contamination and in improving the glass-fiber post bonding. PMID:26398518

  16. Analysis of kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic patterns during root canal preparation with rotary and manual instruments

    PubMed Central

    PASTERNAK-JÚNIOR, Braulio; de SOUSA NETO, Manoel Damião; DIONÍSIO, Valdeci Carlos; PÉCORA, Jesus Djalma; SILVA, Ricardo Gariba

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the muscular activity during root canal preparation through kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Material and Methods The operators prepared one canal with RaCe rotary instruments and another with Flexo-files. The kinematics of the major joints was reconstructed using an optoelectronic system and electromyographic responses of the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, middle deltoid, and upper trapezius were recorded. The joint torques of the shoulder, elbow and wrist were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the kinematic analysis, angular movements of the wrist and elbow were classified as low risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With respect to the shoulder, the classification was medium-risk. Results There was no significant difference revealed by the kinetic reports. The EMG results showed that for the middle deltoid and upper trapezius the rotary instrumentation elicited higher values. The flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis, as well as the brachioradialis showed a higher value with the manual method. Conclusion The muscular recruitment for accomplishment of articular movements for root canal preparation with either the rotary or manual techniques is distinct. Nevertheless, the rotary instrument presented less difficulty in the generation of the joint torque in each articulation, thus, presenting a greater uniformity of joint torques. PMID:22437679

  17. Effect of Zingiber officinale and propolis on microorganisms and endotoxins in root canals

    PubMed Central

    MAEKAWA, Lilian Eiko; VALERA, Marcia Carneiro; de OLIVEIRA, Luciane Dias; CARVALHO, Cláudio Antonio Talge; CAMARGO, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of glycolic propolis (PRO) and ginger (GIN) extracts, calcium hydroxide (CH), chlorhexidine (CLX) gel and their combinations as ICMs (ICMs) against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and endotoxins in root canals. Material and Methods: After 28 days of contamination with microorganisms, the canals were instrumented and then divided according to the ICM: CH+saline; CLX, CH+CLX, PRO, PRO+CH; GIN; GIN+CH; saline. The antimicrobial activity and quantification of endotoxins by the chromogenic test of Limulus amebocyte lysate were evaluated after contamination and instrumentation at 14 days of ICM application and 7 days after ICM removal. Results and Conclusion: After analysis of results and application of the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests at 5% significance level, it was concluded that all ICMs were able to eliminate the microorganisms in the root canals and reduce their amount of endotoxins; however, CH was more effective in neutralizing endotoxins and less effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis, requiring the use of medication combinations to obtain higher success. PMID:23559108

  18. Physical-mechanical properties of Bis-EMA based root canal sealer with different fillers addition

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Marcela Oliveira; Branco Leitune, Vicente Castelo; Bohn, Priscila Veit; Werner Samuel, Susana Maria; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate influence of three different filler particles on an experimental Bisphenol A ethoxylated dimethacrylate (Bis-EMA) based root filling material. Materials and Methods: Resin-based endodontic sealers were produced using Bis-EMA, camphorquinone, ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EDAB), N, N-dihydroxyethyl-p-toluidine (DHEPT), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and benzoyl peroxide. The experimental groups were formulated adding 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% of calcium tungstate (CaWO4), ytterbium trifluoride(YbF3), and tantalum oxide(Ta2O5). Flow, thickness, and radiopacity tests were conducted in accordance with ISO 6876. Sorption and solubility (SL) tests were conducted in accordance with ISO 4049, pH was measured with a pH meter, and degree of conversion (DC) was evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For radiopacity, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's multiple comparison test was performed. For DC analysis, one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison test was performed. All statistical analyses were performed with a significance level of 5%. Results: All groups showed lower flow with increased filler concentration. All groups showed film thickness values lower than 50μm, as ISO recommends, except CaWO450% group (76.7μm). pH values varied from 5.95 (± 0.07) in YbF340% group to 6.90 (± 0.07) in Ta2O540% group. In the radiopacity test, YbF330%, Ta2O540%, and Ta2O550% groups showed no statistical significant difference to 3mmAl. Ta2O5 and YbF3 groups in 10, 20, and 30% concentrations presented sorption and SL values as ISOrecommendation. Addition ofTa2O5 and CaWO4 decreased DC after 14 days. YbF3 addition showed no difference in DC from control group. Conclusion: YbF3 filler addition promoted higher properties compared to CaWO4 and Ta2O5 on Bis-EMA based root canal sealer. PMID:26069410

  19. Enhanced post crown retention in resin composite-reinforced, compromised, root-filled teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lui, J L

    1999-09-01

    The introduction of an intraradicular composite reinforcing technique, in conjunction with the reestablishment of matching post canal spaces, has allowed compromised, root-filled teeth to be restored with functional, esthetic post crowns. This clinical case report suggests that reconstituted post canals, in accurately adapting to passive, parallel-sided, matching, and well-fitting posts, can enhance the retention of post crowns. Other factors of clinical importance relating to the resin-reinforced technique are discussed, including fracture resistance, depth of polymerization, dentin adhesion, polymerization shrinkage, and coronal microleakage.

  20. Enhanced post crown retention in resin composite-reinforced, compromised, root-filled teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lui, J L

    1999-09-01

    The introduction of an intraradicular composite reinforcing technique, in conjunction with the reestablishment of matching post canal spaces, has allowed compromised, root-filled teeth to be restored with functional, esthetic post crowns. This clinical case report suggests that reconstituted post canals, in accurately adapting to passive, parallel-sided, matching, and well-fitting posts, can enhance the retention of post crowns. Other factors of clinical importance relating to the resin-reinforced technique are discussed, including fracture resistance, depth of polymerization, dentin adhesion, polymerization shrinkage, and coronal microleakage. PMID:10765865

  1. Concurrent intentional replantation of maxillary molars using a novel root-end filling.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Saeed; Nosrat, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the successful concurrent intentional replantation (IR) of 2 maxillary molars. A 28-year-old woman complained of repeated swelling and pain in the left maxilla when chewing. Teeth No. 14 and 15 were sensitive to percussion and palpation. Radiographs revealed a large periapical radiolucent lesion and inadequate root canal fillings in both teeth. The patient refused nonsurgical retreatment, periradicular surgery, or implant replacement as treatment options, so IR was chosen. After the extraction of tooth No. 14, root-end resection and root-end preparation of the 3 roots were completed. All root-end cavities were filled with calcium enriched mixture cement and the tooth was replanted. The same procedure was done for tooth No. 15. The patient was recalled 1, 7, and 14 days post-treatment for clinical evaluations. Follow-up visits at 6, 10, 15, and 24 months postsurgery revealed that both teeth were functional with no signs or symptoms of inflammation or resorption. The periapical lesion was healed at 24 months.

  2. The Use of Lasers in Disinfection and Cleanliness of Root Canals: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Anić, Ivica

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of root canal treatment is based on efficient disinfection of the root canal system and prevention of reinfection. Current chemomechanical cleaning methods do not always achieve these goals, and insufficient root canal disinfection is the main reason for endodontic failure. Due to high energy content and specific characteristics of laser light, laser treatment has been proposed for cleaning and disinfecting the root canal system. This paper reviews the literature covering the effect of Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG, Nd:YAG and diode laser on the root canal wall in the removal of smear layer and against intracanal bacteria. Recently, the use of laser energy to induce cavitation and acoustic streaming of intracanal irrigants has been investigated. Based on recent literature, it can be concluded that lasers have bactericidal effects. However, they still cannot replace sodium hypochlorite and should be considered as an adjunct to the current chemical root canal disinfection protocols. Certain lasers can help in removing the smear layer and debris and can modify the morphology of the root canal wall. Unfortunately, there have not been enough randomized clinical studies evaluating endodontic treatment outcome following the use of laser.

  3. A computerized method for mathematical description of three-dimensional root canal axis.

    PubMed

    Dobó-Nagy, C; Keszthelyi, G; Szabó, J; Sulyok, P; Ledeczky, G; Szabó, J

    2000-11-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of root canals is important for successful endodontic treatment. The objective of the present study was to determine the 3D root canal axis mathematically. Two views (mesiodistal and buccolingual) of digitized images were taken from extracted natural human teeth. Geometric reconstruction to standardize projection geometry was conducted on images. Because 90-degree turn-around image pairs are Monge images of a given root canal, these Monge images were positioned using photogrammetric methods. Each well-ordered axis pair of a given root canal was put into a common coordinate system resulting in 3D polynomial function of the actual root canal. On the basis of the results gained using 10 samples evaluated with the Friedman statistical test, this description seems to be reproducible. The 3D representation of the root canal may help the clinicians in choosing the optimal instruments and shaping techniques. The root canal axis that is described by the 3D function forms a basis for determination of curvature values and torsion values in each of the axis points. Evaluating these values may also yield a new type of classification. PMID:11469291

  4. Presence of Candida albicans in Root Canals of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis and Evaluation of their Possible Role in Failure of Endodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jay; Sharma, Rohit; Sharma, Madhurima; Prabhavathi, V; Paul, John; Chowdary, Chava Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candidal organisms are commensals of the oral cavity and their opportunistic infection depends on the interplay of local and systemic factors. Endodontic treatment failure has been associated with the persistence of microbial flora following therapy in the root canal system, and this includes fungi like Candida, which are resistant to conventional root canal irrigants. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 mandibular molars were included in the study of which 15 were primary randomized controlled trial cases, whereas 5 were retreatment cases. The patient’s saliva, as well as the root canal flora, were examined for the presence of Candida organisms and further confirmed for the presence of Candida albicans. Results: Of the 20 samples comprising the study group, the saliva culture revealed 11 of them to have a colony forming unit (CFU) >400 and 9 of the 20 canals microbiology showed CFU >400. Among the 15 first-time root canal treatment cases, saliva examination these revealed 8 of them to have CFU >400 and the canal microbiology of these showed 6 of them to have CFU >400. Among the retreatment cases, 3 of the 5 cases showed CFU >400 in both the saliva DN canal culture. Conclusion: Candidal contamination of the root canals could be the cause of endodontic treatment failure and thus emphasizes the importance of rubber dam isolation and the use of irrigants with antifungal properties for sufficient duration during treatment. PMID:25859106

  5. Reciprocating vs Rotary Instrumentation in Pediatric Endodontics: Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of Deciduous Root Canals using Two Single-file Systems

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Attiguppe R; Yavagal, Chandrashekar; Naik, Saraswathi V

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Primary root canals are considered to be most challenging due to their complex anatomy. "Wave one" and "one shape" are single-file systems with reciprocating and rotary motion respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare dentin thickness, centering ability, canal transportation, and instrumentation time of wave one and one shape files in primary root canals using a cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) analysis. Study design: This is an experimental, in vitro study comparing the two groups. Materials and methods: A total of 24 extracted human primary teeth with minimum 7 mm root length were included in the study. Cone beam computed tomographic images were taken before and after the instrumentation for each group. Dentin thickness, centering ability, canal transportation, and instrumentation times were evaluated for each group. Results: A significant difference was found in instrumentation time and canal transportation measures between the two groups. Wave one showed less canal transportation as compared with one shape, and the mean instrumentation time of wave one was significantly less than one shape. Conclusion: Reciprocating single-file systems was found to be faster with much less procedural errors and can hence be recommended for shaping the root canals of primary teeth. How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Yavagal C, Dixit K, Naik SV. Reciprocating vs Rotary Instrumentation in Pediatric Endodontics: Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of Deciduous Root Canals using Two Single-File Systems. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):45-49. PMID:27274155

  6. [A Phd completed 4. Interactions between root canal irrigants, sealers and dentin].

    PubMed

    Neelakantan, P; Shemesh, H; Wesselink, P

    2016-09-01

    In the field of endodontology, antibacterial activity of irrigants has been investigated many times. The influence of these solutions on the bonding of root canal sealers, however, has hardly been studied. The objective of this doctoral research was to determine the interactions between root canal sealers and root dentin, and to determine the influence of irrigants on these interactions. The various studies revealed that irrigants have an influence on the bonding of sealers based on epoxy resin, calcium hydroxide, silicones and calcium silicate. In the case of a sealer based on epoxy resin (AH Plus), the irrigation protocol had an influence on the bond strength (adhesion) on dentin, by means of which the seal was also improved. The results of this research produced better insights into the mechanisms at play in the adhesive properties of root canal sealers. Eventually, this might result in improved treatment outcomes of root canal treatments. PMID:27643496

  7. Particle-filled microporous materials

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, J.W.; Kinzer, K.E.; Mrozinski, J.S.; Johnson, E.J.; Dyrud, J.F.

    1990-09-18

    A microporous particulate-filled thermoplastic polymeric article is provided. The article can be in the form of a film, a fiber, or a tube. The article has a thermoplastic polymeric structure having a plurality of interconnected passageways to provide a network of communicating pores. The microporous structure contains discrete submicron or low micron-sized particulate filler, the particulate filler being substantially non-agglomerated. 3 figs.

  8. Particle-filled microporous materials

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, Jerome W.; Kinzer, Kevin E.; Mrozinski, James S.; Johnson, Eric J.; Dyrud, James F.

    1990-01-01

    A microporous particulate-filled thermoplastic polymeric article is provided. The article can be in the form of a film, a fiber, or a tube. The article has a thermoplastic polymeric structure having a plurality of interconnected passageways to provide a network of communicating pores. The microporous structure contains discrete submicron or low micron-sized particulate filler, the particulate filler being substantially non-agglomerated.

  9. Particle-filled microporous materials

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, Jerome W.; Kinzer, Kevin E.; Mrozinski, James S.; Johnson, Eric J.

    1992-07-14

    A microporous particulate-filled thermoplastic polymeric article is provided. The article can be in the form of a film, a fiber, or a tube. The article has a thermoplastic polymeric structure having a plurality of interconnected passageways to provide a network of communicating pores. The microporous structure contains discrete submicron or low micron-sized particulate filler, the particulate filler being substantially non-agglomerated.

  10. Reinforcement of thin-walled root canal structures for placement of esthetic dowels: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Mohamed F; Bahannan, Salma A; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2011-01-01

    Thin-walled root canals always present a challenge to dentists to select a restorative treatment that does not further weaken the thin tooth structure. The prognosis of dowel and core restorations can be unpredictable. This clinical report describes the treatment of a patient with extensive caries extending into the root canal of an endodontically treated maxillary central incisor. The use of a flowable composite resin in combination with a quartz fiber reinforced post is described, resulting in the rehabilitation of a structurally compromised root canal with satisfactory esthetic and functional outcomes.

  11. Ex Vivo Comparison of Mtwo and RaCe Rotary File Systems in Root Canal Deviation: One File Only versus the Conventional Method

    PubMed Central

    Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Nozari, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Cleaning and shaping of the root canal system is an important step in endodontic therapy. New instruments incorporate new preparation techniques that can improve the efficacy of cleaning and shaping. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of Mtwo and RaCe rotary file systems in straightening the canal curvature using only one file or the conventional method. Materials and Methods: Sixty mesial roots of extracted human mandibular molars were prepared by RaCe and Mtwo nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary files using the conventional and only one rotary file methods. The working length was 18 mm and the curvatures of the root canals were between 15–45°. By superimposing x-ray images before and after the instrumentation, deviation of the canals was assessed using Adobe Photoshop CS3 software. Preparation time was recorded. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: There were no significant differences between RaCe and Mtwo or between the two root canal preparation methods in root canal deviation in buccolingual and mesiodistal radiographs (P>0.05). Changes of root canal curvature in >35° subgroups were significantly more than in other subgroups with smaller canal curvatures. Preparation time was shorter in one file only technique. Conclusion: According to the results, the two rotary systems and the two root canal preparation methods had equal efficacy in straightening the canals; but the preparation time was shorter in one file only group. PMID:26877736

  12. Surface modification of tooth root canal after application of an X-ray opaque waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostálová, T.; Jelínková, H.; Šulc, J.; Němec, M.; Koranda, P.; Bartoňová, M.; Radina, P.; Miyagi, M.; Shi, Y.-W.; Matsuura, Y.

    The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems has been increasing. With the development of thin and flexible delivery systems for various wavelengths, laser applications in endodontics may become even more desirable. The aim of this study is to check the X-ray opacity of a hollow waveguide and to observe the results after laser root canal treatment. The root canal systems of 10 molars were treated endodontically by laser. For the laser radiation source, an Er:YAG laser system generating a wavelength of 2940 nm and an Alexandrite laser system generating a wavelength of 375 nm were used. The hollow waveguide used was checked under X-ray . A root canal surface treated by laser radiation was analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The special hollow glass waveguide used was visible in the root canal system under X-ray imaging. Surface modification of the root canal after laser treatment was not found. After conventional treatment the root canal was enlarged. The surface was covered with a smear layer. After application of both laser systems, the smear layer was removed. The resulting canal surface was found to be clean and smooth. Under SEM observation open dentinal tubules were visible. No cracks were present, nor were surface modifications observed.

  13. Effectiveness of three methods for evaluating root canal anatomy of mandibular incisors.

    PubMed

    Prado, Marina C; Gusman, Heloisa; Belladonna, Felipe G; Prado, Maíra; Ormiga, Fabíola

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of clinical observation, clinical microscopic observation, and tooth-clearing technique in determining the number of canals in mandibular incisors. Root canal ramifications were also analyzed. Using clinical and microscopic analyses, we determined the number of canal entrances in 277 mandibular incisors. In addition, tooth-clearing technique was used to determine the number of canals and frequency of ramifications in the samples. The kappa coefficient was used to compare the different methods with regard to frequency of canals. Most teeth had one canal entrance. The proportion of teeth with two canals was 23.5% by tooth-clearing analysis, 5.8% by clinical microscopy, and 1.1% by clinical analysis. A large number of samples had some type of ramification (40.1%), and most ramifications were present in teeth with two canals. The most frequent ramification was lateral canals (8.3%). Clinical microscopy improved identification of a second canal in mandibular incisors. However, it did not identify second canals in all teeth with two canals. (J Oral Sci 58, 347-351, 2016). PMID:27665973

  14. Accuracy of CBCT, Digital Radiography and Cross-Sectioning for the Evaluation of Mandibular Incisor Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Assadian, Hadi; Dabbaghi, Arash; Gooran, Morteza; Eftekhar, Behrouz; Sharifi, Sanaz; Shams, Nassim; Dehghani Najvani, Ali; Tabesh, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), digital radiography and tooth sectioning in evaluating root canal morphology of mandibular incisors in an in vitro setting. Methods and Materials: A total of 76 samples were imaged using CBCT, and digital radiography in straight and angled views. The samples were then sectioned at different distances from the apex for further visualization under stereomicroscope. The agreement between the observers was statistically analyzed by kappa correlation coefficient and the chi-square test. Results: The results showed that the majority of the samples had a single canal (Vertucci’s Type I). CBCT analysis reported more frequent multi-canal roots in comparison with the other techniques. In pairwise comparisons, the highest agreement was found between digital radiographic imaging and microscopic cross-sectioning both in terms of canal configuration and the number of root canals. Conclusion: None of the used imaging techniques per se could adequately show the exact internal anatomical configuration in accordance with the gold standard. PMID:27141217

  15. Analysis of C-shaped root canal configuration in maxillary molars in a Korean population using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyoung-Hoon; Min, Jeong-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of root fusion and C-shaped root canals in maxillary molars, and to classify the types of C-shaped canal by analyzing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a Korean population. Materials and Methods Digitized CBCT images from 911 subjects were obtained in Chosun University Dental Hospital between February 2010 and July 2012 for orthodontic treatment. Among them, a total of selected 3,553 data of maxillary molars were analyzed retrospectively. Tomography sections in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes were displayed by PiViewstar and Rapidia MPR software (Infinitt Co.). The incidence and types of root fusion and C-shaped root canals were evaluated and the incidence between the first and the second molar was compared using Chi-square test. Results Root fusion was present in 3.2% of the first molars and 19.5% of the second molars, and fusion of mesiobuccal and palatal root was dominant. C-shaped root canals were present in 0.8% of the first molars and 2.7% of the second molars. The frequency of root fusion and C-shaped canal was significantly higher in the second molar than the first molar (p < 0.001). Conclusions In a Korean population, maxillary molars showed total 11.3% of root fusion and 1.8% of C-shaped root canals. Furthermore, root fusion and C-shaped root canals were seen more frequently in the maxillary second molars. PMID:26877991

  16. Survey of Anatomy and Root Canal Morphology of Maxillary First Molars Regarding Age and Gender in an Iranian Population Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Mandana; Safi, Yaser; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Khayat, Akbar; Eftekhar, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of maxillary first molars with regards to patients’ age and gender with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: A total of 149 CBCT scans from 92 (67.1%) female and 57 (31.3%) male patients with mean age of 40.5 years were evaluated. Tooth length, presence of root fusion, number of the roots and canals, canal types based on Vertucci’s classification, deviation of root and apical foramen in coronal and sagittal planes and the correlation of all items with gender and age were recorded. The Mann Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis and Fisher’s exact tests were used to analyze these items. Results: The rate of root fusion was 1.3%. Multiple canals were present in the following frequencies: four canals 78.5%, five canals 11.4% and three canals 10.1%. Additional canal was detected in 86.6% of mesiobuccal roots in which Vertucci’s type VI configuration was the most prevalent followed by type II and I. Type I was the most common one in distobuccal and palatal roots. There was no statistically significant difference in the canal configurations in relation to gender and age as well as the incidence root or canal numbers (P>0.05). The mean tooth length was 19.3 and 20.3 mm in female and male patients, respectively which was statistically significant (P<0.05). Evaluation of root deviation showed that most commonly, a general pattern of straight-distal in the mesiobuccal and straight-straight for distobuccal and palatal roots occurred. In mesiobuccal roots, straight and distal deviations were more dominant in male and female, respectively (P<0.05). The prevalence of apical foramen deviation in mesiobuccal and palatal roots statistically differed with gender. Conclusion: The root and canal configuration of Iranian population showed different features from those of other populations. PMID:27790259

  17. [Mathematical description of the three-dimensional axis of the root canal of human teeth].

    PubMed

    Dobó, Nagy Csaba; Keszthelyi, Gusztáv; Sulyok, Péter; Ledeczky, Gábor; Szabó, József

    2002-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to describe root canal axes of natural human teeth mathematically. Two views (clinical and proximal) radiographs were taken from extracted human teeth. Geometry defines the 90-degree turn-around image pairs as Monge images. These Monge images of the root canals were positioned using photogrammetric methods. Each well-ordered axis pair of a given root canal was put into a common coordinate system resulting in three-dimensional polynomial function of the actual root canal. Testing differences between determined and repeatedly determined axes of ten samples by statistical analysis did not show any significant differences. Evaluation of data gained on a large number of samples may also yield a new type of classification. PMID:12236090

  18. Evaluation of the Root and Canal Morphology of Mandibular Permanent Anterior Teeth in an Iranian Population by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Sadegh, Mona; Meraji, Naghmeh; Razmi, Hasan; Kharazifard, Mohamad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate differences in the root and canal configurations of mandibular permanent anterior incisors and canines in an Iranian population by means of Cone Beam CT (CBCT) images. Materials and Methods: Four hundred CBCT images of mandibular permanent incisors and canines that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated. Vertucci’s classification was used to evaluate the number of roots, number of root canals, root lengths, root curvatures and canal types. Results: Totally 632 central incisors, 614 lateral incisors and 608 canines were evaluated. The average length of the mandibular central, lateral incisors and canines was 21.3±0.10, 21.9± 0.13 and 25.1± 0.11 mm, respectively. All of the mandibular central and lateral incisors had one root, but the incidence of single-rooted mandibular canines and two-rooted mandibular canines was 96.3% and 4.7%, respectively. The majority of mandibular central, lateral incisors and canines had one canal (72.7%, 70.6% and 71.8%, respectively). Five types of Vertucci canal configurations were seen in the evaluated teeth. Type 1 Vertucci configuration was the most prevalent configuration (72.3%, 70.6% and 71.8% for the central, lateral incisors and canines, respectively)), and type 5 Vertucci canal configuration was the least prevalent type seen (3.3%, 3.2% and 2.3% for the central, lateral incisors and canines, respectively). The most frequent root curvatures in these teeth were distally and buccally. No significant difference was seen between male and female patients regarding any of the parameters evaluated in this study (p>0.05). Conclusion: More attention should be given to the detection of additional canals and the recognition of canal curvature in Iranian patients. PMID:24396355

  19. Antimicrobial efficacy of different root canal sealers by using real-time polymerase chain reaction: An ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Seelan, R Gnana; Kumar, A Arvind; Emil Sam, R Jonathan; Maheswari, S Uma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Root canal sealers help to minimize leakage, provides antimicrobial activity to reduce the possibility of residual bacteria, and to resolve periapical lesion. Aim: To compare five different root canal sealers against Enterococcus faecalis in an infected root canal model by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Settings and Design: Sixty human mandibular premolars were sectioned to standardize a uniform length of 14 mm. Fifty microliters of the inoculum containing E. faecalis were transferred into each microcentrifuge tube (n = 60). The samples were divided into six groups Tubli-Seal, Apexit Plus, Fillapex, AH Plus, RoekoSeal, and Positive control, respectively. Materials and Methods: Five groups after the incubation with the microorganism E. faecalis were coated with different root canal sealers and obturated using F3 ProTaper Gutta-percha point. The dentinal shavings were collected and analyzed for RT-PCR. Statistical Analysis: The mean difference between six groups was calculated using analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: The highest antibacterial activity was achieved with Tubli-Seal (1938.13 DNA in pictogram [pg]) and least by RoekoSeal (3034.54 DNA in pg). Conclusion: The maximum antimicrobial activity was achieved AH Plus and Tubli-Seal. RT-PCR can be used as a valuable and accurate tool for testing antimicrobial activity. PMID:26752843

  20. Wavelength dependence of photon-induced photoacoustic streaming technique for root canal irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukač, Nejc; Zadravec, Jure; Gregorčič, Peter; Lukač, Matjaž; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-07-01

    Laser-enhanced irrigation of complex root canals appears to be a very promising technique to improve the outcome of root canal treatment. This applies, in particular, if the technique can be effective at very low laser energies in irrigating not only the main canal but also the small lateral canals. This is important in order to avoid potential undesirable effects at higher laser energies such as temperature increase, dentin ablation, or extrusion of irrigating solution beyond the apical foramen. An improved understanding of the role of laser parameters, such as laser wavelength and pulse duration, in irrigation of lateral canals is therefore desired in order to optimize treatment efficacy. The influence of laser wavelength and pulse duration on cavitation phenomena was studied using shadow photography and a method of measuring fluid flow in lateral canals based on tracking of movements of small air bubbles naturally forming in liquid as a result of laser agitation. A simulated model of a root canal including a narrow lateral canal designed to represent typical root canal morphology was used for the water flow measurements. The following three laser wavelengths with relatively high absorption in water were studied: Er:YAG (2.94 μm), Er,Cr:YSGG (2.73 μm), and Nd:YAP (1.34 μm). Among the three wavelengths studied, the Er:YAG laser wavelength was found to be the most effective in formation of cavitation bubbles and in generating fluid motions within narrow lateral canals. A comparison between the shadow photography and fluid motion data indicates that it is the bubble's radius and not the bubble's volume that predominantly influences the fluid motion within lateral canals. Based on the results of our study, it appears that effective minimally invasive laser-assisted irrigation can be performed with low Er:YAG laser pulse energies below 10 mJ.

  1. Root and canal symmetry in the mandibular anterior teeth of patients attending a dental clinic: CBCT study.

    PubMed

    Kayaoglu, Guven; Peker, Ilkay; Gumusok, Mustafa; Sarikir, Cigdem; Kayadugun, Aylin; Ucok, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the number of roots/root canals in the mandibular anterior teeth of a Turkish population, to assess the relationship between gender or age and the frequency of two canals in a single root, and to determine the symmetry in root/root canal numbers between contralateral sides among patients. Cone-beam computed tomography images (n = 1128; 6253 teeth) taken at the Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology of the Faculty of Dentistry of Gazi University were examined by three observers and a supervisor, all of whom were blinded to patient gender and age. Axial, sagittal, and cross-sectional slices with a thickness of 1 mm were used. Numbers of roots and canals for each type of tooth were recorded. Most teeth had a single root and single root canal. Roots with two canals were more frequent in the incisors (14.9%, 17.2%, and 6.1% of the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines, respectively). Teeth with two roots were more frequent in the canines (3.1% vs. 0% or 0.1%). Females more often had canines with double root canals (p < 0.001). When at least one tooth had two root canals, bilateral symmetry between contralateral teeth was found in 45.0%, 29.0%, and 28.0% of cases for central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines, respectively. Patients older than 56 years had fewer teeth with double root canals (p ≤ 0.001). A small proportion of the mandibular anterior teeth had two roots or root canals. Double root canals were mostly unilateral. Age and gender were associated with the number of root canals.

  2. Bactericidal effect of the CO2 laser in the root canal: an in-vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutknecht, Norbert; Wilkert-Walter, Cornelia; Lampert, Friedrich

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the bactericidal effect of a CO2 laser used in a continuous mode. Classically prepared root canals were irradiated under standardized conditions with power settings of 2, 4, and 6 Watts. The mean elimination of Enterococcus faecalis in prepared and infected root canals of extracted teeth was 98.97%, 99.51% and 99.34% respectively. Minimum elimination was 91.67% and maximum 99.696%.

  3. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Methods: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Conclusion: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions. PMID:27382533

  4. Microleakage Evaluation Around Retrograde Filling Materials Prepared Using Conventional and Ultrasonic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bolla, Nagesh; Thumu, Jayaprakash; Vemuri, Sayesh; Chukka, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of the retrograde cavity preparation and the material used to restore is of utmost importance to achieve successful surgical endodontics. Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the apical micro-leakage of root end cavities filled with Mineral trioxide aggregate, Biodentine and light cure GIC using two different cavity preparation techniques that is conventional bur preparation and ultrasonic tip preparation. Materials and Methods: Eighty extracted single rooted human teeth (except mandibular incisors) with one canal, fully developed apices and without any major carious lesion are collected for the study. The teeth were sectioned at CEJ to standardize the length. Roots are instrumented upto master apical file 40 K size and obturated with gutta percha and AH plus sealer in lateral condensation technique. The teeth were then resected apically at 90° angle axis to the long axis of the root removing 3 mm of the apex. The teeth were divided in to four groups of 20 each- • Group I- samples restored with MTA. • Group II- samples restored with Biodentine. • Group III- (Positive control group)- samples restored with Light activated GIC. • Group IV - (negative control group)- no filling material. Each group is divided into two subgroups (a, b) of ten teeth each 1. Retropreparation done with ultrasonic retrotip. 2. Retropreparation done with conventional bur. The teeth were then immersed in 0.5% Rhodamine B dye for 48 h. The teeth were split longitudinally and the interface between the restored material and the canal wall is observed under Confocal laser scanning microscope. Depth of dye penetration was examined under stereomicroscope. Results: The statistical analysis was performed by One way ANOVA, t test. Pair wise comparision was done by Newman – Keuls multiple post hoc test. The mean values of Dye penetration for Group Ia (321.23), Group Ib (490.11), Group IIa (1065.14), Group IIb (1170.96), Group IIIa (1888.90), Group

  5. Role of the confinement of a root canal on jet impingement during endodontic irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; Heijnen, G. L.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Versluis, M.

    2012-12-01

    During a root canal treatment the root canal is irrigated with an antimicrobial fluid, commonly performed with a needle and a syringe. Irrigation of a root canal with two different types of needles can be modeled as an impinging axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric jet. These jets are investigated experimentally with high-speed Particle Imaging Velocimetry, inside and outside the confinement (concave surface) of a root canal, and compared to theoretical predictions for these jets. The efficacy of irrigation fluid refreshment with respect to the typical reaction time of the antimicrobial fluid with a biofilm is characterized with a non-dimensional Damköhler number. The pressure that these jets induce on a wall or at the apex of the root canal is also measured. The axisymmetric jet is found to be stable and its velocity agrees with the theoretical prediction for this type of jet, however, a confinement causes instabilities to the jet. The confinement of the root canal has a pronounced influence on the flow, for both the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric jet, by reducing the velocities by one order of magnitude and increasing the pressure at the apex. The non-axisymmetric jet inside the confinement shows a cascade of eddies with decreasing velocities, which at the apex does not provide adequate irrigation fluid refreshment.

  6. LPS levels in root canals after the use of ozone gas and high frequency electrical pulses.

    PubMed

    Melo, Tiago André Fontoura de; Gründling, Grasiela Sabrina Longhi; Montagner, Francisco; Scur, Alcione Luiz; Steier, Liviu; Scarparo, Roberta Kochenborger; Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli de; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to verify the effect of ozone gas (OZY® System) and high frequency electric pulse (Endox® System) systems on human root canals previously contaminated with Escherichia colilipopolysaccharide (LPS). Fifty single-rooted teeth had their dental crowns removed and root lengths standardized to 16 mm. The root canals were prepared up to #60 hand K-files and sterilized using gamma radiation with cobalt 60. The specimens were divided into the following five groups (n = 10) based on the disinfection protocol used: OZY® System, one 120-second-pulse (OZY 1p); OZY® System, four 24-second-pulses (OZY 4p); and Endox® System (ENDOX). Contaminated and non-contaminated canals were exposed only to apyrogenic water and used as positive (C+) and negative (C-) controls, respectively. LPS (O55:B55) was administered in all root canals except those belonging to group C-. After performing disinfection, LPS samples were collected from the canals using apyrogenic paper tips. Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) was used to quantify the LPS levels, and the data obtained was analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The disinfection protocols used were unable to reduce the LPS levels significantly (p = 0.019). The use of ozone gas and high frequency electric pulses was not effective in eliminating LPS from the root canals. PMID:26981752

  7. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry analysis of reciprocating and continuous rotary nickel-titanium instruments following root canal retreatment.

    PubMed

    Kalyoncuoğlu, Elif; Keskin, Cangül; Uzun, İsmail; Bengü, Aydın S; Guler, Buğra

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate superficial defects and the composition of Reciproc R25 and ProTaper Retreatment file systems (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) used for retreatment. A total of 100 maxillary incisor teeth were randomly divided into the following two groups: Reciproc R25 (n = 25) and ProTaper Retreatment instrument (n = 75) groups. The nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) compositions of the files before and after use were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry (EDX). Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyze the data. ProTaper Retreatment instrument group showed a significantly higher number of defects than the Reciproc group (P < 0.05). No instrument fracture was detected. The presence of debris was observed in both groups before use, although the level was significantly higher in the ProTaper Retreatment group, which consisted of metals (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between new and used instruments with regard to Ni-Ti composition (P < 0.05). EDX analysis showed that both the Reciproc and ProTaper Retreatment instruments had a Ni-Ti composition that was within the standards specified by the American Society of Testing and Materials. This study confirmed the use of both the Reciproc R25 file and ProTaper Retreatment file system for root canal filling removal in straight root canals as a safe procedure. (J Oral Sci 58, 401-406, 2016). PMID:27665980

  8. CBCT-Aided Microscopic and Ultrasonic Treatment for Upper or Middle Thirds Calcified Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying-Ming; Guo, Bin; Guo, Li-Yang; Yang, Yan; Hong, Xiao; Pan, Hong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Root canal calcification is considered a great challenge during root canal treatment. Although the application of ultrasonic instruments and dental operating microscope (DOM) has advantages, dealing with calcified root canals still suffers a great risk of failure because of limited information about the location, length, and direction of obliteration on periapical radiographs. In this work, a cone-beam computed tomography- (CBCT-) aided method aimed at solving complicated calcified root canals in which conventional approaches could not work was proposed. Thirteen teeth with sixteen calcified canals (12 calcified in the upper third, 4 calcified in the middle third), which cannot be negotiated with conventional methods, were treated with the aid of CBCT. The location of calcification and depth of instrumentation and operating direction were calculated and assessed in three dimensions with ultrasonic instruments under DOM. In all thirteen teeth, canals with upper and middle thirds calcification were treated successfully. Finally, a guideline was proposed to help achieve consistent apical patency in calcified canals. PMID:27525269

  9. Long-Term Fracture Resistance of Simulated Immature Teeth Filled with Various Calcium Silicate-Based Materials.

    PubMed

    Guven, Yeliz; Tuna, Elif Bahar; Dincol, M Emir; Ozel, Emre; Yilmaz, Bulent; Aktoren, Oya

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the long-term fracture resistance of simulated human immature permanent teeth filled with BioAggregate™ (BA), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and EndoSequence® Root Repair Material (ERRM). Material and Methods. 40 teeth, simulated to average root length of 13 ± 1 mm (Cvek's stage 3), were included in the study. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1: DiaRoot® BA, Group 2: MTA-Plus™ (MTA-P), Group 3: MTA-Angelus (MTA-A), and Group 4: ERRM. The root canal filling materials were applied according to the manufacturers' instructions. After 24 months of incubation, the roots of the teeth were embedded in acrylic blocks and subjected to fracture testing. The resultant data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results. Mean (±SD) failure loads (MPa) were 20.46 ± 2.53 for BA, 18.88 ± 5.13 for MTA-P, 14.12 ± 1.99 for MTA-A, and 17.65 ± 4.28 for ERRM groups. BA group exhibited the highest and MTA-A group showed the lowest resistance to fracture. Significant differences in fracture resistance were found between the groups of BA and MTA-A (p < 0.001), MTA-P and MTA-A (p < 0.05), and ERRM and MTA-A (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, data suggests that BA-filled immature teeth demonstrate higher fracture resistance than other groups at 24 months appearing to be the most promising material tested.

  10. Long-Term Fracture Resistance of Simulated Immature Teeth Filled with Various Calcium Silicate-Based Materials.

    PubMed

    Guven, Yeliz; Tuna, Elif Bahar; Dincol, M Emir; Ozel, Emre; Yilmaz, Bulent; Aktoren, Oya

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the long-term fracture resistance of simulated human immature permanent teeth filled with BioAggregate™ (BA), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and EndoSequence® Root Repair Material (ERRM). Material and Methods. 40 teeth, simulated to average root length of 13 ± 1 mm (Cvek's stage 3), were included in the study. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1: DiaRoot® BA, Group 2: MTA-Plus™ (MTA-P), Group 3: MTA-Angelus (MTA-A), and Group 4: ERRM. The root canal filling materials were applied according to the manufacturers' instructions. After 24 months of incubation, the roots of the teeth were embedded in acrylic blocks and subjected to fracture testing. The resultant data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results. Mean (±SD) failure loads (MPa) were 20.46 ± 2.53 for BA, 18.88 ± 5.13 for MTA-P, 14.12 ± 1.99 for MTA-A, and 17.65 ± 4.28 for ERRM groups. BA group exhibited the highest and MTA-A group showed the lowest resistance to fracture. Significant differences in fracture resistance were found between the groups of BA and MTA-A (p < 0.001), MTA-P and MTA-A (p < 0.05), and ERRM and MTA-A (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, data suggests that BA-filled immature teeth demonstrate higher fracture resistance than other groups at 24 months appearing to be the most promising material tested. PMID:27382564

  11. Long-Term Fracture Resistance of Simulated Immature Teeth Filled with Various Calcium Silicate-Based Materials

    PubMed Central

    Dincol, M. Emir; Ozel, Emre; Yilmaz, Bulent; Aktoren, Oya

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the long-term fracture resistance of simulated human immature permanent teeth filled with BioAggregate™ (BA), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and EndoSequence® Root Repair Material (ERRM). Material and Methods. 40 teeth, simulated to average root length of 13 ± 1 mm (Cvek's stage 3), were included in the study. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1: DiaRoot® BA, Group 2: MTA-Plus™ (MTA-P), Group 3: MTA-Angelus (MTA-A), and Group 4: ERRM. The root canal filling materials were applied according to the manufacturers' instructions. After 24 months of incubation, the roots of the teeth were embedded in acrylic blocks and subjected to fracture testing. The resultant data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results. Mean (±SD) failure loads (MPa) were 20.46 ± 2.53 for BA, 18.88 ± 5.13 for MTA-P, 14.12 ± 1.99 for MTA-A, and 17.65 ± 4.28 for ERRM groups. BA group exhibited the highest and MTA-A group showed the lowest resistance to fracture. Significant differences in fracture resistance were found between the groups of BA and MTA-A (p < 0.001), MTA-P and MTA-A (p < 0.05), and ERRM and MTA-A (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, data suggests that BA-filled immature teeth demonstrate higher fracture resistance than other groups at 24 months appearing to be the most promising material tested. PMID:27382564

  12. Incidence of Postoperative Pain after Single Visit and Two Visit Root Canal Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sonal B.; Bhagwat, S.V; Patil, Sanjana A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Root Canal Treatment (RCT) has become a mainstream procedure in dentistry. A successful RCT is presented by absence of clinical signs and symptoms in teeth without any radiographic evidence of periodontal involvement. Completing this procedure in one visit or multiple visits has long been a topic of discussion. Aim To evaluate the incidence of postoperative pain after root canal therapy performed in single visit and two visits. Material and Methods An unblinded/ open label randomized controlled trial was carried out in the endodontic department of the Dental Institute, where 78 patients were recruited from the regular pool of patients. A total of 66 maxillary central incisors requiring root canal therapy fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Using simple randomization by biased coin randomization method, the selected patients were assigned into two groups: group A (n=33) and group B (n=33). Single visit root canal treatment was performed for group A and two visit root canal treatment for group B. Independent sample t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results Thirty three patients were allotted to group A where endodontic treatment was completed in single visit while 33 patients were allotted to group B where endodontic treatment was completed in two visits. One patient dropped-out from Group A. Hence in Group A, 32 patients were analysed while in Group B, 33 patients were analysed. After 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours of obturation, pain was significantly higher in Group B as compared to Group A. However, there was no significant difference in the pain experienced by the patients 48 hours after treatment in both the groups. Conclusion Incidence of pain after endodontic treatment being performed in one-visit or two-visits is not significantly different. PMID:27437339

  13. Incidence of post obturation pain following single and multi visit root canal treatment in a teaching hospital of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, S; Khurshiduzzaman, M

    2014-04-01

    Post obturation pain is the pain of any degree after endodontic treatment. There are different opinions regarding incidence of post obturation pain related to single and multi visit root canal treatment. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of post obturation pain in single visit and multi visit root canal treatment and to compare the incidence of pain between the two treatment groups. A total of 120 cases of endodontically involved asymptomatic non vital single rooted teeth were selected for this study. The patients were assigned and divided in to two treatment groups, sixty patients each. In single visit group, all teeth were prepared and filled using the standardized preparation and lateral condensation filling technique. In the multi visit treatment group, at the first appointment, the teeth were prepared, and dressed with calcium hydroxide paste for 7 days. At the second appointment, the teeth were prepared and obturated by using lateral condensation technique. The frequency of post obturation pain was recorded as no pain, slight, moderate and severe pain and evaluated at the day 1 and at the day 7 after obturation. The data were analyzed statistically by using SPSS version-12. P value <0.05 was taken as significant. The study showed that the post obturation pain in the single visit treatment group was more than multi visit treatment group, which is significant (p value <0.044). Out of the 120 patients, 86(71.7%) patients had no pain, 19(15.8%) had slight pain and 15(12.5%) patients had moderate pain at the day 1 after obturation. At the day 7 after obturation, 108(90%) patients had no pain, 9(7.5%) had slight pain and 3(2.5%) patients had moderate pain. No patient noticed severe pain during the follow up period. Older patient had significantly more post obturation pain than the younger patient. There was higher incidence of post obturation pain following the single visit root canal treatment. In multi visit root canal treatment with

  14. Changes in root canal geometry after preparation assessed by high-resolution computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Peters, O A; Laib, A; Göhring, T N; Barbakow, F

    2001-01-01

    Root canal morphology changes during canal preparation, and these changes may vary depending on the technique used. Such changes have been studied in vitro by measuring cross-sections of canals before and after preparation. This current study used nondestructive high-resolution scanning tomography to assess changes in the canals' paths after preparation. A microcomputed tomography scanner (cubic resolution 34 microm) was used to analyze 18 canals in 6 extracted maxillary molars. Canals were scanned before and after preparation using either K-Files, Lightspeed, or ProFile .04 rotary instruments. A special mounting device enabled precise repositioning and scanning of the specimens after preparation. Differences in surface area (deltaA in mm2) and volume (deltaV in mm3) of each canal before and after preparation were calculated using custom-made software. deltaV ranged from 0.64 to 2.86, with a mean of 1.61 +/- 0.7, whereas deltaA varied from 0.72 to 9.66, with a mean of 4.16 +/- 2.63. Mean deltaV and deltaA for the K-File, ProFile, and Lightspeed groups were 1.28 +/- 0.57 and 2.58 +/- 1.83; 1.79 +/- 0.66 and 4.86 +/- 2.53; and 1.81 +/- 0.57 and 5.31 +/- 2.98, respectively. Canal anatomy and the effects of preparation were further analyzed using the Structure Model Index and the Transportation of Centers of Mass. Under the conditions of this study variations in canal geometry before preparation had more influence on the changes during preparation than the techniques themselves. Consequently studies comparing the effects of root canal instruments on canal anatomy should also consider details of the preoperative canal geometry. PMID:11487156

  15. Primary Mandibular First Molar with Single Root and Single Canal: A Case Report of a Rare Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Ghafourifard, Roya; Soleimani, Ali Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Single rooted primary mandibular first molar is a rare developmental anomaly. Literatures reveal that failure of invagination of Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath leads to this unusual root form. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and anatomical variations of primary teeth can help a pediatric dentist in successful root canal treatment. Hereby, we describe two cases of primary mandibular first molars with an unusual morphology as a single root called pyramidal molar. PMID:25628671

  16. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Assessment of Root Canal Transportation by Neoniti and Reciproc Single-File Systems

    PubMed Central

    Moazzami, Fariborz; Khojastepour, Leila; Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Seied Habashi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the canal transportation of two single-file engine-driven systems, Neoniti and Reciproc, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Forty-five non-calcified roots with mature apices and apical curvature of 15-30 degrees were selected from extracted human maxillary molars for this study. Samples were randomly divided into two groups (n=20) and a control group (n=5) and canal preparation with either system was performed according to manufacturers' instructions. Pre- and post-instrumentation CBCT images were captured and the amount of canal transportation within the files was calculated at levels of 3, 4, and 5 mm from the apex. The independent sample t-test was used to analyze the statistical significance between the two groups. The level of significance was defined at 0.05. Results: Reciproc created more canal transportation compared to Neoniti in both mesiodistal and buccolingual directions. The difference between the two systems was statistically significant in all evaluated distances from the apex (P<0.001). During this study fracture of one file (25/0.08) in the Neoniti group occurred. Conclusion: Neoniti and Reciproc systems have significant difference in terms of creating canal transportation. Reciproc created more canal transportation in buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions. PMID:27141215

  17. Biotoxicity of commonly used root canal sealers: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amandeep; Shah, Naseem; Logani, Ajay; Mishra, Navin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of a root canal sealer is to provide a fluid tight seal. The purpose of this systematic meta-analysis was to determine the relative toxicity of commonly used root canal sealers like zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide, and resin-based sealers. Materials and Methods: An online search was conducted in peer-reviewed journals listed in PubMed, Cochrane, EBSCO, and IndMed databases between 2000 and 2012). Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post-hoc comparison by Bonferroni method. The comparison between toxicity at 24 h and between 3 and 7 days was done by using paired t-test for each sealer. Results: At 24 h, the relative biotoxicity of the three sealers reported was insignificant (P- value 0.29), but the difference in toxicity was found significant (P < 0.001) after 3 days. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxide sealer and zinc oxide eugenol were found to be significantly biotoxic as compared to resin-based sealers after 3 days. PMID:25829682

  18. Endodontic Treatment of the Mandibular First Molar with Six Roots Canals – Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The most common configuration of the mandibular first molar is the presence of two roots and three root canals. The objective of this work is to present two rare anatomic configurations with six root canals on two mandibular left first molars diagnosed during endodontic therapy. Root canal therapy was performed using a dental operating microscope. Ultrasonic troughing in the grooves in between the mesial root canals and in between the distal root canals was able to show the middle root canals. Large samples population characterization researches and systematic reviews were unable to detect a single case of six root canals configuration in a mandibular first molar in their investigations. Although it is a rare configuration, a six root canal configuration is possible to be found in the mandibular first molar. Three different pulp chamber configurations are possible to be found. Two or three roots may be present and the root configuration more common in the mesial root is the Type 8 and Type 12 for the distal root. Some concepts about the required technique to approach these cases are also debated. PMID:26023651

  19. Endodontic treatment of the mandibular first molar with six roots canals - two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Martins, Jorge N R; Anderson, Craig

    2015-04-01

    The most common configuration of the mandibular first molar is the presence of two roots and three root canals. The objective of this work is to present two rare anatomic configurations with six root canals on two mandibular left first molars diagnosed during endodontic therapy. Root canal therapy was performed using a dental operating microscope. Ultrasonic troughing in the grooves in between the mesial root canals and in between the distal root canals was able to show the middle root canals. Large samples population characterization researches and systematic reviews were unable to detect a single case of six root canals configuration in a mandibular first molar in their investigations. Although it is a rare configuration, a six root canal configuration is possible to be found in the mandibular first molar. Three different pulp chamber configurations are possible to be found. Two or three roots may be present and the root configuration more common in the mesial root is the Type 8 and Type 12 for the distal root. Some concepts about the required technique to approach these cases are also debated.

  20. Epiphany root canal sealer prepared with resinous solvent is irritating to rat subcutaneous tissues

    PubMed Central

    Daleffe, Élcio; Vieira-Ozório, José E.; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the biocompatibility of the Epiphany endodontic sealer prepared with resinous solvent of Epiphany system (Thinning resin) in rat subcutaneous tissues. Study Design: Polyethylene tubes were filled with the sealer and 4 groups were established: GI, Epiphany prepared with 1 drop of resinous solvent (RS); GII, Epiphany prepared with 1 drop of RS and photoactivated; GIII, Epiphany associated with self-etch primer and prepared with 1 drop of RS; GIV, Epiphany associated with self-etch primer, prepared with 1 drop of RS and photoactivated. The filled tubes were implanted into 4 different regions of the dorsum of 20 adult male rats. Results: After 7, 14 and 21 days, all groups presented a moderate to severe chronic inflammation, necrosis and foreign-body giant cells. At 42 days, although the intensity of chronic inflammatory reaction decreased, the other features still were observed. Conclusion: The Epiphany sealer prepared with the RS was irritating to rat subcutaneous tissues. Key words:Biocompatibility, Epiphany, methacrylate resin sealer, resinous solvent, root canal sealer. PMID:22322512

  1. Contraction stresses of composite resin filling materials.

    PubMed

    Hegdahl, T; Gjerdet, N R

    1977-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resin filling materials and the tensile stresses developed when the shrinkage is restrained were measured in an in vitro experiment. This allows an estimation to be made of the forces exerted upon the enamel walls of cavities filled with the resin in the acid etch technique. The results indicate that the stresses acting on the enamel are low compared to the tensile strength of the enamel.

  2. Management of incompletely developed teeth requiring root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Harlamb, S C

    2016-03-01

    Endodontic management of the permanent immature tooth continues to be a challenge for both clinicians and researchers. Clinical concerns are primarily related to achieving adequate levels of disinfection as 'aggressive' instrumentation is contraindicated and hence there exists a much greater reliance on endodontic irrigants and medicaments. The open apex has also presented obturation difficulties, notably in controlling length. Long-term apexification procedures with calcium hydroxide have proven to be successful in retaining many of these immature infected teeth but due to their thin dentinal walls and perceived problems associated with long-term placement of calcium hydroxide, they have been found to be prone to cervical fracture and subsequent tooth loss. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the possibility of 'regenerating' pulp tissue in an infected immature tooth. It is apparent that although the philosophy and hope of 'regeneration' is commendable, recent histologic studies appear to suggest that the calcified material deposited on the canal wall is bone/cementum rather than dentine, hence the absence of pulp tissue with or without an odontoblast layer. PMID:26923451

  3. The Chemistry of Modern Dental Filling Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, John W.; Anstice, H. Mary

    1999-01-01

    Discusses materials used by dentists to restore teeth after decay has been removed. Shows how dental-material science is an interdisciplinary field in which chemistry plays a major part. Reviews the many developments polymer chemistry has contributed to the field of dental fillings. (CCM)

  4. Quality of Obturation Achieved by an Endodontic Core-carrier System with Crosslinked Gutta-percha Carrier in Single-rooted Canals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-hua; Niu, Li-na; Selem, Lisa C.; Eid, Ashraf A.; Bergeron, Brian E.; Chen, Ji-hua; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined the quality of obturation in root canals obturated by GuttaCore, a gutta-percha-based core-carrier system with a cross-linked thermoset gutta-percha carrier, by comparing the incidence of gaps and voids identified from similar canals obturated by cold lateral compaction or warm vertical compaction. Methods Thirty single-rooted premolars with oval-shaped canals were shaped and cleaned, and obturated with one of the three obturation techniques (N=10): GuttaCore, warm vertical compaction or cold lateral compaction. Filled canals were scanned with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT); reconstructed images were analysed for the volumetric percentage of gaps and voids at 3 canal levels (0-4 mm, 4-8 mm and 8-12 mm from working length). The roots were subsequently sectioned at the 4-mm, 8-mm and 12-mm levels for analyses of the percentage of interfacial gaps, and area percentage of interfacial and intracanal voids, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine negative replicas of root sections. Data were analysed with parametric or non-parametric statistical methods at α=0.05. Results Both micro-CT and SEM data indicated that canals obturated with GuttaCore core-carriers had the lowest incidence of interfacial gaps and voids, although the results were not significantly different from canals obturated by warm vertical compaction. Both the GuttaCore and the warm vertical compaction groups, in turn, had significantly lower incidences of gaps and voids than the cold lateral compaction group. Conclusions Because of the similarity in obturation quality between GuttaCore and warm vertical compaction, practitioners may find the GuttaCore core-carrier technique a valuable alternative for obturation of oval-shaped canals. PMID:24769108

  5. Prevalence of C-Shaped Root Canals in Iranian Population: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Mandana; Haghighi, Ali Kangarlou; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Khavid, Atefeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because of the great challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of “C” configuration and lack of any systematic information about its occurrence, the purpose of the present study is to determine the prevalence of C shaped root canals in Iranian population. Methodology: An exhaustive search was undertaken to identify published and unpublished researches related to the C-shaped canals by using key words. The search of the MEDLINE database included all publications from 1966 to May 2012.Then selected articles were obtained and reviewed. Data evaluated and summarized in the data sheet included methodology, population, number of teeth per study (power), number of root canals, type of root canal configuration, and c-shaped canals. Results: Six studies were included with total of 1062 teeth, all in mandibular second molars. The total incidence of C-shaped canals in Iranian population was obtained 6.96%. Conclusions: The incidence of C-shaped canals in Iranian population is 6.96%, which seems much less than Asian populations but nearer to Middle East countries. PMID:23724219

  6. A comparative evaluation of root canal area increase using three different nickel-titanium rotary systems: An ex vivo cone-beam computed tomographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Adrija; Bhuyan, A.C.; Bhuyan, Darpana

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the area increase of root canals with ProTaper, iRaCe and Revo-S systems using cone beam computed tomography for analysis. Materials and Methodology: Forty five extracted human mandibular premolars having single canal and straight root were collected. Teeth were randomly assigned to three groups (n=15). Samples were decoronized by maintaining root length at 14 mm. Pre-instrumentation cone beam computed tomography scan was done after stabilizing the samples on wax blocks. The working length was determined at 1 mm short from the apical foramen by using a ISO 15 K-file tip protruding at apical foramen. Preparation was carried out according to the manufacturer's instructions. Finally, canals were instrumented upto 30/.06 apically for each group. After each instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with 2ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite solution followed by 2 ml of 17% EDTA solution. Final irrigation was done with 5ml of saline. Post instrumentation cone beam computed tomography scans of all samples in the 3 groups were acquired. Results: Mean percentage of area increase in different thirds of the canal was highest for ProTaper followed by i-RaCe and Revo-s system which was statistically significant. Interpretation and Conclusion: Root canal area increase was highest for ProTaper followed by i-Race and Revo-S systems. PMID:25684917

  7. An Invitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy and Flow Characteristics for AH Plus, MTA Fillapex, CRCS and Gutta Flow 2 Root Canal Sealer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prashant; Tikku, Aseem P; Pathak, Anjani Kumar; Chandra, Anil; Yadav, Rakesh Kumar; Bharti, Ramesh; Singh, Rajeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cleaning and shaping of root canal does not guarantee complete disinfection of the canal, regardless of the systems and techniques used for this purpose. Therefore, it becomes mandatory for the endodontic filling materials to have a good antimicrobial potential especially against E. faecalis. This research was aimed therefore to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy and flow properties of different root canal sealers. Aim To study invitro antimicrobial activity and flow characteristics for Resin based (AH Plus), Mineral Trioxide Aggregate based (MTA Fillapex), Calcium hydroxide based (CRCS) and Flowable Gutta-Percha (Gutta Flow 2) endodontic sealers on Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was used to test antibacterial potential of sealers by Agar diffusion test (ADT) and Direct Contact Test (DCT). ADT was performed by punching the sealers on a well of 4×6mm diameter on Muller Hinton agar plates. These plates were inoculated with standard suspension of E. faecalis and the zone of inhibition was measured at 24 hours and after 7 days. All the sealers were prepared in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Flow of sealers was measured according to ADA specification no. 57. Results All sealers showed antibacterial activity against E. faecalis except Gutta Flow 2. At 24 hours, zone of inhibition was highest in Calcibiotic Root Canal Sealer (CRCS) and lowest in AH Plus. After 7 days the zone of inhibition decreased in AH plus, CRCS and MTA Fillapex. DCT showed a significant lower number of organisms in AH Plus, CRCS and MTA than controls at both the time intervals. Gutta Flow 2 did not show any significant antimicrobial action. Maximum and minimum flow was shown by AH Plus and CRCS respectively. Conclusion Highest microbial inhibition was shown by (CRCS), followed by MTA Fillapex and AH Plus. Gutta Flow 2 did not show any inhibition of E. faecalis by ADT. Maximum reduction in antibacterial property with

  8. Comparative Analysis of Crack Propagation in Roots with Hand and Rotary Instrumentation of the Root Canal -An Ex-vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, Manjunath Mysore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Success of any endodontic treatment depends on strict adherence to ‘endodontic triad’. Preparation of root canal system is recognized as being one of the most important stages in root canal treatment. At times, we inevitably end up damaging root dentin which becomes a Gateway for infections like perforation, zipping, dentinal cracks and minute intricate fractures or even vertical root fractures, thereby resulting in failure of treatment. Several factors may be responsible for the formation of dentinal cracks like high concentration of sodium hypochlorite, compaction methods and various canal shaping methods. Aim To compare and evaluate the effects of root canal preparation techniques and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks. Materials and Methods Seventy extracted premolars with straight roots were mounted on resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, exposing 1-2 mm of the apex followed by sectioning of 1mm of root tip for better visualization under stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each – a control group and six experimental groups. Subgroup A & B were instrumented with: Stainless Steel hand files (SS) up to Root Canal Length (RCL) & (RCL –1 mm) respectively; sub group C & D were instrumented using ProTaper Universal (PTU) up to RCL and (RCL -1mm) respectively; subgroup E & F were instrumented using ProTaper Next (PTN) up to RCL & (RCL -1 mm) respectively. Stereomicroscopic images of the instrumentation sequence were compared for each tooth. The data was analyzed statistically using descriptive analysis by ‘Phi’ and ‘Cramers’ test to find out statistical significance between the groups. The level of significance was set at p< 0.05 using SPSS software. Results Stainless steel hand file group showed most cracks followed by ProTaper Universal & ProTaper Next though statistically not significant. Samples instrumented up to 1mm short of working length (RCL-1mm) showed

  9. Comparative Analysis of Crack Propagation in Roots with Hand and Rotary Instrumentation of the Root Canal -An Ex-vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, Manjunath Mysore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Success of any endodontic treatment depends on strict adherence to ‘endodontic triad’. Preparation of root canal system is recognized as being one of the most important stages in root canal treatment. At times, we inevitably end up damaging root dentin which becomes a Gateway for infections like perforation, zipping, dentinal cracks and minute intricate fractures or even vertical root fractures, thereby resulting in failure of treatment. Several factors may be responsible for the formation of dentinal cracks like high concentration of sodium hypochlorite, compaction methods and various canal shaping methods. Aim To compare and evaluate the effects of root canal preparation techniques and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks. Materials and Methods Seventy extracted premolars with straight roots were mounted on resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, exposing 1-2 mm of the apex followed by sectioning of 1mm of root tip for better visualization under stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each – a control group and six experimental groups. Subgroup A & B were instrumented with: Stainless Steel hand files (SS) up to Root Canal Length (RCL) & (RCL –1 mm) respectively; sub group C & D were instrumented using ProTaper Universal (PTU) up to RCL and (RCL -1mm) respectively; subgroup E & F were instrumented using ProTaper Next (PTN) up to RCL & (RCL -1 mm) respectively. Stereomicroscopic images of the instrumentation sequence were compared for each tooth. The data was analyzed statistically using descriptive analysis by ‘Phi’ and ‘Cramers’ test to find out statistical significance between the groups. The level of significance was set at p< 0.05 using SPSS software. Results Stainless steel hand file group showed most cracks followed by ProTaper Universal & ProTaper Next though statistically not significant. Samples instrumented up to 1mm short of working length (RCL-1mm) showed

  10. Comparison of Different Irrigants in the Removal of Endotoxins and Cultivable Microorganisms from Infected Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Cardoso, Flávia Goulart da Rosa; Chung, Adriana; Xavier, Ana Cláudia Carvalho; Figueiredo, Mariana Diehl; Martinho, Frederico Canato; Palo, Renato Miotto

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different irrigants used to remove endotoxins and cultivable microorganisms during endodontic therapy. Forty root canals were contaminated and divided into groups according to the irrigant: 2% NaOCl + surfactant, 2% CHX, 2.5% NaOCl, and pyrogen-free saline solution (control). Samples were collected after root canal contamination (S1), after instrumentation (S2), and 7 days after instrumentation (S3). Microorganisms and endotoxins were recovered from 100% of the contaminated root canals (S1). At S2, 2% NaOCl + surfactant, 2% CHX, and 2.5% NaOCl were able to completely eliminate cultivable microorganisms. At S3, both 2% CHX and 2.5% NaOCl were effective in preventing C. albicans and E. coli regrowth, but E. faecalis was still detected. No microorganism species was recovered from root canals instrumented with 2% NaOCl + surfactant. At S2, a higher percentage value of endotoxin reduction was found for 2% NaOCl + surfactant (99.3%) compared to 2% CHX (98.9%) and 2.5% NaOCl (97.18%) (p < 0.05). Moreover, at S3, 2% NaOCl + surfactant (100%) was the most effective irrigant against endotoxins. All irrigants tested were effective in reducing microorganisms and endotoxins from root canals. Moreover, 2% NaOCl + surfactant was the most effective irrigant against endotoxins and regrowth of microorganisms. PMID:26346574

  11. Comparison of Different Irrigants in the Removal of Endotoxins and Cultivable Microorganisms from Infected Root Canals.

    PubMed

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Cardoso, Flávia Goulart da Rosa; Chung, Adriana; Xavier, Ana Cláudia Carvalho; Figueiredo, Mariana Diehl; Martinho, Frederico Canato; Palo, Renato Miotto

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different irrigants used to remove endotoxins and cultivable microorganisms during endodontic therapy. Forty root canals were contaminated and divided into groups according to the irrigant: 2% NaOCl + surfactant, 2% CHX, 2.5% NaOCl, and pyrogen-free saline solution (control). Samples were collected after root canal contamination (S1), after instrumentation (S2), and 7 days after instrumentation (S3). Microorganisms and endotoxins were recovered from 100% of the contaminated root canals (S1). At S2, 2% NaOCl + surfactant, 2% CHX, and 2.5% NaOCl were able to completely eliminate cultivable microorganisms. At S3, both 2% CHX and 2.5% NaOCl were effective in preventing C. albicans and E. coli regrowth, but E. faecalis was still detected. No microorganism species was recovered from root canals instrumented with 2% NaOCl + surfactant. At S2, a higher percentage value of endotoxin reduction was found for 2% NaOCl + surfactant (99.3%) compared to 2% CHX (98.9%) and 2.5% NaOCl (97.18%) (p < 0.05). Moreover, at S3, 2% NaOCl + surfactant (100%) was the most effective irrigant against endotoxins. All irrigants tested were effective in reducing microorganisms and endotoxins from root canals. Moreover, 2% NaOCl + surfactant was the most effective irrigant against endotoxins and regrowth of microorganisms.

  12. The Effect of Smear Layer on Antimicrobial Efficacy of Three Root Canal Irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Nazanin; Dianat, Omid; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Zadsirjan, Saeede

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the main goals of endodontic treatment is to decrease the harboring bacteria within the root canal system and dentinal tubules. This experimental study attempted to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of three root canal irrigants in the presence and absence of smear layer (SL). Methods and Materials: A total of 210 sound extracted human single-rooted teeth were prepared. After creating the SL and its removal in half of the samples, they were infected with Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Actinomyces israelii (A. israelii). A total of 180 specimen were used to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the three irrigants in presence and absence of SL, 24 specimen were placed in the positive and negative controls, 2 samples were utilized for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and 2 were used for Gram staining. Then, they were exposed to irrigants including 2.61% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and 1% povidone-iodine (PI) for 5, 30 and 60 min. Presence/absence of test microorganisms was determined by incubation of specimens in test tubes containing brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth and then measuring the colony forming units (CFU) on BHI agar. A cumulative logistic model was used to analyze the ordinal response. Results: The 2.61% solution of NaOCl was significantly more effective than 0.2% CHX and the latter was more efficient than 1% PI for decreasing fungal and microbial infection of dentinal tubules in the presence and absence of SL. Conclusion: The presence of smear layer decreased the efficacy of antimicrobial irrigants. The minimum time required for elimination of fungal/microbial infection was 30 min. PMID:26213540

  13. Effect of final irrigating solution on smear layer removal and penetrability of the root canal sealer

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Amarnath; Ahmaduddin; Bolla, Nagesh; Raj, Sarath; Mandava, Pragna; Nayak, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of final rinsing solution on smear layer removal through penetrability of the root canal sealer. Materials and Methods: Each of the 30 teeth selected was decoronated and the root length standardized at 16 mm measured from the apex of the tooth to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). A size 10-k file was used and working length was determined by subtracting 1mm from the measured length so that the length of the sample was 15mm. A combination of step back and crown down technique was done and apical portion was prepared till H-file no. 30. 3% NaOCl was used during cleaning and shaping of the canals. Finally the teeth were divided into three groups of 10 teeth each. Group-I was irrigated with 17% EDTA, Group-II with TUBLICID plus, and Group-III with Biopure MTAD®. ISO 30 size gutta-percha points were selected as master cones. The Acroseal sealer was mixed with approximated concentration 0.1% fluorescent rhodamine B isothiocyanate dye. Obturation was done and after 48 hours, the roots were sectioned and subjected to confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results: Comparisons among the three groups were done by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Newman-Keuls multiple post-hoc procedures. The two-way ANOVA showed statistically highly significant results. The maximum depth of sealer penetration was observed in Group II followed by Group III and Group I. Conclusion: The use of -Tubulicid plus as a final irrigant provided better smear layer removal than Biopure a mixture of doxicycline, citric acid and a detergent (Tween 80) (MTAD®) and 17% EDTA. PMID:24554859

  14. In Vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Preparation of Mandibular Premolars with Manual and Rotary Instruments.

    PubMed

    Soi, Sonal; Yadav, Suman; Sharma, Sumeet; Sharma, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. During root canal preparation, debris extruded beyond the apical foramen may result in periapical inflammation and postoperative pain. To date no root canal preparation method has been developed that extrudes no periapical debris. The purpose of this study was to identify a system leading to minimal extrusion of debris from the apical foramen. The study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the amount of apical extrusion of debris during root canal preparation using hand ProTaper and GT rotary and RaCe rotary instruments using crown-down technique. Materials and methods. Ninety freshly extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were equally assigned to three groups (n=30). The root canals were instrumented using hand ProTaper, GT rotary and RaCe rotary systems. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials. The mean weight of the remaining debris was calculated for each group and subjected to statistical analysis. Results. ANOVA was used to compare the mean dry weights of the debris extruded in the three groups, followedby post hoc Tukey tests for multiple comparisons the between groups. Highly significant differences were found in the amount of debris extruded among all the groups (P<0.001). The ProTaper group exhibited the highest mean debris weight (0.8293±0.05433 mg) and the RaCe system exhibited the lowest mean debris weight (0.1280±0.01606 mg). Conclusion. All the systems tested resulted in apical extrusion of debris. However, the hand ProTaper files extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than GT and RaCe systems. PMID:26697144

  15. In Vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Preparation of Mandibular Premolars with Manual and Rotary Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Soi, Sonal; Yadav, Suman; Sharma, Sumeet; Sharma, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. During root canal preparation, debris extruded beyond the apical foramen may result in periapical inflammation and postoperative pain. To date no root canal preparation method has been developed that extrudes no periapical debris. The purpose of this study was to identify a system leading to minimal extrusion of debris from the apical foramen. The study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the amount of apical extrusion of debris during root canal preparation using hand ProTaper and GT rotary and RaCe rotary instruments using crown-down technique. Materials and methods. Ninety freshly extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were equally assigned to three groups (n=30). The root canals were instrumented using hand ProTaper, GT rotary and RaCe rotary systems. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials. The mean weight of the remaining debris was calculated for each group and subjected to statistical analysis. Results. ANOVA was used to compare the mean dry weights of the debris extruded in the three groups, followedby post hoc Tukey tests for multiple comparisons the between groups. Highly significant differences were found in the amount of debris extruded among all the groups (P<0.001). The ProTaper group exhibited the highest mean debris weight (0.8293±0.05433 mg) and the RaCe system exhibited the lowest mean debris weight (0.1280±0.01606 mg). Conclusion. All the systems tested resulted in apical extrusion of debris. However, the hand ProTaper files extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than GT and RaCe systems. PMID:26697144

  16. Morphological changes related to age in mesial root canals of permanent mandibular first molars.

    PubMed

    Gani, Omar A; Boiero, Claudio F; Correa, Carolina; Masin, Ivana; Machado, Ricardo; Silva, Emmanuel J N L; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related morphological canal changes in mesial root canals of mandibular first molars of known ages. Fifty-six specimens were selected for this study and distributed into the following four age groups (n. 14): a) Group of children under 13 years, b) Group of adolescents (from 14 to 19 years), c) Group of young adults (from 20 to 39 years) and d) Group of older adults (over 40 years). The specimens were in perfect condition because after extraction they were carefully cleaned, sterilized, identified and stored in water. In order to improve the cleaning, they were placed in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution for four hours and rinsed in 10 vol. hydrogen peroxide for 8 hours. After that, a clearing technique was performed to illustrate root canal anatomy. Digitalized images of all samples were obtained by use of a stereomicroscope. Canals were noticeably simpler in older adults: they were sharply defined and narrow, sometimes too narrow. Calcification nuclei were not found and there were only a few remains of internuclear spaces. The canal system appeared cleaner, clearer and more sharply defined than in the other age groups. It may be concluded that there is a correlation between aging and morphological changes in the mesial root canals of mandibular first molars.

  17. Morphological changes related to age in mesial root canals of permanent mandibular first molars.

    PubMed

    Gani, Omar A; Boiero, Claudio F; Correa, Carolina; Masin, Ivana; Machado, Ricardo; Silva, Emmanuel J N L; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related morphological canal changes in mesial root canals of mandibular first molars of known ages. Fifty-six specimens were selected for this study and distributed into the following four age groups (n. 14): a) Group of children under 13 years, b) Group of adolescents (from 14 to 19 years), c) Group of young adults (from 20 to 39 years) and d) Group of older adults (over 40 years). The specimens were in perfect condition because after extraction they were carefully cleaned, sterilized, identified and stored in water. In order to improve the cleaning, they were placed in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution for four hours and rinsed in 10 vol. hydrogen peroxide for 8 hours. After that, a clearing technique was performed to illustrate root canal anatomy. Digitalized images of all samples were obtained by use of a stereomicroscope. Canals were noticeably simpler in older adults: they were sharply defined and narrow, sometimes too narrow. Calcification nuclei were not found and there were only a few remains of internuclear spaces. The canal system appeared cleaner, clearer and more sharply defined than in the other age groups. It may be concluded that there is a correlation between aging and morphological changes in the mesial root canals of mandibular first molars. PMID:25560687

  18. The impact of pH on cytotoxic effects of three root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Delvarani, Abbas; Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Nikoo, Mohsen; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Karamifar, Kasra; Asgar, Kamal; Dadvand, Sahar

    2011-01-01

    Aim Cytotoxicity of root canal irrigants is important due to their close contact with host tissues. This study was to assess the possible impact of pH on cytotoxic effects of MTAD, 17% EDTA, and 2.6% NaOCl on the human gingival fibroblasts using MTT assay. Materials and methods Human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to the irrigants and their viability was assessed after 1, 6, and 12 h. The pH of the medium was measured in each interval. Light absorption values were measured for each culture medium using Elisa Reader device. Results NaOCl had significantly less cytotoxicity than EDTA and MTAD. Also irrigants cytotoxicity decreased in 12, 1, and 6 h, respectively. Conclusion It seems that variation of the pH resulted in variation in the cytotoxicity of solutions; i.e., it follows the pattern of the pH variation. PMID:23960509

  19. Comprehensive Analysis of Secondary Dental Root Canal Infections: A Combination of Culture and Culture-Independent Approaches Reveals New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Annette Carola; Hellwig, Elmar; Vespermann, Robin; Wittmer, Annette; Schmid, Michael; Karygianni, Lamprini; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Persistence of microorganisms or reinfections are the main reasons for failure of root canal therapy. Very few studies to date have included culture-independent methods to assess the microbiota, including non-cultivable microorganisms. The aim of this study was to combine culture methods with culture-independent cloning methods to analyze the microbial flora of root-filled teeth with periradicular lesions. Twenty-one samples from previously root-filled teeth were collected from patients with periradicular lesions. Microorganisms were cultivated, isolated and biochemically identified. In addition, ribosomal DNA of bacteria, fungi and archaea derived from the same samples was amplified and the PCR products were used to construct clone libraries. DNA of selected clones was sequenced and microbial species were identified, comparing the sequences with public databases. Microorganisms were found in 12 samples with culture-dependent and -independent methods combined. The number of bacterial species ranged from 1 to 12 in one sample. The majority of the 26 taxa belonged to the phylum Firmicutes (14 taxa), followed by Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. One sample was positive for fungi, and archaea could not be detected. The results obtained with both methods differed. The cloning technique detected several as-yet-uncultivated taxa. Using a combination of both methods 13 taxa were detected that had not been found in root-filled teeth so far. Enterococcus faecalis was only detected in two samples using culture methods. Combining the culture-dependent and –independent approaches revealed new candidate endodontic pathogens and a high diversity of the microbial flora in root-filled teeth with periradicular lesions. Both methods yielded differing results, emphasizing the benefit of combined methods for the detection of the actual microbial diversity in apical periodontitis. PMID:23152922

  20. Efficiency of the Self Adjusting File, WaveOne, Reciproc, ProTaper and hand files in root canal debridement

    PubMed Central

    Topcu, K. Meltem; Karatas, Ertugrul; Ozsu, Damla; Ersoy, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the canal debridement capabilities of three single file systems, ProTaper, and K-files in oval-shaped canals. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five extracted human mandibular central incisors with oval-shaped root canals were selected. A radiopaque contrast medium (Metapex; Meta Biomed Co. Ltd., Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea) was introduced into the canal systems and the self-adjusting file (SAF), WaveOne, Reciproc, ProTaper, and K-files were used for the instrumentation of the canals. The percentage of removed contrast medium was calculated using pre- and post-operative radiographs. Results: An overall comparison between the groups revealed that the hand file (HF) and SAF groups presented the lowest percentage of removed contrast medium, whereas the WaveOne group showed the highest percentage (P < 0.001). The ProTaper group removed more contrast medium than the SAF and HF groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: None of the instruments was able to remove the contrast medium completely. WaveOne performed significantly better than other groups. PMID:25202211

  1. Effectiveness of castor oil extract on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals.

    PubMed

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of castor oil extract used as an irrigating solution on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals. Sixty single-rooted teeth were prepared (using castor oil extract as irrigating solution) and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 samples were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Group 2 samples were treated with polymyxin B, Group 3 samples were treated with Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), and Group 4 samples were treated with castor oil extract. A control group used physiological saline solution as an irrigant. Canal content samples were collected at four different times: immediately after instrumentation, seven days after instrumentation, after 14 days of intracanal medication, and seven days after removal of intracanal medication. A plating method was used to assess antimicrobial activity and the quantification of endotoxins was evaluated by the chromogenic Limulus lysate assay. Data were submitted to ANOVA and a Dunn test (a = 5%). Irrigation with castor oil extract decreased E. coli counts but had no effect on the level of endotoxins. Samples taken seven days after removal of medication revealed a significant reduction in endotoxin levels in Groups 3 and 4. Compared to the saline solution irrigation, castor oil extract decreased microorganism counts in root canals immediately after canal preparation. None of the medications used completely eliminated endotoxins in the root canal.

  2. Endodontic treatment of a maxillary first molar with seven root canals confirmed with cone beam computer tomography - case report.

    PubMed

    Martins, Jorge N R

    2014-06-01

    The most common configuration of the maxillary first molar is the presence of three roots and four root canals, although the presence of several other configurations have already been reported. The objective of this work is to present a rare anatomic configuration with seven root canals diagnosed during an endodontic therapy. Endodontic treatment was performed using a dental operating microscope. Exploring the grooves surrounding the main canals with ultrasonic troughing was able expose unexpected root canals. Instrumentation with files of smaller sizes and tapers was performed to prevent root physical weakness. The anatomic configuration was confirmed with a Cone Beam Computer Tomography image analysis which was able to clearly show the presence of seven root canals. An electronic database search was conducted to identify all the published similar cases and the best techniques to approach them are discussed.

  3. Endodontic Treatment of a Maxillary First Molar with Seven Root Canals Confirmed with Cone Beam Computer Tomography – Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The most common configuration of the maxillary first molar is the presence of three roots and four root canals, although the presence of several other configurations have already been reported. The objective of this work is to present a rare anatomic configuration with seven root canals diagnosed during an endodontic therapy. Endodontic treatment was performed using a dental operating microscope. Exploring the grooves surrounding the main canals with ultrasonic troughing was able expose unexpected root canals. Instrumentation with files of smaller sizes and tapers was performed to prevent root physical weakness. The anatomic configuration was confirmed with a Cone Beam Computer Tomography image analysis which was able to clearly show the presence of seven root canals. An electronic database search was conducted to identify all the published similar cases and the best techniques to approach them are discussed. PMID:25121069

  4. Detection and management of a complex canal configuration in mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molar using three dimensional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, Velagala L.; Bollu, Indira Priyadharsini; Dhamaraju, Bhargavi; Yadla, Padmasri

    2016-01-01

    This case report discusses the identification and management of complex canal configuration of 3-2-1 in the mesiobuccal (MB) root of the maxillary left first molar. Careful attention to details of the pulpal floor and applying the knowledge of the laws of orifice location along with deepening the subpulpal groove with ultrasonic tips helped in identifying the three MB canals. Manual scouting helped in understanding the anatomic configuration; the use of three-dimensional imaging technique and spiral computed tomography (SCT) confirmed the same. SCT images showed buccolingually wide and bulbous mesiobuccal root with three separate canals at coronal third that merged into two canals in the middle and exited as a single canal at the apex. This article highlights the role of SCT in three-dimensionally analyzing the unseen rarest canal configurations that ultimately enabled the clinician to thoroughly explore, debride, and obturate the entire root canal system. PMID:27195233

  5. The sealing ability of novel Kryptonite adhesive bone cement as a retrograde filling material

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, İsmail; Keskin, Cangül; Güler, Buğra

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the ability of Kryptonite bone cement in sealing retrograde cavities. Methods. The root canals of one hundred extracted human maxillary incisor teeth were instrumented up to master apical file #40 using Mtwo rotary system and obturated with gutta-percha and AHPlus sealer by cold lateral compaction method. The specimens were assigned to one control group and four experimental groups based on the retrograde filling materials (n=20). The specimens were immersed in 0.5% Rhodamine B solution for 48h. Then the specimens were divided longitudinally into two parts and the depth of dye penetration was assessed under ×10 magnification. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. Results. There were statistically significant difference between the experimental groups and the control group (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the experimental groups in dye penetration scores (P>0.05). Conclusion. Kryptonite cement provided optimal apical seal in a manner similar to MTA, amalgam and IRM when used as a retrograde filling cement. PMID:27651886

  6. The sealing ability of novel Kryptonite adhesive bone cement as a retrograde filling material

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, İsmail; Keskin, Cangül; Güler, Buğra

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the ability of Kryptonite bone cement in sealing retrograde cavities. Methods. The root canals of one hundred extracted human maxillary incisor teeth were instrumented up to master apical file #40 using Mtwo rotary system and obturated with gutta-percha and AHPlus sealer by cold lateral compaction method. The specimens were assigned to one control group and four experimental groups based on the retrograde filling materials (n=20). The specimens were immersed in 0.5% Rhodamine B solution for 48h. Then the specimens were divided longitudinally into two parts and the depth of dye penetration was assessed under ×10 magnification. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. Results. There were statistically significant difference between the experimental groups and the control group (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the experimental groups in dye penetration scores (P>0.05). Conclusion. Kryptonite cement provided optimal apical seal in a manner similar to MTA, amalgam and IRM when used as a retrograde filling cement.

  7. The sealing ability of novel Kryptonite adhesive bone cement as a retrograde filling material.

    PubMed

    Uzun, İsmail; Keskin, Cangül; Güler, Buğra

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the ability of Kryptonite bone cement in sealing retrograde cavities. Methods. The root canals of one hundred extracted human maxillary incisor teeth were instrumented up to master apical file #40 using Mtwo rotary system and obturated with gutta-percha and AHPlus sealer by cold lateral compaction method. The specimens were assigned to one control group and four experimental groups based on the retrograde filling materials (n=20). The specimens were immersed in 0.5% Rhodamine B solution for 48h. Then the specimens were divided longitudinally into two parts and the depth of dye penetration was assessed under ×10 magnification. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. Results. There were statistically significant difference between the experimental groups and the control group (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the experimental groups in dye penetration scores (P>0.05). Conclusion . Kryptonite cement provided optimal apical seal in a manner similar to MTA, amalgam and IRM when used as a retrograde filling cement. PMID:27651886

  8. Non-Surgical Root Canal Treatment of Dens Invaginatus 3 in a Maxillary Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Saeed; Donyavi, Zakyeh; Esmaealzade, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to describe the clinical management of an unusual dens invaginatus type 3. A case of dens invaginatus in a maxillary lateral incisor with a periapical lesion is reported. The patient presented with pain and localized swelling. Despite the complex anatomy and diagnosis of dens invaginatus, non-surgical root canal treatment was performed successfully. Key Learning Points: - Dens invaginatus may be presented in different forms, and the etiology of this phenomenon is not fully understood. - Due to abnormal anatomical configuration, dens invaginatus presents technical difficulties in its clinical management. - Non-surgical root canal treatment can be performed successfully. PMID:24171017

  9. Cutaneous Sinus Tract from Mandibular Second Molar with C-shaped Canal System and Improper Former Root Canal Treatment: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Maryam; Dastmalchi, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the diagnosis and treatment of an extraoral cutaneous sinus tract originating in a mandibular second molar with a C-shaped root canal system. The patient was referred to our department by a dermatologist after a series of unsuccessful treatments, including antibiotics. Diffuse radiolucency on a preoperative radiograph revealed that earlier root canal treatment had been only partially successful. Consequently, we performed retreatment of the root canal comprising removal of the former restoration and gutta-percha, cleaning and shaping, and passive irrigation with sodium hypochlorite. The patient responded well, and the cutaneous lesion completely resolved uneventfully within 1 month postoperatively. Preoperative recognition and thorough knowledge of the root canal anatomy and conventional methods of obturation are necessary in performing successful endodontic treatment. PMID:27665696

  10. An in vitro comparative study of the adaptation and sealing ability of two carrier-based root canal obturators.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Ahmed; Al-Subait, Sara; Anil, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    The study was done to assess the sealing ability and adaptation of RealSeal 1, and to compare it with Thermafil. 65 single-rooted extracted teeth were selected and root canal treatment was performed. Root canals were obturated with RealSeal 1 or Thermafil. A double chamber bacterial leakage model using E. faecalis was developed to assess the sealing ability. Samples were monitored daily for 60 days. After the bacterial leakage test, samples were embedded in resin and sectioned horizontally at 2 and 4 mm from the apical foramen. Specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope and digitally photographed. AutoCAD software was used to measure the gap between the canal surface and obturation material. Results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the bacterial leakage and t-test to compare the means of gap in RealSeal 1 and Thermafil at 2 and 4 mm. There was no significant difference between the RealSeal 1 and Thermafil with respect to leakage over time. At 2 mm and 4 mm, RealSeal 1 had significantly more gaps than Thermafil. From the observations it can be concluded that RealSeal 1 and Thermafil have comparable performance in terms of adaptation and sealing ability. PMID:23710141

  11. An in vitro comparative study of the adaptation and sealing ability of two carrier-based root canal obturators.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Ahmed; Al-Subait, Sara; Anil, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    The study was done to assess the sealing ability and adaptation of RealSeal 1, and to compare it with Thermafil. 65 single-rooted extracted teeth were selected and root canal treatment was performed. Root canals were obturated with RealSeal 1 or Thermafil. A double chamber bacterial leakage model using E. faecalis was developed to assess the sealing ability. Samples were monitored daily for 60 days. After the bacterial leakage test, samples were embedded in resin and sectioned horizontally at 2 and 4 mm from the apical foramen. Specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope and digitally photographed. AutoCAD software was used to measure the gap between the canal surface and obturation material. Results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the bacterial leakage and t-test to compare the means of gap in RealSeal 1 and Thermafil at 2 and 4 mm. There was no significant difference between the RealSeal 1 and Thermafil with respect to leakage over time. At 2 mm and 4 mm, RealSeal 1 had significantly more gaps than Thermafil. From the observations it can be concluded that RealSeal 1 and Thermafil have comparable performance in terms of adaptation and sealing ability.

  12. An In Vitro Comparative Study of the Adaptation and Sealing Ability of Two Carrier-Based Root Canal Obturators

    PubMed Central

    Alkahtani, Ahmed; Al-Subait, Sara; Anil, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    The study was done to assess the sealing ability and adaptation of RealSeal 1, and to compare it with Thermafil. 65 single-rooted extracted teeth were selected and root canal treatment was performed. Root canals were obturated with RealSeal 1 or Thermafil. A double chamber bacterial leakage model using E. faecalis was developed to assess the sealing ability. Samples were monitored daily for 60 days. After the bacterial leakage test, samples were embedded in resin and sectioned horizontally at 2 and 4 mm from the apical foramen. Specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope and digitally photographed. AutoCAD software was used to measure the gap between the canal surface and obturation material. Results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the bacterial leakage and t-test to compare the means of gap in RealSeal 1 and Thermafil at 2 and 4 mm. There was no significant difference between the RealSeal 1 and Thermafil with respect to leakage over time. At 2 mm and 4 mm, RealSeal 1 had significantly more gaps than Thermafil. From the observations it can be concluded that RealSeal 1 and Thermafil have comparable performance in terms of adaptation and sealing ability. PMID:23710141

  13. The Antibacterial Efficacy of Photo-Activated Disinfection, Chlorhexidine and Sodium Hypochlorite in Infected Root Canals: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Samiei, Mohammad; Shahi, Shahriar; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan; Eskandarinezhad, Mahsa; Negahdari, Ramin; Pakseresht, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study compared the efficacy of light-activated low-power laser, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 2.5% NaOCl in eliminating Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) from the root canal system. Methods and Materials: The root canals of 60 maxillary central incisors were contaminated with E. faecalis and then the bacteria were incubated for 24 h. All the root canals were instrumented in a crown-down manner with #4 and 3 Gates-Glidden drills, followed by RaCe rotary files (40/0.10, 35/0.08, and 30/0.06). The samples were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and one control group (n=15). In the control group no intervention was made. In the photo-activated disinfection (PAD) group, laser therapy was undertaken with diode laser beams (with an output power of 100 mW/cm2) for 120 sec. For the other two experimental groups, root canals were irrigated either with 5 mL of 2% CHX or 2.5% NaOCl solutions, respectively. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the CFU values of the bacteria and post-hoc Bonferroni test was used for pairwise comparisons. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The inhibition of bacterial growth in all the experimental groups was significantly superior to the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the effect of PAD and 2% CHX (P=0.05). The effect of 2.5% NaOCl was significantly better than that of the PAD technique (P<0.001). In addition, 2.5% NaOCl was significantly better than 2% CHX (P=0.007). Conclusion: Photodynamic therapy was effective in reducing the E. faecalis counts in comparison with the control group, but 2.5% NaOCl solution was the most effective protocol. PMID:27471527

  14. Canals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkleman, Michael

    1974-01-01

    In the mid-1800's, the canal system in the U.S. was thriving. But, by the end of that century, roads and railways had replaced these commercial thoroughfares. Renewed interest in the abandoned canals is now resulting in renovation and ecological site development in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. (MA)

  15. Antibacterial Efficacy of Super-Oxidized Water on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms in Root Canal

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Recai; Alacam, Tayfun; Hubbezoglu, Ihsan; Tunc, Tutku; Sumer, Zeynep; Alici, Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Background The success of endodontic treatment depends on a few crucial factors. One of these factors is the complete chemomechanic preparation of root canal against various bacteria. In particular, the effect of resistant bacteria may cause intense pain with flare-up and formation of periapical lesions. Therefore, the strong effect of irrigants plays an important role in terms of the complete elimination of these bacteria to achieve long-term successful treatment. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of super-oxidized water (SPO) in root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Methods One hundred twenty single-root, premolar teeth were selected. Initially, the teeth were prepared and then disinfected. E. faecalis were inoculated and kept at 37°C for 24 hours in the root canals. The re-inoculation procedure was repeated on the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth days. The infected root canals were divided into one negative (saline) and one positive (sodium hypochlorite) control group and four experimental groups (super-oxidized water: 1, 2, 3, or 5 minutes) (n = 20). Paper points were placed in the root canals to control and evaluate the biofilm formation. Biofilms were counted on blood agar plates, and data was evaluated and statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results Although sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) showed no statistically significant difference when compared with three and five minutes of SPO irrigation (P > 0.05), NaOCl showed statistically significant differences among all other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions Super-oxidized water indicated a remarkable and similar bactericidal effect to that of traditional NaOCl against E. faecalis biofilms. In terms of successful endodontic treatment approaches, super-oxidized water may be used as an effective irrigation solution in clinics. PMID:27800142

  16. Systemic distribution of sup 14 C-labeled formaldehyde applied in the root canal following pulpectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, G.I.; Nishikawa, I.; Kawazoe, S.; Toda, T.

    1989-11-01

    The systemic distribution of {sup 14}C-labeled formaldehyde which had been placed in the root canals of the canines of cats following pulpectomies was studied using liquid scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiographic technique. Radioactive {sup 14}C which had been placed in the canals was found in the plasma 30 min after the root canal procedure. The recovery of systemic {sup 14}C radioactivity increased with time. In addition, it seemed that approximately 3% of the dose placed in the teeth was excreted in the urine within 36 h. Whole-body autoradiograms indicated extensive concentration of {sup 14}C radioactivity in tissues other than those analyzed with the liquid scintillation technique.

  17. Morphologic criteria for root canal treatment of primary molars undergoing resorption.

    PubMed

    Rimondini, L; Baroni, C

    1995-06-01

    The endodontic anatomy of primary molars is difficult to predict because of the balance of resorption and hard tissue deposition. In particular, the resorption causes perforating lacunae across the wall of the root, even at the furcation level, and modifies shape, dimension and position of endodontic apex. The phenomenon can be so deep as to compromise endodontic therapy. The first aim of the study was to verify if reliable criteria can be found for treatability in primary molars undergoing resorption, i.e. if it is possible to predict if perforating lacunae are present or not. The second aim of the study was to verify if other informations needed for endodontic treatment, as shape, dimension and location of the apex, and curvature of the root canal can be predicted. For the study, 80 extracted primary molars, 75 of which pulpally involved by caries, were selected. The treatability was evaluated in term of root length, root shape, dimension and shape of endodontic apex, age of the patient and X-ray index of resorption. The association between variables was performed by multiple correspondence analysis. The results suggested that root length was the most reliable criterion of the integrity of the root. The borderline of treatability was at the length of 4 mm. The position of endodontic apex related to anatomical apex, and the lingual related to the buccal root length were analyzed by linear regression analysis. The canal length was often similar to the root length (i.e. the endo and anatomical apices were very close) in lower and upper molars. However, in lower molars, if two or more canals were present in the same root, a discrepancy was observed between buccal and lingual root length. This finding was constant in first lower molars. In addition regression analysis provided a linear function between the lengths of the buccal and lingual side of the same root in lower molars. Its coefficient b was 0.73. PMID:7641630

  18. Aetiology, incidence and morphology of the C-shaped root canal system and its impact on clinical endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Kato, A; Ziegler, A; Higuchi, N; Nakata, K; Nakamura, H; Ohno, N

    2014-01-01

    The C-shaped root canal constitutes an unusual root morphology that can be found primarily in mandibular second permanent molars. Due to the complexity of their structure, C-shaped root canal systems may complicate endodontic interventions. A thorough understanding of root canal morphology is therefore imperative for proper diagnosis and successful treatment. This review aims to summarize current knowledge regarding C-shaped roots and root canals, from basic morphology to advanced endodontic procedures. To this end, a systematic search was conducted using the MEDLINE, BIOSIS, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Web of Science, PLoS and BioMed Central databases, and many rarely cited articles were included. Furthermore, four interactive 3D models of extracted teeth are introduced that will allow for a better understanding of the complex C-shaped root canal morphology. In addition, the present publication includes an embedded best-practice video showing an exemplary root canal procedure on a tooth with a pronounced C-shaped root canal. The survey of this unusual structure concludes with a number of suggestions concerning future research efforts. PMID:24483229

  19. Maxillary first Molar with three canal orifices in MesioBuccal root.

    PubMed

    Ayranci, Leyla B; Arslan, Hakan; Topcuoglu, H Sinan

    2011-10-01

    The present case describes root canal treatment in a maxillary first molar with unusual anatomy. A male patient was referred for the treatment of maxillary left first molar tooth. Clinical examination of the pulpal floor revealed 3 orifices in the mesio buccal root. The tooth was treated successfully. Anatomic variations must be taken into consideration in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. PMID:22144820

  20. Maxillary first Molar with three canal orifices in MesioBuccal root

    PubMed Central

    Ayranci, Leyla B.; Arslan, Hakan; Topcuoglu, H Sinan

    2011-01-01

    The present case describes root canal treatment in a maxillary first molar with unusual anatomy. A male patient was referred for the treatment of maxillary left first molar tooth. Clinical examination of the pulpal floor revealed 3 orifices in the mesio buccal root. The tooth was treated successfully. Anatomic variations must be taken into consideration in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment PMID:22144820

  1. Influence of the glide path on various parameters of root canal prepared with WaveOne reciprocating file using cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Anil; Nagar, Nidhi; Sapra, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nickel–titanium (NiTi) rotary instrumentation carries a risk of fracture, mainly as a result of flexural (fatigue fracture) and torsional (shear failure) stresses. This risk might be reduced by creating a glide path before NiTi rotary instrumentation. The aim of this study was to compare various root canal parameters with the new WaveOne single-file reciprocating system in mesial canals of mandibular molars with and without glide path using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: One hundred mandibular molar teeth with canal curvature between 20° and 30° were divided into two groups of 50 teeth each. In Group 1, no glide path was created, whereas in Group 2, a glide path was created with PathFiles at working length (WL). In both groups, canals were shaped with WaveOne primary reciprocating files to the WL. Canals were scanned in a CBCT unit before and after instrumentation. Postinstrumentation changes in canal curvature, cross-sectional area, centric ability, residual dentin thickness, and the extent of canal transportation were calculated using image analysis software and subjected to statistical analysis. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test (P < 0.05). Results: The mean difference of root canal curvature, cross-sectional area, centric ability, and residual dentin thickness increased, whereas it reduced significantly for canal transportation in Group 2. Conclusion: WaveOne NiTi files appeared to maintain the original canal anatomy and the presence of a glide path further improves their performance and was found to be beneficial for all the parameters tested in this study. PMID:26759589

  2. Endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with three roots and seven root canals with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamal Krishan; Shekhar, Rhitu

    2015-01-01

    Variation in root canal morphology, especially in maxillary first molar presents a constant challenge for a clinician in their detection and management. This case report describes the successful root canal treatment of a three rooted right maxillary first molar presenting with three canals each in the mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots and one canal in the palatal root. The clinical detection of this morphologic aberration was made using a dental operating microscope, and the canal configuration was established after correlating and computing the clinical, radiographic and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan findings. CBCT images confirmed the configuration of the canals in the mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots to be Al-Qudah and Awawdeh type (3-2) and type (3-2-1), respectively, whereas the palatal root had a Vertucci type I canal pattern. This report reaffirms the importance of careful examination of the floor of the pulp chamber with a dental operating microscope and the use of multiangled preoperative radiographs along with advanced diagnostic aids such as CBCT in identification and successful management of aberrant canal morphologies. PMID:26295029

  3. Effects of different sonic activation protocols on debridement efficacy in teeth with single-rooted canals

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Li-na; Luo, Xiao-juan; Li, Guo-hua; Bortoluzzi, Eduardo A.; Mao, Jing; Chen, Ji-hua; Gutmann, James L.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The effects of different EndoActivator® (EA) sonic activation protocols on root canal debridement efficacy were examined. Methods Root canals in 48 single-rooted teeth were instrumented, irrigated initially with NaOCl and divided into 6 groups (N=8) based on the application time of QMix (antimicrobial calcium-chelating irrigant), and the time and sequence of EA irrigant activation - Positive Control: 90 sec QMix; Negative Control: 90 sec saline; Group 1A: 15 sec QMix + 15 sec QMix with EA-activation; Group 1B: 30 sec QMix + 30 sec of QMix with EA-activation; Group 2A: 15 sec QMix with EA-activation + 15 sec QMix; Group 2B: 30 sec QMix with EA-activation + 30 sec QMix. Split roots were examined with scanning electron microscopy for assignment of smear and debris scores in locations along the coronal, middle and apical thirds of the canals. The overall cleanliness of pooled canal locations in the Positive Control and the 4 experimental groups were compared with chi-square tests. Results Significant differences were detected among the 5 groups (p<0.001). Post-hoc pairwise comparisons indicated that the overall canal cleanliness was in the order (from best to worst): 1B = 2B > 2A > 1A > Positive Control. Completely clean canals could not be achieved due to the absence of continuous irrigant flow for EA to clear intraradicular debris. Conclusions Irrespective of the sonic activation sequence, irrigant activation for 30 seconds during a 60-second period of QMix application appears to maximize the smear layer and debris removal potential of the EndoActivator® system. PMID:24878251

  4. Root canal surface after application of an x-ray opaque waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Bartonova, Marie; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal; Koranda, Petr; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2004-05-01

    The success of endodontic treatment depends on the methods used for shaping, cleaning, disinfecting, and sealing of a root canal. In the last few decades, big progress has been achieved in the application of the following methods: manual instrumentation, sonic and ultrasonic devices, and rotary instruments. The procedures used in the root canal system preparation result in a smear layer creation. The aim of this study was to give more precision to the smear layer removal using laser radiation. The root canal systems of 20 human teeth were treated endodontically. As laser radiation sources, Er:YAG laser system generating a wavelength of 2940 nm (rep. rate 1.5 Hz, spot size diameter 320 um, number of pulses 55, energy 100 mJ) and Alexandrite laser system generating a wavelength of 375 nm (rep. rate 1 Hz, spot size diameter 320 um, number of pulses 200, energy 1 mJ) were used. As a delivery system, a hollow glass waveguide with the special X-ray contrast cover was used. The flexible waveguide was moved via root canal and the laser radiation cleaned the wall surface. After application of Er:YAG laser radiation, the smear layer was fully removed, the surface was clean and smooth, and in the SEM investigation the open dentinal tubules were visible. No cracks were determined. The surface modifications were also not observed after endodontic preparation as well as Alexandrite laser radiation therapy. The whole treatment can be checked by X-ray machine.

  5. Therapeutic Potential of Gramicidin S in the Treatment of Root Canal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Berditsch, Marina; Lux, Hannah; Babii, Oleg; Afonin, Sergii; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    An intrinsic clindamycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, the most common single species present in teeth after failed root canal therapy, often possesses acquired tetracycline resistance. In these cases, root canal infections are commonly treated with Ledermix® paste, which contains demeclocycline, or the new alternative endodontic paste Odontopaste, which contains clindamycin; however, these treatments are often ineffective. We studied the killing activity of the cyclic antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S (GS) against planktonic and biofilm cells of tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates of E. faecalis. The high therapeutic potential of GS for the topical treatment of problematic teeth is based on the rapid bactericidal effect toward the biofilm-forming, tetracycline-resistant E. faecalis. GS reduces the cell number of planktonic cells within 20–40 min at a concentration of 40–80 μg/mL. It kills the cells of pre-grown biofilms at concentrations of 100–200 μg/mL, such that no re-growth is possible. The translocation of the peptide into the cell interior and its complexation with intracellular nucleotides, including the alarmon ppGpp, can explain its anti-biofilm effect. The successful treatment of persistently infected root canals of two volunteers confirms the high effectiveness of GS. The broad GS activity towards resistant, biofilm-forming E. faecalis suggests its applications for approval in root canal medication. PMID:27618065

  6. Investigation of Er:YAG laser root canal irradiation using en face OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todea, Carmen; Balabuc, Cosmin; Filip, Laura; Calniceanu, Mircea; Bradu, Adrian; Hughes, Michael; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2009-07-01

    This pilot study was designed to investigate the quality of endodontic treatment performed with/without Er:YAG laser using en-face Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) prototype which evinced the presence of voids and microleakage within the root canal.

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Gramicidin S in the Treatment of Root Canal Infections.

    PubMed

    Berditsch, Marina; Lux, Hannah; Babii, Oleg; Afonin, Sergii; Ulrich, Anne S

    2016-01-01

    An intrinsic clindamycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, the most common single species present in teeth after failed root canal therapy, often possesses acquired tetracycline resistance. In these cases, root canal infections are commonly treated with Ledermix(®) paste, which contains demeclocycline, or the new alternative endodontic paste Odontopaste, which contains clindamycin; however, these treatments are often ineffective. We studied the killing activity of the cyclic antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S (GS) against planktonic and biofilm cells of tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates of E. faecalis. The high therapeutic potential of GS for the topical treatment of problematic teeth is based on the rapid bactericidal effect toward the biofilm-forming, tetracycline-resistant E. faecalis. GS reduces the cell number of planktonic cells within 20-40 min at a concentration of 40-80 μg/mL. It kills the cells of pre-grown biofilms at concentrations of 100-200 μg/mL, such that no re-growth is possible. The translocation of the peptide into the cell interior and its complexation with intracellular nucleotides, including the alarmon ppGpp, can explain its anti-biofilm effect. The successful treatment of persistently infected root canals of two volunteers confirms the high effectiveness of GS. The broad GS activity towards resistant, biofilm-forming E. faecalis suggests its applications for approval in root canal medication. PMID:27618065

  8. Laser assisted irrigation and hand irrigation for root canal decontamination: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivi, M.; Stefanucci, M.; Todea, C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to compare the bactericidal efficiency of conventional method and LAI for root canal decontamination. Material and method: 22 human single root teeth, extracted for periodontal problems, mechanically prepared up to ISO 25 at the working lenght were divided in 2 groups: after sterilization, the teeth were infected with enterococcus faecalis and incubated for 4 weeks. Group A: 10 teeth were irrigated with conventional hand technique (CI): 3ml of 5% NaClO were used for two times of 30s each and after washing with sterile bi-distilled water for 20s, a final irrigation was performed with 3ml of 17% EDTA. Group B: 10 teeth were irrigated with 3ml of NaClO and activated by erbium laser, two cycles of 30s; also the final irrigation with 3ml of 17% EDTA was activated by erbium laser. In both the groups a resting time of 30s was used between the two sessions to allow the reaction rate of NaClO. The Erbium laser 2940 nm (LightWalker AT, Fotona; Lublijana, Slovenia) was used with 50microsecond pulse duration, at 15Hz, 20mJ, with a 600micron PIPS tip. Two samples were used as positive and negative control.

  9. Effects of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on the root canal wall dentin of human teeth: a SEM study.

    PubMed

    Kaitsas, V; Signore, A; Fonzi, L; Benedicenti, S; Barone, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the morphological and histological changes on the root canal walls after Nd:YAG laser application. Twenty vital, recently extracted single-rooted human teeth were used for this study. Root canals were cleaned and shaped by a conventional step-back technique--by means of k files up to a 20 k-file type at working length--and subsequently shaped by Ni-Ti root-canal rotary instrumentation up to 30/06 and irrigated with 2.5% hypochlorite solution. Ten teeth (control group) were left unlased, while the other ten teeth were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser by means of a 320 microns fibre inserted in the root canal at 1 mm from the apex with a power of 1.5 Watt and a frequency of 15 pps for five seconds in retraction with rotating movements. The control specimen showed debris and smear layer on the root canal surface obscuring the dentin tubules. The root canal walls irradiated with Nd:YAG laser showed a clear glazed surface, some open dentinal tubules and some surface craters with cracks. Such results confirm that smear layer and debris are removable with Nd:YAG laser, however clearing all root canal walls is still difficult and, if the energy level and duration of application are inadequate, a certain degree of thermal damage and morphological changes in dentin structure are observable. PMID:11938590

  10. Effect of root canal sealers and irrigation agents on retention of preformed posts luted with a resin cement.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J T; Windchy, A M; Goldsmith, L J; Gettleman, L

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the effect of three sealers and four irrigants on retention of Dentatus preformed posts luted with Panavia 21 resin cement. Gutta-percha with one of the following sealers--EWT, AH26, Nogenol, or no sealer (control)--was used to fill the root canals of 160 autoclaved incisor and premolar tooth roots. After 72 hr 8 mm post spaces were created with Dentatus Probos Pathfinders and Dentatus reamers. After irrigating the post spaces with saline, 5.25% NaOCl, 50% citric acid followed by NaOCl, or 40% H3PO4, followed by NaOCl, Panavia 21 TC cement was introduced into the canal on the Dentatus #4 stainless steel post's threads. An up-and-down and counterclockwise motion and then a forward twist seated the posts without engaging dentin. Mesiodistal and faciolingual radiographs visualized the chambers. After 72 hr posts were removed axially with an Instron at 5 mm/min. Surprisingly, using Nogenol sealer reduced post retention whereas EWT and AH26 increased retention compared with no sealer. Post retention improved after acid etchants, especially for AH26.

  11. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Two Antibiotics Sparfloxacin and Augmentin as Experimental Root Canal Irrigating Solutions against Enterococcus faecalis - An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Surakanti, Jayaprada Reddy; Thumu, Jayaprakash; Chennamaneni, Krishna Chaitanya; Kalluru, Rama S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the main goals of endodontic treatment is root canal disinfection and to prevent subsequent chances of reinfection. Adjuvant to instrumentation, root canal irrigants are required to eliminate the bacteria found on the root canal walls and lateral canals within the dentinal tubules. Aim To measure and compare the antibacterial efficacy of two antibiotics as experimental root canal irrigating solutions against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Materials and Methods Fifteen Brain Heart Infusion agar plates were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis-American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 29212. 5 micrograms (mcg) Sparfloxacin discs, 30mcg Augmentin discs, and sterile paper test discs saturated with 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX), 3% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 5% NaOCl solutions were placed on agar plates. Sodium Chloride 0.9% (NaCl) paper discs were used as controls. Fifteen plates were incubated aerobically at 37°C. Results were expressed as per the terms of the diameter of the inhibition zone. Results Results suggested a statistically significant difference in the zones of inhibition between five irrigating solutions (p < 0.001). Conclusion Although, zones of inhibition were found in all the groups, 5mcg Sparfloxacin and 30mcg Augmentin showed maximum antimicrobial activity against E.faecalis. PMID:27135003

  12. Human tooth and root canal morphology reconstruction using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    DRĂGAN, OANA CARMEN; FĂRCĂŞANU, ALEXANDRU ŞTEFAN; CÂMPIAN, RADU SEPTIMIU; TURCU, ROMULUS VALERIU FLAVIU

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Visualization of the internal and external root canal morphology is very important for a successful endodontic treatment; however, it seems to be difficult considering the small size of the tooth and the complexity of the root canal system. Film-based or digital conventional radiographic techniques as well as cone beam computed tomography provide limited information on the dental pulp anatomy or have harmful effects. A new non-invasive diagnosis tool is magnetic resonance imaging, due to its ability of imaging both hard and soft tissues. The aim of this study was to demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging to be a useful tool for imaging the anatomic conditions of the external and internal root canal morphology for endodontic purposes. Methods The endodontic system of one freshly extracted wisdom tooth, chosen for its well-known anatomical variations, was mechanically shaped using a hybrid technique. After its preparation, the tooth was immersed into a recipient with saline solution and magnetic resonance imaged immediately. A Bruker Biospec magnetic resonance imaging scanner operated at 7.04 Tesla and based on Avance III radio frequency technology was used. InVesalius software was employed for the 3D reconstruction of the tooth scanned volume. Results The current ex-vivo experiment shows the accurate 3D volume rendered reconstruction of the internal and external morphology of a human extracted and endodontically treated tooth using a dataset of images acquired by magnetic resonance imaging. The external lingual and vestibular views of the tooth as well as the occlusal view of the pulp chamber, the access cavity, the distal canal opening on the pulp chamber floor, the coronal third of the root canals, the degree of root separation and the apical fusion of the two mesial roots, details of the apical region, root canal curvatures, furcal region and interradicular root grooves could be clearly bordered. Conclusions Magnetic resonance imaging offers 3

  13. Measurement and modeling of temperature distribution for Er:YAG laser root canal sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibst, Raimund; Stock, Karl; Keller, Ulrich

    1999-02-01

    Based on the bactericidal effect of subablative irradiation the Er:YAG laser can be used for root canal sterilization in endodontics. For this, an optical fiber will be inserted into the root canal down to a depth of about 1 mm in front of the apex, and then removed while activating the laser. In order to avoid heat accumulation which could be harmful to the desmodont or periodont, repetition rate and fiber withdrawal velocity must be kept within certain limits. These limits were determined by calculations based on a 1-dim, cylindrical model and related temperature measurements on half cutted teeth. The calculations agree well to the control measurements and are used to derive a complete set of application parameters in dependence on the expected root thickness.

  14. Comparative evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal preparation using ProTaper™, Hyflex™ and Waveone™ rotary systems

    PubMed Central

    Surakanti, Jayaprada Reddy; Venkata, Ravi Chandra Polavarapu; Vemisetty, Hari Kumar; Dandolu, Ram Kiran; Jaya, Nagendra Krishna Muppalla; Thota, Shirisha

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Extrusion of any debris during endodontic treatment may potentially cause post-operative complications such as flare-ups. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris during the root canal preparation using rotary and reciprocating nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 human mandibular first premolars were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20 teeth/group). The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers’ instructions using the Reciprocating single-file system WaveOne™ (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and full-sequence rotary Hyflex CM™ (Coltene Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland) and ProTaper™ (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) instruments. The canals were then irrigated using bidistilled water. The debris that was extruded apically was collected in preweighed eppendorf tubes and assessed with an electronic balance and compared. Statistical Analysis Used: The debris extrusion was compared and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results: The WaveOne™ and ProTaper™ rotary instruments produced significantly more debris compared with Hyflex CM™ rotary instruments (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, all systems that were used resulted in extrusion of apical debris. Full-sequence rotary instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of reciprocating single-file systems. PMID:24778507

  15. Comparing irradiation parameters on disinfecting enterrecoccus faecalis in root canal disinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarp, Ayşe. S.; Gülsoy, Murat

    2016-02-01

    Although conventional method carries all the debris, studies on persisting infections in root canals show bacteria and their toxins spread from the root canal and contaminate the apical region. Thus developes apical periodontitis or symptoms, and loss of tooth. Even if the treatment has adequate success, anatomy of root canal system can be very complexwith accessory canals. The disinfecting effect of laser radiation has only recently been used in dentistry. Laser irradiation has a bactericidal effect. Each wavelength has its own advantages and limitations according to their different absorption characteristics, depending on their 'absorption coefficient'. The sterilizing efficiency of two types of wavelengths, a new fiber laser 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser and an 2940 nm Er:YAG Laser were compared in this study. Irradiation with a power of 0.50 W with 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser disinfected 95,15% of bacteria, however irradiation with same laser power with Er:YAG Laser caused a reduction of 96,48 %. But there was no significant difference in the disinfection effect of two different laser groups ( p < 0.05, Mann- U-Whitney Test). In addition to this, Er :YAG Laser caused three times more reduction from its own positive control group where 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser caused 2,5 times effective disinfection.

  16. In vitro cleaning ability of root canal irrigants with and without endosonics.

    PubMed

    Cheung, G S; Stock, C J

    1993-11-01

    A variety of methods have been used to evaluate the cleanliness of root canals after endodontic preparation and irrigation. Few irrigation agents other than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) have been tested in conjunction with endosonics. The purpose of this study was to examine the cleaning ability of water, NaOCl, Hibiscrub and a biological washing liquid when used as intracanal irrigants, with and without endosonics. Two methods of evaluation were employed to assess the root canal cleanliness after endodontic preparation. A total of 56 teeth, divided into eight groups, were prepared manually using the step-down technique. Each irrigating agent was used in two experimental groups, with and without endosonics. Two additional teeth which received neither instrumentation nor irrigation served as the controls. The teeth were split longitudinally and the state of cleanliness of the root canal was assessed by scoring the amount of stained organic debris and smear layer. It was demonstrated that the results of debris and smear layer scoring were significantly influenced by the type of irrigant and whether endosonics had been used. All agents exhibited similar cleaning ability when introduced manually. With endosonics, NaOCl yielded significantly less stainable debris (P < 0.05) than the other groups which showed no significant difference. The ability to remove the smear layer was enhanced, but at some distance short of the working length, by endosonics for all irrigants tested. None of the solutions tested was able to produce a canal wall that was free of smear layer. PMID:8144242

  17. Insufficient evidence on whether to restore root-filled teeth with single crowns or routine fillings.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, David; Duane, Brett

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesMedline, Cochrane Oral Health Groups Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS.Study selectionThree authors independently assessed the abstracts of studies resulting from the above searches which compared indirect restorations of single endodontically treated teeth (ETT) to direct restoration of single ETT.Data extraction and synthesisTitles and abstracts of all reports identified through the electronic searches were assessed independently by two authors with any disagreements on eligibility resolved by a third reviewing author based on agreed upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Catastrophic failure of the restored tooth or restoration leading directly to extraction was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures included patient quality of life, incidence of recurring caries, periodontal health status and cost of the use of different interventions. Data analysis was carried out using the, 'treatment as allocated', patient population, expressing estimates of intervention effect for dichotomous data as risk ratios, with 95% confidence intervals (CI).ResultsOne trial which was judged to be at high risk of performance, detection and attrition bias was included. There was no clear difference between the crown and composite group and the composite only group for non-catastrophic failures of the restoration (1/54 versus 3/53; RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.04 to 3.05) or failures of the post (2/54 versus 1/53; RR 1.96; 95% CI 0.18 to 21.01) at three years. The quality of the evidence for these outcomes was judged to be very low. There was no evidence available for any secondary outcomes.ConclusionsInsufficient evidence exists to assess the effects of crowns compared to conventional fillings for the restoration of root-filled teeth. Until more evidence becomes available, clinicians should continue to base decisions about how to restore root-filled

  18. Centering and transportation: in vitro evaluation of continuous and reciprocating systems in curved root canals

    PubMed Central

    Navós, Beatriz Vilas; Hoppe, Carolina Bender; Mestieri, Leticia Boldrin; Böttcher, Daiana Elizabeth; Só, Marcus Vinicius Reis; Grecca, Fabiana Soares

    2016-01-01

    Context: One of the goals of endodontic therapy is the shaping and cleaning of the root canal system. In recent years, there has been multiple systems instrumentation, and changes in their dynamics are central to maintain the original shape of the canal after preparation. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate centering and transportation in curved root canals after using ProTaper® and MTwo® in continuous rotation, Reciproc® in reciprocating motion, and a step-down manual instrumentation technique. Settings and Design: Mesiobuccal roots of human extracted the first and second maxillary molars were selected and the canals (n = 60) were divided into four groups according to the preparation techniques: PT-ProTaper®; MT-MTwo®; RE-Reciproc®; MI-manual instrumentation. Subjects and Methods: The final apical diameter was standardized to a size 25. Centering and transportation were evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography and Adobe Photoshop 8.0 software. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc. Results: Results of transportation showed no statistical differences (P > 0.05) between groups, and significantly, difference (P < 0.05) between ProTaper® and Reciproc® was found when evaluating centering ability in the apical third. Conclusions: We concluded that there were no differences in transportation between the evaluated systems for the preparation of curved root canals with an apical instrumentation diameter of #25. For centering ability, in the apical third, ProTaper® presented worst behavior when compared to Reciproc®. PMID:27656071

  19. Centering and transportation: in vitro evaluation of continuous and reciprocating systems in curved root canals

    PubMed Central

    Navós, Beatriz Vilas; Hoppe, Carolina Bender; Mestieri, Leticia Boldrin; Böttcher, Daiana Elizabeth; Só, Marcus Vinicius Reis; Grecca, Fabiana Soares

    2016-01-01

    Context: One of the goals of endodontic therapy is the shaping and cleaning of the root canal system. In recent years, there has been multiple systems instrumentation, and changes in their dynamics are central to maintain the original shape of the canal after preparation. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate centering and transportation in curved root canals after using ProTaper® and MTwo® in continuous rotation, Reciproc® in reciprocating motion, and a step-down manual instrumentation technique. Settings and Design: Mesiobuccal roots of human extracted the first and second maxillary molars were selected and the canals (n = 60) were divided into four groups according to the preparation techniques: PT-ProTaper®; MT-MTwo®; RE-Reciproc®; MI-manual instrumentation. Subjects and Methods: The final apical diameter was standardized to a size 25. Centering and transportation were evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography and Adobe Photoshop 8.0 software. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc. Results: Results of transportation showed no statistical differences (P > 0.05) between groups, and significantly, difference (P < 0.05) between ProTaper® and Reciproc® was found when evaluating centering ability in the apical third. Conclusions: We concluded that there were no differences in transportation between the evaluated systems for the preparation of curved root canals with an apical instrumentation diameter of #25. For centering ability, in the apical third, ProTaper® presented worst behavior when compared to Reciproc®.

  20. Comparative efficiency of final endodontic cleansing procedures in removing a radioactive albumin from root canal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cecic, P.A.; Peters, D.D.; Grower, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    Fifty-six teeth were initially instrumented, with the use of seven irrigants or irrigant combinations, and filled with radioactive albumin. The study then showed the relative ability of three final endodontic procedures (copious reirrigation with saline solution, drying with paper points, and reassuring patency of the canal with the final instrument) to remove the albumin. Even after copious irrigation, each additional procedure removed statistically significant amounts of albumin. Alternating an organic solvent and an inorganic solvent did appear to leave the canal system in the optimal condition for final cleansing procedures. The study then correlated the relative efficiency of irrigation alone versus instrumentation plus irrigation in removing the remaining albumin from the canal systems. Reinstrumentation plus copious irrigation removed significantly more albumin than copious irrigation alone.

  1. A microcomputed tomography scanning study of root canal space: changes after the ultrasonic removal of fractured files.

    PubMed

    Madarati, Ahmad A; Qualtrough, Alison J E; Watts, David C

    2009-01-01

    This in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of ultrasonic removal of endodontic fractured files on tooth structure. Fifty-three canine roots were cleaned and weighed. They were scanned by a microcomputed tomography scanner producing two-dimensional images that were reconstructed into two-dimensional slices, and, finally, the canal volume was measured. In a control group, canals were prepared to F5-size ProTaper (Dentsply Ltd, Surrey, UK). In three experimental groups, F5-fractured files were ultrasonically removed from three root canal locations: coronal, middle, and apical. All roots were reweighed and rescanned. Reconstruction and analysis were performed to remeasure the canal volume. The differences in root mass (weight) and canal volume between before and after treatment were calculated. The highest change increase in canal volume was found when fractured files were removed from the apical part followed by middle and coronal. A positive correlation existed between canal volume and root mass changes. Microcomputed tomography scanning can reliably determine changes in canal volume resulting from fractured-file removal.

  2. Bacterial penetration of the root canal of intact incisor teeth after a simulated traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Love, R M

    1996-12-01

    One of the aims in treating traumatised teeth is to maintain the vitality of the pulp or allow conditions favourable for pulp revascularisation. However, infection of the pulp and root canal system may prevent this. A number of pathways have been proposed that allow bacteria to invade the root canal system, however most of these pathways cannot account for pulp infection in teeth that did not sustain injury to the periodontal attachment. Enamel/dentine cracks have been proposed as a portal for bacterial invasion of seemingly intact teeth and the aim of this study was to determine if bacteria could invade the root canal system after a simulated traumatic episode. Twenty intact and sound upper central incisors were chosen and prepared. One tooth was selected as a sterility control and the external crown surface of the remaining 19 teeth was subjected to infection with Streptococcus gordonii in a bacterial microleakage model. Over 7 days samples of growth media from the root canal system were taken and tested for bacteria. Sixteen of the teeth did not demonstrate bacterial invasion over the time frame. These teeth were then prepared for testing in a pendulum impact device and were subjected to a blow which did not fracture the crowns or dislodge the tooth from its simulated alveolus. The teeth were then prepared and tested in the bacterial microleakage model. After impact seven of the teeth demonstrated bacterial invasion of the root canal system (P = 0.002). These teeth were then reprepared for testing in the bacterial microleakage model. The crowns of five teeth, selected at random, were coated with two layers of light cured unfilled resin, the remaining two were used as positive controls. All the teeth coated with resin did not demonstrate bacterial invasion (P = 0.00), while the positive controls demonstrated invasion. The results suggested that enamel/dentine infractions were pathways for bacterial invasion of the root canal system of traumatised teeth. The

  3. Postoperative pain after one-visit root-canal treatment on teeth with vital pulps: Comparison of three different obturation technique

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Ezpeleta, Luis O.; Gasco-Garcia, Carmen; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; López-Frías, Francsico J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate and compare postoperative pain after one-visit root canal treatment (RCT) on teeth with vital pulps using three different obturation techniques. Study Design. Two hundred and four patients (105 men and 99 women) aged 12 to 77 years were randomly assigned into three treatments groups: cold lateral compaction of gutta-percha (LC), Thermafil technique (TT), and Backfill - Thermafil obturation technique (BT). Postoperative pain was recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS) of 0 - 10 after 2 and 6 hours, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Data were statistically analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results. In the total sample, 87% of patients experienced discomfort or pain in some moment between RCT and the seventh day. The discomfort experienced was weak, light, moderate and intense in 6%, 44%, 20% and 6% of the cases, respectively. Mean pain levels were 0.4 ± 0.4, 0.4 ± 0.3, and 1.4 ± 0.7 in LC, BT, and TT groups, respectively. Patients of TT group experienced a significantly higher mean pain level compared to other two groups (p < 0.0001). In TT group, all patients felt some level of pain at six hours after RCT. Conclusions. Postoperative pain was significantly associated with the obturation technique used during root canal treatment. Patients whose teeth were filled with Thermafil obturators (TT technique) showed significantly higher levels of discomfort than patients whose teeth were filled using any of the other two techniques. Key words:Postoperative pain, root-canal obturation, root-canal treatment, Thermafil. PMID:22322522

  4. Morphometric analysis of root canal cleaning after rotary instrumentation with or without laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesan, Melissa A.; Geurisoli, Danilo M. Z.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Barbin, Eduardo L.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2002-06-01

    The present study examined root canal cleaning, using the optic microscope, after rotary instrumentation with ProFile.04 with or without laser application with different output energies. Cleaning and shaping can be accomplished manually, with ultra-sonic and sub-sonic devices, with rotary instruments and recently, increasing development in laser radiation has shown promising results for disinfection and smear layer removal. In this study, 30 palatal maxillary molar roots were examined using an optic microscope after rotary instrumentation with ProFile .04 with or without Er:YAG laser application (KaVo KeyLaser II, Germany) with different output energies (2940 nm, 15 Hz, 300 pulses, 500 milli-sec duration, 42 J, 140 mJ showed on the display- input, 61 mJ at fiberoptic tip-output and 140 mJ showed on the display-input and 51 mJ at fiberoptic tip-output). Statistical analysis showed no statistical differences between the tested treatments (ANOVA, p>0.05). ANOVA also showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between the root canal thirds, indicating that the middle third had less debris than the apical third. We conclude that: 1) none of the tested treatments led to totally cleaned root canals; 2) all treatments removed debris similarly, 3) the middle third had less debris than the apical third; 4) variation in output energy did not increase cleaning.

  5. Effect of Resin Cement Pre-heating on the Push-out Bond Strength of Fiber Post to Root Canal Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Nooroloyouni, Ahmad; Pornaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Sajjadi Oskoee, Jafar; Pirzadeh Ashraf, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Various factors influence the interfacial bond between the fiber posts and root canal dentin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-warming of resin cement on the push-out bond strength of fiber posts to various segments of root canal dentin. Materials and methods. In this in vitro study, 40 single-rooted human premolars were decoronated and underwent root canal treatment along with post space preparation. The samples were randomly divided into two groups: In group 1, Panavia F 2.0 cement was used at room temperature; in group 2, the same cement was warmed to 55‒60°C before mixing. After fiber posts were placed and cemented in the root canals, 3 dentin/post sections (coronal, middle and apical) with a thickness of 3 mm were prepared. A universal testing machine was used to measure push-out bond strength in MPa. Data was analyzed using two-factor ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test at α=0.05. Results. The mean value of push-out bond strength was high at room temperature, and the differences in the means of push-out bond strength values between the resin cement temperatures and between different root segments in each temperature were significant (P<0.05). Conclusion. Pre-warming of Panavia F 2.0 resin cement up to 55-60°C reduced push-out bond strength to root canal dentin. In addition, in each temperature group bond strengths decreased from coronal to apical segments. PMID:26889360

  6. A comparative evaluation of the canal centering ability of three rotary nickel-titanium retreatment systems in the mesio-buccal canals of mandibular first molars using computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gogulnath, Deenadhayalan; Rajan, Rajendran Mathan; Arathy, Ganesh; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

    2015-01-01

    Background: During endodontic retreatment, relative difficulty exists in removing the filling material and maintaining the canal anatomy. Usage of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary retreatment instruments is widely accepted, but there is a lack of adequate literature evidence about their canal centering ability. Aim: To compare the canal centering ability of rotary NiTi retreatment systems. Materials and Methods: Mandibular first molars with mesiobuccal canals with canal access angle of 20-40° were used. Canals prepared until ISO 25, 0.06 taper. Obturated with three different techniques lateral compaction, Thermafil, and Resilon/Epiphany. Retreatment was carried using three different systems ProTaper retreatment, Mtwo R and REndo. Specimens were subjected to computed tomography analysis at coronal, middle, and apical third of the root canal preobturation and postretreatment procedure. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test. Results: No statistically significant difference with three retreatment systems. Variation existed among all the subgroups at the coronal, middle, and apical third of the root canal. Conclusion: All retreatment systems with three obturation techniques showed eccentricity within acceptable limits. REndo, MtwoR showed better canal centering and ProTaper retreatment system showed tendency for eccentric canal preparation, especially in apical third. PMID:26180417

  7. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings....

  8. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings....

  9. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings....

  10. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to...

  11. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Cristina; Monterde, Manuel; Pallarés, Antonio; Aranda, Susana; Montes, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique), ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences. PMID:26664361

  12. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cabanillas, Cristina; Monterde, Manuel; Pallarés, Antonio; Aranda, Susana; Montes, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique), ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences. PMID:26664361

  13. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Cristina; Monterde, Manuel; Pallarés, Antonio; Aranda, Susana; Montes, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique), ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences.

  14. The effect of root canal sealers and timing of cementation on the microlekage of the parapost luted with resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Al Kahtani, Ahmed M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of the study were to study the effect of root canal sealers either eugenol or non-eugenol and timing of cementation on microleakage of the parapost luted with resin cement. Materials and methods Seventy extracted human, single-rooted teeth were instrumented using a crown-down technique. All teeth were instrumented up to a size 50 .04 taper ProFile followed by the use of Gates Glidden drills from size 2 up to 5. Following instrumentation, the teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups of fifteen teeth each, based on type of root canal sealer (eugenol or non-eugenol sealer) and timing of post cementation (immediate or delayed). The remaining ten teeth were divided into two control groups with five teeth per group. All teeth were tested for microleakage using a fluid filtration method. Results The microleakage of the paraposts luted with resin cement increased over time, irrespective of sealer type or timing of post cementation. Immediate post cementation following obturation with AH26 (non-eugenol sealer) produced the least microleakage at all three time periods at 24 h, 2 months and 3 months. Conclusions The microleakage paraposts luted with resin cement was not influenced by either sealer type or timing of post placement. All experimental groups demonstrated a significant increase in microleakage over time as well as the presence of voids at the resin–dentin interface. PMID:24109165

  15. Dentinal crack formation during root canal preparations by the twisted file adaptive, Reciproc and WaveOne instruments

    PubMed Central

    Gergi, Richard M.; Osta, Nada E.; Naaman, Alfred S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to compare the frequency of dentinal microcracks after root canal shaping with 2 reciprocating (Reciproc and WaveOne) and 1 combined continuous reciprocating motion twisted files adaptive (TFA) rotary system. Materials and Methods: Ninety molars were chosen and divided into three groups of 30 each. Root canal preparation was achieved by using Reciproc R25, Primary WaveOne and TFA systems. All the roots were horizontally sectioned at 15, 9, and 3 mm from the apex. The slices were then viewed each under a microscope at × 25 magnification to determine the presence of cracks. The absence/presence of cracks was recorded, and the data were analyzed with a Chi-square test. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: Instrumentation with Reciproc produced significantly more complete cracks than WaveOne and TFA (P = 0.032). The TFA system produced significantly less cracks then the Reciproc and WaveOne systems apically (P = 0.004). Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, the TFA system caused less cracks then the full reciprocating system (Reciproc and WaveOne). Single-file reciprocating files produced significantly more incomplete dentinal cracks than full-sequence adaptive rotary motion. PMID:26929688

  16. An in vitro comparison of root canal length determination by DentaPort ZX and iPex apex locators

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Nikhil; Chadha, Rupali; Kumar, Pragya; Puri, Komal

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate and to compare the accuracy of two electronic apex locators (EALs): DentaPort ZX and iPex, at a position 0.5 mm short of the apical foramen. Materials and Methods: Thirty single-rooted, mandibular premolar teeth were selected. Standard access cavities were prepared and the actual length (AL) was calculated. The samples were then embedded in alginate and the electronic measurements were determined and recorded. Results: The results obtained showed that in determining the root canal length with a tolerance level of ±0.5 mm, i.e., AL ± 0.5 mm, DentaPort ZX was accurate in 93.3% of the samples and iPex was accurate in 90% of the samples at a position 0.5 mm short of the apical foramen. Conclusion: A strong correlation was seen between the two electronic methods and AL and also in between the two EALs, showing the possibility of their use to measure the root canal length. No statistically significant difference was found between both the apex locators. PMID:24347893

  17. Evaluation of the radiopacity of root canal sealers by digitization of radiographic images.

    PubMed

    Tanomaru, Juliane Maria Guerreiro; Cezare, Luciana; Gonçalves, Marcelo; Tanomaru Filho, Mário

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of a zinc oxide and eugenol-based (Endofill), a calcium hydroxide-based (Sealapex), two resin-based (Sealer 26 and AH Plus), and a silicone-based root canal sealer (Roeko Seal). Specimens, measuring 10mm in diameter and 1mm in thickness, were radiographed simultaneously with an aluminum step wedge using occlusal films, according to ISO 6876/2001 standards. Radiographs were digitized, and the radiopacity of sealers was compared to the different thicknesses of the aluminum step wedge, using the VIXWIN 2000 software. Results demonstrated that AH Plus was the most radiopaque sealer, while Sealapex was the least radiopaque (p<0.05). Roeko Seal, Endofill and Sealer 26 presented intermediate radiopacity values. Sealapex presented less radiopacity than the other types of root canal sealers. PMID:20976411

  18. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident-An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina; Cristache, Corina Marilena

    2016-01-01

    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT) may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur. PMID:27672458

  19. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident—An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT) may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur. PMID:27672458

  20. How Can Hypnodontics Manage Severe Gag Reflex for Root Canal Therapy? A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ramazani, Mohsen; zarenejad, Nafiseh; Parirokh, Masoud; Zahedpasha, Samir

    2016-01-01

    In endodontics, severe involuntary gagging can have a severe impact on treatment procedure. There are many ways to ease the gag reflex, one of which is hypnosis. A 34-year-old male was referred for root canal treatment of a molar tooth. He had not received any dental treatments for the past nine years due to fear of severe gag reflex. Three hypnotic sessions based upon eye fixation, progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery techniques were spent for psychosomatic management. The gag reflex was controlled and reduced to a normal level, and the required dental treatments including root canal therapy and restoration were performed successfully. This report shows that hypnosis can control gag reflex for dental treatments. PMID:27141226

  1. Ag-loaded mesoporous bioactive glasses against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in root canal of human teeth.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Wu, Daming; Ma, Tengjiao; Fan, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Ag-loaded mesoporous bioactive glass (Ag-MBG) powders were synthesized and characterized. The ions release of Ag-MBGs in Tris-HCl and the pH stability of simulated body fluids after immersing Ag-MBGs were tested. Root canals were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis for 4 weeks, and the antibacterial activity of MBGs, Ag-MBGs and calcium hydroxide against E. faecalis biofilm were evaluated. Results showed that Ag-MBGs possessed highly ordered mesoporous structure with silver nanoparticles deposited in the mesopores, which enabled a sustained Ag ions released. The biofilms treated with Ag-MBGs showed a significant structural disruption compared with MBGs. These results indicated that Ag-MBGs possess a potent antibacterial effect against E.faecalis biofilm in root canal, and the antibacterial activity was induced by the release of Ag ions from Ag-MBGs.

  2. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident—An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT) may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur.

  3. How Can Hypnodontics Manage Severe Gag Reflex for Root Canal Therapy? A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ramazani, Mohsen; Zarenejad, Nafiseh; Parirokh, Masoud; Zahedpasha, Samir

    2016-01-01

    In endodontics, severe involuntary gagging can have a severe impact on treatment procedure. There are many ways to ease the gag reflex, one of which is hypnosis. A 34-year-old male was referred for root canal treatment of a molar tooth. He had not received any dental treatments for the past nine years due to fear of severe gag reflex. Three hypnotic sessions based upon eye fixation, progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery techniques were spent for psychosomatic management. The gag reflex was controlled and reduced to a normal level, and the required dental treatments including root canal therapy and restoration were performed successfully. This report shows that hypnosis can control gag reflex for dental treatments. PMID:27141226

  4. Evaluation of Chlorine Dioxide Irrigation Solution on the Microhardness and Surface Roughness of Root Canal Dentin.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev; Khandewal, Deepika; Karthikeyan, Saravana; Somayaji, Krishnaraj; Foschi, Federico

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorine dioxide and various other more common irrigation solutions on the microhardness and surface roughness of root canal dentin. Fifty human maxillary central incisors were sectioned longitudinally and treated for 1 minute with 5 ml of the following aqueous solutions (v/v%): Group 1: 13.8% chlorine dioxide, Group 2: 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Group 3: 7% maleic acid, Group 4: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (5 ml/min), Group 5: Saline (control). Specimens were subjected to microhardness and surface roughness testing. Chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite reduced the microhardness more than other test agents. The highest surface roughness was produced with maleic acid. Chlorine dioxide should be used cautiously during chemomechanical preparation of the root canal system in order to prevent untoward damage to the teeth. PMID:26767238

  5. Evaluation of Chlorine Dioxide Irrigation Solution on the Microhardness and Surface Roughness of Root Canal Dentin.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev; Khandewal, Deepika; Karthikeyan, Saravana; Somayaji, Krishnaraj; Foschi, Federico

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorine dioxide and various other more common irrigation solutions on the microhardness and surface roughness of root canal dentin. Fifty human maxillary central incisors were sectioned longitudinally and treated for 1 minute with 5 ml of the following aqueous solutions (v/v%): Group 1:13.8% chlorine dioxide, Group 2:17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Group 3: 7% maleic acid, Group 4: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (5ml/min), Group 5: Saline (control). Specimens were subjected to microhardness and surface roughness testing. Chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite reduced the microhardness more than other test agents. The highest surface roughness was produced with maleic acid. Chlorine dioxide should be used cautiously during chemomechanical preparation of the root canal system in order to prevent untoward damage to the teeth. PMID:26591249

  6. Cleaning and decompression of inferior alveolar canal to treat dysesthesia and paresthesia following endodontic treatment of a third molar.

    PubMed

    Scala, Rudy; Cucchi, Alessandro; Cappellina, Luca; Ghensi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic overfilling involving the mandibular canal may cause an injury of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). We report a case of disabling dysesthesia and paresthesia of a 70-year-old man after endodontic treatment of his mandibular left third molar that caused leakage of root canal filling material into the mandibular canal. After radiographic evaluation, extraction of the third molar and distal osteotomy, a surgical exploration was performed and followed by removal of the material and decompression of the IAN. The patient reported an improvement in sensation and immediate disappearance of dysesthesia already from the first postoperative day. PMID:25099006

  7. Up-regulation of gelatinases and tissue type plasminogen activator by root canal sealers in human osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2008-03-01

    Histologic investigations have demonstrated that root canal sealers can induce mild to severe inflammatory alternations. However, there is little information on the precise mechanisms about root canal sealer-induced inflammatory reaction. The proteolysis of extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and plasminogen activators (PAs) seems to be a key initiating event for the progression of the inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of epoxy resin-based root canal sealer AH26 and zinc oxide-eugenol-based root canal sealer Canals and one paste sealer N2 on the expression of MMPs and PAs in human osteoblastic cell line U2OS cells. The levels of gelatinolytic and caseinolytic activities were measured by gelatin and casein zymography. The results showed that AH26, Canals, and N2 were cytotoxic to U2OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner (P < .05). The gelatin zymograms revealed that MMP-2 (72 kd) and MMP-9 (92 kd) were secreted by U2OS cells. The exposure of U2OS cells to root canal sealers resulted in the up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression (P < .05). Casein zymography exhibited a caseinolytic band with a molecular weight of 70 kd, indicative of the presence of tissue type plasminogen activators (t-PA). t-PA was also found to be up-regulated by root canal sealers (P < .05). Taken together, the activation of gelatinases and t-PA might play an important role in the pathogenesis of root canal sealer-induced periapical inflammation.

  8. Bactericidal Efficacy of Cold Plasma at Different Depths of Infected Root Canals In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Sascha R.; Hertel, Moritz; Ballout, Husam; Pierdzioch, Philipp; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Wirtz, Henrik C.; Abu-Sirhan, Shady; Kostka, Eckehard; Paris, Sebastian; Preissner, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Cold plasma (CP) has been shown to be effective even against multiresistant microorganisms. As previous investigations on the effect of CP in root canals showed promising results, the aim of the present study was to analyze the bactericidal efficacy of CP in different depths of infected dentin. Methods: 32 standardized root canals of human mandibular premolars were infected with Enterococcus faecalis and incubated for one week. Specimens were randomly selected for one of four disinfection methods: control (5mL NaCl), 5mL chlorhexidine (CHX), CP alone (CP), and a combination of 5mL CHX and cold plasma (CHX+CP). CHX was ultrasonically activated for 30s, while cold plasma was used for 60s in the root canals. Dentin samples at depths of 300, 500 and 800 µm were obtained and diluted serially. Colony forming units (CFUs) were counted on agar plates after 24h of incubation. Results: The highest overall logarithmic reduction factors (RF) were obtained from CHX+CP (log RF 3.56 p<0.01; Mann-Whitney U test), followed by CP (log RF 3.27 p<0.01) and CHX alone (log RF 2.65 p<0.01) related to the control. All disinfection methods showed significantly lower CFU counts compared to the control group in 300 µm and 800 µm (both p<0.01, Kruskal-Wallis test). Discussion: The adjuvant use of CP might be beneficial in highly infected root canals to improved disinfection. However, the disinfection effect against Enterococcus faecalis of CP is comparable to ultrasonically activated CHX. PMID:26962378

  9. Treatment of large periapical lesions by inserting a drainage tube into the root canal.

    PubMed

    Tsurumachi, T; Saito, T

    1995-02-01

    Long-term drainage and depressurization is performed by inserting a stainless steel tube into the root canal of teeth with persisting periapical exudation. This article presents 2 cases of large periapical lesions showing a complete healing of bone after the drainage tube procedure. The tube allows lasting drainage, relieves the pressure and modifies the local apical environment so the host defense mechanism can exert repair process.

  10. Irrigation of human prepared root canal – ex vivo based computational fluid dynamics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Šnjarić, Damir; Čarija, Zoran; Braut, Alen; Halaji, Adelaida; Kovačević, Maja; Kuiš, Davor

    2012-01-01

    Aim To analyze the influence of the needle type, insertion depth, and irrigant flow rate on irrigant flow pattern, flow velocity, and apical pressure by ex-vivo based endodontic irrigation computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Methods Human upper canine root canal was prepared using rotary files. Contrast fluid was introduced in the root canal and scanned by computed tomography (CT) providing a three-dimensional object that was exported to the computer-assisted design (CAD) software. Two probe points were established in the apical portion of the root canal model for flow velocity and pressure measurement. Three different CAD models of 27G irrigation needles (closed-end side-vented, notched open-end, and bevel open-end) were created and placed at 25, 50, 75, and 95% of the working length (WL). Flow rates of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mL/s were simulated. A total of 60 irrigation simulations were performed by CFD fluid flow solver. Results Closed-end side-vented needle required insertion depth closer to WL, regarding efficient irrigant replacement, compared to open-end irrigation needle types, which besides increased velocity produced increased irrigant apical pressure. For all irrigation needle types and needle insertion depths, the increase of flow rate was followed by an increased irrigant apical pressure. Conclusions The human root canal shape obtained by CT is applicable in the CFD analysis of endodontic irrigation. All the analyzed values –irrigant flow pattern, velocity, and pressure – were influenced by irrigation needle type, as well as needle insertion depth and irrigant flow rate. PMID:23100209

  11. Hollow glass waveguide: x-ray image in root canal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2002-06-01

    Objective of the study was the evaluation of X-ray image quality of cyclic olefin polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide (COP/Ag) in root canal, using a dental digital radiography method for an endodontic treatment. Er:YAG laser system was used. The wavelength generated was 2.94 micrometers and the length of the generated pulses was around 250 usec. The radiation was delivered to the investigated tissue by a cyclic olefin polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide (COP/Ag) with an inner diameter equal to 700 micrometers and the length of 10 cm. The fluence used in the experiments was in the range of 19 up to 45 J/cm2. The root canal systems of 10 extracted premolars and molars were treated endodontically using a step-back technique with K-type endodontic files. Isometric X-ray images were captured via fixed-point measurement method. Digital images were taken before treatment, with conventional files and with an insertion of the COP/Ag hollow glass waveguide. A density histogram, characterizing the density spread across the image was established. An aluminum step wedge, 50 mm long x 20 mm wide, having thickness range from 0.5 mm to 5 mm was used as a marker to check the quality of radiopacity. The overall dimensions were adjusted in relation to the sensor size as a control. COP/Ag hollow glass waveguide was slightly visible in root canal system. An isometric image, histogram, and pseudocolor picture help to detect the position of waveguide in the root canal.

  12. Microbiome in the Apical Root Canal System of Teeth with Post-Treatment Apical Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, José F.; Antunes, Henrique S.; Rôças, Isabela N.; Rachid, Caio T. C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bacteria present in the apical root canal system are directly involved with the pathogenesis of post-treatment apical periodontitis. This study used a next-generation sequencing approach to identify the bacterial taxa occurring in cryopulverized apical root samples from root canal-treated teeth with post-treatment disease. Methods Apical root specimens obtained during periradicular surgery of ten adequately treated teeth with persistent apical periodontitis were cryogenically ground. DNA was extracted from the powder and the microbiome was characterized on the basis of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene by using paired-end sequencing on Illumina MiSeq device. Results All samples were positive for the presence of bacterial DNA. Bacterial taxa were mapped to 11 phyla and 103 genera composed by 538 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 3% of dissimilarity. Over 85% of the sequences belonged to 4 phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria. In general, these 4 phyla accounted for approximately 80% of the distinct OTUs found in the apical root samples. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in 6/10 samples. Fourteen genera had representatives identified in all cases. Overall, the genera Fusobacterium and Pseudomonas were the most dominant. Enterococcus was found in 4 cases, always in relatively low abundance. Conclusions This study showed a highly complex bacterial community in the apical root canal system of adequately treated teeth with persistent apical periodontitis. This suggests that this disease is characterized by multispecies bacterial communities and has a heterogeneous etiology, because the community composition largely varied from case to case. PMID:27689802

  13. Antibacterial Activity of MTA Fillapex and AH 26 Root Canal Sealers at Different Time Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Farnaz; Samadi Kafil, Hossein; Jafari, Sanaz; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Momeni, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The main goal of endodontic treatment is elimination of bacteria and their by-products from infected root canals. This study compared the antibacterial effect of two different sealers, AH 26 and MTA Fillapex, on 4 microorganisms 24, 48 and 72 h and 7 days after mixing. Methods and Materials: The microorganisms used in this study consisted of Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 4356), Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 39392), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). This test is based on the growth of bacteria and turbidity measurement technique using a spectrophotometer, and direct contact was conducted. Multiple comparisons were carried out using repeated-measures ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test and student’s t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The antibacterial activity in the indirect technique was more than the technique with both sealers. In the direct technique the antibacterial activity on all microorganisms were lower for MTA Fillapex sealer. In the indirect technique, both sealers exhibited similar antibacterial properties. Conclusion: The antibacterial effect of MTA Fillapex sealer was significantly less than that of AH 26 sealer in the direct technique. The antibacterial effects of both sealers were similar in the indirect technique. PMID:27471530

  14. [Deformations occurring in the apical third of curved root canals during biomechanical preparation using manual impulsion-traction techniques].

    PubMed

    Roig Cayón, M; Basilio Monné, J; Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    Apical deformations, specially zips and elbows, during instrumentation of the root canals, are studied. The authors study why do they appear, their effect on endodontic therapy, and the way of avoiding them.

  15. [Deformations occurring in the apical third of curved root canals during biomechanical preparation using manual impulsion-traction techniques].

    PubMed

    Roig Cayón, M; Basilio Monné, J; Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    Apical deformations, specially zips and elbows, during instrumentation of the root canals, are studied. The authors study why do they appear, their effect on endodontic therapy, and the way of avoiding them. PMID:1964069

  16. On the dynamics of root canal infections—what we understand and what we don't

    PubMed Central

    Zehnder, Matthias; Belibasakis, Georgios N.

    2015-01-01

    Infections of the root canal space and their sequelae can be extremely painful and potentially dangerous, yet they do not necessarily have to be. Chronic, asymptomatic inflammatory lesions around the apex of a tooth with a necrotic dental pulp or an insufficient root canal treatment can develop unnoticed by the patient, and remain so for years. The course of disease is modulated by both the virulence of the microbiota established in the root canal space and the capacity of the immune system to curb the infection. To both ends, highly convincing investigations to help us understand when and why the tissues around an endodontically involved tooth become acutely inflamed are missing. We will discuss how recent advances in molecular identification of microorganisms have altered our understanding of root canal infections, and which information is currently missing to link clinical experience with observations from experimental research. PMID:25654162

  17. Apical extrusion of debris: a literature review of an inherent occurrence during root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Tanalp, J; Güngör, T

    2014-03-01

    Extrusion of intracanal debris as well as irrigants is a common occurrence during root canal treatment, and no instrument or technique has thoroughly solved this problem. Because flare-ups may arise with any irritation directed towards periapical tissues, a shaping or irrigation technique should minimize the risk of apical extrusion, even though it may not be prevented. There has been a rapid evolution of root canal instruments and irrigation systems through the last decade, and many have been assessed for their debris extrusion potential. The purpose of this review was to identify publications regarding the evaluation of debris, bacteria and irrigant extrusion during root canal treatment. A PubMed, Ovid and MEDLINE search was conducted using the keywords "apical extrusion", "debris extrusion" and "endodontic treatment". The literature search extended over a period of more than 30 years up to 2012. Content of the review was limited to apical extrusion of debris and irrigants, extrusion of liquid by irrigation methods and bacterial extrusion. Issues relevant to apical extrusion were obtained by further search in the reference sections of the retrieved articles. The review provides an update on the current status of apical extrusion.

  18. Shaping Ability of Reciproc, UnicOne, and Protaper Universal in Simulated Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Matos Maia Filho, Etevaldo; de Castro Rizzi, Cláudia; Bandeca Coelho, Matheus; Freitas Santos, Sara; Mayanne Oliveira Costa, Luzia; Nunes Carvalho, Ceci; Rodolfo de Jesus Tavarez, Rudys; Alves Soares, Janir

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the shaping effects, preservation of the original curvature, and transportation of the apical foramen of Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany), UnicOne (Medin, Nové Město na Moravě, Czech Republic), and Protaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) in simulated root canals. Thirty resin blocks with simulated curved root canals were distributed into three groups (n = 10), and prepared using Reciproc (RCp), UnicOne (UnO) and the Protaper Universal (PTu). Standardized photographs were taken before and after the instrumentation, after which they were superimposed. Measurements were taken of the quantity of resin removed from the inner and outer walls of the curvature at 6 levels, the curvature angles before and after instrumentation, and the transportation of the apical foramen. RCp obtained the highest values for amount of resin removed from the inner wall while UnO demonstrated similar shaping on both the inner and outer walls. PTu produced the greatest transportation of foramen when compared to the reciprocating instruments. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the change in angle (P > 0.05). All the instruments were capable of maintaining the original curvature of the root canal; however, the UnO, which used reciprocating movement, produced more conservative shapes with lower foramen transportation. PMID:25950022

  19. Factors affecting irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Boutsioukis, C; Psimma, Z; van der Sluis, L W M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and critical analysis of published data on irrigant extrusion to identify factors causing, affecting or predisposing to irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation of human mature permanent teeth. An electronic search was conducted in Cochrane Library, LILACS, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge using a combination of the terms 'irrigant', 'rinse', 'extrusion', 'injection', 'complication', 'accident', 'iatrogenic', 'root canal', 'tooth' and 'endodontic'. Additional studies were identified by hand-searching of six endodontic journals and the relevant chapters of four endodontic textbooks, resulting in a total of 460 titles. No language restriction was imposed. After applying screening and strict eligibility criteria by two independent reviewers, 40 case reports and 10 ex vivo studies were included in the review. A lack of clinical studies focusing on irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation was evident. The reviewed case reports focused mainly on the clinical manifestations and management of the accidents and did not provide adequate details on the possible factors that may influence irrigant extrusion. The data from the included ex vivo studies were inconclusive due to major methodological limitations, such as not simulating the presence of periapical tissues and not assessing the validity of irrigant detection methods. The extensive variability in the protocols employed hindered quantitative synthesis. The choice of factors investigated in ex vivo studies seems not to have been driven by the available clinical evidence. These issues need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:23289914

  20. Adhesion strategy and early bond strengths of glass-fiber posts luted into root canals.

    PubMed

    Faria-e-Silva, André Luis; Mendonça, Adriano Augusto Melo; Garcez, Rosa Maria Viana de Bragança; Oliveira, Aline da Silva de; Moreira, Andressa Goicochea; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coinitiator solutions and self-adhesive resin cement on the early retention of glass-fiber posts. Cylindrical glass-fiber posts were luted into 40 incisor roots with different adhesion strategies (n = 10): SB2, Single Bond 2 + conventional resin cement (RelyX ARC); AP, Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (SBMP) activator + primer + ARC; APC, SBMP activator + primer + catalyst + ARC; and UNI, self-adhesive cement (RelyX Unicem). Pull-out bond strength results at 10 min after cementation showed APC > UNI > SB2 = AP (P < 0.05). The adhesion strategy significantly affected early bonding to root canals.

  1. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Irradiation with Radial Firing Tips on Candida albicans in Experimentally Infected Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To compare the disinfection effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser using radial firing tips with NaOCI in root canals infected with C. albicans and to evaluate the irradiation effect on the dentinal surfaces. Material and Methods. In total seventy-six mandibular premolar teeth were used. In order to standardize the incubation and sterilization procedure, eight teeth were used. Sixty-eight of the root canals were incubated with C. albicans suspension for 72 hours. The specimens were divided into 5 experimental groups. Two groups were constituted as Group 1 was irradiated with 1.5 W laser (n = 8) and group 2, which was irradiated with 2 W laser (n = 8). Two more groups were formed as Group 3 (2 W laser (n = 25) and Group 4 NaOCI (5%) (n = 25). Group 5 (n = 2) did not receive any treatment. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used to compare the different laser output powers. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test was used in order to compare the Candida cfu/ml levels according to treatment protocols (P < 0.05). Results. Both 1.5 W and 2 W laser resulted in a major reduction of C. albicans without a significant difference. The comparison of the dentin surfaces irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser at two power settings resulted in similar morphological changes. However, NaOCI was found to be more effective in reduction of C. albicans than 2 W laser application. Conclusion. According to the results of the present study, the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with radial firing tips presented less antifungal effects on C. albicans in root canals of infected teeth than NaOCl solution. PMID:24955367

  2. Restoration of the root-filled tooth: pre-operative assessment.

    PubMed

    Tait, C M E; Ricketts, D N J; Higgins, A J

    2005-04-01

    This is the first in a series of four papers related to the management of root canal treated teeth. When teeth compromised by extensive restorations become non-vital, suggestions have been given as to how root canal treatment can be carried out with the greatest chance of success. Once root canal treated, either by a previous dentist or by the current dentist, a review of the assessment process that should be carried out prior to placing costly indirect definitive restorations is given. It will be clear that post-retained restorations are mainly reserved for anterior or single-rooted teeth, posterior teeth rarely requiring a post for core retention. The second paper in this series describes the basic tooth preparation that should be carried out prior to placing a post. Depending on the type of post system used, further modifications to tooth preparation may be required and the cementation techniques may also have to be modified. The third paper therefore discusses the various post types, when and how they should be used for optimum results. The final paper addresses reinforcement and restoration of compromised root canals, such as those with immature, open apices, or those that have been over-prepared for previous post-retained restorations.

  3. Root canal centering ability of rotary cutting nickel titanium instruments: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gundappa, Mohan; Bansal, Rashmi; Khoriya, Sarvesh; Mohan, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To systematically review articles on canal centering ability of endodontic rotary cutting Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments and subject results to meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search was initiated on canal centering ability of different rotary cutting Ni-Ti files such as Protaper, Hero Shaper, K3, Mtwo, Race, Wave One by selecting articles published in peer reviewed journals during 1991-2013 using “Pub Med” database. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established. A data was created by tabulating: Author name, publication year, sample size, number of experimental groups, methods to evaluate canal centering ability, instrument cross section, taper, tip design, rake angle, mean and standard deviation. The data generated was subjected to meta-analysis. Results: Maximum studies were found to be conducted on mesiobuccal canal of mandibular 1st molar with curvature ranging from 15-60°. The difference in canal centering ability of different rotary cutting Ni-Ti instruments was not statistically significant. Conclusion: All endodontic rotary cutting Ni-Ti instruments are capable of producing centered preparations. Protaper depicted the best centering ability. Computed tomography is an effective method of evaluating canal centering ability. PMID:25506134

  4. The effect of essential oil type on the setting time of Grossman's sealer and Roth root canal cement.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, G L

    1991-06-01

    Setting times were determined for mixtures consisting of the powder components of Grossman's sealer or Roth root canal cement with either eugenol, oil of pimento or oil of Melaleuca. The powder component of Grossman's sealer, when mixed with eugenol or oil of pimento, had a significantly shorter setting time than did the powder component of Grossman's sealer mixed with oil of Melaleuca or Roth root canal cement mixed with eugenol, oil of pimento, or oil of Melaleuca.

  5. Retrieval of Iatrogenically Pushed Pulp Stone From Middle Third of Root Canal in Permanent Maxillary Central Incisor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Juneja, Suruchi; Randhawa, Sohajpreet; Dhebar, Tejal Malay; Raheja, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The pulp stones are the discrete nodular calcified masses commonly existing in coronal and occasionally in radicular pulp, placed freely, attached or embedded into the dentine. The present case report revealed the iatrogenic pushing of pulp stone and blockage of root canal that caused endodontic failure. The case enlightens the proper use of ultrasonic instruments with irrigating solutions to manage the calcifications in root canal for successful endodontic therapy. PMID:26266224

  6. Evaluation of Root Canal Configuration of Mandibular First Molars in a Palestinian Population by Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Mukhaimer, Raed Hakam

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the number of canals and variations in root canal configuration in the mandibular permanent first molar teeth of a Palestinian population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods. A sample of 320 extracted double-rooted mandibular permanent first molars from Palestinian population was collected for this study and scanned with CBCT scanner. The following observations were made: number of root canals per root and canal configuration in each root based on Vertucci's classification. Results. Of the 320 mandibular first molars analyzed, 174 (54.4%) had three canals, 132 teeth (41.3%) had four canals, and only four teeth had two canals. The most common canal configuration in the mesial roots was Vertucci type IV (53.8%) followed by type II (38.8%). In the distal roots, the most prevalent canal configuration was Vertucci type I (57.5%) followed by type II ( 22.5%) and type III (10.6%). Conclusion. Our results showed that the number of canals and canal configuration in Palestinian population were consistent with previously reported data. The present study also indicates that CBCT is helpful as a diagnostic tool for the investigation of root canal morphology. PMID:27379321

  7. Effect of diode laser radiation in root canal wall dentine: a microbiological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutknecht, Norbert; Conrads, Georg; Apel, Christian; Schubert, Claus; Lampert, Friedrich

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of a diode laser in deep root canal dentine. The microbial colonization of root canal dentine can lead to failures in conventional endodontic treatment if only an inadequate bacterial reduction is achieved through canal treatment and chemical disinfection. 100 micrometer, 300 micrometer and 500 micrometer bovine dentine slices obtained by longitudinal sections were sterilized and inoculated on one side with an Enterococcus faecalis suspension. Laser radiation was performed on the opposite side with the diode laser, emits light at 810 nm and operates in the continuous wave mode (cw). Radiation was performed using a 400 micrometer tapered fiber tip at an angle of approx. 5 degrees to the surface over a period of 30 s. The output power at the distal end of the tip was 0.6 watt. The bacteria were then eluted through vibration and cultured on blood agar plates. The colony count reflected the antibacterial effect of laser radiation as a function of the layer thickness. A mean bacterial reduction of 74% was achieved even with a 500 micrometer thick slice. This investigation indicates that the diode laser can support the bacterial reduction in endodontic treatment.

  8. Photodynamic therapy with water-soluble phtalocyanines against bacterial biofilms in teeth root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergova, Raina; Georgieva, Tzvetelina; Angelov, Ivan; Mantareva, Vanya; Valkanov, Serjoga; Mitov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Slavcho

    2012-06-01

    The study presents the PDT with metal phthalocyanines on biofilms grown in root canals of ten representatives of the Gram-positive and the Gram-negative bacterial species and a fungus Candida albicans which cause aqute teeth infections in root canals.. The extracted human single-root teeth infected for 48 h with microorganisms in conditions to form biofilms of the above pathogens were PDT treated. The stage of biofilm formation and PDT effect of the samples of the teeth were determined by the scaning electron microscopy and with standard microbial tests. The PDT treating procedure included 10 min incubation with the respected phthalocyanine and irradiated with 660 nm Diode laser for 10 min. The most strongly antibacterial activity was achieved with zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. The other Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans were 10-100 times more resistant than the Gram-positive species. The Gram-negative Moraxella catarrhalis and Acinetobacter baumannii were more sensitive than the enterobacteria, but eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilm was insignificant. The influence of the stage of biofilm formation and the initial conditions (bacterial density, photosensitizer concentration and energy fluence of radiation) to the obtained level of inactivation of biofilms was investigated. The PDT with ZnPc photosensitizers show a powerful antimicrobial activity against the most frequent pathogens in endodontic infections and this method for inactivation of pathogens may be used with sucsses for treatment of the bacterial biofilms in the root canals.

  9. Antral bony wall erosion, trigeminal nerve injury, and enophthalmos after root canal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Eduardo; Antunes, Luís; Dinis, Paulo Borges

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The frequently used irrigant in dental surgery, sodium hypochlorite, is occasionally the cause of minor, usually circumscribed, adverse effects. Severe, extensive complications, with lasting sequelae, however, also can occur, as in the case we report herein. Case Report: A 55-year-old woman underwent an endodontic procedure on a maxillary molar, whose roots, unknown to the surgeon, were protruding into the maxillary sinus. After sodium hypochlorite root canal irrigation, the patient immediately developed intense facial pain, facial edema, and periorbital cellulitis. An emergency department evaluation diagnosed an intense inflammatory disease of the maxillary sinus, with significant destruction of its bony walls, accompanied by midface paraesthesia due to infraorbital nerve injury. In the following weeks, the patient slowly developed enophthalmos due to bone erosion of the orbit floor. Treatment, besides prolonged oral steroids, required the endoscopic endonasal opening of the maxillary sinus for profuse irrigation. Two years later, the patient maintained a complete loss of function of the maxillary sinus, anesthesia-paraesthesia of the midface, and inferior dystonia of the eye with an enophthalmos. Conclusion: Dentists, maxillofacial surgeons, and otorhinolaryngologists should all be aware of the whole spectrum of complications of even the simplest dental work. Sodium hypochlorite irrigations should be used cautiously in root canal surgery, with the full awareness of its potential for causing soft-tissue damage. PMID:27465790

  10. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of different root canal sealers and their effect on cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Kangarloo, Ali; Sattari, Mandana; Rabiee, Faranak; Dianat, Seyed Omid

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Endodontic sealers are in direct contact with periradicular tissues and play a critical role in regeneration and pathogenesis of periradicular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare cytotoxicity of four different types of sealers including AH plus, Sankin, Tubliseal EWT and Apexit as well as their effect on cytokine release of L929 fibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, cells were cultured in Complete Medium Culture (CMC) and then divided into two test groups. In group 1, sealers were added to cell culture wells immediately after mixing. In group 2, sealers were added to cell cultures 3 hours after mixing. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay after 4, 24 and 168 hours. The amount of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) released in response to the sealers was also evaluated by ELISA technique on fibroblasts after 24 hour period. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitey-U tests. RESULTS: Significant differences were seen in cytotoxicity in both groups (P<0.001). The least cytotoxic sealers were AH Plus and Sankin respectively, whereas Tubliseal EWT showed the greatest cytotoxicity. Production of IL-6 was significantly different among studied groups (P<0.001). The highest IL-6 level was observed in Tubliseal EWT and Sankin groups; which was statistically significant (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: AH plus has less cytotoxicity and induces less IL-6 release. Tubliseal EWT has greater cytotoxicity and induces more IL-6 release than other sealers. This should be considered during their routine use in root canal treatments. PMID:23864874

  11. Saliva, supragingival biofilm and root canals can harbor gene associated with resistance to lactamic agents.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Ludmila Coutinho; Fatturi-Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Só, Marcus Vinicius Reis; Montagner, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the presence of Prevotella strains and genes associated with resistance to lactamics in different oral niches from patients with/without primary endodontic infections. Saliva (S) and supragingival biofilm (SB) were collected from three patient groups: Group I - no endodontic infection (n = 15); Group II - acute endodontic infection (n = 12); and Group III - chronic endodontic infection (n = 15). Root canal (RC) samples were collected from Groups II and III. The presence of P. intermedia, P nigrescens, P. tannerae and cfxA/cfxA2 gene was assessed by PCR. The cfxA/cfxA2 gene was not detected in all environments within the same patient. The cfxA/cfxA2 gene was present in 23.81% of S samples, 28.57% of SB samples, and 7.41% of RC samples. Prevotella species were detected in 53.97%, 47.62% and 34.56% of the S, SB, and RC samples, respectively. P. intermedia had a high frequency in saliva samples from Group 3. Saliva samples from Group 1 had higher detection rates of P. nigrescens than did Groups 2 and 3. Patients without endodontic disease had high frequencies of P. nigrescens in the SB samples. The presence or absence of spontaneous symptoms was not related to the detection rates for resistance genes in the RC samples. Saliva, supragingival biofilm and root canals can harbor resistant bacteria. The presence of symptomatology did not increase the presence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene in the supragingival biofilm and inside root canals. PMID:25789508

  12. Validity of the vertical tube-shift method in determining the relationship between the mandibular third molar roots and the inferior alveolar nerve canal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the validity of the vertical tube-shift method using intraoral periapical radiography (IOPAR) for determining the relationship between the mandibular third molar roots and the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) canal in comparison with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Fifty impacted mandibular third molars were analyzed using the IOPAR vertical tube-shift method and CBCT. The relationship of the IAN canal to the impacted mandibular third molar was recorded as buccal, lingual or in line with the apex and was compared with CBCT findings. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the vertical tube-shift method in depicting the relationship (buccal/lingual/in line with the apex) of the IAN canal to the third molar root apex was calculated. Results The sensitivity and specificity PPV and NPV of the IOPAR vertical tube-shift technique was found to be highest for a lingual relationship (100%) followed by buccal (94.4%, 92.3%, 97.1%, and 85.7%) and in line with the apex relationship (88.9%, 95.0%, 80.0%, and 97.4%) of the IAN canal with the third molar root apex, respectively. A statistically significant association was observed between the IOPAR vertical tube-shift method and the CBCT with a P-value <0.01. Conclusion The vertical tube-shift method can be used as an effective diagnostic tool in assessing the relationship of the IAN canal to the third molar root apex with high sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV. PMID:25922817

  13. An update on the antibiotic-based root canal irrigation solutions

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed

    2008-01-01

    Antibiotics are a valuable addition to health practitioners for the management of bacterial infections. During endodontic treatment and when managing trauma to the teeth, antibiotics may be applied systemically or locally. Due to the potential risk of adverse effects of systemic applications, and the ineffectiveness of systemic prescribed antibiotics in necrotic or pulpless teeth and the periradicular tissues, the local application of antibiotics may be a more effective mode for delivering antibiotics to infected root canals. The purpose of this article is to review the history, rationale, and applications of antibiotics and antibiotic-containing irrigants in endodontics. PMID:24171012

  14. Influence of low-intensity laser radiation upon the microflora of carious cavities and root canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.; Nekrylov, Valery; Mazo, Leonid

    1995-04-01

    Laser stomatology- a relatively young branch of stomatology -has been developing actively lately. Bactericidal action of laser radiation enables to use it widely for processing carious cavities and root canals in the treatment of caries and its complications. 113 patients were studied by us. The 40 patients had antiseptic procedure of the caries cavity and then the procedure of laser therapy, so micro-organisms were found out in 26% cases. The 63 patients had antiseptic procedure only, so micro-organisms were found out in 70% cases. Control group were consisted of patients, where laser therapy was carried out without antiseptic remedies.

  15. High speed imaging of an Er,Cr:YSGG laser in a model of a root canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; Blanken, Jan; van Heeswijk, Hans; de Roode, Rowland; Klaessens, John

    2007-02-01

    Laser systems of various wavelengths and pulse characteristics have been introduced in dentistry. At present, the range of applications for the different systems is being investigated mainly differentiating between soft and hard tissue applications. For the preparation of root canals both hard and soft tissues are involved. Ideally, one would like to use one laser system for the whole treatment. In this study, we studied the characteristics of the pulsed 2,78 Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Biolase, Waterlase Millenium), in view of root canal cleaning and desinfection. The laser energy was fiber delivered with fiber tip diameters from 400 μm down to 200 μm. Special thermal and high speed imaging techniques were applied in a transparent model of a tapered root canal and slices cut from human teeth. High speed imaging revealed the dynamics of an explosive vapor bubble at the tip of the Er laser in water and the root canal model. Typically for Erbium lasers, within a time span of several hundred μs, a longitudinal bubble expanded to maximum size of 5 mm length and 2 mm diameter at 100 mJ and imploded afterwards. In the root canal, the explosive bubble created turbulent high speed water streaming which resects soft tissue from the hard tissue. Thermal imaging showed the dynamics of all lasers heating of the canal wall up to several mm depending on the wavelength and energy settings. The mechanism of smear layer removal and sterilization in the root canal, is attributed to cavitation effects i