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Sample records for root canal filling materials

  1. [Difficulties and misunderstandings of root canal filling].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Root canal filling is performed as the final and most important procedure of root canal treatment. The superior 3D filling is the key determinant of endodontic success. However, such procedure remains a challenge because of the complexity of the root canal system and the limitation of root canal filling materials and methods. This paper provides an overview of current principles and practices in root canal filling, focusing on advantages, disadvantages and indications. The process errors and countermeasures in various root canal filling methods are also discussed. This review provides guidance and help for clinical and practice to achieve a satisfactory root canal filling and improve root canal treatment outcome.

  2. Effect of root canal filling materials containing calcium hydroxide on the alkalinity of root dentin.

    PubMed

    Staehle, H J; Spiess, V; Heinecke, A; Müller, H P

    1995-08-01

    The effect of root canal filling pastes containing calcium oxide resp. calcium hydroxide on the alkalinity of extracted human teeth was investigated using a colour indicator (cresol red). An aqueous suspension of calcium hydroxide (Pulpdent), which is normally used for temporary root canal filling, most consistently produced alkalinity. Removal of the smear layer following instrumentation of the root canal led to increased proportion of alkaline-positive spots in dentinal locations distant from the canal. A clearly smaller effect was found with a calcium salicylate cement (Sealapex) and an oil-paste (Gangraena Merz), both of which are available for definite root canal fillings. Following removal of the smear layer, these hard-setting preparations caused moderate alkalinity in dentin adjacent to the canal but no effect was observed in locations more distant from the canal. Neither at locations adjacent to nor distant from the root canal was alkalinity found when another calcium salicylate cement (Apexit) was used. Apparently the release of hydroxyl ions into root dentin from calcium hydroxide containing root canal filling materials is not solely influenced by the absolute amount of calcium hydroxide, but also depends on other ingredients which variably inhibit the release of these ions.

  3. Materials for retrograde filling in root canal therapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiangyu; Li, Chunjie; Jia, Liuhe; Wang, Yan; Liu, Wenwen; Zhou, Xuedong; Johnson, Trevor M; Huang, Dingming

    2016-12-17

    Root canal therapy is a sequence of treatments involving root canal cleaning, shaping, decontamination and obturation. It is conventionally performed through a hole drilled into the crown of the affected tooth, namely orthograde root canal therapy. For teeth that cannot be treated with orthograde root canal therapy, or for which it has failed, retrograde root filling, which seals the root canal from the root apex, is a good alternative. Many materials, such as amalgam, zinc oxide eugenol and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), are generally used. Since none meets all the criteria an ideal material should possess, selecting the most efficacious material is of utmost importance. To determine the effects of different materials used for retrograde filling in children and adults for whom retrograde filling is necessary in order to save the tooth. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 13 September 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library (searched 13 September 2016); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 13 September 2016); Embase Ovid (1980 to 13 September 2016); LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (1982 to 13 September 2016); and OpenSIGLE (1980 to 2005). ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. We also searched Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (in Chinese, 1978 to 20 September 2016); VIP (in Chinese, 1989 to 20 September 2016); China National Knowledge Infrastructure (in Chinese, 1994 to 20 September 2016); and Sciencepaper Online (in Chinese, to 20 September 2016). No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) only that compared different retrograde filling materials, with reported success rate that was assessed by clinical or

  4. Influence of different root canal-filling materials on the mechanical properties of root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Grande, Nicola M; Plotino, Gianluca; Lavorgna, Luca; Ioppolo, Pietro; Bedini, Rossella; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Somma, Francesco

    2007-07-01

    The aims of this study were to compare Resilon (Resilon Research LLC, Madison, CT) in conjunction with either a bonding (Epiphany; Pentron Clinical Technologies, Wallingford, CT) or a nonbonding endodontic sealer (Pulp Canal Sealer; Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA) to EndoRez (Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, UT) and gutta-percha with regards to the physical properties and flexural stress in standardized dentin cylinders and the flexural stress of Resilon and gutta-percha. The external surface of 50 maxillary central incisors was reduced by means of mechanical milling to obtain dentin cylinders with an external diameter of 3 mm and minimum length of 12 mm. Root canals were prepared to obtain a standardized cylindrical preparation of 1.3 mm in diameter at the center of the root. The cylinders were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10): group 1: obturation with gutta-percha and Pulp Canal Sealer; group 2: obturation with Resilon, Epiphany primer, and Epiphany; group 3: obturation with Resilon and Pulp Canal Sealer; group 4: obturation with EndoRez methacrylate-based endodontic sealer; and group 5: dentin cylinders were not obturated. Ten gutta-percha (group 6) and Resilon (group 7) pellets for the Obtura gun were also tested. A three-point bending test was used to measure the maximum load values of specimens from groups 1 to 5 and the flexural strength and flexural modulus values for specimens from groups 6 and 7. Statistical analysis was performed to determine significance differences (p < 0.05). An analysis of variance test showed no significant difference among groups 1 to 5 (p = 0.697; F = 0.60). An independent sample t test showed statistically significant differences between groups 6 and 7 in flexural strength (p = 0.000) and flexural modulus (p = 0.000). Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that the currently available endodontic-filling materials and their recommended adhesive procedures are not able to influence the mechanical

  5. Physicochemical Properties of Root Canal Filling Materials for Primary Teeth.

    PubMed

    Segato, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Pucinelli, Carolina Maschietto; Ferreira, Danielly Cunha Araújo; Daldegan, Andiara De Rossi; Silva, Roberto S da; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Léa A B da

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated physiochemical proprieties of a calcium hydroxide-based paste (Calen®) combined with a zinc oxide cement at different ratios (1:0.5, 1:0.65, 1:0.8 and 1:1). Materials were compared regarding setting time, pH variation, radiopacity, solubility, dimensional changes, flow and release of chemical elements. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Longer setting time and higher dimensional changes and solubility values were exhibited by 1:0.65 and 1:0.5 ratios (p<0.05). The 1:0.5 and 1:0.65 ratios exhibited the highest pH values at all time points. All materials exhibited high radiopacity values. Significant differences were found only between 1:0.5 and 1:1 ratios for calcium and zinc release (p<0.05), whereas the amount of zirconium was similar among all groups (p>0.05). Considering the evaluated proprieties, combinations of Calen® paste with ZO at 1:0.5 and 1:0.65 ratios had the best results as root canal filling materials for use in primary teeth.

  6. Microstructure and wettability of root canal dentine and root canal filling materials after different chemical irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar; Brajkovic, Denis; Ilic, Dragan; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Djuric, Marija; Busse, Björn

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various irrigation solutions on root canal dentine and gutta-percha surface properties. In addition, the effects of disinfectant chemicals on the wettability and surface morphological properties of the filling materials were evaluated. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and ozone were employed as irrigation solutions for dentine and gutta-percha treatment. Thereafter, the samples' microstructure, degree of mineralization, and mechanical properties were assessed by means of quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and reference point indentation (RPI). A contact angle analyzer was used to measure adhesion on the tested materials. Here, EDTA had the most significant affect on both the mechanical properties and the adhesive behavior of dentine. Citric acid did not affect dentine wettability, whereas the indentation properties and the mineralization were reduced. Similar effects were observed when ozone was used. The dentinal tubules were significantly widened in citric acid compared to the ozone group. EDTA causes considerable micromechanical surface alteration of dentine and gutta-percha, but represents the best option in clinical cases where a high adhesiveness of the filling materials is desired.

  7. Cleaning efficacy of reciprocal and rotary systems in the removal of root canal filling material

    PubMed Central

    Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Türker, Sevinç Aktemur; Sağlam, Baran Can

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of hand file, nickel titanium rotary instrument, and two reciprocating instruments for removing gutta-percha and sealer from the root canals. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight mandibular premolar teeth were used. The root canals were shaped and filled with gutta-percha and a resin-based sealer. The specimens were divided into four groups according to the technique by which the root filling material was removed: Group 1 — Wave One; Group 2 — Reciproc; Group 3 — ProTaper; and Group 4 — Gates-Glidden burs and stainless steel hand file. Then teeth were split longitudinally and photographed. The images were transferred to a computer. The ratio of remaining filling material to the root canal periphery was calculated with the aid of ImageJ software. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. Results: A significant difference was found among all groups (P < 0.001). The WaveOne group demonstrated significantly less remaining filling material. The greatest amount of filling material was found in specimens where gutta-percha was removed with Gates-Glidden burs and stainless steel hand file. Conclusion: The reciprocating files were found to be significantly more effective in removing the filling material from the canal walls compared to the rotational file and hand file. PMID:27099429

  8. Root canal filling materials for primary teeth: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kubota, K; Golden, B E; Penugonda, B

    1992-01-01

    In summary, there is no known ideal root canal filling material for primary teeth. The closest to the ideal appears to be a calcium hydroxide-iodoform mixture. More histopathologic studies as well as long-term clinical studies are needed on this material.

  9. Efficacy of manual and mechanical instrumentation techniques for removal of overextended root canal filling material.

    PubMed

    Kesim, B; Üstün, Y; Aslan, T; Topçuoğlu, H S; Şahin, S; Ulusan, Ö

    2017-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of manual and mechanical instrumentation techniques, including ProTaper Universal retreatment system, Mtwo retreatment system, Reciproc system, and Hedström files, regarding removal of overextended root canal filling material. Eighty extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were prepared at the apical foramen level using Revo-S rotary files and subsequently obturated. The root canal filling material was deliberately extruded from the apex. Samples were transferred to glass vials that simulated the periapical area. Eighty samples of overfilled teeth were randomly assigned to four equal groups (n = 20) for removal of the root filling material with ProTaper Universal retreatment files (Group 1), Mtwo retreatment files (Group 2), Reciproc system (Group 3), and hand files (Group 4). Removal of the root canal filling material and additional preparation were performed by individual instruments from each different system up to a #40 size. The external apical surface of the teeth and the surrounding glass vials were checked using a dental operation microscope with ×12.5 magnification. Samples were divided into two groups based on whether removal of the overextended root canal filling material was successful or not. The Fisher's exact test was used to detect any significant difference between the groups (α = 0.05). The success rate for removal of overextended gutta-percha was greater for the Mtwo (30%) and hand files (30%) compared with the ProTaper (20%) and Reciproc (10%). However, no significant statistical differences existed among the experimental groups (P > 0.05). This study demonstrated that all tested systems had similar efficacy in removing overextended root canal filling material.

  10. Effectiveness of rotatory and reciprocating movements in root canal filling material removal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; Orlowsky, Nayra Bittencourt; Herrera, Daniel Rodrigo; Machado, Ricardo; Krebs, Renato Liess; Coutinho-Filho, Tauby de Souza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of reciprocating and rotary techniques for removing gutta-percha and sealer from root canals. Forty straight and oval single-rooted premolars were prepared up to size 30, filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and then randomly allocated to two experimental retreatment groups: ProTaper Retreatment System (PTRS) and WaveOne System (WS). Procedural errors, time of retreatment and apically extruded material were recorded for all the roots. The roots were radiographed after retreatment. The percentage of residual material was calculated using image analysis software. The data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t tests, with a significance level set at 5%. No system completely removed the root filling material from the root canal. No significant differences were observed between the systems, in terms of residual filling material in any tested third (p > 0.05). WS was faster in removing filling material than PTRS (p < 0.05). Extrusion was observed in 4 cases in PTRS and in 5 cases in WS. No procedural errors were observed in either group. It can be concluded that although no differences were observed in the efficacy of PTRS and WS for removing root filling material, WS was faster than PTRS.

  11. Comparison of endoflas and zinc oxide eugenol as root canal filling materials in primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Rewal, Nivedita; Thakur, Arun Singh; Sachdev, Vinod; Mahajan, Nanika

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide eugenol has long been the material of choice of pediatric dentists worldwide, although it fails to meet the ideal requirements of root canal filling material for primary teeth. Endoflas, a mixture of zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide, and iodoform, can be considered to be an effective root canal filling material in primary teeth as compared with zinc oxide eugenol. This study was carried out to compare zinc oxide eugenol with endoflas for pulpectomy in primary dentition. The objective of the study was to compare clinically and radiographically success rates of zinc oxide eugenol with endoflas for the root canal filling of primary teeth at 3, 6, and 9 months. Fifty primary molars were included in the study with 26 teeth in Group I (Endoflas) and 24 in Group II (zinc oxide eugenol). A single visit pulpectomy was carried out. The overall success rate of zinc oxide eugenol was 83% whereas 100% success was found in the case of endoflas. The obtained results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test. The difference in the success rate between the two was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Endoflas has shown to have better results than zinc oxide eugenol. It should therefore be the material of choice for root canal treatment in deciduous dentition.

  12. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  17. Efficacy of Combined Use of Different Nickel-Titanium Files on Removing Root Canal Filling Materials.

    PubMed

    Yürüker, Sinan; Görduysus, Melahat; Küçükkaya, Selen; Uzunoğlu, Emel; Ilgın, Can; Gülen, Orhan; Tuncel, Behram; Görduysus, Mehmet Ömer

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the remaining amount of residual filling materials in root canals after retreatment using ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTUR) files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) alone or with the additional use of the Self-Adjusting File (SAF; ReDent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel), Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany), or Hedström-files (H-file; VDW, Antaeos, Munich, Germany) with volumetric estimation using the stereologic method via cone-beam computed tomographic images. Forty-eight mandibular premolars with single canals were used. The canals were instrumented with ProTaper rotary instruments up to F4 and filled with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer (Dentsply De Trey, Johnson City, TN). All the samples were placed into the silicone models. Samples were scanned with cone-beam computed tomographic imaging and assigned into 4 groups (n = 12) according to retreatment files: the PTUR system group, the PTUR system plus SAF group, the PTUR system plus Reciproc group, and the PTUR system plus H-file group. The specimens were rescanned after retreatment procedures, and the volume estimations of the remaining filling materials were performed using the stereologic method. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. There was no significant difference among the groups regarding mean percentage volumes of the filling materials before retreatment procedures (P > .05). None of the retreatment procedures provided complete removal of the filling materials. The additional use of the SAF did not significantly improve the removal of filling materials when compared with the PTUR system alone (P > .05). However, the additional use of Reciproc or hand H-files significantly improved the removal of filling materials when compared with the PTUR system alone (P < .05). The additional use of files with different motion kinetics improved the removal of root canal fillings; however, none of the systems completely removed the root canal filling

  18. Fracture resistance of overtly flaring root canals filled with resin-based obturation material

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Salma B.; Eldarrat, Aziza H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reinforcement of root canals obturated with Resilon was reported by several investigators, but no studies reported the reinforcement of overtly flared root canals obturated with Resilon material. The aim of this study was to investigate the fracture resistance of overtly flared root canals filled with Resilon as compared to similar root canals filled with gutta-percha (GP). Materials and Methods: Sixty single-rooted premolars were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1 served as control group. The control group was sub-divided into two groups, a negative group and a positive group. The negative group consisted of root canals that were only cleaned from residual pulpal tissues, however, the positive group had prepared and overtly flared root canals without obturation. Groups 2 and 4 were shaped using 0.04 taper rotary files, while groups 3 and 5 were shaped using 0.06 taper rotary files. Before obturation, the last four groups were further flared coronally with a reverse cone diamond bur. Groups 2 and 3 were obturated with GP and a resin-based sealer, while groups 4 and 5 were obturated with Resilon and Epiphany self-etching primer and Epiphany sealer. Roots were then fixed into a universal testing machine and vertically loaded until fracture. SPSS software (Release 9.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, USA) was used to perform the statistical analysis. Results: Fracture resistance measurements showed that there were differences in resistance to fracture among the experimental groups (ANOVA, P < 0.0001). Mean values of the loading force applied to the negative control group were the highest at 1.81 KN, whereas the mean values for the Resilon groups (Groups 4 and 5) at 1.13 KN and 1.54 KN were found to be higher than the GP groups (Groups 2 and 3) at 0.45 KN and 0.88 KN, respectively. Tukey's post hoc test showed that there was no statistical difference between the mean values of the negative control group and Group 5 (P = 0.69). Conclusion: Obturation of

  19. Fracture resistance of overtly flaring root canals filled with resin-based obturation material.

    PubMed

    Abdo, Salma B; Eldarrat, Aziza H

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement of root canals obturated with Resilon was reported by several investigators, but no studies reported the reinforcement of overtly flared root canals obturated with Resilon material. The aim of this study was to investigate the fracture resistance of overtly flared root canals filled with Resilon as compared to similar root canals filled with gutta-percha (GP). Sixty single-rooted premolars were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1 served as control group. The control group was sub-divided into two groups, a negative group and a positive group. The negative group consisted of root canals that were only cleaned from residual pulpal tissues, however, the positive group had prepared and overtly flared root canals without obturation. Groups 2 and 4 were shaped using 0.04 taper rotary files, while groups 3 and 5 were shaped using 0.06 taper rotary files. Before obturation, the last four groups were further flared coronally with a reverse cone diamond bur. Groups 2 and 3 were obturated with GP and a resin-based sealer, while groups 4 and 5 were obturated with Resilon and Epiphany self-etching primer and Epiphany sealer. Roots were then fixed into a universal testing machine and vertically loaded until fracture. SPSS software (Release 9.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, USA) was used to perform the statistical analysis. Fracture resistance measurements showed that there were differences in resistance to fracture among the experimental groups (ANOVA, P < 0.0001). Mean values of the loading force applied to the negative control group were the highest at 1.81 KN, whereas the mean values for the Resilon groups (Groups 4 and 5) at 1.13 KN and 1.54 KN were found to be higher than the GP groups (Groups 2 and 3) at 0.45 KN and 0.88 KN, respectively. Tukey's post hoc test showed that there was no statistical difference between the mean values of the negative control group and Group 5 (P = 0.69). Obturation of overtly flared roots with Resilon material increased the

  20. Comparative evaluation of bactericidal potential of four root canal filling materials against microflora of infected non-vital primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Harini Priya, M; Bhat, Sham S; Sundeep Hegde, K

    2010-01-01

    Since complete debridement of the root canals of the primary teeth is not practically possible due to the highly variable root canal anatomy, success of the endodontic therapy depends partly on the use ofantibacterial irrigating agents and root canal filling materials. Recent literature indicates that anaerobes comprise a majority of the bacteria in necrotic root canals ofprimary teeth. The study determined the antibacterial effectiveness of four root canal filling materials namely Calcium hydroxide, Zinc oxide eugenol, Vitapex and Metapex against microbial specimens obtained directly from necrotic root canals of primary teeth. Microbial specimens were collected using sterile paper points, from 15 primary maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth of randomly selected children in the age group of 4-10 years with infected non vital primary teeth, requiring pulpectomy procedure. The microbial specimens collected were subjected to microbiological analysis and the antimicrobial potential of root canal filling materials were tested using Agar diffusion technique. were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Facultative/Aerobic organisms were isolated in all the cases, anaerobic organisms were isolated in 80% of the cases, and Candida albicans was isolated in 1 case. ZOE showed superior inhibitory activity against most of the organisms isolated followed by Vitapex, Calcium hydroxide and Metapex in descending order. Our data may be useful as a guide for relative antimicrobial effectiveness or non-effectiveness of the materials employed. In vivo studies are required to state the specific antimicrobial activity and merits and demerits of any of the test filling material.

  1. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of pulpectomies using three root canal filling materials: an in-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Ramar, K; Mungara, J

    2010-01-01

    Various root canal filling materials are used to preserve a pulpally involved carious primary tooth. But there is no single material so far available to fulfill all the requirements of an ideal root canal filling material for a primary tooth. Hence this study was undertaken to evaluate clinically and radiographically the efficacy of three obturating materials - Calcium hydroxide with Iodoform (METAPEX), Zinc Oxide Eugenol with Iodoform (RC FILL) and Zinc Oxide Eugenol and Calcium hydroxide with Iodoform (ENDOFLAS) for a period of 9 months. Results show ENDOFLAS gave an overall success rate of 95.1%, METAPEX - 90.5% and RC FILL - 84.7%. In our study, we conclude that ENDOFLAS, a mixture of Zinc Oxide Eugenol and Calcium hydroxide with Iodoform fulfills most of the required properties of an ideal root canal filling for primary teeth.

  2. Endoflas, zinc oxide eugenol and metapex as root canal filling materials in primary molars--a comparative clinical study.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Priya; Gilhotra, Kanupriya

    2011-01-01

    Several materials have been used to fill root canals of primary teeth. Traditionally, zinc oxide eugenol was used for the purpose, until the introduction of calcium hydroxide and iodoform based materials. Another root canal filling material that contains zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide and iodoform is commercially available as Endoflas. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of Endoflas, zinc oxide eugenol and Metapex as root canal filling materials. A total of forty-five primary molars from children aged 5-9 years were selected for a one stage pulpectomy procedure. Teeth were randomly divided into three groups of fifteen teeth each based on the type of root canal filling material used. All the molars were evaluated clinically and radiographically at regular intervals of 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. The observations were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Endoflas and zinc oxide eugenol showed 93.3% success, whereas a higher percentage of success was observed with Metapex (100%). Overfilling and voids were more commonly seen in teeth filled with Metapex. There was no significant difference between the three root canal filling materials.

  3. Root surface temperature variation during mechanical removal of root canal filling material. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    García-Cuerva, Martín; Horvath, Lucía; Pinasco, Laura; Ciparelli, Verónica; Gualtieri, Ariel; Casadoumecq, Ana C; Rodríguez, Pablo; Gonzalez-Zanotto, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro temperature changes on the outer surface of the dental root during mechanical filling removal procedures. Thirty recently extracted single-rooted lower premolars were cut transversally at 16 mm from the apex in order to standardize sample length. Endodontic treatment was performed on them. The filling material was subsequently removed using Gates Glidden (G1, G2, G3); Peeso (P1, P2, P3) and PostecPlus FRC (FRC) reamers while temperatures were measured on the outer surface using a digital device with thermocouple at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 15 seconds. Temperatures were compared using repeated measures ANOVA followed by pairwise comparison with Tukey's test. All reamers caused significant temperature variation between different times (p<0.05). Pairwise comparisons indicated that temperature increased with time for all reamers (p<0.05). Significant differences in temperature were found between different reamers after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8,10 and 15 seconds (p<0.05). Temperature at the root surface increased considerably. Values higher than 50°C were recorded, the greatest increase from baseline being 16°C. Accordingly, if the procedure were begun at 37°C (physiological temperature), the temperature in the surrounding tissues - cementum, periodontium and bone - would rise to 53°C. An increase in 10°C above body temperature at the root surface may cause lesions in surrounding tissues. While removing filling material, it is essential to cool, control action time and use instruments in perfect condition, all of which may contribute to reducing the heat generated and transmitted to the outer root surface. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  4. 3D Analysis of D-RaCe and Self-Adjusting File in Removing Filling Materials from Curved Root Canals Instrumented and Filled with Different Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Simsek, Neslihan; Ahmetoglu, Fuat; Bulut, Elcin Tekin; Er, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of D-RaCe files and a self-adjusting file (SAF) system in removing filling material from curved root canals instrumented and filled with different techniques by using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). The mesial roots of 20 extracted mandibular first molars were used. Root canals (mesiobuccal and mesiolingual) were instrumented with SAF or Revo-S. The canals were then filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using cold lateral compaction or thermoplasticized injectable techniques. The root fillings were first removed with D-RaCe (Step 1), followed by Step 2, in which a SAF system was used to remove the residual fillings in all groups. Micro-CT scans were used to measure the volume of residual filling after root canal filling, reinstrumentation with D-RaCe (Step 1), and reinstrumentation with SAF (Step 2). Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. There were no statistically significant differences between filling techniques in the canals instrumented with SAF (P = 0.292) and Revo-S (P = 0.306). The amount of remaining filling material was similar in all groups (P = 0.363); all of the instrumentation techniques left filling residue inside the canals. However, the additional use of SAF was more effective than using D-RaCe alone. PMID:25114976

  5. The effectiveness of manual and mechanical instrumentation for the retreatment of three different root canal filling materials.

    PubMed

    Somma, Francesco; Cammarota, Giuseppe; Plotino, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola M; Pameijer, Cornelis H

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the Mtwo R (Sweden & Martina, Padova, Italy), ProTaper retreatment files (Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), and a Hedström manual technique in the removal of three different filling materials (gutta-percha, Resilon [Resilon Research LLC, Madison, CT], and EndoRez [Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, UT]) during retreatment. Ninety single-rooted straight premolars were instrumented and randomly divided into 9 groups of 10 teeth each (n = 10) with regards to filling material and instrument used. For all roots, the following data were recorded: procedural errors, time of retreatment, apically extruded material, canal wall cleanliness through optical stereomicroscopy (OSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A linear regression analysis and three logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the level of significance set at p = 0.05. The results indicated that the overall regression models were statistically significant. The Mtwo R, ProTaper retreatment files, and Resilon filling material had a positive impact in reducing the time for retreatment. Both ProTaper retreatment files and Mtwo R showed a greater extrusion of debris. For both OSM and SEM logistic regression models, the root canal apical third had the greatest impact on the score values. EndoRez filling material resulted in cleaner root canal walls using OSM analysis, whereas Resilon filling material and both engine-driven NiTi rotary techniques resulted in less clean root canal walls according to SEM analysis. In conclusion, all instruments left remnants of filling material and debris on the root canal walls irrespective of the root filling material used. Both the engine-driven NiTi rotary systems proved to be safe and fast devices for the removal of endodontic filling material.

  6. Postoperative pain after the removal of root canal filling material using different techniques in teeth with failed root canal therapy: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Topçuoğlu, Gamze

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the intensity and duration of postoperative pain after the removal of root canal filling material in retreatment procedures of upper incisor teeth with chronic apical periodontitis, using different techniques. One hundred and thirty-five patients requiring retreatment of upper incisor teeth with chronic apical periodontitis were included in the study. The patients were assigned to three groups of 45 patients, according to the method used to remove old canal filling material. In group 1, canal filling material was removed using hand files. In group 2, the canal filling material was removed with ProTaper universal retreatment (PTUR) instruments. In group 3, Reciproc instruments were used to remove canal filling material. Teeth were then medicated with calcium hydroxide and sealed using temporary filling material. The presence of postoperative pain was assessed after 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, 7 days, and finally after 10 days. In all time intervals, except for 72 h, 7 days and 10 days, group 1 participants reported more intense postoperative pain than those in groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.02). In all time intervals, there was no difference in the pain scores between groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.08). In all groups, the intensity of postoperative pain decreased over time. The required time to remove canal filling material was less for the Reciproc group compared to the hand and ProTaper retreatment groups (p = 0.032). Hand files caused greater postoperative pain after non-surgical endodontic retreatment (NSER) of upper incisor teeth with chronic apical periodontitis compared to the ProTaper retreatment and Reciproc files.

  7. A laboratory study evaluating the pH of various modern root canal filling materials.

    PubMed

    Pawińska, Małgorzata; Szczurko, Grzegorz; Kierklo, Anna; Sidun, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    Alkaline pH is responsible for antibacterial activity and the stimulation of periapical tissue healing. It neutralizes the acidic environment of inflammatory tissues in the periapical region of the teeth and favors bone repair by activating tissue enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare in vitro the pH of 8 root canal filling materials (sealers and points) -AH Plus Jet (AH), Apexit Plus (AP), Endomethasone N (END), Epiphany (EP), GuttaFlow (GF), gutta-percha (G), Resilon (R), Tubliseal (T). 0.1 g of each material (n = 6) was placed in dialysis tubes and immersed in 20 mL of deionized water. The control contained deionized water (pH 6.6) with an empty tube. The pH values were recorded immediately after immersion (baseline) and after 1, 2, 24, 48, 120, and 192 h with a pH-meter. Data were statistically analyzed using the Student's -t test and 1-way analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Nearly all the materials had pH significantly higher than the control (p < 0.05). There were significant differences in the pH between the materials tested at each time point (p < 0.001). The highest pH was exhibited by EP, followed by AP and AH. The lowest pH was shown by GF, G and R. Among the materials studied, only EP, AP and AH Plus were able to elevate the pH level that would allow inactivation of microorganisms in the root canals and promote healing of inflamed periapical tissues. However, the low alkalizing potential of G and R can be modified by the concomitant application of sealers producing alkaline pH.

  8. Radiopacity evaluation of new root canal filling materials by digitalization of images.

    PubMed

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Jorge, Erica Gouveia; Guerreiro Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Gonçalves, Marcelo

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of five root canal filling materials (AH Plus, Intrafill, Roeko Seal, Epiphany, and EndoRez). Following the International Organization of Standardization 6876/2001, five circular specimens (10 x 1 mm) were made from each material. After the material set, radiographs were made using occlusal film and a graduated aluminum step-wedge varying in thickness from 2 to 16 mm. The dental X-ray unit (GE1000) was set at 50 Kvp, 10 mA, 18 pulses/second, and distance of 33.5 cm. The radiographs were digitized, and the radiopacity was compared with the aluminum step-wedge, using WIXWIN-2000 software (Gendex). Data (mm Al) were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests. AH Plus and Epiphany were the most radiopaque materials (9.8 and 8.8 mm Al, respectively), followed by EndoRez (7.2 mm Al). Roeko Seal and Intrafill presented the lowest radiopacity values (5.7 and 6.1 mm Al, respectively). Although the materials evaluated demonstrated different radiopacities, all had values above the minimum recommended by the International Organization of Standardization.

  9. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Nica, Luminita; Ionita, Ciprian; Marcauteanu, Corina; Goguta, Luciana; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2010-04-01

    Endodontic therapy consists in cleaning and shaping the root canal system, removing organic debris and sealing the intra-canal space with permanent filling materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various root canal fillings in order to detect material defects, the marginal adaptation at the root canal walls and to assess the quality of the apical sealing. 21 extracted single-root canal human teeth were selected for this study. We instrumented all roots using NiTi rotary instruments. All canals were enlarged with a 6% taper size 30 GT instrument, 0,5 mm from the anatomical apex. The root canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the instrumentation was completed, the root canals were obturated using a thermoplasticizable polymer of polyesters. In order to assess the defects inside the filling material and the marginal fit to the root canal walls, the conebeam micro-computed tomography (CBμCT) was used first. After the CBμCT investigation, time domain optical coherence tomography working in en face mode (TDefOCT) was employed to evaluate the previous samples. The TDefOCT system was working at 1300 nm and was doubled by a confocal channel at 970 nm. The results obtained by CBμCT revealed no visible defects inside the root-canal fillings and at the interfaces with the root-canal walls. TDefOCT investigations permit to visualize a more complex stratificated structure at the interface filling material/dental hard tissue and in the apical region.

  10. Comparison of bacterial leakage resistance of various root canal filling materials and methods: Confocal laser-scanning microscope study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji Hee; Chung, Jin; Na, Hee-Sam; Park, Eunjoo; Kwak, Sangwon; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the bacterial leakage resistance and root canal lining efficacy of various root canal filling materials and methods by using confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM). Sixty extracted human premolars with mature apex and single root canal were randomly divided into 2 control groups and 4 experimental groups. Group CW was filled with continuous wave technique using gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. Group GC was coated with AH-Plus sealer and then obturated with soften GuttaCore. Group GF was obturated using GuttaFlow and gutta-percha. Group EM was filled with EndoSeal MTA and gutta-percha using ultrasonic vibration. The AH-Plus, GuttaFlow, and EndoSeal were labeled with Hoechst 33342 to facilitate fluorescence. The obturated root tip was incubated with Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-stained E. faecalis for 14 days. CLSM was performed to evaluate the sealer distribution and bacterial leakage for the apical 1-, 2-, 3-mm specimens. Statistically significant differences were determined by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test and Pearson's correlation analysis. Group EM showed the better sealer distribution score than the other groups (p < 0.05). Group CW and group GC exhibited the less bacterial leakage than the group GF, while group EM showed the similar bacterial leakage score with the groups CW and GC. There was no significant correlation between the sealer distribution and bacterial leakage (p > 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, different root canal filling materials and methods showed different efficacy for canal distribution and bacterial leakage resistance. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of photon induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) on bond strength to dentine of two root canal filling materials.

    PubMed

    Miletić, Ivana; Chieffi, Nicoletta; Rengo, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco; Nathanson, Dan; Baraba, Anja

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of photon induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) technique in combination with EDTA on bond strength of gutta-percha/AH Plus and Resilon/RealSeal SE root canal fillings to root dentine. Forty freshly extracted human maxillary anterior teeth with intact straight roots, were instrumented endodontically with rotating ProTaper instruments and randomly divided into two experimental groups. In group 1 (n = 20), root canals were rinsed for 1 minute with 2 ml of 17% EDTA. In group 2 (n = 20), Er:YAG laser, with a 14 mm long 400 μ diameter tapered PIPS tip, was used for 1 minute with 2 ml of 17% EDTA. The laser parameters used were: 20 mJ per pulse, 15 Hz, 50 microsecond. In each experimental group, half of the root canals (n = 10) were obturated with gutta-percha/AH Plus and other half (n = 10) with Resilon/RealSeal SE. A micropush-out test was performed on sectiond specimens of the filled roots using a universal testing machine and resistance to failure plus failure modes were determined. Both gutta-percha/AH Plus groups had higher bond strength to root dentin than the Resilon/RealSeal SE groups (P < 0.05). The smear layer removal protocol, with EDTA only or combining PIPS technique with EDTA, had no influence on bond strength of either gutta-percha/AH Plus, or Resilon/RealSeal SE (P > 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, it was found that the application of the PIPS technique did not have an affect on the push-out bond strength of Resilon/RealSeal SE root canal filling to dentin nor on the gutta-percha/AH Plus. A significant difference in bond strength was noted between the two root canal filling materials. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:951-954, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Prognosis of Altered Sensation after Extrusion of Root Canal Filling Materials: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Eyal; Goldberger, Tomer; Taschieri, Silvio; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Corbella, Stefano; Tsesis, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and evaluate the literature regarding the prognosis of altered sensation after extrusion of root canal filling materials and the possible factors influencing it. A systematic search of the literature was performed to identify studies that reported on altered sensation after extrusion of root canal filling materials during endodontic treatments. The articles were evaluated for their relevance based on strict inclusion criteria, and the identified suitable articles were subject to data extraction and analysis. Initially, 109 possibly relevant articles were identified. After screening and full-text evaluations, 28 articles that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed, reporting on a total of 84 patients with altered sensation after extrusion of root canal filling materials. All the included studies, except 1 case series, were case reports. Under the limited available data, the extracted data showed that 91% of the patients had fully or partially recovered over time. Most of the cases in the lower molars as well as most of the cases in which the obturation was performed using paraformaldehyde-containing sealer or cases in which an immediate treatment was not performed did not fully recover. The current scientific knowledge regarding the prognosis of nerve injuries caused by overextruded endodontic materials relies primarily on case reports. Within the limitations of the published data, it seems that the tooth locations, types of extruded materials and the obturation technique, and treatment after the injury may affect the nerve injury prognosis. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The correlation between fluid transport and push-out strength in root canals filled with a methacrylate-based filling material.

    PubMed

    Moinzadeh, A-T; Mirmohammadi, H; Hensbergen, I A M; Wesselink, P R; Shemesh, H

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the correlation between fluid transport and dislocation resistance in canals filled with a methacrylate-based filling material. The root canals in sixty-five single-rooted human teeth were prepared to size 40, 0.06 taper. Sixty roots were filled with a single-cone technique using RealSeal SE sealer and divided into 3 groups, whilst five roots served as fluid transport positive control. Group 1 (n = 20): correlation group. Specimens were consecutively tested with fluid transport for 90 min and thereafter with the push-out test at coronal and apical root levels. Group 2 (n = 20): push-out control. Specimens were only subjected to the push-out test at coronal and apical root levels. Group 3 (n = 20): fluid transport negative control. Specimens were totally covered with nail varnish. The correlation between fluid transport and dislocation resistance was assessed by Kendall's tau-b coefficient. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare dislocation resistance between groups 1 and 2 and fluid transport between groups 1 and 3. Significance level was set at P < 0.05. Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficients between fluid transport and dislocation resistance were weak, being coronally 0.139 (P = 0.444) and apically -0.080 (P = 0.658). No significant difference in dislocation resistance could be detected between groups 1 and 2 at both root levels (P = 0.052 and P = 0.336, respectively). No significant correlation could be identified between fluid transport and dislocation resistance, meaning that the corono-apical sealing ability of a methacrylate-based root canal filling is independent of its adhesive properties as indicated by its dislocation resistance. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Bioactivity, cytocompatibility and thermal properties of experimental Bioglass-reinforced composites as potential root-canal filling materials.

    PubMed

    Alhashimi, Raghad Abdulrazzaq; Mannocci, Francesco; Sauro, Salvatore

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the bioactivity and the cytocompatibility of experimental Bioglass-reinforced polyethylene-based root-canal filling materials. The thermal properties of the experimental materials were also evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry, while their radiopacity was assessed using a grey-scale value (GSV) aluminium step wedge and a phosphor plate digital system. Bioglass 45S5 (BAG), polyethylene and Strontium oxide (SrO) were used to create tailored composite fibres. The filler distribution within the composites was assessed using SEM, while their bioactivity was evaluated through infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) after storage in simulated body fluid (SBF). The radiopacity of the composite fibres and their thermal properties were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The cytocompatibility of the experimental composites used in this study was assessed using human osteoblasts and statistically analysed using the Pairwise t-test (p<0.05). Bioglass and SrO fillers were well distributed within the resin matrix and increased both the thermal properties and the radiopacity of the polyethylene matrix. The FTIR showed a clear formation of calcium-phosphates, while, MTT and AlamrBlue tests demonstrated no deleterious effects on the metabolic activity of the osteoblast-like cells. BAG-reinforced polyethylene composites may be suitable as obturation materials for endodontic treatment. Since their low melting temperature, such innovative composites may be easily removed in case of root canal retreatment. Moreover, their biocompatibility and bioactivity may benefit proliferation of human osteoblast cells at the periapical area of the root.

  15. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of two root canal filling materials by MTT assay.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Hengameh; Taherian, Ali; Kerdar, Alireza N

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of two root filling materials GuttaFlow (GF) and gutta-percha (GP) on mouse fibroblasts cell line L-929. In this study there were four groups: GP and GF were considered as study groups and the other two were negative control groups. GP and GF were prepared according to manufacturer's instruction. L-929 fibroblast cells of mouse were passaged with trypsin (Merck, Germany) after elimination of freeze phase. Adequate trypsin was added to cells and they were prepared with 95% of cell vitality. After 24 h, 150,000 cells were put in each well. The cell and dimethyl methacrylate were used as negative and positive controls. Ten specimens from each group were brought into contact with the culture medium and were incubated under sterilised conditions 24 h later. The cytotoxicity of all samples was assessed by dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide test after 1 h, 24 h and 72 h. The results showed that cytotoxicity of GF was less than GP when assessed at 24 h and 72 h, but there was no significant difference at 1 h. In GF, the most and least cytotoxicity were observed at 24 h and 72 h while cytotoxicity of GP increased with time.

  16. Efficacy of Different Methods for Removing Root Canal Filling Material in Retreatment - An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mariswamy, Annapoorna Ballagere

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although success of endodontic therapy has significantly improved in the last few decades due to the introduction of novel materials and techniques, failures of endodontic therapy requiring re-treatment still comprise a significant percentage of patients requiring root canal treatment. Aim To evaluate and compare the effective removal of gutta percha and sealer, amount of apical debris extrusion and time required for gutta percha removal using various endodontic files. Materials and Methods Total 48 extracted mandibular premolars were mounted on acrylic blocks and endodontic procedure was carried out using size 40 K file and obturated using guttapercha and zinc oxide eugenol sealer. After one month storage, samples were decoronated, mounted on screw capped vials and subjected to removal of obturated material by four instruments: H files, safe sided H files, protaper universal retreatment rotary system and ultrasonic retreatment tip, grouped as 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Only 2mm of obturated material from the coronal part was removed using no. 3 Gates Glidden drill, guttapercha was softened with a drop of xylene for 2 mins for each canal and retreatment was performed. The retreatment procedure was said to be complete when no visible debris were observed on the instrument flutes. The samples split into two halves and examined under stereomicroscope, photographed, assessed using AUTOCAD software and percentage of remaining filling material in coronal, middle, apical thirds of the canal was calculated in mm2. Retreatment time was recorded in seconds and apically extruded debris was assessed by microbalance in grams for each tooth. The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Scheffe’s post hoc test through SPSS for windows (v 16.0). Results The ultrasonic retreatment tip had less percentage of residual guttapercha/sealer, shorter mean operating time and little apical extrusion with a significant difference (p<0.05) between the

  17. Assessment of diffusion of hydroxyl and calcium ions of root canal filling materials in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Marcos; Cardoso, Mariane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diffusion of hydroxyl (OH-) and calcium (Ca+2) of 2 intracanal calcium hydroxide-based medications through the root dentin and cementum of primary teeth. Forty roots were selected and a single operator instrumented the canals. The irrigation was performed with a 1% sodium hypochlorite solution, and a final irrigation used 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution. The teeth were divided into 3 groups: (1) group 1 (N=15)- thickened calcium hydroxide paste blended with propylene glycol paste; (2) group 2 (N=15)-Calen; and (3) group 3 (N=10)-no medication. Diffusion of the OH-ions was determined using a digital pH meter, and diffusion of Ca+2 ions was determined through atomic absorption spectrometry at baseline, 24 hours, 7 days, 15 days, and 30 days later. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test revealed that Group 1 achieved significantly higher pH values (P<.01), followed by Groups 2 and 3. There was a statistically significant difference between groups (P<.01) in the amount of Ca+2 ions released; group 1 had the highest diffusion values, followed by group 2, both with peak diffusion at 7 days. Thickened calcium hydroxide paste blended with propylene glycol paste achieved the greatest diffusion of hydroxyl and calcium through the dentin and cementum of primary teeth.

  18. Efficacy of Different Methods for Removing Root Canal Filling Material in Retreatment - An In-vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Kasam, Swetha; Mariswamy, Annapoorna Ballagere

    2016-06-01

    Although success of endodontic therapy has significantly improved in the last few decades due to the introduction of novel materials and techniques, failures of endodontic therapy requiring re-treatment still comprise a significant percentage of patients requiring root canal treatment. To evaluate and compare the effective removal of gutta percha and sealer, amount of apical debris extrusion and time required for gutta percha removal using various endodontic files. Total 48 extracted mandibular premolars were mounted on acrylic blocks and endodontic procedure was carried out using size 40 K file and obturated using guttapercha and zinc oxide eugenol sealer. After one month storage, samples were decoronated, mounted on screw capped vials and subjected to removal of obturated material by four instruments: H files, safe sided H files, protaper universal retreatment rotary system and ultrasonic retreatment tip, grouped as 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Only 2mm of obturated material from the coronal part was removed using no. 3 Gates Glidden drill, guttapercha was softened with a drop of xylene for 2 mins for each canal and retreatment was performed. The retreatment procedure was said to be complete when no visible debris were observed on the instrument flutes. The samples split into two halves and examined under stereomicroscope, photographed, assessed using AUTOCAD software and percentage of remaining filling material in coronal, middle, apical thirds of the canal was calculated in mm(2). Retreatment time was recorded in seconds and apically extruded debris was assessed by microbalance in grams for each tooth. The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test through SPSS for windows (v 16.0). The ultrasonic retreatment tip had less percentage of residual guttapercha/sealer, shorter mean operating time and little apical extrusion with a significant difference (p<0.05) between the other groups. All techniques retained guttapercha

  19. Microleakage of root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Fogel, H M; Peikoff, M D

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of various root-end filling materials using a fluid filtration system. Sixty extracted human single-rooted teeth were used. The crowns were removed, the canals prepared, and root-end fillings placed. The samples were divided into two control and five experimental groups. The root-end filling materials tested were: amalgam, Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), a dentin-bonded resin, Super-EBA, and mineral trioxide aggregate. The results showed that amalgam root-end fillings demonstrated significantly more microleakage than Super-EBA, dentin-bonded resin, or mineral trioxide aggregate. There was no significant difference between amalgam and IRM. However IRM was also not significantly different from the other three groups. There were no significant differences between the other three groups.

  20. Susceptibility of a polycaprolactone-based root canal filling material to degradation. I. Alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H; Williams, M Chad; Raina, Rakesh; Loushine, Robert J; Weller, R Norman; Kimbrough, W Frank; King, Nigel M

    2005-08-01

    Polycaprolactone, a thermoplastic aliphatic polyester, is reportedly susceptible to both alkaline and enzymatic hydrolyzes. This screening study examined the susceptibility of Resilon, a polycaprolactone-based root filling composite, to alkaline hydrolysis. There were 15-mm diameter disks of Resilon and Obtura gutta-percha prepared by compressive molding and immersed in 20% sodium ethoxide for 20 or 60 min. Control disks were immersed in ethanol for 60 min. These disks were examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. For Resilon, the surface resinous component was hydrolyzed after 20 min of sodium ethoxide immersion, exposing the spherulitic polymer structure and subsurface glass and bismuth oxychloride fillers. More severe erosion occurred after 60 min of sodium ethoxide treatment. Gutta-percha was unaffected after immersion in sodium ethoxide. As Resilon is susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis, it is possible that enzymatic hydrolysis may occur. Biodegradation of Resilon by bacterial/salivary enzymes and endodontically relevant bacteria warrants further investigation.

  1. Effectiveness of the ProTaper Next and Reciproc Systems in Removing Root Canal Filling Material with Sonic or Ultrasonic Irrigation: A Micro-computed Tomographic Study.

    PubMed

    Martins, Milena Perraro; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Kato, Augusto Shoji; da Silveira Bueno, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) systems in removing filling material from oval root canals using sonic or ultrasonic irrigation as additional cleaning methods. Thirty-two human extracted mandibular premolars with oval canals were prepared using the ProTaper Universal system (Dentsply Maillefer) up to instrument F4 (40/.06) and then filled by the single-cone technique using Endofill sealer (Dentsply Maillefer). The teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 8) according to the instrumentation system and the additional cleaning method as follows: Reciproc 40 with ultrasonic activation, Reciproc 40 with sonic agitation, ProTaper Next (X2, X3, and X4) with ultrasonic activation, and ProTaper Next (X2, X3, and X4) with sonic agitation. All specimens were analyzed using micro-computed tomographic imaging before and after removal of the filling material and also after applying the additional cleaning methods. The data, in mm(3) of remaining filling material, were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn, and Mann-Whitney tests. None of the retreatment protocols completely removed the filling material from the root canals, and there was no significant difference between the instrumentation systems or between root thirds assessed in terms of the average volume of remaining filling material (P > .05). Likewise, no significant difference was observed between the additional cleaning methods in any of the root canal thirds assessed (P > .05). The ProTaper Next and Reciproc systems were equivalent with respect to effectiveness in removing filling material regardless of the additional cleaning method used. The additional cleaning methods were also equivalent and did not improve the removal of filling material significantly. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Different Root Canal Filling Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gambarini, Gianluca; Testarelli, Luca; Al-Sudani, Dina; Plotino, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola M; Lupi, Alessandro; Giardina, Bruno; Nocca, Giuseppina; De Luca, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Real Seal 1 compared to other commercially available endodontic filling materials: Real Seal (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) and Thermafil (Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK, USA). Material and Methods: Periodontal ligament cells from healthy patients were cultured. The eluate of Real Seal 1TM (RS1), Real Seal (RS) and Thermafil (TF) samples was used for the cells viability tests, both diluted (50%) or undiluted (100%). Incubation of the specimens was performed in culture medium for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h at 37 °C under sterile conditions. The cellular mortality was evaluated by MTT test. Results were statistically analysed and the statistical significance was set at p< 0.05. Results: None of the studied materials showed toxic effects during the period of observation (0 -72 h) when compared to the control group. Only RS induced a very modest increase in cell mortality (about 3% at both concentrations used, during the first 24 hours), when increasing the incubation time, however, only the lower concentration continued to show modest toxicity. Conclusions: Results of the present study showed that all tested materials did not exhibit cytotoxic effects when compared to the control group. PMID:21566693

  3. In vitro Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Different Root Canal Filling Materials.

    PubMed

    Gambarini, Gianluca; Testarelli, Luca; Al-Sudani, Dina; Plotino, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola M; Lupi, Alessandro; Giardina, Bruno; Nocca, Giuseppina; De Luca, Massimo

    2011-03-16

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Real Seal 1 compared to other commercially available endodontic filling materials: Real Seal (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) and Thermafil (Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK, USA). Periodontal ligament cells from healthy patients were cultured. The eluate of Real Seal 1(TM) (RS1), Real Seal (RS) and Thermafil (TF) samples was used for the cells viability tests, both diluted (50%) or undiluted (100%). Incubation of the specimens was performed in culture medium for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h at 37 °C under sterile conditions. The cellular mortality was evaluated by MTT test. Results were statistically analysed and the statistical significance was set at p< 0.05. None of the studied materials showed toxic effects during the period of observation (0 -72 h) when compared to the control group. Only RS induced a very modest increase in cell mortality (about 3% at both concentrations used, during the first 24 hours), when increasing the incubation time, however, only the lower concentration continued to show modest toxicity. Results of the present study showed that all tested materials did not exhibit cytotoxic effects when compared to the control group.

  4. Development of an antibacterial root canal filling system containing MDPB.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, R; Kitagawa, H; Izutani, N; Hirose, N; Hayashi, M; Imazato, S

    2014-12-01

    An antibacterial monomer 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinum bromide (MDPB)-containing experimental, chemically cured primer was prepared to develop a new resin-based root canal filling system. This study investigated the antibacterial effects of the MDPB-containing primer (experimental primer [EP]) against Enterococcus faecalis and assessed the in vitro bonding and sealing abilities of the filling system, consisting of EP and a Bis-GMA-based sealer resin. Antibacterial effects of EP were evaluated by contact with planktonic or adherent bacteria for 30 or 60 sec, and the viable bacterial number was counted. The antibacterial effects against E. faecalis in dentinal tubules were also assessed, according to a root canal infection model. Bonding and sealing abilities of the experimental filling system were examined by microtensile bond strength tests and leakage tests based on fluid filtration methods. Significantly greater reduction in viable bacteria in planktonic and adherent form was obtained by short-period contact with EP compared with the control primer (without MDPB) or with the proprietary (Epiphany) primer (p < .05). Significantly greater bactericidal effects of the EP inside the dentinal tubule of root, as opposed to the control primer or Epiphany primer, were confirmed according to a root canal infection model (p < .05), and 100% killing of E. faecalis could be obtained by the application of EP after irrigation with a 5% sodium hypochlorite solution. The experimental endodontic filling system demonstrated significantly greater bond strength to root dentin than Epiphany sealer system (Epiphany primer and Epiphany Root Canal Sealant; p < .05), showing formation of resin tags and a hybridized layer. Leakage tests clarified that the experimental system provided excellent sealing. This study confirmed that the MDPB-containing experimental antibacterial primer has the ability to effectively disinfect the root canal. Additionally, the experimental root canal

  5. Antibacterial effect of silver-zeolite containing root-canal filling material.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Cağdaş; Ulusu, Tezer; Ozçelik, Berrin; Karamüftüoğlu, Nevra; Yücel, Hayrettin

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antibacterial effect of two experimental glass ionomer cements (GICs) on Streptococcus milleri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis after 24 and 48 h incubation by using the agar diffusion inhibitory test. Silver zeolite (SZ) was added at 0.2 and 2% mass fraction concentration to GIC (Endion). The control group was Endion with no SZ. Each of them were prepared to uniform size using a custom-made Teflon mold, and the GIC materials were prepared to form disks (n = 5 per group). The effect of these materials on the growth of three bacteria associated with endodontic infections was determined using the agar diffusion inhibitory test. The amounts of silver ion release from these materials were measured with atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 10 min, 24- and 48-h periods. The pH of samples was measured with a pH-meter at 10 min, 24- and 48-h periods. After the incubation period, the agar plates were evaluated and the degrees of bacterial inhibition were measured in millimeters. A comparison of the mean of the test materials was statistically different in each group of specimens (p < 0.05). Between the two tested materials 2% SZ containing GIC showed the largest zone of inhibition on the agar plates of all the tested strains (p < 0.05). The most inhibition in bacterial growth occurred in E. faecalis. Adding 2% SZ to GIC resulted in a significant increase in the silver release into deionized water. This study demonstrated that GIC had an inhibitory affect on Streptococcus milleri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis and that adding SZ increases that affect proportional to its concentration.

  6. [Microleakage of root canal fillings with GuttaFlow and Resilon compared with lateral condensation].

    PubMed

    Kqiku, Lumnije; Miletic, Ivana; Gruber, Hans Jürgen; Anic, Ivica; Städtler, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Epiphany/Resilon and GuttaFlow are newly developed methods for obturation of the root canal system. Epiphany/Resilon is a thermoplastic, synthetic polymer-based root canal filling material which enables the bonding to the dentin root canal wall during root canal obturation. GuttaFlow is a cold flowable filling system for the obturation of root canals, combining sealer and gutta-percha in one product. The purpose of this study was to assess the leakage of the Epiphany/Resilon or GuttaFlow root canal filling compared with lateral condensation of gutta-percha. For this study were used 45 human extracted teeth, chemo mechanically prepared, divided into three groups and obturated with gutta-percha/AH Plus, Epiphany/Resilon and GuttaFlow. For dye penetration all teeth were centrifuged for three minutes at 30 g in 2% methylene blue and dissolved in 65% nitric acid for 3 days. The extracted methylene blue was determined with Photometer. Root Canal fillings with Epiphany/Resilon showed less dye penetration than lateral condensation of gutta-percha and GuttaFlow. Epiphany/Resilon is ideally suited as a root canal filling material.

  7. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of various root canal filling materials used in primary teeth: a microbiological study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S; Ramakrishna, Y

    2007-01-01

    The primary goal of endodontic treatment in primary teeth is to eliminate infection, and to retain the tooth in a functional state until their nornal exfoliation time without endangering the permanent dentition or the general health of the child. The complexity of the pulp canal system in primary teeth presents a discerning problem for chemo-mechanical preparation. One of the factors determining the success of endodontic treatment in infected primary teeth is the sealing material that should encompass among other factors a potent bactericidal effect and the capacity to resorb along with the roots of primary teeth. This study evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness of 5 root canal filing materials and a negative control agent against 23 strains of bacteria isolated from infected root canals of primary molar teeth and 3 non standard bacterial strains using agar diffusion assay. The materials were Zinc oxide and Eugenol (ZOE), Zinc oxide-Eugenol and Formocresol (ZOE+FC), Calcium hydroxide and sterile water (CAOH+H2O), Zinc oxide and Camphorated phenol (ZO+CP), Calcium hydroxide and Iodoform (Metapex) and Vaseline (Control). All the materials except Vaseline showed varied antimicrobial activity against the test bacteria. The zones of inhibition were ranked into 4 inhibition categories based on the proportional distribution of the data. All the 26 bacterial isolates were classified under 4 groups based on Aerobic/Anaerobic and Gram positive/Gram negative. Statistical analysis was carried out to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness between materials tested with each of the bacterial groupings. ZOE+FC produced strong inhibtion against most bacteria when compared to ZOE, ZO+CP and CAOH+H2O. Metapex and Vaseline were found to be non inhibitory

  8. A micro-computed tomography assessment of the efficacy of rotary and reciprocating techniques for filling material removal in root canal retreatment.

    PubMed

    Monguilhott Crozeta, Bruno; Damião de Sousa-Neto, Manoel; Bianchi Leoni, Graziela; Francisco Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel; Terezinha Corrêa Silva-Sousa, Yara; Baratto-Filho, Flares

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of rotary and reciprocating techniques for removing filling material from root canals, using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging. The distal root canals of 42 human mandibular molars were instrumented with hand files up to size 40 according to a step-down technique and obturated with gutta-percha and an epoxy resin-based sealer using Tagger's hybrid technique. Teeth were divided into six groups (n = 7) according to the instruments used for removal of filling material: group PTUR (Protaper Universal Retreatment), group W40 (WaveOne 40.08), group R40 (Reciproc 40.06), group R50 (Reciproc 50.05), group W25/W40 (WaveOne 25.08/40.08), and group R25/R40/R50 (Reciproc 25.08/40.06/50.05). Teeth were scanned with a micro-CT device before and after use of the instruments to calculate the percentage of remaining filling material. Data were compared using one-way ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test at 5 % significance level. The mean percentage of remaining filling material was significantly lower when canals were retreated with the set of instruments R25/R40/R50 and single instruments W40 and R50 compared with the set of instruments W25/W40 (P < 0.05), which promoted material compaction in the apical region. None of the retreatment techniques removed the root fillings completely. PTUR instruments performed equally effective regarding filling removal compared with W40, R40, R50, W25/W40, and R25/R40/R50. For WaveOne, the use of a single instrument (size 40, taper 0.08) was more effective in removing filling material, while for Reciproc showed similar cleaning ability using single instrument or combination of instruments. The results of this in vitro study provide consistent information on filling material removal capacity of mechanized systems during retreatment at the different root canal thirds.

  9. Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials: recent update

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Newaskar, Vilas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of a root-end filling is to establish a seal between the root canal space and the periradicular tissues. As root-end filling materials come into contact with periradicular tissues, knowledge of the tissue response is crucial. Almost every available dental restorative material has been suggested as the root-end material of choice at a certain point in the past. This literature review on root-end filling materials will evaluate and comparatively analyse the biocompatibility and tissue response to these products, with primary focus on newly introduced materials. PMID:24010077

  10. Susceptibility of a polycaprolactone-based root canal filling material to degradation using an agar-well diffusion assay

    PubMed Central

    Hiraishi, Noriko; Sadek, Fernanda T.; King, Nigel M.; Ferrari, Marco; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cholesterol esterase is both a component of salivary hydrolases as well as an inflammatory cell-derived enzyme and has been shown to cause biodegradation of methacrylate-based resin composites. This study examined whether Resilon, a polycaprolactone-based thermoplastic root filling material is susceptible to biodegradation by cholesterol esterase using agar-well diffusion assay of serially-diluted aqueous Resilon emulsions that were dispersed in agar. Materials and methods Emulsions of Resilon and polycaprolactone were prepared and dispersed in agar on culture plates. Two different concentrations of a cholesterol esterase (0.3 and 1.2 U/mL) were prepared and fed to wells prepared in the agar plates using an agar-well diffusion assay for examination the degradation of polymeric materials. Results Degradation of the emulsified Resilon was manifested as the formation of clear zones of different sizes around the agar wells. No clear zones were observed in agar wells that contain sterile distilled water as the negative control. Clinical significance Although dispersion Resilon into an emulsion is not the way in which this material is employed as a root filling material, the potential for Resilon to be degraded by cholesterol esterase is of potential concern as one cannot limit the degradation of extruded Resilon from a root apex by monocyte-derived macrophages to just the anatomical root apex. As the present study employed a high concentration of cholesterol esterase, further studies should be directed to examining the degradation of Resilon using macrophage cell cultures. PMID:18578181

  11. An in-vitro comparative study for assessment of apical sealing ability of Epiphany/AH Plus sealer with Resilon/gutta-percha root canal filling materials

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Meraj; Musani, Mohammad A.; Ahmed, Iffat M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Endodontic treatment is directed to eliminate microbial challenges from the root canal system and to create a complete seal. The aim of this study was to assess the apical sealing ability of resin-based Epiphany-Resilon root canal filling system and to compare it with the sealing abilities of different combinations of AH Plus, gutta-percha, Epiphany, and Resilon. Materials and Methods: One hundred extracted human maxillary incisor roots were treated endodontically. The samples were divided into groups A, B, C, and D, with each group containing 25 samples. Group A: Canals obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer; Group B: Canals obturated with Resilon and Epiphany; Group C: Canals obturated with gutta-percha and Epiphany; Group D: Control group canals obturated with gutta-percha without a sealer. The sealing ability of each of the obturation techniques was tested using the dye penetration method followed by the clearing method using alcohol. Stereo microscope was used to measure the extent of dye penetration. Statistical data analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Tukey tests. Results: Microleakage was found in all the four groups. Apical extent of mean microleakage was maximum for gutta-percha, followed by Gutta-percha + AH-plus and Gutta-percha + Epiphany, and the least with Resilon + Epiphany. Statistically significant difference (P < 0.01) was seen in the apical leakage. Conclusion: All the samples tested showed microleakage. The “Epiphany soft resin endodontic obturation system” showed a superior result compared to other obturation materials. PMID:27583220

  12. Effectiveness of ProTaper, D-RaCe, and Mtwo retreatment files with and without supplementary instruments in the removal of root canal filling material.

    PubMed

    Marques da Silva, B; Baratto-Filho, F; Leonardi, D P; Henrique Borges, A; Volpato, L; Branco Barletta, F

    2012-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of different retreatment rotary files in removing gutta-percha and endodontic sealer from canals. Ninety straight single-rooted premolars were prepared up to a size 30 and filled with gutta-percha and sealer and then randomly assigned to six retreatment groups (n = 15). Groups I, III, and V were retreated using rotary systems ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTUR), D-RaCe, and Mtwo Retreatment, respectively. Groups II, IV, and VI were retreated using the additional instruments F4, size 40, .04 taper RaCe, and size 40, .04 taper Mtwo, respectively. The roots were split vertically, and images of the halves were obtained using a high-resolution scanner and evaluated with AutoCAD software to calculate the percentage of residual material. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls tests using a 5% significance cutoff (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between groups when additional instruments were used. The percentage of residual material was lowest in the PTUR group and was statistically significant only when compared to the D-RaCe system (P = 0.0038). All root canals had residual filling material after retreatment even when additional instruments were used. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  13. Susceptibility of a polycaprolactone-based root canal filling material to degradation. II. Gravimetric evaluation of enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Yau, Joyce Y Y; Yiu-fai, Mak; Loushine, Robert J; Weller, R Norman; Kimbrough, W Frank; King, Nigel M

    2005-10-01

    Polycaprolactone is susceptible to enzymatic biodegradation via ester bond cleavage. This study examined the susceptibility of Resilon, a polycaprolactone-based root filling material to enzymatic hydrolysis. Resilon, gutta-percha, and polycaprolactone disks, prepared by compression molding, were incubated in phosphate-buffered saline, lipase PS or cholesterol esterase at 37 degrees C for 96 h. They were retrieved at different time intervals for gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The materials exhibited slight weight gains when incubated in phosphate-buffered saline that can be attributed to water sorption. Gutta-percha showed similar weight gains in the two enzymes. Conversely, Resilon and polycaprolactone exhibited extensive surface thinning and weight losses after incubation in lipase PS and cholesterol esterase. Glass filler particles in Resilon were exposed following surface dissolution of the polymer matrix, creating rough surface topography. Biodegradation of Resilon by bacterial and salivary enzymes warrants further investigation of their activities using cultures of endodontically relevant microbes and human saliva extracts.

  14. Incidence of accessory canals in Japanese anterior maxillary teeth following root canal filling ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Adorno, C G; Yoshioka, T; Suda, H

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution and the incidence of accessory canals in Japanese maxillary anterior teeth following root filling. The study included maxillary teeth; 69 central incisors, 61 lateral incisors and 31 canines. After the canal systems had been dyed and root canal instrumentation had been carried out, all prepared canals were filled with gutta-percha without using sealer. Transparent specimens were then obtained and examined with a digital microscope for horizontal and vertical distributions of accessory canals. The incidence of teeth with accessory canals in the apical 3 mm was 46%, 29% and 38% for the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively. The horizontal distribution was mainly buccal for central incisors, palatal for lateral incisors and distal and palatal for canines. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the apical 3 mm and the rest of the root (16%, 20% and 19% for the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively) in terms of the presence of accessory canals. A high percentage of accessory canals can be found in apical 3 mm of the root. The horizontal distribution of accessory canals differed amongst the tooth types studied.

  15. Porosity distribution in root canals filled with gutta percha and calcium silicate cement.

    PubMed

    Moinzadeh, Amir T; Zerbst, Wilhelm; Boutsioukis, Christos; Shemesh, Hagay; Zaslansky, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Gutta percha is commonly used in conjunction with a sealer to produce a fluid-tight seal within the root canal fillings. One of the most commonly used filling methods is lateral compaction of gutta percha coupled with a sealer such as calcium silicate cement. However, this technique may result in voids and worse, the filling procedures may damage the root. We compared the volume of the voids associated with two root canal filling methods, namely lateral compaction and single cone. Micro-computed tomography was used to assess the porosity associated with each method in vitro. An automated, observer-independent analysis protocol was used to quantify the unfilled regions and the porosity located in the sealer surrounding the gutta percha. Significantly less porosity was observed in root canals filled with the single cone technique (0.445% versus 3.095%, p<0.001). Porosity near the crown of the tooth was reduced 6 fold, whereas in the mid root region porosity was reduced to less than 10% of values found in the lateral compaction filled teeth. Our findings suggest that changing the method used to place the endodontic biomaterials improves the quality and homogeneity of root canal fillings. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of various root canal filling materials along with aloevera used in primary teeth: a microbiological study.

    PubMed

    Kriplani, R; Thosar, N; Baliga, M S; Kulkarni, P; Shah, N; Yeluri, R

    2013-01-01

    this study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of 6 root canal filling materials and a negative control agent against 18 strains of bacteria isolated from infected root canals of primary molar teeth using agar diffusion assay. Aloevera with sterile water Zinc oxide and Eugenol, Zinc oxide-Eugenol with aloevera, Calcium hydroxide and sterile water, Calcium hydroxide with sterile water and aloevera, Calcium hydroxide and Iodoform (Metapex) and Vaseline (Control). MIC and MBC of aloevera was calculated. All materials except Vaseline showed varied antimicrobial activity against the test bacterias. The zones of inhibition were ranked into 4 inhibition categories based on the proportional distribution of the data. All the 18 bacterial isolates were classified under 2 groups based on Gram positive and Gram negative aerobes. Statistical analysis was carried out to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness between materials tested with each of the bacterial groupings. Aloevera + Sterile Water was found to have superior antimicrobial activity against most of the microorganisms followed by ZOE + Aloevera, calcium hydroxide + Aloevera, ZOE, calcium hydroxide, Metapex in the descending order and Vaseline showed no inhibition.

  17. Effect of dowel space preparation on the apical seal of root canal fillings.

    PubMed

    Raiden, G C; Gendelman, H

    1994-06-01

    The effect of post preparation on the apical seal was studied using simulated root canals. The maximum level of removal was tested with residual fillings 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm long. All of the artificial canals were filled with gutta-percha, Grossman's sealer, and lateral condensation. The removal was immediate and carried out with warm pluggers and the dowel space was completed with a Peeso drill. Stainless steel posts were cemented with zinc phosphate cement in the free space of the root canals. The coronal access of the canals was sealed with temporary fillings. After setting the materials, the specimens were immersed in a 2% methylene blue dye solution for 72 h and were observed with a measuring microscope. The final length of the apical fillings was found to be different from the intended length in every group. As far as leakage was concerned, 1, 2, and 3 mm-long fillings did not show a significant difference when compared with the negative control group (that is to say, filled canals where no dowel space was created). In the 4 mm fillings the leakage value was zero. These findings may be of clinical importance when restoring short roots.

  18. Radiographic Evaluation of Root Canal Fillings Accomplished by Undergraduate Dental Students

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Hamidreza; Samiei, Mohammad; Shahi, Shahriar; Borna, Zahra; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan; Ghiasvand, Negar; Shariati, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic quality of root canal fillings by fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year undergraduate students at Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry between 2006 and 2012. Methods and Materials: A total of 1183 root canal fillings in 620 teeth were evaluated by two investigators (and in case of disagreement by a third investigator) regarding the presence or absence of under-fillings, over-fillings and perforations. For each tooth, preoperative, working and postoperative radiographs were checked. The Pearson’s chi-square test was used for statistical evaluation of the data. Inter-examiner agreement was measured by Cohen’s kappa (k) values. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Total frequencies of over-filling, under-filling and perforation were 5.6%, 20.4% and 1.9%, respectively. There were significant differences between frequencies of over- and under-fillings (P<0.05). Unacceptable quality, under- and over-fillings were detected in 27.9% of 1183 evaluated canals. Conclusion: The technical quality of root canal therapies performed by undergraduate dental students using step-back preparation and lateral compaction techniques was unacceptable in almost one-fourth of the cases. PMID:25834598

  19. Antibacterial activity of root canal filling materials for primary teeth: zinc oxide and eugenol cement, Calen paste thickened with zinc oxide, Sealapex and EndoREZ.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino de; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da; Assed, Sada; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Ito, Izabel Yoko

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated in vitro the antibacterial activity of 4 root canal filling materials for primary teeth - zinc oxide and eugenol cement (ZOE), Calen paste thickened with zinc oxide (Calen/ZO), Sealapex sealer and EndoREZ sealer - against 5 bacterial strains commonly found in endodontic infections (Kocuria rhizophila, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) using the agar diffusion test (agar-well technique). Calen paste, 1% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and distilled water served as controls. Seven wells per dish were made at equidistant points and immediately filled with the test and control materials. After incubation of the plates at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the diameter of the zones of bacterial growth inhibition produced around the wells was measured (in mm) with a digital caliper under reflected light. Data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test (alpha=0.05). There were statistically significant differences (p<0.0001) among the zones of bacterial growth inhibition produced by the different materials against all target microorganisms. K. rhizophila was inhibited more effectively (p<0.05) by ZOE, while Calen/ZO had its highest antibacterial activity against E. faecalis (p<0.05). S. mutans was inhibited by Calen/ZO, Sealapex and ZOE in the same intensity (p>0.05). E. coli was inhibited more effectively (p<0.05) by ZOE, followed by Calen/ZO and Sealapex. Calen/ZO and ZOE were equally effective (p>0.05) against S. aureus, while Sealapex had the lowest antibacterial efficacy (p<0.05) against this microorganism. EndoREZ presented antibacterial activity only against K. rhizophila and S. aureus. The Calen paste and Calen/ZO produced larger zones of inhibition than 1% CHX when the marker microorganism was E faecalis. In conclusion, the in vitro antibacterial activity of the 4 root canal filling materials for primary teeth against bacterial strains commonly found in endodontic

  20. Eighteen-month clinical and radiographic evaluation of two root canal-filling materials in primary teeth with pulp necrosis secondary to trauma.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Daniela Nunes; de Sousa, Denise Lins; Araújo, Rebecca Bastos Rocha; Moreira-Neto, José Jeová Siebra

    2011-06-01

    This study compared clinically and radiographically the use of zinc oxide and eugenol cement (ZOE) and a commercial calcium hydroxide and polyethylene glycol-based paste (Calen(®) ) thickened with zinc oxide as root canal-filling materials for primary teeth with pulp necrosis secondary to trauma within 18months of follow up. Eligible patients of both genders aged 2years and 6months to 5years and 10months who had been referred for dental treatment at a pediatric dental trauma service and presented at least one anterior primary tooth (central and/or lateral incisor) with pulp necrosis secondary to traumatic injury were selected. Twenty-six children (n=31 teeth) with mean age of 3.4years met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled after parental written consent. The root canals were instrumented and filled with either ZOE (group I; n=15 teeth) or Calen(®) paste [composition: 2.5g calcium hydroxide, 0.5g zinc oxide, 0.05g colophony, and 1.75ml polyethylene glycol 400 (vehicle)] thickened with zinc oxide (Calen(®) /ZO; group II; n=16 teeth). ZO was added to the Calen(®) paste for slowing paste resorption, which should ideally occur simultaneously with the physiologic resorption of primary tooth roots. Clinical success after 18months of follow up was considered as absence of pain, tooth mobility or fistula, and radiographic success as the partial or total remission of apical periodontitis, absence of pathological root resorption or presence of new bone formation. Eighteen months after treatment, the teeth obturated with ZOE and Calen(®) /ZO presented statistically similar (Fisher's exact test; P >0.05) success rates of 93.3% and 87.5%, respectively. Our results showed the clinical and radiographic outcomes for Calen(®) /ZO to be equal to those for ZOE after 18months, suggesting that both materials can be indicated for obturating primary teeth with pulp necrosis after trauma. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Solubility evaluation of different root canal sealing materials.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Emre; Dalat, Dilek; Bayram, Melike

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the solubility of five different root canal sealers (AH Plus Jet, RealSeal SE, MTA Fillapex, Tubli-Seal, and Acroseal) in chloroform, eucalyptol and Endosolv-E solvents. Ninety root canal sealer samples were prepared and then divided into three groups for immersion in a solvent for 2, 5 or 10 minutes. The mean values of the root canal sealers' dissolution in the solvents were obtained by the difference between the preimmersion original weight and the post-immersion weight on a digital analytical scale. Data were statistically analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis test with a Bonferroni correction. Chloroform was a more effective solvent than eucaly-ptol or Endosolv E for all root canal sealers, except for RealSeal SE, at all time points (p < 0.003). RealSeal SE was the least soluble sealer in all solvents at all time points. Chloroform demonstrated a superior ability over other solvents in dissolving canal sealing materials, and eucaly-ptol was found to be the least effective solvent in this study. This study can help to the clinicians about which solvent should be preferred for solving the filling materials in retreatment cases.

  2. [Effect of root canal filling with warm vertical condensation under dental operating microscope].

    PubMed

    Xue, Ming; Zhan, Fu-liang; Yu, Jing-tao; Qiu, Li-hong

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of root canal filling with warm vertical condensation with or without dental operating microscope. Fifty maxillary anterior teeth with single, straight canals were divided into two groups. Each tooth was instrumented by X-Smart rotary nickel-titanium files to a master file 0.06 taper F3, root canal in the group 1 was obturated with warm vertical condensation using system B for downpack and Obtura II for backfilling without dental operating microscope; root canal in the group 2 was obturated using the same methods under the dental operating microscope. The effect of quality of root canal filling was evaluated by X-ray radiograph post-operatively and after two years of treatment. SPSS10.0 software package was used for Chi-square test. Significant difference was found between the two groups on the quality of root canal filling post-operatively (P < 0.05),with better quality of root canal filling in the group using dental operating microscope, no significant difference was found between the two groups after two years (P > 0.05). Warm vertical condensation under the dental operating microscope is a good method for root canal filling. It may improve the quality of root canal filling effectively, and therefore, worthy of clinical application.

  3. A high-resolution computed tomographic study of changes in root canal isthmus area by instrumentation and root filling.

    PubMed

    Endal, Unni; Shen, Ya; Knut, Arving; Gao, Yuan; Haapasalo, Markus

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a three-dimensional analysis of the isthmus area of the mesiobuccal root canal system in mandibular molars using high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) scanning and to measure the amount of debris and root filling material in the isthmus after instrumentation/irrigation and root filling. Mandibular molars with two separated mesial root canals (10 teeth) were scanned by using the Skyscan 1172 μ-CT system (Skyscan, Aartselaar, Belgium) before and after instrumentation and after filling using the Thermafil root filling technique. An isthmus was defined as the ribbon-shaped or thin connecting structure between two root canals after instrumentation. The characteristics of the isthmuses were quantitatively monitored during the whole treatment. The images were segmented and quantified. The surface area of the isthmus, volume of debris after rotary instrumentation, and volume of the filled space in the isthmus after obturation were evaluated. Of the seven mesial roots, two had isthmus/anastomoses somewhere along its length in the apical 5 mm, and five had an isthmus that was continuous all the way from the coronal part to the apical part. The average percentage of isthmus surface area and isthmus volume after instrumentation was 21.4% and 9.4% of the whole root canal system, respectively. About 35.2% of the isthmus volume was filled with apparent hard tissue debris after instrumentation/irrigation. The average percentage of volume of filling material in the isthmus areas was significantly lower (57.5%) than in the main root canals (98.5%, p < 0.001). A considerable amount of dentin debris is produced and packed into the isthmus area during rotary instrumentation of mesial canals of lower molars despite continuous irrigation during and after instrumentation. The debris may partly prevent penetration of the filling material and sealer into the isthmus area. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by

  4. Radiographic quality of root canal fillings performed in a postgraduate program in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Santos, Suelleng Maria Cunha; Soares, Janir Alves; César, Carlos Augusto Santos; Brito-Júnior, Manoel; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira; Magalhães, Cláudia Silami de

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the standard quality of 1,347 root fillings performed by postgraduate students in Endodontics according to 3 radiographic quality parameters. The analyzed quality parameters included apical extension (AE), taper (TA) and homogeneity (HO), which received scores S2 (ideal standard), S1 (slight deviation) or S0 (accentuated deviation). A perfect filling (PF) received S2 for all parameters. In the absence of one or two S2 score, the fillings were deemed as satisfactory (SF) or deficient (DF), respectively. The results showed 51.7%, 41.5% and 6.8% of PF, SF, and DF, respectively. AE, TA, and HO presented equivalent quality parameters in root-filled canals of mandibular incisors and mandibular premolars (p>0.05). Conversely, in maxillary incisors, canines and distal root of mandibular molars, significant differences (p<0.05) were found between 2 parameters. Besides, there were significant differences (p<0.05) among the measured parameters in root-filled canals of maxillary premolars, all root canals of the maxillary molars and mesial root of the mandibular molars. AE showed the lowest frequency of S2 score for all groups. In conclusion the prevalence of perfect, satisfactory and deficient fillings varied significantly according to the root canal group. The quality parameters categorized fillings in 3 complexity degrees. AE was the most critical parameter of quality in root canal fillings.

  5. A laboratory comparison of apical leakage between immediate versus delayed post space preparation in root canals filled with Resilon.

    PubMed

    Attam, K; Talwar, S

    2010-09-01

    To analyse ex vivo the integrity of the apical seal of Resilon root fillings following immediate post space preparation or after 1 week when leaving either 5 mm or 3 mm of remaining filling material. One hundred and fifty freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth with single, straight root canals were used. Teeth were autoclaved and cleaned of debris and soft tissue. After decoronation at 16 mm length, the root canals were instrumented using the K3 rotary system to apical file size 45, 0.04 taper with intermittent irrigation using 1% sodium hypochlorite. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups with 30 teeth in each group. Group 1: control group in which the root canals were not filled. Group 2: the canals were filled with Resilon and a post space prepared immediately leaving 5 mm of apical filling. Group 3: the canals were filled and post space preparation delayed for 1 week leaving 5 mm of material apically. Group 4: post space preparation in the canals was initiated immediately after filling leaving 3 mm of material apically. Group 5: the root canals were filled and post space preparation was delayed for 1 week leaving 3 mm of material apically. Microleakage was evaluated using a fluid transport device. The results were analysed statistically using one-way anova followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. There was a highly significant difference amongst the groups (P < 0.001). The maximum mean leakage was observed in group 5 (141.63 x 10(-6) microL min(-1) cm(-1)) and the least microleakage in group 2 (99.87 x 10(-6) microL min(-1) cm(-1)). Immediate post space preparation was associated with less microleakage than delayed preparation when both 5 mm and 3 mm of apical filling remained. Leaving 5 mm of Resilon provided a significantly better seal compared to leaving 3 mm of material.

  6. Radiographic evaluation of the technical quality of root canal fillings performed by dental students.

    PubMed

    Rafeek, Reisha N; Smith, William A; Mankee, Melissa S; Coldero, Larry G

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate radiographically the technical quality of root canal fillings performed by dental students at the School of Dentistry, University of the West Indies. The school's database between 2000 and 2004 was investigated for patients with completed root canal treatment. The final sample consisted of 198 patients with 288 root-filled teeth and 460 canals. The length, presence of voids, taper, curvature of canal and fractured instruments were recorded and scored. Chi-squared analysis was used to determine statistically significant differences between the technical quality of root fillings and tooth type. Sixty-three per cent, 27.6% and 72.2% of root-filled canals had adequate length, density and taper respectively. The overall acceptability of root fillings having adequate length and taper, absence of voids and no fractured instruments was found in 10.9% of canals. Changes in teaching methods may be required to improve the technical quality of root canal treatment done by dental students. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  7. Evaluation of debris extruded apically during the removal of root canal filling material using ProTaper, D-RaCe, and R-Endo rotary nickel-titanium retreatment instruments and hand files.

    PubMed

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Aktı, Ahmet; Tuncay, Öznur; Dinçer, Asiye Nur; Düzgün, Salih; Topçuoğlu, Gamze

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of debris extruded apically during the removal of root canal filling material using ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), D-RaCe (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), and R-Endo (Micro-Mega, Besançon, France) nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary retreatment instruments and hand files. Sixty extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were prepared with K-files and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany). The teeth were then randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 15 for each group) for retreatment. The removal of canal filling material was performed as follows: hand files, ProTaper, D-RaCe, and R-Endo retreatment instruments. Debris extruded apically during the removal of canal filling material was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the preretreatment and postretreatment weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data obtained were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. All retreatment techniques caused the apical extrusion of debris. Hand files produced significantly more debris when compared with ProTaper, D-RaCe, and R-Endo rotary systems (P < .05). There was no statistical difference between the ProTaper, D-RaCe, and R-Endo retreatment systems (P > .05). The findings showed that during the removal of root canal filling material, rotary NiTi retreatment instruments used in this study caused less apical extrusion of debris compared with hand files. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A preliminary analysis of the morphology of lateral canals after root canal filling using a tooth-clearing technique.

    PubMed

    Venturi, M; Prati, C; Capelli, G; Falconi, M; Breschi, L

    2003-01-01

    This study used a modified tooth-clearing technique to allow observation of accessory canals following filling with a warm gutta-percha technique and one of two endodontic cements. Ten extracted human maxillary molars with three roots were selected and divided into two equal groups of five teeth. Each group had 15 canals. Root canal preparation was performed with a modified double flared technique; irrigation with 5% NaOCl and lubrication with RC-Prep were used. The canals were then filled with gutta-percha and cement utilizing a warm vertical condensation technique in the apical third followed by thermo-mechanical compaction in the middle and coronal thirds. Pulp Canal Sealer or AH-Plus were used in the experimental groups. The teeth were demineralized with a modified buffered acid solution, cleared in methylsalicylate and examined under a stereomicroscope. Accessory canals were evaluated in the apical, middle and coronal thirds of each root canal and categorized as narrow or wide, following observation on four surfaces. The depth of penetration of gutta-percha and cement into lateral canals was scored using a 5-point system. Complete transparency of the roots was achieved. Accessory canals were detected in all specimens. In coronal ramifications, gutta-percha filled the empty spaces (coronal thirds, grades 3 and 4: 70.9% in AH-Plus group and 68.8% in Pulp Canal Sealer group). In the apical accessory canals, gutta-percha entered less frequently (apical thirds, grades 3 and 4: 17.9% in the AH-Plus group and 3.2% in the Pulp Canal Sealer group); cement without gutta-percha (grades 1 and 2) was present in 55.5% in the AH-Plus group and 38.7% of the Pulp Canal Sealer group. Analysis showed that AH-Plus cement resulted in significantly greater filling of the apical accessory canals compared to Pulp Canal Sealer. The modified tooth-clearing technique allowed observation of fine morphological details in all specimens. Effective gutta-percha filling was evident in most of

  9. Artefacts in Cone Beam CT Mimicking an Extrapalatal Canal of Root-Filled Maxillary Molar.

    PubMed

    Camilo, Carla Cristina; Brito-Júnior, Manoel; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Quintino, Alex Carvalho; de Paula, Adrianne Freire; Cruz-Filho, Antônio Miranda; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2013-01-01

    Despite the advantages of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the images provided by this diagnostic tool can produce artifacts and compromise accurate diagnostic assessment. This paper describes an endodontic treatment of a maxillary molar where CBCT images suggested the presence of a nonexistent third root canal in the palatal root. An endodontic treatment was performed in a first maxillary molar with palatal canals, and the tooth was restored with a cast metal crown. The patient returned four years later presenting with a discomfort in chewing, which was reduced after occlusal adjustment. CBCT was prescribed to verify additional diagnostic information. Axial scans on coronal, middle, and apical palatal root sections showed images similar to a third root canal. However, sagittal scans demonstrated that these images were artifacts caused by root canal fillings. A careful interpretation of CBCT images in root-filled teeth must be done to avoid mistakes in treatment.

  10. Artefacts in Cone Beam CT Mimicking an Extrapalatal Canal of Root-Filled Maxillary Molar

    PubMed Central

    Camilo, Carla Cristina; Brito-Júnior, Manoel; Faria-e-Silva, André Luis; Quintino, Alex Carvalho; de Paula, Adrianne Freire; Cruz-Filho, Antônio Miranda; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2013-01-01

    Despite the advantages of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the images provided by this diagnostic tool can produce artifacts and compromise accurate diagnostic assessment. This paper describes an endodontic treatment of a maxillary molar where CBCT images suggested the presence of a nonexistent third root canal in the palatal root. An endodontic treatment was performed in a first maxillary molar with palatal canals, and the tooth was restored with a cast metal crown. The patient returned four years later presenting with a discomfort in chewing, which was reduced after occlusal adjustment. CBCT was prescribed to verify additional diagnostic information. Axial scans on coronal, middle, and apical palatal root sections showed images similar to a third root canal. However, sagittal scans demonstrated that these images were artifacts caused by root canal fillings. A careful interpretation of CBCT images in root-filled teeth must be done to avoid mistakes in treatment. PMID:23606995

  11. Removal of Root Canal Fillings in Curved Canals Using Either Reciprocating Single- or Rotary Multi-instrument Systems and a Supplementary Step with the XP-Endo Finisher.

    PubMed

    Alves, Flávio R F; Marceliano-Alves, Marília F; Sousa, Júlio Cézar N; Silveira, Stephanie B; Provenzano, José C; Siqueira, José F

    2016-07-01

    This study compared the efficacy of a reciprocating single-instrument system and a rotary multi-instrument system followed by a supplementary approach with a finishing instrument in removing the filling material from curved canals during retreatment. Forty mesial canals from extracted mandibular molars were instrumented and filled. Then, each mesial canal was retreated by using either Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) or Mtwo (VDW) instruments, alternating the technique used per canal from root to root. The working time was recorded, and the percentage of removed filling volume was assessed by means of micro-computed tomography imaging before and after retreatment. Canals still showing filling material remnants were subjected to an adjunctive approach with the XP-Endo Finisher (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), and another microCT scan was taken. Data were statistically analyzed with a significance level of 5%. The percentage of filling material removed with Mtwo instruments (96%) was significantly higher than Reciproc (89%) (P < .05), both used up to a final instrument size of 40. Mtwo required less time to remove the filling material than Reciproc (P < .05). Intragroup analysis in the Reciproc group showed that the R40 instrument removed significantly more filling material than R25 (P < .05). The supplementary approach with the XP-Endo Finisher was effective in significantly enhancing the removal of filling material (P < .05). The rotary multiple-instrument system was more effective and faster than the reciprocating single-instrument approach in removing previous root canal fillings. As for the Reciproc group, it was observed that the larger instrument promoted significantly better results. The adjunctive finishing instrument XP-Endo Finisher significantly improved filling material removal. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Technical quality of root canal fillings done in a Nigerian general dental clinic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous reports indicate that worldwide, the technical quality of root canal fillings is poor. There are few reports from sub-Saharan Africa and none yet from Nigeria where most patients access treatment from non-specialists especially at general dental clinics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical quality of root canal fillings done in a general dental clinic with emphasis on the effects of professional experience of the operator, whether tooth was anterior or posterior and whether it was a maxillary or mandibular tooth. Methods Retrospective study of case notes and periapical radiographs of patients with completed root canal fillings seen between 2008 and 2011. Inclusion criteria included cases of primary treatment with available case notes, good quality pre-operative and post-operative periapical radiographs. Technical quality that was assessed was root canal length and homogeneity. Root canal fillings were classified either as Good Quality Endodontic Work (GQEW) or Non- Good Quality Endodontic Work (NGQEW). Results Fifty-one patients aged between 8 and 54 years (mean 28) fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study. From these, there were 62 root filled teeth giving a ratio of 1.2 root canal filled teeth per person. There were acceptable length of root canal fillings in 71% of teeth, 58.1% were homogeneous while 53.2% were GQEW. There was no statistically significant difference in whether tooth was root filled by junior or senior dentist (p = 0.43), anterior or posterior (p = 0.11). There was significant association between GQEW and maxillary teeth (p = 0.03). Conclusion This study showed that the overall technical quality of root canal fillings done by non-specialists was better than earlier reports but lower than that done by endodontists. Since many patients receive treatment from non-specialists in developing countries, it is necessary to improve technical quality of root canal fillings done in general dental

  13. Technical quality of root canal fillings done in a Nigerian general dental clinic.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Ezekiel Taiwo; Ahaji, Lilian Ejije; Nnachetta, Rita Nneka; Nwankwo, Olaitan; Akabogu-Okpeseyi, Nonye; Yaya, Morufu Olasunkanmi; Hussain, Nurudeen Ayoola

    2012-10-15

    Previous reports indicate that worldwide, the technical quality of root canal fillings is poor. There are few reports from sub-Saharan Africa and none yet from Nigeria where most patients access treatment from non-specialists especially at general dental clinics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical quality of root canal fillings done in a general dental clinic with emphasis on the effects of professional experience of the operator, whether tooth was anterior or posterior and whether it was a maxillary or mandibular tooth. Retrospective study of case notes and periapical radiographs of patients with completed root canal fillings seen between 2008 and 2011. Inclusion criteria included cases of primary treatment with available case notes, good quality pre-operative and post-operative periapical radiographs. Technical quality that was assessed was root canal length and homogeneity. Root canal fillings were classified either as Good Quality Endodontic Work (GQEW) or Non- Good Quality Endodontic Work (NGQEW). Fifty-one patients aged between 8 and 54 years (mean 28) fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study. From these, there were 62 root filled teeth giving a ratio of 1.2 root canal filled teeth per person. There were acceptable length of root canal fillings in 71% of teeth, 58.1% were homogeneous while 53.2% were GQEW. There was no statistically significant difference in whether tooth was root filled by junior or senior dentist (p=0.43), anterior or posterior (p=0.11). There was significant association between GQEW and maxillary teeth (p=0.03). This study showed that the overall technical quality of root canal fillings done by non-specialists was better than earlier reports but lower than that done by endodontists. Since many patients receive treatment from non-specialists in developing countries, it is necessary to improve technical quality of root canal fillings done in general dental clinics. These could be through improvement in the quality of

  14. Biocompatibility of various formula root filling materials for primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Ding, Shinn-Jyh; Kao, Chia-Tze

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different materials used in primary root canal fillings on the cell viability of human osteosarcoma cell lines. The experimental group contained six different types of root canal filling materials, including zinc oxide (ZnO) + eugenol + formocresol (FC), Ca(OH)(2) + FC, Ca(OH)(2) + Iodoform, Ca(OH)(2) + Iodoform + camphorated parachlorophenol (CPC), Ca(OH)(2) + CPC, and Vitapex. Cell viability tests were performed using tetrazolium bromide colorimetric (MTT) assay on human osteosacorma cell lines (U2OS). The results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keul's test with p < 0.05 showed statistical differences. The ZnO + eugenol + FC group and Ca(OH)(2) + FC group showed the lowest survival rates (p < 0.05). The Ca(OH)(2) + Iodoform + CPC group and Ca(OH)(2) + CPC group showed significantly lower survival rates at concentrations above 6 microL/mL (p < 0.05). The Ca(OH)(2) + Iodoform group and Vitapex group showed the highest survival rates (p < 0.05). We concluded that the use of calcium hydroxide with iodoform as a root filling base material is a better option than other medications.

  15. Efficacy of ProTaper retreatment system in root canals filled with gutta-percha and two endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Saran, Caroline; Magro, Miriam Lago; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira; Munhoz, Marcelo

    2008-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system and hand files for filling material removal during retreatment and the influence of sealer type on the presence of filling debris in the reinstrumented canals. The canals of 60 palatal roots of first molars were obturated with gutta-percha and either a zinc oxide-eugenol-based or a resin-based sealer and reinstrumented: G1, EndoFill/hand files; G2, AH Plus/hand files; G3, EndoFill/ProTaper; G4, AH Plus/ProTaper. Roots were cleaved and examined with an optical microscope, and the amount of filling debris on canal walls was analyzed on digitized images. There was no significant difference (P > .05) among the root canal thirds within each group. G3 presented significantly more filling debris than G1 in the cervical third (P = .04). In the middle third, G2/G3/G4 showed more debris than G1 (P = .03). The techniques were similar (P = .64) in the apical third. All groups presented filling debris in the 3 canal thirds after reinstrumentation.

  16. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Cheng-Fei; Chu, Chun-Hung; Zhu, Xiao-Fei

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of patients requiring endodontic retreatment for apical periodontitis. Patients with apical periodontitis who were referred for endodontic retreatment were examined. The type and quality of the restoration, symptoms, quality of obturation were recorded. During retreatment, an oral rinse sample and root canal sample were cultured using brain-heart infusion agar and bile esculinazide agar to select for E. faecalis. The 16S rRNA technique was used to identify E. faecalis. A total of 32 women and 22 men (mean age: 38 years; s.d.: 11 years) and 58 teeth were studied. The prevalence of E. faecalis was 19% in the saliva and 38% in the root canals. The odds that root canals harbored E. faecalis were increased if the saliva habored this bacterium (odds ratio=9.7; 95% confidence interval=1.8–51.6; P<0.05). Teeth with unsatisfactory root obturation had more cultivable bacterial species in root canals than teeth with satisfactory root obturation (P<0.05). E. faecalis is more common in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis than in saliva. The prevalence of E. faecalis in root canals is associated with the presence of E. faecalis in saliva. PMID:22422085

  17. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Cheng-Fei; Chu, Chun-Hung; Zhu, Xiao-Fei

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of patients requiring endodontic retreatment for apical periodontitis. Patients with apical periodontitis who were referred for endodontic retreatment were examined. The type and quality of the restoration, symptoms, quality of obturation were recorded. During retreatment, an oral rinse sample and root canal sample were cultured using brain-heart infusion agar and bile esculinazide agar to select for E. faecalis. The 16S rRNA technique was used to identify E. faecalis. A total of 32 women and 22 men (mean age: 38 years; s.d.: 11 years) and 58 teeth were studied. The prevalence of E. faecalis was 19% in the saliva and 38% in the root canals. The odds that root canals harbored E. faecalis were increased if the saliva habored this bacterium (odds ratio=9.7; 95% confidence interval=1.8-51.6; P<0.05). Teeth with unsatisfactory root obturation had more cultivable bacterial species in root canals than teeth with satisfactory root obturation (P<0.05). E. faecalis is more common in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis than in saliva. The prevalence of E. faecalis in root canals is associated with the presence of E. faecalis in saliva.

  18. Extraoral Retrograde Root Canal Filling of an Orthodontic-induced External Root Resorption Using CEM Cement

    PubMed Central

    Kheirieh, Sanam; Fazlyab, Mahta; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Eghbal, Mohamad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory external root resorption (IERR) after orthodontic treatments is an unusual complication. This case report describes a non-vital maxillary premolar with symptomatic extensive IERR (with a crown/root ratio of 1:1) after receiving orthodontic treatment. The first appointment included drainage, chemo-mechanical preparation of the canal and intra-canal medication with calcium hydroxide (CH) along with prescription of analgesic/antibiotic. The subsequent one-week follow-up revealed the persistence of symptoms and formation of a sinus tract. Finally, extraoral endodontic treatment was planned; the tooth was atraumatically extracted and retrograde root canal filling with calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement was placed followed by tooth replantation. Clinical signs/symptoms subsided during 7 days postoperatively. The sinus tract also resolved after one week. Six-month and one-year follow-ups revealed complete healing and a fully functional asymptomatic tooth. This case study showed favorable outcomes in a refractory periapical lesion associated with orthodontically induced extensive IERR. The chemical as well as biological properties of CEM cement may be a suitable endodontic biomaterial for these cases. PMID:24688586

  19. Efficacy of CM-Wire, M-Wire, and Nickel-Titanium Instruments for Removing Filling Material from Curved Root Canals: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Clarissa Teles; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; de Almeida, Marcela Milanezi; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the removal of filling material after using CM-wire, M-wire, and nickel-titanium instruments in both reciprocating and rotary motions in curved canals. Thirty maxillary lateral incisors were divided into 9 groups according to retreatment procedures: Reciproc R25 followed by Mtwo 40/.04 and ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files; ProDesign R 25/.06 followed by ProDesign Logic 40/.05 and ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files; and Gates-Glidden drills, Hedström files, and K-files up to apical size 30 followed by K-file 40 and K-file 50 up to the working length. Micro-computed tomography scans were performed before and after each reinstrumentation procedure to evaluate root canal filling removal. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman, and Wilcoxon tests (P < .05). No significant differences in filling material removal were found in the 3 groups of teeth. The use of Mtwo and ProDesign Logic 40/.05 rotary files did not enhance filling material removal after the use of reciprocating files. The use of ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files significantly reduced the amount of filling material at the apical levels compared with the use of reciprocating files. Association of reciprocating and rotary files was capable of removing a large amount of filling material in the retreatment of curved canals, irrespective of the type of alloy of the instruments. The use of a ProDesign Logic 50/.01 file for apical preparation significantly reduced the amount of remnant material in the apical portion when compared with reciprocating instruments. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of Mtwo, R-Endo, and D-RaCe retreatment instruments on the incidence of dentinal defects during the removal of root canal filling material.

    PubMed

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Demirbuga, Sezer; Tuncay, Öznur; Pala, Kanşad; Arslan, Hakan; Karataş, Ertuğrul

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal defects after retreatment procedures with different nickel-titanium rotary retreatment files. One hundred-eighty mandibular premolars were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n = 30 teeth per group). One group was left unprepared, and the remaining 5 groups were prepared with K-files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and filled with gutta-percha and AH plus sealer (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Of these 5 groups, 1 group was left filled and received no further treatments; in the other groups, removal of the filling material was performed with Mtwo R (VDW, Munich, Germany), D-RaCe (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), R-Endo instruments (Micro-Mega, Besançon, France), or Hedström files (Dentsply Maillefer). Roots were then sectioned 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex and observed under a microscope. The presence of dentinal defects was noted. Chi-square tests were performed to compare the incidence of dentinal defects between the groups. A Pearson correlation test was performed to check the correlation between defects and root level or remaining dentin thickness. No defects were observed in the unprepared group. Dentinal defects were detected in all retreatment groups. Retreatment groups showed significantly more defects than the filled but no retreatment group (P < .05). There was no significant difference in the occurrence of defects between retreatment groups (P > .05). There was no correlation between the appearance of defects and level of the root or remaining dentin thickness. Under the experimental conditions, all retreatment techniques used in this study created defects in the root dentin. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality of root canal fillings using three gutta-percha obturation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Edith Siu Shan; Chang, Jeffrey Wen Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to compare the density of gutta-percha root fillings obturated with the following techniques: cold lateral (CL) compaction, ultrasonic lateral (UL) compaction, and warm vertical (WV) compaction. Materials and Methods Thirty-three extracted mandibular first molars, with two separate mesial canals in each, were selected. After instrumentation, the canals were stratified into three groups based on canal length and curvature, and underwent obturation with one of the techniques. No sealer was used in order to avoid masking any voids. The teeth were imaged pre- and post-obturation using micro-computed tomography. The reconstructed three-dimensional images were analyzed volumetrically to determine the amount of gutta-percha present in every 2 mm segment of the canal. P values < 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Results The overall mean volume fraction of gutta-percha was 68.51 ± 6.75% for CL, 86.56 ± 5.00% for UL, and 88.91 ± 5.16% for WV. Significant differences were found between CL and UL and between CL and WV (p < 0.05), but not between UL and WV (p = 0.526). The gutta-percha density of the roots treated with WV and UL increased towards the coronal aspect, but this trend was not noted in the CL group. Conclusions WV compaction and UL compaction produced a significantly denser gutta-percha root filling than CL compaction. The density of gutta-percha was observed to increase towards the coronal aspect when the former two techniques were used. PMID:26877987

  2. [Animal test of nHA-PA66 used in root canal filling].

    PubMed

    Ye, Ling; Su, Qin; Zhou, Xue-dong; Tan, Hong

    2004-07-01

    To assess the dogs' tissue reaction to nHA-PA66 which is prepared to be used as a new root canal filling sealer. The experimental apical periodontitis of dogs was induced first, then nHA-PA66 was used in the test groups while CCQ was used in the control group. The reactions of periapical tissues were measured by histological means. One month after nHA-PA66 was used in root canal filling, the dogs' periapical tissues showed mild to moderate inflammatory reactions, the X-ray films showed decreased radiolucent area as compared with the previous film. Three months later, tissue repairs occurred, which exhibited even more decreased radiolucent area on X-ray films. nHA-PA66 caused weak inflammatory reaction while the reparative reaction happened early. nHA-PA66 has good tissue compatibility and is a potential sealer for root filling in clinical use.

  3. In vitro leakage associated with three root-filling techniques in large and extremely large root canals.

    PubMed

    Mente, Johannes; Werner, Sabine; Koch, Martin Jean; Henschel, Volkmar; Legner, Milos; Staehle, Hans Joerg; Friedman, Shimon

    2007-03-01

    This study assessed the apical leakage of ultrasonically condensed root fillings in extremely large canals, compared to cold lateral condensation and thermoplastic compaction. Ninety single-rooted teeth were used. In 45 teeth canals were enlarged to size 70 (large). The remaining 45 canals were enlarged to size 140 (extremely large). Each set of teeth was subdivided into three root-filling groups (n = 15): (1) cold lateral condensation (LC); (2) thermoplastic compaction (TC); and (3) ultrasonic lateral condensation (UC). Teeth in all six subgroups were subjected to drawing ink penetration, cleared, and evaluated for linear apical dye leakage. Significantly deeper dye penetration (p < 0.04, Wilcoxon rank-sum test) was observed for LC than for UC. TC did not differ significantly from LC and UC. Dye penetration was significantly deeper (p < 0.0001) in canals enlarged to size 140 than to size 70, independent of root-filling method. Apical leakage associated with ultrasonically condensed root fillings was less than that with cold lateral condensation. It was consistently greater in extremely large canals than that in large ones.

  4. Micro-CT assessment of dentinal micro-cracks after root canal filling procedures.

    PubMed

    De-Deus, G; Belladonna, F G; Silva, E J N L; Souza, E M; Carvalhal, J C A; Perez, R; Lopes, R T; Versiani, M A

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the frequency of dentinal micro-cracks after root canal filling procedures with GuttaCore (GC), cold lateral compaction (CLC) and warm vertical compaction (WVC) techniques in mandibular molars using micro-computed tomographic analysis. Thirty mesial roots of mandibular molars, with a type II Vertucci's canal configuration, were prepared to working length with a Reciproc R40 instrument and randomly assigned to one of the three experimental groups (n = 10), according to the technique used for root filling: GC, CLC or WVC. The GC group was filled with a size 40 GC obturator, whilst CLC and WVC groups used conventional gutta-percha cones. AH Plus sealer was used in all groups. The specimens were scanned at an isotropic resolution of 14.25 μm before and after root canal preparation and after root filling. Then, all pre- and postoperative cross-sectional images of the roots (n = 41 660) were screened to identify the presence of dentinal defects. Overall, 30.75% (n = 12 810) of the pre- + post-filling images displayed dentinal defects. In the GC, CLC and WVC groups, dentinal micro-cracks were observed in 18.68% (n = 2510), 15.99% (n = 2389) and 11.34% (n = 1506) of the cross-sectional images, respectively. All micro-cracks identified in the post-filling scans were also observed in the corresponding post-preparation images. Root fillings in all techniques did not induce the development of new dentinal micro-cracks. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluation for cracks associated with ultrasonic root-end preparation of gutta-percha filled canals.

    PubMed

    Beling, K L; Marshall, J G; Morgan, L A; Baumgartner, J C

    1997-05-01

    Many clinicians use ultrasonics for root-end preparations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate resected root-end surfaces of bilaterally matched human teeth for cracks before and after ultrasonic root-end preparation. Twenty matched pairs of extracted single rooted teeth were divided into two experimental groups. In group 1, root-end resection was performed on uninstrumented teeth. In group 2, root-end resection was performed after the canals were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. All teeth in both groups received root-end preparations using ultrasonic instrumentation at low power. Two examiners evaluated the root-ends after root-end resection and again after root-end preparation using zoom magnification of 20x to 63x. The number, types, and location of cracks were mapped. There were no significant differences when gutta-percha filled roots were compared to uninstrumented roots with regard to the number or type of cracks after root-end resection or root-end preparation. In addition, there were no significant differences in the number or type of cracks following root resection and ultrasonic root-end preparation when compared to teeth with root resection alone.

  6. Radiographic identification of separated instruments retained in the apical third of root canal-filled teeth.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Eyal; Azizi, Hadas; Friedlander, Clara; Taschieri, Silvio; Tsesis, Igor

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic ability to radiographically detect separated stainless steel (SS) versus nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments located at the apical third of filled root canals with either AH 26 (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany) or Roth sealer (Roth International Ltd, Chicago, IL). Sixty single-rooted extracted human teeth with 1 straight root canal were instrumented to a size 25 apical diameter. In 40 teeth, apical 2-mm segments of SS (n = 20) or NiTi (n = 20) files were intentionally fractured in the apical part of the root canal. The remaining 20 teeth without fractured files served as a control group. Subsequently, the root canals were filled using laterally condensed gutta-percha and either AH 26 sealer (AH) or Roth sealer (Roth). All teeth were radiographed using conventional Kodak film (Eastman Kodak Co, Rochester, NY) and a charge-coupled device digital sensor. The evaluation of the images for the presence of a fractured instrument was performed independently by 2 blinded observers. The data were statistically analyzed using McNemar and Fisher exact tests. The kappa values were 0.76 and 0.615 for the first and second observers, respectively, and 0.584 between the observers. There were no significant differences in the diagnostic ability between digital and conventional radiography or the different root canal sealers (AH vs Roth, P > .05). The sensitivity to detect fractured SS was significantly higher than NiTi (P < .05). It may be difficult to radiographically detect a retained separated instrument. It is easier to radiographically detect fractured SS than NiTi instruments retained at the apical third of the root canal. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The efficacy of five techniques for removing root filling material: microscopic versus radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kfir, A; Tsesis, I; Yakirevich, E; Matalon, S; Abramovitz, I

    2012-01-01

      To test and compare the efficacy of five methods for the removal of root filling material and to test the hypothesis that radiographs fail to represent the real extent of remaining material on canal walls.   Fifty maxillary anterior single-rooted teeth with straight root canals were selected. The coronal third of each root canal was prepared with Gates-Glidden drills to number 3, whilst the apical two-thirds were prepared with manual K-files to size 40. Root fillings were performed using lateral compaction with gutta-percha and AH-26. After full setting, the coronal third of the root filling was removed with Gates-Glidden drills and the teeth divided into five groups (n=10). The remaining root filling material was then removed with either Hedström files and chloroform (25 μL), using size 40 as the last file, SafeSider files, using a NiTi Pleezer reamer with a 0.06 taper followed by size 40 reciprocating file, with or without chloroform, or ProTaper Universal retreatment files (D2, D3) with or without chloroform. Reaching working length with no more gutta-percha on the last file was defined as the endpoint for all procedures. The presence of remaining filling material was first evaluated radiographically and then by the microscopic evaluation of split roots. The time required to accomplish the procedure was also recorded. anova and anova with repeated measures were used for statistical analysis of the results.   Overall, 11-26% of the canal wall remained covered with filling material; no significant difference was found between the groups. The mechanized methods were faster than manual removal of filling material (P < 0.01); the use of solvent did not speed up the mechanized procedures. Radiographic evaluation failed to adequately and reliably detect the extent of filling material remaining on the canal walls, which was later observed by microscopic evaluation.   All methods left root canal filling material on the canal walls. Radiographic

  8. Quality of root canal filling performed by undergraduate students of odontology at Kaunas University of Medicine in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kelbauskas, Eduardas; Andriukaitiene, Laura; Nedzelskiene, Irena

    2009-01-01

    High-quality filling of root canals is one of indicators of successful endodontic treatment. However, poor-quality of the filling is still a common phenomenon in the work of general practitioners. Better training of dental students of modern odontology is possible solution of the problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of root canal filling performed by undergraduate students in single-rooted and multi-rooted teeth shaped by hand stainless-steel or rotary ProTaper instruments. We analyzed 258 post-operative radiographs under illumination and x7 magnification. 120 (46.5%) root canal were prepared using hand stainless-steel K-files, 138 (53.5%) using ProTaper rotary instruments. The filling was evaluated as adequate when it was located at 0-2 mm below the radiographic apex, under-filled>2 mm below the radiographic apex, over-filled, protruded through the radiographic apex. The filling homogeneity and condensation were also evaluated. The filling height and position in relationship to the radiographic apex showed 84.1% were filled adequately, 10.5%--under-filled, 5.42%--over-filled. Homogeneity and density in 79.5% was good, in 20.5%--poor. The quality of root canal filling was acceptable, because 84.1% cases were filled adequately. The density and homogeneity were statistically reliably better in the canals prepared using ProTaper System.

  9. Evaluation of the Apical Sealability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement as Root Canal Filling Cements: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Rekab, M.S.; Ayoubi, H. Rushdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: One of the principle purposes of root canal obturation is to obtain hermetic sealing of the root canal system. According to the development of technology, many materials are now used in root canal filling. An in vitro dye leakage study was performed to evaluate the apical sealability of White-colored Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (WMTA) and Gray-colored Portland Cement (GPC) when used alone or as a sealer with gutta-percha points in root canal filling. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five single-rooted extracted human teeth were used in this study. After cleaning and shaping, the teeth were randomly divided into five equal groups of 15 teeth each based on the root canal filling material used; Group 1, (WMTA) alone; Group 2, (GPC) alone; Group 3, (Gutta-percha points + WMTA); Group 4, (Gutta-percha points + GPC); Group 5, (Gutta-percha points + AH26). Methylene blue was used to determine the apical leakage. After sectioning the teeth longitudinally, linear dye penetration was measured with a caliper under the stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA tests with (P ≤ 0.05) as the level of significance. Results: The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences among the materials of five groups. Conclusion: (WMTA) alone, (Gutta-percha points + WMTA), (GPC) alone and (Gutta-percha points + GPC) may be used in the root canal filling. PMID:21998797

  10. Micro-CT assessment of the sealing ability of three root canal filling techniques.

    PubMed

    Celikten, Berkan; F Uzuntas, Ceren; I Orhan, Ayse; Tufenkci, Pelin; Misirli, Melis; O Demiralp, Kemal; Orhan, Kaan

    2015-01-01

    This study used micro-CT to compare three obturation techniques with respect to void occurrence in canals filled with bioceramic sealer. Thirty extracted first mandibular premolars were prepared with a ProTaper Universal system and randomly allocated to three groups. Canals were obturated with gutta-percha and bioceramic root canal sealer, using either single-cone, lateral compaction, or Thermafil filling technique. Each tooth was then scanned with micro-CT. Voids in 2D cross-sectional images and void volumes in 3D images of all root thirds were assessed in relation to obturation technique. There was no significant difference between obturation techniques in the proportion of sections with voids (P > 0.05). However, the results of the obturation techniques significantly differed in relation to root region (P < 0.05). In conclusion, no root filling technique resulted in void-free specimens. Void volumes were highest for the single-cone technique and lowest for Thermafil, in all regions (P < 0.05).

  11. Impact of the quality of coronal restoration versus the quality of root canal fillings on success of root canal treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gillen, Brian M.; Looney, Stephen W.; Gu, Li-Sha; Loushine, Bethany A.; Weller, Roger N.; Loushine, Robert J.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Thorough cleaning and shaping of root canals are essential for periapical healing. Restoration of endodontically-treated teeth is also required for them to function and prevent coronal leakage. This study compared the impact of the quality of root canal treatment versus the quality of coronal restoration in treatment outcomes. Methods Literature search was conducted using the search terms “coronal restoration”, “root canal”, “periapical status” and “quality”. Articles that evaluated the effect of the quality of root filling and coronal restoration or both on the success of root canal treatment were selected. Nine articles were identified and were reviewed by three investigators. Data were collected based on pre-determined criteria. Percentages of teeth without apical periodontitis were recorded for each category: Adequate Root Canal Treatment (AE), Inadequate Root Canal Treatment (IE), Adequate Restoration (AR), Inadequate Restoration (IR). Data were analyzed using meta-analysis for odds ratios (ORs). Results After adjusting for significant covariates to reduce heterogeneity, the results were combined to obtain pooled estimates of the common OR for the comparison of AR/AE vs AR/IE (OR 2.734; 95% CI 2.61–2.88; p<0.001) and AR/AE vs IR/AE (OR 2.808; 95% CI 2.64–2.97; p<0.001). Conclusion On the basis of the current best available evidence, the odds for healing of apical periodontitis increase with both adequate root canal treatment and adequate restorative treatment. Although poorer clinical outcomes may be expected with adequate root filling-inadequate coronal restoration and inadequate root filling-adequate coronal restoration, there is no significant difference in the odds of healing between these two combinations. PMID:21689541

  12. Delayed tooth replantation following root canal filling with calcium hydroxide and MTA: Histomorphometric study in rats.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Jônatas Caldeira; Marão, Heloisa Fonseca; Silva, Pedro Ivo Dos Santos; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Aranega, Alessandra Marcondes; Ribeiro, Eduardo Dias; Sonoda, Celso Koogi

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a histomorphometric evaluation of the repair process in rat teeth replanted after root canals were filled with calcium hydroxide (CH) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Upper right incisors were extracted from 30 rats divided into three groups (n=10). The teeth were stored dry for 60min, after which the pulp and periodontal ligament (PDL) were removed and immersed in acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride solution. In Group I, the root canals were filled with saline; in Group II, they were filled with CH; and in Group III, they were filled with CH, and the foramen was sealed with an MTA plug. The teeth were replanted, and the animals were sacrificed after 60 days. The sections with teeth were removed for histological preparation (haematoxylin and eosin, H&E). The characteristics of the PDL, cementum, dentine, and alveolar bone, as well as the occurrence of inflammatory and replacement root resorption and apical sealing, were subjected to histological and morphometric analysis (P<0.05). Group I was the most affected by root resorption (mean=67.05%). In Groups II and III, the resorption averaged 42.2% and 11.7%, respectively. Group III was less affected by inflammatory resorption and presented more areas of apical sealing by mineralized tissue (P<0.05). An apical MTA plug improved the repair of the replanted tooth by decreasing surface resorption and repairing mineralized tissue in the periapical region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ability of new obturation materials to improve the seal of the root canal system: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Hua; Niu, Li-Na; Zhang, Wei; Olsen, Mark; De-Deus, Gustavo; Eid, Ashraf A; Chen, Ji-Hua; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2014-03-01

    New obturation biomaterials have been introduced over the past decade to improve the seal of the root canal system. However, it is not clear whether they have really produced a three-dimensional impervious seal that is important for reducing diseases associated with root canal treatment. A review of the literature was performed to identify models that have been employed for evaluating the seal of the root canal system. In vitro and in vivo models are not totally adept at quantifying the seal of root canals obturated with classic materials. Thus, one has to resort to clinical outcomes to examine whether there are real benefits associated with the use of recently introduced materials for obturating root canals. However, there is no simple answer because endodontic treatment outcomes are influenced by a host of other predictors that are more likely to take precedence over the influence of obturation materials. From the perspective of clinical performance, classic root filling materials have stood the test of time. Because many of the recently introduced materials are so new, there is not enough evidence yet to support their ability to improve clinical performance. This emphasizes the need to translate anecdotal information into clinically relevant research data on new biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulpectomies in primary mandibular molars: a comparison of outcomes using three root filling materials.

    PubMed

    Pramila, R; Muthu, M S; Deepa, G; Farzan, J M; Rodrigues, S J L

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the outcome of root canal treatment in primary teeth using three root canal filling materials - RC Fill, Vitapex and Pulpdent root canal sealer. The study was a single-centre, double-blind, randomized controlled trial carried out on 129 primary mandibular molars with necrotic pulps or irreversible pulpitis in 4- to 9-year-old children. Participants were selected based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and were randomly allocated into 3 groups: Group I - RC Fill [zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) with iodoform]; Group II - Vitapex (calcium hydroxide with iodoform); and Group III - Pulpdent root canal sealer (ZOE). The outcome measures were evaluated both clinically and radiographically at 6, 12 and 30 months according to modified American Association of Endodontists (AAE) criteria. The radiographic outcomes were assessed by two blinded and calibrated evaluators. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed for both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol population. The success rates of RC Fill, Vitapex and Pulpdent were 94%, 90% and 97%, respectively, at 30 months and the differences were not significant (P = 0.137). All three materials were found to be equally effective root filling materials for primary molars with necrotic pulps and irreversible pulpitis at 30 months. However, long-term follow-up until the eruption of the permanent successor teeth is needed for more definitive assessments. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Root canal filling: fracture strength of fiber-reinforced composite-restored roots and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Marília Pivetta; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of root canal filling techniques on root fracture resistance and to analyze, by finite element analysis (FEA), the expansion of the endodontic sealer in two different root canal techniques. Thirty single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with rotary files to a standardized working length of 14 mm. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin using plastic cylinders as molds, and allocated into 3 groups (n=10): G(lateral) - lateral condensation; G(single-cone) - single cone; G(tagger) - Tagger's hybrid technique. The root canals were prepared to a length of 11 mm with the #3 preparation bur of a tapered glass fiber-reinforced composite post system. All roots received glass fiber posts, which were adhesively cemented and a composite resin core was built. All groups were subjected to a fracture strength test (1 mm/min, 45°). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. FEA was performed using two models: one simulated lateral condensation and Tagger's hybrid technique, and the other one simulated the single-cone technique. The second model was designed with an amount of gutta-percha two times smaller and a sealer layer two times thicker than the first model. The results were analyzed using von Mises stress criteria. One-way ANOVA indicated that the root canal filling technique affected the fracture strength (p=0.004). The G(lateral) and G(tagger) produced similar fracture strength values, while G(single-cone) showed the lowest values. The FEA showed that the single-cone model generated higher stress in the root canal walls. Sealer thickness seems to influence the fracture strength of restored endodontically treated teeth.

  16. In vitro fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots filled with a bonded filling material or different types of posts.

    PubMed

    Sagsen, Burak; Zortuk, Mustafa; Ertas, Huseyin; Er, Ozgur; Demirbuga, Sezer; Arslan, Hakan

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the fracture resistance of roots filled with a bonded material, fiber posts, or titanium post systems. Canals in the first group were filled with AH Plus and gutta-percha cones, and roots in the second group were filled with Epiphany sealer and Resilon cones. The root fillings (60 roots) were removed up to 4 mm from the canal apex to obtain 10-mm-deep post spaces, and posts were cemented. The groups were as follows: AH Plus control group, Epiphany control group, AH Plus fiber post group, AH Plus titanium post group, Epiphany fiber post group, and Epiphany titanium post group. Fracture tests were performed by using an Instron testing machine. The force was applied at a 45° axial angle with a constant speed of 1 mm/min. For each sample, the force at which fracture occurred was recorded in units of newtons. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance test. There was no statistically significant difference between all groups (P > .05). Titanium posts, fiber posts, and Epiphany root canal filling systems were found to have no reinforcing effect on endodontically treated roots. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reinforcement of immature roots with a new resin filling material.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Charles H; Schwartz, Scott A; Beeson, Thomas J

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reinforcement and strengthening ability of Resilon, gutta-percha, and a self-curing composite resin (Bisfil 2B) in endodontically treated roots of immature teeth. Sixty single rooted teeth were divided into five groups of 12 teeth each. Teeth in all groups except the negative controls were prepared with a #5 Peeso (1.5 mm) through the apex (simulating immature roots) and root ends were filled with a 4 mm barrier of MTA. After smear layer removal, canals in the three experimental groups were backfilled with gutta-percha, Resilon, or Bisfil 2B. The remaining canal space in the positive control group was left unfilled. Negative controls received no treatment. A horizontal fracture was created in the root of each specimen using an Instron and the mean peak loads to fracture were recorded. ANOVA revealed no significant difference between any of the treatment groups. Based on the results of this study, canal wall reinforcement of teeth with a canal diameter of 1.5 mm or less may not be necessary.

  18. Assessment of periapical health, quality of root canal filling, and coronal restoration by using cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Cakici, E B; Yildirim, E; Cakici, F; Erdogan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to describe the prevalence of apical health, the quality of root canal filling, and coronal restorations of endodontically treated teeth in the east Anatolian subpopulation of Turkey. CBCT scans were taken from 748 patients attending for the 1st time to the clinic at the Oral Diagnosis and Radiology Department at Ataturk University's Faculty of Dentistry in Erzurum, Turkey. All images were analyzed by two research assistants who were trained using examples of CBCT images with and without the presence of periapical radiolucency. The two examiners assessed images from the experiment independently, and the readings were then compared. All data were entered on an MS Excel 2007 spreadsheet and SPSS software 15.0 which was used for statistical analysis. The Chi-square test was used to determine if a patient's periapical status was associated with the technical quality of root filling, coronal status, and to evaluate differences between tooth subgroups. In total, 147 teeth from 748 patients were found to have been treated endodontically. Sixty three teeth were found to have short root canal fillings, whereas 74 teeth had adequate root canal fillings, and the remaining 10 teeth had over extended root canal filling. A significant correlation was observed between the length of root filling and apical periodontitis (P = 0,023). Inadequately dense root canal filling was observed in 141 teeth, whereas adequately dense filling was found in only six teeth. There was a significant correlation between the density of root filling and apical periodontitis (P = 0.044). Coronal restoration was found in 90 teeth, but was not observed in all the three teeth. A crown was present in 54 teeth. There was a significant correlation between coronal restoration and apical periodontitis (P = 0.028). The results indicate that the quality of both the root filling and restoration were found to have impact on the periapical

  19. Method of teaching undergraduate students to perform root canal treatment: It's influence on the quality of root fillings.

    PubMed

    Baaij, A; Özok, A R

    2017-06-21

    This study aimed to assess whether the method of teaching endodontology influenced the quality of root fillings made by undergraduate students. The method of teaching endodontology at our institution was revised. Changes concerned: the programme (ie method of clinical training and summative assessment), and the supervision whilst performing root canal treatment on patients. An intermediate cohort (N=91) comprised partly students attending the former programme (involving patients) and partly students attending the revised programme (without patients). After succeeding in the summative assessment, the quality of the first root filling made by the student in a patient under supervision of either a general dental practitioner or an endodontist was evaluated according to pre-determined criteria. Data were analysed using Cohen's Kappa, Chi-square, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Sixty-two per cent (47 of 76) of root fillings made by students who attended the revised programme were of good quality, in comparison with 47% (seven of 15) of those made by students who attended the former programme (P=.274). Less complex treatments had better quality root fillings if students were supervised by endodontists (88% (14 of 16) good quality) than supervised by general dental practitioners (59% (22 of 37) good quality) (P=.045). Complex treatments did not differ in quality of root fillings for the supervision types (P=.825). The quality of root fillings made by students who attended the revised programme seems at least as high as that of those who attended the former programme. Higher quality root fillings might be obtained under supervision of endodontists than under supervision of general dental practitioners. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Root canal ramifications in mandibular incisors and efficacy of low-temperature injection thermoplasticized gutta-percha filling.

    PubMed

    Karagöz-Küçükay, I

    1994-05-01

    The frequency of root canal ramifications in mandibular central and lateral incisors and the efficacy of low-temperature injection thermoplasticized gutta-percha in filling these canals were determined, and any evidence of apical leakage was evaluated. Forty mandibular incisors were instrumented; the external root surfaces were coated with nail polish except for the apical foramen, and the teeth were obturated with injection of gutta-percha and sealer. The teeth were centrifuged in India ink for 20 min at 3000 rpm before being suspended in ink for 30 days and then cleared. Under a stereomicroscope at x30 magnification, 62.5% of the teeth showed a simple main canal, 15.0% a bifurcated canal, 7.5% a lateral canal, and 25% accessory canals. Except for the two lateral and three accessory canals, the thermoplasticized gutta-percha was found to be highly effective in filling the root canal ramifications as well as the main canals. The extent of ink penetration was limited to the main canal in seven teeth showing leakage. However, the reliability of conventional apical leakage assessment by only exposing major foramen to dye needs to be reexamined with regard to the potential presence of multiple foramina on the root surfaces.

  1. Evaluation of marginal adaptation of root-end filling materials using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Helder Fernandes; Gonçalves Alencar, Ana Helena; Poli Figueiredo, José Antônio; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; de Almeida Decurcio, Daniel; Estrela, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The importance of perfect apical seal in endodontics, more specifically in periradicular surgery, is the motivation/reason for development of root-end filling materials with favorable physical, chemical and biological characteristics. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of root-end filling materials using scanning electron microscopy. Twenty five human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared using a K-File #50 to 1 mm short of the apical foramen and filled with gutta-percha and Sealapex using the lateral compaction technique. The apical 3 mm of the roots were sectioned perpendicularly to the long axis of the teeth. A 3-mm-deep root-end cavity was prepared using ultrasonic tips powered by an Enac ultrasonic unit. The teeth were randomly assigned to five groups according to the materials tested including IRM, amalgam, ProRoot MTA, Super-EBA and Epiphany/Resilon. Root-end cavities were filled with the materials prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions. The root apices were carefully prepared for sputter coating and later evaluation using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The images of root-end fillings were divided into four quadrants and distributed into five categories according to the level of marginal adaptation between the root-end material and the root canal walls. The Fisher exact test with Bonferroni correction was used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at P = 0.005. SEM images showed the presence of gaps in the root-end filling materials. No significant difference was observed between the tested materials (P > 0.005). ProRoot MTA, IRM, amalgam, Super-EBA and Epiphany/Resilon showed similar marginal adaptation as root-end filling materials.

  2. Measurement of the percentage of root filling in oval-shaped canals obturated with Thermafil Obturators and Beefill 2in1: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Castellanos, Nicolás; Alegre-Domingo, Teresa; Dolz-Solsona, María; Faus-Matoses, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to measure the percentage of root canal fillings in long oval canals obturated with thermoplasticized gutta-percha techniques, Beefill 2in1® and Thermafil Obturators®. Material and Methods Fifty four mandibular incisors were selected after bucco-lingual and mesio-distal radiographs showed at 5 mm from apex an internal long:short diameter ≥2. Teeth were instrumented with Protaper Universal and divided in two groups of 27. Group 1 was obturated with Thermafil Obturators® and group 2 with Beefill 2in1®. Two horizontal sections were cut at 5 and 7 mm from the apex and photographed in a stereo-microscope. The total area of the canal and filled canal in cross-sections were measured with AutoCad and the percentages of gutta-percha-sealer and voids in the canal were obtained. Results Both systems achieved high percentage of filled canal, Thermafil 96.8% and Beefill 2in1 98.9%. The percentages of voids in both groups were very low. No significant differences were found between the two groups . The percentage obtained at 5 and 7 mm from the apex in both groups showed no significant difference. Conclusions The percentages of filled canal (gutta-percha-sealer) were high and these two thermoplasticized techniques are suitable for long oval canals obturation. Key words:Long oval canal, oval canal, thermoplasticized obturation. PMID:26155350

  3. Efficacy of three thermoplastic obturation techniques in filling oval-shaped root canals.

    PubMed

    Farias, Amanda B; Pereira, Key Fs; Beraldo, Daniele Z; Yoshinari, Franciely Ms; Arashiro, Fabio N; Zafalon, Edilson J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of the thermoplastic filling techniques, Touch'n Heat®, TC® System and Tagger's Hybrid Technique, in oval-shaped canals at the apical third.Thirty-three human uniradicular lower pre-molar teeth were treated by the reciprocating movement technique and were subsequently split into 3 groups, according to the filling technique performed:Touch'n Heat (TH), TC System (TC) and the Tagger's Hybrid Technique (TG).In the sequence, the teeth were sectioned at 2mm and 4mm from the foramen and images were taken to measure the percentage of canal area filled with the obturation materials as well as void spaces.Data were submitted for Kruskal-Wallis statistical analysis. Irrespective of levels, data showed that the TC System delivered the best results.(p<0,001).At 2mm and 4mm levels, there was no difference between the TG technique and the TH technique (p<0,001).With all the techniques and at all levels, no differences were observed regarding the void area variable.(p>0,001).The techniques evaluated showed an adequate filling with obturation materials and the TC has reached the highest filling with the guta-percha material.

  4. Impact of the quality of coronal restoration and root canal filling on the periapical health in adult syrian subpopulation

    PubMed Central

    Alafif, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the status of periapical tissues of endodontically treated teeth according to coronal restorations and root canal fillings separately and in concomitant in adult Syrian subpopulation. Methods: 784 endodontically treated teeth from two hundred randomly selected Syrian adult patients were radiographically evaluated. According to predetermined criteria, the quality of coronal restorations and root canal filling of each tooth was scored as adequate or inadequate. The status of periapical tissues was also classified as healthy or diseased. Results were analyzed using Chi-squared test. Results: Adequate coronal restorations were determined in 58.54% of cases which was accompanied with less periapical pathosis than that in teeth with inadequate restorations (P < 0.01). 14% of teeth were restored by posts which showed no significant impact on the periapical tissues health. 18.5% of endodontic treatments were evaluated as adequate with less number of periapical radiolucencies than that of inadequate root canal fillings (P < 0.01). Absence of periapical pathosis was 96.6% in cases with both adequate coronal restorations and root canals fillings. The rate was 88.5% in cases with only adequate root canals fillings, and about 70% in cases with only adequate coronal restorations. When the treatment was inadequate in both coronal and root canals fillings, success rate was only observed in 48.8%. Conclusion: The most important factor with regard to the periradicular tissue health is the quality of root canal filling without neglecting the influence of coronal restoration (regardless of its type). There is a high prevalence rate of periapical pathosis in Syrian subpopulation due to poor dental practice. PMID:25565729

  5. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of root canal fillings in population of Zagreb, Croatia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Matijević, Jurica; Čižmeković Dadić, Tina; Prpić Mehičić, Goranka; Anić, Ivica; Šlaj, Mladen; Jukić Krmek, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis and assess the quality of endodontic fillings in the population of the city of Zagreb, Croatia. Methods A total of 1462 orthopantomograms from new patients at 6 different dental practices was analyzed during 2006 and 2007. The presence of periapical lesions was determined by using the periapical index score (PAI). The quality of endodontic fillings was assessed according to the filling length and homogeinicity. Data were analyzed using t test and ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test. Results There were 75.9% of participants with endodontically treated teeth and 8.5% of all teeth were endodontically treated. Only 34.2% of endodontically treated roots had adequate root canal filling length, while 36.2% of root canal fillings had homogenous appearance. From the total number of teeth with intracanal post, 17.5% had no visible root canal filling. Using PAI 3 as a threshold value for apical periodontitis, periapical lesions were detected in 8.5% of teeth. Adequate quality of root canal fillings was associated with a lower prevalence of periapical lesions. Conclusion We found a large proportion of endodontically treated teeth with apical periodontitis and a correlation between the quality of endodontic filling and the prevalence of periapical lesions. This all suggests that it is necessary to improve the quality of endodontic treatment in order to reduce the incidence and prevalence of apical periodontitis. PMID:22180266

  6. Comparative in vitro investigation of different methods for temporary root canal filling with aqueous suspensions of calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Staehle, H J; Thomä, C; Müller, H P

    1997-06-01

    Three methods for temporarily filling root canals with calcium hydroxide pastes were compared. Each of 20 root canals of extracted, human, single-rooted teeth was shaped with hand instruments under standardized conditions up to ISO size 50 and filled using a syringe system, a lentulo spiral or an endodontic reamer. Quality of fillings was assessed radiographically and by inspecting ground preparations. Ridit (relative to an identified distribution) analysis was employed to confirm differences in frequencies of certain quality criteria obtained with various application methods. With regard to degree of obturation and occurrence of porosities, application of temporary fillings with a lentulo spiral or syringe system revealed significantly better results than application with hand instruments (reamer). No differences with regard to degree of obturation were detected when comparing results obtained with syringe or lentulo. Fewer porosities in the apical part of the root canal were seen, both on radiographs and ground sections, with the syringe system compared with the lentulo spiral. In the presence of some contradictory reports found in the literature, the present study suggests that, after straight or slightly curved root canals have been shaped up to at least ISO size 50, high quality temporary root canal fillings may be obtained by application of an aqueous suspension of calcium hydroxide with a syringe system.

  7. In vitro study of the apical microleakage with resilon root canal filling using different final endodontic irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Farré, Magí; Pumarola, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Background Endodontic microleakage or microfiltration refers to the percolation of fluids and micro-organisms at the interface of the obturation material and the walls of the root canal system. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare apical microfiltration of Resilon root canal filling by employing three different final irrigant solutions. Material and Methods 128 single-rooted teeth were employed. The crowns were sectioned horizontally at the cemento-enamel junction and instrumented with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% EDTA gel to obtain an instrumented 040 apical caliber. An intermediate irrigation was performed with distilled water. The roots were then randomly assigned to three experimental groups with three different final irrigants: (A) 20% citric acid (CA); (B) 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX); and (C) 5.25% NaOCl, plus two control groups (positive and negative). They were then dried, obturated with RealSeal™, and cleared by Robertson’s technique. Apical microleakage was measured by the dye penetration method and assessed with a 4.5x stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA and post hoc analysis for multiple comparisons. Results Mean and standard deviations for apical microleakage were: 2% CHX (0.24 mm ± 0.22), 20% CA (0.25 mm ± 0.20), and 5.25% NaOCl (0.87 mm ± 0.32). Significant differences were reported among the group irrigated with NaOCl, CHX and CA (P<0.001). Conclusions A higher rate of apical microleakage was observed when the final irrigation was performed with NaOCl whilst lower rates were reported for CHX and CA. Key words:Apical filtration, endodontic irrigation, resin-based sealers, adhesion, root canal filling. PMID:26155335

  8. Ability of Three Endodontic Sealers to Fill the Root Canal System in Association with Gutta-Percha

    PubMed Central

    Ormiga, Fabiola; Ferreira de Assis, Danielle; de Andrade Risso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The present study compared the ability of the endodontic sealers AH Plus, Pulp Canal Sealer and EndoREZ to fill the root canal system in association with gutta-percha. Methods: Ninety mandibular premolars were accessed, prepared and divided into three groups of 30 teeth each, according to the sealer used to fill the canals: AH Plus, Pulp Canal Sealer and EndoREZ. All the teeth were filled using the continuous wave of condensation technique. The specimens were then decalcified, dehydrated, rendered transparent, and analyzed by three independent evaluators with 8x magnification. Chi-squared test (χ2, p < 0.05) was used to compare the groups in relation to the totally filled, the partially filled and the non filled ramifications. The same test was used to compare the directions of filled ramifications and the number of ramifications among the three thirds of the roots. Results: EndoREZ filled a significantly higher number of ramifications than AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer (χ2, p < 0.05). All the groups showed higher number of totally filled ramifications than partially filled and unfilled ramifications. The ramifications were more frequently detected in the apical third, followed by medium and coronal thirds, respectively (χ2, p < 0.05). The ramifications were more frequently detected towards lingual direction (χ2, p < 0.05). Conclusion: EndoREZ presented higher ability to fill the root canal system in association with gutta-percha when compared to AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer. The ramifications were more frequently detected in the apical third, running in a lingual direction. PMID:27006719

  9. Effect of bleaching agents on sealing properties of different intraorifice barriers and root filling materials

    PubMed Central

    Canoglu, Ebru; Gulsahi, Kamran; Sahin, Cem; Altundasar, Emre

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of intracoronal bleaching agents on the sealing properties of different intraorifice barriers and root filling materials. Study Design: The root canals of extracted human premolars (n=180) were prepared by using System GT rotary files and filled with either gutta-percha+AH Plus or Resilon+Epiphany sealer. In both groups, the coronal 3mm of root filling was removed and replaced with one of the following materials applied as intraorifice barriers (n=30/group): 1. ProProot-MTA; 2. Conventional Glass ionomer cement; and 3. Hybrid resin composite. In each subgroup, intracoronal bleaching was performed using either sodium perborate with distilled water or 35% hydrogen peroxide gel for 3 weeks. The leakage of specimens was measured using fluid-filtration and dye penetration tests. The data were analyzed statistically with One-way ANOVA, Repeated Measures t-test and Independent Samples t-test (p=0.05). Results: The fluid conductance values of the test groups were not influenced by the type of the bleaching agent, the intraorifice barrier, or the root filling material (all p>0.05). However, the extent of dye leakage was significantly affected by the type of intraorifice barrier material (p<0.05), which showed the following statistical ranking: glass ionomer cement > resin composite > ProRoot-MTA (p<0.05). Conclusions: The effect of 35% hydrogen peroxide gel or sodium perborate/distilled water on the sealing properties of tested intraorifice barriers and root filling materials varied conforming leakage assessment. These properties were not affected by using fluid filtration test, while the glass ionomer barrier showed the greatest amount of dye leakage in both gutta-percha and Resilon root-filled teeth. Key words:Tooth Bleaching, root canal filling materials, glass ionomer cement, mineral trioxide aggregate, micro leakage PMID:22322509

  10. Fracture resistance of roots endodontically treated with a new resin filling material.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Fabricio B; Teixeira, Erica C N; Thompson, Jeffrey Y; Trope, Martin

    2004-05-01

    The authors evaluated the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth filled with either gutta-percha or a new resin-based obturation material. The authors prepared and randomly divided 80 single-canal extracted teeth into five groups: lateral and vertical condensation with gutta-percha, lateral and vertical condensation with the new resin-based obturation material, and a control group with no filling material. The specimens were stored in 100 percent humidity for two weeks, mounted in polyester resin and loaded to failure. The authors found statistically significant differences among the experimental groups (P < .05). The groups with the new material displayed higher mean fracture loads and the gutta-percha groups lower mean fracture load values than the control unfilled group. However, the differences were not significant. The groups with the new material displayed significantly higher mean fracture loads than gutta-percha groups independent of the filling technique used. Filling the canals with the new resin-based obturation material increased the in vitro resistance to fracture of endodontically treated single-canal extracted teeth when compared with standard gutta-percha techniques. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS; If other properties of the new resin-based obturation material compare favorably with those of gutta-percha for filling the root canal, it should be considered as a replacement for gutta-percha, as the results of this study indicate that it could provide enhanced resistance to tooth fracture.

  11. A comparative evaluation of gutta-percha filled areas in curved root canals obturated with different techniques.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Edgar; Nelius, Birthe; Bürklein, Sebastian

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different obturation techniques in severely curved canals in terms of the percentage of gutta-percha filled area and voids. The obturation times and the incidence of extrusion of filling material were also compared. Curved root canals (curvature, 25-35°) of 48 extracted human teeth were enlarged with Mtwo rotary NiTi instruments and obturated as follows: Group A: 0.04/35 matched-single-cone; Group B: cold lateral compaction with 0.04/35 gutta-percha master cone; Group C: warm vertical compaction; Group D: lateral compaction with standardized gutta-percha master cone. In all groups AHPlus was used as sealer. The teeth were sectioned horizontally at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 mm from the apex. The total area of each canal segment was measured and the areas of gutta-percha, sealer and voids were converted to percentages of the total area. Data were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn test. Obturation times were compared using ANOVA and post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. The matched-single-cone obturation (group A) was significantly the fastest method while warm vertical compaction (group C) required significantly more time than all other techniques (p < 0.05). No significant differences were obtained between the groups in terms of percentage of voids at any level (p > 0.05). At all levels, groups B, C, and D produced significantly higher gutta-percha filled areas (p < 0.05) and lower sealer-filled areas (p < 0.05) than group A. No significant differences were found between groups B, C, and D (p > 0.05) regarding gutta-percha and sealer-filled areas. Within the limitations of the in vitro study, it can be concluded that lateral compaction of greater taper gutta-percha cones is a fast and efficient method for obturation of curved canals.

  12. [Root-end filling materials in apicoectomy--a review].

    PubMed

    Grossman, I; Abu el Naag, A; Peled, M

    2003-04-01

    An integral component of apicoectomy procedure is the placement of a root end filling material. In this 20 years literature review we identified at least 19 different materials that have been used as root end filling materials. Unfortunately, the ideal material for this purpose is yet to be found. Amalgam is the most frequently used material in apicoectomy procedure and can lead to satisfying results in many cases. IRM, super EBA and MTA are more suitable materials, and give better results in apicoectomy procedures than Amalgam. IRM and super EBA are both ZOE cements. Super EBA is less cytotoxic than IRM, suggesting that the decreased eugenol in Super EBA allows it to be less irritating. MTA gives better results when tested for leakage and biocompatibility than IRM and Super EBA, and has the ability of induction of hard tissue. A possible disadvantage that prevents MTA from being acceptable as "the ideal root-end filling material" is a long setting time that may lead to dislodgment or deformation from root end preparation. Yet, in most cases MTA serves as the best choice for a root end filling material.

  13. Effect of photodynamic therapy and non-thermal plasma on root canal filling: analysis of adhesion and sealer penetration

    PubMed Central

    MENEZES, Marilia; PRADO, Maíra; GOMES, Brenda; GUSMAN, Heloisa; SIMÃO, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and non-thermal plasma (NTP) on adhesion and sealer penetration in root canals. Material and Methods Sixty single-rooted premolars were used. The teeth were prepared using a crown-down technique. NaOCl and EDTA were used for irrigation and smear layer removal, respectively. The root canals were divided into three groups: control, PDT, and NTP. After treatments, the roots were filled using gutta-percha and either AH Plus (AHP) or MTA Fillapex (MTAF) sealers. Samples were sectioned at 4, 8, and 12 mm from the apex (1-mm slices)and analyzed by the push-out bond strength test (adhesion) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (sealer penetration). Data were statistically evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn’s, and Spearman’s tests. Results Regarding AHP, bond strength was similar in the NTP group and in the control group, but significantly lower in the PDT group. As to MTAF, both therapies showed lower values than the control group. In the confocal analysis of AHP, maximum and mean penetration, and penetrated area were statistically higher in the control group than in the PDT and NTP groups. Penetrated perimeter was similar among groups. Regarding MTAF, all parameters yielded better results in the NTP than in the control group. The PDT and control groups showed similar results except for penetrated area. Conclusion PDT and plasma therapy affected the adhesion and sealer penetration of root canals filled with AH Plus and MTA Fillapex and there is no positive correlation between adhesion and sealer penetration. PMID:28877278

  14. Removal of filling materials from oval-shaped canals using laser irradiation: a micro-computed tomographic study.

    PubMed

    Keleş, Ali; Arslan, Hakan; Kamalak, Aliye; Akçay, Merve; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D; Versiani, Marco Aurélio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of lasers in removing filling remnants from oval-shaped canals after retreatment procedures with rotary instruments using micro-computed tomographic imaging. The root canals of 42 mandibular canines were prepared and obturated using the warm vertical compaction technique. Retreatment was performed with rotary instruments, and the specimens were distributed in 3 groups (n = 14) according to the laser device used in a later stage of retreatment procedure: Er:YAG, Er:YAG laser-based photon-induced photoacoustic streaming, and Nd:YAG. The specimens were scanned in a micro-computed tomographic device after root canal filling and each stage of retreatment at a resolution of 13.68 μm. The percentage differences of the remaining filling material before and after laser application within and between groups were statistically compared using the paired sample t test and 1-way analysis of variance test, respectively. Significance level was set at 5%. Overall, filling residues were located mainly in the apical third and into canal irregularities after the retreatment procedures. After using rotary instruments, the mean percentage volume of the filling remnants ranged from 13%-16%, with no statistical significant difference between groups (P > .05). Within groups, additional laser application had a significant reduction in the amount of the remaining filling materials (P < .05). A comparison between groups showed that Er:YAG laser application after the use of rotary instruments had a significantly higher removal of filling remnants (~13%) than Er:YAG laser-based photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (~4%) and Nd:YAG (~3%) (P < .05). None of the retreatment procedures completely removed the filling materials. The additional use of lasers improved the removal of filling material after the retreatment procedure with rotary instruments. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Survival and periapical health after root canal treatment with carrier-based root fillings: five-year retrospective assessment.

    PubMed

    Pirani, C; Friedman, S; Gatto, M R; Iacono, F; Tinarelli, V; Gandolfi, M G; Prati, C

    2017-02-20

    This retrospective study explored survival and periapical healing outcomes in teeth root filled with Thermafil obturators. Root canals of 213 teeth (94 subjects, mean age 48 ± 13 years), instrumented with a step-down technique, irrigated with 5% NaOCl and 10% EDTA and filled with Thermafil and AH Plus sealer, were involved in a recall programme. Teeth were retrospectively re-examined after 5 ± 1 years in a controlled environment. Clinical and radiographic data that were collected included the following: preoperative Periapical Index (PAI) score and signs/symptoms, treatment type, root filling length and presence/absence of voids, restoration type, follow-up PAI score and signs/symptoms. Teeth were considered 'healthy' (PAI ≤ 2, no signs/symptoms) or 'diseased' (PAI ≥ 3, signs/symptoms present, retreated, extracted for endodontic reasons). Two PAI-calibrated examiners assessed outcomes blinded to preoperative status. Bivariate and multilevel analyses were performed at level of patient and tooth (α = 5%). Of 213 teeth treated, 187 (88%) survived and 26 were extracted, six (3%) for persistent endodontic infection (considered 'diseased'), and 20 (9%) for root fracture, periodontal disease or coronal fracture (excluded from analysis). Whilst survival was significantly associated with tooth type (P = 0.015), type of treatment (P = 0.012) and pulpal/periapical diagnosis (P = 0.035), none of these variables were substantiated as survival predictors by the multilevel analysis. A total of 164 of 193 teeth (85%) were assessed as 'healthy', with significantly higher (chi-square; P < 0.04) 'healthy' rates for teeth with PAI score ≤2 and root fillings of adequate length. Multilevel analysis identified PAI score ≤2 (P = 0.002) as the only predictor of periapical health. In this 5 ± 1 year retrospective assessment, survival and healing rates after root canal treatment with Thermafil root fillings were comparable to those previously reported for

  16. Periradicular status and quality of root canal fillings and coronal restorations in an urban Colombian population.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jaime O; Alves, Flávio R F; Gonçalves, Lúcio S; Martinez, Angela M; Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2013-05-01

    This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of apical periodontitis in 1086 root canal-treated teeth from an urban Colombian population and evaluated the association of several factors with the periradicular status. Periapical radiographs were used for analyses, and teeth were classified as healthy or diseased according to the periradicular status. Other factors were also evaluated for their association with the periradicular conditions, including gender, quality of both endodontic treatment and coronal restoration, apical level of filling, and presence of post restoration. Fifty-one percent of the treated teeth were classified as healthy. Only 33% of the teeth had endodontic treatment rated as adequate. The quality of both endodontic treatment and coronal restoration significantly influenced the periradicular conditions (P < .001). Combined data revealed that teeth with both adequate endodontic treatment and adequate restorations showed significantly better periradicular status than the other combinations (P < .01), except for teeth with adequate treatment and inadequate restoration (P = .08). Canals filled up to 0-2 mm short of the apex had a significantly higher number of teeth rated as healthy than overfilled or underfilled cases (P = .02). Regression analysis showed that the quality of endodontic treatment was the most significant factor influencing the periradicular status (P < .001). Gender and presence of post restoration had no association with the periradicular conditions. Data from this Colombian population showed a relatively high prevalence of apical periodontitis in root canal-treated teeth. This was largely due to an equally high prevalence of treatments performed under substandard technical quality. The quality of the endodontic treatment was the most determinant factor for healthy periradicular status. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of xylene and passive ultrasonic irrigation on remaining root filling material during retreatment of anatomically complex teeth.

    PubMed

    Cavenago, B C; Ordinola-Zapata, R; Duarte, M A H; del Carpio-Perochena, A E; Villas-Bôas, M H; Marciano, M A; Bramante, C M; Moraes, I G

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the volume of remaining filling material in the mesial root canals of mandibular molars after root canal retreatment with different procedures performed sequentially. The mesial root canals of 12 human first mandibular molars were instrumented using the BioRace system until a size 25, .06 taper instrument. The mesial roots were filled with gutta-percha and AH-Plus using a vertical compaction technique. The specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography with a voxel size of 16.8 μm before and after the retreatment procedures. To remove the filling material, the root canals were enlarged until the size 40, .04 taper instrument. The second step was to irrigate the root canals with xylene in the attempt to clean the root canals with paper points. In the third step, the passive ultrasonic irrigation technique (PUI) was performed using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The initial and residual filling material volume (mm(3) ) after each step was evaluated from the 0.5 to 6.5 mm level. The obtained data were expressed in terms of percentage of residual filling material. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman test (P < 0.05). All specimens had residual filling materials after all retreatment procedures. Passive ultrasonic irrigation enhanced the elimination of residual filling material in comparison with the mechanical stage at the 0.5-2.5 mm and 4.5-6.5 mm levels (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between xylene and PUI methods. Filling materials were not completely removed by any of the retreatment procedures. The use of xylene and PUI after mechanical instrumentation enhanced removal of materials during endodontic retreatment of anatomically complex teeth. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of root canal sealer filling quality using a single-cone technique in oval shaped canals: An In vitro Micro-CT study.

    PubMed

    Celikten, Berkan; Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Orhan, Ayse Isıl; Orhan, Kaan; Tufenkci, Pelin; Kursun, Sebnem; Demiralp, Kemal Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the presence of voids in oval root canals filled with different root canal sealers (EndoSequence BC Sealer, Smartpaste bio, ActiV GP) and to compare those with root canals filled with AH Plus sealer using micro-CT. In total, 40 freshly extracted human single-root maxillary premolars were used. Specimens instrumented with the EndoSequence NiTi rotary instrument were assigned randomly into four groups. In each group, root canals were filled with single-cone gutta-percha and one of the tested sealers. Each specimen was then scanned using micro-CT at a voxel resolution of 13.47 μm. Proportions of sections with voids in cross-sectional images and void volumes for each sealer were calculated in the apical, middle, and coronal thirds. Differences according to root canal sealers were evaluated statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U-test at a significance level of 5%. The analysis showed a decrease in void formation in the apical third, with a significant difference between the apical and coronal thirds among bioceramic sealers, ActiV GP, and AH Plus (p < 0.05) but no significant difference between the apical and middle thirds or between the middle and coronal thirds was found for the sealers tested (p > 0.05). All root canal sealers tested resulted in voids. The bioceramic sealers (EndoSequence BC Sealer, Smartpaste bio) produced similar voids which had the fewest in the apical third of root canals among the sealers tested which can be related due to root canal anatomy variations.

  19. Physicochemical and biological properties of a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Zuo, Yi; Zhao, Minghui; Jiang, Jiaxing; Man, Yi; Wu, Jun; Hu, Yunjiu; Liu, Changlei; Li, Yubao; Li, Jidong

    2015-01-01

    A root canal sealer with antibacterial activity can be efficacious in preventing reinfection that results from residual microorganisms and/or the leakage of microorganisms. In the present study, a series of injectable, self-curing polyurethane (PU)-based antibacterial sealers with different concentrations of silver phosphate (Ag3PO4) were fabricated. Subsequently, their physicochemical properties, antibacterial abilities, and preliminary cytocompatibilities were evaluated. The results indicated that the fabricated PU-based sealers can achieve a high conversion rate in a short amount of time. More than 95% of the isocyanate group of PU sealers with 3 wt% (PU3) and 5 wt% (PU5) concentrations of Ag3PO4 were included in the curing reaction after 7 hours. With the exception of those for film thickness for PU5, the results of setting time, film thickness, and solubility were able to meet the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization. The antibacterial tests showed that PU3 and PU5 exhibit stronger antimicrobial effects than that achieved with 1 wt% Ag3PO4 (PU1) and AH Plus (positive control) against Streptococcus mutans. The cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that the PU1 and PU3 sealers possess good cytocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that the PU3 sealer offers good physicochemical and antimicrobial properties along with cytocompatibility, which may hold great application potential in the field of root canal fillings. PMID:25653518

  20. Accuracy of two root canal length measurement devices integrated into rotary endodontic motors when removing gutta-percha from root-filled teeth.

    PubMed

    Uzun, O; Topuz, O; Tinaz, C; Nekoofar, M H; Dummer, P M H

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate ex vivo the accuracy of the integrated electronic root canal length measurement devices within TCM Endo V and Tri Auto ZX motors whilst removing gutta-percha and sealer from filled root canals. Forty freshly extracted maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth with mature apices were selected. Following access cavity preparation, the length of the root canals were measured visually 0.5 mm short of the major foramen (TL). The canals were prepared using the HERO 642 system and then filled with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer using a lateral compaction technique. After 7 days the coronal temporary filling was removed and the roots mounted in an alginate experimental model. The roots were then randomly divided in two groups. The access cavities were filled with chloroform to soften the gutta-percha and allow its penetration using the Tri Auto ZX and the TCM Endo V devices in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The 'automatic apical reverse function' (ARL) of both devices was set to start at the 0.5 setting and the rotary instrument inserted inside the root canal until a beeping sound was heard and the rotation of the file stopped automatically. Once the auto reverse function had been initiated, the foot pedal of the motor was inactivated and the rubber stop placed against the reference point. The distance between the file tip and rubber stop was measured using a digital calliper to 0.01 mm accuracy (ARL). Then, a size 20, 0.02 taper instrument was attached to each device and inserted into the root canals without rotary motion until the integrated ERCLMDs positioned the instrument tips at the 0.5 setting as suggested by the devices. This length was again measured using a digital calliper (EL). The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to investigate statistical differences between the true canal length and those indicated by the two devices when used in 'automatic ARL and when inserted passively (EL). In the presence of gutta-percha, sealer and chloroform, the auto

  1. SEM evaluation of the interface between filling and root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Rosa, R A; Santini, M F; Heiden, K; Só, B B; Kuga, M C; Pereira, J R; Só, M V R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the presence of gaps at the interface between filling material and three root-end filling materials. Thirty human upper molars disto-buccal roots were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha and eugenol-based sealer. The apicoectomy was performed 2 mm from the apex and retrograde cavities were prepared with ultrasonic points (3 mm in deep). The samples were divided into three experimental groups (n = 10): Group I-white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); Group II-Super EBA; and Group III-Portland cement. The root-end filling materials were inserted into the retocavities using a MTA carrier. After 48 h, the roots were transversally sectioned in order to obtain the apical 5 mm. Next, each specimen was prepared longitudinally with crescent granulation of abrasives water-wet sandpapers in order to expose the filling and root-end filling materials. Then, the specimens were subjected to slow dehydration with silica gel, mounted onto specific stubs and coated with paladium coverage for SEM analysis of the interface between filling and root-end filling materials. The percentage of gaps at the interfacial area was calculated by using Image Tool 3.0 software. Super EBA presented the higher percentage of gaps (1.5 ± 0.67%), whereas MTA presented the lowest values (0.33 ± 0.20%; p = 0.0004). Despite the statistical differences observed between Super EBA and MTA, all the root-end filling materials presented great adaptation to the filling material, presenting small amount of gaps. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Microleakage of adhesive resinous materials in root canals

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jason Gilbert; Caputo, Angelo Anthony; Li, Ping; White, Shane Newport

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro micro-leakage resistance of adhesive resin materials to long-used zinc oxide-eugenol and epoxy resin sealers. Materials and Methods: Seven materials, five test (Real Seal, Real Seal XT, Panavia F 2.0, Infinity Syringeable, GCEM) and two controls (Tubliseal, AH Plus), were evaluated for micro-leakage resistance in a bovine incisor root model, with 12 roots per material. Teeth were root canal treated, stored in water, artificially aged by thermal-cycling, stained with silver nitrate, sectioned to yield eight measurement points per tooth (four coronal and four apical), giving 672 measurement points. Stain penetration was measured using digital positioners and a toolmakers microscope; then analyzed using descriptive statistics, two-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons testing (P < 0.05). Results: All modern adhesive resinous materials leaked significantly less than long-used zinc oxide-eugenol and epoxy resin sealers (P < 0.05). Mean leakage values and their associated (standard deviations) in mm were: Infinity Syringeable 2.5 (1.5), Real Seal XT 3.2 (1.4), Real Seal 3.4 (1.6), Panavia F 2.0 3.8 (2.7), GCEM 4.2 (1.8), Tubli-seal 5.4 (2.8), AH Plus 6.3 (2.3). Overall, more leakage occurred apically than coronally (P < 0.0001). Many materials exhibited dimensional instability: Marked contraction, expansion, or lack of cohesion. Conclusion: A variety of adhesive resinous materials, endodontic sealers and crown cements, reduced micro-leakage in comparison to long and widely used zinc oxide- eugenol and epoxy sealers. PMID:23833453

  3. How to bond to root canal dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  4. Effect of photoactivated disinfection on bond strength of root canal filling.

    PubMed

    Ok, Evren; Ertas, Huseyin; Saygili, Gokhan; Gok, Tuba

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the effect of photoactivated disinfection (PAD) on the bond strength of root canal sealers to human root canal dentin using the push-out test. Fifteen extracted human mandibular premolar teeth with single and straight roots were used. After the clinical crowns were removed from the cementoenamel junction, root canals were prepared with the ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) rotary system to the size of the F3 file. The smear layer of the roots was removed using 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and distillate water. The roots were then randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 5) according to the final irrigation regimen. In group 1, PAD (FotoSan; CMS Dental, Copenhagen, Denmark) was applied to the root canals and light cured for 20 seconds. Group 2 was finally irrigated with a 2% solution of chlorhexidine gluconate, and group 3 served as the control group (NaOCl + EDTA). All the canals were then obturated with the lateral condensation technique using gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply Maillefer) sealer. One-millimeter-thick horizontal sections from the coronal and midthirds of each root (n: 5 × 4 = 20) were sliced for the push-out bond strength measurement. The data were converted to megapascals and statistically analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the post hoc Tukey test. There was no significant difference among the bond strength of PAD, chlorhexidine gluconate, and NaOCl (P > .05). We conclude that PAD does not adversely affect the bond strength of the AH Plus sealer to root canal dentin and that it can be used for the final disinfection of root canals. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. New methodology to evaluate bond strength of root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Marques, Jorge Henrique Stefaneli; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; da Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa; Steier, Liviu; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the bond strength of root-end filling materials to root-end cavities using a new methodology. Twenty maxillary central incisors were subjected to biomechanical preparation (#80 hand file) and sectioned transversally 2 mm short of the apex and 4 mm coronally to this point. The root cylinders were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. Two groups (n=10) were formed according to the root-end filling material: MTA and Super EBA. A gutta-percha cone (#80) was tug-backed at the limit between the canal and the root-end cavity. The cavity was filled and the gutta-percha cone was removed after complete setting of the sealer. The specimens were placed in an Instron machine with the root-end filling turned downwards. The push-out shaft was inserted in the space previously occupied by the gutta-percha cone and run at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min for pushing out the root-end filling material. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (α=5%). Super EBA (6.03±1.31) presented higher bond strength (MPa) than MTA (1.81±0.45) (p>0.05). There was a predominance of cohesive failures for Super EBA and mixed for MTA. The protocol of specimen preparation is effective and introduces a specific methodology for assessing bond strength of root-end filling materials to dentin. Among the materials, Super EBA presented the highest bond strength.

  6. Effect of plunger diameter on the push-out bond values of different root filling materials.

    PubMed

    Nagas, E; Uyanik, O; Durmaz, V; Cehreli, Z C

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of plunger diameter on the push-out bond strength of different root filling materials to root canal dentine. Freshly extracted human incisors (n=90) were decoronated, and the root canals were enlarged with post drills. Prepared roots were placed into a custom alignment apparatus to embed the roots vertically within self-curing acrylic resin. The specimens were randomly assigned into three groups according to the root filling system used: gutta-percha/AH Plus; Resilon/Epiphany; and fibre-reinforced composite (FRC)/Duolink resin cement. After filling, the specimens were further subdivided according to the diameter of the plunger used to employ the debonding force: 0.75, 1 and 1.25 mm. Intra-radicular bond strength was measured using the push-out test at a cross-head speed of 1 mm min(-1) . The data were analysed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis test with Bonferroni correction at P = 0.05. Regardless of the plunger diameter, FRC yielded the highest bond strength, followed by gutta-percha and Resilon, respectively (P<0.001). In all groups, greater plunger diameter resulted in an apparent increased bond strength, but the differences were only significant in the FRC group, with the 1.25-mm plunger generating higher debonding values compared with that of its 0.75- and 1-mm versions (P<0.001). In the gutta-percha and Resilon groups, the majority of specimens had adhesive failures. Roots filled with FRC exhibited more cohesive failures than those of the other test groups. Different plunger diameters are associated with significantly different intra-radicular push-out bond strengths of root filling systems. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  7. Antibacterial effect of selected root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin; Ataoglu, Hanife; Orstavik, Dag

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of leachable components of selected root-end filling materials: amalgam, ProRoot MTA (mineral trioxide aggregate), Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), Super Bond C&B, Geristore, Dyract, Clearfil APX composite with SE Bond, or Protect Bond. The direct contact test (DCT) with Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was used. The materials were tested immediately after application to the microtiter wells (fresh samples) and after setting for 3 days (set samples). Ten microliters of bacterial suspension was added to each well for direct contact with each material for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Growth of surviving bacteria was then measured in a microplate spectrophotometer hourly at 620 nm for 15 h. Twelve uncoated wells using identical inoculum size served as positive controls. The data obtained at the end of 15 h was subjected to one-way ANOVA and post hoc comparisons were done using Tamhane's T2 test. Fresh samples of all materials showed a 3-h delay in exponential growth of both E. faecalis and S. aureus, and a 5-h delay in growth of P. aeruginosa. Set samples of IRM and ProRoot MTA cements showed generally greater antibacterial activity than the other materials: both completely inhibited P. aeruginosa, and both delayed or limited growth of E. faecalis. The DCT, by being quantitative and virtually independent of solubility and diffusion, was found suitable to assay solid root-end filling materials. IRM and ProRoot MTA were generally more potent inhibitors of bacterial-growth than the other tested materials.

  8. Efficacy of Twisted File Adaptive, Reciproc and ProTaper Universal Retreatment instruments for root-canal-filling removal: A cone-beam computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Makbule Bilge; Akman, Melek; Terlemez, Arslan; Magat, Guldane; Sener, Sevgi; Shetty, Heeresh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Twisted File (TF) Adaptive, Reciproc, and ProTaper Universal Retreatment (UR) System instruments for removing root-canal-filling. Sixty single rooted teeth were decoronated, instrumented and obturated. Preoperative CBCT scans were taken and the teeth were retreated with TF Adaptive, Reciproc, ProTaper UR, or hand files (n=15). Then, the teeth were rescanned, and the percentage volume of the residual root-canal-filling material was established. The total time for retreatment was recorded, and the data was statistically analyzed. The statistical ranking of the residual filling material volume was as follows: hand file=TF Adaptive>ProTaper UR=Reciproc. The ProTaper UR and Reciproc systems required shorter periods of time for retreatment. Root canal filling was more efficiently removed by using Reciproc and ProTaper UR instruments than TF Adaptive instruments and hand files. The TF Adaptive system was advantageous over hand files with regard to operating time.

  9. Ability of New Obturation Materials to Improve the Seal of the Root Canal System – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Olsen, Mark; De-Deus, Gustavo; Eid, Ashraf A.; Chen, Ji-hua; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives New obturation biomaterials have been introduced over the past decade to improve the seal of the root canal system. However, it is not clear whether they have really produced a three-dimensional impervious seal that is important for reducing diseases associated with root canal treatment. Methods A review of the literature was performed to identify models that have been employed for evaluating the seal of the root canal system. Results and Significance In-vitro and in-vivo models are not totally adept at quantifying the seal of root canals obturated with classic materials. Thus, one has to resort to clinical outcomes to examine whether there are real benefits associated with the use of recently-introduced materials for obturating root canals. However, there is no facile answer because endodontic treatment outcomes are influenced by a host of other predictors that are more likely to take precedence over the influence of obturation materials. From the perspective of clinical performance, classic root filling materials have stood the test of time. Because many of the recently-introduced materials are so new, there is not enough evidence yet to support their ability to improve clinical performance. This emphasizes the need to translate anecdotal information into clinically relevant research data on new biomaterials. PMID:24321349

  10. Radiologic assessment of quality of root canal fillings and periapical status in an Austrian subpopulation – An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Wilhelm; Madaus, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objective Progress in endodontic techniques and methodological advances have altered root canal therapy over the last decades. These techniques and methods need periodical documentation. This observational study determined the current prevalence of endodontic treatments, and investigated the relationship of various factors with the periapical status in a Lower Austrian subpopulation. Methodology One thousand orthopantomograms of first-time university adult patients radiographed at an outpatient clinic were evaluated. For each tooth, the presence of periradicular pathosis and/or endodontic treatment was recorded, as was the quality of (post-)endodontic treatment (homogeneity and length of root canal fillings; preparation failures; posts/screws; apicoectomies; coronal restorations). Two evaluators, blinded to each other, scored all teeth. In cases of disagreement, they joined for a consensus score. Results In all, 22,586 teeth were counted. Of these, 2,907 teeth (12.9%) had periapical pathosis, while 2,504 teeth had undergone root canal treatment. Of the endodontically treated teeth, 52% showed no radiographic signs of apical periodontitis, while 44.9% had overt apical lesions, and 3,1% revealed widened periodontal ligament space. The majority of the root canal fillings was inhomogeneous (70.4%); 75.4% were rated too short, and 3.8% too long. The presence of apical pathosis was significantly correlated (odds ratio (OR) 2.556 [confidence interval (CI) 2.076–3.146]; P<0.0001) with poor root canal fillings (length and homogeneity). Posts or screws positively affected periapical status (OR 1.853 [CI 1.219–2.819]; P = 0.004), but endodontically treated posterior teeth were infrequently restored (posts, 7.5%; screws, 2.7%). Best results were found for teeth with both appropriate endodontic treatment and adequate coronal restoration. Conclusion A high prevalence of periradicular radiolucencies was observed with root canal filled teeth, along with high numbers

  11. Effects of Clinical Training and Case Difficulty on the Radiographic Quality of Root Canal Fillings Performed by Dental Students in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaimani, Reem Siraj; Al-Manei, Kholod Khalil; A. Alsubait, Sara; AlAqeely, Razan Shafik; A. M. Al-Shehri, Sharifa; M. Al-Madi, Ebtissam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of training duration and case difficulty on the radiographic quality of root canal fillings performed by dental students in Saudi Arabia. Methods and Materials: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted at King Saud University. Root canal treatments performed by 55 dental students from 2012-2014 were included in the study. Each student treated at least five teeth during the first year of clinical endodontic training and another five teeth during the second year. Case difficulty was assessed based on tooth position in the dental arch and preoperative conditions. The radiographic quality of the root canal filling was evaluated by two endodontists blinded to treatment completion date. The evaluation criteria were adequate obturation, presence of mishaps and preparation taper. The data were statistically analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses; and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Inadequate obturation and mishaps were significantly less prevalent in teeth treated after 2 years of clinical training. The odds ratios for inadequate obturation and mishaps increased significantly as tooth position moved posteriorly. Inadequate obturation and more mishaps were significantly more prevalent in teeth with preoperative conditions. Preparation taper was not significantly affected by training duration or case difficulty. Conclusion: The quality of root canal fillings performed by Saudi students was adversely affected by case difficulty. The radiographic quality of root canal fillings improved significantly after 2 years of clinical training. Preparation taper outcome is likely dependent on the preparation technique and instrument taper. PMID:26523143

  12. Sealing ability of Dyract, Geristore, IRM, and super-EBA as root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Greer, B D; West, L A; Liewehr, F R; Pashley, D H

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the apical sealing ability of two compomers (Dyract and Geristore), IRM, and Super-EBA. Forty single canal roots from human teeth were instrumented until a size 40 file extended 1 mm beyond the apex. One millimeter of root apex was removed and a preparation 3-mm deep was prepared. Roots were divided into 4 groups of 10 roots each and filled with IRM, Super-EBA, Dyract, or Geristore. Canals were not obturated to ensure that any leakage was due to the apical filling material alone. Each root was then affixed to a fluid filtration device and subjected to a pressure of 14 cm of H2O, which has been determined to be the normal pulpal tissue pressure. The integrity of the seal was evaluated for 5 min at 1, 7, 30, and 180 days. Data were analyzed at each time point using one-way analysis of variance on ranks. The results of this study suggest that the new compomers Dyract and Geristore are equal or superior to IRM and equivalent to Super-EBA in their ability to reduce apical leakage when used as retrofilling materials.

  13. Tissue engineering in endodontics: root canal revascularization.

    PubMed

    Palit Madhu Chanda; Hegde, K Sundeep; Bhat, Sham S; Sargod, Sharan S; Mantha, Somasundar; Chattopadhyay, Sayan

    2014-01-01

    Root canal revascularization attempts to make necrotic tooth alive by the use of certain simple clinical protocols. Earlier apexification was the treatment of choice for treating and preserving immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This procedure promoted the formation of apical barrier to seal the root canal of immature teeth and nonvital filling materials contained within root canal space. However with the success of root canal revascularization to regenerate the pulp dentin complex of necrotic immature tooth has made us to rethink if apexification is at the beginning of its end. The objective of this review is to discuss the new concepts of tissue engineering in endodontics and the clinical steps of root canal revascularization.

  14. Influence of the length of remaining root canal filling and post space preparation on the coronal leakage of Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Mozini, Alexandra Conca Alves; Vansan, Luis P.; Sousa Neto, Manoel D.; Pietro, Rosimeire

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of different lengths of remaining root canal filling and post space preparation against coronal leakage of Enterococcus faecalis. Forty-one roots of maxillary incisors were biomechanically prepared, maintaining standardized canal diameter at the middle and coronal thirds. The roots were autoclaved and all subsequent steps were undertaken in a laminar flow chamber. The canals of 33 roots were obturated with AH Plus sealer and gutta-percha. The root canal fillings were reduced to 3 predetermined lengths (n=11): G1=6 mm, G2=4 mm and G3=2 mm. The remaining roots served as positive and negative controls. Bacterial leakage test apparatuses were fabricated with the roots attached to Eppendorf tubes keeping 2 mm of apex submerged in BHI in glass flasks. The specimens received an E. faecalis inoculum of 1 x 107 cfu/mL every 3 days and were observed for bacterial leakage daily during 60 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA, Tukey’s test and Fisher’s test. At 60 days, G1 (6 mm) and G2 (4 mm) presented statistically similar results (p>0.05) (54.4% of specimens with bacterial leakage) and both groups differed significantly (p<0.01) from G3 (2 mm), which presented 100% of specimens with E. faecalis leakage. It may be concluded that the shortest endodontic obturation remnant leaked considerably more than the other lengths, although none of the tested conditions avoids coronal leakage of E. faecalis. PMID:24031339

  15. Thermal Properties of Contemporary and Conventional Gutta Percha Materials Used in Root Canal Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-15

    Percha Materials Used in Root Canal Treatment INVESTIGATOR: Howard W. Roberts, Col, USAF, DC Director, Graduate Dental Research 81 DS/SGD 81...is the most widely used dental material for the obturation of root canal systems and has been used for over 100 years.1 The gutta-percha polymer...Commercially-available dental gutta-percha cones are heterogeneous materials with the polyisoprene component paradoxically not being the main constituent. Zinc

  16. Incidence of apical crack initiation and propagation during the removal of root canal filling material with ProTaper and Mtwo rotary nickel-titanium retreatment instruments and hand files.

    PubMed

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Düzgün, Salih; Kesim, Bertan; Tuncay, Oznur

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of crack initiation and propagation in apical root dentin after retreatment procedures performed by using 2 rotary retreatment systems and hand files with additional instrumentation. Eighty extracted mandibular premolars with single canals were selected. One millimeter from the apex of each tooth was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth, and the apical surface was polished. Twenty teeth served as the control group, and no preparation was performed. The remaining 60 teeth were prepared to size 35 with rotary files and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. Specimens were then divided into 3 groups (n = 20), and retreatment procedures were performed with the following devices and techniques: ProTaper Universal retreatment files, Mtwo retreatment files, and hand files. After retreatment, the additional instrumentation was performed by using size 40 ProTaper, Mtwo, and hand files. Digital images of the apical root surface were recorded before preparation, after instrumentation, after filling, after retreatment, and after additional instrumentation. The images were then inspected for the presence of any new apical cracks and propagation. Data were analyzed with the logistic regression and Fisher exact tests. All experimental groups caused crack initiation and propagation after use of retreatment instruments. The ProTaper and Mtwo retreatment groups caused greater crack initiation and propagation than the hand instrument group (P < .05) after retreatment. Additional instrumentation with ProTaper and Mtwo instruments after the use of retreatment instruments caused crack initiation and propagation, whereas hand files caused neither crack initiation nor propagation (P < .05). This study showed that retreatment procedures and additional instrumentation after the use of retreatment files may cause crack initiation and propagation in apical dentin. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists

  17. Effect of thermoplastic filling techniques on the push-out strength of root sealing materials.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Zigomar Hideo Fecchio Nasser; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa; Raucci Neto, Walter; Rached-Junior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Silva, Silvio Rocha Corrêa da; Alfredo, Edson

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of two thermoplastic obturation systems (MicroSeal and Obtura II) on bond strength of different sealers to intraradicular dentin. Sixty root canals of human canines were prepared using ProTaper rotary files (crown-down technique) and irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA. The root canals were filled by MicroSeal, Obtura II, or lateral compaction techniques using AH Plus and Epiphany SE. 1.5 mm thick root slices were subjected to the push-out test. ANOVA and Tukey's test showed that the bond strength values (MPa) observed in the groups obturated with MicroSeal (2.96 ± 2.72) and Obtura II (2.68 ± 2.18) did not significantly differ from each other (p > 0.05) but were significantly higher than that observed in the group obturated with lateral condensation (2.01 ± 1.48; p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in strength (p > 0.05) among the root canal thirds (cervical: 2.44 ± 2.03; middle: 2.50 ± 2.27; and apical: 2.70 ± 2.34). Adhesive failures were predominant (60%) in all groups. In conclusion, MicroSeal and Obtura II techniques, using AH plus sealer, increased the resistance to displacement of the filling material, when compared with lateral compaction. Moreover, when used with Epiphany SE, these obturation systems did not affect the bond strength of the material to root dentin.

  18. Push-out strength of fiber posts depending on the type of root canal filling and resin cement.

    PubMed

    Dimitrouli, Maria; Günay, Hüsamettin; Geurtsen, Werner; Lührs, Anne-Katrin

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the push-out strength of two fiber post systems/resin cements (RelyX Unicem/RelyX Fiber Post (RLX) and Variolink II/DT Light SL (VL)) depending on the root canal filling (RF). One hundred sixty extracted human teeth were divided into four groups: gutta-percha/AH Plus (GP), gutta-percha/Guttaflow (GF), pre-existing root canal filling (PRF), and without root canal filling (WRF). After root canal treatment, fiber posts were inserted using either RelyX® or Variolink II®/Excite DSC®. Half of the specimens were thermocycled (TC, 5,000 cycles, 5-55°C). All specimens were subjected to the push-out test (crosshead speed 1 mm/min). Three-way ANOVA showed a significant influence of either the RF or the resin cement/post system (p < 0.001). The highest bond strength was measured for VL-WRF without TC (16.5 ± 6.4 MPa). TC had no significant influence within the RLX groups. For groups PRF and WRF, significant differences were documented between VL and RLX (PRF 16.3 ± 6.0 vs 7.0 ± 2.4 MPa, p = 0.001; WRF 16.5 ± 6.4 vs 8.0 ± 5.0, p = 0.004) before TC. No differences were found after TC. The fracture mode analysis for VL showed mainly adhesive fractures between post and cement. For RLX, mixed fractures between post and tooth and between tooth and cement were predominantly determined. The adhesion of resin cements/post systems could be dependent on the type of RF. Higher bond strength values were found for the conventional ("etch and rinse") adhesive than for the "self-adhesive resin cement."

  19. Solubility and bacterial sealing ability of MTA and root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Espir, Camila Galletti; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Chávez-Andrade, Gisselle Moraima; Berbert, Fabio Luiz Camargo Villela; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Objective To evaluate solubility and sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and root-end filling materials. Material and Methods The materials evaluated were: MTA, Calcium Silicate Cement with zirconium oxide (CSC/ZrO2), and zinc oxide/eugenol (ZOE). Solubility test was performed according to ANSI/ADA. The difference between initial and final mass of the materials was analyzed after immersion in distilled water for 7 and 30 days. Retrograde cavities in human teeth with single straight root canal were performed by using ultrasonic tip CVD 9.5107-8. The cavities were filled with the evaluated materials to evaluate sealing ability using the bacterial leakage test with Enterococcus faecalis. Bacterial leakage was evaluated every 24 hours for six weeks observing the turbidity of Brain Heart infusion (BHI) medium in contact with root apex. Data were submitted to ANOVA followed by Tukey tests (solubility), and Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (sealing ability) at a 5% significance level. Results For the 7-day period, ZOE presented highest solubility when compared with the other groups (p<0.05). For the 30-day period, no difference was observed among the materials. Lower bacterial leakage was observed for MTA and CSC/ZrO2, and both presented better results than ZOE (p<0.05). Conclusion MTA and CSC/ZrO2 presented better bacterial sealing capacity, which may be related to lower initial solubility observed for these materials in relation to ZOE.

  20. Solubility and bacterial sealing ability of MTA and root-end filling materials

    PubMed Central

    ESPIR, Camila Galletti; GUERREIRO-TANOMARU, Juliane Maria; SPIN-NETO, Rubens; CHÁVEZ-ANDRADE, Gisselle Moraima; BERBERT, Fabio Luiz Camargo Villela; TANOMARU-FILHO, Mario

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate solubility and sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and root-end filling materials. Material and Methods The materials evaluated were: MTA, Calcium Silicate Cement with zirconium oxide (CSC/ZrO2), and zinc oxide/eugenol (ZOE). Solubility test was performed according to ANSI/ADA. The difference between initial and final mass of the materials was analyzed after immersion in distilled water for 7 and 30 days. Retrograde cavities in human teeth with single straight root canal were performed by using ultrasonic tip CVD 9.5107-8. The cavities were filled with the evaluated materials to evaluate sealing ability using the bacterial leakage test with Enterococcus faecalis. Bacterial leakage was evaluated every 24 hours for six weeks observing the turbidity of Brain Heart infusion (BHI) medium in contact with root apex. Data were submitted to ANOVA followed by Tukey tests (solubility), and Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (sealing ability) at a 5% significance level. Results For the 7-day period, ZOE presented highest solubility when compared with the other groups (p<0.05). For the 30-day period, no difference was observed among the materials. Lower bacterial leakage was observed for MTA and CSC/ZrO2, and both presented better results than ZOE (p<0.05). Conclusion MTA and CSC/ZrO2 presented better bacterial sealing capacity, which may be related to lower initial solubility observed for these materials in relation to ZOE. PMID:27119759

  1. Root canal

    MedlinePlus

    ... an infection that affects the pulp of a tooth. Generally, there is pain and swelling in the area. The infection can ... their normal routine the next day. Until the tooth is permanently filled or covered with a crown, you should avoid rough chewing in the area.

  2. Bacterial leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate as compared with zinc-free amalgam, intermediate restorative material, and Super-EBA as a root-end filling material.

    PubMed

    Fischer, E J; Arens, D E; Miller, C H

    1998-03-01

    Several dye leakage studies have demonstrated the fact that mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) leaks significantly less than other root-end filling materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the time needed for Serratia marcescens to penetrate a 3 mm thickness of zinc-free amalgam, Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), Super-EBA, and MTA when these materials were used as root-end filling materials. Fifty-six, single-rooted extracted human teeth were cleaned and shaped with a series of .04 Taper rotary instruments (Pro-series 29 files). Once the canals were prepared in a crown down approach, the ends were resected and 48 root-end cavities were ultrasonically prepared to a 3 mm depth. The teeth were then steam sterilized. Using an aseptic technique, under a laminar air flow hood, the root-end cavities were filled with amalgam, IRM, Super-EBA, and MTA. Four root-end cavities were filled with thermoplasticized gutta-percha without a root canal sealer and served as positive controls. Another four root-end cavities were filled with sticky wax covered with two layers of nail polish and served as negative controls. The teeth were attached to presterilized (ethylene oxide gas) plastic caps, and the root ends were placed into 12-ml vials of phenol red broth. Using a micropipette, a tenth of a milliliter of S. marcescens was placed into the root canal of each tooth. To test the sterility of the apparatus set-up, the root canals of two teeth with test root-end filling materials and one tooth from the positive and negative control groups were filled with sterile saline. The number of days required for S. marcescens to penetrate the four root-end filling materials and grow in the phenol red broth was recorded and analyzed. Most of the samples filled with zinc-free amalgam leaked bacteria in 10 to 63 days. IRM began leaking 28 to 91 days. Super-EBA began leaking 42 to 101 days. MTA did not begin leaking until day 49. At the end of the study, four of the MTA samples

  3. [Behavior of different strains of Staphylococcus aureus against root canal filling cements].

    PubMed

    Pumarola, J; Berástegui, E; Canalda, C; Brau, E

    1991-01-01

    The mean goal of this study is the determination of the conduct of 120 strains of Staphylococcus aureus against seven root canal sealers: Traitement Spad, Endométhasone, N2 Universal, AH26 with silver, Diaket-A, Tubli Seal and Sealapex. The agar diffusion test was employed in the determination of its bacterial growth inhibition. The results obtained have demonstrated values very different between the tested strains. Therefore we recommended to employ strains with reference in the investigation of the bacterial growth inhibition in order to repeat equal experimentation conditions.

  4. Effect of photodynamic therapy and non-thermal plasma on root canal filling: analysis of adhesion and sealer penetration.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Marilia; Prado, Maíra; Gomes, Brenda; Gusman, Heloisa; Simão, Renata

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and non-thermal plasma (NTP) on adhesion and sealer penetration in root canals. Sixty single-rooted premolars were used. The teeth were prepared using a crown-down technique. NaOCl and EDTA were used for irrigation and smear layer removal, respectively. The root canals were divided into three groups: control, PDT, and NTP. After treatments, the roots were filled using gutta-percha and either AH Plus (AHP) or MTA Fillapex (MTAF) sealers. Samples were sectioned at 4, 8, and 12 mm from the apex (1-mm slices)and analyzed by the push-out bond strength test (adhesion) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (sealer penetration). Data were statistically evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn's, and Spearman's tests. Regarding AHP, bond strength was similar in the NTP group and in the control group, but significantly lower in the PDT group. As to MTAF, both therapies showed lower values than the control group. In the confocal analysis of AHP, maximum and mean penetration, and penetrated area were statistically higher in the control group than in the PDT and NTP groups. Penetrated perimeter was similar among groups. Regarding MTAF, all parameters yielded better results in the NTP than in the control group. The PDT and control groups showed similar results except for penetrated area. PDT and plasma therapy affected the adhesion and sealer penetration of root canals filled with AH Plus and MTA Fillapex and there is no positive correlation between adhesion and sealer penetration.

  5. Push-out Bond Strength of Root-end Filling Materials.

    PubMed

    Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Bosso-Martelo, Roberta; Costa, Bernardo Cesar; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of root-end filling materials. Forty 2-mm-thick slices were obtained from human single-rooted teeth. After root canal preparation using a 1.5 mm diameter cylindrical drill, the dentinal walls were prepared by diamond ultrasonic tip (CVD T0F-2). The specimens were divided according the material (n=10): MTA Angelus (MTAA), MTA Sealer (MTAS, experimental), Sealer 26 (S26) and zinc oxide and eugenol cement (ZOE). The push-out test was performed in a mechanical test machine (EMIC DL 2000) at 1 mm/min speed. The failure type was evaluated by stereomicroscopy. The results were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey test, at 5% significance level. MTAA (19.18 MPa), MTAS (19.13 MPa) and S26 (15.91 MPa) showed higher bond strength (p<0.05). ZOE (9.50 MPa) showed the least bond strength values (p<0.05). Adhesive failure was prevalent in all groups, except for ZOE, which showed mixed failures. It was concluded that root-end filling materials MTA Angelus, MTA Sealer and Sealer 26 showed higher bond strength to dentinal walls than zinc oxide and eugenol cement after retrograde preparation.

  6. Root apex sealing with different filling materials photopolymerized with argon ion laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupato Conrado, Luis Augusto; Frois, Iris M.; Amaro Zangaro, Renato; Munin, Egberto

    2003-06-01

    The present study evaluates the seal quality in apex delta of single root human teeth filled with light-curing materials (Ultrablend Calcium-hydroxide, Vitremer glass ionomer and Flow-Fill Magic composite). 45 roots prepared by the endo PTC/Dakin technique were used. All prepared samples received photopolymerization with the blue 488 nm argon ion laser light. A 200 μm optical fiber introduced into the root canal delivered 100 mW of light power to the light-curing material. The fiber tip was positioned 5 mm away from the apex. Light was applied for 20 seconds. After curing, the samples received impermeabilization with ethyl-cyanoacrylate, leaving only the apex exposed, and then immersed in a methylene-blue dye solution for 24 hours. The samples were cut longitudinally and analyzed under a stereoscopic microscope for dye infiltration. It was found that those samples sealed with Ultrablend Calcium-hydroxide or the glass ionomer presented the best results, as compared to those samples sealed with the Flow-Fill Magic composite. No statistically significant difference was observed between the group treated with Ultrablend Calcium-hydroxide and the group treated with the glass ionomer, for a significance level of 0.05.

  7. Cross-sectional evaluation of the periapical status as related to quality of root canal fillings and coronal restorations in a rural adult male population of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Kaan; Avsever, Hakan; Orhan, Kaan; Demirkaya, Kadriye

    2011-06-20

    To determine the prevalence of periapical lesions in root canal-treated teeth in a rural, male adult, Turkish population and to investigate the influence of the quality of root canal fillings on prevalence of periapical lesions. The sample for this cross-sectional study consisted of 552 adult male patients, 18-32 years of age, presenting consecutively as new patients seeking routine dental care at the Dental Sciences of Gulhane Military Medicine, Ankara. The radiographs of the 1014 root canal-treated teeth were evaluated. The teeth were grouped according to the radiographic quality of the root canal filling and the coronal restoration. The criteria used for the examination were slightly modified from those described by De Moor. Periapical status was assessed by the Periapical Index scores (PAI) proposed by Orstavik. The overall success rate of root canal treatment was 32.1%. The success rates of adequately root canal treatment were significantly higher than inadequately root canal treatment, regardless of the quality or presence of the coronal restoration (P < .001). In addition, the success rate of inadequate root canal treatment was also significantly affected by the quality of coronal restorations. Our results revealed a high prevalence of periapical lesions in root canal treatment, which is comparable to that reported in other methodologically compatible studies from diverse geographical locations. In addition, the results from the present study confirm the findings of other studies that found the quality of the root canal treatment to be a key factor for prognosis with or without adequate coronal restoration.

  8. Cross-sectional evaluation of the periapical status as related to quality of root canal fillings and coronal restorations in a rural adult male population of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of periapical lesions in root canal-treated teeth in a rural, male adult, Turkish population and to investigate the influence of the quality of root canal fillings on prevalence of periapical lesions. Methods The sample for this cross-sectional study consisted of 552 adult male patients, 18-32 years of age, presenting consecutively as new patients seeking routine dental care at the Dental Sciences of Gulhane Military Medicine, Ankara. The radiographs of the 1014 root canal-treated teeth were evaluated. The teeth were grouped according to the radiographic quality of the root canal filling and the coronal restoration. The criteria used for the examination were slightly modified from those described by De Moor. Periapical status was assessed by the Periapical Index scores (PAI) proposed by Orstavik. Results The overall success rate of root canal treatment was 32.1%. The success rates of adequately root canal treatment were significantly higher than inadequately root canal treatment, regardless of the quality or presence of the coronal restoration (P < .001). In addition, the success rate of inadequate root canal treatment was also significantly affected by the quality of coronal restorations. Conclusions Our results revealed a high prevalence of periapical lesions in root canal treatment, which is comparable to that reported in other methodologically compatible studies from diverse geographical locations. In addition, the results from the present study confirm the findings of other studies that found the quality of the root canal treatment to be a key factor for prognosis with or without adequate coronal restoration. PMID:21689415

  9. The efficacy of the Self-Adjusting File versus WaveOne in removal of root filling residue that remains in oval canals after the use of ProTaper retreatment files: A cone-beam computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Ajinkya M; Thakur, Bhagyashree; Metzger, Zvi; Kfir, Anda; Pawar, Mansing

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The current ex vivo study compared the efficacy of removing root fillings using ProTaper retreatment files followed by either WaveOne reciprocating file or the Self-Adjusting File (SAF). Materials and Methods: Forty maxillary canines with single oval root canal were selected and sectioned to obtain 18-mm root segments. The root canals were instrumented with WaveOne primary files, followed by obturation using warm lateral compaction, and the sealer was allowed to fully set. The teeth were then divided into two equal groups (N = 20). Initial removal of the bulk of root filling material was performed with ProTaper retreatment files, followed by either WaveOne files (Group 1) or SAF (Group 2). Endosolv R was used as a gutta-percha softener. Preoperative and postoperative high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the volume of the root filling residue that was left after the procedure. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test. Results: The mean volume of root filling residue in Group 1 was 9.4 (±0.5) mm3, whereas in Group 2 the residue volume was 2.6 (±0.4) mm3, (P < 0.001; t-test). Conclusions: When SAF was used after ProTaper retreatment files, significantly less root filling residue was left in the canals compared to when WaveOne was used. PMID:26957798

  10. MICROBIAL LEAKAGE AND APICAL INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN DOG’S TEETH AFTER ROOT CANAL FILLING WITH DIFFERENT SEALERS, POST SPACE PREPARATION AND EXPOSURE TO THE ORAL ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Maximiliano Schünke; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Bona, Alvaro Della; Vanni, José Roberto; Pereira, Charles da Cunha; de Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli

    2007-01-01

    Coronal leakage is an important factor affecting the outcome of endodontic therapy. This study evaluated the microbial leakage (ML) and the apical inflammatory response (AIR) in dog’s teeth after root canal filling with three endodontic sealers, post preparation and exposure to the oral environment, testing the hypothesis that there is a positive correlation between these two histological parameters (ML and AIR). Sixty-four root canals of 8 mongrel dogs were cleaned, shaped and randomly distributed into groups according to the sealer to be used: Sealer 26 (n=18); AH Plus (n=18); RoekoSeal (n=19); no sealer – control group (n=9). Root canals were filled by the lateral condensation technique. Post space preparation left 4 mm of filling material in the apical root third, and specimens were exposed to the oral environment for 90 days. The dogs were killed and jaw blocks were histologically processed using Brown & Brenn and HE staining techniques. ML and AIR were scored from 1 to 4. Results were analyzed statistically using ANOVA, Duncan’s post-hoc test and Spearman’s correlation. ML and AIR score means were: Sealer 26 - 2.44±0.98 and 2.50±0.70; AH Plus - 2.50±0.78 and 2.22±0.54; RoekoSeal - 1.84±0.95 and 2.63±0.83; Control - 2.56±1.23 and 3.11±0.60. Statistically significant differences in AIR scores were found between the AH Plus and control groups (p<0.05). Although RoekoSeal had the lowest ML means, and AH Plus, the lowest AIR means after 90-day exposure to the oral environment, no statistically significant differences were found between the three sealers under study, and no correlation was found between ML and AIR. PMID:19089174

  11. The Effect of Thickness on the Sealing Ability of CEM Cement as a Root-end Filling Material

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Saeed; Asgary, Saeed; Samiei, Mohammad; Bahari, Mahmoud; Vahid Pakdel, Seyyed Mahdi; Mahmoudi, Rasoul

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Different materials have been used for root-end filling during surgical endodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the dye penetration in different thicknesses of calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement as root-end filling material. Materials and methods. Following root canal filling in 70 extracted human single-rooted premolar teeth, the apical 3 mm of their root-ends was resected; the root-end cavities with depths of 1, 2 and 3 mm were prepared by ultrasonic retrotips and filled with CEM cement. After setting of cement, the roots were immersed in 2% Rhodamine B and the dye leakage was measured under stereomicroscope (×16) using Image J software. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests at 5% significance level. Results. The means and standard deviations of dye penetration in the 1, 2, and 3 mm groups were 3395.5±1893.4, 3410.4±1440.5, and 2581.6±1852.9 μm, respectively. The one-way ANOVA analysis indicated significant differences (P < 0.001); however, the Bonferroni post hoc test revealed that only the positive control group differed significantly from the experimental groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The findings demonstrated CEM cement to have an adequate root-end sealing ability in 3-mm thickness. PMID:25973147

  12. Root canal irrigants.

    PubMed

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-10-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were 'root canal irrigants' and 'endodontic irrigants.' The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  13. Root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ‘root canal irrigants’ and ‘endodontic irrigants.’ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:21217955

  14. Antibacterial Effectiveness of 2 Root Canal Irrigants in Root-filled Teeth with Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Homan; Rodrigues, Renata C V; Kristoffersen, Anne K; Enersen, Morten; Mdala, Ibrahimu; Ørstavik, Dag; Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the antibacterial effects of 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) during retreatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. Root canal-treated teeth with apical periodontitis were randomly distributed into 2 groups. Bacteriological samples were taken from the canals before (S1) and after (S2) preparation using either NaOCl or CHX irrigation and after calcium hydroxide medication (S3); 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify total bacteria, streptococci, and Enterococcus faecalis. Forty-nine teeth were available for analysis (NaOCl, n = 20; CHX, n = 29). Bacterial DNA occurred in all S1 samples, streptococci in 57% and E. faecalis in 6%. The total bacterial counts decreased from S1 to S2 in both groups (P < .01) but were higher in S3 than S2 (P < .01). Thirty-five percent of the teeth in the NaOCl group were positive in S2, decreasing to 20% in S3. In the CHX group, 41% were positive in S2, decreasing to 31% in S3. The bacterial load in S1 influenced the incidence of bacteria in S2 (P < .01). Streptococci were significantly reduced in both groups, and E. faecalis was found in only 1 S2 sample and not in S3. No significant difference between NaOCl and CHX was found. NaOCl and CHX both reduced bacterial counts and the number of infected canals. Intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide reduced the number of canals with persistent infection but resulted in overall larger bacterial counts in the cases positive for bacteria. The effectiveness of antimicrobial treatment can be influenced by the initial bacterial load. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Micro-Computed Tomography Study of Filling Material Removal from Oval-shaped Canals by Using Rotary, Reciprocating, and Adaptive Motion Systems.

    PubMed

    Crozeta, Bruno Monguilhott; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Fantinato, Thais; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated filling material removal from distal oval-shaped canals of mandibular molars with rotary, reciprocating, and adaptive motion systems by using micro-computed tomography. After cone-beam computed tomography scanning, 21 teeth were selected, prepared up to a size 40 file, root filled, and divided into 3 groups (n = 7) according to the filling material removal technique: group PTUR, ProTaper Universal Retreatment combined with ProTaper Universal F2, F3, F4, and F5 files; group RP, Reciproc R50 file; and group TFA: TF Adaptive 50.04 files. The specimens were scanned preoperatively and postoperatively to assess filling material removal by using micro-computed tomography imaging, and the percent volume of residual filling material was calculated. The statistical analysis showed the lowest percent volume of residual filling material at the coronal third in all groups (P < .05). There was no significant difference among the systems in the coronal third (P > .05). In the middle third, group TFA (31.2 ± 10.1) showed lower volume of residual filling material than group RP (52.4 ± 14.1) (P < .05). In the apical third, groups TFA (44.8 ± 20.6) and PTUR (48.6 ± 16.8) presented a lower percent volume of filling material than group RP (70.6 ± 7.2) (P < .05), as confirmed by the qualitative analysis. The use of the adaptive motion increased the amount of root filling removed in the middle and apical thirds compared with the reciprocating motion. However, no technique was able to completely remove the filling material from the canals. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Use of root-end filling materials in a surgical apical endodontic treatment in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Bronkhorst, M A; Bergé, S J; Van Damme, Ph A; Borstlap, W A; Merkx, M A W

    2008-08-01

    The material to be used for closing the root canal when carrying out a retrograde surgical apical endodontic treatment continues to be a subject of discussion. The aim of the present study was to inventory which materials are being used for this purpose at this moment by Dutch O&MF surgeons. All practicing Dutch OM&F surgeons (n = 195) were sent a questionnaire. The response rate was 77%. The results showed that at this moment intermediate restoration material (IRM) is the retrograde filling material most widely used by the Dutch O&MF surgeons (47.6%) in cases of surgical apical endodontic treatment. Amalgam, with 35%, was second, especially due to its plasticity and convenience. The choice of material is just as often determined by tradition, personal preference, individual experience or scientific results. There seems to be no relationship between the dental surgeon's number of years of experience and the type of retro grade filling material which he or she uses.

  17. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  18. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  19. Concurrent Effects of Bleaching Materials and the Size of Root Canal Preparation on Cervical Dentin Microhardness

    PubMed Central

    Kazemipoor, Maryam; Azad, Shaghayegh; Farahat, Farnaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concurrent effect of root canal preparation size and intra coronal bleaching on dentin microhardness. Methods and Materials: Seventy-two intact anterior teeth were root canal treated and randomly divided into two groups (n=36) according to the size of coronal root canal preparation. The coronal portions of the canals were then enlarged with #2 and 4 Peeso reamers, respectively. Following root canal obturation, teeth were assigned into three groups (n=12) to be treated with bleaching agents containing 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP), sodium perborate (SP) and distilled water as control group. The teeth were stored at 37ºC and 100% humidity for 7 days. Dentinal blocks with 3 mm thickness were obtained from the cervical region and Vickers microhardness number (VHN) were measured for outer and inner dentin in each tooth sample. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD tests. Results: In the outer dentin, the mean VHN in the HP and control groups showed statistically significant differences (P=0.047). The mean VHN of inner dentin for the large preparation size was statistically higher in comparison to the small preparation size (P=0.042). There was a statistically significant difference in the mean VHN of inner dentin with small preparation size between HP and SP groups (P=0.029) and HP and control groups (P=0.021). Conclusion: Intra coronal bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide, affects the inner and outer dentin significantly. Excessive removal of cervical dentin, following root canal preparation, alongside the adverse effect of bleaching materials on dentin could result in the tooth fracture. PMID:28808454

  20. Effect of Instrument Design and Access Outlines on the Removal of Root Canal Obturation Materials in Oval-shaped Canals.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Tuomas K; Marchesan, Melissa A; Lloyd, Adam; Seltzer, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of TRUShape (TS) instruments with ProFile Vortex Blue (VB) instruments for the removal of obturation materials during retreatment of single-canal mandibular premolars performed through 2 access outlines. Initial root canal treatment was completed through a contracted endodontic cavity (CEC) design. Canals were instrumented to an F2 ProTaper instrument, obturated with warm lateral condensation of gutta-percha with AH Plus sealer, and allowed to set for 30 days at 37°C and 100% humidity. For retreatment, specimens were divided into 2 groups (n = 24) on the basis of access outline, CEC or traditional endodontic cavity (TEC). Retreatment was initiated by using ProTaper Retreatment instruments (D1-D3). Specimens were then stratified, further divided (n = 12), and reinstrumented up to TS 40 .06v or 40 .06 VB. Irrigation was performed by using 8.25% NaOCl and QMix 2in1. Retreatment time was recorded. Teeth were sectioned and photographed, and the percentage of remaining obturation materials was measured. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance for two-factor tests (α < 0.05). The interaction between access design and instrument type showed that the combination of CEC-VB presented significantly higher amounts of remaining obturation materials on the canal surface when compared with TEC-VB, CEC-TS, and TEC-TS (P ≤ .05). None of these other combinations were different from each other (P > .05). Significantly more time was required for retreatment with CEC-TS (27.68 ± 1.4 minutes) than the other groups (P < .05). Neither retreatment protocol was able to completely eliminate all obturation materials from the root canal surface of mandibular premolars. However, in the presence of a CEC access design, using TS instruments removed more obturating material in single-rooted, oval-shaped canals. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Concurrent Effects of Bleaching Materials and the Size of Root Canal Preparation on Cervical Dentin Microhardness.

    PubMed

    Kazemipoor, Maryam; Azad, Shaghayegh; Farahat, Farnaz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concurrent effect of root canal preparation size and intra coronal bleaching on dentin microhardness. Seventy-two intact anterior teeth were root canal treated and randomly divided into two groups (n=36) according to the size of coronal root canal preparation. The coronal portions of the canals were then enlarged with #2 and 4 Peeso reamers, respectively. Following root canal obturation, teeth were assigned into three groups (n=12) to be treated with bleaching agents containing 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP), sodium perborate (SP) and distilled water as control group. The teeth were stored at 37(º)C and 100% humidity for 7 days. Dentinal blocks with 3 mm thickness were obtained from the cervical region and Vickers microhardness number (VHN) were measured for outer and inner dentin in each tooth sample. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. In the outer dentin, the mean VHN in the HP and control groups showed statistically significant differences (P=0.047). The mean VHN of inner dentin for the large preparation size was statistically higher in comparison to the small preparation size (P=0.042). There was a statistically significant difference in the mean VHN of inner dentin with small preparation size between HP and SP groups (P=0.029) and HP and control groups (P=0.021). Intra coronal bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide, affects the inner and outer dentin significantly. Excessive removal of cervical dentin, following root canal preparation, alongside the adverse effect of bleaching materials on dentin could result in the tooth fracture.

  2. Endodontic management of maxillary first molar with seven root canals diagnosed using Cone Beam Computed Tomography scanning.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Srinidhi Surya; Hindlekar, Ajit Narayan; Desai, Niranjan Nanasaheb; Vyavahare, Nishant Kishor; Napte, Bandu Devrao

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of root canal treatment is thorough cleaning and shaping of the entire pulp space and its complete filling with an inert filling material. A major cause of post-treatment disease is the inability to locate, debride or adequately fill all canals of the root canal system. The form, configuration, and number of root canals in the maxillary first molars have been discussed for more than half a century. Maxillary first molars commonly present with three roots and three canals, with a second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) also present. With the advent of improved magnification there are reports of multiple root canals in the maxillary first molars. Nonsurgical endodontic therapy of a left maxillary first molar with three roots and seven root canals was successfully performed under a dental operating microscope. The diagnosis of multiple root canals was confirmed with the help of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images.

  3. Micro-computed tomography analysis of post space preparation in root canals filled with carrier-based thermoplasticized gutta-percha.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, A A; Ford, N L; Coil, J M

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether post space preparation deviated from the root canal preparation in canals filled with Thermafil, GuttaCore or warm vertically compacted gutta-percha. Forty-two extracted human permanent maxillary lateral incisors were decoronated, and their root canals instrumented using a standardized protocol. Samples were divided into three groups and filled with Thermafil (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Johnson City, TN, USA), GuttaCore (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties) or warm vertically compacted gutta-percha, before post space preparation was performed with a GT Post drill (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties). Teeth were scanned using micro-computed tomography after root filling and again after post space preparation. Scans were examined for number of samples with post space deviation, linear deviation of post space preparation and minimum root thickness before and after post space preparation. Parametric data were analysed with one-way analysis of variance (anova) or one-tailed paired Student's t-tests, whilst nonparametric data were analysed with Fisher's exact test. Deviation occurred in eight of forty-two teeth (19%), seven of fourteen from the Thermafil group (50%), one of fourteen from the GuttaCore group (7%), and none from the gutta-percha group. Deviation occurred significantly more often in the Thermafil group than in each of the other two groups (P < 0.05). Linear deviation of post space preparation was greater in the Thermafil group than in both of the other groups and was significantly greater than that of the gutta-percha group (P < 0.05). Minimum root thickness before post space preparation was significantly greater than it was after post space preparation for all groups (P < 0.01). The differences between the Thermafil, GuttaCore and gutta-percha groups in the number of samples with post space deviation and in linear deviation of post space preparation were associated with the presence or absence of a carrier as well as the

  4. Excisional wound healing following the use of IRM as a root-end filling material.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J W; Johnson, S A

    1997-01-01

    Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) has been advocated as a root-end filling material based primarily on reports of clinical success and various leakage studies. The objectives of this study were to determine the excisional wound healing responses of the periradicular tissues to IRM root-end filling material and to compare this with the wound healing responses to amalgam and orthograde gutta-percha root-end filling materials. Mandibular premolars in dogs were obturated, root-ends resected, and the healing responses associated with root-end fillings of IRM, amalgam, and orthograde gutta-percha were evaluated microscopically and radiographically at postsurgical intervals of 10 and 45 days. The excisional wound healing responses associated with IRM root-end fillings were normal at both postsurgical intervals. There was no evidence of inhibition of dentoalveolar or osseous wound healing associated with IRM, amalgam, or orthograde gutta-percha. Statistical analysis showed no difference in wound healing between the 3 root-end filling materials.

  5. Comparative evaluation of the apical sealing ability of a ceramic based sealer and MTA as root-end filling materials - An in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Bhavana; Halebathi-Gowdra, Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate and compare the apical sealing ability of two endodontic root-end filling materials namely, iRoot SP (ceramic based) and ProRoot MTA using the bacterial leakage system. A total of fifty recently extracted, single rooted teeth with a single straight canal were selected for the study. The teeth were chemo mechanically prepared. The apical 3mm of the root was resected and root end cavities were prepared. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups of twenty teeth each for the experimental root end filling materials namely, iRoot SP and ProRoot MTA. A two-chamber model was constructed using pippeter tips and plastic vials. The pipetter tips with the teeth were suspended in these caps and the entire assembly was reattached to the vial. The upper chamber was seeded withEnterococcus faecalis. An Enterococci-selective broth was used in the lower chamber. Leakage was assessed for 90 days and compared using survival statistics. The ProRoot MTA filled root end samples leaked within 30-72 days. The iRoot SP filled root end samples leaked within 51-69 days. Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that all the tested materials showed significant apical sealing ability as root-end filling materials over a period of 90 days. iRoot SP exhibited the most effective apical sealing ability as compared to ProRoot MTA. Key words:Apical sealing ability, Bacterial leakage, iRoot SP, ProRoot MTA, Root-end filling.

  6. Sealing ability of MTA used as a root end filling material: effect of the sonic and ultrasonic condensation.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Bernabé, Daniel Galera; Nery, Mauro Juvenal; Otoboni-Filho, José Arlindo; Dezan-Jr, Eloi; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Despite the excellent properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), the condensation technique may have some influence in its sealing ability. The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of sonic and ultrasonic setting of MTA. Thirty-four extracted human teeth had their canals prepared and filled with Sealapex sealer and gutta-percha using the active lateral condensation technique. The teeth were rendered waterproof and apicoectomy performed at 3 mm from the apex. Root-end cavities (3.0 mm deep and 1.4 mm diameter) were prepared with diamond ultrasonic tips. The root-end cavities were filled with Pro-Root MTA® with ultrasonic vibration, sonic vibration or no vibration. The positive control group did not receive any material while the negative control group was totally rendered waterproof. After material set, the specimens were immersed in Rodhamine B for 24 h, under vacuum in the first 15 min, then washed, dried and split longitudinally for evaluating the infiltration at the dentin/material interface. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. Sonic vibration promoted the lowest infiltration values (p<0.05). It was concluded that sonic vibration could be considered an efficient aid to improve the sealing ability of MTA when used as root-end filling material.

  7. In vitro evaluation of the minimum bactericidal concentrations of different root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Oktay, Elif Aybala; Kiliç, Abdullah; Yaman, Sis Darendeliler

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of root-end filling materials ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus and IRM. Macrodilution broth method was used. Microorganisms used were: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Streptococcus mutans. Serial two-fold dilutions of root-end filling samples were prepared in macrodilution tubes with concentrations ranging from 1/2 to 1/512. The samples dilutions were incubated for 24 hours. After incubation, 0.1 ml of diluted culture was inoculated onto the surface of supplemented sheep blood agar (Merck, Germany) and all plates were incubated at 37°C in aerobic condition for 24 hours. The MBC was defined as the lowest concentration of root-end filling samples where no growth was recorded. MBC of both mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) products against S. aureus were recorded as 15.62 mg/ml and for IRM 31.25 mg/ml MBC for both MTA groups against E. faecalis were recorded as 31.25 mg/ml and for IRM 62.5 mg/ml. MBC of all root-end filling samples against S. mutans were recorded as 62.5 mg/ml. All tested root-end filling materials showed acceptable MBC against S. aureus and E. faecalis. All tested materials can be used safely for filling of a root-end cavity.

  8. To evaluate the influence of smear layer with different instruments and obturation methods on microleakage of root canal filled teeth: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Likhitkar, Manoj S.; Kulkarni, Shantaram V.; Burande, Aravind; Solanke, Vishal; Kumar, C. Sushil; Kamble, Babasaheb

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The success of root canal treatment depends on proper debridement, instrumentation, proper accessibility, and proper restoration. The presence of a smear layer is considered to be a significant factor. This in vitro study was conducted to assess the effect of the presence/absence of a smear layer on the microleakage of root canal filled teeth using different instruments and obturation methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred extracted mandibular premolars with closed apices and single roots were chosen and then divided into six groups, A to F, consisting of 15 teeth each. The control group included 10 teeth; 5 positive and 5 negative. The teeth were decoronated at the cementoenamel junction. Groups A, B, C, and D were instrumented with engine-driven rotary Protaper NiTi files. Groups E and F were instrumented with conventional stainless steel hand files. Groups A, C, and E were flushed with 3 ml of 17% EDTA to remove the smear layer prior to obturation. All teeth were flushed with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution and obturated with AH-Plus sealer with lateral condensation technique for Groups C, D, E, F and with thermoplasticized gutta-percha technique for Groups A and B. Using an electrochemical technique, leakages in the obturated canals were assessed for 45 days. The results were tabulated using Student's t-test (paired and unpaired t-test) with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software Version 21 (IBM Company, New York, USA). Results: Group A showed the lowest mean value at intervals of 10, 20, 30, and 45 days. There was no current flow in the negative controls during the test period. There was leakage in the positive controls within a few minutes of immersion. Conclusion: The results showed that rotary instrumentation contributed toward an exceptional preparation of root canals compared to hand instrumentation. Elimination of the smear layer enhanced the resistance to microleakage; thermoplasticized gutta

  9. Sealing ability, marginal adaptation and their correlation using three root-end filling materials as apical plugs

    PubMed Central

    OROSCO, Fernando Accorsi; BRAMANTE, Clovis Monteiro; GARCIA, Roberto Brandão; BERNARDINELI, Norberti; de MORAES, Ivaldo Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study used dye leakage assay and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate, respectively, the sealing ability and marginal adaptation of three root-end filling materials used as apical plugs, as well as the possible correlation between these properties. Material and Methods Ninety-eight single-rooted human teeth were prepared to simulate an open apex. The teeth were allocated to three experimental groups (n = 30), which received a 5-mm thick apical plug of (1) gray MTA AngelusTM, (2) CPMTM and (3) MBPc, and two controls groups (n = 4). After immersion in 0.2% Rhodamine B solution for 48 h, the teeth were sectioned longitudinally and analyzed by Image Tool 3.0 software. The marginal adaptation between apical plugs and the root canal walls were analyzed by SEM. Results MBPc had significantly less (p<0.05) apical leakage than the other materials. Regarding marginal adaptation, CPMTM showed the best numerical results, though without statistical significance from the other materials (p<0.05). There was no correlation between the two properties. Conclusions When used as apical plugs, the tested root-end filling materials had similar marginal adaptation to the dentin walls, but MBPc had the best sealing ability, as demonstrated by the least apical leakage from all tested materials. PMID:20485923

  10. Efficacy of ultrasonic activation of NaOCl and orange oil in removing filling material from mesial canals of mandibular molars with and without isthmus

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; da Rosa, Ricardo Abreu; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Duarte, Marco Antônio Húngaro; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Só, Marcos Vinícius Reis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the volume of remaining filling material after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and orange oil in mesial canals of mandibular molars, with and without isthmus. Material and Methods Thirty mesial roots of mandibular molars were divided according to the presence or absence of isthmus. Canals were prepared and filled (Micro-CT #1). Filling was removed using rotary instruments, and specimens were sub-divided into three groups according to the irrigation procedures: Conventional – conventional irrigation with NaOCl, PUI/NaOCl – PUI of NaOCl (three activations, 20 seconds each), and PUI/orange oil – PUI of orange oil (Micro-CT#2). Specimens were enlarged using the X2 and X3 ProTaper Next instruments and submitted to the same irrigation protocols (Micro-CT #3). Results No differences were found between the experimental groups in each stage of assessment (P>0.05). The volume of residual filling material was similar to those in Micro-CT #2 and Micro-CT #3, but lower than those observed in Micro-CT #1 (P<0.05). When groups were pooled according to the presence or absence of an isthmus, volume of residual filling material was higher in specimens presenting isthmus (P<0.05). Conclusions PUI of NaOCl or orange oil did not improve filling removal. Isthmus consists in an anatomical obstacle that impairs the removal of filling material. PMID:26200525

  11. Nanodiamond-Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K; Ho, Dean

    2015-11-24

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes.

  12. Bacterial leakage in root canals filled with resin-based and mineral trioxide aggregate-based sealers

    PubMed Central

    Razavian, Hamid; Barekatain, Behnaz; Shadmehr, Elham; Khatami, Mahdieh; Bagheri, Fahime; Heidari, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sealing ability is one of the most important features of endodontic sealers. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the sealing ability of a resin-based sealer with a mineral trioxide aggregate-based sealer. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 single-rooted extracted human teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n = 25) and two control groups (n = 5). After canal preparation and smear layer removal, both groups were obturated with gutta-percha and sealer. Resin-based AH26 sealer was used in the first group and Fillapex® sealer in the second group. Two layers of nail varnish were applied on tooth surfaces except for the apical 2 mm. In the negative control group, nail varnish was applied on the entire surface. The teeth were mounted according to Lima et al. study and then sterilized by ethylene oxide gas. The samples were evaluated for bacterial microleakage using Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) for 90 days. Data were analyzed by survival test (P < 0.05). Results: Control groups had either immediate leakage or no leakage. The Fillapex® showed significantly higher amounts of microleakage compared with AH26 sealer (P < 0.05) and both groups exhibited significant differences in comparison with control groups. Conclusion: Both sealers had bacterial leakage. Sealing ability of AH26 was significantly higher than that of Fillapex®. PMID:25426153

  13. Push-out bond strength of root fillings made with C-Point and BC sealer versus gutta-percha and AH Plus after the instrumentation of oval canals with the Self-Adjusting File versus WaveOne.

    PubMed

    Pawar, A M; Pawar, S; Kfir, A; Pawar, M; Kokate, S

    2016-04-01

    To compare the push-out bond strength exhibited by root fillings performed with either C-Point and Endosequence® BC sealer™ (BC Sealer) or gutta-percha and AH Plus® after the instrumentation of oval canals with either the Self-Adjusting File (SAF) System or WaveOne (WO) reciprocating file. Eighty extracted premolars were selected and divided randomly into the following four groups (n = 20): group 1, SAF instrumentation and filling using gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer; group 2, SAF instrumentation and C-Point and BC sealer filling; group 3, WO instrumentation and filling using gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer; and group 4, WO instrumentation and filling with C-Point and BC sealer. Sodium hypochlorite (5.25%) and EDTA (17%) were used as irrigants for all groups. After the sealer was set completely, the teeth were prepared for micro push-out assessment using 1.0-mm-thick root slices. Loading was performed with a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm min(-1) . Two-way anova and Student's t-test for pairwise comparisons were used to compare groups. All specimens filled with C-Point and BC sealer were associated with significantly higher push-out bond strength compared with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (P < 0.001). The bond strength was higher for the coronal and apical samples of the C-Point/BC sealer/SAF group (6.6 ± 0.3 and 3.2 ± 0.3 MPa) versus those of the gutta-percha/AH Plus/WO group (4.8 ± 0.3 and 1.8 ± 0.3 MPa), by 38% and by 80% in the coronal and apical parts, respectively (P < 0.001, P < 0.0001). Adhesive bond failure was more common in the WaveOne-instrumented group in general and in the buccal and lingual recesses in this group in particular. In oval canals, the instrument used and the root filling material significantly affected the push-out values of root fillings. The highest value was recorded in oval root canals instrumented with the SAF System and filled with C-Point and BC sealer, whereas the lowest strength was noted in oval

  14. Comparative evaluation of sealing ability of glass ionomer-resin continuum as root-end filling materials: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chohan, Hitesh; Dewan, Harisha; Annapoorna, B. M.; Manjunath, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Root-end filling is a prudent procedure aimed at sealing the root canal to prevent penetration of tissue fluids into the root canals. An ideal root-end filling material should produce a complete apical seal. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the leakage behavior of four different root-end filling materials. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight maxillary central incisors were obturated with laterally condensed gutta-percha and AH plus sealer. The roots were resected at the level of 3 mm perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. Root-end cavities were prepared with straight fissure stainless steel bur. The teeth were then divided into four experimental and two control groups, and cavities restored as per the groupings. The teeth were immersed in methylene blue for 48 h, split longitudinally, and dye penetration was measured. Results: A highly significant difference existed in the mean dye penetration of Group I (conventional glass ionomer) and the other groups (resin-modified glass ionomer, polyacid-modified composite, and composite resin). There was no statistically significant difference among the three groups. Conclusions: (1) Significant difference was found in the dye penetration values of conventional glass ionomer cement and other groups. (2) No statistically significant difference was found in the dye penetration values of groups II, III, and IV. PMID:26759803

  15. Quality of cellular attachment to various root-end filling materials

    PubMed Central

    AL-HIYASAT, Ahmad S.; AL-SA'EED, Oula R.; DARMANI, Homa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated cellular attachment to 6 root-end filling materials as a measure of the biocompatibility of the materials. Material and Methods Class I retrograde cavities were prepared in root slices and these cavities were filled with the test materials, and incubated with Balb/C 3T3 fibroblasts for 24 h. Root slices with the cavities left empty served as the controls. The root slices were then processed for scanning electron microscopy, and were viewed to assess the quality of cellular attachment by observing the shape of cells, spread, and membrane outline. Results The best cellular attachment was observed at MTA and Geristore surfaces: cells exhibited characteristic elongated fibroblastic morphology, with projections of lamellipodia, filopodia, blebs, and microvilli from their surfaces, reflecting good attachment to the material. Fibroblasts attached poorly to the surfaces of IRM, Super EBA, KetacFil and Retroplast. Furthermore, the cells did not attach well to the tooth structure next to IRM and Super EBA. Conclusions The present study demonstrated a variation in cellular attachment to different root-end filling materials with the best cellular attachment to the surfaces of MTA and Geristore. IRM and Super EBA, Ketac Fil and Retroplast rendered poor attachment. PMID:22437683

  16. Survey of attitudes, materials and methods preferred in root canal therapy by general dental practice in Turkey: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Gul Celik; Kaya, Bulem Ureyen; Tac, Ali Gurhan; Kececi, Ayse Diljin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To gather information on the materials and methods employed in root canal treatment by dentists in Turkey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 1,527 dentists who attended the Turkish Dental Association Congress. Respondents were asked to choose one or more suitable answers for the questions. Data was gathered for demographic and professional information regarding stages, materials, and methods commonly used in endodontic therapy. The collected data was analyzed using the statistical package SPSS. Descriptive statistics were given as frequencies (n) and percent (%). Chi-square (χ2) test was used to investigate the influence of gender and the years of professional activity for the materials and techniques employed. Results: The response rate was 49%. A total of 97% of respondents were working in a general dental practice. Of respondents, 44% were using an agent containing arsenic or aldehyde. Only 5.1% of the respondents preferred the rubber dam isolation method. Sodium hypochlorite was the most popular choice (73%) as a root canal irrigation solution. Calcium hydroxide was the most commonly used medicament (53%). Most of the practitioners (77%) preferred radiographs for working-length determination. Root canal preparation done solely with K-Files or in combination with other instruments was preferred by 73.1% of the respondents. Ni-Ti hand or rotary files were used by 79.7% of the practitioners. Polymer based root canal sealers were the sealers most frequently chosen (48.4%). The majority of the respondents (66.2%) preferred cold lateral condensation as an obturation technique. Gender affected the preference of intracanal medicament, periapical radiographs for working-length determination, root canal instrument, root canal sealers, and root canal obturation technique (P<.05). Years of professional experience affected the preference of devitalizing agents, irrigation solutions, intracanal medicament, root canal instrument, root canal sealer, and

  17. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Three Root-End Filling Materials in Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Coaguila-Llerena, Hernán; Vaisberg, Abraham; Velásquez-Huamán, Zulema

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the cytotoxicity on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts of three root-end filling materials: MTA Angelus®, EndoSequence Root Repair Material Putty® and Super EBA®. A primary culture of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts was previously obtained in order to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the three extracts from the root-end filling materials after 2 and 7 days of setting. Serial dilutions of these extracts (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8) were evaluated at 1, 3 and 7 days using the methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay. Cell viability was evaluated as percentage of the negative control group, which represented 100% cell viability. Statistical analyses were done with t-test, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. It was found that the main difference among root-end filling materials was in the higher dilutions (p<0.05), but there was a similar behavior in lower dilutions (p>0.05). Cell viability of MTA Angelus® was superior for 2-day setting (p<0.05), compared with the other two root-end fillings. There were no statistically significant differences between 7-day set MTA Angelus® and EndoSequence Root Repair Material Putty®. Super EBA® showed the lowest percentage of cell viability at higher dilutions (p<0.05). Therefore, MTA Angelus® and EndoSequence Root Repair Material Putty® were less cytotoxic in the highest dilution (1:1) compared with Super EBA®.

  18. Solubility of Two Root-End Filling Materials over Different Time Periods in Synthetic Tissue Fluid: a Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shojaee, Nooshin Sadat; Sahebi, Safoora; Karami, Elahe; Sobhnamayan, Fereshte

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Insolubility is an important criterion for an ideal root-end filling material to both prevent any microleakage between the root canal and the periradicular space and provide sealing ability. Purpose Many recent studies have shown that mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) have acceptable sealing ability. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the solubility of these root-end filling materials. Materials and Method Forty stainless steel ring moulds with an internal diameter of 10±1 mm and a height of 2±0.1 mm were selected. Samples of MTA and CEM were mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions and inserted into the moulds. The specimens were divided into 4 experimental groups and kept in synthetic tissue fluid (STF) for 2 different time periods (7 and 28 days). The control group contained 8 empty rings. The moulds’ weights were recorded before and after immersion in STF. The changes in the weight of the samples were measured and compared using a two- way ANOVA test at a significance level of 5%. Specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at a magnification of 500×. Results There was no significant difference in weight changes between MTA and CEM samples (p> 0.05). Conclusion MTA and CEM have similar solubility in STF in different time periods. PMID:26331148

  19. Adhesion to root canal dentine using one and two-step adhesives with dual-cure composite core materials.

    PubMed

    Foxton, R M; Nakajima, M; Tagami, J; Miura, H

    2005-02-01

    The regional tensile bond strengths of two dual-cure composite resin core materials to root canal dentine using either a one or two-step self-etching adhesive were evaluated. Extracted premolar teeth were decoronated and their root canals prepared to a depth of 8 mm and a width of 1.4 mm. In one group, a one-step self-etching adhesive (Unifil Self-etching Bond) was applied to the walls of the post-space and light-cured for 10 s. After which, the post-spaces were filled with the a dual-cure composite resin (Unifil Core) and then half the specimens were light-cured for 60 s and the other half placed in darkness for 30 min. In the second group, a self-etching primer (ED Primer II) was applied for 30 s, followed by an adhesive resin (Clearfil Photo Bond), which was light-cured for 10 s. The post-spaces were filled with a dual-cure composite resin (DC Core) and then half the specimens were light-cured for 60 s and the other half placed in darkness for 30 min. Chemical-cure composite resin was placed on the outer surfaces of all the roots, which were then stored in water for 24 h. They were serially sliced perpendicular to the bonded interface into 8, 0.6 mm-thick slabs, and then transversely sectioned into beams, approximately 8 x 0.6 x 0.6 mm, for the microtensile bond strength test (muTBS). Data were divided into two (coronal/apical half of post-space) and analysed using three-way anova and Scheffe's test (P < 0.05). Failure modes were observed under an scanning electron microscope (SEM) and statistically analysed. Specimens for observation of the bonded interfaces were prepared in a similar manner as for bond strength testing, cut in half and embedded in epoxy resin. They were then polished to a high gloss, gold sputter coated, and after argon ion etching, observed under an SEM. For both dual-cure composite resins and curing strategies, there were no significant differences in muTBS between the coronal and apical regions (P > 0.05). In addition, both dual

  20. Sealing ability of a novel endodontic cement as a root-end filling material.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Parirokh, Masoud

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the potential usage of novel endodontic cement (NEC) as a root-end filling material by comparing its sealing ability with that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and intermediate restorative material (IRM). Sixty-six single rooted extracted human teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated in a similar method. After root-end resection, 3-mm deep root-end cavities were ultrasonically prepared. The samples were divided randomly into 3 test groups, having 20 roots each. Six roots were used as positive and negative controls. Samples were filled with test materials and after one day were immersed in methylene blue dye for 24 h. Roots were sectioned longitudinally and examined under stereomicroscope. Positive and negative controls responded as expected. The increasing order of mean dye microleakage values was NEC < MTA < IRM. ANOVA test showed statistically significant differences among experimental groups (p < 0.001). Tukey's test revealed no significant difference between NEC and MTA. It was concluded that the sealing ability of NEC and MTA is the same and superior to IRM.

  1. [Endodontics in motion: new concepts, materials and techniques 4. Root canal disinfection in 2015].

    PubMed

    van der Waal, S V; de Soet, J J

    2015-12-01

    Apical periodontitis is an inflammatory response around the root tip of a tooth to microbial infection of the root canal system. Therefore, disinfection of the root canal system is the most important aim of root canal treatment. There are various mechanical and chemical ways to clean and disinfect. Most methods, however, cannot be relied upon to fully decontaminate in all cases. There are problems, for example, with the proper concentrations of disinfectant agents, like sodium hypochlorite. But the more recent agents, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, calcium hydroxide or antibiotic pastes also have disadvantages, which are mostly a result of poor access of the irrigant to the biofilm bacteria in the affected root canals. Currently, a new strategy with a modified salt solution is under investigation that offers the prospect of being used as a root canal irrigant. At this moment the preferred treatment still seems to be to remove infected tissue as much as possible and to create access for irrigation procedures. The best results are achieved with 1-2% sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant, possibly alternating with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as a cleansing agent. There is no scientific evidence for the successful use of calcium hydroxide.

  2. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal full) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  3. Biological and chemical-physical properties of root-end filling materials: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Colombo, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to evaluate and compare the biological and chemical-physical properties of four different root-end filling materials. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity towards murine odontoblasts cells (MDPC-23) was evaluated using the Transwell insert methodology by Alamar blue test. Streptococcus salivarius, S. sanguis, and S. mutans strains were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion test. Solubility was determined after 24 h and 2 months. pH values were measured after 3 and 24 h. To evaluate radiopacity, all materials were scanned on a GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy. Results: Excellent percentage of vitality were obtained by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based materials and Biodentine. MTA-Angelus, ProRoot MTA, and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) showed the highest values for the inhibition zones when tested for S. mutans, while Biodentine showed the largest inhibition zone when tested for S. sanguis. All the materials fulfilled the requirements of the International Standard 6876, demonstrating low solubility with a weight loss of less than 3%. No significant reduction in pH value was demonstrated after 24 h. ProRoot MTA and MTA-Angelus showed the highest values of radiographic density. Conclusions: The differences showed by the root-end filling materials tested do not cover completely the ideal clinical requests. PMID:25829684

  4. Biological and chemical-physical properties of root-end filling materials: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Colombo, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate and compare the biological and chemical-physical properties of four different root-end filling materials. Cytotoxicity towards murine odontoblasts cells (MDPC-23) was evaluated using the Transwell insert methodology by Alamar blue test. Streptococcus salivarius, S. sanguis, and S. mutans strains were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion test. Solubility was determined after 24 h and 2 months. pH values were measured after 3 and 24 h. To evaluate radiopacity, all materials were scanned on a GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy. Excellent percentage of vitality were obtained by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based materials and Biodentine. MTA-Angelus, ProRoot MTA, and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) showed the highest values for the inhibition zones when tested for S. mutans, while Biodentine showed the largest inhibition zone when tested for S. sanguis. All the materials fulfilled the requirements of the International Standard 6876, demonstrating low solubility with a weight loss of less than 3%. No significant reduction in pH value was demonstrated after 24 h. ProRoot MTA and MTA-Angelus showed the highest values of radiographic density. The differences showed by the root-end filling materials tested do not cover completely the ideal clinical requests.

  5. Evaluation of compressive strength of hydraulic silicate-based root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Ryan M; Woodmansey, Karl F; Glickman, Gerald N; He, Jianing

    2014-07-01

    Hydraulic silicate cements such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) have many clinical advantages. Newer hydraulic silicate materials have been developed that improve on the limitations of mineral trioxide aggregate such as the long setting time and difficult handling characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of saline and fetal bovine serum (FBS) on the setting and compressive strength of the following hydraulic silicate cements: ProRoot MTA (white WMTA; Dentsply International, Tulsa Dental Specialties, Johnson City, TN), EndoSequence Root Repair Material (Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA), MTA Plus (MTAP; Avalon Biomed Inc, Bradenton, FL), and QuickSet (QS; Avalon Biomed Inc, Bradenton, FL). Samples of root-end filling materials were compacted into polyethylene molds. Samples were exposed to FBS or saline for 7 days. A universal testing machine was used to determine the compressive strengths. QS had significantly lower compressive strength than all other materials (P < .001). White MTA and MTAP mixed with liquid had lower compressive strengths after exposure to FBS compared with saline (P = .003). ERRM, MTAP mixed with gel, and QS were not affected by the exposure to FBS. New silicate-based root-end filling materials, other than QS, have compressive strength similar to MTA. Within the limits of this study, premixed materials and those mixed with antiwashout gel maintain their compressive strength when exposed to biological fluids. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of ProTaper and Mtwo retreatment systems in the removal of resin-based root canal obturation materials during retreatment.

    PubMed

    Iriboz, Emre; Sazak Öveçoğlu, Hesna

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the ProTaper and Mtwo retreatment systems for removal of resin-based obturation techniques during retreatment. A total of 160 maxillary anterior teeth were enlarged to size 30 using ProTaper and Mtwo rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly divided into eight groups. Resilon + Epiphany, gutta-percha + Epiphany, gutta-percha + AH Plus and gutta-percha + Kerr Pulp Canal Sealer (PCS) combinations were used for obturation. ProTaper and Mtwo retreatment files were used for removal of root canal treatments. After clearing the roots, the teeth were split vertically into halves, and the cleanliness of the canal walls was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Specimens obturated with gutta-percha and Kerr PCS displayed significantly more remnant obturation material than did specimens filled with resin-based obturation materials. Teeth prepared with Mtwo instruments contained significantly more remnant filling material than did teeth prepared with ProTaper. ProTaper files were significantly faster than Mtwo instruments in terms of the mean time of retreatment and time required to reach working length. The Resilon + Epiphany and AH Plus + gutta-percha obturation materials were removed more easily than were the Epiphany + gutta-percha and Kerr PCS + gutta-percha obturation materials. Although ProTaper retreatment files worked faster than did Mtwo retreatment files in terms of removing root canal obturation materials, both retreatment systems are effective, reliable and fast. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2012 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  7. Filling of simulated lateral canals with gutta percha or resilon when using thermomechanical compaction

    PubMed Central

    Anna-Júnior, Arnaldo Sant’; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Duarte, Marco Antônio Hungaro; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Bosso, Roberta; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the filling of simulated lateral canals with gutta-percha or Resilon when using thermomechanical compaction. Setting and Design: Forty-five human single-rooted teeth were subjected to tooth decalcification and clearing. Materials and Methods: After root canal preparation, artificial lateral canals were made at 2, 5, and 8 mm from the working length (WL), corresponding to the apical, middle, and cervical thirds, respectively. The specimens were divided (n = 15) according to the filling material: Dentsply gutta-percha (GD), Odous gutta-percha (GO), and Resilon cones (RE). Root canals were obturated by thermomechanical compaction using a #45 compactor and no sealer. Lateral canals were analyzed by digital radiography and digital images after tooth decalcification and clearing using the Image Tool software. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests at 5% significance. Results: In the coronal third, RE and GO presented more filling ability than GD (P < 0.05). In the middle and apical thirds, RE presented the best results. Conclusions: Resilon demonstrated filling ability as material for root canal obturation by using thermomechanical compaction. PMID:24944441

  8. Comparison of Two Base Materials Regarding Their Effect on Root Canal Treatment Success in Primary Molars with Furcation Lesions.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Volkan; Sonmez, Hayriye; Sari, Saziye

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to compare MTA with another base material, IRM, which is generally used on pulpal floor after root canal treatment, regarding their effect on the success of root canal treatment of primary teeth with furcation lesions. Materials and Methods. Fifty primary teeth with furcation lesions were divided into 2 groups. Following root canal treatment, the pulpal floor was coated with MTA in the experimental group and with IRM in the control group. Teeth were followed up considering clinical (pain, pathological mobility, tenderness to percussion and palpation, and any soft tissue pathology and sinus tract) and radiographical (pathological root resorption, reduced size or healing of existing lesion, and absence of new lesions at the interradicular or periapical area) criteria for 18 months. For the statistical analysis, Fisher's exact test and Pearson's chi-square tests were used and a p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results. Although there were no statistically significant differences between two groups in terms of treatment success, lesions healed significantly faster in the MTA group. Conclusion. In primary teeth with furcation lesions, usage of MTA on the pulpal floor following root canal treatment can be a better alternative since it induced faster healing.

  9. Comparison of Two Base Materials Regarding Their Effect on Root Canal Treatment Success in Primary Molars with Furcation Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sonmez, Hayriye; Sari, Saziye

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to compare MTA with another base material, IRM, which is generally used on pulpal floor after root canal treatment, regarding their effect on the success of root canal treatment of primary teeth with furcation lesions. Materials and Methods. Fifty primary teeth with furcation lesions were divided into 2 groups. Following root canal treatment, the pulpal floor was coated with MTA in the experimental group and with IRM in the control group. Teeth were followed up considering clinical (pain, pathological mobility, tenderness to percussion and palpation, and any soft tissue pathology and sinus tract) and radiographical (pathological root resorption, reduced size or healing of existing lesion, and absence of new lesions at the interradicular or periapical area) criteria for 18 months. For the statistical analysis, Fisher's exact test and Pearson's chi-square tests were used and a p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results. Although there were no statistically significant differences between two groups in terms of treatment success, lesions healed significantly faster in the MTA group. Conclusion. In primary teeth with furcation lesions, usage of MTA on the pulpal floor following root canal treatment can be a better alternative since it induced faster healing. PMID:27957486

  10. Healing Process Following Application of Set or Fresh Mineral Trioxide Aggregate as a Root-End Filling Material

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Mehdi; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Habibi, Ataollah; Mohtasham, Nooshin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: An unsuccessful attempt to reach the apical area or to place the retrograde material is a major difficulty in periradicular surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the histological evaluation of the healing process following an orthograde versus a retrograde application of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a root-end filling material during apical surgery on cats’ teeth in order to find out whether orthograde placement of MTA before surgery can be used instead of retrograde placement during surgery. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 canine teeth in 12 mature and healthy cats were filled with either MTA or gutta-percha in an orthograde manner. Two weeks later, the teeth with MTA were surgically exposed and resected to the set-MTA within the canals. The teeth previously filled by gutta-percha were also surgically exposed, and retrograde cavities were prepared at the root ends and filled with fresh-MTA. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized by vital perfusion. Six-micron histological slices were prepared from samples, stained by Hematoxylin & Eosin, and histologically studied by means of a light microscope. The collected data was analyzed by the Chi-square and the T-test. Results: One of the samples in the fresh-MTA group was omitted during processing because of inappropriate sectioning. In the set-MTA group, 5 out of 12 showed chronic abscess, while in the fresh-MTA group, 2 out of 11 were discovered to have chronic abscess; however, no significant difference was observed (P>.05). Hard tissue healing (cementum, bone, cementum + bone formation) in the set-MTA and fresh-MTA groups were 7 out of 12 and 9 out of 11, respectively. While healing seemed more likely to occur in the fresh-MTA group, the difference was statistically insignificant (P>.05). The magnitude of bone, cementum, or bone and cementum formation showed slight differences between the two groups; however, the figures failed to show any marked differences (P>.05

  11. Osmolarity and root canal antiseptics.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Fedele, G; Guastalli, A R

    2014-04-01

    Antiseptics used in endodontics for disinfection purposes include root canal dressings and irrigants. Osmotic shock is known to cause the alteration of microbial cell viability and might have a role in the mechanism of action of root canal antiseptics. The aim of this review was to determine the role of osmolarity on the performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment. A literature search using the Medline electronic database was conducted up to 30 May 2013 using the following search terms and combinations: 'osmolarity AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmolality AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmotic AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmosis AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; sodium chloride AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm'. Publications were included if the effects of osmolarity on the clinical performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment were stated, if preparations with different osmolarities values were compared and if they were published in English. A hand search of articles published online, 'in press' and 'early view', and in the reference list of the included papers was carried out following the same criteria. A total of 3274 publications were identified using the database, and three were included in the review. The evidence available in endodontics suggests a possible role for hyperosmotic root canal medicaments as disinfectants, and that there is no influence of osmolarity on the tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite. There are insufficient data to obtain a sound conclusion regarding the role of hypo-osmosis in root canal disinfection, or osmosis in any further desirable

  12. Application of microcomputed tomography for quantitative analysis of dental root canal obturations.

    PubMed

    Kierklo, Anna; Tabor, Zbisław; Petryniak, Rafał; Dohnalik, Marek; Jaworska, Małgorzata

    2014-03-24

    The aim of the study was to apply microcomputed tomography to quantitative evaluation of voids and to test any specific location of voids in tooth's root canal obturations. Twenty root canals were prepared and obturated with gutta-percha and Tubli-Seal sealer using the thermoplastic compaction method (System B+Obtura II). Roots were scanned and three-dimensional visualization was obtained. The volume and Feret's diameter of I-voids (at the filling/dentine interface) and S-voids (surrounded by filling material) were measured. The results revealed that none of the scanned root canal fillings were void-free. For I-voids, the volume fraction was significantly larger, but their number was lower (P=0.0007), than for S-voids. Both types of voids occurred in characteristic regions (P<0.001). I-voids occurred mainly in the apical third, while S-voids in the coronal third of the canal filling. Within the limitations of this study, our results indicate that microtomography, with proposed semi-automatic algorithm, is a useful tools for three-dimensional quantitative evaluation of dental root canal fillings. In canals filled with thermoplastic gutta-percha and Tubli-Seal, voids at the interface between the filling and canal dentine deserve special attention due to of their periapical location, which might promote apical microleakage. Further studies might help to elucidate the clinical relevance of these results.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Calcium Silicate-based Root Filling Materials Using an Open Apex Model.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dennis; He, Jianing; Glickman, Gerald N; Woodmansey, Karl F

    2016-04-01

    Many new calcium silicate-based root filling materials have emerged in the market; however, their performance in the orthograde obturation of an open apex has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal adaptation of ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK), NeoMTA Plus (Avalon Biomed Inc, Bradenton, FL), and Endosequence BC RRM-Fast Set Putty (BC RRM-FS; Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA) after orthograde placement in roots with open apices. Palatal roots of maxillary molars were instrumented to create divergent open apices and divided into 4 groups for orthograde obturation: ProRoot MTA, NeoMTA Plus, BC RRM-FS, and BC RRM-FS + BC Sealer. Using a scanning electron microscope, the quality of material adaptation at the anatomic apex was evaluated by 5 blinded examiners; 3 mm of the root end was sectioned, and gap distance was measured at the material-dentin interface. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. There were no significant differences in marginal adaptation among the 4 groups at the level of the anatomic apex (P = .175). BC RRM-FS + BC Sealer had a significantly smaller gap size after 3-mm root end resection compared with the other 3 groups (P < .01). No differences were observed among the other 3 materials. All materials showed comparable marginal adaptation at the anatomic apex when used for orthograde obturation of open apices. Application of BC Sealer before the delivery of BC RRM-FS Putty enhanced the quality of adaptation coronal to the apex. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and iRoot BP Plus Root Repair Material as Root-end Filling Materials in Endodontic Microsurgery: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zheng, Qinghua; Tan, Xuelian; Song, Dongzhe; Zhang, Lan; Huang, Dingming

    2017-01-01

    This prospective randomized controlled study evaluated the clinical and radiographic outcome of endodontic microsurgery when using iRoot BP Plus Root Repair Material (BP-RRM; Innovative BioCeramix Inc, Vancouver, BC, Canada) or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as the retrograde filling material and analyzed the relationship between some potential prognostic factors and the outcome of the surgery. By using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, 240 teeth were successfully enrolled and randomly and equally allocated to either the MTA or BP-RRM treatment group. A standardized surgical procedure was performed by a single operator. The patients were followed up at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months; follow-up included clinical and radiographic examination. Clinical and radiographic evaluations acquired at the 12-month follow-up were taken as the primary outcome. For the identification of prognostic factors, the dichotomous outcome (success vs failure) was taken as the dependent variable. A total of 158 teeth were analyzed at the 12-month follow-up, including 87 teeth in the MTA group and 71 teeth in the BP-RRM group. The success rate in the MTA and BP-RRM groups was 93.1% (81/87 teeth) and 94.4% (67/71 teeth), respectively (P > .05). Three significant outcome predictors were identified: quality of root filling (P < .05), tooth type (P < .05), and size of the lesion (P < .05) CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that BP-RRM is comparable with MTA in clinical outcome when used as root-end filling materials in endodontic microsurgery. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of IRM root end fillings on healing after replantation.

    PubMed

    Pitt Ford, T R; Andreasen, J O; Dorn, S O; Kariyawasam, S P

    1994-08-01

    The effect of IRM as a root end filling placed in teeth prior to replantation was examined in 21 molar teeth in monkeys. After extraction, root ends were resected, the canals contaminated with oral bacteria, root end cavities prepared, and fillings of IRM or amalgam placed prior to replantation. After 8 wk the jaws were removed and prepared for histological examination. Bacteria were demonstrated in only 9 of 15 teeth filled with IRM; 18 of the roots (60%) were associated with inflammation, which was only moderate or severe around 5 (17%), and extended > 0.1 mm around only 2 roots. In contrast, of the 6 teeth filled with amalgam, all contained bacteria in the root canals and 11 roots were associated with moderate or severe inflammation, which around 8 roots extended > 0.5 mm. The difference in severity of inflammation for the two materials was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The tissue response to root end fillings of IRM in replanted teeth was less severe and less extensive than that to amalgam.

  16. The effects of six root-end filling materials and their leachable components on cell viability.

    PubMed

    Al-Sa'eed, Oula R; Al-Hiyasat, Ahmad S; Darmani, Homa

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of six root-end filling materials (Retroplast [Retroplast Trading, Dybesøvej, Denmark], Geristore, [DEN-MAT Corporation, Santa Maria, CA], Ketac Fil [3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany], IRM [Caulk-Dentsply, Milford, DE], Super EBA [Bosworth Company, Skokie, IL], and MTA [Dentsply-Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN]) on the viability of Balb/C 3T3 fibroblasts using the [3-4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide succinate (MTT) assay. Ten discs (5 mm x 2 mm) of each material were eluted in tissue culture medium for 24 hours at 37 degrees C for 3 successive days and the elutes used for cell viability testing and for determination of leached components. The results showed that Retroplast, Geristore, and Ketac Fil increased cell proliferation, whereas Super-EBA decreased cell viability. The proliferative effect of Retroplast and Geristore increased with the eluting time (24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours), whereas the effects of the other materials did not significantly change. IRM and MTA did not affect cell viability. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy showed that there was variation in the amount of leached components from the materials. Our results indicate that the reaction of cells to root-end filling materials varies considerably between materials.

  17. Contamination of tooth-colored mineral trioxide aggregate used as a root-end filling material: a bacterial leakage study.

    PubMed

    Montellano, Angela M; Schwartz, Scott A; Beeson, Thomas J

    2006-05-01

    This experiment investigated the ability of tooth-colored mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) to maintain an apical seal in the presence of bacteria when contaminated with blood, saline or saliva. Ninety extracted human teeth with single canals were randomly placed into six groups of 15. Canals were prepared to size 50. The apical 3 mm of each root was removed and 3 mm root-end preparations were made with a #329 bur. Root-end preparations in groups 1 through 3 were filled with MTA after contamination with blood, saline, or saliva, respectively. In group 4, uncontaminated root-end preparations were filled with MTA. Groups 5 and 6 served as negative and positive controls. A tube/tooth assembly was utilized to suspend each root end in Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB). The access chambers were filled with Staphylococcus epidermidis. Positive growth over thirty days was demonstrated by turbidity of the TSB. Vitek analysis was used to confirm the presence of S. epidermidis in the positive samples. Data evaluation consisted of a chi(2) analysis (p < 0.05). Although all experimental groups demonstrated leakage, tooth-colored MTA contaminated with saliva (group 3) leaked significantly more than the uncontaminated tooth-colored MTA (group 4) (p = 0.028).

  18. Radiopacity evaluation of root-end filling materials by digitization of images.

    PubMed

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Duarte, Marco Antonio Húngaro; Gonçalves, Marcelo; Tanomaru, Juliane Maria Guerreiro

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of 5 root-end filling materials (white MTA-Angelus, grey MTA-Angelus, IRM, Super EBA and Sealer 26). Five specimens (10 mm diameter X 1 mm thickness) were made from each material and radiographed next to an aluminum stepwedge varying in thickness from 2 to 16 mm. Radiographs were digitized and the radiopacity of the materials was compared to that of the aluminum stepwedge using VIXWIN 2000 software in millimeters of aluminum (mm Al). Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. Radiopacity values varied from 3 mm Al to 5.9 mm Al. Sealer 26 and IRM presented the highest radiopacity values (p<0.05), while white/grey MTA and Super EBA presented the lowest radiopacity values (p<0.05). The tested root-end filling materials presented different radiopacities, white/grey MTA and Super EBA being the least radiopaque materials.

  19. Nanodiamond–Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes. PMID:26452304

  20. Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

    1992-06-01

    Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

  1. In vitro evaluation of efficacy of different rotary instrument systems for gutta percha removal during root canal retreatment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Mercy; Malhotra, Amit; Rao, Murali; Sharma, Abhimanyu; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete removal of old filling material during root canal retreatment is fundamental for predictable cleaning and shaping of canal anatomy. Most of the retreatment methods tested in earlier studies have shown inability to achieve complete removal of root canal filling. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of three different rotary nickel titanium retreatment systems and Hedstrom files in removing filling material from root canals. Material and Methods Sixty extracted mandibular premolars were decoronated to leave 15 mm root. Specimen were hand instrumented and obturated using gutta percha and AH plus root canal sealer. After storage period of two weeks, roots were retreated with three (Protaper retreatment files, Mtwo retreatment files, NRT GPR) rotary retreatment instrument systems and Hedstroem files. Subsequently, samples were sectioned longitudinally and examined under stereomicroscope. Digital images were recorded and evaluated using Digital Image Analysing Software. The retreatment time was recorded for each tooth using a stopwatch. The area of canal and the residual filling material was recorded in mm2 and the percentage of remaining filling material on canal walls was calculated. Data was analysed using ANOVA test. Results Significantly less amount of residual filling material was present in protaper and Mtwo instrumented teeth (p < 0.05) compared to NRT GPR and Hedstrom files group. Protaper instruments also required lesser time during removal of filling material followed by Mtwo instruments, NRT GPR files and Hedstrom files. Conclusions None of the instruments were able to remove the filling material completely from root canal. Protaper universal retreatment system and Mtwo retreatment files were more efficient and faster compared to NRT GPR fles and Hedstrom files. Key words:Gutta-percha removal, nickel titanium, root canal retreatment, rotary instruments. PMID:27703601

  2. Microorganism penetration in dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal walls. In vitro SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sulaiman, Alaa; Al-Rasheed, Fellwa; Alnajjar, Fatimah; Al-Abdulwahab, Bander; Al-Badah, Abdulhakeem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This in vitro study aimed to investigate the ability of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) to penetrate dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal surface of split human teeth. Materials and Methods Sixty intact extracted human single-rooted teeth were divided into 4 groups, negative control, positive control without canal instrumentation, instrumented, and retreated. Root canals in the instrumented group were enlarged with endodontic instruments, while root canals in the retreated group were enlarged, filled, and then removed the canal filling materials. The teeth were split longitudinally after canal preparation in 3 groups except the negative control group. The teeth were inoculated with both microorganisms separately and in combination. Teeth specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the depth of penetration into the dentinal tubules was assessed using the SMILE view software (JEOL Ltd). Results Penetration of C. albicans and E. faecalis into the dentinal tubules was observed in all 3 groups, although penetration was partially restricted by dentin debris of tubules in the instrumented group and remnants of canal filling materials in the retreated group. In all 3 groups, E. faecalis penetrated deeper into the dentinal tubules by way of cell division than C. albicans which built colonies and penetrated by means of hyphae. Conclusions Microorganisms can easily penetrate dentinal tubules of root canals with different appearance based on the microorganism size and status of dentinal tubules. PMID:25383343

  3. The influence of methodological variables on the push-out resistance to dislodgement of root filling materials: a meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Collares, F M; Portella, F F; Rodrigues, S B; Celeste, R K; Leitune, V C B; Samuel, S M W

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the influence of several methodological variables on the push-out resistance to dislodgment of root filling materials by a meta-regression analysis of the literature. A systematic review was performed by searching the PubMed database using the terms 'push-out' and 'pushout'. Laboratory studies published before March 2015 were included. Two reviewers extracted data regarding country of origin, year of publication, tooth type, smear layer removal, root canal sealer, core material, obturation technique, sample storage, tooth portion, test machine load velocity and slice thickness. Pooled mean resistance to dislodgement of all groups from the included studies was used in a linear meta-regression of random effects (α = 0.05). Of the 850 identified studies, 53 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-regression of the 341 groups extracted from these articles was performed to analyse the influence of each variable on resistance to dislodgement (in MPa). The sealer, core material, obturation technique, slice thickness, storage time, load velocity and tooth portion significantly influence the results (P < 0.05). Irrigant solution and smear layer removal did not influence the resistance to dislodgement of the root filling materials (P > 0.05). Methodological variables such as sealer, core material, root filling technique, tooth type, tooth portion, slice thickness, storage time and load velocity influenced the resistance to dislodgment. The inclusion and standardization of all related variables could lead to a more comparable and reproducible analysis of the resistance to dislodgment of the root canal sealers. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ROTARY, ULTRASONIC AND MANUAL TECHNIQUES TO TREAT PROXIMALLY FLATTENED ROOT CANALS

    PubMed Central

    Grecca, Fabiana Soares; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The efficiency of rotary, manual and ultrasonic root canal instrumentation techniques was investigated in proximally flattened root canals. Material and Methods: Forty human mandibular left and right central incisors, lateral incisors and premolars were used. The pulp tissue was removed and the root canals were filled with red die. Teeth were instrumented using three techniques: (i) K3 and ProTaper rotary systems; (ii) ultrasonic crown-down technique; and (iii) progressive manual technique. Roots were bisected longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The instrumented canal walls were digitally captured and the images obtained were analyzed using the Sigma Scan software. Canal walls were evaluated for total canal wall area versus noninstrumented area on which dye remained. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the instrumentation techniques studied (p<0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that no instrumentation technique was 100% efficient to remove the dye. PMID:19089108

  5. Efficacy of three different rotary files to remove gutta-percha and Resilon from root canals.

    PubMed

    Marfisi, K; Mercade, M; Plotino, G; Duran-Sindreu, F; Bueno, R; Roig, M

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ProTaper Retreatment files, Mtwo Retreatment files and Twisted Files for removal of gutta-percha and Resilon in straight root canals. Ninety single root canals were instrumented and randomly allocated into 6 groups of 15 specimens each with regards to the filling material and instruments used. Group 1: gutta-percha/ProTaper; Group 2: Resilon/ProTaper; Group 3: gutta-percha/Mtwo; Group 4: Resilon/Mtwo; Group 5: gutta-percha/Twisted Files; Group 6: Resilon/Twisted Files. For all roots, the following data were recorded: procedural errors, duration of retreatment, canal wall cleanliness through optical microscope and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Data were statistically analysed, and the level of significance was set at P=0.05. No system completely removed the root filling material from root canal walls. No significant differences were observed between the rotary systems in terms of the area of filling material left within the canals (P>0.05). There were statistically significant differences between the filling materials: Resilon/Real Seal had less residual material than gutta-percha/AH plus (CBCT: P=0.01; microscope: P=0.018). Mtwo Retreatment files were more rapid when removing filling material than ProTaper Retreatment files (P=0.19) and Twisted Files (P=0.04). No system removed the root filling materials entirely. Mtwo Retreatment files required less time to remove root filling material than the other instruments. Resilon was removed significantly better from the canal walls than gutta-percha, irrespective of the rotary instruments used. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  6. Influence of core material on fracture resistance and marginal adaptation of restored root filled teeth.

    PubMed

    Reill, M I; Rosentritt, M; Naumann, M; Handel, G

    2008-05-01

    To investigate ex vivo the influence of direct placement core materials on the fracture strength and marginal adaptation of root filled maxillary central incisors restored with glass fibre-reinforced posts, various core materials and all-ceramic crowns. Forty-eight human maxillary incisors were root filled. Posts were placed and teeth restored with composite cores and crowns (n = 8). Six core materials were examined after thermal cyclic and mechanical loading (TCML). Fracture force was determined under static loading. The marginal adaptation at the interfaces between cement-tooth and cement-crown were categorized as 'intact margin' or 'marginal gap' using scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was undertaken with the Mann-Whitney U-test (alpha = P < or = 0.05). Median fracture strength varied between 204 N (low viscous experimental core) and 1094 N (Multicore). No difference in fracture resistance was found with varying viscosity of the core material. The layering technique improved the fracture performance (P = 0.059) to a minor degree. Crowns with dedicated core materials (Rebilda 1063 N; Multicore 1094 N) had a significantly higher fracture resistance than crowns with a conventional restorative material (Tetric Ceram 509 N). Significantly poorer marginal adaptation before TCML was found for the layering technique at the tooth-cement interface and for all experimental cores after TCML. At the crown-cement interface significant differences in marginal adaptation could be determined between Multicore-layered core (P = 0.002) and Multicore-Rebilda (P = 0.001) after TCML. The fracture strength of post and core restorations was dependent on the core material and bonding system. Marginal adaptation was influenced by the method of application of the core material and by TCML.

  7. A 24-month survey on root canal treatment performed by NiTi engine driven files and warm gutta-percha filling associated system.

    PubMed

    Gagliani, M A; Cerutti, A; Bondesan, A; Colombo, M; Godio, E; Giacomelli, G

    2004-10-01

    Techniques based on NiTi engine driven files for shaping and warm gutta percha for obturing the root canal space are becoming more and more popular. Aim of this paper is to evaluate, by a clinical longitudinal study, the type of sealing and the outcome of endodontic treatment, performed by new Profile and Thermafil technique, in teeth with or without periapical lesions. A total of 122 teeth in 64 patients were consecutively enrolled in the study; 63 teeth had normal periapical status (Group A) and 59 teeth had periapical lesion (Group B). Endodontic therapy was carried out by Profile .04 and Profile .06 NiTi engine driven files and the obturation was made by Thermafil, a filling technique based on heated gutta-percha surrounding a plastic carrier. The type of sealing was evaluated by a score (A best - D worst) and the type of healing was classified as complete, incomplete and failure according to previous published data. The radiographical outcome of the teeth was evaluated by independent observers after 24 months. Data were analysed by non parametric statistics. At the end of the study, 115 teeth (59 group A and 56 group B) were examined. The quality of sealing was evaluated and some differences were reported comparing different types of teeth. The radiographic outcome was evaluated and 94.9% showed to be completely healed in group A and 48.2% in group B (p=0.0001). The technique based on NiTi engine driven files and Thermafil heated gutta-percha has shown, after 24 months, results which were comparable to other root canal shaping and filling methods.

  8. Effect of root canal preparation, type of endodontic post and mechanical cycling on root fracture strength

    PubMed Central

    RIPPE, Marília Pivetta; SANTINI, Manuela Favarin; BIER, Carlos Alexandre Souza; BALDISSARA, Paolo; VALANDRO, Luiz Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the type of root canal preparation, intraradicular post and mechanical cycling on the fracture strength of roots. Material and Methods eighty human single rooted teeth were divided into 8 groups according to the instruments used for root canal preparation (manual or rotary instruments), the type of intraradicular post (fiber posts- FRC and cast post and core- CPC) and the use of mechanical cycling (MC) as follows: Manual and FRC; Manual, FRC and MC; Manual and CPC; Manual, CPC and MC; Rotary and FRC; Rotary, FRC and MC; Rotary and CPC; Rotary, CPC and MC. The filling was performed by lateral compactation. All root canals were prepared for a post with a 10 mm length, using the custom #2 bur of the glass fiber post system. For mechanical cycling, the protocol was applied as follows: an angle of incidence of 45°, 37°C, 88 N, 4 Hz, 2 million pulses. All groups were submitted to fracture strength test in a 45° device with 1 mm/ min cross-head speed until failure occurred. Results The 3-way ANOVA showed that the root canal preparation strategy (p<0.03) and post type (p<0.0001) affected the fracture strength results, while mechanical cycling (p=0.29) did not. Conclusion The root canal preparation strategy only influenced the root fracture strength when restoring with a fiber post and mechanical cycling, so it does not seem to be an important factor in this scenario. PMID:25025556

  9. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  10. [Genotoxicity of a new NanoHA-PA66 root filling material in vitro].

    PubMed

    Ye, Ling; Su, Qin; Zhou, Xue-dong; Tan, Hong

    2004-04-01

    The micronucleus test was applied to evaluate the genotoxicity of a new nanocomplex HA-PA66 root filling material in vitro. The dulbecco's modified eagle media(DMEM) extracts of the powder part and the mixture of the new nanomaterial were prepared separately. The V79 cell was used as the test cell and the mitomycin C(MMC) as the positive control. The MTT assay was employed in our study to evaluate the cytotoxic effect while the number of micronucleus was used as the criteria for the detection of genotoxocity. The MTT values in test groups and negative group were not significantly different at different times (P > 0.05). The number of micronucleus in test groups (powder group: 6.1 +/- 1.1/1,000; complex group: 5.7 +/- 0.6/1,000) was similar to the negative control(5.3 +/- 0.8/1,000, P > 0.05), while they were significantly different to the positive control(123.9 +/- 8/1,000, P < 0.05). The new nanocomplex HA-PA66 root filling material showed no detectable cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in this study and was proved to be biocompatible.

  11. Detection of residual obturation material after root canal retreatment with three different techniques using a dental operating microscope and a stereomicroscope: An in vitro comparative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Raju; Tikku, AP; Chandra, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to compare the efficiency of three different methods used for retreatment using a dental operating microscope (DOM) and a stereomicroscope and to evaluate and compare the two methods for detection of residual obturation material after retreatment. Background: The DOM can play an important role in the successful retreatment by detecting the remaining obturation material. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted maxillary central incisors were collected and obturated after biomechanical preparation. The samples were divided into three groups depending on the method of retreatment: Group I, H-files; Group II, ProTaper Universal retreatment files; and Group III: H-files + Gates-Glidden drills, with 10 samples in each group. After retreatment, the samples were observed under a DOM for detection of residual obturation material. Later, the teeth were cleared and observed under a stereomicroscope for detecting the remaining filling material. The results were subjected to the Spearman's rank order test and other statistical analysis. Results: The maximum cleanliness of the root canal walls was seen in Group I while Group II showed the least. The difference between the mean scores obtained with a DOM and a stereomicroscope was statistically significant (P = 0.05). Conclusion: None of the techniques could completely remove the obturation material. The root canal cleanliness is best achieved when retreatment is performed under a DOM. PMID:22876005

  12. Effects of ultrasonic root-end cavity preparation with different surgical-tips and at different power-settings on glucose-leakage of root-end filling material.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Betul; Aydinbelge, Hale Ali

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different ultrasonic surgical-tips and power-settings on micro-leakage of root-end filling material. The root canals were instrumented using rotary-files and were filled with tapered gutta-percha and root canal sealer using a single-cone technique. The apical 3 mm of each root was resected and the roots were divided into six experimental groups; negative and positive control groups. Root-end cavities were prepared with diamond-coated, zirconum-nitride-coated and stainless-steel ultrasonic retro-tips at half-power and high-power settings. The time required to prepare the root-end cavities for each group was recorded. Root-end cavities were filled with Super-EBA. Leakage values of all samples evaluated with glucose penetration method on 7, 14, 21 and 28(th) days. The results were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Hollander-Wolfe tests. The mean time required to prepare retro cavities using diamond-coated surgical tip at high-power setting was significantly less than other groups (P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in the glucose penetration between the groups at first and second weeks (P > 0.01). Diamond-coated surgical tip showed the least leakage at high-power setting at 3(rd) and 4(th) weeks (P < 0.01). Under the conditions of this study, cavity preparation time was the shortest and the leakage of the root-end filling was the least when diamond-coated retro-tip used at high-power setting.

  13. Assessment of root canal treatment outcomes performed by Turkish dental students: results after two years.

    PubMed

    Ilgüy, Dilhan; Ilgüy, Mehmet; Fisekçioglu, Erdogan; Ersan, Nilüfer; Tanalp, Jale; Dölekoglu, Semanur

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographically the periapical status and technical standard of root canal therapies performed by a group of undergraduate dental students in Turkey two years following completion of the treatments. A random sample of 264 patients who received root canal treatment from undergraduate students at the Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry in 2009 were recalled after two years. The study sample consisted of 319 root-filled teeth in 158 dental patients (females=97, males=61) who presented to the student clinics during that time frame. For each root-filled tooth, two periapical radiographs were examined to identify the periapical status, one showing pre-treatment and the other showing post-treatment status. The quality of endodontic treatment was examined according to the distance between the end of root filling and radiographic apex and the density of the obturation according to presence of voids within the root filling material. This examination found that 54.2 percent of roots had fillings of acceptable length, while 37.3 percent were short, 7.8 percent were overfilled, and 0.6 percent was unfilled; 2.5 percent of the teeth were observed with broken root canal instruments. After two years, PAI scores of teeth with acceptable length of root canal filling (0-2 mm from the radiographic apex) were found to be lower than those of the overfilling and short filling cases (>2mm) (p<0.01). Moreover, voids were detected in the root canal fillings of 52.7 percent of endodontically treated teeth. The PAI scores of root fillings with inadequate density were significantly higher than adequate ones (p<0.01). Although endodontic treatments performed by undergraduate students do not appear to be unqualified compared to those performed by general practitioners, more emphasis must be placed on the technical quality of endodontic treatment to obtain better results.

  14. A Comparative Study on Root Canal Repair Materials: A Cytocompatibility Assessment in L929 and MG63 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuqing; Zheng, Qinghua; Zhou, Xuedong; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Dingming

    2014-01-01

    Cytocompatibility of repair materials plays a significant role in the success of root canal repair. We conducted a comparative study on the cytocompatibility among iRoot BP Plus, iRoot FS, ProRoot MTA, and Super-EBA in L929 cells and MG63 cells. The results revealed that iRoot FS was able to completely solidify within 1 hour. iRoot BP Plus required 7-day incubation, which was much longer than expected (2 hours), to completely set. ProRoot MTA and Super-EBA exhibited a similar setting duration of 12 hours. All the materials except Super-EBA possessed negligible in vitro cytotoxicity. iRoot FS had the best cell adhesion capacity in both L929 and MG63 cells. With rapid setting, negligible cytotoxicity, and enhanced cell adhesion capacity, iRoot FS demonstrated great potential in clinical applications. Future work should focus on longer-term in vitro cytocompatibility and an in vivo assessment. PMID:24526893

  15. MTR CANAL IS FILLED WITH WATER. MAN STANDS ON MOVABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR CANAL IS FILLED WITH WATER. MAN STANDS ON MOVABLE BRIDGE. NOTE CHAINS AND HOOK AT LEFT. THIS SECTION OF CANAL PROJECTED EAST BEYOND THE SITE OF THE MTR BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6003. Unknown Photographer, 6/16/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Evaluation of Root-End Resections Performed by Er, Cr: YSGG Laser with and without Placement of a Root-End Filling Material

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, John; Pileggi, Roberta; Varella, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Microleakage following root-end resections has a direct influence on the outcome of surgical endodontic procedures. This study compared the microleakage after root-end resections performed by the Er, Cr: YSGG laser or carbide burs with or without the placement of MTA, and evaluated the presence of microcracks and gaps at the interface of GP/MTA and the canal walls. Ninety single-rooted teeth were instrumented, obturated with GP and AH-Plus sealer, and divided into 3 experimental groups: (I) root-end resections were performed with the laser and G6 tips (parameters: 4.5 w, 30 pps, 20% water and 50% air); (II) Lindeman burs were used, without the placement of MTA; (III) the burs were used followed by root-end fillings with MTA, and one control (IV) of five unobturated roots resected with the burs. The samples were prepared for microleakage (n = 20) and SEM (n = 10) analysis. They were immersed in 1% methylene blue, decalcified, cleared, and evaluated for dye penetration (mm2) with the ImageJ software. Epoxy-resin replicas of the root-ends were analyzed by SEM for gaps (μm2) and microcracks. Microleakage results were 0.518 ± 1.059, 0.172 ± 0.223, and 0.158 ± 0.253, for the laser (I), no root-end filling (II), and MTA (III) samples, respectively, (ANOVA P = .02). The laser (7831.7 ± 2329.2) and no root-end filling (7137.3 ± 1400.7) samples presented gaps. Whereas, none was found in the MTA (ANOVA P = .002). Microcracks were not observed. The MTA group demonstrated statistically less leakage and better adaptation to the canal walls when compared to the other groups. There was no correlation between the size of the gaps and the degree of microleakage. PMID:20339466

  17. Sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate when used as root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Shahriar; Rahimi, Saeed; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Shakouie, Sahar; Nezafati, Saeed; Abdolrahimi, Majid

    2007-12-01

    This in vitro study used dye penetration to compare the sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate when used as root-end filling materials. Ninety-six single-rooted human teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 root canal sealer. The apical 3 mm of each root was resected, and 3-mm deep root-end cavity preparations were made. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups, each containing 20 teeth, and 2 negative and positive control groups, each containing 8 teeth. Root-end cavities in the experimental groups were filled with the experimental materials. After decoronation of the teeth and application of nail polish, the teeth were exposed to India ink for 72 hours and longitudinally sectioned, and the extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences among the 4 experimental groups.

  18. Comparison of the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement used as root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Shahriar; Yavari, Hamid R; Rahimi, Saeed; Eskandarinezhad, Mahsa; Shakouei, Sahar; Unchi, Mahsa

    2011-12-01

    Inadequate apical seal is the major cause of surgical endodontic failure. The root-end filling material used should prevent egress of potential contaminants into periapical tissue. The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of four root-end filling materials: white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), gray MTA, white Portland cement (PC) and gray PC by dye leakage test. Ninety-six human single-rooted teeth were instrumented, and obturated with gutta-percha. After resecting the apex, an apical cavity was prepared. The teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups (A: white MTA, B: gray MTA, C: white PC and D: gray PC; n = 20) and two control groups (positive and negative control groups; n = 8). Root-end cavities in the experimental groups were filled with the experimental materials. The teeth were exposed to Indian ink for 72 hours. The extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope at 16× magnification. The negative controls showed no dye penetration and dye penetration was seen in the entire root-end cavity of positive controls. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the four experimental groups (P > 0.05). All retrograde filling materials tested in this study showed the same microleakage in vitro. Given the low cost and apparently similar sealing ability of PC, PC could be considered as a substitute for MTA as a root-end filling material.

  19. Investigation of the physical properties of tricalcium silicate cement-based root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Grech, L; Mallia, B; Camilleri, J

    2013-02-01

    Tricalcium silicate-based cements have been displayed as suitable root-end filling materials. The physical properties of prototype radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Bioaggregate and Biodentine were investigated. Intermediate restorative material was used as a control. The physical properties of a prototype zirconium oxide replaced tricalcium silicate cement and two proprietary cements composed of tricalcium silicate namely Bioaggregate and Biodentine were investigated. Intermediate restorative material (IRM) was used as a control. Radiopacity assessment was undertaken and expressed in thickness of aluminum. In addition the anti-washout resistance was investigated using a novel basket-drop method and the fluid uptake, sorption and solubility were investigated using a gravimetric method. The setting time was assessed using an indentation technique and compressive strength and micro-hardness of the test materials were investigated. All the testing was performed with the test materials immersed in Hank's balanced salt solution. All the materials tested had a radiopacity value higher than 3mm thickness of aluminum. IRM exhibited the highest radiopacity. Biodentine demonstrated a high washout, low fluid uptake and sorption values, low setting time and superior mechanical properties. The fluid uptake and setting time was the highest for Bioaggregate. The addition of admixtures to tricalcium silicate-based cements affects the physical properties of the materials. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solubility of a new calcium silicate-based root-end filling material

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shishir; Podar, Rajesh; Dadu, Shifali; Kulkarni, Gaurav; Purba, Rucheet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare solubility of a new calcium silicate-based cement, Biodentine with three commonly used root-end filling materials viz. glass-ionomer cement (GIC), intermediate restorative material (IRM), and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Materials and Methods: Twenty stainless steel ring molds were filled with cements corresponding to four groups (n = 5). The weight of 20 dried glass bottles was recorded. Samples were transferred to bottles containing 5 ml of distilled water and stored for 24 h. The bottles were dried at 105΀C and weighed. This procedure was repeated for 3, 10, 30, and 60 days. Data was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test (P < 0.05). Results: Biodentine demonstrated significantly higher solubility than MTA for 30- and 60-day immersion periods. Statistical difference was noted between the solubility values of Biodentine samples amongst each of the five time intervals. Conclusions: Biodentine exhibited higher solubility in comparison with all other cements. PMID:25829696

  1. Evaluation of cone-beam computed tomography in the diagnosis of vertical root fractures: the influence of imaging modes and root canal materials.

    PubMed

    Neves, Frederico Sampaio; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Campos, Paulo Sérgio Flores; Ekestubbe, Annika; Lofthag-Hansen, Sara

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging modes in the diagnosis of vertical root fractures with different intracanal materials. The sample consisted of 30 single-rooted teeth divided into 3 groups (n = 10), control and complete and incomplete root fracture. In each tooth, different materials were used (gutta-percha, metal post, and fiber post) as well as no filling material. Each tooth/root was scanned in a 3D Accuitomo 170 CBCT device by using 4 different imaging modes (high-resolution, high-fidelity, high-speed, and standard). In addition, the dose-area product was calculated for each CBCT imaging mode. The images were randomly evaluated by 5 dentomaxillofacial radiologists. Complete root fractures were visualized more easily than incomplete fractures. The presence of metal post and gutta-percha negatively influenced the diagnosis of root fracture. Regarding the CBCT imaging modes, there was no influence for complete root fracture diagnosis. In cases of incomplete root fractures, high-fidelity, high-resolution, and standard had a higher diagnostic accuracy, especially in the fiber post and no filling groups. The CBCT imaging modes had little influence in the diagnosis of complete and incomplete root fractures, whereas the presence of intracanal material had greater impact on the diagnostic ability, demonstrating that CBCT is not beneficial for the diagnosis of root fractures when metal posts are present. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Healing after Root-end Microsurgery by Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and a New Calcium Silicate–based Bioceramic Material as Root-end Filling Materials in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ian; Karabucak, Bekir; Wang, Cong; Wang, Han-Guo; Koyama, Eiki; Kohli, Meetu R.; Nah, Hyun-Duck; Kim, Syngcuk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare healing after root-end surgery by using grey mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and EndoSequence Root Repair Material (RRM) as root-end filling material in an animal model. Methods Apical periodontitis was induced in 55 mandibular premolars of 4 healthy beagle dogs. After 6 weeks, root-end surgeries were performed by using modern microsurgical techniques. Two different root-end filling materials were used, grey MTA and RRM. Six months after surgery, healing of the periapical area was assessed by periapical radiographs, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), micro computed tomography (CT), and histology. Results Minimal or no inflammatory response was observed in the majority of periapical areas regardless of the material. The degree of inflammatory infiltration and cortical plate healing were not significantly different between the 2 materials. However, a significantly greater root-end surface area was covered by cementum-like, periodontal ligament–like tissue, and bone in RRM group than in MTA group. When evaluating with periapical radiographs, complete healing rate in RRM and MTA groups was 92.6% and 75%, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P = .073). However, on CBCT and micro CT images, RRM group demonstrated significantly superior healing on the resected root-end surface and in the periapical area (P = .000 to .027). Conclusions Like MTA, RRM is a biocompatible material with good sealing ability. However, in this animal model RRM achieved a better tissue healing response adjacent to the resected root-end surface histologically. The superior healing tendency associated with RRM could be detected by CBCT and micro CT but not periapical radiography. PMID:25596728

  3. The Influence of Root-End Filling Materials on Bone Healing – An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    KUI, ANDREEA GULIE; BERAR, ANTONELA; LASCU, LIANA; BOLFA, POMPEI; BOSCA, BIANCA; MIHU, CARMEN; BACIUT, MIHAELA; AVRAM, RAMONA; BADEA, MÂNDRA

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this experimental study is to assess the bone healing phenomenon produced in the presence of several dental materials: a polycarboxylate cement, a glass-ionomer cement, a composite resin and MTA (mineral trioxide aggregate) based cement. Methods. The biocompatibility of four root-end fillings materials, used in periapical surgery was investigated after intra-osseous implantation of the materials in rats’ calvaria. Tissue reaction was studied at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks after implantation. We took into consideration the presence of inflammatory cells (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes and giant cells) and classified the aspects of the histological samples according to the following scale: 0 - no inflammation, 1 – mild, isolated inflammation, 2 - moderate, localized inflammatory reaction, 3 - severe, diffuse and intense inflammatory reaction. Results. The inflammatory reaction was present at the six intervals for all the tested materials, but at 12 week interval, the reaction was minimal in all cases. Also, a dissolution reaction was observed for all the materials, less intense for glass-ionomer cement and polycarboxilate cement. Conclusions. At the end of the experimental period, glass-ionomer cement and polycarboxilate cement suffered a lesser dissolution reaction as compared to the second group of tested materials. PMID:26528034

  4. Technical Quality of Root Fillings Performed by Undergraduate Students: A Radiographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Blažić, Larisa; Kantardžić, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiographic technical quality of endodontic treatment performed by undergraduate students at the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia. Materials and Methods. Electronic records of 220 patients treated by final-year undergraduate students during the school year 2011/2012 were examined, and the final sample consisted of 212 patients, 322 teeth, and 565 root canals. The criteria for overall radiographic adequacy of root canal fillings were defined as the presence of adequate length and density and absence of iatrogenic errors (ledge, fractured instrument, untreated canal, and apical transportation). Chi-square test was used to determine statistical significance between different parameters. Results. Adequate root canal fillings were found in 74.22% of the teeth. The percentage of root fillings with adequate length and density was 89.73% and 92.6%, respectively. Fractured instruments and ledges were present in 16 root canals (2.8%), while the presence of missed canal and apical transportation was observed in 2 cases, each (0.3%). Conclusions. Overall, the technical quality of root canal fillings performed by undergraduate students was satisfactory. PMID:24672365

  5. Biological properties of IRM with the addition of hydroxyapatite as a retrograde root filling material.

    PubMed

    Owadally, I D; Chong, B S; Pitt Ford, T R; Wilson, R F

    1994-10-01

    The effect of adding 10% & 20% hydroxyapatite (HAP) on the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of IRM (Intermediate Restorative Material) when used as a retrograde root filling was compared with amalgam, a commonly used material. The antibacterial activity was assessed using the agar diffusion inhibitory test. Forty standardized pellets of each material were produced. Fresh materials, and materials aged for 1 week in sterile distilled water, were placed on blood agar plates inoculated with Streptococcus anginosus (milleri) or Enterococcus faecalis. The presence and diameter of zones of inhibition were recorded at intervals of 3, 7 and 10 days. There was no statistically significant overall difference in the response of the two bacteria tested. However, there were statistically significant overall differences in diameters of the zones of inhibition related to different materials, period of exposure and ageing of materials (P < 0.001). The diameter of the zones of inhibition increased with time for all materials, fresh and aged. IRM and both the HAP-modified forms produced large zones of inhibition. Amalgam produced no measureable zones of inhibition whether aged or fresh, regardless of period of exposure and was different from the other materials (P < 0.001). The cytotoxicity was assessed using the Millipore filter method. Ten standardized pellets of each material were produced and aged by storage in sterile distilled water for 72 h. Ten filters were included as controls. Amalgam produced a consistent cytotoxic score of 1, and the difference between amalgam and the other materials was statistically significant (P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. [Endodontics in motion: new concepts, materials and techniques 3. The role of irrigants during root canal treatment].

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, L W M

    2015-10-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm) and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root canal system and their chemical dissolution or disruption. Each of the endodontic irrigation systems has its own irrigant flow characteristics, which should fulfill these aims. Without flow (convection), the irrigant would have to be distributed through diffusion. This process is slow and depends on temperature and concentration gradients. On the other hand, convection is a faster and more efficient transport mechanism. During irrigant flow, frictional forces will occur, for example between the irrigant and the root canal wall (wall shear stress). These frictional forces have a mechanical cleaning effect on the root canal wall. These frictional forces are the result of the flow characteristics related to the different irrigation systems.

  7. Nd:YAG laser in endodontics: filling-material edge bordering on a root channel laser cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Andrei V.; Sinelnik, Yuri A.; Moroz, Boris T.; Pavlovskaya, Irina V.

    1997-12-01

    For the very first time it is represented a study of filling material edge bordering upon root channel cavity modified with a laser. As a filling material it is used a glass ionomer cement. It is demonstrated that Nd:YAG laser radiation effects on increase of grade of edge bordering on the average of 20 - 30% at temperature rise of no more than 2 - 3 degrees in periodontium area in a period of operation.

  8. Push-out bond strength of two root-end filling materials in root-end cavities prepared by Er,Cr:YSGG laser or ultrasonic technique.

    PubMed

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Razmi, Hasan; Fekrazad, Reza; Asgary, Saeed; Neshati, Ammar; Assadian, Hadi; Kheirieh, Sanam

    2012-12-01

    This study compared the push-out bond strength of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and a new endodontic cement (NEC) as root-end filling materials in root-end cavities prepared by ultrasonic technique (US) or Er,Cr:YSGG laser (L). Eighty single-rooted extracted human teeth were endodontically treated, apicectomised and randomly divided into four following groups (n = 20): US/MTA, US/NEC, L/MTA and L/NEC. In US/MTA and US/NEC groups, root-end cavities were prepared with ultrasonic retrotip and filled with MTA and NEC, respectively. In L/MTA and L/NEC groups, root-end cavities were prepared using Er,Cr:YSGG laser and filled with MTA and NEC, respectively. Each root was cut apically to create a 2 mm-thick root slice for measurement of bond strength using a universal testing machine. Then, all slices were examined to determine the mode of bond failure. Data were analysed using two-way anova. Root-end filling materials showed significantly higher bond strength in root-end cavities prepared using ultrasonic technique (US/MTA and US/NEC) (P < 0.001). The bond strengths of MTA and NEC did not differ significantly. The failure modes were mainly adhesive for MTA, but cohesive for NEC. In conclusion, bond strengths of MTA and NEC to root-end cavities were comparable and higher in ultrasonically prepared cavities.

  9. Clinical relevance of trans 1,4-polyisoprene aging degradation on the longevity of root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Maniglia-Ferreira, Cláudio; Valverde, Guilherme Bönecker; Silva, João Batista Araújo; de Paula, Regina Célia Monteiro; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa Andrade; de Souza-Filho, Francisco José

    2007-01-01

    This in vivo study investigated the time of degradation of root filling material (trans 1,4-polyisoprene) retrieved from endodontically treated teeth and correlated the occurrence of degradation with the longevity of endodontics. Thirty-six root-filled teeth with different filling times (2 to 30 years) and with and without periapical lesions were selected. All teeth presented clinical indication for root canal retreatment. The association among filling time, presence of periapical lesion and root filling material degradation was investigated. Root filling samples were retrieved from the root canals using a Hedströ m file without solvent. The trans 1,4-polyisoprene was isolated by root filling solubilization in chloroform followed by filtration and centrifugation. GPC and FT-IR were the analytical techniques utilized. Degradation of trans 1,4-polyisoprene occurred with time, as a slow process. It is an oxidative process, and production of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in the residual polymer were observed. Statistically significant decrease of molar mass was observed after 5 (p=0.0001) and 15 (p=0.01) years in teeth with and without periapical lesion, respectively. Bacteria participated in polymer degradation. Gutta-percha aging was proven an important factor for the long-term success of endodontic treatment. The findings of the present study showed that, after 15 years, polymer weight loss may decrease the capacity of the filling mass to seal the root canal space and prevent re-infection, thus compromising significantly the longevity of root canal therapy.

  10. Sealing ability and adaptation of root-end filling materials in cavities prepared with different techniques.

    PubMed

    Küçükkaya Eren, Selen; Görduysus, Mehmet Ömer; Şahin, Cem

    2017-03-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability and marginal adaptation of calcium silicate-based cements (CSCs) in root-end cavities prepared by ultrasonic and laser tips. A total of 72 extracted human maxillary incisor teeth were randomly divided as 60 teeth in experimental groups and 6 teeth each for positive and negative control groups. Specimens in experimental groups were obturated, their root-end resections were performed and randomly divided into six groups (n = 10) as follows: G1: Ultrasonic retrotip + MTA, G2: Ultrasonic retrotip + Calcium Enriched Mixture (CEM), G3: Ultrasonic retrotip + Biodentine, G4: Er:YAG laser tip + MTA, G5: Er:YAG laser tip + CEM, G6: Er:YAG laser tip + Biodentine. The sealing ability was measured by fluid transport method. Six specimens from each experimental group were randomly selected to analyze marginal adaptation and prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Micrographs were scored and also analyzed using Image J software. Data were analyzed with; two-way ANOVA, Bonferroni, Kruskall-Wallis, Mann-Whitney-U, Siegel & Castellan, and Spearman correlation coefficient tests. No significant difference was found between materials regarding the sealing ability and marginal adaptation (p > 0.05). Significantly greater fluid movement and poor marginal adaptation were seen for materials placed in cavities prepared by laser tips (p < 0.05). Positive correlation was found between the results of scoring and Image J analysis of SEM images (r = 0.596, p < 0.001). Fluid transport method and SEM analysis gave similar results suggesting the use of ultrasonic-retrotips for preparing root-end cavities which are going to be filled with one of these CSCs.

  11. Biodentine versus Mineral Trioxide Aggregate versus Intermediate Restorative Material for Retrograde Root End Filling: An Invitro Study.

    PubMed

    Soundappan, Saravanapriyan; Sundaramurthy, Jothi Latha; Raghu, Sandhya; Natanasabapathy, Velmurugan

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of Biodentine in comparison with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), as a root end filling material, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thirty permanent maxillary central incisors were chemo-mechanically prepared and obturated. Three millimetres of the root end were resected and 3mm retro cavity preparation was done using ultrasonic retrotips. The samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) and were restored with root end filling materials: Group I - MTA, Group II - Biodentine, Group III - IRM. The root ends were sectioned transversely at 1mm and 2mm levels and evaluated for marginal adaptation using SEM. The gap between dentin and retro filling material was measured at four quadrants. The mean gap at 1mm level and 2mm level from the resected root tip and combined mean were calculated. The data were statistically analyzed, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc test for intergroup analysis and paired t-test for intragroup analysis. The overall results showed no statistically significant difference between MTA and IRM but both were superior when compared to Biodentine. At 1mm level there was no statistically significant difference among any of the tested materials. At 2mm level MTA was superior to both IRM and Biodentine. In overall comparison, MTA and IRM were significantly superior when compared to Biodentine in terms of marginal adaptation, when used as retrograde filling material.

  12. Stereomicroscopic Evaluation of Sealing Ability of Four Different Root Canal Sealers- An invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandak, Manoj; Jain, Pradeep; Patni, Mona Jain; Jain, Sumeet; Mishra, Prashant; Jain, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most commonly used core material for root canal filling is gutta-percha and as the gutta-percha by itself cannot obturate the complete root canal system, owing to its poor sealing properties hence, a sealer is used in combination with root filling material. Sealer is more important than the core obturating material. Sealer plays a secondary role by merely reinforcing (binding or luting) the gutta-percha to the canal walls, however, it is now confirmed that the sealer has a prime role in sealing the canal by blocking the irregularities between the canal space and the core filling material. Aim To investigate the effectiveness of the apical seal obtained by different sealers used in conjugation with cold lateral condensation technique of obturation using gutta-percha under stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods One hundred single-rooted extracted human permanent teeth with a single root canal were used in this in-vitro study. The sealers tested were conventional Zinc oxide eugenol sealer, Apexit, AH-Plus and Roekoseal Automix (RSA). The specimens were examined under a stereomicroscope. For the analysis of data Snedocor’s F test for the quality of variances among the experimental group and control group (One-Way ANOVA) were employed. Results The polydimethylsiloxane endodontic root canal sealer RSA provided a significantly better apical seal followed by AH plus and Apexit whereas conventional zinc oxide eugenol showed the lowest sealing ability. Conclusion It was concluded that there were statistically significant differences amongst the experimental groups. The shrinkage related to setting and potential dissolution might risk the proper seal of the root canal leading to treatment failure. PMID:27656560

  13. Effect of two contemporary root canal sealers on root canal dentin microhardness

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Successful root canal treatment depends on proper cleaning, disinfecting and shaping of the root canal space. Pulpless teeth have lower dentin microhardness value compared to that of vital teeth. A material which can cause change in dentin composition may affect the microhardness. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two root canal sealers on dentin microhardness. Material and Methods Forty two single rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 equal groups; Apexit, iRootSP and control groups (n=14) Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups according to the post evaluation period; 1 week and 2 months (n=7). Root canal procedure was done in the experimental groups and obturation was made using either; Apexit, iRootSP or left unprepared and unobturated in the control group. Roots were sectioned transversely into cervical, middle and apical segments. The three sections of each root were mounted in a plastic chuck with acrylic resin. The coronal dentin surfaces of the root segments werepolished. Microhardness of each section was measured at 500 µm and 1000 µm from the canal lumen. Results Four way-ANOVA revealed that different tested sealer materials, canal third, measuring distance from the pulp and time as independent variables had statistically non significant effect on mean microhardness values (VHN) at p≤0.001. Among iRootSP groups there was a statistically significant difference between iRoot SP at coronal root portion (87.79±17.83) and iRoot SP at apical root portion (76.26±9.33) groups where (p=0.01). IRoot SP at coronal canal third had higher statistically significant mean microhardness value (87.79±17.83) compared to Apexit at coronal third (73.61±13.47) where (p=0.01). Conclusions Root canal sealers do not affect dentin microhardness. Key words:Root canal, dentin, sealers, microhardness, bioceramic. PMID:28149466

  14. Sealing Ability of Resilon and MTA as Root-end Filling Materials: A Bacterial and Dye Leakage Study

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hengameh; Faramarzi, Farhad; Paymanpour, Payam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Endodontic surgery is a valuable option for maintaining patient's natural dentition when previous orthograde endodontic treatments fail to succeed. Proper root-end preparation and placement of a retro-filling material are recommended for successful endodontic surgery. The objective of this experimental study was to compare sealing ability of Resilon/Epiphany system, as a potential root-end filling material, with ProRoot MTA using both dye and bacterial leakage models. Materials and Methods Ninety two single-rooted extracted human teeth were decoronated and prepared endodontically. Specimens were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 20) and four control groups (n = 3). After removal of apical 3 mm and root-end cavity preparation, MTA, or Resilon were used to fill root end cavities. For bacterial leakage, specimens (20 for each experimental group, 3 negative, and 3 positive controls) were subjected to E. faecalis over a 70-day period. Methylene blue was used for dye leakage (the same in number as before). Using stereomicroscope (40× mag.) complete dye leakage was assessed after 72 h. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed for bacterial leakage. The data was analyzed using t-test and Chi-square analysis (α = 0.05). Results All of the positive controls and none of negative controls revealed leakage. Result of log rank test showed no significant difference between MTA and Resilon in time of bacterial leakage at the end of the 70 days (P > 0.05) There was also no statistical difference in complete dye leakage for both groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion Leakage occurred in both MTA and Resilon as root-end filling material but the difference was not statistically significant. Resilon might be noticed as a potential root-end filling material if good isolation is attainable. PMID:24171025

  15. Comparison of the Root End Sealing Ability of Four Different Retrograde Filling Materials in Teeth with Root Apices Resected at Different Angles – An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ponnappa, K.C.; Yadav, Pankaj; Rao, Yogesh; Relhan, Nikhil; Gupta, Priyanka; Choubey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Shivanshu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insufficient apical seal is the significant reason for surgical endodontic disappointment. The root-end filling material utilized should avoid egress of potential contaminants into periapical tissue. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the sealing ability of four root-end filling materials MTA, Portland cement, IRM, RMGIC in teeth with root apices resected at 0 and 45 angle using dye penetration method under fluorescent microscope. Materials and Methods Hundred extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were sectioned horizontally at the cement-enamel junction. After cleaning, shaping and obturation with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer, the tooth samples were randomly divided in two groups (the root apices resected at 0° and 45° to the long axis of the root). The root resections were carried out by removing 2 mm and 1 mm in both the groups. Following which 3 mm deep root-end cavities were prepared at the apices and the root were coated with nail varnish except the tip. The teeth in both the group were randomly divided into four subgroups each (Pro root MTA, Portland cement, IRM and Light cure nano GIC Ketac N-100). All the retrofilled samples were stored in acrydine orange for 24 hours after which they were cleaned and vertically sectioned buccolingually. The sectioned root samples were observed under fluorescent microscope. Results The root apex sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) was superior to Portland cement, Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) and LC GIC. IRM demonstrated the maximum apical leakage value among all the materials. Portland cement and LC GIC showed comparable sealing ability. Conclusion The angulation whether 0° or 45° angle did not affect the sealing ability of all the four materials used, MTA proved to be one of the superior materials for root-end filling. PMID:26894168

  16. Monoblocks in root canals - a hypothetical or a tangible goal

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2007-01-01

    The term “monoblock” has become a familiar term in the endodontic literature with recent interest in the application of dentin adhesive technology to endodontics. Endodontic “monoblocks” have generated controversial discussions among academicians and clinicians as to whether they are able to improve the quality of seal in root fillings and to strengthen roots. This review attempts to provide a broader meaning to the term “monoblock” and see how this definition may be applied to the materials that have been used in the past and present for rehabilitation of the root canal space. The potential of currently available bondable materials to achieve mechanically homogeneous units with root dentin is then discussed in relation to the classical concept in which the term “monoblock” was first employed in restorative dentistry, and subsequently in endodontics. PMID:17368325

  17. Clinical outcome of endodontic microsurgery that uses EndoSequence BC root repair material as the root-end filling material.

    PubMed

    Shinbori, Nicole; Grama, Ana Maria; Patel, Yogesh; Woodmansey, Karl; He, Jianing

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical and radiographic outcome of root-end surgery when EndoSequence BC Root Repair (ES-BCRR) was used as the root-end filling material and to identify any possible prognostic factors that may have affected the healing outcome. Clinical records and periapical radiographs were collected from patients who had undergone endodontic microsurgery between 2009 and 2013 in a private endodontic office and had a minimum 1-year follow-up. All surgical procedures were performed by a single endodontist. ES-BCRR was used as the root-end filling material in all cases. Outcome was categorized into healed, healing, and non-healing on the basis of clinical and radiographic findings. The healed and healing cases were pooled and considered as success, and non-healing cases were considered failure. For statistical analysis of the prognostic factors, the dependent variable was the dichotomous outcome (ie, success versus failure). Ninety-four patients with 113 teeth met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. The overall success rate was 92.0%. None of the prognostic factors, including age, sex, tooth position, size of periapical radiolucency, presence of a sinus tract, preoperative symptoms, and retreatment previous to surgery, appeared to have any significant effects on the outcome (P > .05). This current study suggests that ES-BCRR is a suitable root-end filling material to be used in endodontic surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the Efficacy of TRUShape and Reciproc File Systems in the Removal of Root Filling Material: An Ex Vivo Micro-Computed Tomographic Study.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira Zuolo, Arthur; Zuolo, Mario Luis; da Silveira Bueno, Carlos Eduardo; Chu, Rene; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of TRUShape (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) compared with the Reciproc file (VDW, Munich, Germany) in the removal of filling material from oval canals filled with 2 different sealers and differences in the working time. Sixty-four mandibular canines with oval canals were prepared and divided into 4 groups (n = 16). Half of the specimens were filled with gutta-percha and pulp canal sealer (PCS), and the remainders were filled with gutta-percha and bioceramic sealer (BCS). The specimens were retreated using either the Reciproc or TRUShape files. A micro-computed tomographic scanner was used to assess filling material removal, and the time taken for removal was also recorded. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The mean volume of the remaining filling material was similar when comparing both files (P ≥ .05). However, in the groups filled with BCS, the percentage of remaining filling material was higher than in the groups filled with PCS (P < .05). The reciprocating file allowed for faster filling removal than the TRUShape files (P < .05). Retreatment was faster in the groups that were filled with PCS compared with those filled with BCS (P < .05). There was no difference regarding the percentage of remaining filling material when comparing both files system; however, Reciproc was faster than TRUShape. BCS groups exhibited significantly more remaining filling material in the canals and required more time for retreatment. Remaining filling material was observed in all samples regardless of the technique or sealer used. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of different filling materials in combination with intraradicular posts on the resistance to fracture of weakened roots.

    PubMed

    Marchi, G M; Paulillo, L A M S; Pimenta, L A F; De Lima, F A P

    2003-06-01

    The preservation and restoration of severely weakened pulpless teeth is a difficult and relatively unpredictable procedure. This study evaluated the resistance to fracture of experimentally weakened bovine roots internally reconstructed with different filling materials in combination with prefabricated post compared with restored roots that were relatively intact. The roots of 75 mandibular bovine incisors with similar bulks were selected. Of these, 60 were internally prepared to standardized dimensions, thereby simulating weakness. All roots were filled with different restorative materials. The specimens were submitted to the fracture resistance testing with the application of a tangential compressive loading at an angle of 135 degrees in relation to the long axes of the roots. Results indicated statistically significant differences in relation to the root conditions. Weakened roots were less resistant to fracture than were controls. The roots restored with the resin cement demonstrated the lowest fracture resistance values, but statistically significant differences were observed only when compared with those restored by the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Resin-modified glass-ionomer cement, polyacid-modified resin composite and resin composite behaved similarly without statistically significant differences among them. None of the materials evaluated were capable of achieving the fracture resistance recorded for unweakened controls.

  20. Sonic instruments in root canal therapy.

    PubMed

    Waplington, M; Lumley, P J; Walmsley, A D

    1995-10-01

    Although hand instrumentation is considered the most acceptable method of preparing root canals, sonic instruments may be useful additions to the endodontic armamentarium. Sonic instrumentation may be incorporated as an adjunct to traditional techniques for shaping the root canal. The use of such instruments may assist the practitioner during root canal treatment in general practice.

  1. Toxic effects of various retrograde root filling materials on gingival fibroblasts and rat sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Peltola, M; Salo, T; Oikarinen, K

    1992-06-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of amalgam, glass ionomer, composite and titanium on the growth of gingival fibroblasts (GF) and rat sarcoma cells (UMR) in vitro. The cells were either obtained from gingival biopsies taken during deliberation of unerupted canines (GF) or were of commercial origin (UMR). Equal numbers of cells were placed on culture dishes and incubated for a period of two weeks with the freshly prepared test materials. The cultures were photographed through a light microscope after 7 days incubation and finally counted after 14 days. It was shown that the proliferation of gingival fibroblasts was less disturbed by titanium, being approximately 96% of the control value (cell cultures without test particles), followed by composite, amalgam and glass ionomer (61%, 49% and 35% of the control value respectively). The number of UMR cells after 14 days incubation with the various materials was 76% of the control value with titanium, 12% with composite and 5% with both amalgam and glass ionomer. Inhibition of cell growth (UMR) around the test particles was most prominent around amalgam and glass ionomer, followed by composite and titanium. These effects were noted only with freshly prepared components however, so that the toxic reaction was less pronounced or minimal in a second incubation using the same particles sterilized in between. The results demonstrated that potential retrograde root filling materials have a variable toxic effect on gingival fibroblasts and rat sarcoma cells. The fact that the influence on proliferation disappeared when the test was performed with materials already tested once may be of clinical importance when estimating the biocompatibility in vivo.

  2. Hydration characteristics of calcium silicate cements with alternative radiopacifiers used as root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Josette

    2010-03-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is composed of calcium silicate cement and bismuth oxide added for radiopacity. The bismuth oxide in MTA has been reported to have a deleterious effect on the physical and chemical properties of the hydrated material. This study aimed to investigate the hydration mechanism of calcium silicate cement loaded with different radiopacifiers for use as a root-end filling material. Calcium silicate cement loaded with barium sulfate, gold, or silver/tin alloy was hydrated, and paste microstructure was assessed after 30 days. In addition, atomic ratio plots of Al/Ca versus Si/Ca and S/Ca and Al/Ca were drawn, and X-ray energy dispersive analysis of the hydration products was performed to assess for inclusion of heavy metals. The leachate produced from the cements after storage of the cements in water for 28 days and the leaching of the radiopacifiers in an alkaline solution was assessed by using inductively coupled plasma. The hydrated calcium silicate cement was composed of calcium silicate hydrate, calcium hydroxide, ettringite, and monosulfate. Unhydrated cement particles were few. No heavy metals were detected in the calcium silicate hydrate except for the bismuth in MTA. Calcium was leached out early in large quantities that reduced with time. The barium and bismuth were leached in increasing amounts. Copper was the most soluble in alkaline solution followed by bismuth and barium in smaller amounts. The bismuth oxide can be replaced by other radiopacifiers that do not affect the hydration mechanism of the resultant material. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Root canal retreatment using reciprocating and continuous rotary nickel-titanium instruments

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Patricia Fonseca; Oliveira Goncalves, Leonardo Cantanhede; Franco Marques, Andre Augusto; Sponchiado Junior, Emilio Carlos; Roberti Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca; de Carvalho, Fredson Marcio Acris

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The complete filling material removal during endodontic retreatment is a clinical procedure difficult to achieve. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of reciprocating and continuous rotary nickel-titanium instruments used in root canal retreatment. Materials and Methods: Forty freshly extracted human premolars were cleaned and shaped by the crown-down technique, followed by filling by the lateral compaction technique. The teeth were randomly separated into two groups (n = 20), according to the system used for filling material removal: G1 - Reciproc and G2 - ProTaper Universal Retreatment System. The teeth were photographed under operating microscope at ×8 magnification; and the total area of the root canal and remaining filling material were quantified. Results: No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in residual filling material was observed between groups; however, the time required for filling removal was significantly shorter for Reciproc system (P < 0.05). Conclusions: It was observed remaining filling material in all teeth, irrespective of the system used; however, root canal retreatment was faster when reciprocating motion was used. PMID:26038656

  4. Evaluation of physicochemical properties of root-end filling materials using conventional and Micro-CT tests.

    PubMed

    Torres, Fernanda Ferrari Esteves; Bosso-Martelo, Roberta; Espir, Camila Galletti; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate solubility, dimensional stability, filling ability and volumetric change of root-end filling materials using conventional tests and new Micro-CT-based methods. 7. The results suggested correlated or complementary data between the proposed tests. At 7 days, BIO showed higher solubility and at 30 days, showed higher volumetric change in comparison with MTA (p<0.05). With regard to volumetric change, the tested materials were similar (p>0.05) at 7 days. At 30 days, they presented similar solubility. BIO and MTA showed higher dimensional stability than ZOE (p<0.05). ZOE and BIO showed higher filling ability (p<0.05). ZOE presented a higher dimensional change, and BIO had greater solubility after 7 days. BIO presented filling ability and dimensional stability, but greater volumetric change than MTA after 30 days. Micro-CT can provide important data on the physicochemical properties of materials complementing conventional tests.

  5. Apical adaptation, sealing ability and push-out bond strength of five root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Amoroso-Silva, Pablo Andrés; Marciano, Marina Angélica; Guimarães, Bruno Martini; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Sanson, Ana Flavia; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the fluid filtration, adaptation to the root canal walls, and the push-out bond strength of two resin-based sealers and three calcium silicate-based retrograde filling materials. Fifty maxillary canines were shaped using manual instruments and the apical portion was sectioned. Retrograde cavities of 3-mm depth were prepared. The specimens were divided into five groups (n = 10): Sealer 26 (S26); MBPc (experimental); MTA; Portland cement with 20% zirconium oxide (PC/ZO), and Portland cement with 20% calcium tungstate (PC/CT). The fluid filtration was measured at 7 and 15 days. To evaluate the interfacial adaptation, sections of the teeth, 1 and 2 mm from the apex, were prepared and the percentage of gaps was calculated. The push-out bond strength at 2 mm from the apex was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA/Tukey's test (p < 0.05). At 7 and 15 days (p = 0.0048, p = 0.006), the PC/CT group showed higher fluid filtration values when compared to other groups. At 1 mm from the apex, no statistical differences in the adaptation were found among the cements (p = 0.44). At 2 mm from the apex, the PC/ZO group presented statistically lower percentage of gaps than S26, MBPc, and MTA (p = 0.0007). The MBPc group showed higher push-out bond strength than other cements evaluated (p = 0.0008). The fluid filtration and interfacial adaptation of the calcium silicate-based cements were similar to those of the resin-based cements. The resinous cement MBPc showed superior push-out bond strength.

  6. Biodentine versus Mineral Trioxide Aggregate versus Intermediate Restorative Material for Retrograde Root End Filling: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Soundappan, Saravanapriyan; Sundaramurthy, Jothi Latha; Raghu, Sandhya; Natanasabapathy, Velmurugan

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of Biodentine in comparison with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), as a root end filling material, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Thirty permanent maxillary central incisors were chemo-mechanically prepared and obturated. Three millimetres of the root end were resected and 3mm retro cavity preparation was done using ultrasonic retrotips. The samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) and were restored with root end filling materials: Group I – MTA, Group II – Biodentine, Group III – IRM. The root ends were sectioned transversely at 1mm and 2mm levels and evaluated for marginal adaptation using SEM. The gap between dentin and retro filling material was measured at four quadrants. The mean gap at 1mm level and 2mm level from the resected root tip and combined mean were calculated. The data were statistically analyzed, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test for intergroup analysis and paired t-test for intragroup analysis. Results: The overall results showed no statistically significant difference between MTA and IRM but both were superior when compared to Biodentine. At 1mm level there was no statistically significant difference among any of the tested materials. At 2mm level MTA was superior to both IRM and Biodentine. Conclusion: In overall comparison, MTA and IRM were significantly superior when compared to Biodentine in terms of marginal adaptation, when used as retrograde filling material. PMID:24910689

  7. Efficacy of two rotary systems in removing gutta-percha and sealer from the root canal walls.

    PubMed

    Dadresanfar, Bahareh; Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Ghafari, Sedigh; Khalilak, Zohreh; Vatanpour, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of two retreatment rotary systems in removal of gutta-percha (GP) and sealer from the root canal walls with and without use of solvent. Sixty single-canalled distal roots of mandibular molars were prepared and root filled with gutta-percha and AH26. Each canal was randomly allocated to receive one of the retreatment techniques, Mtwo R or ProTaper. The groups were further divided into two subgroups: with or without the use of solvent. The cleanliness of canal walls was determined by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that Mtwo R without the use of solvent was more efficient in material removal compared to ProTaper D (P<0.05). Most remnants were found in the apical third of the canals (P<0.05). Mtwo R seems to be an efficient rotary system for endodontic retreatment of root canal with GP.

  8. Sealing ability of three root-end filling materials prepared using an erbium: Yttrium aluminium garnet laser and endosonic tip evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nanjappa, A Salin; Ponnappa, KC; Nanjamma, KK; Ponappa, MC; Girish, Sabari; Nitin, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (1) To compare the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine, and Chitra-calcium phosphate cement (CPC) when used as root-end filling, evaluated under confocal laser scanning microscope using Rhodamine B dye. (2) To evaluate effect of ultrasonic retroprep tip and an erbium:yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser on the integrity of three different root-end filling materials. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 80 extracted teeth were instrumented and obturated with gutta-percha. The apical 3 mm of each tooth was resected and 3 mm root-end preparation was made using ultrasonic tip (n = 30) and Er:YAG laser (n = 30). MTA, Biodentine, and Chitra-CPC were used to restore 10 teeth each. The samples were coated with varnish and after drying, they were immersed in Rhodamine B dye for 24 h. The teeth were then rinsed, sectioned longitudinally, and observed under confocal laser scanning microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc Tukey's test at P < 0.05 (R software version 3.1.0). Results: Comparison of microleakage showed maximum peak value of 0.45 mm for Biodentine, 0.85 mm for MTA, and 1.05 mm for Chitra-CPC. The amount of dye penetration was found to be lesser in root ends prepared using Er:YAG laser when compared with ultrasonics, the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Root-end cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and restored with Biodentine showed superior sealing ability compared to those prepared with ultrasonics. PMID:26180420

  9. Effect of pH on sealing ability of white mineral trioxide aggregate as a root-end filling material.

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Saghiri, Ali Mohammad; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Fatemi, Ali; Shiezadeh, Vahab; Ranjkesh, Bahram

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate microleakage of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) used as a root-end filling material after its exposure to a range of acidic environments during hydration. Seventy single-rooted teeth were divided into 4 experimental and 2 control groups. All the teeth were instrumented, and their apices were resected. Root-end cavities were filled with white MTA in the experimental groups. In the control groups root-end cavities were not filled. Root-end fillings were exposed to acidic environments with pH values of 4.4, 5.4, 6.4, or 7.4 for 3 days in the experimental groups. Microleakage was evaluated by using bovine serum albumin. The evaluation was conducted at 24-hour intervals for 80 days. Data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey test. The earliest bovine serum albumin microleakage was observed in a pH value of 4.4 followed by pH values of 5.4, 6.4, and 7.4, respectively. There was a significantly longer time necessary for leakage to occur in samples stored in higher pH values (P < .000).

  10. Fluoride Varnish as Root Canal Sealer: A Scanning Electron Microscopy and Bacterial Penetration Study

    PubMed Central

    Parirokh, Masoud; Talebizad, Mohammad; Forghani, Farshid Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akabar; Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Goddousi, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study was carried out to evaluate the bacterial leakage of root canal fillings when cavity varnish containing 5% fluoride (Duraflur) was used as root canal sealer. Methods and Materials: Root canals of 88 straight single-rooted teeth were prepared. Eighty teeth were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n=20) and two positive and negative control groups of ten each. The roots in group I and II were obturated with gutta-percha and AH-26 sealer using lateral condensation technique. The root canal walls in group II were coated with a layer of varnish before obturation. In group III the canals were obturated with gutta-percha and fluoride varnish as the sealer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) was used to determine the bacterial leakage during 90 days. The Kaplan Meier survival analysis was used for assessing the leakage and log rank test was used for pairwise comparison. The rest of eight single rooted teeth were selected for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation with 5000× magnification. Results: Leakage occurred between 20 to 89 days. Group III showed significantly less bacterial penetration than groups I and II (P=0.001 and P=0.011, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between group I and II (P>0.05). SEM evaluation showed that the varnish had covered all dentinal tubules. Conclusion: The present study showed promising results for the use of fluoride varnish as root canal sealer but further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed. PMID:25598813

  11. In vitro comparative study of sealing ability of Diadent BioAggregate and other root-end filling materials

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, MA; Saeed, MH

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This in vitro study evaluated and compared sealing ability of Diadent BioAggregate (DBA) as a new root-end filling material (REFM) versus amalgam, intermediate restorative material (IRM) and white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA). Materials and Methods: Crowns of sixty extracted human maxillary incisors were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). All the roots were instrumented and obturated with gutta-percha and resin sealer. Obturated roots were divided randomly into 2 control groups and 4 experimental groups of 10 samples each. In the negative control group (group I), roots were kept without any further preparation. In the positive and experimental groups roots, were apically resected and root-end cavities were prepared and filled with: (a) gutta-percha (group 2-positive control group); (b) amalgam (group 3); (c) IRM (group 4); (d) WMTA (group 5); (e) DBA (group 6). Apical leakage was assessed using dye penetration technique. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. Results: Significant difference of sealing ability was found among 4 tested groups. DBA followed by MTA showed the highest sealing ability. Conclusions: DBA with its high sealing ability can be considered a possible alternative to MTA. PMID:22876012

  12. Capillary flow porometry to assess the seal provided by root-end filling materials in a standardized and reproducible way.

    PubMed

    De Bruyne, Mieke A A; De Bruyne, Roger J E; De Moor, Roeland J G

    2006-03-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the root-end sealing ability of gutta-percha + AH26 (GP), Ketac-Fil, Fuji IX (FIX), tooth-colored MTA (MTA), IRM, Ketac-Fil + conditioner (Ketac-FilC), and Fuji IX + conditioner (FIXC). A total of 140 standardized bovine root sections were divided into seven groups, filled with the mentioned root-end filling materials, and, at 48 h, submitted to capillary flow porometry to assess minimum, mean flow and maximum pore diameters. Results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Using the Kruskal-Wallis tests we found that there was no significant difference between the minimum pore diameters of the different materials, but significant differences between the mean flow (p < 0.001) and maximum (p < 0.001) pore diameters could be demonstrated. For the mean flow pore diameters, there was a significant difference between FIX and all other materials, between Ketac-Fil and IRM and between Ketac-FilC and IRM. Concerning maximum pore diameters, there was a significant difference between FIX and all other materials, between Ketac-Fil and MTA, GP and IRM, FIXC and IRM, and Ketac-FilC and IRM. The data showed that each sample had leaked. Glass ionomer cements leaked more than other materials, although dentin conditioning diminished the maximum through pore diameters. This maximum pore diameter, which corresponds to the largest leak in the sample, together with the size of bacteria and their metabolites, will be indicative of the eventual leakage along the root-end filling materials.

  13. Mechanized instrumentation of root canals oscillating systems.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, Renato de Toledo; Puente, Carlos Garcia; Jaime, Alejandro; Jent, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Cleaning and shaping are important steps in the root canal treatment. Despite the technological advances in endodontics, K and Hedstroen files are still widely used. In an attempt to be more effective in preparing the root canals, faster and more cutting efficient kinematic, alloys and design alternatives utilizing mechanically oscillating or rotary files are proposed. Even with all these technological innovating alternatives, the preparation of root canals remains a challenge.

  14. Effect of the size of the apical enlargement with rotary instruments, single-cone filling, post space preparation with drills, fiber post removal, and root canal filling removal on apical crack initiation and propagation.

    PubMed

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Uysal, Banu; Ok, Evren; Arslan, Hakan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of apical crack initiation and propagation in root dentin after several endodontic procedures. Sixty intact mandibular premolars were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 1 mm from the apex, and the apical surface was polished. Thirty teeth were left unprepared and served as a control, and the remaining 30 teeth were instrumented with ProTaper Universal instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) up to size F5. The root canals were filled with the single-cone technique. Gutta-percha was removed with drills of the Rebilda post system (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). Glass fiber-reinforced composite fiber posts were cemented using a dual-cure resin cement. The fiber posts were removed with a drill of the post system. Retreatment was completed after the removal of the gutta-percha. Crack initiation and propagation in the apical surfaces of the samples were examined with a stereomicroscope after each procedure. The absence/presence of cracks was recorded. Logistic regression was performed to analyze statistically the incidence of crack initiation and propagation with each procedure. The initiation of the first crack and crack propagation was associated with F2 and F4 instruments, respectively. The logistic regression analysis revealed that instrumentation and F2 instrument significantly affected apical crack initiation (P < .001). Post space preparation had a significant effect on crack propagation (P = .0004). The other procedures had no significant effects on crack initiation and propagation (P > .05). Rotary nickel-titanium instrumentation had a significant effect on apical crack initiation, and post space preparation with drills had a significant impact on crack propagation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative assessment of image artifacts from root filling materials on CBCT scans made using several exposure parameters.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Katharina Alves; Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; de Oliveira Pinto, Martina Gerlane; Sousa Melo, Saulo Leonardo; Campos, Paulo Sérgio Flores; de Andrade Freitas Oliveira, Luciana Soares; de Melo, Daniela Pita

    2017-09-01

    To quantify artifacts from different root filling materials in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images acquired using different exposure parameters. Fifteen single-rooted teeth were scanned using 8 different exposure protocols with 3 different filling materials and once without filling material as a control group. Artifact quantification was performed by a trained observer who made measurements in the central axial slice of all acquired images in a fixed region of interest using ImageJ. Hyperdense artifacts, hypodense artifacts, and the remaining tooth area were identified, and the percentages of hyperdense and hypodense artifacts, remaining tooth area, and tooth area affected by the artifacts were calculated. Artifacts were analyzed qualitatively by 2 observers using the following scores: absence (0), moderate presence (1), and high presence (2) for hypodense halos, hypodense lines, and hyperdense lines. Two-way ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey test were used for quantitative and qualitative artifact analysis. The Dunnet test was also used for qualitative analysis. The significance level was set at P<.05. There were no significant interactions among the exposure parameters in the quantitative or qualitative analysis. Significant differences were observed among the studied filling materials in all quantitative analyses. In the qualitative analyses, all materials differed from the control group in terms of hypodense and hyperdense lines (P<.05). Fiberglass posts did not differ statistically from the control group in terms of hypodense halos (P>.05). Different exposure parameters did not affect the objective or subjective observations of artifacts in CBCT images; however, the filling materials used in endodontic restorations did affect both types of assessments.

  16. Efficacy of three methods for inserting calcium hydroxide-based paste in root canals

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, Thales; Camargo, Bernardo; Alves, Flávio

    2017-01-01

    Background To compare the quality of calcium hydroxide paste fillings performed by three different techniques. Material and Methods Sixty extracted maxillary central incisors, with previous root canal treatment, were decoronated and the gutta-percha was completely removed from the root canals. Subsequently, the canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste composed of calcium hydroxide, bismuth carbonate, and glycerin. The study samples were divided into the following three groups on the basis of three insertion techniques (n = 20, each): conventional technique using a hand instrument (MAN), rotary Lentulo spiral (LEN) technique, and a combined technique combining conventional hand files with sonic activation through the EndoActivator device (EA). The quality of fillings was evaluated radiographically by two examiners on the basis of the amount of voids and the apical limit. Results The canals filled with LEN or MAN had less void volume compared to the EA technique (P >0.01), with no significant differences between them. Considering the apical limits, the three tested techniques showed comparable results (P >0.05). Conclusions A combined approach utilizing hand files with sonic activation showed no enhancements over the LEN or MAN techniques on the quality of intracanal placement of calcium hydroxide paste. Key words:Calcium hydroxide placement, EndoActivator, Lentulo spirals, intracanal medication, root canal treatment. PMID:28638552

  17. Root and Root Canal Morphology of Human Third Molar Teeth.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Shalavi, Sousan; Bandi, Shilpa; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-04-01

    Successful root canal treatment depends on having comprehensive information regarding the root(s)/canal(s) anatomy. Dentists may have some complication in treatment of third molars because the difficulty in their access, their aberrant occlusal anatomy and different patterns of eruption. The aim of this review was to review and address the number of roots and root canals in third molars, prevalence of confluent canals in third molars, C-shaped canals, dilaceration and fusion in third molars, autotransplantation of third molars and endodontic treatment strategies for third molars.

  18. [Root canal retreatment or surgical apicoectomy?].

    PubMed

    van der Meer, W J; Stegenga, B

    2004-11-01

    Failure of root canal therapy is usually due to re-infection of the root canal system. In most of these cases, an endodontic retreatment is indicated. Patients with persisting apical periodontitis frequently are referred to an oral surgeon for apical surgery, although endodontic retreatment would have been possible in a majority of these cases. When endodontic retreatment is not possible or does not resolve the patient's problems, surgical apicoectomy or extraction might be the only possibilities left. Apical surgery is usually performed by an oral sugeon or by a specially trained dentist. In most surgical clinics beveled resection, followed by an preparation and restoration is performed. New developments, such as microscopic sugery, ultrasonic preparation and newly developed restorative materials are described in this article. Since there is a lack of well-designed comparative clinical studies, no definite conclusions can be drawn with regard to the clinical value of these modern techniques.

  19. Apical and root canal space sealing abilities of resin and glass ionomer-based root canal obturation systems.

    PubMed

    Royer, Kinga; Liu, Xue Jun; Zhu, Qiang; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the apical sealing ability of glass ionomer and resin-based root canal obturation systems in comparison to a conventional vertical compaction of warm guttapercha. Forty-five extracted human teeth were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 15 each: a resin-based (EndoRez), a glass ionomer-based (Activ GP), and a conventional gutta-percha plus pulp sealer obturation system (GP/EWT). Apical and root canal space sealing abilities were assessed on five cross-sections 1.0 mm apart starting from the apex. Cross-section images were analysed using a focus-variation 3D scanning microscope and unsealed space was calculated as the percentage of total root canal space occupied by voids and debris. EndoRez had significantly higher rate of apical leakage and deeper dye penetration as compared to GP/EWT and Activ GP. EndoRez group had also more voids and debris (22.5%) in the root canal spaces as compared to GP/EWT (10.5%) and Activ GP (10.8%). Apical leakages occurred not only along the root canal walls, but also along the gutta-percha cones with EndoRez as a result of significant polymerisation shrinkage of the resin sealer. Resin-based EndoRez did not form an adequate apical seal of filled root canals. Glass ionomer-based Activ GP was comparable to a vertical compaction of warm guttapercha plus EWT sealer in sealing root canal spaces.

  20. Management of Six Root Canals in Mandibular First Molar

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Fabio de Almeida; Sousa, Bruno Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system. This clinical case describes conventional root canal treatment of an unusual mandibular first molar with six root canals. The prognosis for endodontic treatment in teeth with abnormal morphology is unfavorable if the clinician fails to recognize extra root canals. PMID:25685156

  1. Push-out bond strength and dentinal tubule penetration of different root canal sealers used with coated core materials

    PubMed Central

    Purali, Nuhan; Coşgun, Erdal; Calt, Semra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the push-out bond strength and dentinal tubule penetration of root canal sealers used with coated core materials and conventional gutta-percha. Materials and Methods A total of 72 single-rooted human mandibular incisors were instrumented with NiTi rotary files with irrigation of 2.5% NaOCl. The smear layer was removed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Specimens were assigned into four groups according to the obturation system: Group 1, EndoRez (Ultradent Product Inc.); Group 2, Activ GP (Brasseler); Group 3, SmartSeal (DFRP Ltd. Villa Farm); Group 4, AH 26 (Dentsply de Trey)/gutta-percha (GP). For push-out bond strength measurement, two horizontal slices were obtained from each specimen (n = 20). To compare dentinal tubule penetration, remaining 32 roots assigned to 4 groups as above were obturated with 0.1% Rhodamine B labeled sealers. One horizontal slice was obtained from the middle third of each specimen (n = 8) and scanned under confocal laser scanning electron microscope. Tubule penetration area, depth, and percentage were measured. Kruskall-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. Results EndoRez showed significantly lower push-out bond strength than the others (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found amongst the groups in terms of percentage of sealer penetration. SmartSeal showed the least penetration than the others (p < 0.05). Conclusions The bond strength and sealer penetration of resin-and glass ionomer-based sealers used with coated core was not superior to resin-based sealer used with conventional GP. Dentinal tubule penetration has limited effect on bond strength. The use of conventional GP with sealer seems to be sufficient in terms of push-out bond strength. PMID:27200279

  2. Efficacy of different solvents in removing gutta-percha from curved root canals: a micro-computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Baran Can; Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Türker, Sevinç Aktemur; Koçak, Sibel

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the root filling material that remained after retreatment of curved root canals with chloroform and Endosolv R as solvents. The evaluation employed micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. Thirty-six extracted molar teeth with curved roots were selected. After preparation with ProTaper rotary instruments, the canals were filled with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to solvent used (n = 12) as follows: group 1: chloroform; group 2: Endosolv R; group 3: no solvent (negative control). ProTaper Universal Retreatment files were used to remove each root canal filling and then the self-adjusting file was applied for two minutes. Preoperative and postoperative micro-CT images were used to assess the percentage of residual filling material. The mean percentage of residual filling material was quantified. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of percentage volume of residual root canal filling.

  3. Sealing ability of MTA, CPM, and MBPc as root-end filling materials: a bacterial leakage study.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Paulo Leal; Bernardineli, Norberti; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Torres, Sérgio Aparecido; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Marciano, Marina Angélica

    2016-04-01

    Objectives To evaluate the sealing ability of three root-end filling materials (white MTA, CPM, and MBPc) using an Enterococcus faecalis leakage model. Material and Methods Seventy single-root extracted human teeth were instrumented and root-ends were resected to prepare 3 mm depth cavities. Root-end preparations were filled with white MTA, CPM, and MBPc cements. Enterococcus faecalis was coronally introduced and the apical portion was immersed in BHI culture medium with phenol red indicator. The bacterial leakage was monitored every 24 h for 4 weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon-Gehan test (p<0.05). Results All cements showed bacterial leakage after 24 hours, except for the negative control group. The MBPc showed significantly less bacterial leakage compared with the MTA group (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between the CPM and the other groups. Conclusions The epoxy resin-based cement MBPc had lower bacterial leakage compared with the calcium silicate-based cements MTA and CPM.

  4. Sealing ability of MTA, CPM, and MBPc as root-end filling materials: a bacterial leakage study

    PubMed Central

    MEDEIROS, Paulo Leal; BERNARDINELI, Norberti; CAVENAGO, Bruno Cavalini; TORRES, Sérgio Aparecido; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; BRAMANTE, Clovis Monteiro; MARCIANO, Marina Angélica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the sealing ability of three root-end filling materials (white MTA, CPM, and MBPc) using an Enterococcus faecalis leakage model. Material and Methods Seventy single-root extracted human teeth were instrumented and root-ends were resected to prepare 3 mm depth cavities. Root-end preparations were filled with white MTA, CPM, and MBPc cements. Enterococcus faecalis was coronally introduced and the apical portion was immersed in BHI culture medium with phenol red indicator. The bacterial leakage was monitored every 24 h for 4 weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon-Gehan test (p<0.05). Results All cements showed bacterial leakage after 24 hours, except for the negative control group. The MBPc showed significantly less bacterial leakage compared with the MTA group (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between the CPM and the other groups. Conclusions The epoxy resin-based cement MBPc had lower bacterial leakage compared with the calcium silicate-based cements MTA and CPM. PMID:27119763

  5. Single crowns versus conventional fillings for the restoration of root filled teeth.

    PubMed

    Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Chaves, Carolina de Andrade Lima; Nasser, Mona; Sequeira-Byron, Patrick

    2012-05-16

    Endodontic treatment, involves removal of the dental pulp and its replacement by a root canal filling. Restoration of root filled teeth can be challenging due to structural differences between vital and non-vital root filled teeth. Direct restoration involves placement of a restorative material e.g. amalgam or composite directly into the tooth. Indirect restorations consist of cast metal or ceramic (porcelain) crowns. The choice of restoration depends on the amount of remaining tooth which may influence long term survival and cost. The comparative in service clinical performance of crowns or conventional fillings used to restore root filled teeth is unclear. To assess the effects of restoration of endodontically treated teeth (with or without post and core) by crowns versus conventional filling materials. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE via OVID, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via EBSCO, LILACS via BIREME and the reference lists of articles as well as ongoing trials registries.There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. Date of last search was 13 February 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised controlled trials in participants with permanent teeth which have undergone endodontic treatment. Single full coverage crowns compared with any type of filling materials for direct restoration, as well as indirect partial restorations (e.g. inlays and onlays). Comparisons considered the type of post and core used (cast or prefabricated post), if any. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. One trial judged to be at high risk of bias due to missing outcome data, was included. 117 participants with a root filled premolar tooth restored with a carbon fibre post, were randomised to either a full coverage metal-ceramic crown or direct adhesive composite restoration. At 3 years there was no reported difference between the non

  6. Comparison of the Radiopacities of Different Root-End Filling and Repair Materials

    PubMed Central

    Tanalp, Jale; Karapınar-Kazandağ, Meriç; Kayahan, Mehmet Baybora

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the radiopacity of 3 repair materials, Biodentine, MM-MTA, and MTA Angelus. Standardized cylindrical rings were prepared. Samples of Biodentine MM-MTA and MTA Angelus were prepared (n = 10 in each group), filled into the rings, and preserved at 37°C until setting. A 1 mm thick dentin slice was used as control. All set specimens were removed and radiographed along with the dentine slice and a graduated aluminium step wedge. Digital images were transferred to the computer using a software. The radiographic densities of the specimens were determined, and the values were converted into millimetres of aluminium (mm Al). One-way ANOVA was used for intergroup comparison, whereas Tukey HSD test was used for detecting the group with the difference. The mean radiopacities of Biodentine, MTA Angelus, and MM-MTA were 2.8 ± 0.48, 4.72 ± 0.45, and 5.18 ± 0.51 mm Al, respectively. The radiopacity of Biodentine was significantly lower compared to other materials (P = 0.001), whereas no significant difference was noted between MTA Angelus and MM-MTA (P = 0.109). All materials had significantly higher radiopacities compared to dentine. The relatively lower radiopacity of Biodentine can be improved to achieve more reliable results in procedures such as retrograde fillings. PMID:24260018

  7. Push-out bond strength and dentinal tubule penetration of different root canal sealers used with coated core materials.

    PubMed

    Deniz Sungur, Derya; Purali, Nuhan; Coşgun, Erdal; Calt, Semra

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the push-out bond strength and dentinal tubule penetration of root canal sealers used with coated core materials and conventional gutta-percha. A total of 72 single-rooted human mandibular incisors were instrumented with NiTi rotary files with irrigation of 2.5% NaOCl. The smear layer was removed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Specimens were assigned into four groups according to the obturation system: Group 1, EndoRez (Ultradent Product Inc.); Group 2, Activ GP (Brasseler); Group 3, SmartSeal (DFRP Ltd. Villa Farm); Group 4, AH 26 (Dentsply de Trey)/gutta-percha (GP). For push-out bond strength measurement, two horizontal slices were obtained from each specimen (n = 20). To compare dentinal tubule penetration, remaining 32 roots assigned to 4 groups as above were obturated with 0.1% Rhodamine B labeled sealers. One horizontal slice was obtained from the middle third of each specimen (n = 8) and scanned under confocal laser scanning electron microscope. Tubule penetration area, depth, and percentage were measured. Kruskall-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. EndoRez showed significantly lower push-out bond strength than the others (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found amongst the groups in terms of percentage of sealer penetration. SmartSeal showed the least penetration than the others (p < 0.05). The bond strength and sealer penetration of resin-and glass ionomer-based sealers used with coated core was not superior to resin-based sealer used with conventional GP. Dentinal tubule penetration has limited effect on bond strength. The use of conventional GP with sealer seems to be sufficient in terms of push-out bond strength.

  8. Root Canal Treatment of a Maxillary Second Premolar with Two Palatal Root Canals: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Golmohammadi, Maryam; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the root canal morphology and anatomy is essential for thorough shaping and cleaning of the entire root canal system and consequent successful treatment. This report describes a case of maxillary second premolar with two roots and three root canals (two mesial and distal palatal canals). The case report underlines the importance of complete knowledge about root canal morphology and possible variations, coupled with clinical and radiographic examination in order to increase the ability of clinicians to treat difficult cases. PMID:27471538

  9. Biointeractivity-related versus chemi/physisorption-related apatite precursor-forming ability of current root end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Taddei, Paola; Modena, Enrico; Siboni, Francesco; Prati, Carlo

    2013-10-01

    Commercial root end filling materials, namely two zinc oxide eugenol-based cements [intermediate restorative material (IRM), Superseal], a glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond) and three calcium-silicate mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based cements (ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, and Tech Biosealer root end), were examined for their ability to: (a) release calcium (Ca(2+) ) and hydroxyl (OH(-) ) ions (biointeractivity) and (b) form apatite (Ap) and/or calcium phosphate (CaP) precursors. Materials were immersed in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1-28 days. Ca(2+) and OH(-) release were measured by ion selective probes, surface analysis was performed by environmental scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis, micro-Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IRM and Superseal released small quantities of Ca(2+) and no OH(-) ions. Uneven sparse nonapatitic Ca-poor amorphous CaP (ACP) deposits were observed after 24 h soaking. Vitrebond did not release either Ca(2+) or OH(-) ions, but uneven nonapatitic Ca-poor CaP deposits were detected after 7 days soaking. ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, and Tech Biosealer root end released significant amounts of Ca(2+) and OH(-) ions throughout the experiment. After 1 day soaking, nanospherulites of CaP deposits formed by amorphous calcium/magnesium phosphate (ACP) Ap precursors were detected. A more mature ACP phase was present on ProRoot MTA and on Tech Biosealer root end at all times. In conclusion, zinc oxide and glass ionomer cements had little or no ability to release mineralizing ions: they simply act as substrates for the possible chemical bonding/adsorption of environmental ions and precipitation of nonapatitic Ca-poor ACP deposits. On the contrary, calcium-silicate cements showed a high calcium release and basifying effect and generally a pronounced formation of more mature ACP apatitic precursors correlated with their higher ion-releasing ability.

  10. A comparative prospective randomized clinical study of MTA and IRM as root-end filling materials in single-rooted teeth in endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, Jerome A H; Frenken, Joost W F H; Kroon, Frans H M; van den Akker, Hans P

    2005-10-01

    Randomized clinical prospective study to evaluate the application of MTA and IRM as retrograde sealers in surgical endodontics. One hundred single-rooted teeth were surgically treated. After randomization, MTA or IRM was used as a retrosealer. Radiographs were taken 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Assessment was performed by 2 independent assessors 1 year after surgery. Both treatment groups were homogeneous in their composition, and clinical features and radiographic findings were classified according to Rud's classification. Complete healing was observed in 64% of the MTA-treated teeth vs 50% of the IRM-treated teeth. Incomplete healing was seen in 28% (MTA) vs 36% (IRM), and unsatisfactory in 6% (MTA) vs 14% (IRM). Only 1 failure was seen (MTA). No statistically significant differences were found between the 2 retrofilling materials. As root-end filling materials in this clinical prospective randomized design on single rooted teeth, MTA and IRM had the same clinical effectiveness.

  11. Antibacterial properties of temporary filling materials.

    PubMed

    Slutzky, Hagay; Slutzky-Goldberg, I; Weiss, E I; Matalon, S

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of temporary fillings. The direct contact test (DCT) was used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of Revoltek LC, Tempit, Systemp inlay, and IRM. These were tested in contact with Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis. The materials were examined immediately after setting, 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after aging in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey multiple comparison. Systemp inlay, Tempit, and IRM exhibited antibacterial properties when in contact with S. mutans for at least 7 days, Tempit and IRM sustained this ability for at least 14 days. When in contact with E. faecalis Tempit and IRM were antibacterial immediately after setting, IRM sustained this ability for at least 1 day. Our study suggests that the difference in temporary filling materials may influence which microorganism will be able to invade the root canal system.

  12. The influence of orifice sealing with various filling materials on coronal leakage.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Kentaro; Kakuma, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Haruki; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suda, Hideaki

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of materials filled in the orifice after root canal treatment. A total of 100 root canal-treated teeth were divided into six experimental groups: 1, Protect Liner F (PL); 2, Panavia F (PF); 3, DC core-Light cured (DCL); 4, DC core-Chemically cured (DCC); 5, Super-EBA (SE); 6, Ketac (KC). The materials were filled--to a depth of 4 mm--in the coronal part of the root canals, and evaluated for microleakage. The number of teeth that failed to stop dye penetration in the filled materials differed statistically between PL and DCL or SE or KC, PF and SE or KC, DCC and KC, DCL and KC. The mean distance of dye penetration differed significantly between PL and SE or DCC, PF and SE or DCC. Hence, these results indicated the advantageous sealing ability of adhesive and flowable materials.

  13. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Calcium Silicate-Based Endodontic Cement as Root-End Filling Materials

    PubMed Central

    Küçükkaya, Selen; Görduysus, Mehmet Ömer; Zeybek, Naciye Dilara; Müftüoğlu, Sevda Fatma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of three types of calcium silicate-based endodontic cement after different incubation periods with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured from extracted third molars and seeded in 96-well plates. MTA, calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and Biodentine were prepared and added to culture insert plates which were immediately placed into 96-well plates containing cultured cells. After incubation periods of 24, 48, and 72 hours, cell viability was determined with WST-1 assay. Data were analysed statistically by ANOVA with repeated measures and Bonferroni tests. There was no significant difference in cell viability amongst the test materials after each incubation period (P > 0.05). MTA and CEM presented more than 90% cell viability after 24 and 48 hours of incubation and showed statistically significant decrease in cell viability after 72 hours of incubation (P < 0.05). Biodentine showed significantly less cell viability (73%) after 24 hours of incubation, whereas more than 90% cell viability was seen after 48 and 72 hours of incubation (P < 0.05). Despite the significant changes in cell viability over time, materials presented similar cytotoxicity profile. Biodentine and CEM can be considered as alternative materials for root-end surgery procedures. PMID:26904364

  14. Leakage of bovine serum albumin in root canals obturated with super-EBA and IRM.

    PubMed

    Malcic, Ana; Jukic, Silvana; Brzovic, Valentina; Miletic, Ivana; Anic, Ivica

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the leakage of SuperEBA and intermediate restorative material (IRM) in root canal samples, with or without orthograde filling, by evaluating bovine serum albumin (BSA) microleakage using spectrophotometry. Thirty-five single-rooted teeth were divided into five groups, instrumented, and had apices resected. Root-end cavities in groups I and II were filled with SuperEBA and IRM. The samples from the groups III, IV, and V were filled with gutta-percha and sealer. In groups IV and V, root-end cavities were filled with SuperEBA and IRM. After 60 days, the greatest microleakage of BSA was observed in group II (4.1 +/- 0.0011 ng), followed by group III (3.4 +/- 0.0064 ng), and then group I (2.6 +/- 0.0019 ng). Samples from groups IV and V leaked the least (0.7 +/- 0.0014 ng). Significantly less leakage (p < 0.05) occurred in samples filled with orthograde and root-end fillings than did in samples filled only with an orthograde approach and the samples with IRM root-end fillings.

  15. Investigation to test potential stereolithography materials for development of an in vitro root canal model.

    PubMed

    Mohmmed, Saifalarab A; Vianna, Morgana E; Hilton, Stephen T; Boniface, David R; Ng, Yuan-Ling; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2017-02-01

    The aims were to compare the physico-chemical properties (zeta-potential, wettability, surface free energy) of stereolithography materials (STL) (Photopolymer, Accura) to dentine and to evaluate the potential of each material to develop Enterococcus faecalis biofilm on their respective surfaces. Eighteen samples of each test material (Photopolymer, Accura, dentine) were employed (total n = 54) and sectioned to 1 mm squares (5 mm x 5 mm) (n = 15) or ground into a powder to measure zeta-potential (n = 3). The zeta-potential of the powder was measured using the Nano-Zetasizer technique. The contact angle (wettability, surface free energy tests) were measured on nine samples using goniometer. The biofilm attachment onto the substrate was assessed on the samples of each material using microscope and image processing software. The data were compared using one-way ANOVA with Dunnett post-hoc tests at a level of significance P ≤ 0.05. Both STL materials showed similar physico-chemical properties to dentine. The materials and dentine had negative charge (Accura: -23.7 mv, Photopolymer: -18.8 mv, dentine: -9.11 mv). The wettability test showed that all test materials were hydrophilic with a contact angle of 47.5°, 39.8°, 36.1° for Accura, Photopolymer and dentine respectively, and a surface free energy of 46.6, 57.7, 59.6 mN/m for Accura, Photopolymer and dentine, respectively. The materials and dentine proved suitable for attachment and growth of E. faecalis biofilm with no statistical differences (P > 0.05). Stereolithography materials show similar physico-chemical properties and growth of E. faecalis biofilm to dentine. Therefore, they may be an alternative to tests requiring dentine.

  16. Cleaning of Root Canal System by Different Irrigation Methods.

    PubMed

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Miano, Lucas Martinati; Chávez-Andrade, Gisselle Moraima; Torres, Fernanda Ferrari Esteves; Leonardo, Renato de Toledo; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cleaning of main and lateral canals using the irrigation methods: negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and manual irrigation (MI). Resin teeth were used. After root canal preparation, four lateral canals were made at 2 and 7 mm from the apex. Root canals were filled with contrast solution and radiographed pre- and post-irrigation using digital radiographic system [radiovisiography (RVG)]. The irrigation protocols were: MI1-manual irrigation [22 G needle at 5 mm short of working length-WL]; MI2-manual irrigation (30G needle at 2 mm short of WL); PUI; EV1-EndoVac (microcannula at 1 mm short of WL); EV2-Endovac (microcannula at 3 mm short of WL). The obtained images, initial (filled with contrast solution) and final (after irrigation) were analyzed by using image tool 3.0 software. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests (5% significance level). EV1 and EV2, followed by PUI showed better cleaning capacity than manual irrigation (MI1 and MI2) (p < 0.05). Negative pressure irrigation and PUI promoted better cleaning of main and simulated lateral canals. Conventional manual irrigation technique may promote less root canal cleaning in the apical third. For this reason, the search for other irrigation protocols is important, and EndoVac and PUI are alternatives to contribute to irrigation effectiveness.

  17. Resistance to fracture of dental roots obturated with different materials.

    PubMed

    Celikten, Berkan; Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Gulsahi, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the vertical fracture resistance of roots obturated with different root canal filling materials and sealers. Crowns of 55 extracted mandibular premolar teeth were removed to provide root lengths of 13 mm. Five roots were saved as negative control group (canals unprepared and unfilled). Fifty root canals were instrumented and then five roots were saved as positive control group (canals prepared but unfilled). The remaining 45 roots were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 root/group) and obturated with the following procedures: in group 1, glass ionomer-based sealer and cone (ActiV GP obturation system); in group 2, bioceramic sealer and cone (EndoSequence BC obturation system); and in group 3, roots were filled with bioceramic sealer and cone (Smartpaste bio obturation system). All specimens were tested in a universal testing machine for measuring fracture resistance. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. The statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc test. There were no significant differences between the three experimental groups. The fracture values of three experimental and negative control groups were significantly higher than the positive control group. Within the limitations of this study, all materials increased the fracture resistance of instrumented roots.

  18. Resistance to Fracture of Dental Roots Obturated with Different Materials

    PubMed Central

    Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Gulsahi, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the vertical fracture resistance of roots obturated with different root canal filling materials and sealers. Crowns of 55 extracted mandibular premolar teeth were removed to provide root lengths of 13 mm. Five roots were saved as negative control group (canals unprepared and unfilled). Fifty root canals were instrumented and then five roots were saved as positive control group (canals prepared but unfilled). The remaining 45 roots were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 root/group) and obturated with the following procedures: in group 1, glass ionomer-based sealer and cone (ActiV GP obturation system); in group 2, bioceramic sealer and cone (EndoSequence BC obturation system); and in group 3, roots were filled with bioceramic sealer and cone (Smartpaste bio obturation system). All specimens were tested in a universal testing machine for measuring fracture resistance. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. The statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc test. There were no significant differences between the three experimental groups. The fracture values of three experimental and negative control groups were significantly higher than the positive control group. Within the limitations of this study, all materials increased the fracture resistance of instrumented roots. PMID:25756048

  19. Technical Quality of Root Canal Treatment Performed By Undergraduate Dental Students

    PubMed Central

    Dadresanfar, Bahareh; Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi, Nahid; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Atef Yekta, Hojat; Baradaran Mohajeri, Ladan

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study was carried out to evaluate the technical quality of root canal treatment (RCT) performed by undergraduate dental students at the Islamic Azad University in Tehran, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four-hundred records of patients who had received RCT at faculty of dentistry, between the years 2004-2006 were evaluated. For each treated tooth at least three periapical x-rays were assessed: preoperative, working length measurement, and postoperative. Evaluation of root canal filling was based on two variables: length and density. The filling length was recorded as adequate, under- or overfilled. Density of filling was recorded as poor or adequate. Fillings with adequate length and density were recorded as acceptable. Detected iatrogenic errors were: ledge formations, root perforations, furcation perforations, strip perforations and presence of fractured instruments. Results were evaluated statistically using one-way ANOVA and Chi-square analysis. RESULTS: Out of the 400 teeth, 50.5% had at least one of the mentioned errors. Acceptable filling was observed in 32.5% of all studied teeth. Ledge was found in 17.5% of the teeth. Canal curvature was the most important factor associated with ledge formation (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The technical quality of RCT performed by undergraduate dental students using step-back preparation and cold lateral condensation was classified as acceptable in 32.5% of the cases. PMID:24146674

  20. Effectiveness of rotary or manual techniques for removing a 6-year-old filling material.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marco Antônio Hungaro; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Cimadon, Vanessa Buffon; Zucatto, Cristiane; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira; Kuga, Milton Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of manual and rotary instrumentation techniques for removing root fillings after different storage times. Twenty-four canals from palatal roots of human maxillary molars were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha and zinc-oxide eugenol-based sealer (Endofill) , and were stored in saline for 6 years. Non-aged control specimens were treated in the same manner and stored for 1 week. All canals were retreated using hand files or ProTaper Universal NiTi rotary system. Radiographs were taken to determine the amount of remaining material in the canals. The roots were vertically split, the halves were examined with a clinical microscope and the obtained images were digitized. The images were evaluated with AutoCAD software and the percentage of residual material was calculated. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. There was no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between the manual and rotary techniques for filling material removal regardless the ageing effect on endodontic sealers. When only the age of the filling material was analyzed microscopically, non-aged fillings that remained on the middle third of the canals presented a higher percentage of material remaining (p<0.05) compared to the aged sealers and to the other thirds of the roots. The apical third showed a higher percentage of residual filling material in both radiographic and microscopic analysis when compared to the other root thirds. In conclusion, all canals presented residual filling material after endodontic retreatment procedures. Microscopic analysis was more effective than radiographs for detection of residual filling material.

  1. Root canal morphology of South Asian Indian maxillary molar teeth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shishir; Pawar, Mansing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the root canal morphology of South Asian Indian Maxillary molars using a tooth clearing technique. Materials and Methods: Hundred teeth each comprising of first, second, and third molars collected from different dental schools and clinics in India were subjected to standard dye penetration, decalcification and clearing procedure before being studied. Results: The first molar mesiobuccal roots exhibited 69% Type I, 24% Type II, 4% Type IV, 2% Type V, and 1% exhibited a Vertuccis Type VIII canal anatomy. In the group with three separate roots the second molar mesiobuccal roots in exhibited 80.6% Type I, 15.3% Type II, 2.7% Type IV, and 1.4% Type V canal anatomy while the third molars mesiobuccal roots exhibited 57.4% Type I, 32% Type II, 2.1% Type III, 8.5% Type IV, 1% had a Type V canal anatomy in the similar group. Conclusion: A varied root canal anatomy was seen in the mesiobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars. PMID:25713497

  2. Presence of root canal treatment has no influence on periodontal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Fabiola-Regina; Paganoni, Nadine; Eickholz, Peter; Weiger, Roland; Walter, Clemens

    2017-02-17

    The aim of this study was to compare the interproximal bone level at root canal-filled teeth and non-root canal-filled teeth. The records of patients from the department were consecutively screened from January 2009 to October 2011. The distance between the coronal reference point to the alveolar bone crest (AC) was assessed at the mesial and distal aspects of root canal-filled teeth (RCF+) and their contralateral non-root canal-filled teeth (RCF-) on periapical radiographs. Generalised linear mixed-effects models were applied. The sample consisted of 128 pairs of teeth comprising data from 72 patients. The results for AC revealed a median distance of 3.2 mm for RCF+ and 3.4 mm for RCF- (p = 0.61). Using the maximal distance on either the distal or the mesial tooth surface, a median distance of 3.6 mm was detected for RCF+ and 3.8 mm for RCF-, respectively (p = 0.42). Even after taking several tooth- and subject-specific variables into account, the differences between AC on RCF+ and RCF- were statistically not significant (p > 0.05). The interproximal bone loss did not differ statistically significant between root canal-filled teeth and non-root canal-filled teeth. Existence of appropriately done root canal fillings in periodontitis patients has no effect on the prognosis of periodontal disease.

  3. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  8. Ultramicroscopic study of the interface and sealing ability of four root canal obturation methods: Resilon versus gutta-percha.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Martin-Biedma, Benjamin; Lopes, Maria Manuela; Pires-Lopes, Luis; Silveira, Joao; López-Rosales, Elisardo; Varela-Patiño, Purificación

    2013-12-01

    Recently, filling materials have been introduced based on the dentine adhesion technologies used in conservative dentistry in an attempt to seal the root canal more effectively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interface between the canal and root-filling material. Sealing ability of four root canal obturation methods was analysed by means of scanning electron microscopy. Extracted single-rooted teeth were endodontically treated and filled with gutta-percha/Pulp Canal Sealer using the Thermafil (TH) technique, gutta-percha/Pulp Canal Sealer using the System B (SB) technique, Resilon points/RealSeal (RS) and RealSeal 1/RealSeal (RS1). Specimen interfaces were analysed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The adhesive groups RS and RS1, formed hybrid layers but showed areas of separation (gaps) similar to those in the conventional obturation groups. The RS and RS1 groups showed less separation in the coronal third, but the separation was similar to that in the TH and SB groups in the middle and apical thirds. The sealing ability of Resilon is not superior to that of existing materials. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2012 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  9. Evaluation of technical quality and periapical health of root-filled teeth by using cone-beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Bilge Gülsüm, NUR; Evren, OK; ALTUNSOY, Mustafa; AĞLARCI, Osman Sami; ÇOLAK, Mehmet; GÜNGÖR, Enes

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the quality of root fillings, coronal restorations, complications of all root-filled teeth and their association with apical periodontitis (AP) detected by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images from an adult Turkish subpopulation. Material and Methods The sample for this study consisted of 242 patients (aging from 15 to 72 years) with 522 endodontically treated teeth that were assessed for technical quality of the root canal filling and periapical status of the teeth. Additionally, the apical status of each root-filled tooth was assessed according to the gender, dental arch, tooth type and age classification, undetected canals, instrument fracture, root fracture, apical resorption, apical lesion, furcation lesion and type and quality of the coronal structure. Statistical analysis was performed using percentages and chi-square test. Results The success rate of the root canal treatment was of 54.4%. The success rates of adequate and inadequate root canal treatment were not significantly different (p>0.05). Apical periodontitis was found in 228 (45.6%) teeth treated for root canals. Higher prevalence of AP was found in patients aging from 20 to 29 years [64 (27%) teeth] and in anterior (canines and incisors) teeth [97 (41%) teeth]. Conclusions The technical quality of root canal filling performed by dental practitioners in a Turkish subpopulation was consistent with a high prevalence of AP. The probable reasons for this failure are multifactorial, and there may be a need for improved undergraduate education and postgraduate courses to improve the clinical skills of dental practitioners in endodontics. PMID:25591019

  10. Prevalence of periradicular radiolucencies and its association with the quality of root canal procedures and coronal restorations in an adult urban Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Archana, Durvasulu; Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Gutmann, James L.; Savadamoorthi, Kamatchi Subramani; Kumar, Angambakkam Rajasekaran Pradeep; Narayanan, L. Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of periradicular radiolucencies (PR) from an urban adult Indian population and to investigate the quality of root canal procedures and coronal restorations and their association with prevalence of PR in root-filled teeth. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: A total of 1,340 subjects (18+ years of age) who reported for non-emergency dental care to 5 different dental care centers had their panoramic radiographs taken during the period from January to December 2013. The periradicular status of 30,098 teeth in these radiographs was evaluated using the Periapical Index Score (PAI). The assessment of the technical quality of the procedure was evaluated based on the criteria of root canal filling length and quality of coronal restoration. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed statistically by chi-squared test and odds ratio. Results: PR was found in 65% of subjects (n = 865) and 5.8% (n = 1,759) of the 30,098 teeth evaluated (4.30% untreated teeth and 1.53% were root-filled teeth). In all, 4.1% of the teeth (n = 1,234) had some filling material in the root canal(s) and the prevalence of PR in these root-filled teeth was 37.4%, while the remaining 62.6% of root canal-filled teeth showed no evidence of PR. PR occurred significantly more often in teeth where root canal filling was filled more than 2 mm short of radiographic apex or when root filling extruded through the apex. Conclusions: The prevalence of PR in teeth with untreated root canals in India is 4.30%, which is more than twice the weighted world average, while the prevalence of root-filled teeth (4.1%) is lower than the world average (9.6%). The prevalence of PR in root-filled teeth in India is comparable to that in other populations. Inadequate root canal treatment and poor quality of coronal restoration were associated with increased prevalence of PR. PMID:25657524

  11. Efficacy of ProTaper NEXT Compared with Reciproc in Removing Obturation Material from Severely Curved Root Canals: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Nevares, Giselle; de Albuquerque, Diana S; Freire, Laila G; Romeiro, Kaline; Fogel, Howard M; Dos Santos, Marcelo; Cunha, Rodrigo S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the remaining root canal obturation, volume of dentin removed, and apical transportation after retreatment of severely curved root canals by using Reciproc (REC) or ProTaper NEXT (PTN) systems. Twenty-eight mesial canals of mandibular molars were instrumented and then obturated with gutta-percha and sealer and allocated into 2 balanced groups (n = 14), the REC group (R25 file) and the PTN group (X3 and X2 files). Micro-computed tomography analysis was performed to assess the percentage of residual obturation material, the amount of dentin removed, and apical transportation. The effective time for the removal of obturation and procedural errors were recorded. Obturation was effectively removed from the root canal in the REC and PTN groups (P ≤ .001), and the percentages of remaining obturation material were similar between both groups (84.8% PTN vs 86.5% REC) (P > .05). The amount of dentin removed (3.17 ± 2.64 mm(3) PTN versus 3.50 ± 2.82 mm(3) REC), apical transportation (at 1 mm: 0.096 ± 0.189 mm PTN versus 0.093 ± 0.186 mm REC; at 3 mm: 0.059 ± 0.069 mm PTN versus 0.082 ± 0.080 mm REC; at 5 mm: 0.097 ± 0.093 mm PTN versus 0.133 ± 0.138 mm REC), and the working time (269.69 ± 19.25 seconds PTN versus 268.62 ± 16.37 seconds REC) were also similar in both groups (P > .05). One file fractured in the REC group. Both systems were equally effective in the removal of obturation from severely curved canals and can be used for retreatment. Neither system could completely remove the obturation material; therefore, additional techniques are needed to improve cleaning of the root canal. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. New Technologies to Improve Root Canal Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Plotino, Gianluca; Cortese, Teresa; Grande, Nicola M; Leonardi, Denise P; Di Giorgio, Gianni; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites to promote root canal disinfection and debris removal and improve successful endodontic treatment. This paper presents an overview of the currently available technologies to improve the cleaning of the endodontic space and their debridement efficacy. A PubMed electronic search was conducted with appropriate key words to identify the relevant literature on this topic. After retrieving the full-text articles, all the articles were reviewed and the most appropriate were included in this review. Several different systems of mechanical activation of irrigants to improve endodontic disinfection were analysed: manual agitation with gutta-percha cones, endodontic instruments or special brushes, vibrating systems activated by low-speed hand-pieces or by sonic or subsonic energy, use of ultrasonic or laser energy to mechanically activate the irrigants and apical negative pressure irrigation systems. Furthermore, this review aims to describe systems designed to improve the intracanal bacterial decontamination by a specific chemical action, such as ozone, direct laser action or light-activated disinfection. The ultrasonic activation of root canal irrigants and of sodium hypochlorite in particular still remains the gold standard to which all other systems of mechanical agitation analyzed in this article were compared. From this overview, it is evident that the use of different irrigation systems can provide several advantages in the clinical endodontic outcome and that integration of new technologies, coupled with enhanced techniques and materials, may help everyday clinical practice.

  13. Efficacy of ProTaper and Mtwo Retreatment Files in Removal of Gutta-percha and GuttaFlow from Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Khedmat, Sedigheh; Azari, Abbas; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza; Fadae, Mehdi; Bashizadeh Fakhar, Hoorieh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of ProTaper retreatment (ProTaper R) and Mtwo retreatment (Mtwo R) files in removing gutta-percha and GuttaFlow from endodontically treated straight root canals. Methods and Materials: The root canals of 60 human mandibular single-rooted premolars were prepared and randomly divided into two groups (n=30). In groups A and B the root canals were obturated using lateral condensation of gutta-percha plus AH 26 and GuttaFlow, respectively. The canal orifices were temporarily sealed and the roots were incubated for 3 months at 37ºC and 100% humidity. Primary cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were taken after incubation period. The specimens in each group were randomly divided into two subgroups (n=15). ProTaper R files (D1, D2, and D3) were used in groups A1 and B1 while Mtwo R files (25/0.05 and 15/0.05) were used in groups A2 and B2. The time required to extirpate the root filling was also recorded. After retreatment, another CBCT scan was taken at the same position. The volume of remaining filling materials inside the canals was calculated before and after retreatment. The data was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and independent t-test. Results: The remaining filling materials in the canals treated with ProTaper were less than Mtwo. The remaining volume of GuttaFlow was less than gutta-percha regardless of the system applied. Mtwo R files removed root fillings faster than ProTaper R. Conclusion: ProTaper R removed filling material more efficiently compared to Mtwo R which required less time to remove root filling material. PMID:27471528

  14. Efficacy of Reciproc® and Profile® Instruments in the Removal of Gutta-Percha from Straight and Curved Root Canals ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Marfisi, Karem; Plotino, Gianluca; Clavel, Tatiana; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; Roig, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To compare the efficacy of Reciproc® (VDW GmbH) and ProFile® (Dentsply Maillefer) instruments at removing gutta-percha from straight and curved root canals ex vivo filled using the cold lateral condensation and GuttaMaster® (VDW GmbH) techniques. Material and Methods Forty mesial roots of mandibular molars with two curved canals and 80 single-rooted teeth with straight root canals, a total of 160 root canals, were randomly assigned to eight groups (canals per group = 20) according to filling technique, retreatment instrument and root canal curvature as follows: Group I, cold lateral condensation/ProFile®/straight; Group II, cold lateral condensation/ProFile®/curved; Group III, cold lateral condensation/Reciproc®/straight; Group IV, cold lateral condensation/Reciproc®/curved; Group V, GuttaMaster®/ProFile®/straight; Group VI, GuttaMaster®/ProFile®/curved; Group VII, GuttaMaster®/Reciproc®/straight; and Group VIII, GuttaMaster®/Reciproc®/curved. The following data were recorded: procedural errors, retreatment duration and canal wall cleanliness. Means and standard deviations were calculated and analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test (P < 0.05). Results Reciproc® instruments were significantly faster than ProFile® instruments at removing GuttaMaster® from both straight (P = 0.0001) and curved (P = 0.0003) root canals. Reciproc® were statistically more effective than ProFile® instruments in removing GuttaMaster® from straight root canals (P = 0.021). Regardless of filling technique or retreatment instrument, gutta-percha was removed more rapidly from curved than from straight root canals (P = 0.0001). Conclusions Neither system completely removed filling material from the root canals. Compared with ProFile® instruments, Reciproc® instruments removed GuttaMaster® filling material from straight and curved root canals more rapidly. PMID:26539283

  15. Ex vivo microscopic assessment of factors affecting the quality of apical seal created by root-end fillings.

    PubMed

    Tobón-Arroyave, S I; Restrepo-Pérez, M M; Arismendi-Echavarría, J A; Velásquez-Restrepo, Z; Marín-Botero, M L; García-Dorado, E C

    2007-08-01

    (i) To evaluate the incidence of microcracks around root-end preparations completed with ultrasonic tips and their relationship with the root filling technique and thickness of surrounding dentine. (ii) To investigate the effect of rapid exposure to a water-soluble dye of Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), Super Ethoxybenzoic Acid (sEBA) and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), on the marginal adaptation and microleakage of root-end fillings. (iii) To describe the microstructure of the surface of root-end filling materials. Ninety-two single-rooted teeth were divided into two groups (n = 46) according to the root canal instrumentation/filling techniques. Group 1 consisted of specimens in which canal preparation was completed using a crown-down technique and then filled with the Thermafil system (TF group); Group 2 consisted of specimens in which canal preparation was completed using a step-back technique and lateral condensation (LC group). Following root-end resection and ultrasonic cavity preparation, the samples were further divided into three subgroups (n = 24) for root-end filling with IRM, sEBA or MTA. The ultrasonic preparation time was recorded. Eight teeth were kept as positive and 12 as negative controls. Following immersion in Indian ink for 7 days, all resected root surfaces were evaluated for the presence of microcracks and the cross-sectional area of root-end surface and root-end filling were measured to evaluate the thickness of the dentinal walls. Thereafter, the samples were sectioned longitudinally so as to assess the depth of dye penetration and marginal adaptation of root-end fillings. Negative controls longitudinally sectioned were used to describe microstructural characteristics of the root-end filling materials using scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. Although the thickness of dentinal walls between groups 1 and 2 was similar, the ultrasonic preparation time and number of microcracks were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in

  16. Post space preparation timing of root canals sealed with AH Plus sealer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae-Ri; Kim, Young Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the optimal timing for post space preparation of root canals sealed with epoxy resin-based AH Plus sealer in terms of its polymerization and influence on apical leakage. Materials and Methods The epoxy polymerization of AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey) as a function of time after mixing (8, 24, and 72 hours, and 1 week) was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and microhardness measurements. The change in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the material with time was also investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Fifty extracted human single-rooted premolars were filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus, and randomly separated into five groups (n = 10) based on post space preparation timing (immediately after root canal obturation and 8, 24, and 72 hours, and 1 week after root canal obturation). The extent of apical leakage (mm) of the five groups was compared using a dye leakage test. Each dataset was statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Results Continuous epoxy polymerization of the material with time was observed. Although the Tg values of the material gradually increased with time, the specimens presented no clear Tg value at 1 week after mixing. When the post space was prepared 1 week after root canal obturation, the leakage was significantly higher than in the other groups (p < 0.05), among which there was no significant difference in leakage. Conclusions Poor apical seal was detected when post space preparation was delayed until 1 week after root canal obturation. PMID:28194361

  17. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and crossing - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  18. C-shaped root canal configuration: A review of literature.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida; Wagle, Rahul

    2014-07-01

    The aim is to review and discuss the etiology, incidence, anatomic features, classification, diagnosis and management of the C-shaped canal configuration. C-shaped canal configuration is a variation that has a racial predilection and is commonly seen in mandibular second molars. The intricacies present in this variation of canal morphology can pose a challenge to the clinician during negotiation, debridement and obturation. Manual and electronic searches of literature were performed from 1979 to 2012, in Pub Med by crossing the keywords: C-shaped canals, mandibular second molar, mandibular first premolar, root canal morphology. Knowledge of the C-shaped canal configuration is essential to achieve success in endodontic therapy. Radiographic and clinical diagnoses can aid in identification and negotiation of the fan-shaped areas and intricacies of the C-shaped anatomy. Effective management of this anomalous canal configuration can be achieved with rotary and hand instrumentation assisted with sonics and ultrasonics. Modifications in the obturation techniques will ensure a 3-dimensional fill of the canal system and chamber retained restorations like amalgam or composites, serve as satisfactory post endodontic restorations.

  19. C-shaped root canal configuration: A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida; Wagle, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to review and discuss the etiology, incidence, anatomic features, classification, diagnosis and management of the C-shaped canal configuration. C-shaped canal configuration is a variation that has a racial predilection and is commonly seen in mandibular second molars. The intricacies present in this variation of canal morphology can pose a challenge to the clinician during negotiation, debridement and obturation. Manual and electronic searches of literature were performed from 1979 to 2012, in Pub Med by crossing the keywords: C-shaped canals, mandibular second molar, mandibular first premolar, root canal morphology. Knowledge of the C-shaped canal configuration is essential to achieve success in endodontic therapy. Radiographic and clinical diagnoses can aid in identification and negotiation of the fan-shaped areas and intricacies of the C-shaped anatomy. Effective management of this anomalous canal configuration can be achieved with rotary and hand instrumentation assisted with sonics and ultrasonics. Modifications in the obturation techniques will ensure a 3-dimensional fill of the canal system and chamber retained restorations like amalgam or composites, serve as satisfactory post endodontic restorations. PMID:25125841

  20. Maxillary first molar with 7 root canals diagnosed using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Evaldo; Braitt, Antônio Henrique; Galvão, Bruno Ferraz

    2017-01-01

    Root canal anatomy is complex, and the recognition of anatomic variations could be a challenge for clinicians. This case report describes the importance of cone beam computed tomographyic (CBCT) imaging during endodontic treatment. A 23 year old woman was referred by her general dental practitioner with the chief complaint of spontaneous pain in her right posterior maxilla. From the clinical and radiographic findings, a diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis was made and endodontic treatment was suggested to the patient. The patient underwent CBCT examination, and CBCT scan slices revealed seven canals: three mesiobuccal (MB1, MB2, and MB3), two distobuccal (DB1 and DB2), and two palatal (P1 and P2). Canals were successfully treated with reciprocating files and filled using single-cone filling technique. Precise knowledge of root canal morphology and its variation is important during root canal treatment. CBCT examination is an excellent tool for identifying and managing these complex root canal systems. PMID:28194366

  1. Long-term cytotoxic effects of contemporary root canal sealers

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; SANTOS, Carolina Carvalho; ZAIA, Alexandre Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of root canal sealers on the cytotoxicity of 3T3 fibroblasts during a period of 5 weeks. Material and Methods: Fibroblasts (3T3, 1x105 cells per well) were incubated with elutes of fresh specimens from eight root canal sealers (AH Plus, Epiphany, Endomethasone N, EndoReZ, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT, RoekoSeal and Sealapex) and with elutes of the same specimens for 5 succeeding weeks after immersing in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity of all root canal sealers was determined using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: RoekoSeal was the only sealer that did not show any cytotoxic effects (p<0.05). All the other tested sealers exhibited severe toxicity initially (week 0). MTA Fillapex remained moderately cytotoxic after the end of experimental period. Toxicity of the other tested sealers decreased gradually over time. The evaluated root canal sealers presented varying degrees of cytotoxicity, mainly in fresh mode. Conclusions: RoekoSeal had no cytotoxic effect both freshly mixed and in the other tested time points. MTA Fillapex was associated with significantly less cell viability when compared to the other tested root canal sealers. PMID:23559111

  2. A novel approach in assessment of root canal curvature

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Shiva; Poryousef, Vahideh

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to introduce a new method to describe root canal curvatures and to assess the degree of curvature of human permanent mandibular teeth with curved root canals. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty five mesial root canals of mandibular first and second molar teeth were selected. Access cavities were prepared. After inserting a K-file size #10 into each canal, radiographs were taken. Canal curvature was determined by measuring the Schneider angle, canal access angle, as well as the canal radius, length, height and curvature starting distance on scanned radiographs using a computerized image processing system. Data was evaluated statistically using Pearson correlation. Results: The mean canal access angle (CAA) and Schneider angle (S) were 8.04◦ (3.46) and 19◦ (6.99), respectively. The Pearson correlation analysis found significant positive correlation between S and CAA (r=0.826, P<0.0001). Negative correlations were found between radius and length (r= –0.4, P<0.0001), radius and Schneider angle (r= –0.4, P<0.0001), radius and CAA (r= –0.24, P=0.004) and CAA and curvature starting distance (r= 0.4, P<0.0001). There was no correlation between height and distance (r=0.013, P=0.789), as well as CAA and height (r=0.654, P=0.001). Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, the results indicated that the shape of root canal curvature can be more accurately described using two angles, Schneider in combination with Canal access angle. The related parameters included radius, length, distance and height of curvature. [Iranian Endodontic Journal 2009;4(4):131-4] PMID:24019833

  3. Efficacy of Reciproc(®) and Profile(®) Instruments in the Removal of Gutta-Percha from Straight and Curved Root Canals ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Marfisi, Karem; Mercadé, Montserrat; Plotino, Gianluca; Clavel, Tatiana; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; Roig, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of Reciproc(®) (VDW GmbH) and ProFile(®) (Dentsply Maillefer) instruments at removing gutta-percha from straight and curved root canals ex vivo filled using the cold lateral condensation and GuttaMaster(®) (VDW GmbH) techniques. Forty mesial roots of mandibular molars with two curved canals and 80 single-rooted teeth with straight root canals, a total of 160 root canals, were randomly assigned to eight groups (canals per group = 20) according to filling technique, retreatment instrument and root canal curvature as follows: Group I, cold lateral condensation/ProFile(®)/straight; Group II, cold lateral condensation/ProFile(®)/curved; Group III, cold lateral condensation/Reciproc(®)/straight; Group IV, cold lateral condensation/Reciproc(®)/curved; Group V, GuttaMaster(®)/ProFile(®)/straight; Group VI, GuttaMaster(®)/ProFile(®)/curved; Group VII, GuttaMaster(®)/Reciproc(®)/straight; and Group VIII, GuttaMaster(®)/Reciproc(®)/curved. The following data were recorded: procedural errors, retreatment duration and canal wall cleanliness. Means and standard deviations were calculated and analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (P < 0.05). Reciproc(®) instruments were significantly faster than ProFile(®) instruments at removing GuttaMaster(®) from both straight (P = 0.0001) and curved (P = 0.0003) root canals. Reciproc(®) were statistically more effective than ProFile(®) instruments in removing GuttaMaster(®) from straight root canals (P = 0.021). Regardless of filling technique or retreatment instrument, gutta-percha was removed more rapidly from curved than from straight root canals (P = 0.0001). Neither system completely removed filling material from the root canals. Compared with ProFile(®) instruments, Reciproc(®) instruments removed GuttaMaster(®) filling material from straight and curved root canals more rapidly.

  4. Pulp revascularization after root canal decontamination with calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel.

    PubMed

    Soares, Adriana de Jesus; Lins, Fernanda Freitas; Nagata, Juliana Yuri; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi; de Almeida, José Flávio Affonso; de Souza-Filho, Francisco José

    2013-03-01

    Pulp revascularization may be considered a promising alternative for necrotic immature teeth. Many studies have accomplished passive decontamination associated with an antibiotic paste. To date, there is no report evaluating calcium hydroxide associated with 2% chlorhexidine gel for revascularization therapy. The aim of this case report was to describe a new proposal for pulp revascularization with mechanical decontamination and intracanal medication composed of calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel. The patient, a 9-year-old girl, suffered an intrusion associated with pulp exposure caused by an enamel-dentin fracture in her maxillary left central incisor. After diagnosis, treatment consisted of revascularization therapy with gentle manual instrumentation of the cervical and medium thirds of the root in addition to intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel for 21 days. In the second session, a blood clot was stimulated up to the cervical third of the root canal. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; Angelus, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil) was used for cervical sealing of the canal. Coronal sealing was performed with temporary filling material and composite resin. During the follow-up period, the root canal space showed a progressive decrease in width, mineralized tissue deposition on root canal walls, and apical closure. A cone-beam computed tomography scan taken at the 2-year follow-up confirmed these findings and did not show complete root canal calcification. This new proposal for revascularization therapy with 2% chlorhexidine gel may be used for the treatment of necrotic immature root canals. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Post space preparation timing of root canals sealed with AH Plus sealer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae-Ri; Kim, Young Kyung; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2017-02-01

    To determine the optimal timing for post space preparation of root canals sealed with epoxy resin-based AH Plus sealer in terms of its polymerization and influence on apical leakage. The epoxy polymerization of AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey) as a function of time after mixing (8, 24, and 72 hours, and 1 week) was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and microhardness measurements. The change in the glass transition temperature (Tg ) of the material with time was also investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Fifty extracted human single-rooted premolars were filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus, and randomly separated into five groups (n = 10) based on post space preparation timing (immediately after root canal obturation and 8, 24, and 72 hours, and 1 week after root canal obturation). The extent of apical leakage (mm) of the five groups was compared using a dye leakage test. Each dataset was statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Continuous epoxy polymerization of the material with time was observed. Although the Tg values of the material gradually increased with time, the specimens presented no clear Tg value at 1 week after mixing. When the post space was prepared 1 week after root canal obturation, the leakage was significantly higher than in the other groups (p < 0.05), among which there was no significant difference in leakage. Poor apical seal was detected when post space preparation was delayed until 1 week after root canal obturation.

  6. SEALING ABILITY OF CEMENTS IN ROOT CANALS PREPARED FOR INTRARADICULAR POSTS

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Dirce Haruko; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Bernadineli, Norberti

    2006-01-01

    This research evaluated the sealer ability of 2 temporary filling materials (white Cimpat and IRM) and 1 restorative cement (glass ionomer), in canals prepared for root posts. Sixty human palatal roots of maxillary first molars were used. They were divided into 3 groups, according to the cements used: Group I (Cimpat), Group II (IRM) and Group III (glass ionomer). The roots were rendered impermeable, filled with the respective cements and soon after immersed into 0.2% Rhodamine B dye and maintained for 72 hours in an oven for 37°C. Microleakage was measured with a light microscope, cutting the roots longitudinally in buccolingual direction. The results showed that Group I presented significantly more leakage than Groups II and III, which were not significantly different from each other. PMID:19089266

  7. Physical and chemical properties of a new root-end filling material.

    PubMed

    Torabinejad, M; Hong, C U; McDonald, F; Pitt Ford, T R

    1995-07-01

    This study determined the chemical composition, pH, and radiopacity of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and also compared the setting time, compressive strength, and solubility of this material with those of amalgam, Super-EBA, and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM). X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer in conjunction with the scanning electron microscope were used to determine the composition of MTA, and the pH value of MTA was assessed with a pH meter using a temperature-compensated electrode. The radiopacity of MTA was determined according to the method described by the International Organization for Standardization. The setting time and compressive strength of these materials were determined according to methods recommended by the British Standards Institution. The degree of solubility of the materials was assessed according to modified American Dental Association specifications. The results showed that the main molecules present in MTA are calcium and phosphorous ions. In addition, MTA has a pH of 10.2 initially, which rises to 12.5 three hours after mixing. MTA is more radiopaque than Super-EBA and IRM. Amalgam had the shortest setting time (4 min) and MTA the longest (2 h 45 min). At 24 h MTA had the lowest compressive strength (40 MPa) among the materials, but it increased after 21 days to 67 MPa. Finally, except for IRM, none of the materials tested showed any solubility under the conditions of this study.

  8. A comparison of methods used in root canal sealability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Matloff, I.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Singer, L.; Tabibi, A.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare several methods that have been used to assess marginal leakage of root canal fillings. Sixty-three extracted, single-rooted teeth were instrumented and filled in a standardized manner. Teeth were randomly divided into groups of twenty and exposed to solutions containing methylene blue dye, calcium-45, carbon-14-labeled urea, and iodine-125-labeled albumin for 48 hours to compare the degree of leakage indicated by each technique. Methylene blue dye was found to penetrate farther up the canal than any of the isotope tracers. Carbon-14-labeled urea penetrated farther than the calcium-45- or iodine-125-labeled albumin. The mean volume of solution penetrating the teeth was exceedingly small (0.0011 ml) and probably unimportant physiologically.

  9. Root canal morphology of permanent three-rooted mandibular first molars--part I: pulp floor and root canal system.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yongchun; Lu, Qun; Wang, Hanguo; Ding, Yuefeng; Wang, Ping; Ni, Longxing

    2010-06-01

    Racial variations in root form and canal anatomy present endodontic challenges for clinicians. This study examined root canal morphology of three-rooted mandibular first molars by micro-computed tomography scans. A total of 122 extracted mandibular first molars were collected from a native Chinese population. After calculating the frequency of occurrence, 20 three-rooted (experimental group) and 25 two-rooted first molars (control group) were scanned and reconstructed three-dimensionally. The frequency of three-rooted mandibular first molars was 31.97% (39/122). The mean interorifice distances from the distolingual (DL) canal to the distobuccal (DB) and mesiolingual canal were 2.93 mm and 2.86 mm, respectively. The mesial root predominately contained a type 2-2 root canal, with an incidence of 65% in the experimental group and 64% in the control group. Type 1-1 canals were seen more frequently in the DL and DB roots of the three-rooted first molars as well as in the distal roots of the two-rooted first molars. The incidences were 100% (20/20), 95% (19/20), and 72% (18/25), respectively. Accessory and lateral canals rarely occurred in the extra DL roots. The incidence was only 10% (2/20). A furcation canal extending from the floor to the furcation region was not observed. Three-rooted mandibular first molars commonly have 4 separate canals with high incidences of accessory canals in the mesial and DB root. The geometric data of pulp floors are useful for locating the extra DL canal. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Clinical management of mandibular incisors with multiple root canals using dental operating microscope].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiong; Liu, Hong-yan; Ling, Jun-qi; Luo, Dan-feng

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the role of dental operating microscope in clinical treatment of lower incisors with multiple root canals. 143 mandibular incisors in 128 patients were treated endodontically. Two kinds of preoperative radiographs were taken for each tooth, using straight projection and eccentric projection. The root canal morphology was recorded according to Vertucci's classification. Under dental operating microscope, the teeth with multiple root canals were shaped using Ni-Ti rotary instruments Hero 642, cleaned using sodium hypochlorite, and obturated with vertical condensation technique. The following information was recorded: The number of teeth that were found to have multiple canals in two kinds of preoperative radiographs, and when using and without using microscope. The efficiency of preparation and obturation was analyzed with radiographs before, during and after operation. The mandibular central incisor with one canal was 73.53% and multiple canals was 26.47% in treated teeth. The mandibular lateral incisor with one canal was 70.67% and multiple canals was 29.33% in treated teeth. By eccentric projection radiograph and treatment using microscope, more teeth with multiple canals were found. No complication was found during root canal preparation. 134 teeth were well filled and 9 showed slight over-filling. With dental operating microscope, the mandibular incisors with multiple root canals could be treated well in combination with rotary instrumentation and vertical condensation technique.

  11. Management of Teeth with Persistent Apical Periodontitis after Root Canal Treatment Using Regenerative Endodontic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A; Huang, George T-J; Gibbs, Jennifer L; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Lin, Louis M

    2015-10-01

    Regenerative endodontic therapy (RET) is currently used to treat immature teeth with necrotic pulp and/or apical periodontitis. However, recently RET has been used to treat mature teeth with necrotic pulp and/or apical periodontitis and resulted in regression of clinical signs and/or symptoms and resolution of apical periodontitis. The purpose of this case report was to describe the potential of using RET to treat 2 mature teeth with persistent apical periodontitis after root canal therapy using RET. Two male patients, one 26-year old and another 12-year old, presented for retreatment of persistent apical periodontitis after root canal treatment of 2 mature teeth (#9 and #19). The gutta-percha fillings in the canals of teeth #9 and #19 were removed with Carvene gutta-percha solvent (Prevest DenPro, Jammu, India) and ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The canals of both teeth were further chemomechanically debrided with rotary retreatment files and copious amounts of sodium hypochlorite irrigation and dressed with Metapaste (Meta Biomed, Chungbuk, Korea). RET was performed on teeth #9 and #19. Periapical bleeding was provoked into the disinfected root canals. The blood clots were covered with mineral trioxide aggregate plugs, and the access cavities were restored with intermediate restorative material. Teeth #9 and #19 showed regression of clinical signs and/or symptoms and healing of apical periodontitis after 13-month and 14-month follow-ups, respectively. Tooth #9 revealed narrowing of the canal space and apical closure by deposition of hard tissue. RET has the potential to be used to retreat teeth with persistent apical periodontitis after root canal therapy. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Techniques and Materials Used by General Dentists during Root Canal Treatment Procedures: Findings from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Eleazer, Paul D.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Reams, G.J.; Law, A.S.; Benjamin, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about which materials and techniques general dentists (GDs) use during root canal procedures. The objectives were to: (1) quantify GD’s use of specific endodontic armamentarium; (2) quantify inappropriate use; and (3) ascertain if inappropriate use is associated with dentists’ practice characteristics. Methods GDs in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network reported in a questionnaire materials and techniques they use during root canal procedures. Results 1,490 (87%) of eligible GDs participated. Most (93%; n=1,383) used sodium hypochlorite to irrigate. The most commonly used sealers were zinc oxide-eugenol (43%) and resin (40%), followed by calcium hydroxide (26%). A majority (62%; n=920) used a compaction obturation technique; 36% (n=534) used a carrier-based method. Most (96%; n=1,423) used gutta percha as a filler; 5% used paste fillers. Few used irrigants (n=46), sealers (n=4), techniques (n=49) or fillers (n=10) that investigators classified as ‘inappropriate’. Conclusions GDs use a broad range of endodontic techniques and materials, often adapting to newer technologies as they become available. Few GDs use armamentarium that the investigators classified as inappropriate. Practical Implications GDs use many types of endodontic techniques and materials, but only a very small percentage is not appropriate. PMID:26562726

  13. The surface of root canal irradiated by Nd:YAG laser with TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Arata; Anjo, Tomoo; Takeda, Atsushi; Suda, Hideaki

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the appropriateness of Nd:YAG laser irradiation for root canal preparation. Tooth crowns were removed from single-rooted human teeth and a quartz optical fiber (diameter 400 μm) was inserted into the root canal orifice towards the apical foramen. The length of the fiber within the root canal was measured, and the irradiating length determined. Root canals were then filled with 3% TiO2 emulsion solution (a photosensitizer) and irradiated using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 600 mJ/pulse (pulse frequency; 5 or 10 pps). During laser irradiation, the fiber was moved coronally from the apical region towards the canal orifice at a rate of 1 mm/s. Contact microradiographs (CMR) were taken before and after laser irradiation. Each root was then halved longitudinally, and the root canal surface observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The CMR images of the tooth revealed that the root canal was slightly enlarged as a result of treatment. Carbonization of the root canal dentin was not seen, but a smear layer and melted dentin were observed by SEM. Nd:YAG laser irradiation using TiO2 emulsion solution appears to be a useful tool for root canal preparation.

  14. Single crowns versus conventional fillings for the restoration of root-filled teeth.

    PubMed

    Sequeira-Byron, Patrick; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; Nasser, Mona; Alrowaili, Eman F

    2015-09-25

    Endodontic treatment involves removal of the dental pulp and its replacement by a root canal filling. Restoration of root filled teeth can be challenging due to structural differences between vital and non-vital root-filled teeth. Direct restoration involves placement of a restorative material e.g. amalgam or composite, directly into the tooth. Indirect restorations consist of cast metal or ceramic (porcelain) crowns. The choice of restoration depends on the amount of remaining tooth, and may influence durability and cost. The decision to use a post and core in addition to the crown is clinician driven. The comparative clinical performance of crowns or conventional fillings used to restore root-filled teeth is unknown. This review updates the original, which was published in 2012. To assess the effects of restoration of endodontically treated teeth (with or without post and core) by crowns versus conventional filling materials. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE via OVID, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via EBSCO, LILACS via BIREME. We also searched the reference lists of articles and ongoing trials registries.There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. The search is up-to-date as of 26 March 2015. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised controlled trials in participants with permanent teeth that have undergone endodontic treatment. Single full coverage crowns compared with any type of filling materials for direct restoration or indirect partial restorations (e.g. inlays and onlays). Comparisons considered the type of post and core used (cast or prefabricated post), if any. Two review authors independently extracted data from the included trial and assessed its risk of bias. We carried out data analysis using the 'treatment as allocated' patient population, expressing estimates of intervention effect for dichotomous data as risk ratios, with 95% confidence

  15. [Comparative analysis of rotatory (GT) and manual root canal preparation and association of both techniques in instrumentation of flattened root canals].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Silvana Beltrami; Brosco, Viviane Haiub; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro

    2003-03-01

    Root canal preparation has been considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy, thus many techniques and instruments have been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cleaning of the root canal through three different instrumentation techniques. Thirty mandibular incisors were selected and submitted to lingual access cavities. Afterwards, the canals were filled with India ink dye previously stored in carpules, which was inserted into the root canal by means of anesthetic syringe and anesthetic needles. After 48 hours, during which the dye was allowed to dry inside the root canal, the teeth were divided in three groups: G1- GT rotatory instrumentation; G2- manual instrumentation; G3- association of both. After instrumentation, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned. The cleaning process accomplished through the different instrumentation techniques was evidenced by dye removal at the cervical, middle and apical thirds of the root canal. The results of this study showed that were not statistically significant differences between these three instrumentation techniques for all three thirds of the root canal.

  16. Efficacy of Two Rotary Systems in Removing Gutta-Percha and Sealer from the Root Canal Walls

    PubMed Central

    Dadresanfar, Bahareh; Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Ghafari, Sedigh; Khalilak, Zohreh; Vatanpour, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

     INTRODUCTION: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of two retreatment rotary systems in removal of gutta-percha (GP) and sealer from the root canal walls with and without use of solvent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty single-canalled distal roots of mandibular molars were prepared and root filled with gutta-percha and AH26. Each canal was randomly allocated to receive one of the retreatment techniques, Mtwo R or ProTaper. The groups were further divided into two subgroups: with or without the use of solvent. The cleanliness of canal walls was determined by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The results showed that Mtwo R without the use of solvent was more efficient in material removal compared to ProTaper D (P<0.05). Most remnants were found in the apical third of the canals (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Mtwo R seems to be an efficient rotary system for endodontic retreatment of root canal with GP. PMID:23130056

  17. Micro-Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Hard Tissue Debris Removal after Different Irrigation Methods and Its Influence on the Filling of Curved Canals.

    PubMed

    Freire, Laila Gonzales; Iglecias, Elaine Faga; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Dos Santos, Marcelo; Gavini, Giulio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and the EndoVac (EV) System (Discus Dental, Culver City, CA) in hard tissue debris removal and its influence on the quality of the root canal filling with the aid of micro-computed tomographic scanner. Twenty-four mandibular molars were subjected to 4 microtomographic scannings (ie, before and after instrumentation, after final irrigation, and after obturation) using the SkyScan 1176 X-ray microtomograph (Bruker microCT, Kontich, Belgium) at a resolution of 17.42 μm. Mesial canals were prepared using R25 Reciproc instruments (VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany) and divided into 2 groups according to the final irrigation method: the PUI group (n = 12) and the EV group (n = 12). All specimens were filled with the continuous wave of condensation technique. CTAn and CTvol software (Bruker microCT) were used for volumetric analysis and 3-dimensional model reconstruction of the root canals, hard tissue debris, and the filling material. Data were statistically analyzed using the Student t test. Analysis of the micro-computed tomographic scans revealed debris accumulated inside the root canals, occupying an average of 3.4% of the canal's volume. Irrigation with PUI and the EV system reduced the volume of hard tissue debris in 55.55% and 53.65%, respectively, with no statistical difference between them (P > .05). Also, there was no difference among the groups with regard to the volume of filling material and voids (P > .05). PUI and the EV system were equally efficient in the removal of hard tissue debris and the quality of root canal filling was similar in both groups, with no influence from the irrigation method. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Tennessee study: factors affecting treatment outcome and healing time following nonsurgical root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Azim, A A; Griggs, J A; Huang, G T-J

    2016-01-01

    To determine factors that may influence treatment outcome and healing time following root canal treatment. Root filled and restored teeth by pre-doctoral students were included in this study. Teeth/roots were followed-up regularly, and treatment outcome was evaluated at every follow-up appointment (healed, healing, uncertain or unsatisfactory). Host (age, immune condition, pulp/periapical diagnosis, tooth/root type, location and anatomy) and treatment factors (master apical file size, apical extension, voids and density of root filling) were recorded from patient dental records. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the impact of the factors on treatment outcomes and healing times. A total of 422 roots from 291 teeth met the inclusion criteria with a mean follow-up period of 2 years. The preoperative pulp condition, procedural errors during treatment, apical extension and density of root fillings significantly affected the treatment outcome. The average time required for a periapical lesion to heal was 11.78 months. The healing time increased in patients with compromised healing, patients older than 40 years, roots with Weine type II root canal systems, root canal systems prepared to a master apical file size <35, and roots with overextended fillings (P < 0.1). Multiple host and treatment factors affected the healing time and outcome of root canal treatment. Follow-up protocols should consider these factors before concluding the treatment outcome: patient's age, immune condition, as well as roots with overextended fillings, root canal systems with smaller apical preparations (size <35) or roots with complex canal systems. Intervention may be recommended if the treatment quality was inadequate or if patients became symptomatic. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Tooth anatomy risk factors influencing root canal working length accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lu; Sun, Tuo-qi; Gao, Xiao-jie; Zhou, Xue-dong; Huang, Ding-ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the specific influence of root canal anatomy on the accessibility of working length during root canal therapy. Four hundred seventy-six root canal therapy cases (amounting to a total of 1 005 root canals) were examined. The anatomy risk factors assessed in each case included: tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, and root canal calcification, as well as endodontic retreatment. The investigation examined the correlation between each of these anatomic factors and the working length, with statistical analysis consisting of Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. In an independent factor analysis, tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, canal calcification, and endodontic retreatment were determined to be the primary risk factors. In a multiple-factor regression model, root curvature and canal calcification were found to most significantly influence root canal working length accessibility (P<0.05). Root canal anatomy increases the difficulty of root canal preparation. Appropriate consideration of tooth anatomy will assist in accurate determination of preparation difficulty before instrumentation. This study alerts clinical therapists to anatomical factors influencing the working length accessibility, and allows for a direct estimate of success rate given in situ measurements of tooth factors during the root canal treatment procedure. PMID:21789962

  20. Could Prefab Blood Vessels Revolutionize Root Canals?

    MedlinePlus

    ... concerns, such as the need for dentures or dental implants." Bertassoni is an assistant professor of restorative dentistry and biomedical engineering at OHSU. His team developed a way to engineer new blood vessels in teeth with root canals. "This result proves that fabrication ...

  1. Effect of Intra-Orifice Depth on Sealing Ability of Four Materials in the Orifices of Root-Filled Teeth: An Ex-Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghulman, Motaz Ahmad; Gomaa, Madiha

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of orifice cavity depth on the sealing ability of Fusio, Fuji II, Fuji IX, and MTA“G”. Materials and Methods. Ninety-two canals in extracted mandibular premolars were prepared, obturated, and randomly grouped into 4 groups. Each group was subgrouped for a 2 mm and 3 mm orifice cavity depth (n = 10). The remaining roots were divided to serve as positive and negative controls (n = 6). Cavities of the 4 experimental groups were filled with the respective materials and subjected to methylene blue dye leakage. Linear leakage was measured in mm using a stereomicroscope. Statistical Analysis. Kruskall-Wallis test was used at P < 0.05, and t-test was done to compare 2 mm and 3 mm. Results. All tested materials leaked to various degrees. Significantly higher leakage score was found for Fuji IX, Fusio, Fuji II, and MTA “G” in a descending order, when the materials were placed at 3 mm depths. A significant difference was found in the leakage score between the 2 mm and 3 mm depths in all tested materials with the 3 mm depth showing a greater leakage score in all tested materials. Exception was in MTA “G” at 2 mm and 3 mm depths (0.551 mm ± 0.004 mm and 0.308 mm ± 0.08 mm, resp.). Conclusion. The null hypothesis should be partially rejected. Fusio and MTA “G” were affected by orifice cavity depth with regard to their sealing ability. MTA “G” had the least leakage when placed at 2 or 3 mm depths, and Fusio is the next when placed at 2 mm depth. Two millimeters orifice cavity depth is suitable for most adhesive orifice barrier materials. PMID:22675356

  2. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    PubMed

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  3. Temperature rise during photo-activated disinfection of root canals.

    PubMed

    Dickers, B; Lamard, L; Peremans, A; Geerts, S; Lamy, M; Limme, M; Rompen, E; De Moor, R J G; Mahler, P; Rocca, J P; Nammour, S

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether it is safe to use photo-activated disinfection (PAD) during root canal treatment without heating the periodontal tissues. Root canals of 30 freshly extracted single-rooted teeth were prepared using ProFiles up to size ISO 40 and then filled with photo-sensitiser: tolonium blue (1.2 mg/l). The 635 nm diode laser was used with the manufacturer's endo-tip. Samples were irradiated for 150 s (output power 100 mW, approximate energy density 106.16 J/cm(2)). Temperatures were recorded at working length on the external root surface. After 150 s of PAD irradiation, the average temperature rise was 0.16 +/- 0.08 degrees C. All values were lower than the 7 degrees C safety level for periodontal injury. It was concluded that, regarding the temperature increase, the use of PAD in root canals could be considered harmless for periodontal tissues.

  4. Geminated Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Two Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Nayara; Souza-Flamini, Luis Eduardo; Mendonça, Isabela Lima; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a case of gemination in a maxillary lateral incisor with two root canals and crown-root dilaceration. A 16-year-old male patient was referred for endodontic treatment of the maxillary left lateral incisor and evaluation of esthetic and functional complaints in the anterior region. The patient reported trauma to the anterior primary teeth. There was no spontaneous pain, but the tooth responded positively to the vertical percussion test and negatively to the pulp vitality test. Clinical examination showed esthetic and functional alterations and normal periodontal tissues. CBCT imaging confirmed the suspicion of gemination and crown-root dilaceration and also revealed the presence of two root canals and periapical bone rarefaction. The root canals were instrumented with Reciproc R40 and 1% NaOCl irrigation and were filled by lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The tooth was definitely restored with composite resin to recover esthetics. Continued follow-up over 6 months has shown absence of pain or clinical alterations as well as radiographic image suggestive of apical repair. PMID:28119787

  5. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Calcium Hydroxide, and Triple Antibiotic Paste as Root Canal Dressing Materials.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Dadolahi, Sahar; Gholami, Ahmad; Moein, Mahmoud Reza; Hamedani, Shahram; Ghasemi, Younes; Abbott, Paul Vincent

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article was (i) to define the chemical constituents of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CEO), (ii) to compare the antimicrobial activity of CEO with triple antibiotic paste (TAP) and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] on planktonic and biofilm Enterococcus faecalis; and (iii) to compare the cytotoxicity of these medicaments on L929 fibroblasts. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to define the constituents of CEO. Zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and time-kill tests were performed. Further, 108 human teeth were infected with E. faecalis and treated with the medicaments for 1, 7, and 14 days. Cytotoxicity was assessed by exposing L929 fibroblasts to the medicaments. Cinnamaldehyde was the main component of CEO. Triple antibiotic paste had the greatest zone of inhibition and the smallest MIC and MBC. Triple antibiotic paste and CEO eradicated planktonic E. faecalis after 4 and 24 hours, while Ca(OH)2 failed to achieve 100% killing after 24 hours. Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil and TAP eradicated biofilm E. faecalis after 7 and 14 days, but Ca(OH)2 could not eliminate E. faecalis after 14 days. Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil was the most biocompatible medicament. Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil is an efficient antibacterial agent against planktonic and biofilm E. faecalis and it was cytocompatible to L929 fibroblasts. Therefore, CEO has the potential to be used as an antimicrobial agent in root canal treatment.

  6. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jaju, Sushma; Jaju, Prashant P.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation. PMID:22190936

  7. The Comparative Efficacy of Different Files in The Removal of Different Sealers in Simulated Root Canal Retreatment- An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanaparthy, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Root canal treatment enjoys a high success rate all over the world and has saved billions of teeth from extraction. However, there are instances of failure, the main causes being insufficient cleaning and inadequate obturation. In such cases the most conservative treatment option would be non-surgical retreatment. It requires regaining access to the entire root canal system through removal of the original root canal filling thus permitting further cleaning and re- obturation. Removal of gutta-percha and sealer becomes a critical step to gain access to the root canal system, remove necrotic tissue debris, bacteria and infected dentin. Aim To compare and evaluate the efficacy of manual hand Hedstrom files and two rotary retreatment file systems ProTaper Universal retreatment files and MtwoR (retreatment) files in the removal of root canal filling material during root canal retreatment and the influence of the type of sealers zinc oxide eugenol and AH plus on the presence of remaining debris in the reinstrumented canals in the apical, middle and coronal third. Materials and Methods Sixty single rooted human premolar teeth were divided into 3 Groups of 20 teeth each Group I (20 Teeth): prepared using hand K Files, Group II (20 Teeth): prepared using ProTaper rotary system and Group III (20 Teeth): prepared using Mtwo rotary system. In Groups- IA, IIA, IIIA: (10 teeth each) Obturation was done using Zinc Oxide Eugenol sealer and gutta percha. In Groups- IB, IIB, IIIB: (10 teeth each) obturation was done with AH Plus sealer and gutta percha. All the teeth were subjected to retreatment. Groups IA and IB with Hedstrom files, Groups IIA and IIB with ProTaper retreatment files and for Groups IIIA and IIIB with Mtwo retreatment Files. The roots were longitudinally split and were observed under a stereomicroscope for remaining amount of filling material on the canal walls. Statistical analysis was done using One–way ANOVA (Analysis of variance) test and Tukey

  8. Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Marginal Adaptation of Four Root-End Filling Materials in Presence and Absence of Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bolhari, Behnam; Ashofteh Yazdi, Kazem; Sharifi, Farnood; Pirmoazen, Salma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Biodentine and BioAggregate in presence of normal saline and human blood. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, 80 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. After resecting the root-end, apical cavity preparation was done and the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (N=20)(a total of 8 subgroups). Root-end filling materials were placed in 3mm root-end cavities prepared ultrasonically. Half the specimens in each group were exposed to normal saline and the other half to fresh whole human blood. After 4 days, epoxy resin replicas of the apical portion of samples were fabricated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to find gaps in the adaptation of the root-end filling materials at their interface with dentin. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis of data with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: There were no significant differences in marginal adaptation of the 8 tested groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results, blood contamination does not affect the marginal adaptation of MTA, CEM cement, Biodentine or BioAggregate. PMID:26622276

  9. Endodontic retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canal systems: an important clinical lesson

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad; Umer, Fahad

    2014-01-01

    The objective of root canal treatment is to perform complete debridement of the root canals and subsequent obturation to facilitate healing of periapical pathosis. However, this process becomes complicated with the presence of additional root canal systems. The purpose of the present article is to report successful non-surgical retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five canals. This case report discusses the clinical management of a previously root filled mandibular firstmolar with two missed canal systems; distolingual and an additional mesial canal known as the middle mesial canal. The post-treatment radiographs show successful obturation to length in all canals. The middle mesial canal was found to be associated with mesiolingual canal and categorised as confluent. The configuration of canals in the mesial root was type XV, based on the classification given by Sert and Bayirli. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge and its application in the management of abnormal anatomic variants which play a crucial role in the success of endodontic retreatment. PMID:24654237

  10. Endodontic retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canal systems: an important clinical lesson.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Muhammad; Umer, Fahad

    2014-03-20

    The objective of root canal treatment is to perform complete debridement of the root canals and subsequent obturation to facilitate healing of periapical pathosis. However, this process becomes complicated with the presence of additional root canal systems. The purpose of the present article is to report successful non-surgical retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five canals. This case report discusses the clinical management of a previously root filled mandibular firstmolar with two missed canal systems; distolingual and an additional mesial canal known as the middle mesial canal. The post-treatment radiographs show successful obturation to length in all canals. The middle mesial canal was found to be associated with mesiolingual canal and categorised as confluent. The configuration of canals in the mesial root was type XV, based on the classification given by Sert and Bayirli. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge and its application in the management of abnormal anatomic variants which play a crucial role in the success of endodontic retreatment.

  11. Microhardness of different resin cement shades inside the root canal.

    PubMed

    Vignolo, Valeria; Fuentes, Maria-Victoria; Garrido, Miguel-Angel; Rodríguez, Jesús; Ceballos, Laura

    2012-09-01

    To compare microhardness along the root canal post space of two resin cements in different shades and a dual-cure resin core material. Root canals of 21 bovine incisors were prepared for post space. Translucent posts (X∘Post, Dentsply DeTrey) were luted using one the following resin luting agent: Calibra (Dentsply DeTrey) in Translucent, Medium and Opaque shades, RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE) in Translucent, A2 and A3 shades and the dual-cure resin core material Core∘X flow. All materials were applied according to manufacturers' instructions and were all photopolymerized (Bluephase LED unit, Ivoclar Vivadent, 40s). After 24 hours, roots were transversally cut into 9 slices 1 mm thick from the coronal to apical extremes, three corresponding to each root third. Then, VHNs were recorded (100gf, 30 s) on the resin luting materials along the adhesive interface in all sections. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and SNK tests (α=0.05). A significant influence on microhardness of resin luting material in their respective shades (p<0.0001), root third (p<0.0001) and interactions between them was detected (p<0.0001). RelyX Unicem cement showed the highest microhardness values and Calibra the lowest, regardless of the shade selected. All resin luting materials tested exhibited a significantly higher microhardness in the cervical third. Microhardness of resin luting agents tested inside the canal is dependent on material brand and resin cement shade seems to be a less relevant factor. Microhardness decreased along the root canal, regardless of the shade selected.

  12. Kedo-S Paediatric Rotary Files for Root Canal Preparation in Primary Teeth - Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jeevanandan, Ganesh

    2017-03-01

    Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) instrument are widely used for root canal preparation in permanent tooth compared to primary teeth. Hand instrumentation technique remains the conventional method for root canal preparation in primary teeth. The time taken for root canal preparation with the conventional method is more resulting in patients and clinicians fatigue. Recently Ni-Ti rotary files designed for permanent tooth has been used for root canal preparation in primary teeth. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies resulted in better and predictable root canal filling. This article presents case reports of pulpectomy treatment performed using Kedo-S an exclusive paediatric Ni-Ti rotary files. The advantages and disadvantages in use of Ni-Ti rotary files in primary teeth are discussed in this article.

  13. Micro Push-out Bond Strength and Bioactivity Analysis of a Bioceramic Root Canal Sealer

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Grazziotin-Soares, Renata; de Miranda Candeiro, George Táccio; Gallego Martinez, Luis; de Souza, Juliana Pereira; Santos Oliveira, Patrícia; Bauer, José; Gavini, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Bioactive endodontic sealers have been developed to improve the quality of root canal obturation. EndoSequence Bioceramic (BC) Sealer is amongst calcium silicate-based materials recently developed for permanent root canal filling. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of BC Sealer and its micro push-out bond strength to dentin compared to AH-Plus (AH) sealer. Methods and Materials: To perform the micro push-out test, 24 root canals of mandibular premolars were instrumented and divided into two groups (n=12). Each root was cut into 4 slices and lumens of the canals were filled with the sealers and submitted to micro push-out test. Failure mode was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bioactivity of BC sealer was investigated with scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Bioactivity assessments were reported descriptively. Bond strength data were analyzed by parametric t-test (α=5%). Results: In micro push-out test AH had higher bond strength mean values (16.29 MPa) than BC sealer (9.48 MPa) (P<0.05). Both groups had low amount of adhesive failure. SEM showed the presence of a mineral precipitate after 30 days and EDS analysis showed that those precipitates have high proportion of Ca. XRD showed peaks of crystalline phases of calcium carbonate compatible with the bioactivity. Conclusion: BC sealer showed indications of bioactivity and lower bond strength to dentine compared to AH. PMID:28808463

  14. Accurate Measurement of Canal Length during Root Canal Treatment: An In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadaf, Durre; Ahmad, Muhammad Zubair

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the consistency and accuracy of Electronic Apex Locator (EAL) (Root ZXII) in individual canals and its association with other clinical variables. Study Design: Cross-Sectional study. Place of study: Dental section of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Working length was measured by EAL in 180 patients requiring endodontic therapy in molar and premolar teeth. The effects of clinical variables e.g. gender and pulpal status on the consistency and accuracy of EAL were recorded. Performance of apex locator was considered “Consistent” when the scale bar was stable and moved only in correspondence to the movement of file in the root canal. Accuracy was determined by inserting the file at the working length determined by the EAL and periapical view of radiograph was taken using paralleling technique. Estimated working length was considered accurate when the file tip was located 0-2mm short of the radiographic apex. If the file was overextended from the radiographic apex, it showed dysfunction of the EAL. Results: Consistency of EAL was found 97.6% in distobuccal canals, 91.1% in palatal canals, 73.7% in mesiolingual canals, 83.3% in mesiobuccal and 80.2% in distal canals. Accuracy of EAL was 91.4% in mesiolingual canal, 92% in mesiobuccal, and 90.2% in Palatal and 93.2% in distal canal. Conclusion: Consistency of electronic apex locator vary in different canals, however consistent measurements are highly accurate. No significant association was found between other clinical variables with the consistency and accuracy of EAL.

  15. Root canal debridement: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will present root canal debridement including subdivisions on canal access, canal debridement, orifice enlargement and preflaring, crown-down technique, balanced force, nickel titanium and other shape memory alloys, rotary engine-driven techniques, endodontic instruments, irrigation, electronic apex locators, sonics/ultrasonics, smear layer, and intracanal medicaments.

  16. A prospective clinical study of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and IRM when used as root-end filling materials in endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Chong, B S; Pitt Ford, T R; Hudson, M B

    2003-08-01

    To assess the success rate of the root-end filling material, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). Referred adult patients were recruited using strict entry criteria and randomly allocated to receive MTA or IRM. A standardized surgical technique was employed: the root end was resected perpendicularly and a root-end cavity was prepared ultrasonically and filled. A radiograph taken immediately after surgery was compared with those taken at 12 and 24 months. Customised film holders and the paralleling technique were used; radiographs were assessed by two trained observers using agreed criteria. The results from 122 patients (58 in IRM group, 64 in MTA group) after 12 months and 108 patients (47 in IRM group, 61 in MTA group) for the 24-month review period were analysed using the chi2 test. The highest number of teeth with complete healing at both times was observed when MTA was used. When the numbers of teeth with complete and incomplete (scar) healing, and those with uncertain and unsatisfactory healing were combined, the success rate for MTA was higher (84% after 12 months, 92% after 24 months) compared with IRM (76% after 12 months, 87% after 24 months). However, statistical analysis showed no significant difference in success between materials (P > 0.05) at both 12 and 24 months. In this study, the use of MTA as a root-end filling material resulted in a high success rate that was not significantly better than that obtained using IRM.

  17. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Parul; Nikhil, Vineeta; Goyal, Ayush; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps. PMID:27563190

  18. In vitro comparison of passive and continuous ultrasonic irrigation in curved root canals

    PubMed Central

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Varela-Patiño, Purificación; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Domínguez-Perez, Ana; Ruíz-Piñón, Manuel; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy of endodontic irrigation procedures can be compromised by the complexity of the root canal system. Delivering irrigants to the apical third of curved canals presents a particular challenge to endodontists. This study compared the effects of two ultrasonic irrigation techniques on the penetration of sodium hypochlorite into the main canal and simulated lateral canals of curved roots in extracted teeth. Material and Methods Two sets of simulated lateral canals were created at 2, 4, and 6 mm from the working length in 60 single-rooted teeth (6 canals/tooth, n = 360 canals). The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental irrigation groups: group 1 (n = 20), positive pressure irrigation (PPI); group 2 (n = 20), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI); and group 3 (n = 20), continuous ultrasonic irrigation (CUI). To assess the irrigation solution penetration, 20% Chinese ink (Sanford Rotring GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) was added to a 5% sodium hypochlorite solution and delivered into the curved root canals. The penetration of contrast solution into the simulated lateral canals was scored by counting the number of lateral canals (0-2) penetrated to at least 50% of the total length. Results The CUI group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) irrigant penetration into the lateral canals and into the apical third of the main canals. The PPI group showed significantly lower sodium hypochlorite penetration (P < 0.001) into the main and lateral canals compared with that in the CUI and PUI groups. Significantly higher irrigant penetration was observed in the PUI group than the PPI group. Conclusions Using CUI as the final rinse significantly increased the penetration of irrigant solution into the simulated lateral canals and apical third of curved roots. Key words:Continuous ultrasonic irrigation, curved root canals, passive ultrasonic irrigation, positive pressure irrigation, root canal irrigation. PMID:27703613

  19. Radiographic technical quality of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate dental students at the Academy Dental Teaching Hospital, UMST, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Awooda, Elhadi M.; Siddig, Reem I.; Alturki, Ruaa S.; Sanhouri, Nada M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To radiographically evaluate the technical quality of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate dental students and compare the findings with other institution's work. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Academy Dental Teaching Hospital involving postoperative periapical radiographs of patients who were endodontically treated by batch #14 undergraduate dental students of final year (2013–2014) from UMST, Sudan. The total number of the students was 21, while periapical radiographs fulfilling the required criteria were 173. The radiographs of each case were evaluated in terms of length, density, and taper of the root canal filling. Procedural errors such as presence of a ledge, perforation, and a separated instrument were also recorded. Chi-square test was used to determine statistically significant differences between variables, with the level of significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The overall quality of performed root canal treatment was adequate in almost half (55.5%) of the evaluated teeth. The length and taper of the root canal filling were found to be significantly associated with maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth with P = 0.018 and 0.006, respectively. No associations were found between the density and presence of separated instrument in the maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth, P = 0.314 and 0.480, respectively. Conclusion: The radiographic quality of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate students of batch #14 UMST was acceptable in 55.5% of the cases. Special emphasis must be placed on the educational methods and training of students for providing root canal treatment on molar teeth. PMID:28032048

  20. Endodontic surgery failure: SEM analysis of root-end filling.

    PubMed

    Taschieri, Silvio; Bettach, Raphael; Lolato, Alessandra; Moneghini, Laura; Fabbro, Massimo Del

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the quality of root-end filling in cases of periapical lesions persisting after endodontic surgery. Ten patients requiring extraction of an endodontically treated tooth were included. The root-ends of extracted teeth were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Defects at the interface between the root-end filling and cavity margin were classified as ideal, imperfect (some marginal disruption) or inadequate (continuous marginal disruption involving >30% of the interface). Four cases were scored as imperfect, and six were scored as inadequate. A defective apical seal could favour continuous leakage of surviving bacteria and their by-products from the infected root canal system to periapical tissues, thereby sustaining inflammation.

  1. In vitro evaluation of the sealing ability of three newly developed root canal sealers: A bacterial microleakage study

    PubMed Central

    Sobhani, Ehsan; Samadi-Kafil, Hossein; Pirzadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of MTA Fillapex, Apatite Root Canal Sealer and AH26 sealers. Material and Methods The present in vitro study was carried out on 142 extracted single-rooted human mature teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=44) and two control groups (n=5). Three root canal sealers were MTA Fillapex, Apatite Root Canal Sealer and AH26. The teeth in the control groups were either filled with no sealer or made completely impermeable. The root canals were prepared and obturated with gutta-percha and one of the sealers. The teeth were sterilized with ethylene oxide gas prior to the bacterial leakage assessment using Enterococcus faecalis. Leakage was evaluated every 24 hours for 90 days. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods and chi-squared test. If the data were significant, a proper post hoc test was used. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results The positive control specimens exhibited total bacterial penetration whilst the negative control specimens showed no evidence of bacterial penetration. At the end of the study, the analysis of microleakage with chi-squared test showed no significant differences between the experimental groups (P<0.05). The results of chi-squared test analyzing the pair-wise differences between the groups considering the numerical values for leakage day indicated the lowest leakage with AH26 and the highest with Apatite root sealer. Conclusions According to the results of the present study, sealing ability of AH26 was significantly higher than that of MTA Fillapex and Apatite Root Canal Sealer. Key words:Mineral Trioxide aggregate, root canal obturation, dental seal. PMID:27957271

  2. Retrospective Study of Root Canal Configurations of Mandibular Third Molars Using CBCT- Part-II

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Pavithra; Wadhwani, Shefali; Uthappa, Roshan; Shivagange, Vinay; Khan, Sheeba

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Abnormal root canal morphologies of third molars can be diagnostically and technically challenging during root canal treatment. Aim The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of mandibular third molars in Central India population by using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) analysis. Materials and Methods CBCT images of 171 mandibular third molars were observed and data regarding number of roots, number of canals, Vertucci’s classification in each root, prevalence of C shaped canal, gender and topographical relation of morphology in mandibular third molar was statistically evaluated. Results Majority of mandibular third molars had two roots (84.2%) and three canals (64.3%). Most mesial root had Vertucci Type II (55.6%) and Vertucci Type IV (22.2%), distal root had Type I canals (87.5%). Over all prevalence of C shaped canals in mandibular third molars was 9.4%. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of two rooted mandibular third molars with three canals. PMID:28764294

  3. Conservative Management of Unset Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Root-End Filling: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Parirokh, Masoud; Farzaneh, Sedigheh; Hallajmofrad, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    This case report presents conservative management of unset mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) after being placed as a root-end filling material following periapical surgery. Periapical surgery was indicated for a maxillary lateral incisor of a 15-year-old male due to persistent exudate and a large periapical lesion. During surgery Angelus MTA was placed as root-end filling. The next session it was noticed that MTA had failed to completely set. In an orthograde approach, calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was used to obturate the root canal space. The patient was followed up for 27 months and did not exhibit any clinical signs and symptoms. Radiographic images showed complete healing of the lesion. PMID:27471540

  4. Dissolving efficacy of eucalyptus and orange oil, xylol and chloroform solvents on different root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Martos, J; Bassotto, A P S; González-Rodríguez, M P; Ferrer-Luque, C M

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the solubility of five root canal sealers in orange oil, eucalyptol, xylol and chloroform solvents. The solubility of RoekoSeal, Sealer 26, Epiphany, Endomethasone and EZ-Fill sealers was assessed in orange oil, eucalyptol, xylol, chloroform and distilled water. Seventy-five samples of root canal sealers were prepared and then divided into five groups for immersion in solvent for 2, 5 or 10 min. The means of loss weight were determined for each material in each solvent at all immersion periods, and the values were compared by factorial analysis of variance (anova) and SNK multiple comparisons. In the orange and eucalyptus oil groups, there was no significant difference among RoekoSeal, Sealer26, Epiphany and EZ-Fill at the three immersion periods (P > 0.05). With xylol, no significant differences were found at 5 and 10 min (P > 0.05) for each root sealer. Orange and eucalyptus oil solvents were as effective as chloroform at 2 min in dissolving all the root sealers. Xylol was the most effective solvent followed by the chloroform and the essential oils (eucalyptol and orange oil). Orange oil behaved in a similar way to eucalyptus oil. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  5. [Apical thickness of root fillings in upper premolars. A comparison of orthograde-filled, apicoectomized and retrograde-filled teeth].

    PubMed

    Reister, Jan Philip; Staribratova-Reister, Kamelia; Kielbassa, Andrej M

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the apical leakage in root canal filled, apicectomised and retrogradely filled maxillary single rooted premolars with two canals of type II configuration. For this purpose the root canals of 51 maxillary type II premolars were shaped to size ISO #55, followed by a step-back preparation to size ISO #80. Subsequently, all teeth were obturated by means of lateral condensation and randomly divided into three groups, 17 teeth each. Group I was used as a control, whereas in group II and III an apicoectomy was performed. Retrograde glass ionomer restorations (Ketac Fil) were placed additionally in group III. The specimens were exposed to methylene blue for 24 hours, then cross-sectioned, and the deepness of dye penetration was measured. Data were analyzed and tested for significant differences between the various groups (Mann-Whitney test; alpha = 0.05). The teeth in group II showed the lowest mean dye penetration. The differences were statistically significant, if compared to group I (p < 0.001) and group III (p < 0.001). The dye penetration in group I was significantly lower than in group III (p = 0.024). In teeth with lateral canals, the mean dye penetration was higher (3,557 microns +/- 1,337 microns) than in teeth without lateral canals (3,096 microns +/- 1,931 microns). The teeth in group III showed a circular dye penetration in nearly all cases. For clinical purposes, the application of retrograde glass ionomer fillings must be considered very critically.

  6. Comparison of the rheological properties of four root canal sealers

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Seok Woo; Lee, Young-Kyu; Zhu, Qiang; Shon, Won Jun; Lee, Woo Cheol; Kum, Kee Yeon; Baek, Seung Ho; Lee, In Bog; Lim, Bum-Soon; Bae, Kwang Shik

    2015-01-01

    The flowability of a root canal sealer is clinically important because it improves the penetration of the sealer into the complex root canal system. The purpose of this study was to compare the flowabilities of four root canal sealers, measured using the simple press method (ISO 6876), and their viscosities, measured using a strain-controlled rheometer. A newly developed, calcium phosphate-based root canal sealer (Capseal) and three commercial root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT) were used in this study. The flowabilities of the four root canal sealers were measured using the simple press method (n=5) and their viscosities were measured using a strain-controlled rheometer (n=5). The correlation between these two values was statistically analysed using Spearman's correlation test. The flow diameters and the viscosities of the root canal sealers were strongly negatively correlated (ρ=−0.8618). The viscosity of Pulp Canal Sealer EWT was the lowest and increased in the following order: AH Plusroot canal sealers showed characteristic time- and temperature-dependent changes in their rheological properties. The viscosities measured using the strain-controlled rheometer were more precise than the flowabilities measured using the simple press method, suggesting that the rheometer can accurately measure the rheological properties of root canal sealers. PMID:25059248

  7. Long-term assessment of the seal provided by root-end filling materials in large cavities through capillary flow porometry.

    PubMed

    De Bruyne, M A A; De Bruyne, R J E; De Moor, R J G

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term sealing ability of a variety of materials when used as root-end fillings. A total of 140 standardized horizontal bovine root sections (external diameter: 7 mm, height: 3 mm; internal diameter: 2.5 mm) were divided into seven groups, filled with either gutta-percha with AH26, Ketac Fil, Fuji IX, Tooth-Colored MTA, IRM, Ketac Fil with conditioner or Fuji IX with conditioner and submitted to capillary flow porometry at 1 and 6 months to assess minimum, mean flow and maximum pore diameters. Results of the different materials and results by material were analysed statistically using non-parametric tests; the level of significance was set at 0.05. There were no significant differences between the minimum pore diameters associated with the materials at each time. At 1 month the mean flow pore diameters of Ketac Fil were significantly larger than those of gutta-percha, Ketac Fil with conditioner, Fuji IX with conditioner and IRM. There were significant differences between the maximum pore diameters at 1 month (all>IRM; Fuji IX>gutta-percha, Ketac Fil with conditioner, Fuji IX with conditioner) and 6 months (Fuji IX>gutta-percha, IRM; Ketac Fil>gutta-percha, IRM). There were significant differences in the minimum pore diameters between the different points in time for each material except IRM, in the mean flow pore diameters for each material and in the maximum pore diameters for each material except MTA. All materials were associated with capillary flow. IRM root-end fillings had through pores that were smaller than those associated with other materials. Conventionally setting glass-ionomer cements had the largest pores, although dentine conditioning improved their performance. The seal of all materials improved after 6 months.

  8. Retreatability of Root Canals Obturated Using Gutta-Percha with Bioceramic, MTA and Resin-Based Sealers

    PubMed Central

    Uzunoglu, Emel; Yilmaz, Zeliha; Sungur, Derya Deniz; Altundasar, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the retreatability of root canals obturated with gutta-percha (GP) and three different endodontic sealers [iRoot SP (bioceramic sealer), MTA Fillapex (MTA-based sealer) and AH-26 (epoxy resin-based sealer)] using the ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR) system. Methods and Materials: Forty extracted single-rooted human teeth were prepared with universal ProTaper files up to F4 (40/0.06). Specimens were randomly divided into four groups according to obturation technique/material: single-cone GP/AH-26, lateral compaction of GP/AH-26, single-cone GP/iRoot SP, and single-cone GP/MTA Fillapex. Root fillings were removed with PTR. The time taken to reach the working-length (TWL) was recorded. Roots were longitudinally sectioned and each half was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Three observers scored each third of all specimen. Obtained data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Welch and Games-Howell tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: In single-cone GP/MTA Fillapex group the TWL was significantly shorter. The remnant of filling material in the apical and middle thirds of groups was similar and higher than the coronal thirds. Conclusion: None of the tested sealers were completely removed from the root canal system. PMID:25834591

  9. Characterization of set Intermediate Restorative Material, Biodentine, Bioaggregate and a prototype calcium silicate cement for use as root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Grech, L; Mallia, B; Camilleri, J

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the composition of materials and leachate of a hydrated prototype cement composed of tricalcium silicate and radiopacifier and compare this to other tricalcium silicate-based cements (Biodentine and Bioaggregate) to assess whether the additives in the proprietary brand cements affect the hydration of the materials, using Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), a standard root-end filling material as a control. The materials investigated included a prototype-radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Biodentine, Bioaggregate and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM). The pH and calcium ion concentration of the leachate were investigated. The hydrated cements were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). All the cements tested were alkaline. The tricalcium silicate-based cements leached calcium in solution. Scanning electron microscopy of the prototype-radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Biodentine and Bioaggregate displayed hydrating cement grains, surrounded by a matrix composed of calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide. The presence of calcium hydroxide was evident from the XRD plots. FT-IR indicated the occurrence of a poorly crystalline calcium silicate hydrate. Biodentine displayed the presence of calcium carbonate. Bioaggregate incorporated a phosphate-containing phase. IRM consisted of zinc oxide interspersed in an organic matrix. The hydration of prototype-radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Biodentine and Bioaggregate resulted in the formation of calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide, which was leached in solution. The hydrated materials were composed of a cementitous phase that was rich in calcium and silicon and a radiopacifying material. Biodentine included calcium carbonate, and Bioaggregate included silica and calcium phosphate in the powders. IRM was composed of zinc oxide

  10. Cytotoxicity of Two Bioactive Root Canal Sealers

    PubMed Central

    Pezelj-Ribaric, Sonja; Roguljić, Marija; Miletic, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of two different bioactive root canal sealers: one based on mineral trioxide aggregate, MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Solucoes Odontologicas, Londrina, PR, Brazil), and the other based on bioceramics, Endosequence BC Sealer (Brasseler, Savannah, Georgia, USA), in culture of mouse L929 fibroblasts. Materials and methods Mouse fibroblasts (L929), obtained from subcutaneous connective tissue of mouse line C3Hf, were cultivated in plastic culture flasks in an incubator at 37şC, with 5% CO2 and 90% humidity. Freshly mixed Endosequence BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex (0.1 g each) were placed on sterile teflon discs, 6 mm in diameter. Teflon discs with the materials as well as empty discs serving as control were placed in wells of 12-well plate. After incubation times of 1, 6, 20 and 24 hours, the teflon discs were removed from the wells and the number of viable cells was determined using trypan blue in Neubauer chamber. Results In comparison to the control group, MTA Fillapex had significantly less viable cells for all incubation periods (p≤0.05), while Endosequence BC sealer had significantly less viable cells after 6, 20, and 24 hours of incubation (p≤0.05). MTA Fillapex comprised significantly less viable cells in comparison to Endosequence BC sealer after the first hour and after 20 hours of incubation (p≤0.05), while for the other incubation periods there were no significant differences (p≥0.05). Conclusion MTA Fillapex and Endosequence BC sealer were both cytotoxic in cultures of mouse L929 fibroblasts. PMID:27688421

  11. Dissolving efficacy of organic solvents on root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Martos, J; Gastal, M T; Sommer, L; Lund, R G; Del Pino, F A B; Osinaga, P W R

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the solubility of three types of root canal sealers in three organic solvents used in endodontics. The solubility of calcium-hydroxide-based (Sealer 26), silicon-polydimethylsiloxane-based (RoekoSeal), and zinc-oxide-eugenol based (Endofill and Intrafill) sealers was assessed in eucalyptol, xylol, orange oil, and distilled water. Eighty samples of each filling material were prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions and then divided into four groups for immersion in solvent for 2 or 10 min. The means of sealer dissolution in solvents were obtained by the difference between the original preimmersion weight and the postimmersion weight in a digital analytical scale. Data were statistically analyzed with the Student's t test, and multiple comparisons were performed with Student-Newman-Keuls. Xylol and orange oil showed similar effects, with significant solubilization (P<0.05) of the tested cements. Endofill and Sealer 26 did not show any significant difference in solubilization at the two immersion times, whereas RoekoSeal and Intrafill showed a more pronounced solubility at 10 min. The lowest levels of solubilization occurred in RoekoSeal, Sealer 26, Endofill, and Intrafill. It is concluded that xylol and orange oil presented similar solvent effects with a significant solubility of the tested cements.

  12. Detection of Procedural Errors during Root Canal Instrumentation using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; da Costa, Marcus Vinícius Corrêa; Dorilêo, Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati; de Oliveira, Helder Fernandes; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Álvaro Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated procedural errors made during root canal preparation with nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging method. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 human mandibular molars were divided into five groups (n = 20) according to the NiTi system used for root canal preparation: Group 1 - BioRaCe, Group 2 - K3, Group 3 - ProTaper, Group 4 - Mtwo and Group 5 - Hero Shaper. CBCT images were obtained to detect procedural errors made during root canal preparation. Two examiners evaluated the presence or absence of fractured instruments, perforations, and canal transportations. Chi-square test was used for statistical analyzes. The significance level was set at a=5%. Results: In a total of 300 prepared root canals, 43 (14.33%) procedural errors were detected. Perforation was the procedural errors most commonly observed (58.14%). Most of the procedural errors were observed in the mesiobuccal root canal (48.84%). In the analysis of procedural errors, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the groups of NiTi instruments. The root canals instrumented with BioRaCe had significantly less procedural errors. Conclusions: CBCT permitted the detection of procedural errors during root canal preparation. The frequency of procedural errors was low when root canals preparation was accomplished with BioRaCe system. PMID:25878475

  13. The effect of different root canal medicaments on the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dammaschke, Till; Jung, Nina; Harks, Inga; Schafer, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine gel (CHX-G) 2%, chlorhexidine powder (CHX-P) 1%, povidone-iodine (PVP-I), polyhexanide and camphorated-and-mentholated chlorophenol (ChKM) ex vivo. Materials and Methods: For every medicament group 10 root segments (15 mm long) of extracted human teeth were prepared to ISO-size 45 and sterilized (n = 50). The root segments were then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and aerobically incubated at 37°C. After 1 week, ten root canals were filled with one of the medicaments, respectively and aerobically incubated at 37°C for another week. Ten teeth served as positive controls and were filled with sterile saline solution. After 7 days, the medicaments were inactivated and all root canals were instrumented to ISO-size 50. The obtained dentin samples were dispersed in Ringer solution followed by the preparation of serial dilutions. 10 μl per sample were applied to an agar plate and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The colony forming units were counted and the reduction factors (RFs) were calculated and statistically analyzed. Results: Compared with the positive controls all medicaments exhibited an antibacterial effect against E. faecalis. The RFs for CHX-G, CHX-P and ChKM were significantly higher compared to PVP-I and polyhexanide (P < 0.05). In contrast to PVP-I and polyhexanide, CHX-G, CHX-P and ChKM were able to eliminate E. faecalis from all dentin samples. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this ex vivo investigation, 2% CHX-G and CHX-P were as effective as ChKM against E. faecalis. Thus, when choosing a root canal medicament the better biocompatibility of CHX compared with ChKM should be taken in consideration. PMID:24932119

  14. The Effect of Root Canal Irrigation with Combination of Sodium Hypo-chlorite and Chlorhexidine Gluconate on the Sealing Ability of Obturation Materials.

    PubMed

    Homayouni, Hamed; Majd, Nima Moradi; Zohrehei, Heidar; Mosavari, Behrad; Adel, Mamak; Dajmar, Reyhaneh; Homayouni, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the precipitate that was formed by combining Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) and Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHX) on the sealing ability of root canal obturation materials. The fluid filtration method was conducted on a total of 100 roots. Samples were randomly divided into two control (n=5) and three experimental groups (n=30). The samples in group 1 were irrigated with 1.5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl, and then the smear layers of the teeth were removed by 17% EDTA, while the specimens of group 2 were irrigated by 1.5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl and 1.5 mL of 2% CHX; after the smear layer removal, a final flush with 1.5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl was performed. The samples of group 3 were irrigated the same as group 1 but after the smear layer removal canals were irrigated again with 1.5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl and then a final flush with 1.5 mL of 2% CHX was performed. Teeth were obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer and after seven days, microleakage was evaluated by the fluid filtration technique. The results were analyzed by the ANOVA and Tukey's test. The samples in group 3 had significantly greater microleakage compared to teeth in group 1, 2 (p<0.05), and the specimens in group 1 showed significantly less amount of microleakage than samples in group 2, 3 (p<0.05). The presence of the precipitate that is formed due to interaction between NaOCl and CHX has negative effect on the sealing ability of gutta-percha and AH26 sealer.

  15. Root Canal Anatomy and Morphology of Mandibular First Molars in a Selected Iranian Population: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi, Nahid; Khalilak, Zohreh; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Saman; Pirmoradi, Sakineh; Fazlyab, Mahta; Safavi, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate root canal anatomy of mandibular first molars (MFM) in a selected Iranian Population using clearing technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 150 extracted MFMs were cleared. The root canal morphology (including the root numbers and root length) and the anatomy of the root canal system (including is the number and type of canals based on Vertucci’s classification, canal curvature according to Schneider's method and the presence of isthmus) was evaluated using the buccolingual and mesiodistal parallel x-rays and stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: Two and three roots were present in 96.7% and 33% of the teeth, respectively (P=0.0001). All the teeth (100%) had two canals in the mesial root, while 61.3% of the samples had one distal root canal (P=0.006). The root canal configuration in the mesial canal included type IV (55.3%) and type II (41.3%) (P=0.0001). In doubled-canalled distal roots, 68.8% and 24.3% were type II and type IV, respectively (P=0.0001). Isthmii were observed in 44.6% of mesial and 27.3% of distal roots (P=0.0001). Conclusion: The notable prevalence of type IV configuration in both roots of mandibular first molars, presence of isthmus and root curvature, necessitates the careful negotiation and cleaning of all accessible canal spaces. PMID:28179932

  16. Root canal treatment of a maxillary second premolar with two palatal roots: A case report

    PubMed Central

    George, Gingu Koshy; Varghese, Anju Mary; Devadathan, Aravindan

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical variations in root canal morphology are an enigma and it is this variability, which is often a complicating factor in a successful root canal treatment. To achieve success in endodontic therapy it is imperative that all the canals are located, cleaned and shaped and obturated three dimensionally. Maxillary first premolar having three separate roots has an incidence of 0.5-6%. Even rarer are reported clinical case reports of maxillary second premolar with three separate roots and three canals. This case report describes the endodontic management of maxillary second premolar with two palatal roots and one buccal root having three root canals PMID:24944457

  17. Cytotoxicity of Two Bioactive Root Canal Sealers.

    PubMed

    Baraba, Anja; Pezelj-Ribaric, Sonja; Roguljić, Marija; Miletic, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of two different bioactive root canal sealers: one based on mineral trioxide aggregate, MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Solucoes Odontologicas, Londrina, PR, Brazil), and the other based on bioceramics, Endosequence BC Sealer (Brasseler, Savannah, Georgia, USA), in culture of mouse L929 fibroblasts. Mouse fibroblasts (L929), obtained from subcutaneous connective tissue of mouse line C3Hf, were cultivated in plastic culture flasks in an incubator at 37şC, with 5% CO2 and 90% humidity. Freshly mixed Endosequence BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex (0.1 g each) were placed on sterile teflon discs, 6 mm in diameter. Teflon discs with the materials as well as empty discs serving as control were placed in wells of 12-well plate. After incubation times of 1, 6, 20 and 24 hours, the teflon discs were removed from the wells and the number of viable cells was determined using trypan blue in Neubauer chamber. In comparison to the control group, MTA Fillapex had significantly less viable cells for all incubation periods (p≤0.05), while Endosequence BC sealer had significantly less viable cells after 6, 20, and 24 hours of incubation (p≤0.05). MTA Fillapex comprised significantly less viable cells in comparison to Endosequence BC sealer after the first hour and after 20 hours of incubation (p≤0.05), while for the other incubation periods there were no significant differences (p≥0.05). MTA Fillapex and Endosequence BC sealer were both cytotoxic in cultures of mouse L929 fibroblasts.

  18. Influence of calcium hydroxide dressing and two irrigants on the filling of artificial lateral canals.

    PubMed

    Deonizio, Marili Doro Andrade; Teixeira, Betânia Drummond Duarte; Gabardo, Marilisa Carneiro Leão; Batista, Antonio; Kowalczuck, Alexandre; Sydney, Gilson Blitzkow

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out on the assumption that calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ] dressing and irrigants may influence the obturation of lateral canals. To evaluate the influence of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel and Ca(OH) 2 on the filling of artificial lateral canals. Ex vivo quantitative laboratory study. Forty-two human mandibular premolars were selected. After cavity access, six lateral canals were performed, two in each root section, one mesial and one on the distal root surface. After preparation, the specimens were randomly divided into four groups: Group I: Under irrigation with 2% CHX and saline solution and with intracanal dressing Ca(OH) 2 paste; Group II: The same preparation as Group I, but without Ca(OH) 2 ; Group III: Under irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl without Ca(OH) 2 ; and Group IV: The same preparation as Group III, but with Ca(OH) 2 . Two teeth without intracanal dressing were used as negative controls. Lateral condensation technique was performed. Then, digital radiographic images were obtained. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0, submitted to Kappa (reliability between examiners) and Kruskal-Wallis test. No statistical difference was registered between Groups II and III in all root sections (P > 0.05), but it was observed between Groups I and IV (P < 0.05), except on the apical section (P > 0.05). In all sections, the Group I filled more artificial lateral canals than in Group IV. The irrigants tested had no influence on the filling of artificial lateral canals. Nevertheless, intracanal dressing of Ca(OH) 2 influenced this filling.

  19. Detection of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in previously root-filled teeth in a population of Gujarat with polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Poptani, Bruhvi; Sharaff, Murali; Archana, G.; Parekh, Vaishali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Micro-organisms are the primary causative agents of endodontic infections. Phenotype based procedures for bacterial identification has certain drawbacks especially, when investigating the microbiota of root-filled teeth. Thus, more sensitive methods like Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can provide results that are more accurate and reliable for the microbial prevalence in the root filled teeth. Aim: In this study, we have investigated twenty symptomatic root-filled teeth with chronic apical periodontitis for the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in the root filled teeth associated with symptomatic cases with or without periradicular lesions. Materials and Methods: Microbiological samples were taken from the canals immediately after removal of previous gutta percha cones using aseptic techniques. After removal of root canal filling, samples were obtained with paper points placed in the canal. Paper points were transferred to a cryotube containing “Tris EDTA” buffer and immediately frozen at −20°C. Results: By PCR amplification of the samples using taxon specific primers, E. faecalis was found to be prevalent species, detected in 65% of the cases and C. albicans was detected in 35% of cases. Conclusion: The results of the study shows that geographical influence and dietary factors might have some role to play in the prevalence of the species like C. albicans and presence of E. faecalis confirming the assertion of previous culture-dependent and independent approaches for the microbiological survey of root filled teeth. PMID:23853454

  20. Sealing efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate with and without nanosilver for root end filling: An in vitro bacterial leakage study

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarinezhad, Mahsa; Sharghi, Reza; Shirazi, Sajjad; Shakouie, Sahar; Milani, Amin-Salem; Balaei, Esrafil

    2017-01-01

    Background Various materials have been added to mineral trioxide aggregate to enhance its properties. This study was aimed to compare the sealing efficacy of MTA with and without nanosilver using bacterial leakage approach. Material and Methods Seventy canine teeth were prepared and obturated. Then, after apical resection, the root-end cavities were prepared by ultrasonic retrotips. Teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups containing two experimental groups (n=30) and two negative and positive controls (n=5). In group 1 and 2, root-end cavities were respectively filled with MTA and MTA with nanosilver (by 1% weight). Leakage assessment was carried out by bacterial leakage apparatus with Enterococcus faecalis species. Leakage comparison between experimental groups was done using Mann-Whitney test by Spss 16 software at significancy level of 0.05. Results The median bacterial leakages for MTA and MTA with nanosilver were 19 and 2, respectively. The mean bacterial leakages for MTA and MTA with nanosilver were 30.06±28.67 and 9.66±14.25, respectively. Mann-Whitney test indicated that there was a significant difference in bacterial leakage day between two experimental groups (P=0.002). Conclusions Based on the findings of this in-vitro bacterial leakage study, adding nanosilver to MTA decreased its sealing ability. Key words:Root canal therapy, root canal obturation, root canal filling materials, nanosilver, MTA. PMID:28149459

  1. [Comparative study of root canal morphology of mandibular incisors by cone-beam CT and canal staining and clearing technique].

    PubMed

    Wen, Shan-hui; Lin, Zi-tong; Zhu, Min; Ge, Jiu-yu; Wang, Tie-mei

    2016-02-01

    To compare the root canal morphology of mandibular incisors by using cone-beam CT (CBCT) and canal staining and clearing technique. Sixty-one extracted mandibular incisors with complete dental root and apex which received no endodontic treatment and no post crown restoration were selected. Each tooth was radiographed with CBCT, and the root canal system was stained by canal staining and clearing technique. The consistency of the number of root canal, root canal Vertucci type of mandibular permanent incisors between the two methods were compared, and the differences of the detection rate on root canal branch structure between the two methods were analyzed. The results were statistically analyzed with SPSS 17.0 software package. The Kappa value of single and double root canal types between CBCT and canal staining and clearing technique was 0.847 (P<0.001). The Kappa value of Vertucci root canal types between CBCT and canal staining and clearing technique was 0.861 (P<0.001). The detection rates of root canal branch structure were 8.19% and 22.95%, respectively, with significant difference between the two methods (P=0.025). The canal staining and clearing technique was significantly better than CBCT in detection of root canal branch structure. CBCT can reflect the root canal types nearly perfectly, but inferior to canal staining and clearing technique in detection of root canal branch structure, CBCT is a relatively accurate clinical diagnosis tool of root canal morphology.

  2. Computed Tomography Evaluation of Canal Transportation and Volumetric Changes in Root Canal Dentin of Curved Canals Using Mtwo, ProTaper and ProTaper Next Rotary System-An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Shivashankar, Mayuri Biccodu; Jayasheel, Arun; Kenchanagoudra, Mallikarjun Goud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Complete cleaning and shaping of root canal system is of paramount importance to achieve a successful root canal treatment. There are various rotary Ni-Ti systems available in the market to achieve mechanical goal of root canal preparation. But aggressive preparation of root canal with such systems would result in canal transportation and excess root dentin removal that would be one of the major reasons to decide the prognosis of root canal treated tooth. Aim The present study was conducted to compare the root canal preparation in terms of canal transportation and volumetric changes in the root canal dentin among three Ni-Ti file systems, namely Mtwo, ProTaper (PT) and ProTaper NEXT (PTN) file system, using Computed Tomography (CT). Materials and Methods A total of 45 mesiobuccal root canals of extracted first molar teeth with completely formed root apices and angle of curvature ranging between 10°- 35° were selected. These teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups containing 15 teeth each, based on rotary system used. Group-I: Mtwo files, Group-II: PT files and Group-III: PTN files. Pre-instrumentation CT images were obtained at three cross-sectional planes – 3mm, 7mm and 11mm from apical end of the root. Similarly, post-instrumentation images were obtained. Shortest distance from the edge of the canal to the periphery of the root was analyzed by using Analysis of Variance. Results All three file systems tested in the present study presented similar behaviour with respect to the root canal transportation. Lesser canal transportation was recorded in Mtwo. But no statistically significant difference was seen in terms of canal transportation and volume of dentin removed between all three rotary systems (p>0.05). Conclusion Mtwo, PT and PTN rotary systems have similar behaviour with respect to canal transportation and volume of dentin removed. PMID:28050495

  3. Push-out strength of root fillings with or without thermomechanical compaction.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, S M B S; Sousa-Neto, M D; Rached, F A; Miranda, C E S; Silva, S R C; Silva-Sousa, Y T C

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of thermomechanical compaction (Tagger's hybrid technique - THT) on the push-out strength of several root filling materials to root dentine. Root canals of eighty roots in human canines were prepared with the ProTaper system and filled with one of the following materials, using either lateral compaction (LC) (n = 40) or THT (n = 40): AH Plus/gutta-percha (GP) (n = 10), Sealer 26/GP (n = 10), Epiphany SE/Resilon (n = 10) and Epiphany SE/GP (n = 10). Three 2-mm-thick dentine slices were obtained from each third of each root. The root filling in the first slice was subjected to a push-out test to evaluate the bond strength of the materials to intraradicular dentine. Data (in MPa) were analysed using anova and post hoc Tukey's test (P < 0.05). Failure mode was determined at × 25 magnification. The other two slices were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the surface of the filling materials. Lateral compaction (1.34 ± 1.14 MPa) was associated with a significantly higher bond strength (P < 0.05) than the THT (0.97 ± 0.88 MPa). AH Plus/GP (2.23 ± 0.83 MPa) and Sealer 26/GP (1.86 ± 0.50 MPa) had significantly higher bond strengths than the other materials and differed significantly from each other (P < 0.05). There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the coronal (1.36 ± 1.15 MPa), middle (1.14 ± 1.05 MPa) and apical thirds (0.95 ± 0.83 MPa). Considering the technique and root filling material interaction, AH Plus/GP-LC was associated with the highest mean values (2.65 ± 0.66 MPa) (P < 0.05). Sealer 26/GP-LC (2.10 ± 0.46 MPa), AH Plus/GP-THT (1.81 ± 0.78 MPa) and Sealer 26/GP-TH (1.63 ± 0.44 MPa) had intermediate values that were not significantly different from each other (P > 0.05). Epiphany SE was associated with the lowest mean values (3.70 ± 0.86 MPa) (P < 0.05), regardless of the root filling technique and type of solid material (cone). Adhesive failures predominated in the specimens filled

  4. Cytotoxicity evaluation of a copaiba oil-based root canal sealer compared to three commonly used sealers in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Angela Delfina Bittencourt; de Cara, Sueli Patricia Harumi Miyagi; Marques, Marcia Martins; Sponchiado, Emílio Carlos; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; de Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2015-01-01

    Background: The constant development of new root canal sealers has allowed the solution of a large number of clinical cases in endodontics, however, cytotoxicity of such sealers must be tested before their validation as filling materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of a new Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer (Biosealer [BS]) on osteoblast-like Osteo-1 cells. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups were formed according to the culture medium conditioned with the tested sealers, as follows: Control group (CG) (culture medium without conditioning); Sealer 26 (S26) - culture medium + S26; Endofill (EF) - culture medium + EF; AH Plus (AHP) - culture medium + AHP; and BS - culture medium + BS (Copaiba oil-based sealer). The conditioned culture medium was placed in contact with 2 × 104 cells cultivated on 60 mm diameter Petri dishes for 24 h. Then, hemocytometer count was performed to evaluate cellular viability, using Trypan Blue assay. The normal distribution of data was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the values obtained for cellular viability were statistically analyzed (1-way ANOVA, Tukey's test - P < 0.05), with a significance level of 5%. Results: S26, EF and AHP presented decreased cellular viability considerably, with statistical significance compared with CG (P < 0.05). BS maintained cellular viability similar to CG (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer presented promising results in terms of cytotoxicity which indicated its usefulness as a root canal sealer. PMID:25878676

  5. MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, A.O; Dosumu, O.O; Amedari, McKing

    2013-01-01

    The maxillary first premolar is the most commonly bi- rooted tooth with occasional presentation of three roots system; it is a transitional tooth between incisors and molars. Although it usually has two canals, it may rarely have three and this third canal can easily be missed. Thus meticulous knowledge of tooth morphology, careful interpretation of angled radiographs, proper access cavity preparation and a detailed exploration of the interior of the tooth is needed to ensure a proper endodontic treatment. This article reports a rare finding of three canals in a maxillary first premolar with non well defined root outline radiographically during an elective root canal treatment. PMID:25161429

  6. Fluoride varnish as root canal sealer: a scanning electron microscopy and bacterial penetration study.

    PubMed

    Parirokh, Masoud; Talebizad, Mohammad; Forghani, Farshid Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akabar; Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Goddousi, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the bacterial leakage of root canal fillings when cavity varnish containing 5% fluoride (Duraflur) was used as root canal sealer. Root canals of 88 straight single-rooted teeth were prepared. Eighty teeth were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n=20) and two positive and negative control groups of ten each. The roots in group I and II were obturated with gutta-percha and AH-26 sealer using lateral condensation technique. The root canal walls in group II were coated with a layer of varnish before obturation. In group III the canals were obturated with gutta-percha and fluoride varnish as the sealer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) was used to determine the bacterial leakage during 90 days. The Kaplan Meier survival analysis was used for assessing the leakage and log rank test was used for pairwise comparison. The rest of eight single rooted teeth were selected for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation with 5000× magnification. Leakage occurred between 20 to 89 days. Group III showed significantly less bacterial penetration than groups I and II (P=0.001 and P=0.011, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between group I and II (P>0.05). SEM evaluation showed that the varnish had covered all dentinal tubules. The present study showed promising results for the use of fluoride varnish as root canal sealer but further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed.

  7. Evaluation and Reduction of Artifacts Generated by 4 Different Root-end Filling Materials by Using Multiple Cone-beam Computed Tomography Imaging Settings.

    PubMed

    Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Demirturk Kocasarac, Husniye; Bechara, Boulos; Noujeim, Marcel

    2016-02-01

    After endodontic surgery, radiographic assessment is the method of choice to monitor bone defect healing. Cone-beam computed tomography scans are useful to check and identify the reasons of failure of surgical intervention or confirm healing; however, the artifact generated by some root-end filling material might compromise this task. The objective of the study was to compare the amount of artifacts generated by 4 root-end filling materials and to test multiple exposure settings used with these materials, when the effective dose generated by each protocol was taken into consideration. Twenty central incisors were endodontically treated with retrograde obturation by using amalgam, Biodentine, MTA, and Super-EBA (5 of each). They were placed in a skull with soft tissue simulation and scanned by using the Planmeca Promax Max with different kilovolt peaks (kVp): 66, 76, 84, and 96 with and without the use of metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithm and with low, normal, and high resolution and high definition. The Dose Area Product was registered, and the effective dose was calculated. Amalgam generated the highest amount of artifacts, whereas MAR and low resolution created fewer artifacts than other settings. The artifacts were also reduced with 96 kVp. The effective dose calculated with low resolution was remarkably lower than other resolutions. When used as root-end filling material, Biodentine, MTA, and Super-EBA generated fewer artifacts than amalgam. The use of 96 kVp with MAR and low resolution also reduced artifacts on the image and at the same time generated the lowest effective dose. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sealing efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate with and without nanosilver for root end filling: An in vitro bacterial leakage study.

    PubMed

    Eskandarinezhad, Mahsa; Shahveghar-Asl, Naiemeh; Sharghi, Reza; Shirazi, Sajjad; Shakouie, Sahar; Milani, Amin-Salem; Balaei, Esrafil

    2017-01-01

    Various materials have been added to mineral trioxide aggregate to enhance its properties. This study was aimed to compare the sealing efficacy of MTA with and without nanosilver using bacterial leakage approach. Seventy canine teeth were prepared and obturated. Then, after apical resection, the root-end cavities were prepared by ultrasonic retrotips. Teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups containing two experimental groups (n=30) and two negative and positive controls (n=5). In group 1 and 2, root-end cavities were respectively filled with MTA and MTA with nanosilver (by 1% weight). Leakage assessment was carried out by bacterial leakage apparatus with Enterococcus faecalis species. Leakage comparison between experimental groups was done using Mann-Whitney test by Spss 16 software at significancy level of 0.05. The median bacterial leakages for MTA and MTA with nanosilver were 19 and 2, respectively. The mean bacterial leakages for MTA and MTA with nanosilver were 30.06±28.67 and 9.66±14.25, respectively. Mann-Whitney test indicated that there was a significant difference in bacterial leakage day between two experimental groups (P=0.002). Based on the findings of this in-vitro bacterial leakage study, adding nanosilver to MTA decreased its sealing ability. Key words:Root canal therapy, root canal obturation, root canal filling materials, nanosilver, MTA.

  9. Efficacy of laser-based irrigant activation methods in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities.

    PubMed

    Deleu, Ellen; Meire, Maarten A; De Moor, Roeland J G

    2015-02-01

    In root canal therapy, irrigating solutions are essential to assist in debridement and disinfection, but their spread and action is often restricted by canal anatomy. Hence, activation of irrigants is suggested to improve their distribution in the canal system, increasing irrigation effectiveness. Activation can be done with lasers, termed laser-activated irrigation (LAI). The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of different irrigant activation methods in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities. Twenty-five straight human canine roots were embedded in resin, split, and their canals prepared to a standardized shape. A groove was cut in the wall of each canal and filled with dentin debris. Canals were filled with sodium hypochlorite and six irrigant activation procedures were tested: conventional needle irrigation (CI), manual-dynamic irrigation with a tapered gutta percha cone (manual-dynamic irrigation (MDI)), passive ultrasonic irrigation, LAI with 2,940-nm erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser with a plain fiber tip inside the canal (Er-flat), LAI with Er:YAG laser with a conical tip held at the canal entrance (Er-PIPS), and LAI with a 980-nm diode laser moving the fiber inside the canal (diode). The amount of remaining debris in the groove was scored and compared among the groups using non-parametric tests. Conventional irrigation removed significantly less debris than all other groups. The Er:YAG with plain fiber tip was more efficient than MDI, CI, diode, and Er:YAG laser with PIPS tip in removing debris from simulated root canal irregularities.

  10. Comparison of the self-adjusting file with rotary and hand instrumentation in long-oval-shaped root canals.

    PubMed

    Ruckman, Jim E; Whitten, Brian; Sedgley, Christine M; Svec, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the root canal debridement ability of the self-adjusting file (SAF) with ProFile rotary (PF) and hand filing (HF) instrumentation in long-oval-shaped canals. Extracted human teeth (n = 30) were selected on the basis of a root canal ratio of ≥2.5:1 measured 5 mm from the root apex. Each group (n = 10) was matched with regard to the average root canal ratio. Canals were filled with a radiopaque contrast medium (Vitapex) and instrumented by using SAF, PF, or HF with 20 mL of saline irrigation. Teeth receiving irrigation alone served as controls. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were taken and submitted to digital subtraction, and the percentage reduction of contrast medium was quantified at 0-5 mm and >5-10 mm from the apex. Values were compared by using 1-way analysis of variance and unpaired t tests. In the 0- to 5-mm segment, the SAF, PF, and HF removed 80.6% ± 14.1%, 84.2% ± 7.7%, and 76.5% ± 10.2% of the contrast medium, respectively (P > .05). In the >5-to 10-mm segment, the SAF, PF, and HF removed 75.5% ± 10.8%, 72.3% ± 12.0%, and 60.9% ± 11.3% of the contrast medium, respectively, with significantly more material removed by SAF compared with HF (P < .05). There was significantly more contrast medium removed by using combined instrumentation and irrigation compared with irrigation alone (P < .01). All 3 techniques removed contrast medium equally well from the 0-to 5-mm segment of long-oval-shaped canals. The SAF performed significantly better than hand filing in the >5-to 10-mm canal segment. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on smear layer removal from the root canals: A scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Khalid; Masoodi, Ajaz; Nabi, Shahnaz; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Farooq, Riyaz; Purra, Aamir Rashid; Ahangar, Fayaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canals. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 mandibular premolars were decoronated to working the length of 12 mm and prepared with protaper rotary files up to size F3. Group A canals irrigated with 1 ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group B canals irrigated with 1 ml of 17% EDTA followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group C canals lased with a diode laser. Group D canals were initially irrigated with 0.8 ml of 17% EDTA the remaining 0.2 ml was used to fill the root canals, and diode laser application was done. Group E canals were irrigated with 1 ml distilled water with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group F canals were irrigated with 1 ml EDTA with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Scanning electron microscope examination of canals was done for remaining smear layer at coronal middle and apical third levels. Results: Ultrasonics with EDTA had the least smear layer scores. Conclusion: Diode laser alone performed significantly better than ultrasonics. PMID:27656060

  12. Resistance of a 4-META-containing, methacrylate-based sealer to dislocation in root canals.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Matthew S; Loushine, Bethany; Mai, Sui; Weller, R Norman; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R; Loushine, Robert J

    2008-07-01

    The dislocation resistance of root fillings created with MetaSEAL, a self-adhesive 4-META-containing methacrylate resin-based sealer, was evaluated. Forty-six incisors were cleaned and shaped using NaOCl and EDTA as irrigants. They were filled with gutta-percha/MetaSEAL or gutta-percha/AH Plus sealer using either a single-cone technique or warm vertical compaction (n = 10). The roots were sectioned at the coronal and middle thirds to obtain thin slices, which were subjected to compressive loading to displace the set sealer/filling toward the coronal side of the slice. The remaining six teeth were filled with gutta-percha/MetaSEAL and cryofractured for scanning electron microscopic examination. The push-out strength of AH Plus was significantly higher than MetaSEAL irrespective of filling techniques (p < 0.05). A minimal hybrid layer was seen in radicular dentin, and resin tags were inconsistently identified from canal walls in the MetaSEAL-filled canals. The lower dislocation resistance in MetaSEAL-filled canals challenges the use of a self-adhesive bonding mechanism to create continuous bonds inside root canals.

  13. Comparison of laterally condensed and low-temperature thermoplasticized gutta-percha root fillings.

    PubMed

    Al-Dewani, N; Hayes, S J; Dummer, P M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the radiographic quality and sealability of root fillings in extracted human teeth using lateral condensation of gutta-percha or low-temperature thermoplasticized gutta-percha (Ultrafil). One hundred freshly extracted human, mature single-rooted teeth were divided into four identical groups of 25 teeth on the basis of root canal shape. The root canals of two groups were prepared in such a way to produce a relatively parallel shape with little or no flare toward the coronal orifice. The root canals of the other two groups were prepared in such a way as to produce a canal shape that was deliberately more flared to ensure that they were wider at the orifice than at the end point of the preparation. All root canals were flushed with 17% EDTA solution and 2.5% NaOCl to remove the dentinal smear layer. The canals of one flared group and one parallel group were obturated using cold lateral condensation, and the canals of the other two groups were obturated using low-temperature thermoplasticized gutta-percha. The sealability of each technique was assessed by a dye penetration method. The radiographic quality of obturation was determined for each canal using a 4-point scale. Canals filled with thermoplasticized gutta-percha had significantly less apical dye penetration than those obturated by lateral condensation (p < 0.001). Lateral condensation achieved significantly better scores for radiographic quality than thermoplasticized gutta-percha from both the buccolingual (p < 0.005) and mesiodistal views (p < 0.001). Low-temperature thermoplasticized gutta-percha root fillings were associated with significantly more apical extrusion of sealer (p < 0.001) and gutta-percha (p < 0.005). Under laboratory conditions the low-temperature thermoplasticized gutta-percha had better sealability but poorer radiographic quality than lateral condensation.

  14. Additional disinfection with a modified salt solution in a root canal model.

    PubMed

    van der Waal, Suzette V; Oonk, Charlotte A M; Nieman, Selma H; Wesselink, Paul R; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the disinfecting properties of a modified salt solution (MSS) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in a non-direct-contact ex-vivo model. Seventy-four single-canal roots infected with Enterococcus faecalis were treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation or with NaOCl irrigation with subsequent dressing with MSS or Ca(OH)2. After removal of the dressings, the roots were filled with bacterial growth medium and incubated for seven days to enable the surviving bacteria to repopulate the root canal lumen. Growth was determined by sampling the root canals with paper points before treatment (S1), after treatment (S2) and incubation after treatment (S3). The colony forming units were counted at S1 and S2. At S3, growth was determined as no/yes regrowth. The Kruskal-Wallis, McNemar and χ(2) test were used for statistical analyses. At S2, in the NaOCl group, growth was found in 5 of 19 root canals. After the removal of MSS or Ca(OH)2 bacteria were retrieved from one root canal in both groups. At S3, repopulation of the root canals had occurred in 14 of 19 roots after sole NaOCl irrigation, 6 of 20 roots after MSS-dressing and in 14 of 20 roots after Ca(OH)2-dressing. MSS was more effective in preventing regrowth than Ca(OH)2 (P=0.009). The modified salt solution prevented regrowth in roots which indicates that it can eliminate persistent bacteria. Dressing the root canals with Ca(OH)2 did not provide additional disinfection after NaOCl irrigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of XP-endo Finisher and XP-endo Finisher R in removing root filling remnants: a micro-CT study.

    PubMed

    Silva, E J N L; Belladonna, F G; Zuolo, A S; Rodrigues, E; Ehrhardt, I C; Souza, E M; De-Deus, G

    2017-05-03

    To evaluate the efficacy of filling material removal from oval-shaped canals after the use of supplementary files (XP-endo Finisher and XP-endo Finisher R) through microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) analysis. The root canals of twenty maxillary single-rooted teeth were prepared with Reciproc R25 files and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using the continuous wave of condensation technique. The root canals were then retreated using Reciproc R25 and R40 instruments. After this, the specimens were assigned to two groups according to the supplementary cleaning approach, using XP-endo Finisher and XP-endo Finisher R. The surface area and volume of removed filling material was assessed using micro-CT imaging before and after the use of the XP-endo instruments. Data were analysed statistically with a significance level of 5%. Removal of filling material at 66.8% and 59.4% in volume and 67.3% and 61.4% in surface area was seen for the XP-endo Finisher and the XP-endo Finisher R files, respectively. The amount of filling material removed by both supplementary files was highly significant (P = 0.000). No significant difference in the percentage of removed filling material was detected for the XP-endo instruments (P = 0.636 for volume and P = 0.667 for surface area). Both XP-endo files were equally effective in the removal of remaining filling material from straight oval-shaped canals. None of the instruments were able to remove all the residual filling material. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of the apical adaptation performance of various root canal instruments

    PubMed Central

    Ceyhanli, K. Tolga; Turkun, Murat; Erdilek, Necdet; Peskersoy, Cem; Kose, Timur

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical root canal adaptation performance of various root canal instruments. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 freshly extracted single-rooted mandibular incisors were used in this study. Coroner parts of all teeth were removed from cemento-enamel junction and root canal of each tooth was explored with a size 8 K-file until the tip of the file was just visible at the apex. Working lengths (WLs) were determined as 1 mm short of these measurements. ProTaper, K-file, profile and hedstroem files were inserted into the root canals of 10 teeth to the WL following the flaring of the coronal and middle thirds. Instruments were fixed in the root canals with acrylic resin. The apical 1 mm of each root tip was ground on wet sandpaper to expose the canal and the instrument at the WL and the apical region of each tooth was examined under stereomicroscope. The stereoscopic images of the teeth were digitized and analyzed with software in order to determine the differences between the areas of root canals and file tips. Result data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance test (P = 0.05). Results: There were no significant differences between apical file/root canal areas of the evaluated instruments (P > 0.05). Conclusions: None of the evaluated instruments performed a perfect adaptation with the apical root canal surface at the WL in mandibular incisors. Therefore, total removal of the debris from the apical canal surface may not be achieved when these filing instruments are used. PMID:24966727

  17. Influence of root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques on intra-operative pain during endodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Martín-González, Jenifer; Echevarría-Pérez, Marta; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; Tarilonte-Delgado, Maria L.; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; López-Frías, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the influence of root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques on intra-operative pain experienced by patients during endodontic therapy. Method and Materials: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Ponferrada and Sevilla, Spain, including 80 patients (46 men and 34 women), with ages ranged from 10 to 74 years, randomly recruited. Patient gender and age, affected tooth, pulpal diagnosis, periapical status, previous NSAID or antibiotic (AB) treatment, and root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques were recorded. After root canal treatment (RCT), patients completed a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) that ranked the level of pain. Results were analysed statistically using the Chi-square and ANOVA tests and logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean pain level during root canal treatment was 2.9 ± 3.0 (median = 2) in a VAS between 0 and 10. Forty percent of patients experienced no pain. Gender, age, arch, previous NSAIDs or AB treatment and anaesthetic type did not influence significantly the pain level (p > 0.05). Pain during root canal treatment was significantly greater in molar teeth (OR = 10.1; 95% C.I. = 1.6 - 63.5; p = 0.013). Root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques did not affect significantly patient’s pain during root canal treatment (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Patients feel more pain when RCT is carried out on molar teeth. The root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques do not affect significantly the patients’ pain during RCT. Key words:Anaesthesia, endodontic pain, pulpitis, root canal instrumentation, root canal obturation, rotary files. PMID:22549694

  18. Influence of 2% chlorhexidine on pH, calcium release and setting time of a resinous MTA-based root-end filling material.

    PubMed

    Jacinto, Rogério Castilho; Linhares-Farina, Giane; Sposito, Otávio da Silva; Zanchi, César Henrique; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    The addition of chlorhexidine (CHX) to a resinous experimental Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (E-MTA) based root-end filling material is an alternative to boost its antimicrobial activity. However, the influence of chlorhexidine on the properties of this material is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2% chlorhexidine on the pH, calcium ion release and setting time of a Bisphenol A Ethoxylate Dimethacrylate/Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (Bis-EMA/MTA) based dual-cure experimental root-end filling material (E-MTA), in comparison with E-MTA without the addition of CHX and with conventional white MTA (W-MTA). The materials were placed in polyethylene tubes, and immersed in deionized water to determine pH (digital pH meter) and calcium ion release (atomic absorption spectrometry technique). The setting time of each material was analyzed using Gilmore needles. The data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of 5%. E-MTA + CHX showed an alkaline pH in the 3 h period of evaluation, the alkalinity of which decreased but remained as such for 15 days. The pH of E-MTA + CHX was higher than the other two materials after 7 days, and lower after 30 days (p < 0.05). All of the materials were found to release calcium ions throughout the 30 days of the study. The addition of CHX increased the calcium ion release of E-MTA to levels statistically similar to W-MTA. E-MTA showed shorter initial and final setting time, compared with W-MTA (p < 0.05). The addition of 2% CHX to MTA prevented setting of the material. The addition of CHX to E-MTA increased its pH and calcium ion release. However, it also prevented setting of the material.

  19. Antimicrobial irrigants in endodontic therapy: 1. Root canal disinfection.

    PubMed

    Eliyas, Shiyana; Briggs, Peter F; Porter, Richard W J

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of root canal disinfection. It discusses the different endodontic irrigants available and comments on how these can be used most effectively. Eliminating bacteria from the root canal system is an essential stage in endodontic therapy. Practitioners should be adequately informed and skilled in this vital aspect of endodontics.

  20. Root and root canal morphology in maxillary second molar with fused root from a native Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiyuan; Chen, Hao; Fan, Bing; Fan, Wei; Gutmann, James L

    2014-06-01

    Root fusion is an anatomic variation in maxillary second molars (MSMs); however, the nature of this canal morphology as it relates to its root anatomy has not been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between features of fused roots and root canal anatomy in MSMs using micro-computed tomographic imaging. One hundred eighty-seven extracted MSMs were scanned with the μCT50 (Scanco Medical, Bassersdorf, Switzerland), and their root and canal morphology was classified and analyzed using the classifications proposed by Yang and Vertucci. The number and position of canals that merged were recorded and compared among different root fusion types. One hundred eight (57.75%) MSMs had 3 separate roots, and 79 (42.25%) had fused roots. Of the 79 fused roots, 22 showed partial canal merging, and 6 had complete canal merging. Canal merging was found with teeth with 3-root fusion more often than in those with 2-root fusion (P < .05). Of 28 merged canals, 16 occurred between mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals and 9 among mesiobuccal, distobuccal, and palatal canals. MSMs with fused roots may present a complicated root canal system as a result of canal merging. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Root canal morphology of South asian Indian mandibular premolar teeth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shishir; Pawar, Mansing

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the root canal morphology of South Asian Indian mandibular premolars using a tooth clearing technique. Two hundred mandibular premolar teeth were collected from different dental schools and clinics in India. After pulp tissue removal and root canal staining with Indian ink, the specimens were decalcified with 5% nitric acid, dehydrated in ethyl alcohol, and subsequently cleared in methyl salicylate. Of the 200 mandibular premolars, 100 were first premolars and 100 were second premolars. Of the first premolars, 94% had a single root, whereas 6% were 2 rooted. Seventy-six percent had a single canal, 22% had 2 canals, and 2% had 3 canals. Eighty-two percent had a single apical foramen, 16% had 2 foramens, and 2% teeth had 3 apical foramens. Eighty percent of teeth had type I, 6% had type II, 10% had type IV, 2% had type V, and 2% teeth had type IX root canal anatomy. Of the 100 second premolars, 92% had a single root, whereas 8% teeth were 2 rooted and fused. Fifty-eight percent of teeth had a single canal, and 42% had two canals. Eighty-eight percent had a single apical foramen, and 12% had 2 foramens. Sixty-six percent had type I, 30% had type II, and 4% had type V root canal anatomy. A high prevalence of 2 canals was noted in the first and second premolars. Also, 20% of first premolars and 34% of second premolars had a root canal anatomy other than type I. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial effect of camphorated chloroxylenol (ED 84) in the treatment of infected root canals.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, E; Bössmann, K

    1999-08-01

    During and after chemomechanical preparation, particularly before the definitive filling of an infected root canal, a temporary intracanal dressing with an antimicrobial activity is generally indicated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of ED 84, a liquid root canal disinfectant containing chloroxylenol (10%) and camphor (15%), against selected test organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) both in vitro and under clinical conditions, using extracted teeth. With a contact time of 180 min between undiluted ED 84 and the four bacterial suspensions in the canal, there was a 2 to 3 log reduction in the number of organisms. Under in vitro conditions, the reduction was even greater than 3 logs. When using a liquid medication as a temporary root canal dressing for a duration of approximately 2 days, ED 84 can definitely be used.

  3. Chelation in root canal therapy reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Matthias; Schmidlin, Patrick; Sener, Beatrice; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess interactions of EDTA and citric acid (CA) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), the indispensable endodontic irrigant. Other chelators were simultaneously evaluated as possible alternatives: sodium triphosphate (STP), amino tris methylenephosphonic acid (ATMA), and 1- hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP). Available chlorine was titrated in chelator-NaOCl solutions. All chelators other than HEBP and STP caused an almost complete, immediate loss of available chlorine in solution. Atomic absorbtion spectrometry and SEM evaluation of root canal walls of instrumented teeth indicated that NaOCl had no negative effect on calcium-complexing ability of chelators. STP was too weak a complexing agent to warrant further studies. Finally, CA-, EDTA-, and HEBP-NaOCl mixtures were evaluated for their antimicrobial capacity. Again, EDTA and CA negatively interfered with NaOCl, while HEBP did not.

  4. Alternative techniques in root canal debridement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luca, Ruxandra; Todea, Carmen; Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Nica, Luminita; Armani, Giacomo; Locovei, Cosmin

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that conventional chemo-mechanical preparation is limited regarding the decontamination of the endodontic space, which is why alternative techniques such as laser radiation have their importance in the modern endodontic treatment. The present study aims to assess the possibility of improving the debridement of the root canals by removing smear layer using Er: YAG laser radiation. We used 18 extracted teeth, which were subjected to the same initial protocol and then divided into 5 study groups: the control group has not been treated with laser; the other 4 groups were exposed to laser radiation using two different geometries peaks of quartz and two energy levels. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed an increased efficiency in the debridement of all interested areas when using PIPS and XPulse tips at proper energy. In the two groups treated with inferior laser energy, the debridement didn't prove to be superior to the conventional treatment.

  5. Evaluation of Root Canal Preparation Using Rotary System and Hand Instruments Assessed by Micro-Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Muhaxheri, Edmond

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete mechanical preparation of the root canal system is rarely achieved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files using micro-computed tomography. Material/Methods Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and divided into 2 groups of 30 teeth each. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-computed tomography. Thirty teeth were prepared with the ProTaper system and the other 30 with stainless steel files. After preparation, the untouched surface and root canal straightening were evaluated with micro-computed tomography. The percentage of untouched root canal surface was calculated in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. We also calculated straightening of the canal after root canal preparation. Results from the 2 groups were statistically compared using the Minitab statistical package. Results ProTaper rotary files left less untouched root canal surface compared with manual preparation in coronal, middle, and apical sector (p<0.001). Similarly, there was a statistically significant difference in root canal straightening after preparation between the techniques (p<0.001). Conclusions Neither manual nor rotary techniques completely prepared the root canal, and both techniques caused slight straightening of the root canal. PMID:26092929

  6. Patterns of microbial colonization in primary root canal infections.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N; Lopes, Hélio P

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns of microbial infection of root canals in untreated teeth associated with chronic periradicular lesions by use of scanning electron microscopy. Fifteen extracted teeth with extensive carious lesions, radiolucent lesions of varying sizes, and attached periradicular lesions after extraction were selected for study. After fixation, lesions were removed and the teeth were split into 2 halves. The teeth were then dehydrated, sputter-coated with gold, and then examined for the patterns of microbial colonization of the root canal system by using a scanning electron microscope. All examined root canals were infected, and bacterial cells were seen in practically all areas of the root canal system. The pattern of colonization was not uniform between specimens and even within the same specimen. Most of the root canal walls of all specimens were heavily colonized by a root canal microbiota consisting of cocci and/or rods, often forming mixed communities. Spirilla were occasionally observed as single cells or as small clusters between other bacterial forms. Bacteria were often observed penetrating the dentinal tubules. Although a shallow penetration was the most common finding, bacterial cells could be observed reaching approximately 300 microm in some specimens. Yeastlike cells were observed in 1 specimen together with bacteria. The root canals of teeth associated with periradicular lesions were heavily infected by bacteria and occasionally by fungi. The pattern of colonization of the root canal microbiota often showed the characteristic of a climax community, which may require special considerations regarding its elimination and prevention of clinical problems. In addition, the observed propagation of the infection to the entire root canal system in teeth associated with periradicular lesions suggests that proper therapeutic measures may be necessary to eliminate the root canal infection completely.

  7. A comparative evaluation of the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation in curved root canals by three rotary systems: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Prasanthi, Nalam NVD; Rambabu, Tanikonda; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, K Madhu; Satish, R Kalyan; Padmaja, M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation after biomechanical preparation at 1, 3, and 5 mm short of the apex with three different rotary systems in both continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary motions. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with mesial root canal curvatures between 20° and 30° were included in the study. Teeth were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 20). Biomechanical preparations were done in all the mesial canals. In Group 1, instrumentation was done with ProTaper universal rotary files, Group 2, with K3XF rotary files, and Group 3, with LSX rotary files. Each group was further subdivided into subgroups A and B (n = 10) where instrumentation was done by continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques, respectively. Increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation was measured using the preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey pairwise multiple comparison tests. Results: Increase in root canal surface area was significantly more (P < 0.05) in ProTaper and K3XF groups when compared to LSX group. Canal transportation was significantly more (P < 0.05) in ProTaper group when compared to K3XF and LSX groups. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in increase of root canal surface area and canal transportation between continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques for ProTaper Universal, K3XF and LSX groups. Conclusion: LSX rotary system showed minimal increase of root canal surface area and minimal canal transportation when compared to ProTaper and K3XF rotary systems. PMID:27656062

  8. Technical quality of root fillings performed by dental students at the dental teaching centre in Reims, France.

    PubMed

    Moussa-Badran, S; Roy, B; Bessart du Parc, A S; Bruyant, M; Lefevre, B; Maurin, J C

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the technical quality of root fillings performed by undergraduate students at a dental teaching centre in France. A random sample of 419 records of patients who received dental treatment at the dental service of the teaching Hospital, in Reims, France between 2005 and 2006 was investigated. Evaluation of root filled was based on radiographical criteria defined by the French National Health Service. The length of root fillings, the radiodensity and the presence of voids in the root filling or between root filling and root canal walls were recorded and scored. Chi-square analysis was used to determine statistically significant differences between the technical quality of root fillings and tooth type. Of the 304 teeth included in the study, 69% had an adequate length of root filling and 42.7% had a dense root filling without voids; only 30.3% of teeth fulfilled these criteria at the same time. The relationship between the technical quality of root fillings and tooth type was statistically significant (P < 0.001), the highest percentage of adequate root fillings occurred in single-rooted teeth (36.1%). The highest percentage of inadequate root fillings according to the criteria of root filling length and lateral adaptation was found in molar teeth (71.9%). Overall, the technical quality of root fillings performed by undergraduate students was poor.

  9. Evaluation of microsurgery with SuperEBA as root-end filling material for treating post-treatment endodontic disease: a 2-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Zhai, Fei; Zhang, Ru; Hou, Benxiang

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study assessed the effects of microsurgical treatment of post-treatment endodontic disease using SuperEBA (Bosworth, Skokie, IL) as the root-end filling material and evaluated the potential prognostic factors in relation to outcome. Data were collected from patients diagnosed with post-treatment endodontic disease who then underwent endodontic microsurgery between April 2007 and October 2010. The effect was evaluated 2 years after the operation. Surgical procedures were performed by a single endodontic specialist. After surgery, operation records were recorded including preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors from the clinical and radiographic measures. For statistical analysis of the predisposing factors, the dependent variable was the dichotomous outcome (ie, success vs failure). Eighty-two patients with 101 treated teeth met the inclusion criteria. The recall rate was 87.2%. Of these microsurgically treated cases, the overall healing rate was 93.1%. At the 0.05 significance level, age, sex, tooth position, size of periapical radiolucency, biopsy result of periapical lesion, and presence of a sinus tract appeared to have no significant effects on the outcome (P > .05). Microsurgical endodontic treatment using SuperEBA as the root-end filling material is a favorable option for post-treatment endodontic disease. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of preparation techniques on root canal shaping assessed by micro-computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Berisha, Merita

    2013-01-01

    Background Root canal shaping without any procedural error is of the utmost preference. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use micro-computed tomography to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files. Material/Methods Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and were divided into 2 groups of 30. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-CT. Then, 30 teeth were prepared with stainless steel files and the remaining 30 with ProTaper rotary files. Canal transportation and centering ability before and after root canal shaping were assessed using micro-CT. The amount and direction of canal transportation and the centering ratio of each instrument were determined in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. The 2 groups were statistically compared using one-way ANOVA. Results ProTaper rotary files gave less transportation (p<0.001) and better centering ability (p<0.00001) compared with stainless steel files. Conclusions The manual technique for preparation of root canals with stainless steel files produces more canal transportation, whereas rotary files remain more centered in the canal. PMID:23760162

  11. The effectiveness of syringe irrigation and ultrasonics to remove debris from simulated irregularities within prepared root canal walls.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-J; Wu, M-K; Wesselink, P R

    2004-10-01

    To compare the ability of syringe irrigation and ultrasonic irrigation to remove artificially placed dentine debris from simulated canal irregularities within prepared root canals. After canal enlargement, twelve canines were split longitudinally into two halves. On the wall of one half of each root canal a standard groove of 4 mm in length, 0.2 mm in width and 0.5 mm in depth was cut, 2-6 mm from the apex, to simulate uninstrumented canal extensions. On the wall of the other half, three standard saucer-shaped depressions of 0.3 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm in depth were cut at 2, 4 and 6 mm from the apex to simulate uninstrumented canal irregularities. Each groove and depression were filled with dentine debris mixed with 2% NaOCl to simulate a situation when dentine debris accumulates in uninstrumented canal extensions and irregularities during canal preparation. Each tooth was re-assembled by reconnecting the two halves, using wire and an impression putty material. Two per cent NaOCl was then delivered into each canal either using syringe irrigation (n = 8) or using ultrasonic irrigation (n = 8). Before and after irrigation, images of the two halves of the canal wall were taken, using a microscope and a digital camera, after which they were scanned into a PC as TIFF images. The amount of remaining dentine debris in the grooves and depressions was evaluated by using a scoring system between 0-3: the higher the score, the more the debris. The data were analysed by means of the Mann-Whitney U-test. Both forms of irrigation reduced the debris score significantly. The debris score was statistically significantly lower after ultrasonic irrigation than after syringe irrigation (P = 0.002 for grooves, P = 0.047 for depressions). Ultrasonic irrigation ex vivo is more effective than syringe irrigation in removing artificially created dentine debris placed in simulated uninstrumented extensions and irregularities in straight, wide root canals.

  12. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  13. Adapting fiber-reinforced composite root canal posts for use in noncircular-shaped canals.

    PubMed

    Grande, Nicola Maria; Butti, Andrea; Plotino, Gianluca; Somma, Francesco

    2006-10-01

    Post placement in oval-shaped root canals implies the sacrifice of sound dental tissue to adapt the canal shape to fit the post, which can result in one of several significant complications. A semidirect, single-visit, chairside procedure is proposed, which permits the use of an almost anatomically shaped post, starting from a preformed fiber-reinforced composite root canal post of the largest size commercially available. The utilization of this post capitalizes on the advantages of both the fiber post and the anatomical post in oval- and ribbon-shaped canals to provide restoration of endodontically treated teeth.

  14. Physical properties of 5 root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui-min; Shen, Ya; Zheng, Wei; Li, Li; Zheng, Yu-feng; Haapasalo, Markus

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH change, viscosity and other physical properties of 2 novel root canal sealers (MTA Fillapex and Endosequence BC) in comparison with 2 epoxy resin-based sealers (AH Plus and ThermaSeal), a silicone-based sealer (GuttaFlow), and a zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer (Pulp Canal Sealer). ISO 6876/2001 specifications were followed. The pH change of freshly mixed and set sealers was evaluated during periods of 1 day and 5 weeks, respectively. The viscosity was investigated at different injection rates (72, 10, and 5 mm/min) at room temperature by using a syringe-based system that was based on the Instron 3360 series universal testing system. The flow, dimensional change, solubility, and film thickness of all the tested sealers were in agreement with ISO 6876/2001 recommendations. The MTA Fillapex sealer exhibited a higher flow than the Endosequence BC sealer (P < .05). The MTA Fillapex and Endosequence BC sealers showed the highest film thicknesses among the tested samples. The Endosequence BC sealer exhibited the highest value of solubility, which was in accordance with 3% mass fraction recommended by the ISO 6876/2001, and showed an acceptable dimensional change. The MTA Fillapex and Endosequence BC sealers presented an alkaline pH at all times. The pH of fresh samples of the AH Plus and ThermaSeal sealers was alkaline at first but decreased significantly after 24 hours. The viscosity of the tested sealers increased with the decreased injection rates. The tested sealers were pseudoplastic according to their viscosities as determined in this study. The MTA Fillapex and Endosequence BC sealers each possessed comparable flow and dimensional stability but higher film thickness and solubility than the other sealers tested. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Single-rooted maxillary first molar with a single canal: endodontic retreatment.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Francisco; Cisneros-Cabello, Rafael; Aranguren, José Luis; Estévez, Roberto; Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio; Segura-Egea, Juan José

    2008-12-01

    This case report presents an unusual root canal system in a maxillary first molar tooth: a single canal in a single root. The endodontic access cavity displayed only 1 canal orifice. This case demonstrated that: 1) clinicians must have adequate knowledge about root canal morphology and its variations; 2) the location and morphology of root canals should be identified radiologically before the root canal treatment; and 3) careful examination of radiographs and the internal anatomy of teeth is essential.

  16. Effect of different root canal obturating materials on push-out bond strength of a fiber dowel.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Miglani, Sanjay; Kohli, Sarita

    2012-07-01

    During dowel space preparation, the instrumentation forms a thick smear layer along with sealer-occluded dentinal tubules. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different obturating materials on push-out bond strength of a fiber dowel. Fifty human uniradicular teeth were decoronated and prepared using the step-back technique. The specimens were divided into five groups on the basis of obturating materials: group I received no obturation; group II (ZOE) gutta-percha and zinc oxide eugenol sealer; group III (ZOAH) gutta-percha and AH plus sealer; group IV (GF) GuttaFlow; and group V (RE) with Resilon Epiphany system. Dowel spaces were made with manufacturer's provided drills, and a fiber dowel was luted. Horizontal slices were obtained from the middle third, and push-out bond strength (S) was evaluated. Statistical analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test. The push-out bond strength values in the control group, ZOE, ZOAH, GF, and RE were 9.303 ± 0.565 MPa, 8.859 ± 0.539 MPa, 8.356 ± 0.618 MPa, 9.635 ± 0.435 MPa, and 8.572 ± 0.256 MPa, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the S values of all the groups (p > 0.05). There was no effect of different tested obturating materials on the push-out bond strength of fiber dowels; however, further studies should be conducted. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. Root Canal Treatment of Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Separate Roots and Canals Using Spiral Computed Tomographic

    PubMed Central

    Hariharavel, V. P.; Kumar, A. Ashok; Ganesh, C.; Aravindhan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomic and internal morphology of a root canal system is more complex and differs for each individual tooth of which mandibular premolars have earned the reputation for having aberrant anatomy. The occurrence of three canals with three separate foramina in mandibular second premolars is very rare. A wider knowledge on both clinical and radiological anatomy especially spiral computed tomographic is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. These teeth may require skillful and special root canal special shaping and obturating techniques. This paper reports an unusual case of a mandibular second premolar with atypical canal pattern that was successfully treated endodontically. PMID:25101187

  18. Effect of solvents on bonding to root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ali; Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi; Belli, Sema; Pashley, David H

    2004-08-01

    The long-term success of resin cementation of post/cores is likely increased with improvement in resin-root canal dentin bonding. The adverse effect of some irrigation constituents (NaOCl, H2O2) or medications (eugenol) on the bond strengths of resins to dentin have been reported. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two gutta-percha solvents (chloroform versus halothane) on microtensile bond strength to root canal dentin. Thirty, extracted, human, single-rooted teeth were instrumented to a #70 file and randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. The root canals were treated with water, chloroform, or halothane for 60 s. All root canals were obturated using C&B Metabond. After 24 h of storage in distilled water, serial 1-mm-thick cross-sections were cut and trimmed. Microtensile bond strength to apical, middle, and coronal root canal dentin were measured using an Instron machine. Using pooled data, the results indicated that water-treated roots had significantly higher resin-dentin bond strengths compared with chloroform or halothane treatment groups (control: 23.9 MPa; chloroform: 18.3 MPa; halothane: 17 MPa; p < 0.05). Gutta-percha solvents have an adverse effect on bond strengths of adhesive cements to root canal dentin.