Lüscher, C; Streit, J; Lipp, P; Lüscher, H R
1. The reliability of the propagation of action potentials (AP) through dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells in embryonic slice cultures was investigated during repetitive stimulation at 1-20 Hz. Membrane potentials of DRG cells were recorded intracellularly while the axons were stimulated by an extracellular electrode. 2. In analogy to the double-pulse experiments reported previously, either one or two types of propagation failures were recorded during repetitive stimulation, depending on the cell morphology. In contrast to the double-pulse experiments, the failures appeared at longer interpulse intervals and usually only after several tens of stimuli with reliable propagation. 3. In the period with reliable propagation before the failures, a decrease in the conduction velocity and in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP), an increase in the total membrane conductance, and the disappearance of the action potential "shoulder" were observed. 4. The reliability of conduction during repetitive stimulation was improved by lowering the extracellular calcium concentration or by replacing the extracellular calcium by strontium. The reliability of conduction decreased by the application of cadmium, a calcium channel blocker, 4-amino pyridine, a fast potassium channel blocker, or apamin or muscarine, the blockers of calcium-dependent potassium channels. The reliability of conduction was not effected by blocking the sodium potassium pump with ouabain or by replacing extracellular sodium with lithium. 5. In the period with reliable propagation cadmium, apamin, and muscarine reduced the amplitude of the AHP. The shoulder of the action potential was more pronounced and not sensitive to repetitive stimulation when extracellular calcium was replaced by strontium. It disappeared when cadmium was applied. 6. In DRG somata changes of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration were monitored by measuring the fluorescence of the Ca2+ indicator Fluo-3 with a laser-scanning confocal
Yin, Kathleen; Baillie, Gregory J
Background Dorsal root ganglion neuron-derived immortal cell lines including ND7/23 and F-11 cells have been used extensively as in vitro model systems of native peripheral sensory neurons. However, while it is clear that some sensory neuron-specific receptors and ion channels are present in these cell lines, a systematic comparison of the molecular targets expressed by these cell lines with those expressed in intact peripheral neurons is lacking. Results In this study, we examined the expression of RNA transcripts in the human neuroblastoma-derived cell line, SH-SY5Y, and two dorsal root ganglion hybridoma cell lines, F-11 and ND7/23, using Illumina next-generation sequencing, and compared the results with native whole murine dorsal root ganglions. The gene expression profiles of these three cell lines did not resemble any specific defined dorsal root ganglion subclass. The cell lines lacked many markers for nociceptive sensory neurons, such as the Transient receptor potential V1 gene, but expressed markers for both myelinated and unmyelinated neurons. Global gene ontology analysis on whole dorsal root ganglions and cell lines showed similar enrichment of biological process terms across all samples. Conclusions This paper provides insights into the receptor repertoire expressed in common dorsal root ganglion neuron-derived cell lines compared with whole murine dorsal root ganglions, and illustrates the limits and potentials of these cell lines as tools for neuropharmacological exploration. PMID:27130590
Gill, Katherine P.; Hung, Sandy S. C.; Sharov, Alexei; Lo, Camden Y.; Needham, Karina; Lidgerwood, Grace E.; Jackson, Stacey; Crombie, Duncan E.; Nayagam, Bryony A.; Cook, Anthony L.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Pébay, Alice; Wong, Raymond C. B.
Optic neuropathies are characterised by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that lead to vision impairment. Development of cell therapy requires a better understanding of the signals that direct stem cells into RGCs. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an unlimited cellular source for generation of human RGCs in vitro. In this study, we present a 45-day protocol that utilises magnetic activated cell sorting to generate enriched population of RGCs via stepwise retinal differentiation using hESCs. We performed an extensive characterization of these stem cell-derived RGCs by examining the gene and protein expressions of a panel of neural/RGC markers. Furthermore, whole transcriptome analysis demonstrated similarity of the hESC-derived RGCs to human adult RGCs. The enriched hESC-RGCs possess long axons, functional electrophysiological profiles and axonal transport of mitochondria, suggestive of maturity. In summary, this RGC differentiation protocol can generate an enriched population of functional RGCs from hESCs, allowing future studies on disease modeling of optic neuropathies and development of cell therapies. PMID:27506453
Fan, Ni; Sikand, Parul; Donnelly, David F; Ma, Chao; Lamotte, Robert H
We investigated the effects of chronic compression (CCD) of the L3 and L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) on pain behavior in the mouse and on the electrophysiological properties of the small-diameter neuronal cell bodies in the intact ganglion. CCD is a model of human radicular pain produced by intraforaminal stenosis and other disorders affecting the DRG, spinal nerve, or root. On days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after the onset of compression, there was a significant decrease from preoperative values in the threshold mechanical force required to elicit a withdrawal of the foot ipsilateral to the CCD (tactile allodynia). Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained, in vitro, from small-sized somata and, for the first time, in the intact DRG. Under current clamp, CCD neurons exhibited a significantly lower rheobase compared with controls. A few CCD but no control neurons exhibited spontaneous action potentials. CCD neurons showed an increase in the density of TTX-resistant and TTX-sensitive Na(+) current. CCD neurons also exhibited an enhanced density of voltage-dependent K(+) current, due to an increase in delayed rectifier K(+) current, without a change in the transient or "A" current. We conclude that CCD in the mouse produces a model of radicular pain, as we have previously demonstrated in the rat. While the role of enhanced K(+) current remains to be elucidated, we speculate that it represents a compensatory neuronal response to reduce ectopic or aberrant levels of neuronal activity produced by the injury.
Grava, André Luiz de Souza; Ferrari, Luiz Fernando; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido
To evaluate the hyperalgesia and histological abnormalities induced by contact between the dorsal root ganglion and the nucleus pulposus. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats were used, divided into two experimental groups. In one of the groups, a fragment of autologous nucleus pulposus was removed from the sacrococcygeal region and deposited on the L5 dorsal root ganglia. In the other group (control), a fragment of adipose tissue was deposited on the L5 dorsal root ganglia. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was evaluated on the third day and the first, third, fifth and seventh weeks after the operation. A L5 dorsal root ganglion was removed in the first, third, fifth and seventh weeks after the operation for histological study using HE staining and histochemical study using specific labeling for iNOS. Results: Higher intensity of mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was observed in the group of animals in which the nucleus pulposus was placed in contact with the dorsal root ganglion. In this group, the histological study showed abnormalities of the dorsal root ganglion tissue, characterized by an inflammatory process and axonal degeneration. The histopathological abnormalities of the dorsal root ganglion tissue presented increasing intensity with increasing length of observation, and there was a correlation with maintenance of the hyperalgesia observed in the behavioral assessment. Immunohistochemistry using specific labeling for iNOS in the group of animals in which the nucleus pulposus was placed in contact with the dorsal root ganglion showed higher expression of this enzyme in the nuclei of the inflammatory cells (glial cells) surrounding the neurons. Conclusion: Contact between the nucleus pulposus and the dorsal root ganglion induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and caused histological abnormalities in the dorsal root ganglion components. These abnormalities were characterized by an inflammatory and degenerative process in the structures of the dorsal root
Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Murakami, Yuuki; Senzaki, Kouji; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Ozaki, Shigeru; Ito, Yoshiaki; Shiga, Takashi
Runt-related transcription factors (Runx) regulate the development of various cells. It has been reported that Runx1 and Runx3 are expressed in distinct subpopulations of primary sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and play important roles in the differentiation of nociceptive and proprioceptive neurons, respectively. In the present study, we examined the developmental changes of the expression of Runx1 and Runx3 in the mouse DRG during embryonic and postnatal stages. We found that the expression of Runx3 preceded that of Runx1, but dramatically decreased before birth, whereas the Runx1 expression was maintained during postnatal periods. These results suggest that roles of Runx1 and Runx3 may change dynamically in the differentiation and maturation of DRG neurons. In addition, several DRG neurons expressed both Runx1 and Runx3 throughout embryonic and postnatal stages and many Runx3-expressing DRG neurons coexpressed Runx1 at postnatal day 28. Double and triple labeling studies suggest that some of the Runx1/Runx3-double expressing neurons coexpressed TrkB, c-ret, and TrkC, which have been shown in the mechanoreceptive DRG neurons. These results suggest that Runx1/Runx3-double expressing neurons may represent mechanoreceptive properties in the DRG.
Valeyev, A Y; Hackman, J C; Wood, P M; Davidoff, R A
1. Whole cell voltage-clamp studies of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors were performed on large (> 80 microns) cultured human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. 2. GABA and pentobarbital sodium when applied in micromolar concentrations evoked inward Cl- currents in DRG neurons voltage clamped at negative membrane potentials. 3. Diazepam (10 microM) and pentobarbital (10 microM) upmodulated the GABA current by approximately 149 and 168%, respectively. 4. The GABA currents in human DRG cells were unaffected by the classical GABA antagonists picrotoxin and bicuclline (100 microM). In contrast, the GABA responses evoked in adult rat DRG cells cultured in an identical manner were inhibited by both antagonists. The glycine receptor antagonist strychnine (100 microM) did not alter GABA currents in human DRG cells. 5. Human DRG cells did not respond to glycine (10-100 microM) or taurine (10-100 microM). The GABAB agonist baclofen had no effect on the holding current when patch pipettes were filled with 130 mM KCl. The GABAB antagonists saclofen applied either alone or with GABA was without effect. 6. The differences between the GABA receptors described here and GABA receptors in other species may reflect the presence of receptor subunits unique to human DRG cells.
Hynds, Dianna L; Rangappa, Nagarathnamma; Ter Beest, Julia; Snow, Diane M; Rabchevsky, Alexander G
Transplantation of cellular populations to facilitate regrowth of damaged axons is a common experimental therapy for spinal cord injury. Schwann cells (SC) or microglia grafted into injury sites can promote axonal regrowth of central projections of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. We sought to determine whether the addition of microglia or microglia-derived secretory products alters DRG axon regrowth upon cultures of SC. Rat DRG explants were grown on monolayers consisting of either SC, microglia, SC exposed to microglia-conditioned medium (MCM), or co-cultures with different relative concentrations of microglia. Image analysis revealed that, compared to SC alone, the extent of neurite outgrowth was significantly greater on SC-microglia co-cultures. Immunocytochemistry for extracellular matrix molecules showed that microglial cells stained positively for growth-promoting thrombospondin, whereas laminin and the inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) were localized primarily to SC. Notably, immunoreactivity for CSPGs appeared reduced in areas associated with DRG outgrowth in co-cultures and SC exposed to MCM. These results show that microglia or their secreted products can augment SC-mediated DRG regrowth in vitro, indicating that co-grafting SC with microglia provides a novel approach to augment sensory fiber regeneration after spinal cord injury.
Liu, Song; Bréjot, Thomas; Cressant, Arnaud; Bacci, Josette; Saïd, Gérard; Tadié, Marc; Heard, Jean Michel
Loss of dorsal root ganglion neuron, or injury to dorsal roots, induces permanent somatosensory defect without therapeutic option. We explored an approach to restoring hind limb somatosensory innervation after elimination of L4, L5 and L6 dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats. Somatosensory pathways were reconstructed by connecting L4, L5 and L6 lumbar dorsal roots to T10, T11 and T12 intercostal nerves, respectively, thus allowing elongation of thoracic ganglion neuron peripheral axons into the sciatic nerve. Connection of thoracic dorsal root ganglion neurons to peripheral tissues was documented 4 and 7 months after injury. Myelinated and unmyelinated fibers regrew in the sciatic nerve. Nerve terminations expressing calcitonin-gene-related-peptide colonized the footpad skin. Retrograde tracing showed that T10, T11 and T12 dorsal root ganglion neurons expressing calcitonin-gene-related-peptide or the neurofilament RT97 projected axons to the sciatic nerve and the footpad skin. Recording of somatosensory evoked potentials in the upper spinal cord indicated connection between the sciatic nerve and the central nervous system. Hind limb retraction in response to nociceptive stimulation of the reinnervated footpads and reversion of skin lesions suggested partial recovery of sensory function. Proprioceptive defects persisted. Delayed somatosensory reinnervation of the hind limb after destruction of lumbar dorsal root neurons in rats indicates potential approaches to reduce chronic disability after severe injury to somatosensory pathways.
Ogihara, Yuuki; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Ozaki, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Shiga, Takashi
Somatosensation is divided into proprioception and cutaneous sensation. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons project their fibers toward peripheral targets including muscles and skin, and centrally to the spinal cord. Proprioceptive DRG neurons transmit information from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs to the spinal cord. We previously showed that Runt-related transcription factor 3 (Runx3) is expressed in these neurons and their projections to the ventral spinal cord and muscle spindles are lost in Runx3-deficient (Runx3(-/-) ) mouse embryos. Although Runx3 is likely to contribute to the fate decision and projection of proprioceptive DRG neurons, the precise roles for Runx3 in these phenomena are unknown. To identify genes regulated by Runx3 in embryonic DRGs, we performed microarray analyses using cDNAs isolated from wild-type and Runx3(-/-) DRGs of embryonic day (E) 12.5 and selected two transcript variants of the tyrosine kinase receptor C (TrkC) gene. These variants, Ntrk3 variant 1 (Ntrk3-v1) and variant 2 (Ntrk3-v2), encode full-length and truncated receptors of neurotrophin-3, respectively. Using double in situ hybridization, we found that most of Ntrk3-v1 mRNA expression in E14.5 DRGs depended on Runx3 but that more than half of Ntrk3-v2 mRNA one were expressed in a Runx3-independent manner. Furthermore, our data revealed that the rate of Ntrk3-v1 and Ntrk3-v2 colocalization in DRGs changed from E14.5 to E18.5. Together, our data suggest that Runx3 may play a crucial role in the development of DRGs by regulating the expression of Ntrk3 variants and that DRG neurons expressing Ntrk3-v1 but not Ntrk3-v2 may differentiate into proprioceptive ones.
... Popup Figures Figure 1 - Ganglion on the top side of the wrist Figure 2 - A ganglion cyst at the end joint of the finger, also known as a mucous cyst Figure 3 - Cross-section of wrist showing the root of a ganglion cyst PDF Ganglion Cysts Related Conditions Trigger Finger Hand Tumors ...
Han, Chongyang; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Liu, Shujun; Gerrits, Monique M; te Morsche, Rene H M; Lauria, Giuseppe; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Drenth, Joost P H; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Waxman, Stephen G
Patients with small fibre neuropathy typically manifest pain in distal extremities and severe autonomic dysfunction. However, occasionally patients present with minimal autonomic symptoms. The basis for this phenotypic difference is not understood. Sodium channel Na(v)1.7, encoded by the SCN9A gene, is preferentially expressed in the peripheral nervous system within sensory dorsal root ganglion and sympathetic ganglion neurons and their small diameter peripheral axons. We recently reported missense substitutions in SCN9A that encode functional Na(v)1.7 variants in 28% of patients with biopsy-confirmed small fibre neuropathy. Two patients with biopsy-confirmed small fibre neuropathy manifested minimal autonomic dysfunction unlike the other six patients in this series, and both of these patients carry the Na(v)1.7/R185H variant, presenting the opportunity to compare variants associated with extreme ends of a spectrum from minimal to severe autonomic dysfunction. Herein, we show by voltage-clamp that R185H variant channels enhance resurgent currents within dorsal root ganglion neurons and show by current-clamp that R185H renders dorsal root ganglion neurons hyperexcitable. We also show that in contrast, R185H variant channels do not produce detectable changes when studied by voltage-clamp within sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion, and have no effect on the excitability of these cells. As a comparator, we studied the Na(v)1.7 variant I739V, identified in three patients with small fibre neuropathy characterized by severe autonomic dysfunction as well as neuropathic pain, and show that this variant impairs channel slow inactivation within both dorsal root ganglion and superior cervical ganglion neurons, and renders dorsal root ganglion neurons hyperexcitable and superior cervical ganglion neurons hypoexcitable. Thus, we show that R185H, from patients with minimal autonomic dysfunction, does not produce detectable changes in the properties of
Sharp, A A; Fedorovich, Y
Our understanding of the role of somatosensory feedback in regulating motility during chicken embryogenesis and fetal development in general has been hampered by the lack of an approach to selectively alter specific sensory modalities. In adult mammals, pyridoxine overdose has been shown to cause a peripheral sensory neuropathy characterized by a loss of both muscle and cutaneous afferents, but predominated by a loss of proprioception. We have begun to explore the sensitivity of the nervous system in chicken embryos to the application of pyridoxine on embryonic days 7 and 8, after sensory neurons in the lumbosacral region become post-mitotic. Upon examination of the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion and peripheral nerves, we find that pyridoxine causes a loss of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 3-positive neurons, a decrease in the diameter of the muscle innervating nerve tibialis, and a reduction in the number of large diameter axons in this nerve. However, we found no change in the number of Substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive neurons, the number of motor neurons or the diameter or axonal composition of the femoral cutaneous nerve. Therefore, pyridoxine causes a peripheral sensory neuropathy in embryonic chickens largely consistent with its effects in adult mammals. However, the lesion may be more restricted to proprioception in the chicken embryo. Therefore, pyridoxine lesion induced during embryogenesis in the chicken embryo can be used to assess how the loss of sensation, largely proprioception, alters spontaneous embryonic motility and subsequent motor development.
Hervey-Jumper, Shawn L; McKeever, Paul E; Gebarski, Stephen S; Muraszko, Karin M; Maher, Cormac O
Infantile hemangiomas are tumors commonly seen in children. Few authors have reported infantile hemangiomas affecting the CNS, and there are no prior reports detailing spontaneous resolution of a histologically proven juvenile hemangioma within a dorsal root ganglion. The authors report the case of a newborn boy with a large cutaneous hemangioma in the midline of his back. Spinal MR images were obtained to rule out associated spinal cord tethering, and an intradural spinal lesion was unexpectedly discovered. Biopsy revealed an intradural infantile hemangioma within the dorsal root ganglion, and, based on this diagnosis, no resection was performed. Sixteen months following the biopsy, the cutaneous hemangioma had become involuted and the intradural hemangioma had completely resolved. The behavior of the intradural component in this case follows the natural history of many cutaneous infantile hemangiomas.
Yu, Hongwei; Fischer, Gregory; Hogan, Quinn H
Transferring genetic molecules into the peripheral sensory nervous system to manipulate nociceptive pathophysiology is a powerful approach for experimental modulation of sensory signaling and potentially for translation into therapy for chronic pain. This can be efficiently achieved by the use of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) in conjunction with nociceptor-specific regulatory transgene cassettes. Among different routes of delivery, direct injection into the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) offers the most efficient AAV-mediated gene transfer selectively into the peripheral sensory nervous system. Here, we briefly discuss the advantages and applications of intraganglionic microinjection, and then provide a detailed approach for DRG injection, including a list of the necessary materials and description of a method for performing DRG microinjection experiments. We also discuss our experience with several adeno-associated virus (AAV) options for in vivo transgene expression in DRG neurons.
Fadda, A.; Bärtschi, M.; Hemphill, A.; Widmer, H. R.; Zurbriggen, A.; Perona, P.; Vidondo, B.; Oevermann, A.
Neurological disorders in ruminants have an important impact on veterinary health, but very few host-specific in vitro models have been established to study diseases affecting the nervous system. Here we describe a primary neuronal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) culture derived from calves after being conventionally slaughtered for food consumption. The study focuses on the in vitro characterization of bovine DRG cell populations by immunofluorescence analysis. The effects of various growth factors on neuron viability, neurite outgrowth and arborisation were evaluated by morphological analysis. Bovine DRG neurons are able to survive for more than 4 weeks in culture. GF supplementation is not required for neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth. However, exogenously added growth factors promote neurite outgrowth. DRG cultures from regularly slaughtered calves represent a promising and sustainable host specific model for the investigation of pain and neurological diseases in bovines. PMID:27936156
Kolesár, Dalibor; Kolesárová, Mária; Kyselovič, Ján
The main aim of the present review is to provide at first a short survey of the basic anatomical description of sensory ganglion neurons in relation to cell size, conduction velocity, thickness of myelin sheath, and functional classification of their processes. In addition, we have focused on discussing current knowledge about the distribution pattern of neuronal nitric oxide synthase containing sensory neurons especially in the dorsal root ganglia in different animal species; hence, there is a large controversy in relation to interpretation of the results dealing with this interesting field of research.
Isstas, Marcel; Teichert, Manuel; Bolz, Jürgen; Lehmann, Konrad
The maturation of cortical inhibition provided by parvalbumin-containing basket cells derived from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) is a key event in starting the enhanced visual cortical plasticity during the critical period. Although it is generally assumed that a further increase in inhibition closes the critical period again, it was recently shown that embryonic interneurons derived from the MGE can induce an additional, artificial critical period when injected into the visual cortex of young mice. It has, however, remained open whether this effect was indeed specific for MGE-derived cells, and whether critical period-like plasticity could also be induced in fully adult animals. To clarify these issues, we injected explants from either the MGE or the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) into the visual cortices of fully adult mice, and performed monocular deprivation 33 days later for 4 days. Animals implanted with MGE cells, but not with CGE cells, showed marked ocular dominance plasticity. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that the injected cells from both sources migrated far in the host cortex, that most developed into neurons producing GABA, and that only cells from the MGE expressed parvalbumin. Thus, our results confirm that the plasticity-inducing effect of embryonic interneurons is specific for cells from the MGE, and is independent of the host animal's age.
Dolphin, A. C.; Scott, R. H.
Voltage-dependent inward calcium currents (ICa) activated in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurones were reversibly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by (-)-baclofen (10 microM to 100 microM). Baclofen (100 microM) reduced the calcium-dependent slow outward potassium current (IK(Ca)). This current was abolished in calcium-free medium and by 300 microM cadmium chloride. The action of baclofen on IK(Ca) was reduced when the calcium concentration in the medium was increased from 5 mM to 30 mM. The calcium independent fast transient voltage-dependent outward current (IK(Vt] was also reduced by baclofen; this effect remained present when Ca2+-free medium was used to prevent contamination by IK(Ca). 4-Aminopyridine (500 microM) reduced IK(Vt) and induced a small increase in ICa. The action of baclofen on ICa was partially antagonized by 4-aminopyridine. GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition of ICa in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurones involves a direct mechanism rather than resulting indirectly from an increase in the residual outward potassium currents activated by depolarization. The reduction in ICa by baclofen was variable and dependent on the amplitude of control ICa, larger currents being more resistant to the baclofen-induced inhibition. PMID:2423173
Ingole, I V; Ghosh, S K
With an ever increasing number of cell phone users since late twentieth [corrected] century, magnitude of the problem of exposure to radiation emitted by cell phone is self evident. Extensive research had been devoted to incriminate or absolve it as a health hazard. Radiofrequency radiation emitted by cell phone had been stated to be a potent carcinogen, cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and neurobehavioral teratogen. Its effect on the brain had been a subject of extensive research evidently due to its proximity to the user's brain. While considering the biological effects of radiofrequency radiation, its intensity, frequency and the duration of exposure are important determinants. Nevertheless the results of these different studies have not been unequivocal. Considering the contradictory reports, the present work was undertaken to study the effect of such an exposure on the developing neural tissue of chick embryo. The processes of cell division and differentiation are fundamental to the development of any living being and are a sensitive index of any insult sustained at this stage. Neurons of dorsal root ganglion were selected for the present study as these ganglia were fully differentiated as early as fourth day of embryonic life. By varying duration of exposure, the embryos were exposed to different doses of radiation, sacrificed at different periods of incubation and subjected to histological processing. On light microscopic study it was observed that developing neurons of dorsal root ganglion suffered a damage which was dose dependent and persisted in spite of giving the exposure-free period between two exposures.
Milikan, J M; Bolsover, S R
We have used fluorescently labelled calmodulins to probe the activity of calmodulin in living dorsal root ganglion cells. Calmodulin labelled with the fluorophore 5-([4,6 dichlorotriazin-2yl]amino)-fluorescein (FL-CaM) does not change its fluorescence when it binds calcium, while calmodulin labelled at lysine 75 with 2-chloro-(6-(4-N,N-diethylamino-phenyl)-1,4,5-triazin-4-yl (TA-CaM), an environment-sensitive probe, increases its fluorescence when it binds calcium. We micro-injected FL-CaM or TA-CaM into rat dorsal root ganglion cells and found that both probes localise to the cell nucleus. In contrast, endogenous cellular calmodulin, in dorsal root ganglion cells as in hippocampal neurones, is predominantly cytosolic unless the neurones are depolarised, then it moves to the nucleus. FL-CaM and TA-CaM, introduced into dorsal root ganglion cells via a patch pipette, also immediately move to the nucleus, indicating that the nuclear localisation is a property of the labelled calmodulins. Although the subcellular distribution of FL-CaM and TA-CaM does not necessarily match that of endogenous calmodulin, we show that FL-CaM can be used as a control for TA-CaM when studying calmodulin activation in different cellular compartments.
Bernd, P.; Represa, J. )
We have investigated the possibility that nerve growth factor (NGF) may play a role in the development of the inner ear. Primordia of the inner ear, the otic vesicle (OV) and cochleovestibular ganglion (CVG), were isolated from 72-hr (stage 19-20) quail embryos and examined for the presence of NGF receptors. Quantitative binding studies revealed that both OV and CVG exhibited specific 125I-NGF binding; levels of nonspecific binding were 6 to 26% of total binding. Scatchard analysis yielded a linear plot, indicating the presence of a single class of NGF receptor. The average binding constant (Kd) was 8.0 nM for OV and 8.6 nM for CVG, corresponding to the low affinity (site II) NGF receptor. Examination of light microscopic radioautographs indicated that most of the specific 125I-NGF binding was located in the ventromedial wall of the OV, with little or no binding in the lateral wall and endolymphatic primordia. These studies were corroborated by microdissection of OV, in which 70% of the radioactivity was found to be localized in the medial half of the OV. In CVG, specific 125I-NGF binding was more concentrated in the cochlear portion of the ganglion, with silver grains primarily over areas containing support cells and immature neurons. Quantitative binding studies with isolated cochlear and vestibular ganglia obtained from 144-hr (stage 29-30) quail embryos revealed that the cochlear ganglion exhibited three times more specific 125I-NGF binding than the vestibular ganglion. The presence of NGF receptors on OV and CVG suggests that these structures are responsive to and/or dependent upon NGF. The following paper examines the question of whether NGF serves either as a mitogen, a survival factor, or a differentiation factor in this system.
Redox modulation of fast inactivation has been described in certain cloned A-type voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels in expressing systems, but the effects remain to be demonstrated in native neurons. In this study, we examined the effects of cysteine-specific redox agents on the A-type K(+) currents in acutely dissociated small diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from rats. The fast inactivation of most A-type currents was markedly removed or slowed by the oxidizing agents 2,2'-dithio-bis(5-nitropyridine) (DTBNP) and chloramine-T. Dithiothreitol, a reducing agent for the disulfide bond, restored the inactivation. These results demonstrated that native A-type K(+) channels, probably Kv1.4, could switch the roles between inactivating and non-inactivating K(+) channels via redox regulation in pain-sensing DRG neurons. The A-type channels may play a role in adjusting pain sensitivity in response to peripheral redox conditions.
Liem, Liong; van Dongen, Eric; Huygen, Frank J; Staats, Peter; Kramer, Jeff
Chronic neuropathic pain is a widespread problem with negative personal and societal consequences. Despite considerable clinical neuroscience research, the goal of developing effective, reliable, and durable treatments has remained elusive. The critical role played by the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain has been largely overlooked in these efforts, however. It may be that, by targeting this site, robust new options for pain management will be revealed. This review summarizes recent advances in the knowledge base for DRG-targeted treatments for neuropathic pain:• Pharmacological options including the chemical targeting of voltage-dependent calcium channels, transient receptor potential channels, neurotrophin production, potentiation of opioid transduction pathways, and excitatory glutamate receptors.• Ablation or modulation of the DRG via continuous thermal radiofrequency and pulsed radiofrequency treatments.• Implanted electrical neurostimulator technologies.• Interventions involving the modification of DRG cellular function at the genetic level by using viral vectors and gene silencing methods.
Du, Zhengqing; Meng, Ziqiang
This study addressed the effect of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) derivatives on high-voltage-activated calcium currents (HVA-I(Ca)) in somatic membrane of freshly isolated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by using the whole-cell configuration of patch-clamp technique. High-threshold Ca(2+) channels are highly expressed in small dorsal root ganglion neurons. SO(2) derivatives increased the amplitudes of calcium currents in a concentration-dependent and voltage-dependent manner. The 50% enhancement concentrations (EC(50)) of SO(2) derivatives on HVA-I(Ca) was about 0.4 microM. In addition, SO(2) derivatives significantly shifted the activation and inactivation curve in the depolarizing direction. Parameters for the fit of a Boltzmann equation to mean values for the activation were V(1/2)=-17.9+/-1.3 mV before and -12.5+/-1.1 mV after application 0.5 microM SO(2) derivatives 2 min (P<0.05). The half inactivation of HVA-I(Ca) was shifted 9.7 mV to positive direction (P<0.05). Furthermore, SO(2) derivatives significantly prolonged the slow constant of inactivation, slowed the fast recovery but markedly accelerated the slow recovery of HVA-I(Ca) from inactivation. From HP of -60 mV 0.5 microM SO(2) derivatives increased the amplitude of HVA-I(Ca) with a depolarizing voltage step to -10 mV about 54.0% in small DRG neurons but 33.3% in large DRG neurons. These results indicated a possible correlation between the change of calcium channels and SO(2) inhalation toxicity, which might cause periphery neurons abnormal regulation of nociceptive transmission via calcium channels.
Hayakawa, Tetsu; Kuwahara, Sachi; Maeda, Seishi; Tanaka, Koichi; Seki, Makoto
We have examined whether calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive (CGRP-ir) neurons in the glossopharyngeal ganglia innervate the soft palate, the root of tongue, and the pharynx of the rat. Immunohistochemical observations revealed that numerous CGRP-ir neurons are located in the superior glossopharyngeal ganglion located ventrolateral to the medulla oblongata in the cranial cavity, and that CGRP-ir neurons are also located in the inferior glossopharyngeal ganglion at the jugular foramen. When Fluorogold was injected into the soft palate, the root of tongue, or the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, many retrogradely Fluorogold-labeled neurons were found in the superior glossopharyngeal ganglion and the nodose ganglion, and several Fluorogold-labeled neurons were found in the inferior glossopharyngeal ganglion. Double labeling with immunohistochemistry for CGRP and Fluorogold showed that in every case of injections of Fluorogold into the soft palate, the root of tongue, or the pharynx, about 30% of the Fluorogold-labeled neurons in the superior glossopharyngeal ganglion expressed CGRP-like immunoreactivity, while no double-labeled neurons were found in the inferior glossopharyngeal ganglion or the nodose ganglion. These results indicate that nociceptive sensory information from the soft palate, the root of tongue, and the pharynx might be conveyed by the neurons in the superior glossopharyngeal ganglion to the nucleus tractus solitarii.
Zhang, Weiwei; Li, Zhenzhong
Targets of neuronal innervations play a vital role in regulating the survival and differentiation of innervating neurotrophin-responsive neurons. During development, neurons extend axons to their targets, and then their survival become dependent on the trophic substances secreted by their target cells. Sensory endings were present on myoblasts, myotubes, and myofibers in all intrafusal bundles regardless of age. The interdependence of sensory neurons and skeletal muscle (SKM) cells during both embryonic development and the maintenance of the mature functional state has not been fully understood. In the present study, neuromuscular cocultures of organotypic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants and dissociate SKM cells were established. Using this culture system, the morphological relationship between DRG neurons and SKM cells, neurites growth and neuronal migration were investigated. The migrating neurons were determined by fluorescent labeling of microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) and neurofilament 200 (NF-200) or growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43). The expression of NF-200 and GAP-43 and their mRNAs was evaluated by Western blot assay and real time-PCR analysis. The results reveal that DRG explants showed more dense neurites outgrowth in neuromuscular cocultures as compared with that in the culture of DRG explants alone. The number of total migrating neurons (the MAP-2-expressing neurons) and the percentage NF-200-immunoreactive (IR) and GAP-43-IR neurons increased significantly in the presence of SKM cells. The levels of NF-200 and GAP-43 and their mRNAs increased significantly in neuromuscular cocultures as compared with that in the culture of DRG explants alone. These results suggested that target SKM cells play an important role in regulating neuronal protein synthesis, promoting neuritis outgrowth and neuronal migration of DRG explants in vitro. These results not only provide new clues for a better understanding of the association of SKM cells with
Palmgren, Björn; Jin, Zhe; Jiao, Yu; Kostyszyn, Beata; Olivius, Petri
At present severe damage to hair cells and sensory neurons in the inner ear results in non-treatable auditory disorders. Cell implantation is a potential treatment for various neurological disorders and has already been used in clinical practice. In the inner ear, delivery of therapeutic substances including neurotrophic factors and stem cells provide strategies that in the future may ameliorate or restore hearing impairment. In order to describe a surgical auditory nerve trunk approach, in the present paper we injected the neuronal tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the central part of the nerve by an intra cranial approach. We further evaluated the applicability of the present approach by implanting statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) cells into the same location of the auditory nerve in normal hearing rats or animals deafened by application of β-bungarotoxin to the round window niche. The HRP results illustrate labeling in the cochlear nucleus in the brain stem as well as peripherally in the spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea. The transplanted SAGs were observed within the auditory nerve trunk but no more peripheral than the CNS-PNS transitional zone. Interestingly, the auditory nerve injection did not impair auditory function, as evidenced by the auditory brainstem response. The present findings illustrate that an auditory nerve trunk approach may well access the entire auditory nerve and does not compromise auditory function. We suggest that such an approach might compose a suitable route for cell transplantation into this sensory cranial nerve.
Ayar, Ahmet; Kalkan, Omer-Faruk; Canpolat, Sinan; Tasdemir, Tamer; Ozan, Ulku
Background The aim of this study was to investigate the possible neurotoxic effects of 3 root canal sealers (RCSs) (AH Plus, GuttaFlow, iRoot SP) on cultured rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Material and Methods Primary cultures of TG neurons were obtained from 1 to 2-day old rats. Freshly mixed RCSs were incubated in sterile phosphate buffered saline and cells were incubated with supernatants of the RCSs for different time intervals (1-, 3-, 6- and 24-h; 1 or 1/10 diluted) and viability/cytotoxicity was tested by counting the number of live cells. Pair of dishes with cells from the same culture incubated with only culture medium was considered as negative controls. Cell images were captured and acquired at x200 magnification using a microscope equipped with a camera using special image program. The viable cells were manually counted assigned from the images for each dose and incubation duration. Data was analysed by using 1-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc tests. Results There was no significant change in cell viability after short duration of incubation (1- and 3-h) with the supernatant of any of RCSs, except for undiluted-AH Plus at 3-h. When AH Plus was compared with other RCSs, for diluted supernatants, there was only significant difference between iRoot SP and AH Plus at 24-h (P<0.05). Whereas undiluted-AH Plus was significantly more cytotoxic for 3-, 6- and 24-h periods as compared to respective incubation periods of undiluted other groups (P<0.05). GuttaFlow groups had similar neurotoxic effect on cells for all test periods. Conclusions All tested RCSs exhibited a variable degree of neurotoxicity on these primary sensory neurons of orofacial tissues, depending on their chemical compositions. GuttaFlow and iRoot SP evoked a less toxic response to TG cells than AH Plus. Key words:Neurotoxicity, trigeminal ganglia, cell culture, root canal sealer, AH Plus, GuttaFlow, iRoot SP. PMID:28149460
Yuan, Huijun; Lin, Jiarui; Lan, Tonghan
Nano red elemental selenium (Nano-Se), was demonstrated to be useful in medical and scientific researches. Here, we investigated the effects of Nano-Se on sodium currents on rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG), using the whole-cell patch clamp method. Nano-Se reversibly decrease the I(Na)(TTX-S) in a concentration-dependent, time-dependent and open-channel block manners without affecting I(Na)(TTX-R). It shifted the steady-state activation and inactivation curves for I(Na) to more negative potentials. In the research of recovery from inactivation, the recovery time constant is longer in the present of Nano-Se. Nano-Se had a weaker inhibitory effect on I(Na), compared with marked decrease caused by selenite which indicated that Nano-Se is less neurotoxic than selenite in short-term/large dose treatments and had similar bio availability to sodium selenite. The results of interaction between the effects of Nano-Se and selenite on sodium currents indicated a negative allosteric interaction between the selenite binding site and the Nano-Se binding site or that they have the same competitive binding site.
Robas, Nicola; Mead, Emma; Fidock, Mark
MrgX2 is a recently identified orphan G-protein-coupled receptor whose ligand and physiological function were unknown. Here we describe cortistatin, a neuropeptide for which no specific receptor has been identified previously, as a high potency ligand at MrgX2. Cortistatin has several biological functions including roles in sleep regulation, locomotor activity, and cortical function. Using a "reverse pharmacology" approach, we have identified a number of additional cyclic peptide agonists for MrgX2, determined their rank order of potency, and demonstrated that this receptor has a pharmacological profile distinct from the other characterized members of the Mrg (Mas-related genes) family. In MrgX2-expressing cells, cortistatin-stimulated increases in intracellular Ca2+ but had no effect on basal or forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels, suggesting that this receptor is Gq-coupled. Immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR studies show MrgX2 to have a limited expression profile, both peripheral and within the central nervous system, with highest levels in dorsal root ganglion.
Tata, Ada Maria; De Stefano, M Egle; Tomassy, Giulio Srubek; Vilaró, M Teresa; Levey, Allan I; Biagioni, Stefano
The vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) is a transmembrane protein required, in cholinergic neurons, for selective storage of acetylcholine into synaptic vesicles. Although dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons utilize neuropeptides and amino acids for neurotransmission, we have previously demonstrated the presence of a cholinergic system. To investigate whether, in sensory neurons, the vesicular accumulation of acetylcholine relies on the same mechanisms active in classical cholinergic neurons, we investigated VAChT presence, subcellular distribution, and activity. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of VAChT mRNA and protein product in DRG neurons and in the striatum and cortex, used as positive controls. Moreover, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry showed VAChT staining located mainly in the medium/large-sized subpopulation of the sensory neurons. A few small neurons were also faintly labeled by immunocytochemistry. In the electron microscope, immunolabeling was associated with vesicle-like elements distributed in the neuronal cytoplasm and in both myelinated and unmyelinated intraganglionic nerve fibers. Finally, [(3)H]acetylcholine active transport, evaluated either in the presence or in the absence of ATP, also demonstrated that, as previously reported, the uptake of acetylcholine by VAChT is ATP dependent. This study suggests that DRG neurons not only are able to synthesize and degrade ACh and to convey cholinergic stimuli but also are capable of accumulating and, possibly, releasing acetylcholine by the same mechanism used by the better known cholinergic neurons.
Yu, Shan-Shan; Yu, Kuai; Gu, Yan; Ruan, Di-Yun
The physiological role of taurine, an abundant free amino acid in the neural system, is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate its effect on TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) and TTX-resistant (TTX-R) Na+ currents in enzymatically dissociated neurons from rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) with conventional whole-cell recording manner under voltage-clamp conditions. A TTX-S Na+ current was recorded preferentially from large DRG neurons and a TTX-R Na+ current preferentially from small ones. For TTX-S Na+ channel, taurine of the concentration > or = 10 mM shifted the activation curve in the depolarizing direction and the inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. There was no change in the activation curve for TTX-R Na+ channel and the inactivation curve was shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction slightly in the presence of taurine > or = 20 mM. When the recovery kinetics was examined, the presence of taurine resulted in a slower recovery from inactivation of TTX-S currents and no change of TTX-R ones. All the effects of taurine were weakly concentration-dependent and partly recovered quite slowly after washout. Our data indicate that taurine alters the properties of Na+ currents in intact DRG neurons. These may contribute to the understanding of taurine as a natural neuroprotectant and the potential of taurine as a useful medicine for the treatment of sensory neuropathies.
I propose a model that replicates the kinetics of a rapidly-adapting mechanosensitive current generated by a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron. When the DRG neuron is mechanically stimulated, an ionic current called a mechanosensitive current flows across its membrane. The kinetics of mechanosensitive currents are broadly classified into three types; rapidly adapting (RA), intermediately adapting, and slowly adapting. The kinetics of RA mechanosensitive currents are particularly intriguing. An RA mechanosensitive current is initially evoked by and rapidly adapts to a mechanical stimulus, but can also respond to an additional stimulus. Furthermore, an antecedent stimulus immediately followed by an additional stimulus suppresses reactivation of the current. The features of the kinetics depend on the characteristics of the mechanotransducer channels. Physiologists have proposed three factors associated with mechanotransducer channels, invoking activation, adaptation, and inactivation. In the present study, these factors are incorporated into an RA mechanosensitive current model. Computer simulations verified that the proposed model replicates the kinetics of real RA DRG mechanosensitive currents. The mechanosensitive current elicited by successive pulse-form stimuli was predominantly desensitized by the inactivating factor. Both the inactivating and adapting factors were involved in desensitization of a double-decker stimulus. The reduction of the sensitivity with decreasing velocity of the stimulus was mainly controlled by the adapting factor.
Repić, Tihana; Madirazza, Katarina; Bektur, Ezgi; Sapunar, Damir
Our study focuses on characterization of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons cultured on silicon micro-pillar substrates (MPS) with the ultimate goal of designing micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) for successful electrophysiological recordings of DRG neurons. Adult and neonatal DRG neurons were cultured on MPS and glass coverslips for 7 days in vitro. DRG neuronal distribution and morphometric analysis, including neurite alignment and length, was performed on MPS areas with different pillar width and spacing. We showed that MPS provide an environment for growth of adult and neonatal DRG neurons as permissive as control glass surfaces. Neonatal DRG neurons were present on MPS areas with narrow pillar spacing, while adult neurons preferred wider pillar spacing. Compared to the control glass surfaces the neonatal and adult DRG neurons in regions with narrow pillar spacing range developed a smaller number of longer neurites. In the same area, neurites were preferentially oriented along three directional axes at 30°, 90° and 150°. MPS architecture influenced growth directionality of all main DRG neuronal subtypes. We can conclude that specific micro-pillar substrate topography affects the morphology of DRG neurons. This knowledge can enable development of MEAs with precisely defined physical features for various neuroscience applications. PMID:28008963
Hernández, M A; Avila, J; Moya, F; Alberto, C
In primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion cells from rat embryos, neurons undergo a morphological transformation from a bipolar to a differentiated pseudo-unipolar shape, resembling their developmental stages in vivo. Cells present in these cultures are characterized here by immunological criteria using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against microtubule associated proteins MAP1 and MAP2 and against tubulin. After development for seven days in culture, antibodies against microtubule associated proteins MAP1 brightly labeled cells with neuronal morphology and lightly stained cells with the shape of Schwann cells. In addition, an extended network of neuronal processes was labeled with this antibody. Anti-microtubule associated protein MAP2 stained only neurons and a more restricted network of neuronal processes. The compartmentalization of microtubule associated protein MAP2 during the maturation process was followed by double-labeling with antibodies to microtubule associated proteins MAP1 and MAP2. Initially, microtubule associated protein MAP2 was present in the cell body and the two processes of bipolar neurons. Subsequently, the labeling of both processes changed, depending on neuronal morphology. In neurons in which both processes were approaching one another, one of these neurites was stained predominantly with anti-microtubule associated protein MAP2. Finally, in pseudo, unipolar neurons, anti-microtubule associated protein MAP2 labeling was found in the cell body and excluded from the more distal processes.
Hoffman, E. Matthew; Zhang, Zijia; Schechter, Ruben; Miller, Kenneth E.
Glutamate is a neurotransmitter used at both the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, yet little is known concerning regulation of glutamate metabolism during peripheral inflammation. Glutaminase (GLS) is an enzyme of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that converts glutamine into glutamate for neurotransmission and is implicated in producing elevated levels of glutamate in central and peripheral terminals. A potential mechanism for increased levels of glutamate is an elevation in GLS expression. We assessed GLS expression after unilateral hind paw inflammation by measuring GLS immunoreactivity (ir) with quantitative image analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after one, two, four, and eight days of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) compared to saline injected controls. No significant elevation in GLS-ir occurred in the DRG ipsilateral to the inflamed hind paw after one or two days of AIA. After four days AIA, GLS-ir was elevated significantly in all sizes of DRG neurons. After eight days AIA, GLS-ir remained elevated in small (<400 µm2), presumably nociceptive neurons. Western blot analysis of the L4 DRG at day four AIA confirmed the elevated GLS-ir. The present study indicates that GLS expression is increased in the chronic stage of inflammation and may be a target for chronic pain therapy. PMID:26771651
Qu, Zu-Wei; Liu, Ting-Ting; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Li, Jia-Da; Hu, Wang-Ping
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet. Recently, it is demonstrated to have potent antinociceptive effect. However, little is understood about the mechanism underlying CGA analgesia. Here, we have found that CGA can exert an inhibitory effect on the functional activity of native acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. First, CGA decreased the peak amplitude of proton-gated currents mediated by ASICs in a concentration-dependent manner. Second, CGA shifted the proton concentration-response curve downward, with a decrease of 41.76 ± 8.65% in the maximum current response to protons but with no significant change in the pH0.5 value. Third, CGA altered acidosis-evoked membrane excitability of rat DRG neurons and caused a significant decrease in the amplitude of the depolarization and the number of action potentials induced by acid stimuli. Finally, peripheral administered CGA attenuated nociceptive response to intraplantar injection of acetic acid in rats. ASICs are distributed in peripheral sensory neurons and participate in nociception. Our findings CGA inhibition of native ASICs indicated that CGA may exert analgesic action by modulating ASICs in the primary afferent neurons, which revealed a novel cellular and molecular mechanism underlying CGA analgesia.
Nie, Aifang; Wei, Cailing; Meng, Ziqiang
The effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB), a general food preservative, on potassium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. SMB increased the amplitudes of both transient outward potassium currents and delayed rectifier potassium current in concentration- and voltage-dependent manner. The transient outward potassium currents (TOCs) include a fast inactivating (A-current or IA) current and a slow inactivating (D-current or ID) current. SMB majorly increased IA, and ID was little affected. SMB did not affect the activation process of transient outward currents (TOCs), but the inactivation curve of TOCs was shifted to more positive potentials. The inactivation time constants of TOCs were also increased by SMB. For delayed rectifier potassium current (IK), SMB shifted the activation curve to hyperpolarizing direction. SMB differently affected TOCs and IK, its effects major on A-type K+ channels, which play a role in adjusting pain sensitivity in response to peripheral redox conditions. SMB did not increase TOCs and IK when adding DTT in pipette solution. These results suggested that SMB might oxidize potassium channels, which relate to adjusting pain sensitivity in pain-sensing DRG neurons.
Lei, Zhen; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Guizhi; Fei, Jianchun; Meng, Tao; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Jingya; Yu, Jingui; Li, Jingxin
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), part of the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin family, are activated by extracellular protons. The ASICs play a significant role in the acidosis-mediated perception of pain. The anaesthetic agent propofol also exerts antinociceptive effects, but the underlying mechanisms for this effect are not clear. We used whole-cell patch clamping to investigate the effect of propofol on proton-gated currents in: (i) rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons; and (ii) HEK293 cells transfected with either ASIC1a or ASIC3. Propofol inhibited the amplitude of proton-gated currents in DRG neurons, but did not change the sensitivity of ASICs to H(+). Notably, propofol altered acid-evoked excitability of rat DRG neurons and decreased the number of action potentials induced by acid stimuli. In addition, we demonstrated that propofol inhibited ASICs by directly binding with these channels in HEK293 cells. These results suggest that propofol inhibits proton-gated currents in DRG neurons and that inhibition of proton-gated currents explains, in part, the antinociceptive effects of propofol in primary afferent neurons.
Jia, Zhanfeng; Ling, Jennifer; Gu, Jianguo G
Rapidly adapting mechanically activated channels (RA) are expressed on somatosensory neurons and thought to play a role in mechanical transduction. Because mechanical sensations can be significantly affected by temperatures, we examined thermal sensitivity of RA currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to see if RA channel activity is highly temperature-dependent. RA currents were evoked from DRG neurons by membrane displacements and recorded by the whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique. We found that RA currents were significantly enhanced by warming temperatures from 22 to 32 °C and reduced by cooling temperatures from 24 to 14 °C. RA channel activation exhibited steep temperature-dependence with a large temperature coefficient (Q10>5) and a high activation energy (Ea>30 kcal/mol). We further showed that RA channel activation by mechanical stimulation led to membrane depolarization, which could result in action potential firing at 22 °C or 32 °C but not at 14 °C. Taken together, our results provide the measurements of thermal dynamics and activation energy of RA channels, and suggest that a high energy barrier is present for RA channels to open. These findings are in agreement with temperature sensitivity of mechanical sensations in mammals.
Lopez-Santiago, Luis F.; Brackenbury, William J.; Chen, Chunling; Isom, Lori L.
Nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons express tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and -resistant (TTX-R) Na+ current (INa) mediated by voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs). In nociceptive DRG neurons, VGSC β2 subunits, encoded by Scn2b, selectively regulate TTX-S α subunit mRNA and protein expression, ultimately resulting in changes in pain sensitivity. We hypothesized that VGSCs in nociceptive DRG neurons may also be regulated by β1 subunits, encoded by Scn1b. Scn1b null mice are models of Dravet Syndrome, a severe pediatric encephalopathy. Many physiological effects of Scn1b deletion on CNS neurons have been described. In contrast, little is known about the role of Scn1b in peripheral neurons in vivo. Here we demonstrate that Scn1b null DRG neurons exhibit a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of TTX-S INa inactivation, reduced persistent TTX-R INa, a prolonged rate of recovery of TTX-R INa from inactivation, and reduced cell surface expression of Nav1.9 compared with their WT littermates. Investigation of action potential firing shows that Scn1b null DRG neurons are hyperexcitable compared with WT. Consistent with this, transient outward K+ current (Ito) is significantly reduced in null DRG neurons. We conclude that Scn1b regulates the electrical excitability of nociceptive DRG neurons in vivo by modulating both INa and IK. PMID:21555511
Han, Sungmin; Chu, Jun-Uk; Kim, Hyungmin; Park, Jong Woong; Youn, Inchan
Proprioceptive afferent activities could be useful for providing sensory feedback signals for closed-loop control during functional electrical stimulation (FES). However, most previous studies have used the single-unit activity of individual neurons to extract sensory information from proprioceptive afferents. This study proposes a new decoding method to estimate ankle and knee joint angles using multiunit activity data. Proprioceptive afferent signals were recorded from a dorsal root ganglion with a single-shank microelectrode during passive movements of the ankle and knee joints, and joint angles were measured as kinematic data. The mean absolute value (MAV) was extracted from the multiunit activity data, and a dynamically driven recurrent neural network (DDRNN) was used to estimate ankle and knee joint angles. The multiunit activity-based MAV feature was sufficiently informative to estimate limb states, and the DDRNN showed a better decoding performance than conventional linear estimators. In addition, processing time delay satisfied real-time constraints. These results demonstrated that the proposed method could be applicable for providing real-time sensory feedback signals in closed-loop FES systems. PMID:28276474
Raymon, H K; Thode, S; Zhou, J; Friedman, G C; Pardinas, J R; Barrere, C; Johnson, R M; Sah, D W
A renewable source of human sensory neurons would greatly facilitate basic research and drug development. We had established previously conditionally immortalized human CNS cell lines that can differentiate into functional neurons (). We report here the development of an immortalized human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) clonal cell line, HD10.6, with a tetracycline-regulatable v-myc oncogene. In the proliferative condition, HD10.6 cells have a doubling time of 1.2 d and exhibit a neuronal precursor morphology. After differentiation of clone HD10.6 for 7 d in the presence of tetracycline, v-myc expression was suppressed, and >50% of the cells exhibited typical neuronal morphology, stained positively for neuronal cytoskeletal markers, and fired action potentials in response to current injection. Furthermore, this cell line was fate-restricted to a neuronal phenotype; even in culture conditions that promote Schwann cell or smooth muscle differentiation of neural crest stem cells, HD10.6 differentiated exclusively into neurons. Moreover, differentiated HD10.6 cells expressed sensory neuron-associated transcription factors and exhibited capsaicin sensitivity. Taken together, these data indicate that we have established an immortalized human DRG cell line that can differentiate into sensory neurons with nociceptive properties. The cell line HD10.6 represents the first example of a human sensory neuronal line and will be valuable for basic research, as well as for the discovery of novel drug targets and clinical candidates.
Hara, Tomomi; Chiba, Terumasa; Abe, Kenji; Makabe, Akiko; Ikeno, Souichi; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Utsunomiya, Iku; Hama, Toshihiro; Taguchi, Kyoji
Peripheral neuropathy is a common adverse effect of paclitaxel treatment. To analyze the contribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in the development of paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia, TRPV1 expression in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was analyzed after paclitaxel treatment. Behavioral assessment using the tail-flick test showed that intraperitoneal administration of 2 and 4 mg/kg paclitaxel induced thermal hyperalgesia after days 7, 14, and 21. Paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia after day 14 was significantly inhibited by the TRP antagonist ruthenium red (3 mg/kg, s.c.) and the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (30 mg/kg, s.c.). Paclitaxel (2 and 4 mg/kg) treatment increased the expression of TRPV1 mRNA and protein in DRG neurons. Immunohistochemistry showed that paclitaxel (4 mg/kg) treatment increased TRPV1 protein expression in small and medium DRG neurons 14 days after treatment. Antibody double labeling revealed that isolectin B4-positive small DRG neurons co-expressed TRPV1. TRPV1 immunostaining was up-regulated in paw skin day 14 after paclitaxel treatment. Moreover, in situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that most of the TRPV1 mRNA-labeled neurons in the DRG were small or medium in size. These results suggest that paclitaxel treatment increases TRPV1 expression in DRG neurons and may contribute to functional peripheral neuropathic pain.
Kayano, Tomohiko; Kitamura, Naoki; Moriya, Taiki; Kuwahara, Takeshi; Komagiri, You; Toescu, Emil C; Shibuya, Izumi
Adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons cultured in the presence of 100-ng/mL NGF were reported to show spontaneous action potentials in the cell-attached recording. In this study, underlying mechanisms were examined in the whole-cell and outside-out voltage clamp recording. In 75% neurons with on-cell firing, transient inward current spikes were repetitively recorded in the voltage clamp mode at -50 mV in the whole-cell configuration (named "Isp"). Isp with stable amplitudes occurred in an all-or-none fashion, and was abolished by TTX (< 100 nM), lidocaine (< 1 mM) and a reduction of extracellular Na(+) (154 to 100 mM) in an all-or-none fashion, suggesting that Isp reflects spontaneous dicharges occurring at the loosely voltage-clamped regions. Isp was also observed in the excised outside-out patches and the kinetics and the sensitivity to TTX and lidocaine resembled those in the whole-cell. Spontaneous action potentials were also recorded in the current clamp mode. Small subthreshold spikes often preceded the action potentials. When the localized discharge affected a whole-somatic membrane potential to overcome a threshold, the action potential generated. These results indicate that the triggering sources of the action potential exist in the somatic membrane itself in NGF-treated DRG neurons.
Xiao, Yun; Wu, Yang; Zhao, Bo; Xia, Zhongyuan
Voltage-gated potassium channels (KV) regulate pain transmission by controlling neuronal excitability. Changes in KV expression patterns may thus contribute toward hyperalgesia following nerve injury. The aim of this study was to characterize KV current density in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the right sciatic nerve, a robust model of post-traumatic neuropathic pain. The study examined changes in small-diameter potassium ion currents (<30 µm) in neurons in the L4-L6 DRG following CCI by whole-cell patch-clamping and the association with post-CCI mechanical and thermal nociceptive thresholds. Compared with the control group, 7 days after CCI, the mechanical force and temperature required to elicit ipsilateral foot withdrawal decreased significantly, indicating tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Post-CCI neurons had a significantly lower rheobase current and depolarized resting membrane potential than controls, suggesting KV current downregulation. Some ipsilateral DRG neurons also had spontaneous action potentials and repetitive firing. There was a 55% reduction in the total KV current density caused by a 55% decrease in the sustained delayed rectifier potassium ion current (IK) density and a 17% decrease in the transient A-type potassium ion current (IA) density. These results indicated that changes in DRG neuron IK and IA current density and concomitant afferent hyperexcitability may contribute toward neuropathic pain following injury. The rat CCI model may prove valuable for examining pathogenic mechanisms and potential therapies, such as KV channel modulators.
Matsuoka, Akihiro J; Morrissey, Zachery D; Zhang, Chaoying; Homma, Kazuaki; Belmadani, Abdelhak; Miller, Charles A; Chadly, Duncan M; Kobayashi, Shun; Edelbrock, Alexandra N; Tanaka-Matakatsu, Miho; Whitlon, Donna S; Lyass, Ljuba; McGuire, Tammy L; Stupp, Samuel I; Kessler, John A
The ability to generate spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) from stem cells is a necessary prerequisite for development of cell-replacement therapies for sensorineural hearing loss. We present a protocol that directs human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) toward a purified population of otic neuronal progenitors (ONPs) and SGN-like cells. Between 82% and 95% of these cells express SGN molecular markers, they preferentially extend neurites to the cochlear nucleus rather than nonauditory nuclei, and they generate action potentials. The protocol follows an in vitro stepwise recapitulation of developmental events inherent to normal differentiation of hESCs into SGNs, resulting in efficient sequential generation of nonneuronal ectoderm, preplacodal ectoderm, early prosensory ONPs, late ONPs, and cells with cellular and molecular characteristics of human SGNs. We thus describe the sequential signaling pathways that generate the early and later lineage species in the human SGN lineage, thereby better describing key developmental processes. The results indicate that our protocol generates cells that closely replicate the phenotypic characteristics of human SGNs, advancing the process of guiding hESCs to states serving inner-ear cell-replacement therapies and possible next-generation hybrid auditory prostheses. © Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:923-936.
Thayer, S A; Miller, R J
1. Simultaneous whole-cell patch-clamp and Fura-2 microfluorimetric recordings of calcium currents (ICa) and the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were made from neurones grown in primary culture from the dorsal root ganglion of the rat. 2. Cells held at -80 mV and depolarized to 0 mV elicited a ICa that resulted in an [Ca2+]i transient which was not significantly buffered during the voltage step and lasted long after the cell had repolarized and the current ceased. The process by which the cell buffered [Ca2+]i back to basal levels could best be described with a single-exponential equation. 3. The membrane potential versus ICa and [Ca2+]i relationship revealed that the peak of the [Ca2+]i transient evoked at a given test potential closely paralleled the magnitude of the ICa suggesting that neither voltage-dependent nor Ca2(+)-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores made a significant contribution to the [Ca2+]i transient. 4. When the cell was challenged with Ca2+ loads of different magnitude by varying the duration or potential of the test pulse, [Ca2+]i buffering was more effective for larger Ca2+ loads. The relationship between the integrated ICa and the peak of the [Ca2+]i transient reached an asymptote at large Ca2+ loads indicating that Ca2(+)-dependent processes became more efficient or that low-affinity processes had been recruited. 5. Inhibition of Ca2+ influx with neuropeptide Y demonstrated that inhibition of a large ICa produced minor alterations in the peak of the [Ca2+]i transient, while inhibition of smaller currents produced corresponding decreases in the [Ca2+]i transient. Thus, inhibition of the ICa was reflected by a change in the peak [Ca2+]i only when submaximal Ca2+ loads were applied to the cell, implying that modulation of [Ca2+]i is dependent on the activation state of the cells. 6. Intracellular dialysis with the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake blocker Ruthenium Red in whole-cell patch-clamp experiments removed the buffering
1. The properties of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-activated chloride channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones obtained from rats and cats were examined using the single-electrode voltage clamp in conjunction with suction-electrode techniques. 2. GABA-evoked currents showed voltage-sensitive kinetics. Time constants (tau D) were measured from voltage-jump relaxations and tau D became briefer with membrane hyperpolarization. tau D was 33 ms at -120 mV with 60 microM-GABA and changed e-fold for 188 mV. tau D decreased as GABA concentration was increased - the extrapolated tau D at 'zero' GABA concentration was approximately equal to 50 ms at -120 mV. 3. The steady-state current in GABA was curvilinear, rectifying at negative potentials. The instantaneous current was linear with symmetrical chloride concentrations (140 mM) on both sides of the cell membrane. 4. Muscimol was a more effective agonist than GABA, while piperidine-4-sulphonic acid and ethylenediamine monocarbamate were only weakly effective agonists. Taurine and glycine had no detectable agonist activity. 5. Ion substitution experiments revealed the permeability sequence I- greater than Br- greater than Cl- greater than F- greater than propionate (1.88 greater than 1.21 greater than 1.0 approximately equal to 0.1 approximately equal to 0.1). 6. The presence of iodide and bromide ions externally caused an increase in chloride efflux at membrane potentials more negative than -40 mV, and caused a prolongation of voltage-jump relaxations. Relaxations in fluoride and propionate solutions were faster than those seen in chloride.
Cai, Qi; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Qiu, Fang; Liu, Ting-Ting; Qu, Zu-Wei; Liu, Yu-Min; Hu, Wang-Ping
Extracellular acidosis is a common feature in pain-generating pathological conditions. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), pH sensors, are distributed in peripheral sensory neurons and participate in nociception. Morphine exerts potent analgesic effects through the activation of opioid receptors for various pain conditions. A cross-talk between ASICs and opioid receptors in peripheral sensory neurons has not been shown so far. Here, we have found that morphine inhibits the activity of native ASICs in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Morphine dose-dependently inhibited proton-gated currents mediated by ASICs in the presence of the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine. Morphine shifted the proton concentration-response curve downwards, with a decrease of 51.4±3.8% in the maximum current response but with no significant change in the pH0.5 value. Another μ-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO induced a similar decrease in ASIC currents compared with morphine. The morphine inhibition of ASIC currents was blocked by naloxone, a specific opioid receptor antagonist. Pretreatment of forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, or the addition of cAMP reversed the inhibitory effect of morphine. Moreover, morphine altered acid-evoked excitability of rat DRG neurons and decreased the number of action potentials induced by acid stimuli. Finally, peripheral applied morphine relieved pain evoked by intraplantar of acetic acid in rats. Our results indicate that morphine can inhibit the activity of ASICs via μ-opioid receptor and cAMP dependent signal pathway. These observations demonstrate a cross-talk between ASICs and opioid receptors in peripheral sensory neurons, which was a novel analgesic mechanism of morphine.
Li, Li; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yang; Ma, Ke-tao; Shi, Wen-yan; Wang, Ying-zi; Si, Jun-qiang
The mechanism underlying the modulatory effect of substance P (SP) on GABA-activated response in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was investigated. In freshly dissociated rat DRG neurons, whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record GABA-activated current and sharp electrode intracellular recording technique was used to record GABA-induced membrane depolarization. Application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) induced an inward current in a concentration-dependent manner in 114 out of 127 DRG neurons (89.8 %) examined with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Bath application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) evoked a depolarizing response in 236 out of 257 (91.8%) DRG neurons examined with intracellular recordings. Application of SP (0.001-1 μmol/L) suppressed the GABA-activated inward current and membrane depolarization. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent and could be blocked by the selective neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors antagonist spantide but not by L659187 and SR142801 (1 μmol/L, n=7), selective antagonists of NK2 and NK3. The inhibitory effect of SP was significantly reduced by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, and PKC inhibitor chelerythrine, respectively. The PKA inhibitor H-89 did not affect the SP effect. Remarkably, the inhibitory effect of SP on GABA-activated current was nearly completely removed by a selective PKCε inhibitor epilon-V1-2 but not by safingol and LY333531, selective inhibitors of PKCα and PKCβ. Our results suggest that NK1 receptor mediates SP-induced inhibition of GABA-activated current and membrane depolarization by activating intracellular PLC-Ca²⁺-PKCε cascade. SP might regulate the excitability of peripheral nociceptors through inhibition of the "pre-synaptic inhibition" evoked by GABA, which may explain its role in pain and neurogenic inflammation.
Lu, Shao-Gang; Zhang, Xiulin; Gold, Michael S
Primary afferent neurons are functionally heterogeneous. To determine whether this functional heterogeneity reflects, in part, heterogeneity in the regulation of the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), the magnitude and decay of evoked Ca2+ transients were assessed in subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with voltage clamp and fura-2 ratiometric imaging. To determine whether differences in evoked Ca2+ transients among subpopulations of DRG neurons reflected differences in the contribution of Ca2+ regulatory mechanisms, pharmacological techniques were employed to assess the contribution of influx, efflux, release and uptake pathways. Subpopulations of DRG neurons were defined by cell body size, binding of the plant lectin IB4 and responsiveness to the algogenic compound capsaicin (CAP). Ca2+ transients were evoked with 30 mm K+ or voltage steps to 0 mV. There were marked differences between subpopulations of neurons with respect to both the magnitude and decay of the Ca2+ transient, with the largest and most slowly decaying Ca2+ transients in small-diameter, IB4-positive, CAP-responsive neurons. The smallest and most rapidly decaying transients were in large-diameter, IB4-negative and CAP-unresponsive DRG neurons. These differences were not due to a differential distribution of voltage-gated Ca2+ currents. However, these differences did appear to reflect a differential contribution of other influx, efflux, release and uptake mechanisms between subpopulations of neurons. These results suggest that electrical activity in subpopulations of DRG neurons will have a differential influence on Ca2+-regulated phenomena such as spike adaptation, transmitter release and gene transcription. Significantly more activity should be required in large-diameter non-nociceptive afferents than in small-diameter nociceptive afferents to have a comparable influence on these processes. PMID:16945973
Li, Zhisong; Gu, Xiyao; Sun, Linlin; Wu, Shaogen; Liang, Lingli; Cao, Jing; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Bekker, Alex; Zhang, Wei; Tao, Yuan-Xiang
Peripheral nerve injury-induced changes in gene transcription and translation in primary sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) are considered to contribute to neuropathic pain genesis. Transcription factors control gene expression. Peripheral nerve injury increases the expression of myeloid zinc finger protein 1 (MZF1), a transcription factor, and promotes its binding to the voltage-gated potassium 1.2 (Kv1.2) antisense (AS) RNA gene in the injured DRG. However, whether DRG MZF1 participates in neuropathic pain is still unknown. Here, we report that blocking the nerve injury-induced increase of DRG MZF1 through microinjection of MZF1 siRNA into the injured DRG attenuated the initiation and maintenance of mechanical, cold, and thermal pain hypersensitivities in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, without affecting locomotor functions and basal responses to acute mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli. Mimicking the nerve injury-induced increase of DRG MZF1 through microinjection of recombinant adeno-associated virus 5 expressing full-length MZF1 into the DRG produced significant mechanical, cold, and thermal pain hypersensitivities in naive rats. Mechanistically, MZF1 participated in CCI-induced reductions in Kv1.2 mRNA and protein and total Kv current and the CCI-induced increase in neuronal excitability through MZF1-triggered Kv1.2 AS RNA expression in the injured DRG neurons. MZF1 is likely an endogenous trigger of neuropathic pain and might serve as a potential target for preventing and treating this disorder.
Tang, Zhanying; Cui, Xuejun; Hu, Zhijun; Xiao, Jing; Li, Weiwei; Yang, Qiangling; Liu, Dan; Lin, Jie; Wang, Yongjun; Shi, Qi
The aim of this study was to observe the effects of Yiqi Huayu recipe on TRPV4 expression in radicular neuralgia model induced by chronic constriction to the rat lumber nerve root. Healthy male SD rats were divided into 3 groups for radicular neuralgia (RN) model construction: the sham operation group, model groups (day 3, 7, 14 and 28), and medication groups (day 3, 7, 14 and 28). Von-Frey hairs test was performed to detect the 50% with drawal threshold (50% TPW) for rats of each group. The expression of TRPV4 in dorsal root ganglion was detected at both mRNA and protein level. Rats from all model groups displayed hyperalgesia with significantly reduced 50% TPW values compared with sham-operation group (P<0.01); Yiqi Huayu recipe medication groups showed higher 50% TPW than model group since 7 days post medication (P<0.01); the medication groups showed decreased TRPV4 expression than that of model groups (P<0.01). In conclusion, Yiqi Huayu recipe alleviates nerve root constriction induced radicular neuralgia by repressing TRPV4 expression in dorsal root ganglion. PMID:26770465
Mattila, R K; Harila, K; Kangas, S M; Paavilainen, H; Heape, A M; Mohr, I J; Hukkanen, V
After a primary lytic infection at the epithelia, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) enters the innervating sensory neurons and translocates to the nucleus, where it establishes a quiescent latent infection. Periodically, the virus can reactivate and the progeny viruses spread back to the epithelium. Here, we introduce an embryonic mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) culture system, which can be used to study the mechanisms that control the establishment, maintenance and reactivation from latency. Use of acyclovir is not necessary in our model. We examined different phases of the HSV-1 life cycle in DRG neurons, and showed that WT HSV-1 could establish both lytic and latent form of infection in the cells. After reactivating stimulus, the WT viruses showed all markers of true reactivation. In addition, we showed that deletion of the γ(1)34.5 gene rendered the virus incapable of reactivation, even though the virus was clearly able to replicate and persist in a quiescent form in the DRG neurons.
Purkiss, J; Welch, M; Doward, S; Foster, K
Capsaicin, the pungent component of "hot" chili peppers, selectively activates a distinct population of primary sensory neurons responsive to noxious stimuli. Many of these fibres express neuropeptides including the tachykinin, substance P. Using cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons, we found that capsaicin (10 microM) stimulated a 2-fold increase in release of substance P in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Elevated potassium (75 mM) was unable to induce release under these conditions. The introduction of Ca(2+) enhanced capsaicin-induced release and brought about a robust response to potassium. Preincubation of cells with botulinum neurotoxin A (100 nM) completely blocked potassium-induced release but the capsaicin response, in the absence of Ca(2+), was unaffected. However, toxin treatment dramatically reduced capsaicin-stimulated release in the presence of Ca(2+). It is concluded that capsaicin induces release of substance P from dorsal root ganglion neurons via two mechanisms, one requiring extracellular Ca(2+) and the intact synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP-25), and the other independent of extracellular Ca(2+) and not involving SNAP-25.
Qu, Yu-Juan; Jia, Lei; Zhang, Xiao; Wei, Hui; Yue, Shou-Wei
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the MAPK pathways were involved in the mechanism of neuropathic pain in rats with chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion. We determined the paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) of rats before and after CCD surgery and then after p38, JNK, or ERK inhibitors administration. Western blotting, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence of dorsal root ganglia were performed to investigate the protein and mRNA level of MAPKs and also the alternation in distributions of positive neurons in dorsal root ganglia. Intrathecal administration of MAPKs inhibitors, SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and U0126 (ERK inhibitor), resulted in a partial reduction in CCD-induced mechanical allodynia. The reduction of allodynia was associated with significant depression in the level of both MAPKs mRNA and protein expression in CCD rats and also associated with the decreased ratios of large size MAPKs positive neurons in dorsal root ganglia. In conclusion, the specific inhibitors of MAPKs contributed to the attenuation of mechanical allodynia in CCD rats and the large size MAPKs positive neurons in dorsal root ganglia were crucial.
Ma, Zhong; Hasenstein, Karl H
Vertical orientation of emerging roots typically is the first response of plants to gravity. Although root gravitropism has been studied extensively, no conclusive data on the onset of gravisensing exist. We determined the inception of gravisensitivity in flax (Linum usitatissimum) roots by clinorotating germinating seeds after various periods of static orientation (gravistimulation) of imbibed seeds. Gravitropic competency was established about 8 h after imbibition, 11 h prior to germination. The time was determined based on 50% of the newly emerged roots curving in the direction of the gravity vector during static imbibition, despite subsequent clinorotation. The threshold value was affected by the orientation of the seeds. Upward orientation of the micropyle/radicle reduced the number of graviresponding roots to about one-half. Prolonged clinorotation weakened the graviresponse. Gravisensing was accompanied by the development of amyloplasts, but the actin cytoskeleton was not involved because imbibition in Latrunculin B did not affect the onset of gravisensitivity or germination, and the development of F-actin in untreated controls was observed only after the onset of gravisensitivity.
Zuidema, X.; Breel, J.; Wille, F.
Chronic perineal pain limits patients in physical and sexual activities, leading to social and psychological distress. In most cases, this pain develops after surgery in the urogenital area or as a consequence of trauma. Neuromodulation is one of the options in chronic postsurgical perineal pain treatment. We present a case of refractory perineal pain after right sided surgical resection of a Bartholin's cyst which was treated with third sacral nerve root/dorsal root ganglion stimulation using the transforaminal approach. We describe a new anchorless lead placement technique using a unique curved lead delivery sheath. We postulate that this new posterior foraminal technique of lead placement is simple, safe, and reversible and may lower the occurrence of lead related complications. PMID:27123351
Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Zhi-Qi
High-threshold Ca(2+) channels and tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channels are highly expressed in small dorsal root ganglion neurons. In acutely isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, the effects of neomycin, one of the aminoglycoside antibiotics, on high-threshold Ca(2+) currents and tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) currents were examined using whole-cell patch recording. We showed for the first time that neomycin dose-dependently inhibited peak high-threshold Ca(2+) currents and peak tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) currents with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations at 3.69 microM (n=20) and 1213.44 microM (n=25), respectively. Inactivation properties of high-threshold Ca(2+) currents and activation properties of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) currents were also affected by neomycin with reduction of excitability of small dorsal root ganglion neurons. Half-maximal inactivation voltage of high-threshold Ca(2+) currents was -45.56 mV before and -50.46 mV after application of neomycin (n=10). Half-maximal activation voltage of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) currents was -19.93 mV before and -11.19 mV after administration of neomycin (n=15). These results suggest that neomycin can inhibit high-threshold Ca(2+) currents and tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) currents in small dorsal root ganglion neurons, which may contribute to neomycin-induced peripheral and central analgesia.
Murata, Ryo; Ohtori, Seiji; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Takahashi, Norimasa; Saisu, Takashi; Moriya, Hideshige; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Wada, Yuichi
Although extracorporeal shockwave has been applied in the treatment of various diseases, the biological basis for its analgesic effect remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats following shockwave exposure to the footpad to elucidate its effect on the peripheral nervous system. We used activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and growth-associated phosphoprotein (GAP-43) as markers for nerve injury and axonal regeneration, respectively. The average number of neurons immunoreactive for ATF3 increased significantly in the treated rats at all experimental time points, with 78.3% of those neurons also exhibiting immunoreactivity for GAP-43. Shockwave exposure induced injury of the sensory nerve fibers within the exposed area. This phenomenon may be linked to the desensitization of the exposure area, not the cause of pain, considering clinical research with a particular absence of painful adverse effect. Subsequent active axonal regeneration may account for the reinnervation of exposed area and the amelioration of the desensitization.
Zheng, Li-qin; Wang, Yu-hua; He, Yi-peng; Zhou, Jie; Yang, Hong-qin; Zhang, Yan-ding; Xie, Shu-sen
Nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) have an important role in pain signaling transmission in animal models. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is known to have an analgesic effect, but the mechanism is unclear. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of LLLT on NO release and NOS synthesis in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, in order to find whether LLLI can ameliorate pain through modulating NO production at the cellular level. The results show that in stress conditions, the laser irradiation at 658 nm can modulate NO production in DRG neurons with soma diameter of about 20 μm in a short time after illumination, and affect NOS synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. It is demonstrated that LLLT might treat pain by altering NO release directly and indirectly in DRG neurons.
Jiao, Ling; Zhang, Tengda; Wang, Huixing; Zhang, Wenyi; Fan, Saijun; Huo, Xiaodong; Zheng, Baosen; Ma, Wenting
The use of iodine-125 ((125)I) in cancer treatment has been shown to relieve patients' pain. Considering dorsal root ganglia are critical for neural transmission between the peripheral and central nervous systems, we assumed that (125)I could be implanted into rat dorsal root ganglia to provide relief for neuropathic pain. (125)I seeds with different radioactivity (0, 14.8, 29.6 MBq) were implanted separately through L4-5 and L5-6 intervertebral foramen into the vicinity of the L5 dorsal root ganglion. von Frey hair results demonstrated the mechanical pain threshold was elevated after implanting (125)I seeds from the high radioactivity group. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that nuclear membrane shrinkage, nucleolar margination, widespread mitochondrial swelling, partial vacuolization, lysosome increase, and partial endoplasmic reticulum dilation were visible at 1,440 hours in the low radioactivity group and at 336 hours in the high radioactivity group. Abundant nuclear membrane shrinkage, partial fuzzy nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum necrosis were observed at 1,440 hours in the high radioactivity group. No significant difference in combined behavioral scores was detected between preoperation and postoperation in the low and high radioactivity groups. These results suggested that the mechanical pain threshold was elevated after implanting (125)I seeds without influencing motor functions of the hind limb, although cell injury was present.
Madelaine, Romain; Busolin, Giorgia; Nikaido, Masataka; Colanesi, Sarah; Camargo-Sosa, Karen; Toppo, Stefano; Blader, Patrick; Tiso, Natascia; Kelsh, Robert N.
The development of functional peripheral ganglia requires a balance of specification of both neuronal and glial components. In the developing dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), these components form from partially-restricted bipotent neuroglial precursors derived from the neural crest. Work in mouse and chick has identified several factors, including Delta/Notch signaling, required for specification of a balance of these components. We have previously shown in zebrafish that the Sry-related HMG domain transcription factor, Sox10, plays an unexpected, but crucial, role in sensory neuron fate specification in vivo. In the same study we described a novel Sox10 mutant allele, sox10baz1, in which sensory neuron numbers are elevated above those of wild-types. Here we investigate the origin of this neurogenic phenotype. We demonstrate that the supernumerary neurons are sensory neurons, and that enteric and sympathetic neurons are almost absent just as in classical sox10 null alleles; peripheral glial development is also severely abrogated in a manner similar to other sox10 mutant alleles. Examination of proliferation and apoptosis in the developing DRG reveals very low levels of both processes in wild-type and sox10baz1, excluding changes in the balance of these as an explanation for the overproduction of sensory neurons. Using chemical inhibition of Delta-Notch-Notch signaling we demonstrate that in embryonic zebrafish, as in mouse and chick, lateral inhibition during the phase of trunk DRG development is required to achieve a balance between glial and neuronal numbers. Importantly, however, we show that this mechanism is insufficient to explain quantitative aspects of the baz1 phenotype. The Sox10(baz1) protein shows a single amino acid substitution in the DNA binding HMG domain; structural analysis indicates that this change is likely to result in reduced flexibility in the HMG domain, consistent with sequence-specific modification of Sox10 binding to DNA. Unlike other Sox10
Wen, Xianjie; Lai, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Tao; Liang, Hua
In this study, we identified the subtype of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) mRNA in dorsal root ganglion neurons and observed the effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride in different concentration and different exposure time on the mRNA expression. Dorsal root ganglion neurons were isolated from the SD rats and cultured in vitro. The mRNA of the CaMK II subtype in dorsal root ganglion neurons were detected by real-time PCR. As well as, the dorsal root ganglion neurons were treated with ropivacaine hydrochloride in different concentration (1mM,2mM, 3mM and 4mM) for the same exposure time of 4h, or different exposure time (0h,2h,3h,4h and 6h) at the same concentration(3mM). The changes of the mRNA expression of the CaMK II subtype were observed with real-time PCR. All subtype mRNA of the CaMK II, CaMK IIα, CaMK IIβ, CaMK II δ, CaMK IIγ, can be detected in dorsal root ganglion neurons. With the increased of the concentration and exposure time of the ropivacaine hydrochloride, all the subtype mRNA expression increased. Ropivacaine hydrochloride up-regulate the CaMK IIβ, CaMK IIδ, CaMK IIg mRNA expression with the concentration and exposure time increasing. The nerve blocking or the neurotoxicity of the ropivacaine hydrochloride maybe involved with CaMK II.
Leffler, Andreas; Linte, Ramona Madalina; Nau, Carla; Reeh, Peter; Babes, Alexandru
Heat-activated ion channels from the vanilloid-type TRP group (TRPV1-4) seem to be central for heat-sensitivity of nociceptive sensory neurons. Displaying a high-threshold (> 52 degrees C) for activation, TRPV2 was proposed to act as a sensor for intense noxious heat in mammalian sensory neurons. However, although TRPV2 is expressed in a distinct population of thinly myelinated primary afferents, a widespread expression in a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal tissues suggests a more diverse physiological role of TRPV2. In its role as a heat-sensor, TRPV2 has not been thoroughly characterized in terms of biophysical and pharmacological properties. In the present study, we demonstrate that the features of heterologously expressed rat TRPV2 closely resemble those of high-threshold heat-evoked currents in medium- and large-sized capsaicin-insensitive rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Both in TRPV2-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK)293t cells and in DRGs, high-threshold heat-currents were sensitized by repeated activation and by the TRPV1-3 agonist, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). In addition to a previously described block by ruthenium red, we identified the trivalent cations, lanthanum (La(3+)) and gadolinium (Gd(3+)) as potent blockers of TRPV2. Thus, we present a new pharmacological tool to distinguish between heat responses of TRPV2 and the closely related capsaicin-receptor, TRPV1, which is strongly sensitized by trivalent cations. We demonstrate that self-sensitization of heat-evoked currents through TRPV2 does not require extracellular calcium and that TRPV2 can be activated in cell-free membrane patches in the outside-out configuration. Taken together our results provide new evidence for a role of TRPV2 in mediating high-threshold heat responses in a subpopulation of mammalian sensory neurons.
Niimura, Yuri; Aminaka, Yuichi; Hayashi, Kensuke
Migrating neurons have leading processes that direct cell movement in response to guidance cues. We investigated the involvement of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) in the formation of leading processes and migration of neurons in vitro. We used embryonic rat medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) neurons, which are precursors of inhibitory neurons that migrate into the cerebral cortex. When MGE neurons were placed on an astrocyte layer, they migrated freely with the highest speed among neurons from other parts of the embryonic forebrain. When they were cultured alone, they showed bipolar morphology and extended leading processes within 20 h. Their leading processes had large growth cones, but did not elongate during 3 days in culture, indicating that leading processes are distinct from short axons. Next, we examined the effect of GSK3 inhibitors on leading processes and the migratory behavior of MGE neurons. MGE neurons treated with GSK3 inhibitors showed multipolar morphology and altered process shapes. Moreover, migration of MGE neurons on the astrocyte layer was significantly decreased in the presence of GSK3 inhibitors. These data suggest that GSK3 is involved in the formation of leading processes and in the migration of MGE neurons.
Cuellar, J M; Montesano, P X; Antognini, J F; Carstens, E
Herniation of the nucleus pulposus (NP) from lumbar intervertebral discs commonly results in radiculopathic pain possibly through a neuroinflammatory response. NP sensitizes dorsal horn neuronal responses, but it is unknown whether this reflects a central or peripheral sensitization. To study central sensitization, we tested if NP enhances windup--the progressive increase in the response of a nociceptive spinal neuron to repeated electrical C-fiber stimulation--a phenomenon that may partly account for temporal summation of pain. Single-unit recordings were made from wide dynamic range (WDR; n = 36) or nociceptive-specific (NS; n = 8) L5 dorsal horn neurons in 44 isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Subcutaneous electrodes delivered electrical stimuli (20 pulses, 3 times the C-fiber threshold, 0.5 ms) to the receptive field on the hindpaw. Autologous NP was harvested from a tail disc and placed onto the L5 dorsal root ganglion after recording of baseline responses (n = 22). Controls had saline applied similarly (n = 22). Electrical stimulus trains (0.1, 0.3, and 1 Hz; 5-min interstimulus interval) were repeated every 30 min for 3-6 h after each treatment. The total number of evoked spikes (summed across all 20 stimuli) to 0.1 Hz was enhanced 3 h after NP, mainly in the after-discharge (AD) period (latency > 400 ms). Total responses to 0.3 and 1.0 Hz were also enhanced at > or = 60 min after NP in both the C-fiber (100- to 400-ms latency) and AD periods, whereas the absolute windup (C-fiber + AD - 20 times the initial response) increased at > or = 90 min after treatment. In saline controls, windup was not enhanced at any time after treatment for any stimulus frequency, although there was a trend toward enhancement at 0.3 Hz. These results are consistent with NP-induced central sensitization. Mechanical responses were not significantly enhanced after saline or NP treatment. We speculate that inflammatory agents released from (or recruited by) NP affect the dorsal root
Kumamoto, Jun-Ichi; Nakatani, Masashi; Tsutsumi, Moe; Goto, Makiko; Denda, Sumiko; Takei, Kentaro; Denda, Mitsuhiro
The density of peripheral nerve fibres is increased in atopic dermatitis. Moreover, reduction in the fibres in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis reduces scratching behaviour. Thus, regulation of nerve fibre extension could be an effective strategy to reduce itching in pruritus dermatosis. In this study, we established a new coculture system of keratinocytes and dorsal-root-ganglion-derived cells using an apparatus, AXIS(™) , which consists of two different channels connected via a set of microgrooves, through which signalling molecules and axons, but not living cells, can pass. When we seeded keratinocytes in one chamber, extension of nerve fibres was observed from dorsal root ganglion cells seeded in the other chamber. Addition of anti-BDNF antibody in the keratinocyte-seeded chamber significantly reduced the extension. Application of Semaphorin 3A also reduced the extension by approximately 50%. We suggest that this coculture system may be useful for screening of anti-itching drugs.
Wu, Shaogen; Marie Lutz, Brianna; Miao, Xuerong; Liang, Lingli; Mo, Kai; Chang, Yun-Juan; Du, Peicheng; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Tian, Bin; Kaufman, Andrew G.; Bekker, Alex; Hu, Yali
Background Peripheral nerve injury leads to changes in gene expression in primary sensory neurons of the injured dorsal root ganglia. These changes are believed to be involved in neuropathic pain genesis. Previously, these changes have been identified using gene microarrays or next generation RNA sequencing with poly-A tail selection, but these approaches cannot provide a more thorough analysis of gene expression alterations after nerve injury. Methods The present study chose to eliminate mRNA poly-A tail selection and perform strand-specific next generation RNA sequencing to analyze whole transcriptomes in the injured dorsal root ganglia following spinal nerve ligation. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay was carried out to verify the changes of some differentially expressed RNAs in the injured dorsal root ganglia after spinal nerve ligation. Results Our results showed that more than 50 million (M) paired mapped sequences with strand information were yielded in each group (51.87 M–56.12 M in sham vs. 51.08 M–57.99 M in spinal nerve ligation). Six days after spinal nerve ligation, expression levels of 11,163 out of a total of 27,463 identified genes in the injured dorsal root ganglia significantly changed, of which 52.14% were upregulated and 47.86% downregulated. The largest transcriptional changes were observed in protein-coding genes (91.5%) followed by noncoding RNAs. Within 944 differentially expressed noncoding RNAs, the most significant changes were seen in long interspersed noncoding RNAs followed by antisense RNAs, processed transcripts, and pseudogenes. We observed a notable proportion of reads aligning to intronic regions in both groups (44.0% in sham vs. 49.6% in spinal nerve ligation). Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we confirmed consistent differential expression of selected genes including Kcna2, Oprm1 as well as lncRNAs Gm21781 and 4732491K20Rik following spinal nerve
Yuan, Huijun; Lan, Tonghan; Lin, Jiarui
Nano-Selenium, a novel Nano technology production, was demonstrated to be useful in medical and scientific researches. Here, we investigated the effects of Nano-Selenium on tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) voltage-dependent Na+channels in isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, using whole-cell patch-clamp method. Nano-Selenium irreversibly decreased TTX-S Na+current (I
Li, Hao; Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Guixiang; Li, Jianmin; Liu, Huaxiang; Li, Zhenzhong
The neurotrophic factor-like activity of monosialoganglioside (GM1) has been shown to activate tyrosine kinase receptors (Trk). Targets of neuronal innervation play a vital role in regulating the survival and differentiation of innervating neurotrophin-responsive neurons. Both GM1 and target skeletal muscle (SKM) cells are essential for the maintenance of the function of neurons. However, much less is known about the effects of GM1 or/and target SKM cells on the expression of Trk receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Here we have tested what extent to the expression of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC receptors in primary cultured of DRG neurons in absence or presence of GM1 or/and SKM cells. In this experiment, we found that: (1) GM1 promoted expression of TrkA and TrkB but not TrkC in primary cultured DRG neurons; (2) target SKM cells promoted expression of TrkC but not TrkA and TrkB in neuromuscular cocultures without GM1 treatment; and (3) GM1 and target SKM cells had additional effects on expression of these three Trk receptors. The results of the present study offered new clues for a better understanding of the association of GM1 and target SKM on the expression of Trk receptors.
Wang, Siran; Ghezzi, Chiara E; White, James D; Kaplan, David L
Corneal tissue displays the highest peripheral nerve density in the human body. Engineering of biomaterials to promote interactions between neurons and corneal tissue could provide tissue models for nerve/cornea development, platforms for drug screening, as well as innovative opportunities to regenerate cornea tissue. The focus of this study was to develop a coculture system for differentiated human corneal stromal stem cells (dhCSSCs) and dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) to mimic the human cornea tissue interactions. Axon extension, connectivity, and neuron cell viability were studied. DRG neurons developed longer axons when cocultured with dhCSSCs in comparison to neuron cultures alone. To assess the mechanism involved in the coculture response, nerve growth factors (NGF) secreted by dhCSSCs including NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and neurotrophin-3 were characterized with greater focus on BDNF secretion. DhCSSCs also secreted collagen type I, an extracellular matrix molecule favorable for neuronal outgrowth. This coculture system provides a slowly degrading silk matrix to study neuronal responses in concert with hCSSCs related to innervation of corneal tissue with utility toward human corneal nerve regeneration and associated diseases.
Lee, Moon Chul; Nam, Taick Sang; Jung, Se Jung; Gwak, Young S.; Leem, Joong Woo
Chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (CCD) results in neuropathic pain. We investigated the role of spinal GABA in CCD-induced pain using rats with unilateral CCD. A stereological analysis revealed that the proportion of GABA-immunoreactive neurons to total neurons at L4/5 laminae I–III on the injured side decreased in the early phase of CCD (post-CCD week 1) and then returned to the sham-control level in the late phase (post-CCD week 18). In the early phase, the rats showed an increase in both mechanical sensitivity of the hind paw and spinal WDR neuronal excitability on the injured side, and such increase was suppressed by spinally applied muscimol (GABA-A agonist, 5 nmol) and baclofen (GABA-B agonist, 25 nmol), indicating the reduced spinal GABAergic inhibition involved. In the late phase, the CCD-induced increase in mechanical sensitivity and neuronal excitability returned to pre-CCD levels, and such recovered responses were enhanced by spinally applied bicuculline (GABA-A antagonist, 15 nmol) and CGP52432 (GABA-B antagonist, 15 nmol), indicating the regained spinal GABAergic inhibition involved. In conclusion, the alteration of spinal GABAergic inhibition following CCD and leading to a gradual reduction over time of CCD-induced mechanical hypersensitivity is most likely due to changes in GABA content in spinal GABA neurons. PMID:26451259
Lakritz, Jessica R.; Bodair, Ayman; Shah, Neal; O'Donnell, Ryan; Polydefkis, Michael J.; Miller, Andrew D.; Burdo, Tricia H.
HIV-associated sensory neuropathy remains the most common neurological complication of HIV infection and is characterized by dorsal root ganglion (DRG) inflammation and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) loss. Chronic peripheral immune cell activation and accumulation may cause damage to the DRG, but has not been fully investigated yet. By using an SIV-infected, CD8-lymphocyte–depleted rhesus macaque model, we defined immune cells surrounding DRG neurons and their role in DRG pathology, measured cell traffic from the bone marrow to the DRGs using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse, and serially measured IENFD. We found an increase in CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages in DRGs of SIV-infected animals. MAC387+ recently recruited monocytes/macrophages were increased, along with BrdU+ cells, in the DRGs of SIV-infected macaques. We demonstrated that 78.1% of all BrdU+ cells in DRGs were also MAC387+. The number of BrdU+ monocytes correlated with severe DRG histopathology, which included neuronophagia, neuronal loss, and Nageotte nodules. These data demonstrate that newly recruited MAC387+BrdU+ macrophages may play a significant role in DRG pathogenesis. IENFD decreased early (day 21), consistent with the development of sensory neuropathy in SIV-infected macaques. Decreased IENFD was associated with elevated BrdU+ cells in the DRG. These data suggest that increased recruitment of macrophages to DRG is associated with severe DRG histopathology and IENFD loss. PMID:25956030
Wu, Ying; Liu, Yongfeng; Hou, Panpan; Yan, Zonghe; Kong, Wenjuan; Liu, Beiying; Li, Xia; Yao, Jing; Zhang, Yuexuan; Qin, Feng; Ding, Jiuping
The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) channel is a nonselective cation channel activated by a variety of exogenous and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli, such as temperature (≥42 °C), capsaicin, a pungent compound in hot chili peppers, and allyl isothiocyanate. Large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels regulate the electric activities and neurotransmitter releases in excitable cells, responding to changes in membrane potentials and elevation of cytosolic calcium ions (Ca(2+)). However, it is unknown whether the TRPV1 channels are coupled with the BK channels. Using patch-clamp recording combined with an infrared laser device, we found that BK channels could be activated at 0 mV by a Ca(2+) influx through TRPV1 channels not the intracellular calcium stores in submilliseconds. The local calcium concentration around BK is estimated over 10 μM. The crosstalk could be affected by 10 mM BAPTA, whereas 5 mM EGTA was ineffectual. Fluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation experiments also showed that BK and TRPV1 were able to form a TRPV1-BK complex. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the TRPV1-BK coupling also occurs in dosal root ganglion (DRG) cells, which plays a critical physiological role in regulating the "pain" signal transduction pathway in the peripheral nervous system.
Yan, Zonghe; Kong, Wenjuan; Liu, Beiying; Li, Xia; Yao, Jing; Zhang, Yuexuan; Qin, Feng; Ding, Jiuping
The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) channel is a nonselective cation channel activated by a variety of exogenous and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli, such as temperature (≥42 °C), capsaicin, a pungent compound in hot chili peppers, and allyl isothiocyanate. Large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels regulate the electric activities and neurotransmitter releases in excitable cells, responding to changes in membrane potentials and elevation of cytosolic calcium ions (Ca2+). However, it is unknown whether the TRPV1 channels are coupled with the BK channels. Using patch-clamp recording combined with an infrared laser device, we found that BK channels could be activated at 0 mV by a Ca2+ influx through TRPV1 channels not the intracellular calcium stores in submilliseconds. The local calcium concentration around BK is estimated over 10 μM. The crosstalk could be affected by 10 mM BAPTA, whereas 5 mM EGTA was ineffectual. Fluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation experiments also showed that BK and TRPV1 were able to form a TRPV1-BK complex. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the TRPV1-BK coupling also occurs in dosal root ganglion (DRG) cells, which plays a critical physiological role in regulating the “pain” signal transduction pathway in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:24147119
Liu, Ting-Ting; Qu, Zu-Wei; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Qiu, Fang; Ren, Cuixia; Gan, Xiong; Peng, Fang; Hu, Wang-Ping
Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), a main bioactive Chinese herbal constituent from the genera Stephania and Corydalis, has been in use in clinical practice for years in China as a traditional analgesic agent. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic action of l-THP is poorly understood. This study shows that l-THP can exert an inhibitory effect on the functional activity of native acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are believed to mediate pain caused by extracellular acidification. l-THP dose dependently decreased the amplitude of proton-gated currents mediated by ASICs in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. l-THP shifted the proton concentration-response curve downward, with a decrease of 40.93% ± 8.45% in the maximum current response to protons, with no significant change in the pH0.5 value. Moreover, l-THP can alter the membrane excitability of rat DRG neurons to acid stimuli. It significantly decreased the number of action potentials and the amplitude of the depolarization induced by an extracellular pH drop. Finally, peripherally administered l-THP inhibited the nociceptive response to intraplantar injection of acetic acid in rats. These results indicate that l-THP can inhibit the functional activity of ASICs in dissociated primary sensory neurons and relieve acidosis-evoked pain in vivo, which for the first time provides a novel peripheral mechanism underlying the analgesic action of l-THP.
Zhang, Yongjie; Zheng, Yiyan; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B E; Hu, Xiaoling; Yu, Panpan; Burke, Darlene A; Wang, Heming; Jun, Cai; Byers, Jonathan; Whittemore, Scott R; Shields, Christopher B
Injection of viral vectors into peripheral nerves may transfer specific genes into their dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and motoneurons. However, myelin sheaths of peripheral axons block the entry of viral particles into nerves. We studied whether mild, transient peripheral nerve demyelination prior to intraneural viral vector injection would enhance gene transfer to target DRG neurons and motoneurons. The right sciatic nerve of C57BL/6 mice was focally demyelinated with 1% lysolecithin, and the left sciatic nerve was similarly injected with saline (control). Five days after demyelination, 0.5 microl of Ad5-GFP was injected into both sciatic nerves at the site of previous injection. The effectiveness of gene transfer was evaluated by counting GFP(+) neurons in the DRGs and ventral horns. After peripheral nerve demyelination, there was a fivefold increase in the number of infected DRG neurons and almost a 15-fold increase in the number of infected motoneurons compared with the control, nondemyelinated side. Focal demyelination reduced the myelin sheath barrier, allowing greater virus-axon contact. Increased CXADR expression on the demyelinated axons facilitated axoplasmic viral entry. No animals sustained any prolonged neurological deficits. Increased gene delivery into DRG neurons and motoneurons may provide effective treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, pain, and spinal cord injury.
Mao, Qingxiang; Yuan, Jingjing; Xiong, Ming; Wu, Shaogen; Chen, Liyong; Bekker, Alex; Yang, Tiande
Peripheral nerve injury-caused hyperexcitability and abnormal ectopic discharges in the primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) play a key role in neuropathic pain development and maintenance. The two-pore domain background potassium (K2P) channels have been identified as key determinants of the resting membrane potential and neuronal excitability. However, whether K2P channels contribute to neuropathic pain is still elusive. We reported here that K2P1.1, the first identified mammalian K2P channel, was highly expressed in mouse DRG and distributed in small-, medium-, and large-sized DRG neurons. Unilateral lumbar (L) 4 spinal nerve ligation led to a significant and time-dependent reduction of K2P1.1 mRNA and protein in the ipsilateral L4 DRG, but not in the contralateral L4 or ipsilateral L3 DRG. Rescuing this reduction through microinjection of adeno-associated virus-DJ expressing full-length K2P1.1 mRNA into the ipsilateral L4 DRG blocked spinal nerve ligation-induced mechanical, thermal, and cold pain hypersensitivities during the development and maintenance periods. This DRG viral microinjection did not affect acute pain and locomotor function. Our findings suggest that K2P1.1 participates in neuropathic pain development and maintenance and may be a potential target in the management of this disorder. PMID:28326939
Tonra, J R; Mendell, L M
Experiments were undertaken to examine anatomical correlates of physiological effects of rabbit sera raised against nerve growth factor (anti-NGF) on nociceptive afferents. This antiserum has been shown to deplete the population of A-delta high threshold mechanoreceptors and to reduce neurogenic vasodilatation. Because numerous studies implicate calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)-containing sensory neurons in these effects, immunocytochemical and anatomical techniques were used to examine the normal development of CGRP-immunoreactive (-IR) neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats from 13 days to 19 weeks of age, and to compare this to the development in rats treated neonatally (postnatal days 2-14) with anti-NGF. In controls the rate of increase in the mean diameter of CGRP-IR cells was substantially greater between 13 days and 5 weeks of age than it was between 5 weeks and 19 weeks, in contrast to CGRP-negative neurons whose rate of growth remained relatively constant. Anti-NGF had no significant effect on growth rate, but rats treated with anti-NGF exhibited a reduced proportion of CGRP-IR neurons at 5 weeks. This deficit was reversed by 19 weeks unlike the physiological changes. These results indicate independent regulation of CGRP expression and nociceptor physiology by NGF.
Puopolo, Michelino; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Bean, Bruce P.
The voltage-activated sodium (Nav) channel Nav1.9 is expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons where it is believed to play an important role in nociception. Progress in revealing the functional properties and pharmacological sensitivities of this non-canonical Nav channel has been slow because attempts to express this channel in a heterologous expression system have been unsuccessful. Here, we use a protein engineering approach to dissect the contributions of the four Nav1.9 voltage sensors to channel function and pharmacology. We define individual S3b–S4 paddle motifs within each voltage sensor, and show that they can sense changes in membrane voltage and drive voltage sensor activation when transplanted into voltage-activated potassium channels. We also find that the paddle motifs in Nav1.9 are targeted by animal toxins, and that these toxins alter Nav1.9-mediated currents in DRG neurons. Our results demonstrate that slowly activating and inactivating Nav1.9 channels have functional and pharmacological properties in common with canonical Nav channels, but also show distinctive pharmacological sensitivities that can potentially be exploited for developing novel treatments for pain. PMID:21670206
Wei, Jinrong; Li, Meng; Wang, Dieyu; Zhu, Hongyan; Kong, Xiangpeng; Wang, Shusheng; Zhou, You-Lang; Ju, Zhong; Jiang, Guo-Qin
Background Cancer-induced pain (CIP) is one of the most severe types of chronic pain with which clinical treatment remains challenging and the involved mechanisms are largely unknown. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is an important intracellular protein and provides a classical negative feedback loop, thus involving in a wide variety of processes including inflammation and nociception. However, the role of SOCS3 pathway in CIP is poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the role of SOCS3 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the development of CIP. Method CIP was established by injection of Walker 256 mammary gland tumor cells into the rat tibia canal. Whole-cell patch clamping and Western blotting were performed. Results Following the development of bone cancer, SOCS3 expression was significantly downregulated in rat DRGs at L2–L5 segments. Overexpression of SOCS3, using lentiviral-mediated production of SOCS3 at spinal cord level, drastically attenuated mechanical allodynia and body weight-bearing difference, but not thermal hyperalgesia in bone cancer rats. In addition, overexpression of SOCS3 reversed the hyperexcitability of DRG neurons innervating the tibia, and reduced abnormal expression of toll-like receptors 4 in the DRGs. Conclusions These results suggest that SOCS3 might be a key molecular involved in the development of complicated cancer pain and that overexpression of SOCS3 might be an important strategy for treatment for mechanical allodynia associated with bone cancer. PMID:28326931
Kolarcik, Christi L.; Catt, Kasey; Rost, Erika; Albrecht, Ingrid N.; Bourbeau, Dennis; Du, Zhanhong; Kozai, Takashi D.Y.; Luo, Xiliang; Weber, Douglas J.; Cui, X. Tracy
Objective The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is an attractive target for implanting neural electrode arrays that restore sensory function or provide therapy via stimulation. However, penetrating microelectrodes designed for these applications are small and deliver low currents. For long-term performance of microstimulation devices, novel coating materials are needed in part to decrease impedance values at the electrode-tissue interface and to increase charge storage capacity. Approach Conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were coated on the electrode surface and doped with the anti-inflammatory drug, dexamethasone. Electrode characteristics and the tissue reaction around neural electrodes as the result of stimulation, coating and drug release were characterized. Hematoxylin and eosin staining along with antibodies recognizing Iba1 (microglia/macrophages), NF200 (neuronal axons), NeuN (neurons), vimentin (fibroblasts), caspase-3 (cell death) and L1 (neural cell adhesion molecule) were used. Quantitative image analyses were performed using MATLAB. Main Results Our results indicate that coated microelectrodes have lower in vitro and in vivo impedance values. Significantly less neuronal death/damage was observed with coated electrodes as compared to non-coated controls. The inflammatory response with the PEDOT/CNT-coated electrodes was also reduced. Significance This study is the first to report on the utility of these coatings in stimulation applications. Our results indicate PEDOT/CNT coatings may be valuable additions to implantable electrodes used as therapeutic modalities. PMID:25485675
Shi, Haohong; Luo, Xingjing
BACKGROUND 7, 8, 3'-trihydroxyflavone (THF) is a novel pro-neuronal small molecule that acts as a TrkB agonist. In this study, we examined the effect of THF on promoting neuronal growth and protecting anesthetics-induced neurotoxicity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS Neonatal mouse DRG neurons were cultured in vitro and treated with various concentrations of THF. The effect of THF on neuronal growth was investigated by neurite outgrowth assay and Western blot. In addition, the protective effects of THF on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity were investigated by apoptosis TUNEL assay, neurite outgrowth assay, and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS THF promoted neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons in dose-dependent manner, with an EC50 concentration of 67.4 nM. Western blot analysis showed THF activated TrkB signaling pathway by inducing TrkB phosphorylation. THF also rescued bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity by reducing apoptosis and protecting neurite retraction in DRG neurons. Furthermore, the protection of THF in bupivacaine-injured neurotoxicity was directly associated with TrkB phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner in DRG neurons. CONCLUSIONS THF has pro-neuronal effect on DRG neurons by promoting neurite growth and protecting against bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity, likely through TrkB activation.
Kolarcik, Christi L.; Catt, Kasey; Rost, Erika; Albrecht, Ingrid N.; Bourbeau, Dennis; Du, Zhanhong; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Luo, Xiliang; Weber, Douglas J.; Cui, X. Tracy
Objective. The dorsal root ganglion is an attractive target for implanting neural electrode arrays that restore sensory function or provide therapy via stimulation. However, penetrating microelectrodes designed for these applications are small and deliver low currents. For long-term performance of microstimulation devices, novel coating materials are needed in part to decrease impedance values at the electrode-tissue interface and to increase charge storage capacity. Approach. Conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were coated on the electrode surface and doped with the anti-inflammatory drug, dexamethasone. Electrode characteristics and the tissue reaction around neural electrodes as a result of stimulation, coating and drug release were characterized. Hematoxylin and eosin staining along with antibodies recognizing Iba1 (microglia/macrophages), NF200 (neuronal axons), NeuN (neurons), vimentin (fibroblasts), caspase-3 (cell death) and L1 (neural cell adhesion molecule) were used. Quantitative image analyses were performed using MATLAB. Main results. Our results indicate that coated microelectrodes have lower in vitro and in vivo impedance values. Significantly less neuronal death/damage was observed with coated electrodes as compared to non-coated controls. The inflammatory response with the PEDOT/CNT-coated electrodes was also reduced. Significance. This study is the first to report on the utility of these coatings in stimulation applications. Our results indicate PEDOT/CNT coatings may be valuable additions to implantable electrodes used as therapeutic modalities.
Wang, Qun; Sun, Yanyuan; Ren, Yingna; Gao, Yandong; Tian, Li; Liu, Yang; Pu, Yanan; Gou, Xingchun; Chen, Yanke; Lu, Yan
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are widely implicated in inflammation and tissue remodeling associated with various neurodegenerative diseases and play an important role in nociception and allodynia. Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) plays a key regulatory role for MMP activities. However, the role of EMMPRIN in the development of neuropathic pain is not clear. Western blotting, real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and immunofluorescence were performed to determine the changes of messenger RNA and protein of EMMPRIN/OX47 and their cellular localization in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after nerve injury. Paw withdrawal threshold test was examined to evaluate the pain behavior in spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. The lentivirus containing OX47 shRNA was injected into the DRG one day before SNL. The expression level of both mRNA and protein of OX47 was markedly upregulated in ipsilateral DRG after SNL. OX47 was mainly expressed in the extracellular matrix of DRG. Administration of shRNA targeted against OX47 in vivo remarkably attenuated mechanical allodynia induced by SNL. In conclusion, peripheral nerve injury induced upregulation of OX47 in the extracellular matrix of DRG. RNA interference against OX47 significantly suppressed the expression of OX47 mRNA and the development of mechanical allodynia. The altered expression of OX47 may contribute to the development of neuropathic pain after nerve injury.
Benitez, Sergio; Seltzer, Alicia; Acosta, Cristian
AT2 receptor (AT2R) plays a functional role in foetal development. Its expression declines in most tissues soon after birth but stays high in sensory areas of the adult nervous system. In the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) the expression pattern of AT2R during development and the identity of the subpopulation expressing it remain unknown. Using a combination of semi-quantitative PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry we examined the expression of AT2R at mRNA and protein levels in rat DRGs from embryonic day 15 (E15) until postnatal day 30 (PN30). We found that both AT2R mRNA and protein levels exhibited only minor (statistically non-significant) fluctuations from E15 to PN30. Detailed quantitative analysis of ABC/DAB AT2R staining showed a) that the receptor was present in most neurons at E15 and E18 and b) that postnatally it was predominantly expressed by small DRG neurons. Given that small neurons are putative C-nociceptors and the proposed role of AT2R in neuropathic pain, we next examined whether these AT2R-positive neurons co-localized with Ret and trkA embryonically and with IB4-binding postnatally. Most AT2R-positive neurons expressed trkA embryonically and bound IB4 postnatally. We found strong positive statistically highly significant correlations between AT2R cytoplasmic%intensities and trkA at E15/E18 and with Ret only at E18. Cytoplasmic AT2R also strongly and positively correlated with IB4-binding at PN3, 15 and 30. Our demonstration that a subpopulation of C-nociceptor-like neurons expresses AT2R during development supports a role for this receptor in neuropathic pain.
Wang, Tao; Hurwitz, Olivia; Shimada, Steven G.; Qu, Lintao; Fu, Kai; Zhang, Pu; Ma, Chao; LaMotte, Robert H.
Radicular pain in humans is usually caused by intraforaminal stenosis and other diseases affecting the spinal nerve, root, or dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Previous studies discovered that a chronic compression of the DRG (CCD) induced mechanical allodynia in rats and mice, with enhanced excitability of DRG neurons. We investigated whether CCD altered the pain-like behavior and also the responses of cutaneous nociceptors with unmyelinated axons (C-fibers) to a normally aversive punctate mechanical stimulus delivered to the hairy skin of the hind limb of the mouse. The incidence of a foot shaking evoked by indentation of the dorsum of foot with an aversive von Frey filament (tip diameter 200 μm, bending force 20 mN) was significantly higher in the foot ipsilateral to the CCD surgery as compared to the contralateral side on post-operative days 2 to 8. Mechanically-evoked action potentials were electrophysiologically recorded from the L3 DRG, in vivo, from cell bodies visually identified as expressing a transgenically labeled fluorescent marker (neurons expressing either the receptor MrgprA3 or MrgprD). After CCD, 26.7% of MrgprA3+ and 32.1% MrgprD+ neurons exhibited spontaneous activity (SA), while none of the unoperated control neurons had SA. MrgprA3+ and MrgprD+ neurons in the compressed DRG exhibited, in comparison with neurons from unoperated control mice, an increased response to the punctate mechanical stimuli for each force applied (6, 20, 40, and 80 mN). We conclude that CCD produced both a behavioral hyperalgesia and an enhanced response of cutaneous C-nociceptors to aversive punctate mechanical stimuli. PMID:26356638
Wong, J.; Oblinger, M.M. )
The expression of major cytoskeletal protein mRNAs was studied in adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after crushing either their central or peripheral branch axons. mRNA levels in DRG neurons were examined by quantitative in situ hybridization with radiolabeled cDNA probes specific for the low-molecular-weight neurofilament protein (NF-L) and beta-tubulin. The large-sized (greater than 1000 microns 2) neurons which give rise to myelinated axons in lumbar ganglia (L4 and L5) were studied 1 d through 8 weeks after either dorsal root or sciatic nerve crush. NF-L and beta-tubulin mRNA levels in axotomized DRG neurons were compared to those in contralateral control DRG neurons, as well as to those in normal (completely untreated) DRG cells. In the case of NF-L mRNA, changes were observed after central as well as peripheral branch axotomy and the time course and magnitude of changes were similar after both types of axotomy. NF-L mRNA levels initially decreased (first 2 weeks after crush) and then began to return towards control levels at longer survival times. Similar, but less pronounced, changes in NF-L mRNA levels also occurred in contralateral DRG neurons (which were uninjured); the changes in contralateral neurons were not simply a result of surgical stress since no changes in NF-L mRNA levels were observed in sham-operated DRG neurons. In the case of tubulin mRNA, changes were observed after central as well as peripheral branch axotomy by in situ hybridization, but the time course and magnitude of changes were different after each type of axotomy.
Chen, Yi-Jen; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Wang, Chau-Zen; Ho, Mei-Ling; Kuo, Po-Lin; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Chen, Chia-Hsin
Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are vulnerable to physical injury of the intervertebral foramen, and chronic compression of the DRG (CCD) an result in nerve root damage with persistent morbidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the DRG in a CCD model and to determine the mechanisms underlying these effects. CCD rats had L-shaped stainless-steel rods inserted into the fourth and fifth lumbar intervertebral foramen, and the rats were then subjected to 0 or 8 J/cm2 LLLT for 8 consecutive days following CCD surgery. Pain and heat stimuli were applied to test for hyperalgesia following CCD. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were measured via real-time PCR, and protein expression levels were analyzed through immunohistochemical analyses. Our data indicate that LLLT significantly decreased the tolerable sensitivity to pain and heat stimuli in the CCD groups. The expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β were increased following CCD, and we found that these increases could be reduced by the application of LLLT. Furthermore, the expression of GAP-43 was enhanced by LLLT. In conclusion, LLLT was able to enhance neural regeneration in rats following CCD and improve rat ambulatory behavior. The therapeutic effects of LLLT on the DRG during CCD may be exerted through suppression of the inflammatory response and induction of neuronal repair genes. These results suggest potential clinical applications for LLLT in the treatment of compression-induced neuronal disorders.
Moreno-López, Y; Martínez-Lorenzana, G; Condés-Lara, M; Rojas-Piloni, G
Oxytocin (OT) secreted by the hypothalamo-spinal projection exerts antinociceptive effects in the dorsal horn. Electrophysiological evidence indicates that OT could exert these effects by activating OT receptors (OTR) directly on dorsal horn neurons and/or primary nociceptive afferents in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, little is known about the identity of the dorsal horn and DRG neurons that express the OTR. In the dorsal horn, we found that the OTR is expressed principally in neurons cell bodies. However, neither spino-thalamic dorsal horn neurons projecting to the contralateral thalamic ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) and posterior nuclear group (Po) nor GABaergic dorsal horn neurons express the OTR. The OTR is not expressed in skin nociceptive terminals or in dorsal horn nociceptive fibers. In the DRG, however, the OTR is expressed predominantly in non-peptidergic C-fiber cell bodies, but not in peptidergic or mechanoreceptor afferents or in skin nociceptive terminals. Our results suggest that the antinociceptive effects of OT are mediated by direct activation of dorsal horn neurons and peripheral actions on nociceptive, non-peptidergic C-afferents in the DRG.
Gong, Kerui; Kung, Ling-Hsuan; Magni, Giulia; Bhargava, Aditi; Jasmin, Luc
Glutamate in the peripheral nervous system is involved in neuropathic pain, yet we know little how nerve injury alters responses to this neurotransmitter in primary sensory neurons. We recorded neuronal responses from the ex-vivo preparations of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) one week following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in adult rats. We found that small diameter DRG neurons (<30 µm) exhibited increased excitability that was associated with decreased membrane threshold and rheobase, whereas responses in large diameter neurons (>30 µm) were unaffected. Puff application of either glutamate, or the selective ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainic acid (KA), or the group I metabotropic receptor (mGluR) agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), induced larger inward currents in CCI DRGs compared to those from uninjured rats. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced currents were unchanged. In addition to larger inward currents following CCI, a greater number of neurons responded to glutamate, AMPA, NMDA, and DHPG, but not to KA. Western blot analysis of the DRGs revealed that CCI resulted in a 35% increase in GluA1 and a 60% decrease in GluA2, the AMPA receptor subunits, compared to uninjured controls. mGluR1 receptor expression increased by 60% in the membrane fraction, whereas mGluR5 receptor subunit expression remained unchanged after CCI. These results show that following nerve injury, small diameter DRG neurons, many of which are nociceptive, have increased excitability and an increased response to glutamate that is associated with changes in receptor expression at the neuronal membrane. Our findings provide further evidence that glutamatergic transmission in the periphery plays a role in nociception.
Wang, Yiheng; Ni, Hongxia; Zhang, Wenrui; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Haishan
Local anesthetic may cause neurotoxicity in developing neurons. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms of microRNA-210 (miR-210) in regulating bupivacaine-induced dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurotoxicity in vitro. Young mouse (P30) DRG explants were cultured in vitro and treated with 5 mM bupivacaine to induce neurotoxicity. QRT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression profiles of miRNAs within 24 h after bupivacaine treatment. MiR-210 was downregulated in DRG, and its effects on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity were evaluated by apoptosis and neurite growth assays, respectively. Putative downstream target of miR-210 in DRG, BDNF, was evaluated by dual-luciferase assay, qRT-PCR, and western blot, respectively. BDNF was then knocked down by siRNA to assess its associated effects in regulating DRG neurotoxicity. Within the initial 24 h after bupivacaine treatment, various patterns of miRNA expression were observed, whereas miR-210 was constantly upregulated. Application of miR-210 inhibitor efficiently downregulated endogenous miR-210, protected apoptosis and neurite retraction in bupivacaine damaged DRG neurons. Using dual-luciferase assay, qRT-PCR, and western blot, BDNF was confirmed to the downstream target of miR-210 in DRG. SiRNA-mediated BDNF downregulation reversed the effect of miR-210 downregulation in DRG neurotoxicity. MiR-210, through the regulation of BDNF, plays important role in anesthetics-induced DRG neurotoxicity.
Ji, Zhi-Gang; Ito, Shin; Honjoh, Tatsuya; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Toru; Fukazawa, Yugo; Yawo, Hiromu
In vertebrate somatosensory systems, each mode of touch-pressure, temperature or pain is sensed by sensory endings of different dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which conducted to the specific cortical loci as nerve impulses. Therefore, direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve endings causes an erroneous sensation to be conducted by the nerve. We have recently generated several transgenic lines of rat in which channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) transgene is driven by the Thy-1.2 promoter. In one of them, W-TChR2V4, some neurons were endowed with photosensitivity by the introduction of the ChR2 gene, coding an algal photoreceptor molecule. The DRG neurons expressing ChR2 were immunohistochemically identified using specific antibodies to the markers of mechanoreceptive or nociceptive neurons. Their peripheral nerve endings in the plantar skin as well as the central endings in the spinal cord were also examined. We identified that ChR2 is expressed in a certain population of large neurons in the DRG of W-TChR2V4. On the basis of their morphology and molecular markers, these neurons were classified as mechanoreceptive but not nociceptive. ChR2 was also distributed in their peripheral sensory nerve endings, some of which were closely associated with CK20-positive cells to form Merkel cell-neurite complexes or with S-100-positive cells to form structures like Meissner's corpuscles. These nerve endings are thus suggested to be involved in the sensing of touch. Each W-TChR2V4 rat showed a sensory-evoked behavior in response to blue LED flashes on the plantar skin. It is thus suggested that each rat acquired an unusual sensory modality of sensing blue light through the skin as touch-pressure. This light-evoked somatosensory perception should facilitate study of how the complex tactile sense emerges in the brain.
EVERILL, B.; KOCSIS, J. D.
Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to study the effects of nerve growth factor on voltage-dependent potassium conductance in normal and axotomized identified large cutaneous afferent dorsal root ganglion neurons (48–50 μm diameter) many of which probably give rise to myelinated Aβ fibers. K-currents were isolated by blocking Na- and Ca-currents with appropriate ion replacement and channel blockers. Separation of current components was achieved on the basis of response to variation in conditioning voltage. Cutaneous afferents were labeled by the retrograde marker hydroxy-stilbamide (FluoroGold) which was injected into the skin of the foot. The sciatic nerve was either ligated or crushed with fine forceps five to seven days later. Neurons were dissociated 14–17 days after injury. The cut ends of the sciatic nerves were positioned into polyethylene tubes, which were connected to mini-osmotic pumps filled with either nerve growth factor or sterile saline. Control neurons displayed a prominent sustained K-current and the transient potassium currents “A” and “D”. Nerve ligation, which blocks target reconnection resulted in near 50% reduction of total outward current; isolated sustained K-current and transient A-current were reduced by a comparable amount. Nerve crush, which allows regeneration to peripheral targets and exposure of the regenerating nerve to the distal nerve segment, resulted in a small reduction in sustained K-current but no reduction in transient A-current compared to controls. Levels of transient A-current and sustained K-current were maintained at control levels after nerve growth factor treatment. These results indicate that the large reduction in transient A-current, and in sustained K-current, observed in cutaneous afferent cell bodies after nerve ligation is prevented by application of nerve growth factor. PMID:11008179
Persson, Anna-Karin; Liu, Shujun; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Black, Joel A; Waxman, Stephen G
Small-fiber neuropathy (SFN) is characterized by injury to small-diameter peripheral nerve axons and intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF). Although mechanisms underlying loss of IENF in SFN are poorly understood, available data suggest that it results from axonal degeneration and reduced regenerative capacity. Gain-of-function variants in sodium channel Na(V)1.7 that increase firing frequency and spontaneous firing of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons have recently been identified in ∼30% of patients with idiopathic SFN. In the present study, to determine whether these channel variants can impair axonal integrity, we developed an in vitro assay of DRG neurite length, and examined the effect of 3 SFN-associated variant Na(V)1.7 channels, I228M, M932L/V991L (ML/VL), and I720K, on DRG neurites in vitro. At 3 days after culturing, DRG neurons transfected with I228M channels exhibited ∼20% reduced neurite length compared to wild-type channels; DRG neurons transfected with ML/VL and I720K variants displayed a trend toward reduced neurite length. I228M-induced reduction in neurite length was ameliorated by the use-dependent sodium channel blocker carbamazepine and by a blocker of reverse Na-Ca exchange. These in vitro observations provide evidence supporting a contribution of the I228M variant Na(V)1.7 channel to impaired regeneration and/or degeneration of sensory axons in idiopathic SFN, and suggest that enhanced sodium channel activity and reverse Na-Ca exchange can contribute to a decrease in length of peripheral sensory axons.
Menon-Johansson, A S; Berrow, N; Dolphin, A C
High-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channel currents (IBa) were recorded from acutely replated cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. IBa was irreversibly inhibited by 56.9 +/- 2.7% by 1 microM omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA), whereas the 1,4-dihydropyridine antagonist nicardipine was ineffective. The selective gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist, (-)-baclofen (50 microM), inhibited the HVA IBa by 30.7 +/- 5.4%. Prior application of omega-CTx-GVIA completely occluded inhibition of the HVA IBa by (-)-baclofen, indicating that in this preparation (-)-baclofen inhibits N-type current. To investigate which G protein subtype was involved, cells were replated in the presence of anti-G protein antisera. Under these conditions the antibodies were shown to enter the cells through transient pores created during the replating procedure. Replating DRGs in the presence of anti-G(o) antiserum, raised against the C-terminal decapeptide of the G alpha o subunit, reduced (-)-baclofen inhibition of the HVA IBa, whereas replating DRGs in the presence of the anti-Gi antiserum did not. Using anti-G alpha o antisera (1:2000) and confocal laser microscopy, G alpha o localisation was investigated in both unreplated and replated neurons. G alpha o immunoreactivity was observed at the plasma membrane, neurites, attachment plaques and perinuclear region, and was particularly pronounced at points of cell-to-cell contact. The plasma membrane G alpha o immunoreactivity was completely blocked by preincubation with the immunising G alpha o undecapeptide (1 microgram.ml-1) for 1 h at 37 degrees C. A similar treatment also blocked recognition of G alpha o in brain membranes on immunoblots.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Gu, Zirong; Imai, Fumiyasu; Kim, In Jung; Fujita, Hiroko; Katayama, Kei ichi; Mori, Kensaku; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Yutaka
Cell adhesion molecules belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) control synaptic specificity through hetero- or homophilic interactions in different regions of the nervous system. In the developing spinal cord, monosynaptic connections of exquisite specificity form between proprioceptive sensory neurons and motor neurons, however, it is not known whether IgSF molecules participate in regulating this process. To determine whether IgSF molecules influence the establishment of synaptic specificity in sensory-motor circuits, we examined the expression of 157 IgSF genes in the developing dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord by in situ hybridization assays. We find that many IgSF genes are expressed by sensory and motor neurons in the mouse developing DRG and spinal cord. For instance, Alcam, Mcam, and Ocam are expressed by a subset of motor neurons in the ventral spinal cord. Further analyses show that Ocam is expressed by obturator but not quadriceps motor neurons, suggesting that Ocam may regulate sensory-motor specificity in these sensory-motor reflex arcs. Electrophysiological analysis shows no obvious defects in synaptic specificity of monosynaptic sensory-motor connections involving obturator and quadriceps motor neurons in Ocam mutant mice. Since a subset of Ocam+ motor neurons also express Alcam, Alcam or other functionally redundant IgSF molecules may compensate for Ocam in controlling sensory-motor specificity. Taken together, these results reveal that IgSF molecules are broadly expressed by sensory and motor neurons during development, and that Ocam and other IgSF molecules may have redundant functions in controlling the specificity of sensory-motor circuits.
Rahman, Md Habibur; Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Kim, Jong-Heon; Nam, Youngpyo; Lee, Maan Gee; Go, Younghoon; Harris, Robert A; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Suk, Kyoungho
The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a highly vulnerable site in diabetic neuropathy. Under diabetic conditions, the DRG is subjected to tissue ischemia or lower ambient oxygen tension that leads to aberrant metabolic functions. Metabolic dysfunctions have been documented to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diverse pain hypersensitivities. However, the contribution of diabetes-induced metabolic dysfunctions in the DRG to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy remains ill-explored. In this study, we report that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK2 and PDK4), key regulatory enzymes in glucose metabolism, mediate glycolytic metabolic shift in the DRG leading to painful diabetic neuropathy. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes substantially enhanced the expression and activity of the PDKs in the DRG, and the genetic ablation of Pdk2 and Pdk4 attenuated the hyperglycemia-induced pain hypersensitivity. Mechanistically, Pdk2/4 deficiency inhibited the diabetes-induced lactate surge, expression of pain-related ion channels, activation of satellite glial cells, and infiltration of macrophages in the DRG, in addition to reducing central sensitization and neuroinflammation hallmarks in the spinal cord, which probably accounts for the attenuated pain hypersensitivity. Pdk2/4-deficient mice were partly resistant to the diabetes-induced loss of peripheral nerve structure and function. Furthermore, in the experiments using DRG neuron cultures, lactic acid treatment enhanced the expression of the ion channels and compromised cell viability. Finally, the pharmacological inhibition of DRG PDKs or lactic acid production substantially attenuated diabetes-induced pain hypersensitivity. Taken together, PDK2/4 induction and the subsequent lactate surge induce the metabolic shift in the diabetic DRG, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy.
Xiao, Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Tao; Xu, Ling-Chi; Yue, Lu-Peng; Liu, Feng-Yu; Cai, Jie; Liao, Fei-Fei; Kong, Jin-Ge; Xing, Guo-Gang; Yi, Ming; Wan, You
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are expressed in nociceptive neurons of rat dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and mediate inflammatory pain. Nonspecific inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPV1 and sensitizes TRPV1. However, less is known about tyrosine phosphorylation's implication in inflammatory pain, compared with that of serine/threonine phosphorylation. Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (Shp-1) is a key phosphatase dephosphorylating TRPV1. In this study, we reported that Shp-1 colocalized with and bound to TRPV1 in nociceptive DRG neurons. Shp-1 inhibitors, including sodium stibogluconate and PTP inhibitor III, sensitized TRPV1 in cultured DRG neurons. In naive rats, intrathecal injection of Shp-1 inhibitors increased both TRPV1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1 in DRGs and induced thermal hyperalgesia, which was abolished by pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine, BCTC, or AMG9810. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain in rats significantly increased the expression of Shp-1, TRPV1, and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1, as well as the colocalization of Shp-1 and TRPV1 in DRGs. Intrathecal injection of sodium stibogluconate aggravated CFA-induced inflammatory pain, whereas Shp-1 overexpression in DRG neurons alleviated it. These results suggested that Shp-1 dephosphorylated and inhibited TRPV1 in DRG neurons, contributing to maintain thermal nociceptive thresholds in normal rats, and as a compensatory mechanism, Shp-1 increased in DRGs of rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain, which was involved in protecting against excessive thermal hyperalgesia.
Regnier, Glenn; Bocksteins, Elke; Van de Vijver, Gerda; Snyders, Dirk J; van Bogaert, Pierre-Paul
Delayed rectifier voltage-gated K(+)(Kv) channels play an important role in the regulation of the electrophysiological properties of neurons. In mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, a large fraction of the delayed rectifier current is carried by both homotetrameric Kv2 channels and heterotetrameric channels consisting of Kv2 and silent Kv (KvS) subunits (i.e., Kv5-Kv6 and Kv8-Kv9). However, little is known about the contribution of Kv2-mediated currents during the postnatal development ofDRGneurons. Here, we report that the Stromatoxin-1 (ScTx)-sensitive fraction of the total outward K(+)current (IK) from mouseDRGneurons gradually decreased (~13%,P < 0.05) during the first month of postnatal development. Because ScTx inhibits both Kv2.1- and Kv2.2-mediated currents, this gradual decrease may reflect a decrease in currents containing either subunit. However, the fraction of Kv2.1 antibody-sensitive current that only reflects the Kv2.1-mediated currents remained constant during that same period. These results suggested that the fractional contribution of Kv2.2-mediated currents relative toIKdecreased with postnatal age. SemiquantitativeRT-PCRanalysis indicated that this decrease can be attributed to developmental changes in Kv2.2 expression as themRNAlevels of the Kv2.2 subunit decreased gradually between 1 and 4 weeks of age. In addition, we observed age-dependent fluctuations in themRNAlevels of the Kv6.3, Kv8.1, Kv9.1, and Kv9.3 subunits. These results support an important role of both Kv2 and KvS subunits in the postnatal maturation ofDRGneurons.
Han, Hyo Jo; Lee, Seung Wook; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Eun-Jin; Kwon, Byeonghun; Kang, Dawon; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Seo, Kwang-Suk
Neuropathic pain is a complex state showing increased pain response with dysfunctional inhibitory neurotransmission. The TREK family, one of the two pore domain K+ (K2P) channel subgroups were focused among various mechanisms of neuropathic pain. These channels influence neuronal excitability and are thought to be related in mechano/thermosensation. However, only a little is known about the expression and role of TREK-1 and TREK-2, in neuropathic pain. It is performed to know whether TREK-1 and/or 2 are positively related in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of a mouse neuropathic pain model, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Following this purpose, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were performed using mouse DRG of CCI model and compared to the sham surgery group. Immunofluorescence staining of isolectin-B4 (IB4) and TREK were performed. Electrophysiological recordings of single channel currents were analyzed to obtain the information about the channel. Interactions with known TREK activators were tested to confirm the expression. While both TREK-1 and TREK-2 mRNA were significantly overexpressed in DRG of CCI mice, only TREK-1 showed significant increase (∼9 fold) in western blot analysis. The TREK-1-like channel recorded in DRG neurons of the CCI mouse showed similar current-voltage relationship and conductance to TREK-1. It was easily activated by low pH solution (pH 6.3), negative pressure, and riluzole. Immunofluorescence images showed the expression of TREK-1 was stronger compared to TREK-2 on IB4 positive neurons. These results suggest that modulation of the TREK-1 channel may have beneficial analgesic effects in neuropathic pain patients. PMID:27133259
Han, Hyo Jo; Lee, Seung Wook; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Eun-Jin; Kwon, Byeonghun; Kang, Dawon; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Seo, Kwang-Suk
Neuropathic pain is a complex state showing increased pain response with dysfunctional inhibitory neurotransmission. The TREK family, one of the two pore domain K⁺ (K2P) channel subgroups were focused among various mechanisms of neuropathic pain. These channels influence neuronal excitability and are thought to be related in mechano/thermosensation. However, only a little is known about the expression and role of TREK-1 and TREK-2, in neuropathic pain. It is performed to know whether TREK-1 and/ or 2 are positively related in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of a mouse neuropathic pain model, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Following this purpose, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were performed using mouse DRG of CCI model and compared to the sham surgery group. Immunofluorescence staining of isolectin- B4 (IB4) and TREK were performed. Electrophysiological recordings of single channel currents were analyzed to obtain the information about the channel. Interactions with known TREK activators were tested to confirm the expression. While both TREK-1 and TREK-2 mRNA were significantly overexpressed in DRG of CCI mice, only TREK-1 showed significant increase (~9 fold) in western blot analysis. The TREK-1-like channel recorded in DRG neurons of the CCI mouse showed similar current-voltage relationship and conductance to TREK-1. It was easily activated by low pH solution (pH 6.3), negative pressure, and riluzole. Immunofluorescence images showed the expression of TREK-1 was stronger compared to TREK-2 on IB4 positive neurons. These results suggest that modulation of the TREK-1 channel may have beneficial analgesic effects in neuropathic pain patients.
Fan, Yihong; Hooker, Bradley A; Garrison, Tiffany Runyan; El-Kouhen, Odile F; Idler, Kenneth B; Holley-Shanks, Rhonda R; Meyer, Michael D; Yao, Betty Bei
The behavioral effects evoked by cannabinoids are primarily mediated by the CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptor subtypes. In vitro pharmacology of cannabinoid receptors has been elucidated using recombinant expression systems expressing either CB(1) or CB(2) receptors, with limited characterization in native cell lines endogenously expressing both CB(1) and CB(2) receptors. In the current study, we report the molecular and pharmacological characterization of the F-11 cell line, a hybridoma of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and mouse neuroblastoma (N18TG2) cells, reported to endogenously express both cannabinoid receptors. The present study revealed that both receptors are of mouse origin in F-11 cells, and describes the relative gene expression levels between the two receptors. Pharmacological characterization of the F-11 cell line using cannabinoid agonists and antagonists indicated that the functional responses to these cannabinoid ligands are mainly mediated by CB(1) receptors. The non-selective cannabinoid ligands CP 55,940 and WIN 55212-2 are potent agonists and their efficacies in adenylate cyclase and MAPK assays are inhibited by the CB(1) selective antagonist SR141716A (SR1), but not by the CB(2) selective antagonist SR144528 (SR2). The endocannabinoid ligand 2AG, although not active in adenylate cyclase assays, was a potent activator of MAPK signaling in F-11 cells. The analysis of CB(1) and CB(2) receptor gene expression and the characterization of cannabinoid receptor pharmacology in the F-11 cell line demonstrate that it can be used as a tool for interrogating the endogenous signal transduction of cannabinoid receptor subtypes.
Rahman, Md Habibur; Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Kim, Jong-Heon; Nam, Youngpyo; Lee, Maan Gee; Go, Younghoon; Harris, Robert A.; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Suk, Kyoungho
The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a highly vulnerable site in diabetic neuropathy. Under diabetic conditions, the DRG is subjected to tissue ischemia or lower ambient oxygen tension that leads to aberrant metabolic functions. Metabolic dysfunctions have been documented to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diverse pain hypersensitivities. However, the contribution of diabetes-induced metabolic dysfunctions in the DRG to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy remains ill-explored. In this study, we report that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK2 and PDK4), key regulatory enzymes in glucose metabolism, mediate glycolytic metabolic shift in the DRG leading to painful diabetic neuropathy. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes substantially enhanced the expression and activity of the PDKs in the DRG, and the genetic ablation of Pdk2 and Pdk4 attenuated the hyperglycemia-induced pain hypersensitivity. Mechanistically, Pdk2/4 deficiency inhibited the diabetes-induced lactate surge, expression of pain-related ion channels, activation of satellite glial cells, and infiltration of macrophages in the DRG, in addition to reducing central sensitization and neuroinflammation hallmarks in the spinal cord, which probably accounts for the attenuated pain hypersensitivity. Pdk2/4-deficient mice were partly resistant to the diabetes-induced loss of peripheral nerve structure and function. Furthermore, in the experiments using DRG neuron cultures, lactic acid treatment enhanced the expression of the ion channels and compromised cell viability. Finally, the pharmacological inhibition of DRG PDKs or lactic acid production substantially attenuated diabetes-induced pain hypersensitivity. Taken together, PDK2/4 induction and the subsequent lactate surge induce the metabolic shift in the diabetic DRG, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy. PMID:26769971
Joseph, Donald J.; Choudhury, Papiya; MacDermott, Amy B.
Synapses between nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and spinal cord dorsal horn neurons represent the first loci for transmission of painful stimuli. Our knowledge of the molecular organization and development of these synapses is sparse due, partly, to a lack of a reliable model system that reconstitutes synaptogenesis between these two neuronal populations. To address this issue, we have established an in vitro assay system consisting of separately purified DRG neurons and dorsal horn neurons on astrocyte micro-islands. Using immunocytochemistry, we have found that 97%, 93%, 98%, 96%, and 94% of DRG neurons on these microislands express markers often associated with nociceptive neurons including Substance P, TRPV1, calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), TrKA, and peripherin, respectively. Triple labeling with these nociceptive-like markers, synaptic vesicle marker Vglut2 and using MAP2 as a dendritic marker revealed the presence of nociceptive-like markers at synaptic terminals. Using this immunocytochemical approach, we counted contact points as overlapping MAP2/Vglut2 puncta and showed that they increased with time in culture. Single and dual patch clamp recordings showed that overlapping Vglut2/MAP2 puncta observed after a few days in culture are likely to be functional synapses between DRG and dorsal horn neurons in our in vitro assay system. Taken together, these data suggest our co-culture microisland model system consists of mostly nociceptive-like DRG neurons that express presynaptic markers and form functional synapses with their dorsal horn partners. Thus, this model system may have direct application for studies on factors regulating development of nociceptive DRG/dorsal horn synapses. PMID:20385165
Mari, João Fernando; Saito, José Hiroki; Neves, Amanda Ferreira; Lotufo, Celina Monteiro da Cruz; Destro-Filho, João-Batista; Nicoletti, Maria do Carmo
Microelectrode Arrays (MEA) are devices for long term electrophysiological recording of extracellular spontaneous or evocated activities on in vitro neuron culture. This work proposes and develops a framework for quantitative and morphological analysis of neuron cultures on MEAs, by processing their corresponding images, acquired by fluorescence microscopy. The neurons are segmented from the fluorescence channel images using a combination of segmentation by thresholding, watershed transform, and object classification. The positioning of microelectrodes is obtained from the transmitted light channel images using the circular Hough transform. The proposed method was applied to images of dissociated culture of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal cells. The morphological and topological quantitative analysis carried out produced information regarding the state of culture, such as population count, neuron-to-neuron and neuron-to-microelectrode distances, soma morphologies, neuron sizes, neuron and microelectrode spatial distributions. Most of the analysis of microscopy images taken from neuronal cultures on MEA only consider simple qualitative analysis. Also, the proposed framework aims to standardize the image processing and to compute quantitative useful measures for integrated image-signal studies and further computational simulations. As results show, the implemented microelectrode identification method is robust and so are the implemented neuron segmentation and classification one (with a correct segmentation rate up to 84%). The quantitative information retrieved by the method is highly relevant to assist the integrated signal-image study of recorded electrophysiological signals as well as the physical aspects of the neuron culture on MEA. Although the experiments deal with DRG cell images, cortical and hippocampal cell images could also be processed with small adjustments in the image processing parameter estimation.
... frequently fails to eliminate the ganglion because the “root” or connection to the joint or tendon sheath ... a weed which will grow back if the root is not removed. In many cases, the ganglion ...
Hone, Arik J; Meyer, Erin L; McIntyre, Melissa; McIntosh, J Michael
The α6-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been implicated in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including Parkinson's disease and substance abuse. In contrast, little is known about the role of α6* nAChRs in the peripheral nervous system (where the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits). Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are known to express nAChRs with a pharmacology consistent with an α7, α3β4*, and α4β2* composition. Here we present evidence that DRG neurons also express α6* nAChRs. We used RT-PCR to show the presence of α6 subunit transcripts and patch-clamp electrophysiology together with subtype-selective α-conotoxins to pharmacologically characterize the nAChRs in rat DRG neurons. α-Conotoxin BuIA (500 nM) blocked acetylcholine-gated currents (I(ACh)) by 90.3 ± 3.0%; the recovery from blockade was very slow, indicating a predominance of α(x)β4* nAChRs. Perfusion with either 300 nM BuIA[T5A;P6O] or 200 nM MII[E11A], α-conotoxins that target the α6β4* subtype, blocked I(ACh) by 49.3 ± 5 and 46.7 ± 8%, respectively. In these neurons, I(ACh) was relatively insensitive to 200 nM ArIB[V11L;V16D] (9.4±2.0% blockade) or 500 nM PnIA (23.0±4% blockade), α-conotoxins that target α7 and α3β2*/α6β2* nAChRs, respectively. We conclude that α6β4* nAChRs are among the subtypes expressed by DRG, and to our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of α6β4* in neurons outside the CNS.
van den Wijngaard, Paul W J; Sinnige, Mark P; Roobeek, Ilja; Reumer, Annet; Schoonheim, Peter J; Mol, Jos N M; Wang, Mei; De Boer, Albertus H
Germination of seeds proceeds in general in two phases, an initial imbibition phase and a subsequent growth phase. In grasses like barley, the latter phase is evident as the emergence of the embryonic root (radicle). The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits germination because it prevents the embryo from entering and completing the growth phase. Genetic and physiological studies have identified many steps in the ABA signal transduction cascade, but how it prevents radicle elongation is still not clear. For elongation growth to proceed, uptake of osmotically active substances (mainly K(+)) is essential. Therefore, we have addressed the question of how the activity of K(+) permeable ion channels in the plasma membrane of radicle cells is regulated under conditions of slow (+ABA) and rapid germination (+fusicoccin). We found that ABA arrests radicle growth, inhibits net K(+) uptake and reduces the activity of K(+) (in) channels as measured with the patch-clamp technique. In contrast, fusicoccin (FC), a well-known stimulator of germination, stimulates radicle growth, net K(+) uptake and reduces the activity of K(+) (out) channels. Both types of channels are under the control of 14-3-3 proteins, known as integral components of signal transduction pathways and instrumental in FC action. Intriguingly, 14-3-3 affected both channels in an opposite fashion: whereas K(+) (in) channel activity was fully dependent upon 14-3-3 proteins, K(+) (out) channel activity was reduced by 14-3-3 proteins by 60%. Together with previous data showing that 14-3-3 proteins control the activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, this makes 14-3-3 a prime candidate for molecular master regulator of the cellular osmo-pump. Regulation of the osmo-pump activity by ABA and FC is an important mechanism in controlling the growth of the embryonic root during seed germination.
Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua
The responsiveness of sensory neurons to muscle metabolites is altered under the conditions of insufficient limb blood supply in some diseases, such as peripheral artery disease. The purpose of this study was to examine ATP-induced current with activation of purinergic P2X subtypes P2X₃ and P2X₂/₃ in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of control limbs and limbs with 24 h of femoral artery occlusion using whole cell patch-clamp methods. Also, dual-labeling immunohistochemistry was employed to determine existence of P2X₃ expression in DRG neurons of thin-fiber afferents. DRG neurons from 4- to 6-wk-old rats were labeled by injecting the fluorescence tracer DiI into the hindlimb muscles 4-5 days before the recording experiments. Transient (P2X₃), mixed (P2X₃ and P2X₂/₃), and sustained (P2X₂/₃) current responses to α,β-methylene ATP (a P2X receptor agonist) are observed in small and medium DRG neurons, and size distribution of DRG neurons is similar in control and occluded limbs. However, the peak current amplitude of DRG neuron induced by stimulation of P2X₃ and/or P2X₂/₃ is larger in occluded limbs than that in control limbs. Moreover, the percentage of DRG neurons with P2X₃ transient currents is greater after arterial occlusion compared with control. In addition, a rapid desensitization was observed in DRG neurons with transient currents, but not with sustained currents in control and occluded groups. Furthermore, results from immunofluorescence experiments show that femoral artery occlusion primarily augments P2X₃ expression within DRG neurons projecting C-fiber afferents. Overall, these findings suggest that 1) greater ATP-induced currents with activation of P2X₃ and P2X₂/₃ are developed when hindlimb arterial blood supply is deficient under ischemic conditions and 2) increased P2X₃ expression is largely observed in C-fibers of DRG neurons after hindlimb vascular insufficiency.
Phuket, Thanawath Ratanadilok Na; Covarrubias, Manuel
The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contains heterogeneous populations of sensory neurons including primary nociceptive neurons and C-fibers implicated in pain signaling. Recent studies have demonstrated DRG hyperexcitability associated with downregulation of A-type K(+) channels; however, the molecular correlate of the corresponding A-type K(+) current (I(A)) has remained hypothetical. Kv4 channels may underlie the I(A) in DRG neurons. We combined electrophysiology, molecular biology (Whole-Tissue and Single-Cell RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry to investigate the molecular basis of the I(A) in acutely dissociated DRG neurons from 7- to 8-day-old rats. Whole-cell recordings demonstrate a robust tetraethylammonium-resistant (20 mM) and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive (5 mM) I(A). Matching Kv4 channel properties, activation and inactivation of this I(A) occur in the subthreshold range of membrane potentials and the rate of recovery from inactivation is rapid and voltage-dependent. Among Kv4 transcripts, the DRG expresses significant levels of Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 mRNAs. Also, single small-medium diameter DRG neurons ( approximately 30 mum) exhibit correlated frequent expression of mRNAs encoding Kv4.1 and Nav1.8, a known nociceptor marker. In contrast, the expressions of Kv1.4 and Kv4.2 mRNAs at the whole-tissue and single-cell levels are relatively low and infrequent. Kv4 protein expression in nociceptive DRG neurons was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which demonstrates colocalization of Kv4.3 and Nav1.8, and negligible expression of Kv4.2. Furthermore, specific dominant-negative suppression and overexpression strategies confirmed the contribution of Kv4 channels to I(A) in DRG neurons. Contrasting the expression patterns of Kv4 channels in the central and peripheral nervous systems, we discuss possible functional roles of these channels in primary sensory neurons.
Gao, L L; McMullan, S; Djouhri, L; Acosta, C; Harper, A A; Lawson, S N
The hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) has been implicated in nociception/pain, but its expression levels in nociceptors remained unknown. We recorded Ih magnitude and properties by voltage clamp from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vivo, after classifying them as nociceptive or low-threshold-mechanoreceptors (LTMs) and as having C-, Aδ- or Aα/β-conduction velocities (CVs). For both nociceptors and LTMs, Ih amplitude and Ih density (at −100 mV) were significantly positively correlated with CV. Median Ih magnitudes and Ih density in neuronal subgroups were respectively: muscle spindle afferents (MSAs): −4.6 nA, −33 pA pF−1; cutaneous Aα/β LTMs: −2.2 nA, −20 pA pF−1; Aβ-nociceptors: −2.6 nA, −21 pA pF−1; both Aδ-LTMs and nociceptors: −1.3 nA, ∼−14 pA pF−1; C-LTMs: −0.4 nA, −7.6 pA pF−1; and C-nociceptors: −0.26 nA, −5 pA pF−1. Ih activation slow time constants (slow τ values) were strongly correlated with fast τ values; both were shortest in MSAs. Most neurons had τ values consistent with HCN1-related Ih; others had τ values closer to HCN1+HCN2 channels, or HCN2 in the presence of cAMP. In contrast, median half-activation voltages (V0.5) of −80 to −86 mV for neuronal subgroups suggest contributions of HCN2 to Ih. τ values were unrelated to CV but were inversely correlated with Ih and Ih density for all non-MSA LTMs, and for Aδ-nociceptors. From activation curves ∼2–7% of Ih would be activated at normal membrane potentials. The high Ih may be important for excitability of A-nociceptors (responsible for sharp/pricking-type pain) and Aα/β-LTMs (tactile sensations and proprioception). Underlying HCN expression in these subgroups therefore needs to be determined. Altered Ih expression and/or properties (e.g. in chronic/pathological pain states) may influence both nociceptor and LTM excitability. PMID:22753545
ZHAO, LEI; LI, LI; MA, KE-TAO; WANG, YANG; LI, JING; SHI, WEN-YAN; ZHU, HE; ZHANG, ZHONG-SHUANG; SI, JUN-QIANG
The ability of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to modulate γ-aminobutyrate (GABA)-activated currents via Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG), was examined in the present study. During the preparation of DRG neurons harvested from Sprague-Dawley rats, the whole-cell recording technique was used to record the effect of NSAIDs on GABA-activated inward currents, and the expression levels of the TMEM16A and TMEM16B subunits were revealed. In the event that DRG neurons were pre-incubated for 20 sec with niflumic acid (NFA) and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) prior to the administration of GABA, the GABA-induced inward currents were diminished markedly in the majority of neurons examined (96.3%). The inward currents induced by 100 µmol/l GABA were attenuated by (0±0.09%; neurons = 4), (5.32±3.51%; neurons = 6), (21.3±4.00%; neurons = 5), (33.8±5.20%; neurons = 17), (52.2±5.10%; neurons = 4) and (61.1±4.12%; neurons = 12) by 0.1, 1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 µmol/l NFA, respectively. The inward currents induced by 100 µmol/l GABA were attenuated by (13.8±6%; neurons = 6), (23.2±14.7%; neurons = 6) and (29.7±9.1%; neurons = 9) by 3, 10 and 30 µmol/l NPPB, respectively. NFA and NPPB dose-dependently inhibited GABA-activated currents with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 6.7 and 11 µmol/l, respectively. The inhibitory effect of 100 µmol/l NFA on the GABA-evoked inward current were also strongly inhibited by nitrendipine (NTDP; an L-type calcium channel blocker), 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (a highly selective calcium chelating reagent), caffeine (a widely available Ca2+ consuming drug) and calcium-free extracellular fluid, in a concentration-dependent manner. Immunofluorescent staining indicated that TMEM16A and TMEM16B expression was widely distributed in DRG neurons. The results suggest that NSAIDs may be able to regulate Ca2
Bocksteins, Elke; Van de Vijver, Gerda; Van Bogaert, Pierre-Paul; Snyders, Dirk J
Delayed rectifier voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels are important determinants of neuronal excitability. However, the large number of K(V) subunits poses a major challenge to establish the molecular composition of the native neuronal K(+) currents. A large part (∼60%) of the delayed rectifier current (I(K)) in small mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons has been shown to be carried by both homotetrameric K(V)2.1 and heterotetrameric channels of K(V)2 subunits with silent K(V) subunits (K(V)S), while a contribution of K(V)1 channels has also been demonstrated. Because K(V)3 subunits also generate delayed rectifier currents, we investigated the contribution of K(V)3 subunits to I(K) in small mouse DRG neurons. After stromatoxin (ScTx) pretreatment to block the K(V)2-containing component, application of 1 mM TEA caused significant additional block, indicating that the ScTx-insensitive part of I(K) could include K(V)1, K(V)3, and/or M-current channels (KCNQ2/3). Combining ScTx and dendrotoxin confirmed a relevant contribution of K(V)2 and K(V)2/K(V)S, and K(V)1 subunits to I(K) in small mouse DRG neurons. After application of these toxins, a significant TEA-sensitive current (∼19% of total I(K)) remained with biophysical properties that corresponded to those of K(V)3 currents obtained in expression systems. Using RT-PCR, we detected K(V)3.1-3 mRNA in DRG neurons. Furthermore, Western blot and immunocytochemistry using K(V)3.1-specific antibodies confirmed the presence of K(V)3.1 in cultured DRG neurons. These biophysical, pharmacological, and molecular results demonstrate a relevant contribution (∼19%) of K(V)3-containing channels to I(K) in small mouse DRG neurons, supporting a substantial role for K(V)3 subunits in these neurons.
Hall, K E; Sima, A A; Wiley, J W
1. Whole-cell, high-threshold, voltage-dependent calcium currents (ICa) were enhanced in acutely dissociated, capsaicin-sensitive dorsal root ganglion neurones from diabetic Bio Bred/Worchester (BB/W) rats, compared with those from age-matched, non-diabetic controls. The magnitude of the enhancement increased with the duration of diabetes, and reached significance at diabetic durations of 6 months (diabetic: 6.3 +/- 0.4 nA; current density (CD), 157 +/- 12 pA pF-1; means +/- S.E.M., n = 9, P < 0.01; control: 3.9 +/- 0.6 nA; CD, 116 +/- 11 pA pF-1; n = 18) and 8 months (diabetic: 7.6 +/- 0.4 nA; CD, 177 +/- 25 pA pF-1; n = 11, P < 0.005; control: 5.1 +/- 0.5 nA; CD, 111 +/- 26 pA pF-1; n = 15). Low-threshold, voltage-dependent ICa were also enhanced in neurones from animals diabetic for 8 months (diabetic: 2.5 +/- 0.7 nA, n = 4, P < 0.05; control: 0.7 +/- 0.5 nA, n = 6). 2. The ICa enhancement was prevented by long-term treatment of diabetic animals with an aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI; peak ICa at 6 months: 4.41 +/- 0.48 nA, n = 2; at 8 months: 4.32 +/- 0.60 nA, n = 9). 3. The ICa enhancement was not due to a shift in the voltage dependence of either the current-voltage relationship or steady-state inactivation. 4. The L channel antagonist nifedipine and preferential N channel antagonist omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTX) caused a greater inhibition of high-threshold ICa in diabetic neurones compared with controls (nifedipine: control: 25 +/- 3%, n = 26; diabetic: 36 +/- 7%, n = 11; omega-CgTX: control: 40 +/- 4%, n = 21; diabetic: 50 +/- 7%, n = 7). Diabetic neurones also demonstrated a significantly greater residual current (2.44 +/- 0.34 nA, n = 7) in the presence of both antagonists vs. controls (1.28 +/- 0.30 nA, n = 8, P < 0.05), suggesting that N-, L- and additional non-N-, non-L-type high-threshold ICa were enhanced. Images Figure 2 PMID:7473199
Reguzzoni, Marcella; Sangiorgi, Simone; Reverberi, Claudio; Borsani, Elisa; Rodella, Luigi F.; Dario, Alessandro; Tomei, Giustino; Dell’Orbo, Carlo
Since the dorsal root ganglia represent the first structure of pain modulation, they are the target of the newest therapies of neuropathic pain. Between these, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) has been described among the promising non-invasive methods. Although the results encourage the clinical use of this procedure, their mechanism of action is still unclear. Aim of our study was to analyze acute effects of PRF on the rat lumbar ganglion and on nervous fibres running inside it. Clinical works describe PRF treatment as a techinque without any visible neurological deficit. The few disposable histological works are contractictory: some describe no signs of cellular damage and some demonstrate visible intracellular modifications. A total of 20 male Wistar rats were deeply anesthesized. Ten were positioned in a stereotactic system, and exposed to PRF at 2 Hz for 30 s after exposition of paravertebral muscles and positioning of a stimulation needle on left L4 ganglion. The other ten were used as controls. After 1 h, the left dorsal root ganglions L3, L4, L5 of the 20 animals were explanted, fixed in 2.5% Karnowsky solution and prepared for light and transmission electron microscopy. At light microscopy no differences between treated and control animals were observed; at transmission electron microscopy, instead, it was possible to observe that T gangliar cells contained an abnormal abundant smooth reticulum with enlarged cisternae and numerous vacuoles; myelinated axons presented pathological features and their myelin coverage was not adherent. Instead, unmyelinated axons appeared normal in shape and dimension and the Schwann cells surrounding it had intact plasmamembrane. Our results, obtained at acute stage, reveal that the PRF procedure should destroy the myelin envelope of nervous fibres. Further future studies, at chronic stage, should give other information on the prognosis of the myelinic damage. PMID:19172311
Qu, Yu-Juan; Zhang, Xiao; Fan, Zhen-Zhen; Huai, Juan; Teng, Yong-Bo; Zhang, Yang; Yue, Shou-Wei
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among TRPV4, p38, and neuropathic pain in a rat model of chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion. Mechanical allodynia appeared after CCD surgery, enhanced via the intrathecal injection of 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4α-PDD, an agonist of TRPV4) and anisomycin (an agonist of p38), but was suppressed by Ruthenium Red (RR, an inhibitor of TRPV4) and SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38). The protein expressions of p38 and P-p38 were upregulated by 4α-PDD and anisomycin injection but reduced by RR and SB203580. Moreover, TRPV4 was upregulated by 4α-PDD and SB203580 and downregulated by RR and anisomycin. In DRG tissues, the numbers of TRPV4- or p38-positive small neurons were significantly changed in CCD rats, increased by the agonists, and decreased by the inhibitors. The amplitudes of ectopic discharges were increased by 4α-PDD and anisomycin but decreased by RR and SB203580. Collectively, these results support the link between TRPV4 and p38 and their intermediary role for neuropathic pain in rats with chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion. PMID:27366753
Qu, Yu-Juan; Zhang, Xiao; Fan, Zhen-Zhen; Huai, Juan; Teng, Yong-Bo; Zhang, Yang; Yue, Shou-Wei
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among TRPV4, p38, and neuropathic pain in a rat model of chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion. Mechanical allodynia appeared after CCD surgery, enhanced via the intrathecal injection of 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4α-PDD, an agonist of TRPV4) and anisomycin (an agonist of p38), but was suppressed by Ruthenium Red (RR, an inhibitor of TRPV4) and SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38). The protein expressions of p38 and P-p38 were upregulated by 4α-PDD and anisomycin injection but reduced by RR and SB203580. Moreover, TRPV4 was upregulated by 4α-PDD and SB203580 and downregulated by RR and anisomycin. In DRG tissues, the numbers of TRPV4- or p38-positive small neurons were significantly changed in CCD rats, increased by the agonists, and decreased by the inhibitors. The amplitudes of ectopic discharges were increased by 4α-PDD and anisomycin but decreased by RR and SB203580. Collectively, these results support the link between TRPV4 and p38 and their intermediary role for neuropathic pain in rats with chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion.
Expressing Constitutively Active Rheb in Adult Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Enhances the Integration of Sensory Axons that Regenerate Across a Chondroitinase-Treated Dorsal Root Entry Zone Following Dorsal Root Crush
Wu, Di; Klaw, Michelle C.; Kholodilov, Nikolai; Burke, Robert E.; Detloff, Megan R.; Côté, Marie-Pascale; Tom, Veronica J.
While the peripheral branch of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) can successfully regenerate after injury, lesioned central branch axons fail to regrow across the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the interface between the dorsal root and the spinal cord. This lack of regeneration is due to the limited regenerative capacity of adult sensory axons and the growth-inhibitory environment at the DREZ, which is similar to that found in the glial scar after a central nervous system (CNS) injury. We hypothesized that transduction of adult DRG neurons using adeno-associated virus (AAV) to express a constitutively-active form of the GTPase Rheb (caRheb) will increase their intrinsic growth potential after a dorsal root crush. Additionally, we posited that if we combined that approach with digestion of upregulated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) at the DREZ with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), we would promote regeneration of sensory axons across the DREZ into the spinal cord. We first assessed if this strategy promotes neuritic growth in an in vitro model of the glial scar containing CSPG. ChABC allowed for some regeneration across the once potently inhibitory substrate. Combining ChABC treatment with expression of caRheb in DRG significantly improved this growth. We then determined if this combination strategy also enhanced regeneration through the DREZ after dorsal root crush in adult rats in vivo. After unilaterally crushing C4-T1 dorsal roots, we injected AAV5-caRheb or AAV5-GFP into the ipsilateral C5-C8 DRGs. ChABC or PBS was injected into the ipsilateral dorsal horn at C5-C8 to digest CSPG, for a total of four animal groups (caRheb + ChABC, caRheb + PBS, GFP + ChABC, GFP + PBS). Regeneration was rarely observed in PBS-treated animals, whereas short-distance regrowth across the DREZ was observed in ChABC-treated animals. No difference in axon number or length between the ChABC groups was observed, which may be related to intraganglionic inflammation induced by the
Xu, Changshui; Xu, Wenyuan; Xu, Hong; Xiong, Wei; Gao, Yun; Li, Guilin; Liu, Shuangmei; Xie, Jinyan; Tu, Guihua; Peng, Haiying; Qiu, Shuyi; Liang, Shangdong
Tissue injury or inflammation of the nervous system may result in chronic neuropathic pain characterized by sensitivity to painful stimuli. P2X(3) receptors play a crucial role in facilitating pain transmission. Puerarin is an active compound of a traditional Chinese medicine Ge-gen, and Ge-gen soup has anti-inflammatory effects. The present research investigated the role of puerarin in the signalling of chronic neuropathic pain mediated by P2X(3) receptors of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model was adopted. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into blank control group (Ctrl), sham group (Sham), puerarin-treated control group (Ctrl+PUE), chronic constriction injury (CCI) group and puerarin-treated CCI group (CCI+PUE). Mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) were measured by the von-Frey test and the Hargreaves' test respectively. The stain values of P2X(3) protein and mRNA in L4/L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were detected by immunohistochemistry, western blot and in situ hybridization. At day 4-7 after the operation of CCI rats, MWT and TWL in group CCI and CCI+PUE were lower than those in group Ctrl, Sham and Ctrl+PUE, while there was no difference among group Ctrl, Sham and Ctrl+PUE. At day 7-10 after operation, MWT and TWL in group CCI+PUE was higher than those in group CCI, but there was no significant difference between group CCI+PUE and group Ctrl (p>0.05). At day 14 after operation, the stain values of P2X(3) proteins and mRNAs in L4/L5 DRG of group CCI were higher than those in group Ctrl, Sham, Ctrl+PUE and CCI+PUE, while the stain values of P2X(3) proteins and mRNAs in group CCI+PUE were significantly decreased compared with those in group CCI. Therefore, puerarin may alleviate neuropathic pain mediated by P2X(3) receptors in dorsal root ganglion neurons.
Szallasi, A; Bíró, T; Szabó, T; Modarres, S; Petersen, M; Klusch, A; Blumberg, P M; Krause, J E; Sterner, O
1. A [3H]-resiniferatoxin (RTX) binding assay utilizing rat spinal cord membranes was employed to identify novel vanilloids in a collection of natural products of fungal origin. Of the five active compounds found (scutigeral, acetyl-scutigeral, ovinal, neogrifolin, and methyl-neogrifolin), scutigeral (Ki=19 microM), isolated from the edible mushroom Albatrellus ovinus, was selected for further characterization. 2. Scutigeral induced a dose-dependent 45Ca uptake by rat dorsal root ganglion neurons with an EC50 of 1.6 microM, which was fully inhibited by the competitive vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (IC50=5.2 microM). 3. [3H]-RTX binding isotherms were shifted by scutigeral (10-80 microM) in a competitive manner. The Schild plot of the data had a slope of 0.8 and gave an apparent Kd estimate for scutigeral of 32 microM. 4. Although in the above assays scutigeral mimicked capsaicin, it was not pungent on the human tongue up to a dose of 100 nmol per tongue, nor did it provoke protective wiping movements in the rat (up to 100 microM) upon intraocular instillation. 5. In accord with being non-pungent, scutigeral (5 microM) did not elicit a measurable inward current in isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons under voltage-clamp conditions. It did, however, reduce the proportion of neurons (from 61 to 15%) that responded to a subsequent capsaicin (1 microM) challenge. In these neurons, scutigeral both delayed (from 27 to 72 s) and diminished (from 5.0 to 1.9 nA) the maximal current evoked by capsaicin. 6. In conclusion, scutigeral and its congeners form a new chemical class of vanilloids, the triprenyl phenols. Scutigeral promises to be a novel chemical lead for the development of orally active, non-pungent vanilloids.
Deer, Timothy R.; Levy, Robert M.; Kramer, Jeffery; Poree, Lawrence; Amirdelfan, Kasra; Grigsby, Eric; Staats, Peter; Burton, Allen W.; Burgher, Abram H.; Obray, Jon; Scowcroft, James; Golovac, Stan; Kapural, Leonardo; Paicius, Richard; Kim, Christopher; Pope, Jason; Yearwood, Thomas; Samuel, Sam; McRoberts, W. Porter; Cassim, Hazmer; Netherton, Mark; Miller, Nathan; Schaufele, Michael; Tavel, Edward; Davis, Timothy; Davis, Kristina; Johnson, Linda; Mekhail, Nagy
Abstract Animal and human studies indicate that electrical stimulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons may modulate neuropathic pain signals. ACCURATE, a pivotal, prospective, multicenter, randomized comparative effectiveness trial, was conducted in 152 subjects diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome or causalgia in the lower extremities. Subjects received neurostimulation of the DRG or dorsal column (spinal cord stimulation, SCS). The primary end point was a composite of safety and efficacy at 3 months, and subjects were assessed through 12 months for long-term outcomes and adverse events. The predefined primary composite end point of treatment success was met for subjects with a permanent implant who reported 50% or greater decrease in visual analog scale score from preimplant baseline and who did not report any stimulation-related neurological deficits. No subjects reported stimulation-related neurological deficits. The percentage of subjects receiving ≥50% pain relief and treatment success was greater in the DRG arm (81.2%) than in the SCS arm (55.7%, P < 0.001) at 3 months. Device-related and serious adverse events were not different between the 2 groups. Dorsal root ganglion stimulation also demonstrated greater improvements in quality of life and psychological disposition. Finally, subjects using DRG stimulation reported less postural variation in paresthesia (P < 0.001) and reduced extraneous stimulation in nonpainful areas (P = 0.014), indicating DRG stimulation provided more targeted therapy to painful parts of the lower extremities. As the largest prospective, randomized comparative effectiveness trial to date, the results show that DRG stimulation provided a higher rate of treatment success with less postural variation in paresthesia intensity compared to SCS. PMID:28030470
Moen, Aurora; Haugen, Fred; Gjerstad, Johannes
Introduction. Lumbar radicular pain following intervertebral disc herniation may be associated with a local inflammatory response induced by nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Methods. In anaesthetized Lewis rats, extracellular single unit recordings of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in the dorsal horn and qPCR were used to explore the effect of NP application onto the dorsal nerve roots (L3–L5). Results. A clear increase in C-fiber response was observed following NP conditioning. In the NP tissue, the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), colony stimulating factor 1 (Csf1), fractalkine (CX3CL1), and the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 was increased. Minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, inhibited the increase in neuronal activity and attenuated the increase in IL-1β, Csf1, CX3L1, and CX3CR1 expression in NP tissue. In addition, the results demonstrated an increase in the expression of TNF, CX3CL1, and CX3CR1 in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Conclusion. Hyperexcitability in the pain pathways and the local inflammation after disc herniation may involve upregulation of CX3CL1 signaling in both the NP and the DRG. PMID:28116212
Kolarcik, Christi L.; Bourbeau, Dennis; Azemi, Erdrin; Rost, Erika; Zhang, Ling; Lagenaur, Carl F.; Weber, Douglas J.; Cui, X. Tracy
The spinal cord (SC) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) are target implantation regions for neural prosthetics, but the tissue-electrode interface in these regions is not well-studied. To improve our understanding of these locations, we characterized the tissue reactions around implanted electrodes. L1, an adhesion molecule shown to maintain neuronal density and reduce gliosis in brain tissue, was then evaluated in SC and DRG implants. Following L1 immobilization onto neural electrodes, the bioactivities of the coatings were verified in vitro using neuron, astrocyte and microglia cultures. Non-modified and L1-coated electrodes were implanted into adult rats for 1 or 4 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin staining along with cell-type specific antibodies were used to characterize the tissue response. In the SC and DRG, cells aggregated at the electrode-tissue interface. Microglia staining was more intense around the implant site and decreased with distance from the interface. Neurofilament staining in both locations was decreased or absent around the implant when compared to surrounding tissue. With L1, neurofilament staining was significantly increased while neuronal cell death decreased. Our results indicate that L1-modified electrodes may result in an improved chronic neural interface and will be evaluated in recording and stimulation studies. PMID:22750248
Yan, Jun; Hu, Shufen; Zou, Kang; Xu, Min; Wang, Qianliang; Miao, Xiuhua; Yu, Shan Ping; Xu, Guang-Yin
The pathogenesis of pain in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) remains poorly understood. We have recently demonstrated that voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were sensitized in a rat model of LDH. However, the detailed molecular mechanism for sensitization of VGSCs remains largely unknown. This study was designed to examine roles of the endogenous hydrogen sulfide synthesizing enzyme cystathionine β-synthetase (CBS) in sensitization of VGSCs in a previously validated rat model of LDH. Here we showed that inhibition of CBS activity by O-(Carboxymethyl) hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride (AOAA) significantly attenuated pain hypersensitivity in LDH rats. Administration of AOAA also reduced neuronal hyperexcitability, suppressed the sodium current density, and right-shifted the V1/2 of the inactivation curve, of hindpaw innervating DRG neurons, which is retrogradely labeled by DiI. In vitro incubation of AOAA did not alter the excitability of acutely isolated DRG neurons. Furthermore, CBS was colocalized with NaV1.7 and NaV1.8 in hindpaw-innervating DRG neurons. Treatment of AOAA markedly suppressed expression of NaV1.7 and NaV1.8 in DRGs of LDH rats. These data suggest that targeting the CBS-H2S signaling at the DRG level might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic pain relief in patients with LDH. PMID:27905525
Qiu, Fang; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Liu, Yu-Qiang; Wu, Dan; Li, Jia-Da; Hu, Wang-Ping
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), as key sensors for extracellular protons, are expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and contribute to signalling pain caused by tissue acidosis. ASICs are also the subject of various factors. Here, we further provide evidence that the activity of ASICs is potentiated by the activation of 5-HT₂ receptors in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. A specific 5-HT₂ receptor agonist, α-methyl-5-HT, dose-dependently enhanced proton-gated currents with an EC₅₀ of 0.13 ± 0.07 nM. The α-methyl-5-HT enhancing effect on proton-gated currents was blocked by cyproheptadine, a 5-HT₂ receptor antagonist, and removed by intracellular dialysis of either GDP-β-S or protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203X. Moreover, α-methyl-5-HT altered acid-evoked membrane excitability of rat DRG neurons and caused a significant increase in the amplitude of the depolarization and the number of spikes induced by acid stimuli. Finally, α-methyl-5-HT increased nociceptive responses to injection of acetic acid in rats. These results suggest that α-methyl-5-HT up-regulates the activity of ASICs via 5-HT₂ receptor and protein kinase C dependent signal pathways in rat primary sensory neurons and this potentiation contributed to acid- mediated pain in tissue injury and inflammation.
Chung, Gehoon; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Shin, Hyewon; Chae, Eunhee; Yi, Hanju; Moon, Hongsik; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Joong Soo; Jung, Sung Jun; Oh, Seog Bae
In this study, we determined mode of action of a novel carbamoyloxy arylalkanoyl arylpiperazine compound (SKL-NP) on hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel currents (I(h)) that plays important roles in neuropathic pain. In small or medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (<40 µm in diameter) exhibiting tonic firing and prominent I(h), SKL-NP inhibited I(h) and spike firings in a concentration dependent manner (IC(50)=7.85 µM). SKL-NP-induced inhibition of I(h) was blocked by pretreatment of pertussis toxin (PTX) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) as well as 8-Br-cAMP, a membrane permeable cAMP analogue. These results suggest that SKL-NP modulates I(h) in indirect manner by the activation of a Gi-protein coupled receptor that decreases intracellular cAMP concentration. Taken together, SKL-NP has the inhibitory effect on HCN channel currents (I(h)) in DRG neurons of rats.
Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Kawai, Hiromichi; Terashima, Tomoya; Kojima, Hideto; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence; Maegawa, Hiroshi
Neuropathic pain can be a debilitating condition. Many types of drugs that have been used to treat neuropathic pain have only limited efficacy. Recent studies indicate that pro-inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) are involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. In the present study, we engineered a gene therapy strategy to relieve neuropathic pain by silencing TNF-α expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) using lentiviral vectors expressing TNF short hairpin RNA1-4 (LV-TNF-shRNA1-4) in mice. First, based on its efficacy in silencing TNF-α in vitro, we selected shRNA3 to construct LV-TNF-shRNA3 for in vivo study. We used L5 spinal nerve transection (SNT) mice as a neuropathic pain model. These animals were found to display up-regulated mRNA expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), injury markers, and interleukin (IL)-6, an inflammatory cytokine in the ipsilateral L5 DRG. Injection of LV-TNF-shRNA3 onto the proximal transected site suppressed significantly the mRNA levels of ATF3, NPY and IL-6, reduced mechanical allodynia and neuronal cell death of DRG neurons. These results suggest that lentiviral-mediated silencing of TNF-α in DRG relieves neuropathic pain and reduces neuronal cell death, and may constitute a novel therapeutic option for neuropathic pain. PMID:24642694
Liu, Ning; Varma, Sushama; Shooter, Eric M; Tolwani, Ravi J
The Trembler-J (TrJ) mouse, containing a point mutation in the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene, is characterized by severe hypomyelination and is a representative model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A disease/Dejerine-Sottas Syndrome. Previous studies have shown that protein kinase inhibitor K252a enhances wild-type Schwann cell myelination in culture. We used a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explant culture system from the heterozygous TrJ/+ mouse to investigate if myelination could be enhanced by K252a. The TrJ/+ DRG explant cultures replicated some important features of the TrJ/+ mouse, showing reduced myelin protein accumulation, thinner myelin sheaths, and shortened myelin internodes. K252a increased myelin protein accumulation and myelin sheath thickness but did not substantially increase myelin internode length. Furthermore, the TrJ/+ DRG explant culture and sciatic nerves continued to respond to K252a during the stage when myelination is complete in the wild type. A general tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, but not inhibitors of serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitors, had a similar effect to K252a. K252a is therefore able to partially overcome hypomyelination by enhancing mutant Schwann cell myelin formation in the TrJ/+ mouse.
Background Cerebral palsy (CP) may cause severe spasticity, requiring neurosurgical procedures. The most common neurosurgical procedures are continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen and selective dorsal rhizotomy. Both are invasive and complex procedures. We hypothesized that a percutaneous radiofrequency lesion of the dorsal root ganglion (RF-DRG) could be a simple and safe alternative treatment. We undertook a pilot study to test this hypothesis. Methods We performed an RF-DRG procedure in 17 consecutive CP patients with severe hip flexor/adductor spasms accompanied by pain or care-giving difficulties. Six children were systematically evaluated at baseline, and 1 month and 6 months after treatment by means of the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and a self-made caregiver's questionnaire. Eleven subsequent children were evaluated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for spasticity, pain and ease of care. Results A total of 19 RF-DRG treatments were performed in 17 patients. We found a small improvement in muscle tone measured by MAS, but no effect on the GMFM scale. Despite this, the caregivers of these six treated children unanimously stated that the quality of life of their children had indeed improved after the RF-DRG. In the subsequent 11 children we found improvements in all VAS scores, in a range comparable to the conventional treatment options. Conclusion RF-DRG is a promising new treatment option for severe spasticity in CP patients, and its definitive effectiveness remains to be defined in a randomised controlled trial. PMID:20569438
Quan, Xin; Guo, Kai; Wang, Yuqing; Huang, Liangliang; Chen, Beiyu; Ye, Zhengxu; Luo, Zhuojing
In a primary spinal cord injury, the amount of mechanical compression insult that the neurons experience is one of the most critical factors in determining the extent of the injury. The ultrastructural changes that neurons undergo when subjected to mechanical compression are largely unknown. In the present study, using a compression-driven instrument that can simulate mechanical compression insult, we applied mechanical compression stimulation at 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 MPa to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons for 10 min. Combined with atomic force microscopy, we investigated nanoscale changes in the membrane-skeleton, cytoskeleton alterations, and apoptosis induced by mechanical compression injury. The results indicated that mechanical compression injury leads to rearrangement of the membrane-skeleton compared with the control group. In addition, mechanical compression stimulation induced apoptosis and necrosis and also changed the distribution of the cytoskeleton in DRG neurons. Thus, the membrane-skeleton may play an important role in the response to mechanical insults in DRG neurons. Moreover, sudden insults caused by high mechanical compression, which is most likely conducted by the membrane-skeleton, may induce necrosis, apoptosis, and cytoskeletal alterations.
Demirdaş, Arif; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Övey, Ishak Suat
Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) are important second messengers in neurons. Ketamine (KETAM) is an anesthetic and analgesic, with psychotomimetic effects and abuse potential. KETAM modulates the entry of Ca(2+) in neurons through glutamate receptors, but its effect on transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels has not been clarified. This study investigated the short-term effects of KETAM on oxidative stress and TRPM2 and TRPV1 channel gating in hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of rats. Freshly isolated hippocampal and DRG neurons were incubated for 24 h with KETAM (0.3 mM). The TRPM2 channel antagonist, N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA), inhibited cumene hydroperoxide and ADP-ribose-induced TRPM2 currents in the neurons, and capsazepine (CPZ) inhibited capsaicin-induced TRPV1 currents. The TRPM2 and TRPV1 channel current densities and intracellular free calcium ion concentration of the neurons were lower in the neurons exposed to ACA and CPZ compared to the control neurons, respectively. However, the values were not further decreased by the KETAM + CPZ and KETAM + ACA treatments. KETAM decreased lipid peroxidation levels in the neurons but increased glutathione peroxidase activity. In conclusion, short-term KETAM treatment decreased oxidative stress levels but did not seem to influence TRPM2- and TRPV1-mediated Ca(2+) entry.
Ishihara, A.; Ohira, Y.; Roy, R. R.; Nagaoka, S.; Sekiguchi, C.; Hinds, W. E.; Edgerton, V. R.
The cross-sectional areas and succinate dehydrogenase activities of L5 dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats were determined after 14 days of spaceflight and after nine days of recovery. The mean and distribution of the cross-sectional areas were similar to age-matched, ground-based controls for both the spaceflight and for the spaceflight plus recovery groups. The mean succinate dehydrogenase activity was significantly lower in spaceflight compared to aged-matched control rats, whereas the mean succinate dehydrogenase activity was similar in age-matched control and spaceflight plus recovery rats. The mean succinate dehydrogenase activity of neurons with cross-sectional areas between 1000 and 2000 microns2 was lower (between 7 and 10%) in both the spaceflight and the spaceflight plus recovery groups compared to the appropriate control groups. The reduction in the oxidative capacity of a subpopulation of sensory neurons having relatively large cross-sectional areas immediately following spaceflight and the sustained depression for nine days after returning to 1 g suggest that the 0 g environment induced significant alterations in proprioceptive function.
Meng, Bo; Shen, Lu-Lu; Shi, Xiao-Ting; Gong, Yong-Sheng; Fan, Xiao-Fang; Li, Jun; Cao, Hong
Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) has reached pandemic status and shows no signs of abatement. Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is generally considered to be one of the most common complications of T2DM, which is also recognized as one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. As one kind of peripheral neuropathic pain, DNP manifests typical chronic neuralgia symptoms, including hyperalgesia, allodynia, autotomy, and so on. The injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is considered as the first stage of the sensory pathway impairment, whose neurons display increased frequency of action potential generation and increased spontaneous activities. These are mainly due to the changed properties of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and the increased sodium currents, especially TTX-R sodium currents. Curcumin, one of the most important phytochemicals from turmeric, has been demonstrated to effectively prevent and/or ameliorate diabetic mellitus and its complications including DNP. The present study demonstrates that the TTX-R sodium currents of small-sized DRG neurons isolated from DNP rats are significantly increased. Such abnormality can be efficaciously ameliorated by curcumin.
Desarmenien, M.; Feltz, P.; Headley, P. M.; Santangelo, F.
1 In anticipation that centrally active gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mimetic drugs may be clinically useful, derivatives of GABA with an imine link (Schiff base) to a lipophilic carrier have recently been prepared. The present paper concerns the actions of [alpha(4-chlorophenyl)5-fluoro, 2-hydroxy benzilidene-amino]-4-butanoate Na+, SL 75 102. 2 To test one aspect of the GABA-mimetic properties of SL 75 102, this compound was compared with GABA for activity on intracellularly-recorded neurones in rat dorsal root ganglia in vitro. On these neurones GABA, administered either by microiontophoresis or direct into the superfusion medium, causes a depolarization, due to an increased chloride conductance, followed by a period of desensitization. 3 The actions of Sl 75 102 were in nearly all respects identical to those of GABA; parameters examined were the effects on membrane potential and input conductance, desensitization, dose-response characteristics and sensitivity to the GABA antagonists, bicuculline and picrotoxin. 4 SL 75 102 was less potent than GABA (mean relative potency 0.03:1). 5 SL 75 102 therefore appears to be a weak agonist at GABA receptors of these neurones. PMID:7214101
Ohshiro, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Shinji; Shinjo, Katsuhiro
Sensory information is conveyed to the central nervous system by primary afferent neurons within dorsal root ganglia (DRG), which synapse onto neurons of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. This synaptic connection is central to the processing of both sensory and pain stimuli. Here, we describe a model system to monitor synaptic transmission between DRG neurons and dorsal horn neurons that is compatible with high-throughput screening. This co-culture preparation comprises DRG and dorsal horn neurons and utilizes Ca(2+) imaging with the indicator dye Fura-2 to visualize synaptic transmission. Addition of capsaicin to co-cultures stimulated DRG neurons and led to activation of dorsal horn neurons as well as increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. This effect was dose-dependent and absent when DRG neurons were omitted from the culture. NMDA receptors are a critical component of synapses between DRG and dorsal horn neurons as MK-801, a use-dependent non-competitive antagonist, prevented activation of dorsal horn neurons following capsaicin treatment. This model system allows for rapid and efficient analysis of noxious stimulus-evoked Ca(2+) signal transmission and provides a new approach both for investigating synaptic transmission in the spinal cord and for screening potential analgesic compounds.
Boateng, EK; Novejarque, A; Pheby, T; Rice, ASC; Huang, W
Background Heterogeneity is increasingly recognized in clinical presentation of neuropathic pain (NP), but less often recognized in animal models. Neurochemical dysregulation in rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is associated with peripheral nerve trauma, but poorly studied in non-traumatic NP conditions. Methods This study aimed to investigate the temporal expressions of activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3), growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin in traumatic and non-traumatic rat models of neuropathies associated with NP. Expressions of these markers were examined in the DRG at different time points following tibial nerve transection (TNT) injury and antiretroviral drug stavudine (d4T) administration using immunohistochemistry. The development of sensory gain following these insults was assessed by measuring limb withdrawal to a punctate mechanical stimulus. Results Both TNT-injured and d4T-treated rats developed hindpaw mechanical hypersensitivity. Robust expressions of ATF-3, GAP-43, NPY and galanin in both small- and large-sized L5 DRG neurons were observed in the DRG from TNT-injured rats. In contrast, d4T-treated rats did not exhibit any significant neurochemical changes in the DRG. Conclusions Taken together, the results suggest that ATF-3, GAP-43, NPY and galanin are likely indicators of nerve trauma-associated processes and not generic markers for NP. These experiments also demonstrate distinct expression patterns of neurochemical markers in the DRG and emphasize the mechanistic difference between nerve trauma and antiretroviral drug-associated NP. PMID:25070481
Su, Jie; Gao, Tianle; Shi, Tiejun; Xiang, Qiong; Xu, Xiaojun; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Hökfelt, Tomas; Svensson, Camilla I
The mechanisms underlying rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-induced pain are still not fully elucidated, and accumulating data indicate that peripheral inflammation is not the only factor driving pain in these patients. The focus of our work is to investigate the molecular basis for long-term alterations in nociceptive pathways induced by polyarthritis using the collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) mouse model. In this model, mechanical hypersensitivity outlasts the joint inflammation by weeks. Here we examined expression levels of neuropeptides, ion channels, and nerve injury markers associated with neuropathic and/or inflammatory pain in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cord both during the peak of inflammation (day 15) and when the inflammation has resolved but the hypersensitivity persists (days 45-47). No apparent differences were observed in substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, or neuropeptide Y protein expression in DRGs and spinal cord of CAIA mice. However, the neuropeptide galanin, the ATP-gated ion channel P2X3, and calcium channel subunit α2δ1 were significantly increased in the CAIA DRGs as compared to controls, both 15 and 47 days after induction of arthritis. On day 15 there was an increase in expression of two factors associated with nerve injury and cell stress, activating transcription factor 3 and growth-associated protein 43 in DRGs, whereby the latter was still dramatically upregulated after 47 days. In conclusion, this study suggests that long-term joint inflammation has an impact on DRG neurons that resembles both inflammation and nerve injury-induced pain states. Thus, antibody-driven inflammation generates a pain state with a unique neurochemical profile.
Schaeffer, Véronique; Meyer, Laurence; Patte-Mensah, Christine; Eckert, Anne; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe G
Neurosteroids are synthesized either by glial cells, by neurons, or within the context of neuron-glia cross-talk. Various studies suggested neurosteroid involvement in the control of neurodegeneration but there is no evidence showing that the natural protection of nerve cells against apoptosis directly depends on their own capacity to produce neuroprotective neurosteroids. Here, we investigated the interactions between neurosteroidogenesis and apoptosis occurring in sensory structures of rats subjected to neuropathic pain generated by sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI). Using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), we observed no apoptotic cells in the spinal cord up to 30 days after CCI although pain symptoms such as mechano-allodynia, thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia were evidenced with the Hargreaves's behavioral and von Frey filament tests. In contrast, double-labeling experiments combining TUNEL and immunostaining with antibodies against glutamine synthetase or neuronal nuclei protein revealed apoptosis occurrence in satellite glial cells (SGC) (not in neurons) of CCI rat ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at day 30 after injury. Pulse-chase experiments coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and flow scintillation detection showed that, among numerous biosynthetic pathways converting [(3)H]pregnenolone into various [(3)H]neurosteroids, only [(3)H]estradiol formation was selectively modified and upregulated in DRG of CCI rats. Consistently, immunohistochemical investigations localized aromatase (estradiol-synthesizing enzyme) in DRG neurons but not in SGC. Pharmacological inhibition of aromatase caused apoptosis of CCI rat DRG neurons. Altogether, our results suggest that endogenously produced neurosteroids such as estradiol may be pivotal for the protection of DRG sensory neurons against sciatic nerve CCI-induced apoptosis.
Maratou, Klio; Wallace, Victoria C J; Hasnie, Fauzia S; Okuse, Kenji; Hosseini, Ramine; Jina, Nipurna; Blackbeard, Julie; Pheby, Timothy; Orengo, Christine; Dickenson, Anthony H; McMahon, Stephen B; Rice, Andrew S C
To elucidate the mechanisms underlying peripheral neuropathic pain in the context of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy, we measured gene expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rats subjected to systemic treatment with the anti-retroviral agent, ddC (Zalcitabine) and concomitant delivery of HIV-gp120 to the rat sciatic nerve. L4 and L5 DRGs were collected at day 14 (time of peak behavioural change) and changes in gene expression were measured using Affymetrix whole genome rat arrays. Conventional analysis of this data set and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was performed to discover biological processes altered in this model. Transcripts associated with G protein coupled receptor signalling and cell adhesion were enriched in the treated animals, while ribosomal proteins and proteasome pathways were associated with gene down-regulation. To identify genes that are directly relevant to neuropathic mechanical hypersensitivity, as opposed to epiphenomena associated with other aspects of the response to a sciatic nerve lesion, we compared the gp120+ddC-evoked gene expression with that observed in a model of traumatic neuropathic pain (L5 spinal nerve transection), where hypersensitivity to a static mechanical stimulus is also observed. We identified 39 genes/expressed sequence tags that are differentially expressed in the same direction in both models. Most of these have not previously been implicated in mechanical hypersensitivity and may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention. As an external control, the RNA expression of three genes was examined by RT-PCR, while the protein levels of two were studied using western blot analysis.
Maratou, Klio; Wallace, Victoria C.J.; Hasnie, Fauzia S.; Okuse, Kenji; Hosseini, Ramine; Jina, Nipurna; Blackbeard, Julie; Pheby, Timothy; Orengo, Christine; Dickenson, Anthony H.; McMahon, Stephen B.; Rice, Andrew S.C.
To elucidate the mechanisms underlying peripheral neuropathic pain in the context of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy, we measured gene expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rats subjected to systemic treatment with the anti-retroviral agent, ddC (Zalcitabine) and concomitant delivery of HIV-gp120 to the rat sciatic nerve. L4 and L5 DRGs were collected at day 14 (time of peak behavioural change) and changes in gene expression were measured using Affymetrix whole genome rat arrays. Conventional analysis of this data set and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was performed to discover biological processes altered in this model. Transcripts associated with G protein coupled receptor signalling and cell adhesion were enriched in the treated animals, while ribosomal proteins and proteasome pathways were associated with gene down-regulation. To identify genes that are directly relevant to neuropathic mechanical hypersensitivity, as opposed to epiphenomena associated with other aspects of the response to a sciatic nerve lesion, we compared the gp120 + ddC-evoked gene expression with that observed in a model of traumatic neuropathic pain (L5 spinal nerve transection), where hypersensitivity to a static mechanical stimulus is also observed. We identified 39 genes/expressed sequence tags that are differentially expressed in the same direction in both models. Most of these have not previously been implicated in mechanical hypersensitivity and may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention. As an external control, the RNA expression of three genes was examined by RT-PCR, while the protein levels of two were studied using western blot analysis. PMID:18606552
Fang, Xiao; Shi, Xiao-Han; Huang, Li-Bin; Rong, Wei-Fang; Ma, Bei
The study was aimed to investigate the changes in mechanical pain threshold in the condition of chronic inflammatory pain after transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) gene was knockout. Hind-paw intraplantar injection of complete freund's adjuvant (CFA, 20 μL) produced peripheral inflammation in wild-type and TRPV1 knockout female mice. The mechanical pain thresholds were measured during the 8 days after injection and pre-injection by using Von-Frey hair. Nine days after injection, mice were killed and the differences of expression of c-Fos and P2X3 receptor in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord dorsal horn were examined by Western blotting between the two groups. Compared with that in wild-type mice, the mechanical pain threshold was increased significantly in TRPV1 knockout mice (P < 0.05); 3 days after CFA injection, the baseline mechanical pain threshold in the TRPV1 knockout mice group was significantly higher than that in the wild-type mice group (P < 0.05); The result of Western blotting showed that the expression of c-Fos protein both in DRG and spinal cord dorsal horn of TRPV1 knockout mice group was decreased significantly compared with that in wild-type mice group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05), while the expression of P2X3 receptor in DRG of TRPV1 knockout mice group was increased significantly compared with that in wild-type mice group (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that TRPV1 may influence the peripheral mechanical pain threshold by mediating the expression of c-Fos protein both in DRG and spinal cord dorsal horn and changing the expression of P2X3 receptor in DRG.
Huang, Jianying; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Peng; Gerrits, Monique M; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Bekelaar, Kim; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Faber, Catharina G; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G
Idiopathic small-fiber neuropathy (I-SFN), clinically characterized by burning pain in distal extremities and autonomic dysfunction, is a disorder of small-caliber nerve fibers of unknown etiology with limited treatment options. Functional variants of voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7, encoded by SCN9A, have been identified in approximately one-third of I-SFN patients. These variants render dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons hyperexcitable. Sodium channel Nav1.8, encoded by SCN10A, is preferentially expressed in small-diameter DRG neurons, and produces most of the current underlying the upstroke of action potentials in these neurons. We previously demonstrated two functional variants of Nav1.8 that either enhance ramp current or shift activation in a hyperpolarizing direction, and render DRG neurons hyperexcitable, in I-SFN patients with no mutations of SCN9A. We have now evaluated additional I-SFN patients with no mutations in SCN9A, and report a novel I-SFN-related Nav1.8 mutation I1706V in a patient with painful I-SFN. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in small DRG neurons demonstrate that the mutation hyperpolarizes activation and the response to slow ramp depolarizations. However, it decreases fractional channels resistant to fast inactivation and reduces persistent currents. Current-clamp studies reveal that mutant channels decrease current threshold and increase the firing frequency of evoked action potentials within small DRG neurons. These observations suggest that the effects of this mutation on activation and ramp current are dominant over the reduced persistent current, and show that these pro-excitatory gating changes confer hyperexcitability on peripheral sensory neurons, which may contribute to pain in this individual with I-SFN.
Nazıroğlu, M; Çiğ, B; Özgül, C
A main component of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum, HP) is hyperforin which has antioxidant properties in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, due to its ability to modulate NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C. Recent reports indicate that oxidative stress through NADPH oxidase activates TRPM2 channels. HP may be a useful treatment for Ca(2+) entry and oxidative stress through modulation of TRPM2 channels in the DRG. We aimed to investigate the protective role of HP on Ca(2+) entry and oxidative stress through TRPM2 channels in DRG neurons of rats. The native rat DRG neurons were used in whole-cell patch-clamp, Fura-2 and antioxidant experiments. Appropriate, nontoxic concentrations and incubation times for HP were determined in the DRG neurons by assessing cell viability. The H2O2-induced TRPM2 currents were inhibited by 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB) and N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA). TRPM2 current densities and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration in the neurons were also reduced by HP (2 and 24h). In Fura-2 experiments, cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization was reduced by voltage-gated calcium channel blockers (verapamil+diltiazem, V+D) and HP. Glutathione peroxidase activity and GSH values in the DRG were high in HP, 2-APB and V+D groups although lipid peroxidation level was low in the groups. In conclusion, we observed a protective role for HP on Ca(2+) entry through a TRPM2 channel in the DRG neurons. Since over-production of oxidative stress and Ca(2+) entry are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain and neuronal inflammation, our findings may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of neuropathology in DRG neurons.
Ritter, David M; Ho, Cojen; O'Leary, Michael E; Covarrubias, Manuel
Fast inactivation of heterologously expressed Kv3.4 channels is dramatically slowed upon phosphorylation of the channel's N-terminal (N-type) inactivation gate by protein kinase C (PKC). However, the presence and physiological importance of this exquisite modulation in excitable tissues were unknown. Here, we employed minimally invasive cell-attached patch-clamping, single-cell qPCR and specific siRNAs to unambiguously demonstrate that fast-inactivating Kv3.4 channels underlie a robust high voltage-activated A-type K(+) current (I(AHV)) in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons from 7-day-old rats. We also show that PKC activation with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) causes a 4-fold slowing of Kv3.4 channel inactivation and, consequently, accelerates the repolarization of the action potential (AP) by 22%, which shortens the AP duration by 14%. G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists eliminate I(AHV) fast inactivation in a membrane-delimited manner, suggesting a Kv3.4 channel signalling complex. Preincubation of the neurons with the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide II inhibits the effect of GPCR agonists and PDBu. Furthermore, activation of PKC via GPCR agonists recapitulates the effects of PDBu on the AP. Finally, transfection of the neurons with Kv3.4 siRNA prolongs the AP by 25% and abolishes the GPCR agonist-induced acceleration of the AP repolarization. These results show that Kv3.4 channels help shape the repolarization of the nociceptor AP, and that modulation of Kv3.4 channel N-type inactivation by PKC regulates AP repolarization and duration. We propose that the dramatic modulation of I(AHV) fast inactivation by PKC represents a novel mechanism of neural plasticity with potentially significant implications in the transition from acute to chronic pain.
Wang, Xi-Jie; An, Shan-Shan; Cheng, Hong; Xu, San-Hua; Cheng, Jie; Lu, Wei; Gao, Rong; Xiao, Hang
A long-chain polypeptide BmKNJX11 was purified from the venom of Asian scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch (BmK) by a combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass was found to be 7036.85 Da by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The first 15 N-terminal amino acid sequence of BmKNJX11 was determined to be GRDAY IADSE NCTYT by Edman degradation. With whole cell recording, BmKNJX11 inhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels (TTX-S VGSC) in freshly isolated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner. At a concentration of 40 mug/ml BmKNJX11 lowered the activation threshold and produced negative shifting of TTX-S sodium current (I(Na)) activation curve. In addition, BmKNJX11 induced shifting of the steady-state inactivation curve to the left, delayed the recovery of TTX-S I(Na) from inactivation, and also reduced the fraction of available sodium channels. These results suggested that BmKNJX11 might exert effects on VGSC by binding to a specific site. Considering that TTX-S VGSC expressed in DRG neurons play a critical role in nociceptive transmission, the interaction of BmKNJX11 with TTX-S VGSC might lead to a change in excitability of nociceptive afferent fibers, which may be involved in the observed peripheral pain expression.
Li, Yan; Tatsui, Claudio Esteves; Rhines, Laurence D; North, Robert Y; Harrison, Daniel S; Cassidy, Ryan M; Johansson, Caj A; Kosturakis, Alyssa K; Edwards, Denaya D; Zhang, Hongmei; Dougherty, Patrick M
Here, it is shown that paclitaxel-induced neuropathy is associated with the development of spontaneous activity (SA) and hyperexcitability in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons that is paralleled by increased expression of low-voltage-activated calcium channels (T-type; Cav3.2). The percentage of DRG neurons showing SA and the overall mean rate of SA were significantly higher at day 7 in rats receiving paclitaxel treatment than in rats receiving vehicle. Cav3.2 expression was increased in L4-L6 DRG and spinal cord segments in paclitaxel-treated rats, localized to small calcitonin gene-related peptide and isolectin B4 expressing DRG neurons and to glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive spinal cord cells. Cav3.2 expression was also co-localized with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in both the DRG and the dorsal horn. T-type current amplitudes and density were increased at day 7 after paclitaxel treatment. Perfusion of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide directly activated DRG neurons, whereas this was prevented by pretreatment with the specific T-type calcium channel inhibitor ML218 hydrochloride. Paclitaxel-induced behavioral hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli in rats was prevented but not reversed by spinal administration of ML218 hydrochloride or intravenous injection of the TLR4 antagonist TAK242. Paclitaxel induced inward current and action potential discharges in cultured human DRG neurons, and this was blocked by ML218 hydrochloride pretreatment. Furthermore, ML218 hydrochloride decreased firing frequency in human DRG, where spontaneous action potentials were present. In summary, Cav3.2 in concert with TLR4 in DRG neurons appears to contribute to paclitaxel-induced neuropathy.
Shypshyna, M S; Veselovsky, N S; Myasoedov, N F; Shram, S I; Fedulova, S A
The influence of long-term culturing (12 days in vitro) of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and dorsal horn (DH) neurons with peptide Semax on the level of synaptic activity at co-cultures, as well as short-term plasticity in sensory synapses were studied. It has been shown that neuronal culturing with peptide at concentrations of 10 and 100 µM led to increasing the frequency of spontaneous glutamatergic postsynaptic currents in DH neurons to 71.7 ± 1.8% and 93.9 ± 3.1% (n = 6; P < 0.001); Semax has a not significant effect on the amplitude and frequency of miniature glutamatergic currents, but causes an increase of the amplitudes of spontaneous postsynaptic currents, as well as elevates the quantum content. The data show the increase of multivesicular glutamate release efficiency in neural networks of co-cultures following incubation with the peptide. Also Semax (10 and 100 µM) induces changes of the basic parameters of short-term plasticity in sensory synapses: (1) increasing the paired-pulse ratio from 0.53 ± 0.028 (n = 8) to 0.91 ± 0.072 (n = 6, P < 0.01) and 0.95 ± 0.026 (n = 7; P < 0.001); (2) reducing the ratio of the coefficients of variation (CV2/ CV1) from 1.49 ± 0.11 (n = 8) to 1.02 ± 0.09 (n = 6; P < 0.05) and 1.11 ± 0.13 (n = 7; P < 0.0) respectively. The results indicate a stimulating effect of Semax on the activity of glutamatergic synapses in neural networks of co-cultures, as well as the ability of the peptide to effectively modulate the short-term plasticity in sensory synapses.
He, Xiao-fen; Wei, Jun-jun; Shou, Sheng-yun; Fang, Jian-qiao; Jiang, Yong-liang
Objective: To investigate the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at 2 and 100 Hz on type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) and on the expressions of the P2X3 receptor and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Methods: Rat type 2 DNP was induced by a high calorie and high sugar diet fed for 7 weeks, plus a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) after 5 weeks. EA at 2 and 100 Hz was carried out once every day after 7 weeks for 7 consecutive days. Body weight, serum fasting insulin (FINS), fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were measured. The expressions of L4–L6 DRG P2X3 receptors and CGRP were assessed by immunofluorescence. Results: Type 2 DNP was successfully induced as shown by the increased body weight, FINS, and FBG, as well as the reduced ISI and PWL. Expressions of P2X3 receptors and CGRP in L4–L6 DRGs increased. EA at both 2 and 100 Hz relieved type 2 DNP, but the analgesic effect of EA was stronger at 2 Hz. P2X3 receptor expression decreased in L4–L6 DRGs following EA at 2 Hz and in L5 and L6 DRGs following EA at 100 Hz. EA at both 2 and 100 Hz down-regulated CGRP overexpression in L4–L6 DRGs. Conclusions: These findings indicate that EA at 2 Hz is a good option for the management of type 2 DNP. The EA effect may be related to its down-regulation of the overexpressions of the DRG P2X3 receptors and CGRP in this condition. PMID:28271659
Johnson, I P; Sears, T A
Evidence is emerging for a role of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) in the form of stress granules, the unfolded protein response and protein bodies in the response of neurons to injury and in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we have studied the role of the peripheral target in regulating the RER and polyribosomes of Nissl bodies in axotomised adult cat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons where axonal regeneration and peripheral target reinnervation was either allowed or denied. Retrograde labelling with horseradish peroxidise was used as an independent marker to enable selection of only those DRG neuronal cell bodies with axons in the injured intercostal nerves. Indications of polyribosomal dispersal were seen by 6h following axotomy, and by 24h the normal orderly arrangement of lamellae of RER in Nissl bodies had become disorganised. These ultrastructural changes preceded light microscopical chromatolysis by 1-3d. The retrograde response was maximal 8-32 d after axotomy. Clusters of debris-laden satellite cells/macrophages were present at this time but no ultrastructural evidence of neuronal apoptosis or necrosis was seen and there were no differences in the initial retrograde response according to the type of injury. By 64 d following axotomy with reinnervation, approximately half the labelled DRG neurons showed restoration of the orderly arrangement of RER and polyribosomes in their Nissl bodies. This was not seen after axotomy with reinnervation denied. We propose that the target-dependent changes in Nissl body ultrastructure described here are part of a continuum that can modify neuronal protein synthesis directed towards growth, maintenance or death of the neuron. This represents a possible structural basis for mediating the varied effects of neurotrophic interactions.
Morioka, Norimitsu; Yoshida, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yoki; Hidaka, Nobue; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Nakata, Yoshihiro
Although brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is localized in primary sensory neurons and has crucial roles in nociceptive transduction, the mechanisms involved in regulation of BDNF exon-specific mRNA expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons have yet to be determined. Rat primary cultures of DRG neurons were stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a potent activator of protein kinase C (PKC), which resulted in the robust expression of both BDNF mRNA and protein. Among each BDNF mRNA exon, it was found that exons I, IV and VI were especially induced after PMA stimulation. The induction of these exons was significantly blocked by Gö6983 (a broad spectrum PKC inhibitor), Gö6976 (a conventional PKCs and PKCμ inhibitor), and rottlerin (a PKCδ inhibitor), but not by a PKCε inhibitor. The effect of PMA on exons I and VI was blocked by either U0126 (a MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor) or SB202190 (a p38 inhibitor), and PMA's effect on exon IV was inhibited by U0126 but not by SB202190. Furthermore, the activation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) was associated with the induction of exons I and IV, and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) contributed to the induction of exons I, IV and VI. These results show that the activation of PKCs induces the expression of BDNF mRNA exons I, IV and VI through exon-specific mechanisms, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, CREB and NF-κB, in cultured DRG neurons. These data suggest multiple pathways in the expression of BDNF in nociceptive sensory neurons.
Bossowska, A; Majewski, M
Botulinum toxin type A (BTX) is a potent neurotoxin, which in recent years has been effectively applied in experimental treatments of many neurogenic disorders of the urinary bladder. BTX is a selective, presynaptically-acting blocking agent of acetylcholine release from nerve terminals what, in turn, leads to the cessation of somatic motor and/or parasympathetic transmission. However, application of this toxin in urological practice is still in the developmental stages and the full mechanism of its action remain elusive. Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the neurochemical characterization of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder after BTX treatment. Retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) was injected into the urinary bladder wall in six juvenile female pigs and three weeks later, intramural bladder injections of BTX (100 IU per animal) were carried out in all the animals. After a week, DRG from L1 to Cql were harvested from the pigs and neurochemical characterization of FB+ neurons was performed using double- labeling immunofluorescence technique on 10-microm-thick cryostat sections. BTX injections led to a significant decrease in the number of FB+ neurons containing substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), calbindin (CB), somatostatin (SOM) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) when compared with that found in the healthy animals (19% vs. 45%, 18% vs. 36%, 0.6% vs. 3%, 0.4 vs. 4% and 0.1% vs. 6%, respectively) These data demonstrated that BTX changed the chemical coding of bladder sensory neurons, and therefore this drug should be taken into consideration when it planning experimental therapy of selected neurogenic bladder disorders.
Song, Ying; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Xu, Jie; Wu, Jing-Ru; Qin, Xia; Hua, Rong
The aim of the paper is to study the effect of spontaneous firing of injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron in chronic compression of DRG (CCD) model on excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) neuron in rat spinal dorsal horn. In vivo intracellular recording was done in DRG neurons and in vivo extracellular recording was done in spinal WDR neurons. After CCD, incidence of spontaneous discharge and firing frequency enhanced to 59.46% and (4.30 ± 0.69) Hz respectively from 22.81% and (0.60 ± 0.08) Hz in normal control group (P < 0.05). Local administration of 50 nmol/L tetrodotoxin (TTX) on DRG neuron in CCD rats decreased the spontaneous activities of WDR neurons from (191.97 ± 45.20)/min to (92.50 ± 30.32)/min (P < 0.05). On the other side, local administration of 100 mmol/L KCl on DRG neuron evoked spontaneous firing in a reversible way (n = 5) in silent WDR neurons of normal rats. There was 36.36% (12/33) WDR neuron showing after-discharge in response to innocuous mechanical stimuli on cutaneous receptive field in CCD rats, while after-discharge was not seen in control rats. Local administration of TTX on DRG with a concentration of 50 nmol/L attenuated innocuous electric stimuli-evoked after-discharge of WDR neurons in CCD rats in a reversible manner, and the frequency was decreased from (263 ± 56.5) Hz to (117 ± 30) Hz (P < 0.05). The study suggests that the excitability of WDR neurons is influenced by spontaneous firings of DRG neurons after CCD.
Demirdaş, Arif; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Övey, İshak Suat
Overload of Ca(2+) entry and excessive oxidative stress in neurons are the two main causes of depression. Activation of transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and TRP melastatin 2 (TRPM2) during oxidative stress has been linked to neuronal survival. Duloxetine (DULOX) in neurons reduced the effects of Ca(2+) entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) through glutamate receptors, and this reduction of effects may also occur through TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels. In order to better characterize the actions of DULOX in peripheral pain and hippocampal oxidative injury through modulation of TRPM2 and TRPV1, we tested the effects of DULOX on apoptosis and oxidative stress in the hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of rats. Freshly isolated hippocampal and DRG neurons were incubated for 24 h with DULOX. In whole-cell patch-clamp and intracellular-free calcium ([Ca(2+)]) concentration (Fura-2) experiments, cumene hydroperoxide and ADP-ribose-induced TRPM2 currents in the neurons were inhibited by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid (ACA) and capsaicin-induced TRPV1 currents were inhibited by capsazepine (CPZ) incubations. TRPM2 and TRPV1 channel current densities, [Ca(2+)] concentration, apoptosis, caspase 3, caspase 9, mitochondrial depolarization, and intracellular ROS production values in the neurons were lower in the DULOX group than in controls. In addition, the above values were further decreased by DULOX + CPZ and DULOX + ACA treatments. In conclusion, TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels are involved in Ca(2+) entry-induced neuronal death and modulation of the activity of these channels by DULOX treatment may account for their neuroprotective activity against apoptosis, excessive ROS production, and Ca(2+) entry.
Hong, Shuangsong; Morrow, Thomas J.; Paulson, Pamela E.; Isom, Lori L.; Wiley, John W.
Diabetic neuropathy is a common form of peripheral neuropathy, yet the mechanisms responsible for pain in this disease are poorly understood. Alterations in the expression and function of voltage-gated tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channels have been implicated in animal models of neuropathic pain, including models of diabetic neuropathy. We investigated the expression and function of TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) and TTX-R sodium channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and the responses to thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in streptozotocin-treated rats between 4–8 weeks after onset of diabetes. Diabetic rats demonstrated a significant reduction in the threshold for escape from innocuous mechanical pressure (allodynia) and a reduction in the latency to withdrawal from a noxious thermal stimulus (hyperalgesia). Both TTX-S and TTX-R sodium currents increased significantly in small DRG neurons isolated from diabetic rats. The voltage-dependent activation and steady-state inactivation curves for these currents were shifted negatively. TTX-S currents induced by fast or slow voltage ramps increased markedly in neurons from diabetic rats. Immunoblots and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated significant increases in the expression of Nav1.3 (TTX-S) and Nav1.7 (TTX-S) and decreases in the expression of Nav1.6 (TTX-S) and Nav1.8 (TTX-R) in diabetic rats. The level of serine/threonine phosphorylation of Nav1.6 and Nav1.8 increased in response to diabetes. In addition, increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Nav1.6 and Nav1.7 was observed in DRGs from diabetic rats. These results suggest that both TTX-S and TTX-R sodium channels play important roles and that differential phosphorylation of sodium channels involving both serine/threonine and tyrosine sites contributes to painful diabetic neuropathy. PMID:15123645
Chen, Cheng; Bai, Xue; Bi, Yanwen; Liu, Guixiang; Li, Hao; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Huaxiang
Paclitaxel (PT)-induced neurotoxicity is a significant problem associated with successful treatment of cancers. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neurotrophic factor and plays an important role in promoting axonal growth from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Whether IGF-1 has protective effects on neurite growth, cell viability, neuronal apoptosis and neuronal phenotypes in DRG neurons with PT-induced neurotoxicity is still unclear. In this study, primary cultured rat DRG neurons were used to assess the effects of IGF-1 on DRG neurons with PT-induced neurotoxicity. The results showed that PT exposure caused neurite retraction in a dose-dependent manner. PT exposure caused a decrease of cell viability and an increase in the ratio of apoptotic cells which could be reversed by IGF-1. The percentage of calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive (CGRP-IR) neurons and neurofilament (NF)-200-IR neurons, mRNA, and protein levels of CGRP and NF-200 decreased significantly after treatment with PT. IGF-1 administration had protective effects on CGRP-IR neurons, but not on NF-200-IR neurons. Either extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD98059 or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) inhibitor LY294002 blocked the effect of IGF-1. The results imply that IGF-1 may attenuate apoptosis to improve neuronal cell viability and promote neurite growth of DRG neurons with PT-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, these results support an important neuroprotective role of exogenous IGF-1 on distinct subpopulations of DRG neurons which is responsible for skin sensation. The effects of IGF-1 might be through ERK1/2 or PI3 K/Akt signaling pathways. These findings provide experimental evidence for IGF-1 administration to alleviate neurotoxicity of distinct subpopulations of DRG neurons induced by PT.
Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Azusa; Senzaki, Kouji; Ozaki, Shigeru; Aizawa, Shin; Shiga, Takashi
The runt-related transcription factor Runx1 regulates cell-type specification and axonal projections of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is required for axonal growth during neuronal development. Although Runx1 has been shown to be involved in BMP4 signaling in non-neural tissues, the Runx1 function in BMP4-dependent regulation of neuronal development is unclear. To investigate interactions between Runx1 and BMP4 in neurite outgrowth, we cultured DRGs from wild-type and Runx1-deficient mouse embryos in the presence or absence of BMP4. Neurite outgrowth was decreased in BMP4-treated wild-type DRGs and untreated Runx1-deficient DRGs, suggesting the inhibitory effect of BMP4 and facilitatory effect of Runx1 on neurite outgrowth. In addition, the combination of BMP4 treatment and Runx1 deficiency increased neurite outgrowth, suggesting that Runx1 is required for BMP4-induced suppression of neurite outgrowth and that the loss of Runx1 results in a functional switch of BMP4 from neurite growth suppressing to neurite growth promoting. Both BMP4 treatment and Runx1 deficiency increased calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive neurons, and CGRP expression was not increased by BMP4 treatment in Runx1-deficient mice, suggesting that Runx1 contributes to BMP4-induced CGRP expression in DRG neurons. Thus, Runx1 contributes to BMP4 regulation of neurite outgrowth and CGRP expression in DRG and may control BMP4 functional switching during embryogenesis.
Lv, H; Chen, H; Xu, J J; Jiang, Y S; Shen, Y J; Zhou, S Z; Xu, H; Xiong, Y C
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, but few studies have examined the role of oxidative stress in the mirror-image neuropathic pain (MINP). The present study was to investigate the role of ROS in MINP caused by chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) (CCD) in a rat model. SD rats were randomly divided into sham group and CCD group. CCD was conducted to induce MINP. CCD rats were intraperitoneally injected with α-Phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone (PBN) at 7 days after surgery. Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) was measured at -1, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after surgery in sham group and CCD group, and at 8 time points after PBN injection. Rats were sacrificed at 3 and 7 days after surgery in sham group and CCD group and at 0.5 and 2 h after PBN injection, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents were determined in the contralateral DRGs. Results showed bilateral PWMT reduced significantly in sham group and CCD group, but it returned to nearly normal level in sham group. MDA content, H2O2 content and SOD activity increased significantly, while catalase activity remained unchanged in CCD rats. PBN at 100 mg/kg significantly attenuated bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia accompanied by the improvement of oxidative stress in the contralateral DRGs. Our results demonstrate that ROS produced in the contralateral DRG are involved in the pathogenesis of CCD induced MINP, and ROS scavenger may be a promising drug for the therapy of MINP.
Mika, J; Rojewska, E; Makuch, W; Przewlocka, B
A role of neuropeptides in neuropathic pain development has been implicated; however, the neuroimmune interactions that are involved in the underlying mechanisms may be more important than previously thought. To examine a potential role of relations between glia cells and neuropeptides in neuropathic pain, we performed competitive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from the dorsal lumbar spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after chronic constriction injury (CCI) in the rat sciatic nerve. The RT-PCR results indicated that complement component 1, q subcomponent (C1q) mRNA expression was higher than glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the spinal cord 3 and 7 days post-CCI, suggesting that spinal microglia and perivascular macrophages are more activated than astrocytes. In parallel, we observed a strong upregulation of prodynorphin mRNA in the spinal cord after CCI, with no changes in the expression of proenkephalin or pronociceptin. Conversely, the expression of GFAP mRNA in the DRG was higher than C1q, which suggests that the satellite cells are activated shortly after injury, followed by the macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltrating the DRG. In the DRG, we also observed a very strong upregulation of prodynorphin (1387%) as well as pronociceptin (122%) and a downregulation of proenkephalin (47%) mRNAs. Interestingly, preemptive and repeated i.p. injection of minocycline reversed the activation of microglia/macrophages in the spinal cord and the trafficking of peripheral immune cells into the DRG, and markedly diminished the upregulation of prodynorphin and pronociceptin in the DRG. We thus provide novel findings that inhibition of C1q-positive cells by minocycline can diminish injury-induced neuropeptide changes in the DRG. This suggests that immune cells-derived pronociceptive factors may influence opioid peptide expression. Therefore, the injury-induced activation of microglia and leukocytes and the subsequent
Zhang, Xiulin; Beckel, Jonathan M; Daugherty, Stephanie L; Wang, Ting; Woodcock, Stephen R; Freeman, Bruce A; de Groat, William C
Effects of nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) on TRP channels were examined in guinea-pig dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons using calcium imaging and patch clamp techniques. OA-NO2 increased intracellular Ca2+ in 60–80% DRG neurons. 1-Oleoyl-2acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG), a TRPC agonist, elicited responses in 36% of OA-NO2-sensitive neurons while capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) or allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC, TRPA1 agonist) elicited responses in only 16% and 10%, respectively, of these neurons. A TRPV1 antagonist (diarylpiperazine, 5 μm) in combination with a TRPA1 antagonist (HC-030031, 30 μm) did not change the amplitude of the Ca2+ transients or percentage of neurons responding to OA-NO2; however, a reducing agent DTT (50 mm) or La3+ (50 μm) completely abolished OA-NO2 responses. OA-NO2 also induced a transient inward current associated with a membrane depolarization followed by a prolonged outward current and hyperpolarization in 80% of neurons. The reversal potentials of inward and outward currents were approximately −20 mV and −60 mV, respectively. Inward current was reduced when extracellular Na+ was absent, but unchanged by niflumic acid (100 μm), a Cl− channel blocker. Outward current was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or a combination of two Ca2+-activated K+ channel blockers (iberiotoxin, 100 nm and apamin, 1 μm). BTP2 (1 or 10 μm), a broad spectrum TRPC antagonist, or La3+ (50 μm) completely abolished OA-NO2 currents. RT-PCR performed on mRNA extracted from DRGs revealed the expression of all seven subtypes of TRPC channels. These results support the hypothesis that OA-NO2 activates TRPC channels other than the TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels already known to be targets in rat and mouse sensory neurons and challenge the prevailing view that electrophilic compounds act specifically on TRPA1 or TRPV1 channels. The modulation of sensory neuron excitability via actions on multiple TRP channels can contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect
Aparicio, J G; Hopp, H; Choi, A; Mandayam Comar, J; Liao, V C; Harutyunyan, N; Lee, T C
Human retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have anticipated value for human disease study, drug screening, and therapeutic applications; however, their full potential remains underdeveloped. To characterize RGCs in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived retinal organoids we examined RGC markers and surface antigen expression and made comparisons to human fetal retina. RGCs in both tissues exhibited CD184 and CD171 expression and distinct expression patterns of the RGC markers BRN3 and RBPMS. The retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) of retinal organoids expressed CD184, consistent with its expression in the neuroblastic layer in fetal retina. In retinal organoids CD184 expression was enhanced in RGC competent RPCs and high CD184 expression was retained on post-mitotic RGC precursors; CD171 was detected on maturing RGCs. The differential expression timing of CD184 and CD171 permits identification and enrichment of RGCs from retinal organoids at differing maturation states from committed progenitors to differentiating neurons. These observations will facilitate molecular characterization of PSC-derived RGCs during differentiation, critical knowledge for establishing the veracity of these in vitro produced cells. Furthermore, observations made in the retinal organoid model closely parallel those in human fetal retina further validating use of retinal organoid to model early retinal development.
Erriquez, Jessica; Bernascone, Silvia; Ciarletta, Monica; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Graziani, Andrea; Distasi, Carla
Ghrelin is a hormone regulating energy homeostasis via interaction with its receptor, GHSR-1a. Ghrelin activities in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells are unknown. Herein we show that ghrelin induces a change of cytosolic calcium concentration in both glia and neurons of embryonic chick DRG. Both RT-PCR and binding studies performed with fluorescent ghrelin in the presence of either unlabeled ghrelin or GHSR-1a antagonist D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6, indicate that DRG cells express GHSR-1a. In glial cells the response is characterized by a rapid transient rise in [Ca(2+)](i) followed by a long lasting rise. The calcium elevation is dependent on calcium release from thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular stores and on activation of two distinct Ca(2+) entry pathways, a receptor activated calcium entry and a store operated calcium entry. Surprisingly, D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 exerts several activities in the absence of exogenous ghrelin: (i) it activates calcium release from thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular stores and calcium entry via voltage-operated channels in non-neuronal cells; (ii) it inhibits calcium oscillations in non-neuronal cells exhibiting spontaneous Ca(2+) activity and iii) it promotes apoptosis of DRG cells, both neurons and glia. In summary, we provide the first evidence for ghrelin activity in DRG, and we also demonstrate that the widely used D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 ghrelin antagonist features ghrelin independent activities.
Slappendel, R; Crul, B J; Braak, G J; Geurts, J W; Booij, L H; Voerman, V F; de Boo, T
The efficacy of radiofrequency lesion treatment of the cervical dorsal root ganglion (RF-DRG) in cervicobrachialgia was investigated in 61 patients by a randomized prospective double blinded study. Before lesion treatment the putative pain provoking spinal root was identified by diagnostic blocks with a local anesthetic agent. One group of patients (n = 32, group I) was treated with a radiofrequency lesion of 67 degrees C and in a control group (n = 29, group II) a temperature of 40 degrees C was applied. Three months after treatment a significant reduction in VAS scores was demonstrated in both groups. The outcome of the treatments was identical (VAS reduction: group I, 1.7; group II, 1.9; P = 0.001). In group I a VAS reduction of 3 or more occurred in 11/31 (34%) and in group II in 11/29 (38%) of patients. A VAS reduction of 2 or more occurred in group I in 15/31 (47%) and in group II in 15/29 (51%) of patients. This study suggests that treatment with 40 degrees C radiofrequency application of the dorsal root ganglion is equally effective as treatment at 67 degrees C. Further appraisal of this treatment is required.
Ghazizadeh, Vahid; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa
Incidence rates of epilepsy and use of Wi-Fi worldwide have been increasing. TRPV1 is a Ca(2+) permeable and non-selective channel, gated by noxious heat, oxidative stress and capsaicin (CAP). The hyperthermia and oxidant effects of Wi-Fi may induce apoptosis and Ca(2+) entry through activation of TRPV1 channel in epilepsy. Therefore, we tested the effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) exposure on Ca(2+) influx, oxidative stress and apoptosis through TRPV1 channel in the murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hippocampus of pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats. Rats in the present study were divided into two groups as controls and PTZ. The PTZ groups were divided into two subgroups namely PTZ + Wi-Fi and PTZ + Wi-Fi + capsazepine (CPZ). The hippocampal and DRG neurons were freshly isolated from the rats. The DRG and hippocampus in PTZ + Wi-Fi and PTZ + Wi-Fi + CPZ groups were exposed to Wi-Fi for 1 hour before CAP stimulation. The cytosolic free Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase-3 and -9 values in hippocampus were higher in the PTZ group than in the control although cell viability values decreased. The Wi-Fi exposure induced additional effects on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. However, pretreatment of the neurons with CPZ, results in a protection against epilepsy-induced Ca(2+) influx, apoptosis and oxidative damages. In results of whole cell patch-clamp experiments, treatment of DRG with Ca(2+) channel antagonists [thapsigargin, verapamil + diltiazem, 2-APB, MK-801] indicated that Wi-Fi exposure induced Ca(2+) influx via the TRPV1 channels. In conclusion, epilepsy and Wi-Fi in our experimental model is involved in Ca(2+) influx and oxidative stress-induced hippocampal and DRG death through activation of TRPV1 channels, and negative modulation of this channel activity by CPZ pretreatment may account for the neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress.
Sculptoreanu, A; Kullmann, F A; Artim, D E; Bazley, F A; Schopfer, F; Woodcock, S; Freeman, B A; de Groat, W C
Nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO(2)), an electrophilic fatty acid by-product of nitric oxide and nitrite reactions, is present in normal and inflamed mammalian tissues at up to micromolar concentrations and exhibits anti-inflammatory signaling actions. The effects of OA-NO(2) on cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were examined using fura-2 Ca(2+) imaging and patch clamping. OA-NO(2) (3.5-35 microM) elicited Ca(2+) transients in 20 to 40% of DRG neurons, the majority (60-80%) of which also responded to allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; 1-50 microM), a TRPA1 agonist, and to capsaicin (CAPS; 0.5 microM), a TRPV1 agonist. The OA-NO(2)-evoked Ca(2+) transients were reduced by the TRPA1 antagonist 2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl) acetamide (HC-030031; 5-50 microM) and the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (10 microM). Patch-clamp recording revealed that OA-NO(2) depolarized and induced inward currents in 62% of neurons. The effects of OA-NO(2) were elicited by concentrations >or=5 nM and were blocked by 10 mM dithiothreitol. Concentrations of OA-NO(2) >or=5 nM reduced action potential (AP) overshoot, increased AP duration, inhibited firing induced by depolarizing current pulses, and inhibited Na(+) currents. The effects of OA-NO(2) were not prevented or reversed by the NO-scavenger carboxy-2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazolineoxyl-1-oxyl-3-oxide. A large percentage (46-57%) of OA-NO(2)-responsive neurons also responded to CAPS (0.5 microM) or AITC (0.5 microM). OA-NO(2) currents were reduced by TRPV1 (diarylpiperazine; 5 microM) or TRPA1 (HC-030031; 5 microM) antagonists. These data reveal that endogenous OA-NO(2) generated at sites of inflammation may initially activate transient receptor potential channels on nociceptive afferent nerves, contributing to the initiation of afferent nerve activity, and later suppresses afferent firing.
Shanthanna, Harsha; Chan, Philip; McChesney, James; Thabane, Lehana; Paul, James
Background No proof of efficacy, in the form of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), exists to support pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) for chronic lumbar radicular (CLR) pain. We determined the feasibility of a larger trial (primary objective), and also explored the efficacy of PRF in decreasing pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) and improving the Oswestry Disability Index. Methods This was a single-center, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded RCT. Patients were randomized to a placebo group (needle placement) or a treatment group (PRF at 42°C for 120 seconds to the DRG). Patients were followed up for 3 months post procedure. Outcomes with regard to pain, Oswestry Disability Index score, and side effects were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results Over 15 months, 350 potential patients were identified and 56 were assessed for eligibility. Fifteen of them did not meet the selection criteria. Of the 41 eligible patients, 32 (78%) were recruited. One patient opted out before intervention. Three patients were lost to follow-up at 3 months. Mean VAS differences were not significantly different at 4 weeks (−0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI], −2.29, 1.57) or at 3 months (−0.76, 95% CI, −3.14, 1.61). The difference in mean Oswestry Disability Index score was also not significantly different at 4 weeks (−2%, 95% CI, −14%, 10%) or 3 months (−7%, 95% CI, −21%, 6%). There were no major side effects. Six of 16 patients in the PRF group and three of 15 in the placebo group showed a >50% decrease in VAS score. Conclusion The recruitment rate was partially successful. At 3 months, the relative success of PRF-DRG was small. A large-scale trial to establish efficacy is not practically feasible considering the small effect size, which would necessitate recruitment of a challengingly large number of participants over a number of years. Until clear parameters for application of PRF are established, clinicians will need
Yang, Y; Wu, H; Yan, J-Q; Song, Z-B; Guo, Q-L
Both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the angiotensin (Ang) II/angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) axis play important roles in neuropathic pain and nociception. In the present study, we explored the interaction between the two systems by examining the mutual effects between TNF-α and the Ang II/AT1 receptor axis in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Rat DRG neurons were treated with TNF-α in different concentrations for different lengths of time in the presence or absence of transcription inhibitor actinomycin D, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) inhibitor SPD304, β-catenin signaling inhibitor CCT031374, or different kinase inhibitors. TNF-α decreased the AT1 receptor mRNA level as well as the AT1a receptor promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner within 30 h, which led to dose-dependent inhibition of Ang II-binding AT1 receptor level on the cell membrane. Actinomycin D (1 mg/ml), SPD304 (50 μM), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD169316 (25 μM), and CCT031374 (50 μM) completely abolished the inhibitory effect of TNF-α on AT1 receptor expression. TNF-α dose-dependently increased soluble β-catenin and phosphorylated GSK-3β levels, which was blocked by SPD304 and PD169316. In DRG neurons treated with AT2 receptor agonist CGP421140, or Ang II with or without AT1 receptor antagonist losartan or AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319 for 30 h, we found that Ang II and Ang II+PD123319 significantly decreased TNF-α expression, whereas CPG421140 and Ang II+losartan increased TNF-α expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate that TNF-α inhibits AT1 receptor expression at the transcription level via TNFR1 in rat DRG neurons by increasing the soluble β-catenin level through the p38 MAPK/GSK-3β pathway. In addition, Ang II appears to inhibit and induce TNF-α expression via the AT1 receptor and the AT2 receptor in DRG neurons, respectively. This is the first evidence of crosstalk between TNF-α and the Ang II/AT receptor axis in DRG neurons.
Despite considerable research, the mechanisms of neuropathic pain induced by excessive oxidative stress production and overload calcium ion (Ca(2+)) entry in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) remain substantially unidentified. The transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are activated with different stimuli including oxidative stress. TRPM2 and TRPV1 have been shown to be involved in induction of neuropathic pain. However, the activation mechanisms of TRPM2 and TRPV1 via NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways are poorly understood. In this study, I investigated the roles of NADPH oxidase and PKC on Ca(2+) entry through TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels in in vitro DRG neurons of rats. Rat DRG neurons were used in whole-cell patch clamp experiments. The H2O2-induced TRPM2 current densities were decreased by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA), and dose-dependent capsaicin (CAP) and H2O2-induced TRPV1 currents were inhibited by capsazepine (CPZ). The TRPV1 channel is activated in the DRG neurons by 0.01 mM capsaicin but not 0.001 mM or 0.05 mM capsaicin. TRPM2 and TRPV1 currents were increased by the PKC activator, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), although the currents were decreased by ACA, CPZ, and the PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM). Both channel currents were further increased by PMA + H2O2 as compared to H2O2 only. In the combined presence of PMA + BIM, no TRPM2 or TRPV1 currents were observed. The CAP and H2O2-induced TRPM2 current densities were also decreased by the NADPH oxidase inhibitors apocynin and N-Acetylcysteine. In conclusion, these results demonstrate a protective role for NADPH oxidase and PKC inhibitors on Ca(2+) entry through TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels in DRG neurons. Since excessive oxidative stress production and Ca(2+) entry are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, the findings may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of neuropathology in DRG neurons.
Van Zundert, J; Lamé, I E; de Louw, A; Jansen, J; Kessels, F; Patijn, J; van Kleef, M
Cervicogenic headache and cervicobrachialgia are frequent diagnoses of chronic cervical pain. After failure of conservative treatment, an interventional approach may be indicated in the absence of any indication for causal surgical treatment. The pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) technique exposes the nerve to a high-frequency electric field while the temperature of the electrode tip does not exceed 42°C. This method is thought to be nondestructive and almost free of neurologic side effects and complications. Our extended pilot study was performed to confirm the perceived efficacy of PRF for short- and long-term relief of chronic cervical pain. We carried out a clinical audit of the first 18 patients treated with PRF at the cervical dorsal root ganglion. An independent evaluator reviewed the medical records. Patients with good clinical results at 8 weeks were evaluated for long-term effect (> 6 months), based on a 7-point Likert scale. Thirteen patients (72%) showed short-term clinical success (≥ 50% pain relief). Mean follow-up was 19.4 months (SD 8.9 months), maximum 2.5 years. The duration of satisfactory pain relief (6 or 7 on the Likert scale) varied between 2 and over 30 months, with a mean duration of 9.2 months (SD 11.2 months). Kaplan-Meier analysis illustrated that 50% of patients experienced success 3 months after treatment. We could not identify predictive variables for clinical outcome. None of the patients reported post-treatment neuritis or other adverse events. To our knowledge, this is the first documented series of chronic cervical pain syndromes treated with PRF. Satisfactory pain relief of at least 50% was achieved in 13 of 18 (72%) patients at 8 weeks. More than one year after treatment, six patients (33%) continue to rate treatment outcome as good or very good. No side effects were reported. j.
Özdemir, Ümit Sinan; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Şenol, Nilgün; Ghazizadeh, Vahid
Oxidative stress and cytosolic Ca(2+) overload have important roles on apoptosis in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after spinal cord injury (SCI). Hypericum perforatum (HP) has an antioxidant property in the DRGs due to its ability to modulate NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C pathways. We aimed to investigate the protective property of HP on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and Ca(2+) entry through transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in SCI-induced DRG neurons of rats. Rats were divided into four groups as control, HP, SCI, and SCI + HP. The HP groups received 30 mg/kg HP for three concessive days after SCI induction. The SCI-induced TRPM2 and TRPV1 currents and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration were reduced by HP. The SCI-induced decrease in glutathione peroxidase and cell viability values were ameliorated by HP treatment, and the SCI-induced increase in apoptosis, caspase 3, caspase 9, cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization values in DRG of SCI group were overcome by HP treatment. In conclusion, we observed a protective role of HP on SCI-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and Ca(2+) entry through TRPM2 and TRPV1 in the DRG neurons. Our findings may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of SCI by HP. Graphical Abstract Possible molecular pathways of involvement of Hypericum perforatum (HP) on apoptosis, oxidative stress, and calcium accumulation through TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels in DRG neurons of SCI-induced rats. The TRPM2 channel is activated by ADP-ribose and oxidative stress through activation of ADP-ribose pyrophosphate although it was inhibited by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid (ACA) and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2APB). The TRPV1 channel is activated by oxidative stress and capsaicin and it is blocked by capsazepine. Injury in the DRG can result in augmented ROS release, leading to Ca(2+) uptake through
Smith, T; Al Otaibi, M; Sathish, J; Djouhri, L
A hallmark of peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) is chronic spontaneous pain and/or hypersensitivity to normally painful stimuli (hyperalgesia) or normally nonpainful stimuli (allodynia).This pain results partly from abnormal hyperexcitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We have previously shown, using a modified version of the lumbar 5 (L5)-spinal nerve ligation model of PNP (mSNA model involving L5-spinal nerve axotomy plus loose ligation of the lumbar 4 (L4)-spinal nerve with neuroinflammation-inducing chromic-gut), that L4 DRG neurons exhibit increased spontaneous activity, the key characteristic of neuronal hyperexcitability. The underlying ionic and molecular mechanisms of the hyperexcitability of L4 DRG neurons are incompletely understood, but could result from changes in expression and/or function of ion channels including hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, which are active near the neuron's resting membrane potential, and which produce an excitatory inward current that depolarizes the membrane potential toward the threshold of action potential generation. Therefore, in the present study we used the mSNA model to investigate whether: (a) expression of HCN1-HCN3 channels is altered in L4 DRG neurons which, in the mSNA model, are essential for transmission of the evoked pain, and which contribute to chronic spontaneous pain, and (b) local (intraplantar) blockade of these HCN channels, with a specific blocker, ZD7288, attenuates chronic spontaneous pain and/or evoked pain in mSNA rats. We found 7days after mSNA: (1) a significant increase in HCN2-immunoreactivity in small (<30μm) DRG neurons (predominantly IB4-negative neurons), and in the proportion of small neurons expressing HCN2 (putative nociceptors); (2) no significant change in HCN1- or HCN3-immunoreactivity in all cell types; and (3) attenuation, with ZD7288 (100μM intraplantar), of chronic spontaneous pain behavior (spontaneous foot lifting) and mechanical
St-Jacques, Bruno; Ma, Weiya
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a well-known pain mediator enriched in inflamed tissues, plays a pivotal role in the genesis of chronic pain conditions such as inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PGE2-prolonged sensitization of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (nociceptors) may contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that facilitating synthesis and anterograde axonal trafficking of EP receptors contribute to PGE2-prolonged nociceptor sensitization. Intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of a stabilized PGE2 analog, 16,16 dimethyl PGE2 (dmPGE2), in a dose- and time-dependent manner, not only elicited primary tactile allodynia which lasted for 1d, but also prolonged tactile allodynia evoked by a subsequent i.pl. injection of dmPGE2 from 1d to 4d. Moreover, the duration of tactile allodynia was progressively prolonged following multiple sequential i.pl. injections of dmPGE2. Co-injection of the selective EP1 or EP4 receptor antagonist, the inhibitors of cAMP, PKA, PKC, PKCε or PLC as well as an interleukin-6 (IL-6) neutralizing antiserum differentially blocked primary tactile allodynia elicited by the 1st dmPGE2 and the prolonged tactile allodynia evoked by the 2nd dmPGE2, suggesting the involvement of these signaling events in dmPGE2-induced nociceptor activation and sensitization. Co-injection of a selective COX2 inhibitor or two EP4 antagonists prevented or shortened inflammagen-prolonged nociceptor sensitization. I.pl. injection of dmPGE2 or carrageenan time-dependently increased EP4 levels in L4-6 DRG neurons and peripheral nerves. EP4 was expressed in almost half of IB4-binding nociceptors of L4-6 DRG. Taken together, our data suggest that stimulating the synthesis and anterograde axonal trafficking to increase EP4 availability at the axonal terminals of nociceptors is likely a novel mechanism underlying PGE2-prolonged nociceptor
Bernardini, Nadia; Tomassy, Giulio Srubek; Tata, Ada Maria; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Biagioni, Stefano
Spontaneous and potassium-induced acetylcholine release from embryonic (E12 and E18) chick dorsal root ganglia explants at 3 and 7 days in culture was investigated using a chemiluminescent procedure. A basal release ranging from 2.4 to 13.8 pm/ganglion/5 min was detected. Potassium application always induced a significant increase over the basal release. The acetylcholine levels measured in E12 explants were 6.3 and 38.4 pm/ganglion/5 min at 3 and 7 days in culture, respectively, while in E18 explant cultures they were 10.7 and 15.5 pm/ganglion/5 min. In experiments performed in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ ions, acetylcholine release, both basal and potassium-induced, was abolished and it was reduced by cholinergic antagonists. A morphometric analysis of explant fibre length suggested that acetylcholine release was directly correlated to neurite extension. Moreover, treatment of E12 dorsal root ganglion-dissociated cell cultures with carbachol as cholinergic receptor agonist was shown to induce a higher neurite outgrowth compared with untreated cultures. The concomitant treatment with carbachol and the antagonists at muscarinic receptors atropine and at nicotinic receptors mecamylamine counteracted the increase in fibre outgrowth. Although the present data have not established whether acetylcholine is released by neurones or glial cells, these observations provide the first evidence of a regulated release of acetylcholine in dorsal root ganglia.
Ahn, Hye-Sook; Vasylyev, Dmytro V; Estacion, Mark; Macala, Lawrence J; Shah, Palak; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G
Sodium channel NaV1.7 is preferentially expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sympathetic ganglion neurons. Gain-of-function NaV1.7 mutations/variants have been identified in the painful disorders inherited erythromelalgia and small-fiber neuropathy (SFN). DRG neurons transfected with these channel variants display depolarized resting potential, reduced current-threshold, increased firing-frequency and spontaneous firing. Whether the depolarizing shift in resting potential and enhanced spontaneous firing are due to persistent activity of variant channels, or to compensatory changes in other conductance(s) in response to expression of the variant channel, as shown in model systems, has not been studied. We examined the effect of wild-type NaV1.7 and a NaV1.7 mutant channel, D623N, associated with SFN, on resting potential and membrane potential during interspike intervals in DRG neurons. Resting potential in DRG neurons expressing D623N was depolarized compared to neurons expressing WT-NaV1.7. Exposure to TTX hyperpolarized resting potential by 7mV, increased current-threshold, decreased firing-frequency, and reduced NMDG-induced-hyperpolarization in DRG neurons expressing D623N. To assess the contribution of depolarized resting potential to DRG neuron excitability, we mimicked the mutant channel's depolarizing effect by current injection to produce equivalent depolarization; the depolarization decreased current threshold and increased firing-frequency. Voltage-clamp using ramp or repetitive action potentials as commands showed that D623N channels enhance the TTX-sensitive inward current, persistent at subthreshold membrane voltages, as predicted by a Hodgkin-Huxley model. Our results demonstrate that a variant of NaV1.7 associated with painful neuropathy depolarizes resting membrane potential and produces an enhanced inward current during interspike intervals, thereby contributing to DRG neuron hyperexcitability.
Bae, Jin Young; Kim, Jae Hyun; Cho, Yi Sul; Mah, Won; Bae, Yong Chul
Substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and isolectin B4 (IB4) are widely used as markers for peripheral neurons with unmyelinated fibers, whereas neurofilament 200 (NF200), and Peripherin are used as markers for neurons with myelinated fibers, and with unmyelinated or small-caliber fibers, respectively. To study the selectivity of these markers for specific neuronal types, we analyzed their expression in neurons in the rat trigeminal ganglion by light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry. Most SP-immunopositive (+), CGRP+, and IB4+ fibers were unmyelinated, but a small fraction (∼5%) were small myelinated fibers (<20 µm(2) in cross-sectional area, equivalent to <5 µm in diameter, Aδ fiber). Similarly, whereas the majority of NF200+ fibers were myelinated, a large fraction (23.9%) were unmyelinated, and whereas the majority of Peripherin+ fibers were unmyelinated and small myelinated, a significant fraction (15.5%) were large myelinated (>20 µm(2) in cross-sectional area, equivalent to >5 µm in diameter, Aβ fiber). Our findings confirm that SP, CGRP, and IB4 can be used as reliable markers for neurons with unmyelinated fibers, and question the suitability of NF200 as a marker for neurons with myelinated fibers, and of Peripherin as a marker for neurons with unmyelinated, or fine-caliber fibers.
Charles, K J; Evans, M L; Robbins, M J; Calver, A R; Leslie, R A; Pangalos, M N
GABA(B) receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors mediating the slow onset and prolonged synaptic actions of GABA in the CNS. The recent cloning of two genes, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2), has revealed a novel requirement for GABA(B) receptor signalling. Studies have demonstrated that the two receptor subunits associate as a GABA(B1)/GABA(B2) heterodimer to form a functional GABA(B) receptor. In this study we have developed polyclonal antisera specific to two splice variants of the GABA(B1) subunit, GABA(B1a) and GABA(B1b), as well as an antiserum to the GABA(B2) subunit. Using affinity-purified antibodies derived from these antisera we have mapped out the distribution profile of each subunit in rat brain, spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion. In brain the highest areas of GABA(B1a), GABA(B1b) and GABA(B2) subunit expression were found in neocortex, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebellum and habenula. In spinal cord, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits were expressed in the superficial layers of the dorsal horn, as well as in motor neurones in the deeper layers of the ventral horn. GABA(B) receptor subunit immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglion suggested that expression of GABA(B1b) was restricted to the large diameter neurones, in contrast to GABA(B1a) and GABA(B2) subunits which were expressed in both large and small diameter neurones. Although expression levels of GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits varied we found no areas in which GABA(B1) was expressed in the absence of GABA(B2). This suggests that most, if not all, GABA(B1) immunoreactivity may represent functional GABA(B) receptors. Although our data are in general agreement with functional studies, some discrepancies in GABA(B1) subunit expression occurred with respect to other immunohistochemical studies. Overall our data suggest that GABA(B) receptors are widely expressed throughout the brain and spinal cord, and that GABA(B1a) and GABA(B1b) subunits can associate with GABA(B2) to form both pre- and post-synaptic receptors.
Lee, Sang Pyo; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Hang Lak; Jun, Dae Won; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon; Hwang, Se Jin; Lee, Seo Eun
Background/Aims DA-9701, a standardized extract of Pharbitis Semen and Corydalis Tuber, is a new prokinetic agent that exhibits an analgesic effect on the abdomen. We investigated whether DA-9701 affects visceral pain induced by colorectal distension (CRD) in rats. Methods A total of 21 rats were divided into three groups: group A (no CRD+no drug), group B (CRD+no drug), and group C (CRD+DA-9701). Expression of pain-related factors, substance P (SP), c-fos, and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord was determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. Results The proportions of neurons in the DRG and spinal cord expressing SP, c-fos, and p-ERK were higher in group B than in group A. In the group C, the proportion of neurons in the DRG and spinal cord expressing p-ERK was lower than that in group B. Western blot results for p-ERK in the spinal cord indicated a higher level of expression in group B than in group A and a lower level of expression in group C than in group B. Conclusions DA-9701 may decrease visceral pain via the downregulation of p-ERK in the DRG and spinal cord. PMID:24672654
Yu, Jianfeng; Fu, Peng; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shuzhen; Cui, Donghong
P2X3 receptors are present in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and play an essential role in the regulation of nociception and pain. Pregabalin (PGB) has been used as a new antiepileptic drug in the treatment of neuropathic pain. However, it is unclear whether PGB-induced analgesia was associated with the P2X3 receptor in SDH. Here, rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12 per group), including 2 sham operation groups, which was treated by normal saline (Sham + NS group) or PGB (Sham + PGB group), other 2 groups with chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion, a normal saline-treated CCD group (CCD+NS group), and a PGB-treated CCD group (CCD + PGB group). A rat model of neuropathic pain was used by compressing the right L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia. Each group was evaluated using the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT). The mRNA and protein levels of the P2X3 receptor in the ipsilateral SDH were measured by RT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence on 14 day after CCD operation. CCD rats showed the highest mechanical hyperalgesia and the lowest pain threshold in the four groups. Simultaneously, CCD rats showed higher P2X3 mRNA and protein expression in ipsilateral side of the SDH than the sham operation rats. However, the MWT was increased and expression of P2X3 mRNA and protein in the ipsilateral SDH in CCD rats was decreased 3 days after PGB treatment. Thus, PGB may partially reverse mechanical hyperalgesia in CCD rats by inhibiting P2X3 receptor expression in the ipsilateral SDH.
Kazanci, Burak; Tehli, Ozkan; Guclu, Bulent
Ganglion cysts usually arise from the tissues around the facet joints. It is usually associated with degenerative cahanges in facet joints. Bilateral thoracic ganglion cysts are very rare and there is no previous case that located in bilateral intervertebral foramen compressing the L1 nerve root associated with severe radiculopathy. We report a 53 years old woman who presented with bilateral groin pain and severe numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cystic mass in the intervertebral foramen between 12th thoracal and 1st lumbar vertebrae. The cystic lesions were removed after bilateral exposure of Th12-L1 foramens. The result of hystopathology confirmed the diagnosis as ganglion cyst. The ganglion cyst may compromise lumbar dorsal ganglion when it located in the intervertebral foramen. The surgeon should keep this rare entity in their mind for differential diagnosis. PMID:23908708
Tomotsuka, Naoto; Kaku, Ryuji; Obata, Norihiko; Matsuoka, Yoshikazu; Kanzaki, Hirotaka; Taniguchi, Arata; Muto, Noriko; Omiya, Hiroki; Itano, Yoshitaro; Sato, Tadasu; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Morimatsu, Hiroshi
Metastatic bone cancer causes severe pain, but current treatments often provide insufficient pain relief. One of the reasons is that mechanisms underlying bone cancer pain are not solved completely. Our previous studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), known as a member of the neurotrophic family, is an important molecule in the pathological pain state in some pain models. We hypothesized that expression changes of BDNF may be one of the factors related to bone cancer pain; in this study, we investigated changes of BDNF expression in dorsal root ganglia in a rat bone cancer pain model. As we expected, BDNF mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) and protein were significantly increased in L3 dorsal root ganglia after intra-tibial inoculation of MRMT-1 rat breast cancer cells. Among the eleven splice-variants of BDNF mRNA, exon 1–9 variant increased predominantly. Interestingly, the up-regulation of BDNF is localized in small neurons (mostly nociceptive neurons) but not in medium or large neurons (non-nociceptive neurons). Further, expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), which is known as a specific promoter of BDNF exon 1–9 variant, was significantly increased in tibial bone marrow. Our findings suggest that BDNF is a key molecule in bone cancer pain, and NGF-BDNF cascade possibly develops bone cancer pain. PMID:25050075
Unger, J W; Klitzsch, T; Pera, S; Reiter, R
A number of functions for nerve growth factor (NGF) have been described over the past years, including its role for neuronal function and regeneration during toxic or metabolic neuropathies. In order to further assess the effects of NGF on the somatosensory system in diabetic neuropathy, the sural nerve, dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and dorsal horn of the spinal cord were investigated by morphological and quantitative methods in rats after 12 weeks of uncontrolled streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. The results from our study suggest a twofold effect of NGF: (1) In sural nerve treatment with NGF (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg) for 12 weeks was able to reverse distinct diabetes-related alterations in myelinated nerve fiber morphology, such as myelin thickness. These changes occurred in the entire myelinated population of sensory nerves and were not restricted to nociceptive nerve fibers. (2) The NGF effect on neurotransmitters of the sensory, nociceptive system was reflected by increased CGRP and substance P content in the DRG and in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. No change of trkA receptor immunostaining was seen in DRGs of diabetic rats; however, a reduction of trkA immunoreactivity of DRG neurons was noted after long-term NGF treatment of healthy controls. The data demonstrate that NGF regulates a number of neuronal parameters along peripheral and central parts of the somatosensory pathway in the adult. This neurotrophic support may be essential for inducing functionally significant regenerative mechanisms in diabetic neuropathy.
Rigosa, J.; Weber, D. J.; Prochazka, A.; Stein, R. B.; Micera, S.
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is used to improve motor function after injury to the central nervous system. Some FES systems use artificial sensors to switch between finite control states. To optimize FES control of the complex behavior of the musculo-skeletal system in activities of daily life, it is highly desirable to implement feedback control. In theory, sensory neural signals could provide the required control signals. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of deriving limb-state estimates from the firing rates of primary afferent neurons recorded in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). These studies used multiple linear regression (MLR) methods to generate estimates of limb position and velocity based on a weighted sum of firing rates in an ensemble of simultaneously recorded DRG neurons. The aim of this study was to test whether the use of a neuro-fuzzy (NF) algorithm (the generalized dynamic fuzzy neural networks (GD-FNN)) could improve the performance, robustness and ability to generalize from training to test sets compared to the MLR technique. NF and MLR decoding methods were applied to ensemble DRG recordings obtained during passive and active limb movements in anesthetized and freely moving cats. The GD-FNN model provided more accurate estimates of limb state and generalized better to novel movement patterns. Future efforts will focus on implementing these neural recording and decoding methods in real time to provide closed-loop control of FES using the information extracted from sensory neurons.
Engle, Mitchell P; Merrill, Michelle A; Marquez De Prado, Blanca; Hammond, Donna L
This study examined the distribution of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(B) receptors on immunohistochemically identified neurons, and levels of GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) mRNA, in the L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of the rat in the absence of injury and 2 weeks after L5 spinal nerve ligation. In uninjured DRG, GABA(B(1)) immunoreactivity colocalized exclusively with the neuronal marker (NeuN) and did not colocalize with the satellite cell marker S-100. The GABA(B(1)) subunit colocalized to >97% of DRG neurons immunoreactive (IR) for neurofilament 200 (N52) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), or labeled by isolectin B4 (IB4). Immunoreactivity for GABA(B(2)) was not detectable. L5 spinal nerve ligation did not alter the number of GABA(B(1)) -IR neurons or its colocalization pattern in the L4 DRG. However, ligation reduced the number of GABA(B(1)) -IR neurons in the L5 DRG by ≈38% compared with sham-operated and naïve rats. Specifically, ligation decreased the number of CGRP-IR neurons in the L5 DRG by 75%, but did not decrease the percent colocalization of GABA(B(1)) in those that remained. In the few IB4-positive neurons that remained in the L5 DRG, colocalization of GABA(B(1)) -IR decreased to 75%. Ligation also decreased levels of GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) mRNA in the L5, but not the L4 DRG compared with sham-operated or naïve rats. These findings indicate that the GABA(B) receptor is positioned to presynaptically modulate afferent transmission by myelinated, unmyelinated, and peptidergic afferents in the dorsal horn. Loss of GABA(B) receptors on primary afferent neurons may contribute to the development of mechanical allodynia after L5 spinal nerve ligation.
Stemkowski, Patrick L; Noh, Myung-chul; Chen, Yishen; Smith, Peter A
Chronic constriction injury of rat sciatic nerve promotes signs of neuropathic pain. This is associated with an increase in the level of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in primary afferents that peaks at 7 days. This initial cytokine exposure has been proposed to trigger an enduring alteration in neuronal phenotype that underlies chronic hyper-excitability in sensory nerves, which initiates and maintains chronic neuropathic pain. We have shown previously that 5–6 days of exposure of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) to 100 pm IL-1β increases the excitability of medium-sized neurons. We have now found using whole-cell recording that this increased excitability reverts to control levels within 3–4 days of cytokine removal. The effects of IL-1β were dominated by changes in K+ currents. Thus, the amplitudes of A-current, delayed rectifier and Ca2+-sensitive K+ currents were reduced by ∼68%, ∼64% and ∼36%, respectively. Effects of IL-1β on other cation currents were modest by comparison. There was thus a slight decrease in availability of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channel current, a small increase in rates of activation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel current (IH), and a shift in the voltage dependence of activation of tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current (TTX-S INa) to more negative potentials. It is unlikely, therefore, that direct interaction of IL-1β with DRG neurons initiates an enduring phenotypic shift in their electrophysiological properties following sciatic nerve injury. Persistent increases in primary afferent excitability following nerve injury may instead depend on altered K+ channel function and on the continued presence of slightly elevated levels IL-1β and other cytokines. PMID:26110238
Zhu, Gui-Qin; Liu, Su; He, Duan-Duan; Liu, Yue-Peng; Song, Xue-Jun
The objective of this study was to explore the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) signaling in the development of bone cancer pain in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (N=48) were divided randomly into four groups: sham (n=8), tumor cell implantation (TCI) (n=16), TCI+saline (n=8), and TCI+PKA inhibitor (n=16). Bone cancer-induced pain behaviors - thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia - were tested at postoperative days -3, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. A PKA inhibitor, Rp-cAMPS (1 mmol/l/20 μl), was injected intrathecally on postoperative days 3, 4, and 5 (early phase) or 7, 8, and 9 postoperative days (late phase). The expression of PKA mRNA in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was detected by reverse transcription-PCR. The concentration of cAMP and activity of PKA in DRG and spinal cord were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TCI treatment induced significant pain behaviors, manifested as thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Spinal administration of the PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMPS during the early phase and late phase significantly delayed or reversed, respectively, TCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. TCI treatment also led to obvious tumor growth and bone destruction. The level of PKA mRNA in the DRG, as well as the concentration of cAMP and the activity of PKA, in both the DRG and spinal cord were significantly increased after TCI treatment (P<0.01). We conclude that the inhibition of the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway may reduce bone cancer pain.
Zheng, Ji-Hong; Walters, Edgar T; Song, Xue-Jun
Injury or inflammation affecting sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) causes hyperexcitability of DRG neurons that can lead to spontaneous firing and neuropathic pain. Recent results indicate that after chronic compression of DRG (CCD treatment), both hyperexcitability of neurons in intact DRG and behaviorally expressed hyperalgesia are maintained by concurrent activity in cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) and cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathways. We report here that when tested under identical conditions, dissociation produces a pattern of hyperexcitability in small DRG neurons similar to that produced by CCD treatment, manifest as decreased action potential (AP) current threshold, increased AP duration, increased repetitive firing to depolarizing pulses, increased spontaneous firing and resting depolarization. A novel feature of this hyperexcitability is its early expression-as soon as testing can be conducted after dissociation (approximately 2 h). Both forms of injury increase the electrophysiological responsiveness of the neurons to activation of cAMP-PKA and cGMP-PKG pathways as indicated by enhancement of hyperexcitability by agonists of these pathways in dissociated or CCD-treated neurons but not in control neurons. Although inflammatory signals are known to activate cAMP-PKA pathways, dissociation-induced hyperexcitability is unlikely to be triggered by signals released from inflammatory cells recruited to the DRG because of insufficient time for recruitment during the dissociation procedure. Inhibition by specific antagonists indicates that continuing activation of cAMP-PKA and cGMP-PKG pathways is required to maintain hyperexcitability after dissociation. The reduction of hyperexcitability by blockers of adenylyl cyclase and soluble guanylyl cyclase after dissociation suggests a continuing release of autocrine and/or paracrine factors from dissociated neurons and/or satellite cells, which activate both cyclases and help to maintain acute
Schlösser, Lukas; Barthel, Franziska; Brandenburger, Timo; Neumann, Elena; Bauer, Inge; Eulenburg, Volker; Werdehausen, Robert; Hermanns, Henning
Glycinergic inhibitory neurotransmission plays a pivotal role in the development of neuropathic pain. The glycine concentration in the synaptic cleft is controlled by the glycine transporters GlyT1 and GlyT2. GlyT1 is expressed throughout the central nervous system, while GlyT2 is exclusively located in glycinergic neurons. Aim of the present study was to investigate whether GlyTs are also expressed in the peripheral sensory nervous system and whether their expression is modulated in experimental neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was induced in male Wistar rats by Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI) and verified by assessment of mechanical allodynia (von Frey method). Expression patterns of GlyTs and the glycine binding subunit NR1 of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were analyzed by Western blot analysis, PCR and immunohistochemistry. While both GlyT1 and GlyT2 were detected in the spinal cord, only GlyT1, but not GlyT2, was detected in DRG. Immunofluorescence revealed a strictly neuronal localization of GlyT1 and a co-localization of GlyT1 and NR1 in DRG. Compared to sham procedure, spinal cord and DRG expression of GlyT1 was not altered and NR1 was unchanged in DRG 12 days after CCI. GlyT1, but not GlyT2, is expressed in the peripheral sensory nervous system. The co-expression of GlyT1 and NMDA receptors in DRG suggests that GlyT1 regulates glycine concentration at the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor. Differential regulation of GlyT1 expression in the spinal cord or DRG, however, does not seem to be associated with the development of neuropathic pain.
Interleukin-6-mediated functional upregulation of TRPV1 receptors in dorsal root ganglion neurons through the activation of JAK/PI3K signaling pathway: roles in the development of bone cancer pain in a rat model.
Fang, Dong; Kong, Ling-Yu; Cai, Jie; Li, Song; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Han, Ji-Sheng; Xing, Guo-Gang
Primary and metastatic cancers that affect bone are frequently associated with severe and intractable pain. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of bone cancer pain still remain largely unknown. Previously, we have reported that sensitization of primary sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons contributes to the pathogenesis of bone cancer pain in rats. In addition, numerous preclinical and clinical studies have revealed the pathological roles of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in inflammatory and neuropathic hyperalgesia. In this study, we investigated the role and the underlying mechanisms of IL-6 in the development of bone cancer pain using in vitro and in vivo approaches. We first demonstrated that elevated IL-6 in DRG neurons plays a vital role in the development of nociceptor sensitization and bone cancer-induced pain in a rat model through IL-6/soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) trans-signaling. Moreover, we revealed that functional upregulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid channel type 1 (TRPV1) in DRG neurons through the activation of Janus kinase (JAK)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway contributes to the effects of IL-6 on the pathogenesis of bone cancer pain. Therefore, suppression of functional upregulation of TRPV1 in DRG neurons by the inhibition of JAK/PI3K pathway, either before surgery or after surgery, reduces the hyperexcitability of DRG neurons and pain hyperalgesia in bone cancer rats. We here disclose a novel intracellular pathway, the IL-6/JAK/PI3K/TRPV1 signaling cascade, which may underlie the development of peripheral sensitization and bone cancer-induced pain.
Bay11-7082 attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome activation in dorsal root ganglions in a rat model of lumbar disc herniation
Zhang, Ailiang; Wang, Kun; Ding, Lianghua; Bao, Xinnan; Wang, Xuan; Qiu, Xubin; Liu, Jinbo
Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is an important cause of radiculopathy, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Many studies suggested that local inflammation, rather than mechanical compression, results in radiculopathy induced by LDH. On the molecular and cellular level, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome have been implicated in the regulation of neuroinflammation formation and progression. In this study, the autologous nucleus pulposus (NP) was implanted in the left L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) to mimic LDH in rats. We investigated the expression of NF-κB and the components of NLRP3 inflammasome in the DRG neurons in rats. Western blotting and immunofluorescence for the related molecules, including NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase-1 activator domain (ASC), caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, IκBα, p-IκBα, p65, p-p65, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were examined. In the NP-treated group, the activations of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, p-IκBα, and p-p65 in DRG neurons in rats were elevated at 1 day after surgery, and the peak occurred at 7 days. Treatment with Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of the actions of IKK-β, was able to inhibit expression and activation of the molecules (NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, p-IκBα, and p-p65) and relieve the pain in rats. Our study shows that NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome are involved in the maintenance of NP-induced pain, and that Bay11-7082 could alleviate mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia by inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. PMID:28243141
Effects of sciatic nerve transection on ultrastructure, NADPH-diaphorase reaction and serotonin-, tyrosine hydroxylase-, c-Fos-, glucose transporter 1- and 3-like immunoreactivities in frog dorsal root ganglion
Rigon, F.; Rossato, D.; Auler, V.B.; Dal Bosco, L.; Faccioni-Heuser, M.C.; Partata, W.A.
Frogs have been used as an alternative model to study pain mechanisms. Since we did not find any reports on the effects of sciatic nerve transection (SNT) on the ultrastructure and pattern of metabolic substances in frog dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells, in the present study, 18 adult male frogs (Rana catesbeiana) were divided into three experimental groups: naive (frogs not subjected to surgical manipulation), sham (frogs in which all surgical procedures to expose the sciatic nerve were used except transection of the nerve), and SNT (frogs in which the sciatic nerve was exposed and transected). After 3 days, the bilateral DRG of the sciatic nerve was collected and used for transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect reactivity for glucose transporter (Glut) types 1 and 3, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and c-Fos, as well as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-diaphorase). SNT induced more mitochondria with vacuolation in neurons, satellite glial cells (SGCs) with more cytoplasmic extensions emerging from cell bodies, as well as more ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, intermediate filaments and mitochondria. c-Fos immunoreactivity was found in neuronal nuclei. More neurons and SGCs surrounded by tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactivity were found. No change occurred in serotonin- and Glut1- and Glut3-like immunoreactivity. NADPH-diaphorase occurred in more neurons and SGCs. No sign of SGC proliferation was observed. Since the changes of frog DRG in response to nerve injury are similar to those of mammals, frogs should be a valid experimental model for the study of the effects of SNT, a condition that still has many unanswered questions. PMID:23739744
Rose, Kirstin E.; Lunardi, Nadia; Boscolo, Annalisa; Dong, Xinzhong; Erisir, Alev; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna; Todorovic, Slobodan M.
Previous behavioural studies have revealed that CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels support peripheral nociceptive transmission and electrophysiological studies have established the presence of T-currents in putative nociceptive sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG). To date, however, the localization pattern of this key nociceptive channel in the soma and peripheral axons of these cells has not been demonstrated due to lack of isoform-selective anti-CaV3.2 antibodies. In the present study a new polyclonal CaV3.2 antibody is used to localize CaV3.2 expression in rodent DRG neurons using different staining techniques including confocal and electron microscopy. Confocal microscopy of both acutely dissociated cells and short-term cultures demonstrated strong immunofluorescence of anti-CaV3.2 antibody that was largely confined to smaller diameter DRG neurons where it co-localized with established immuno-markers of unmyelinated nociceptors, such as, CGRP, IB4 and peripherin. In contrast, a smaller proportion of these CaV3.2-labeled DRG cells also co-expressed NF-200, a marker of myelinated sensory neurons. In the rat sciatic nerve preparation, confocal microscopy demonstrated anti-CaV3.2 immunofluorescence which was co-localized with both peripherin and NF-200. Further, electron microscopy revealed immuno-gold labelling of CaV3.2 preferentially in association with un-myelinated sensory fibres from mouse sciatic nerve. Finally, we demonstrated the expression of CaV3.2 channels in peripheral nerve endings of mouse hindpaw skin as shown by co-localisation with Mrgpd-GFP-positive fibres. The CaV3.2 expression within the soma and peripheral axons of nociceptive sensory neurons further demonstrates the importance of this channel in peripheral pain transmission. PMID:23867767
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes vesicular glutamate transporter 3 expression and neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons through the activation of the transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5.
Liu, Dong; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Huaxiang; Li, Hao; Pan, Xinliang; Li, Zhenzhong
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical for sensory neuron survival and is necessary for vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) expression. Whether the transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 are involved in these BDNF-induced effects remains unclear. In the present study, primary cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were used to test the link between BDNF and transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 on VGLUT3 expression and neurite outgrowth. BDNF promoted the mRNA and protein expression of Etv4 and Etv5 in DRG neurons. These effects were blocked by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD98059 but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 or phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) inhibitor U73122. Etv4 siRNA and Etv5 siRNA effectively blocked the VGLUT3 expression and neurite elongation induced by BNDF. The overexpression of Etv4 or Etv5 potentiated the effects of BNDF-induced neurite elongation and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), medium neurofilament (NF-M), and light neurofilament (NF-L) expression while these effects could be inhibited by Etv4 and Etv5 siRNA. These data imply that Etv4 and Etv5 are essential transcription factors in modulating BDNF/TrkB signaling-mediated VGLUT3 expression and neurite outgrowth. BDNF, through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, activates Etv4 and Etv5 to initiate GAP-43 expression, promote neurofilament (NF) protein expression, induce neurite outgrowth, and mediate VGLUT3 expression for neuronal function improvement. The biological effects initiated by BDNF/TrkB signaling linked to E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors are important to elucidate neuronal differentiation, axonal regeneration, and repair in various pathological states.
Scroggs, R S
The effects of forskolin on low-threshold tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-r) Na(+) currents was studied in small diameter (average ≈ 25 μm) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells. All DRG cells included in the study were categorized as type-2 or non-type-2 based on the expression of a low-threshold A-current. In all type-2 and some non-type-2 DRG cells held at -80 mV, the adenylyl cyclase (AC) activator forskolin (10 μM) up-regulated TTX-r Na(+) currents evoked with steps to -55 mV through -35 mV (low-threshold current). Up-regulation of low-threshold current by forskolin was mimicked by the protein kinase A (PKA) agonist Sp-cAMPs and the inflammatory mediator serotonin, and blocked by the PKA antagonist Rp-cAMPs. Forskolin-induced up-regulation of low-threshold current evoked from a holding potential of -60 mV was blocked by 40 ms steps to 0 mV, which presumably induced a long lasting inactivation of the low-threshold channels. Reducing to 3 ms the duration of steps to 0 mV, significantly increased the number of DRG cells where low-threshold current was up-regulated by forskolin, presumably by reducing the long-lasting inactivation of the low-threshold channels. In the same cells, high-threshold current, evoked by 40 ms or 3 ms steps to 0 mV, was consistently up-regulated by forskolin. The selective Na(V)1.8 channel blocker A-803467 markedly blocked high-threshold current but not low-threshold current. The different voltage protocols observed to activate and inactivate the low- and high-threshold currents, and the observation that A-803467 blocked high- but not low-threshold current suggests that the two currents were mediated by different channels, possibly Na(V)1.8 and Na(V)1.9, respectively. Inflammatory mediators may simultaneously up-regulate Na(V)1.8 and Na(V)1.9 channels in the same nociceptor via a AC/PKA signaling pathway, increasing nociceptor signaling strength, and lowering nociceptor threshold, respectively.
Cho, Sung Min; Rhee, Woo Tack; Choi, Soo Jung; Eom, Dae Woon
The lumbar intraspinal epidural ganglion cyst has been a rare cause of the low back pain or leg pain. Ganglion cysts and synovial cysts compose the juxtafacet cysts. Extensive studies have been performed about the synovial cysts, however, very little has been known about the ganglion cyst. Current report is about two ganglion cysts associated with implicative findings in young male patients. We discuss about the underlying pathology of the ganglion cyst based on intraoperative evidences, associated disc herniation at the same location or severe degeneration of the ligament flavum that the cyst originated from in young patients.
Suen, Matthew; Fung, B; Lung, C P
Ganglion cysts are soft tissue swellings occurring most commonly in the hand or wrist. Apart from swelling, most cysts are asymptomatic. Other symptoms include pain, weakness, or paraesthesia. The two main concerns patients have are the cosmetic appearance of the cysts and the fear of future malignant growth. It has been shown that 58% of cysts will resolve spontaneously over time. Treatment can be either conservative or through surgical excision. This review concluded that nonsurgical treatment is largely ineffective in treating ganglion cysts. However, it advised to patients who do not surgical treatment but would like symptomatic relief. Compared to surgery, which has a lower recurrence rate but have a higher complication rate with longer recovery period. It has been shown that surgical interventions do not provide better symptomatic relief compared to conservative treatment. If symptomatic relief is the patient's primary concern, a conservative approach is preferred, whilst surgical intervention will decrease the likelihood of recurrence.
Kahya, Mehmet Cemal; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Övey, İshak Suat
Neuropathic pain and hippocampal injury can arise from the overload of diabetes-induced calcium ion (Ca(2+)) entry and oxidative stress. The transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) are expressed in sensory neurons and hippocampus. Moreover, activations of TRPM2 and TRPV1 during oxidative stress have been linked to neuronal death. Melatonin (MEL) and selenium (Se) have been considered potent antioxidants that detoxify a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neurological diseases. In order to better characterize the actions of MEL and Se in diabetes-induced peripheral pain and hippocampal injury through modulation of TRPM2 and TRPV1, we tested the effects of MEL and Se on apoptosis and oxidative stress in the hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fifty-eight rats were divided into six groups. The first group was used as control. The second group was used as the diabetic group. The third and fourth groups received Se and MEL, respectively. Intraperitoneal Se and MEL were given to diabetic rats in the fifth and sixth groups. On the 14th day, hippocampal and DRG neuron samples were freshly taken from all animals. The neurons were stimulated with a TRPV1 channel agonist (capsaicin) and a TRPM2 channel agonist (cumene hydroperoxide). We observed a modulator role of MEL and Se on intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations, current densities of TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels, apoptosis, caspase 3, caspase 9, mitochondrial depolarization, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, lipid peroxidation, and intracellular ROS production values in the neurons. In addition, procaspase 3 and 9 activities in western blot analyses of the brain cortex were also decreased by MEL and Se treatments. In conclusion, in our diabetes experimental model, TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels are involved in the Ca(2+) entry-induced neuronal death and modulation of this channel activity by MEL and
Ovariectomy-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Calcium Ion Influx Through TRPA1, TRPM2, and TRPV1 Are Prevented by 17β-Estradiol, Tamoxifen, and Raloxifene in the Hippocampus and Dorsal Root Ganglion of Rats.
Yazğan, Yener; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa
Relative 17β-estradiol (E2) deprivation and excessive production of mitochondrial oxygen free radicals (OFRs) with a high amount of Ca(2+) influx TRPA1, TRPM2, and TRPV1 activity is one of the main causes of neurodegenerative disease in postmenopausal women. In addition to the roles of tamoxifen (TMX) and raloxifene (RLX) in cancer and bone loss treatments, regulator roles in Ca(2+) influx and mitochondrial oxidative stress in neurons have not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TMX and RLX interactions with TRPA1, TRPM2, and TRPV1 in primary hippocampal (HPC) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron cultures of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty female rats were divided into five groups: a control group, an OVX group, an OVX+E2 group, an OVX+TMX group, and an OVX+RLX group. The OVX+E2, OVX+TMX, and OVX+RLX groups received E2, TMX, and RLX, respectively, for 14 days after the ovariectomy. E2, ovariectomy-induced TRPA1, TRPM2, and TRPV1 current densities, as well as accumulation of cytosolic free Ca(2+) in the neurons, were returned to the control levels by E2, TMX, and RLX treatments. In addition, E2, TMX, and RLX via modulation of TRPM2 and TRPV1 activity reduced ovariectomy-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, apoptosis, and cytosolic OFR production. TRPM2, TRPV1, PARP, and caspase-3 and caspase-9 expressions were also decreased in the neurons by the E2, TMX, and RLX treatments. In conclusion, we first reported the molecular effects of E2, TMX, and RLX on TRPA1, TRPM2, and TRPV1 channel activation in the OVX rats. In addition, we observed neuroprotective effects of E2, RLX, and TMX on oxidative and apoptotic injuries of the hippocampus and peripheral pain sensory neurons (DRGs) in the OVX rats. Graphical Abstract Possible molecular pathways of involvement of DEX in cerebral ischemia-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, and calcium accumulation through TRPA1, TRPM2 and TRPV1 in the hippocampus and DRG neurons of rats. The N domain
Gonsalvez, David G; Cane, Kylie N; Landman, Kerry A; Enomoto, Hideki; Young, Heather M; Anderson, Colin R
Cell proliferation during nervous system development is poorly understood outside the mouse neocortex. We measured cell cycle dynamics in the embryonic mouse sympathetic stellate ganglion, where neuroblasts continue to proliferate following neuronal differentiation. At embryonic day (E) 9.5, when neural crest-derived cells were migrating and coalescing into the ganglion primordium, all cells were cycling, cell cycle length was only 10.6 h, and S-phase comprised over 65% of the cell cycle; these values are similar to those previously reported for embryonic stem cells. At E10.5, Sox10(+) cells lengthened their cell cycle to 38 h and reduced the length of S-phase. As cells started to express the neuronal markers Tuj1 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) at E10.5, they exited the cell cycle. At E11.5, when >80% of cells in the ganglion were Tuj1(+)/TH(+) neuroblasts, all cells were again cycling. Neuroblast cell cycle length did not change significantly after E11.5, and 98% of Sox10(-)/TH(+) cells had exited the cell cycle by E18.5. The cell cycle length of Sox10(+)/TH(-) cells increased during late embryonic development, and ∼25% were still cycling at E18.5. Loss of Ret increased neuroblast cell cycle length at E16.5 and decreased the number of neuroblasts at E18.5. A mathematical model generated from our data successfully predicted the relative change in proportions of neuroblasts and non-neuroblasts in wild-type mice. Our results show that, like other neurons, sympathetic neuron differentiation is associated with exit from the cell cycle; sympathetic neurons are unusual in that they then re-enter the cell cycle before later permanently exiting.
Ozdinler, P Hande; Ulupinar, Emel; Erzurumlu, Reha S
Nerve growth factor (NGF) and related neurotrophins are target-derived survival factors for sensory neurons. In addition, these peptides modulate neuronal differentiation, axon guidance, and synaptic plasticity. We tested axonal behavior of embryonic trigeminal neurons towards localized sources of NGF in collagen gel assays. Trigeminal axons preferentially grow towards lower doses of localized NGF and grow away from higher concentrations at earlier stages of development, but do not show this response later. Dorsal root ganglion axons also show similar responses to NGF, but NGF-dependent superior cervical ganglion axons do not. Such axonal responses to localized NGF sources were also observed in Bax-/- mice, suggesting that the axonal effects are largely independent of cell survival. Immunocytochemical studies indicated that axons, which grow towards or away from localized NGF are TrkA-positive, and TrkA-/- TG axons do not respond to any dose of NGF. We further show that axonal responses to NGF are absent in TG derived from mice that lack the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). Collectively, our results suggest that localized sources of NGF can direct axon outgrowth from trigeminal ganglion in a dose- and age-dependent fashion, mediated by p75NTR signaling through TrkA expressing axons.
van Lindert, Erik; Bornemann, Antje; Hey, Otto; Perneczky, Axel; Müller-Forell, Wibke
An amyloidoma is a local deposition of amyloid that becomes a space-occupying lesion. Amyloidomas of the central nervous system are very uncommon lesions and only four amyloidomas of the gasserian ganglion have been reported so far. We present the neuroradiologic and surgical characteristics of three more amyloidomas of the gasserian ganglion seen at one neurosurgical department in 11 years. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2p215-bFigure 3 PMID:17170961
Maffei, Lamberto; Galli-Resta, Lucia
The spontaneous discharges of neighboring retinal ganglion cells were recorded simultaneously in anesthetized prenatal rats between embryonic days 18 and 21. We report here that in the majority of cases the firings of neighboring retinal ganglion cells are strongly correlated during prenatal life. Correlation in the discharges of neighboring cells during development has long been suggested as a way to consolidate synaptic connections with a target cell onto which they converge, a model first proposed by Hebb. Correlation in the activities of neighboring neurons in the retina could be the basis of developmental processes such as refinement of retinotopic maps in the brain and segregation of the inputs from the two eyes.
Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard
Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i) immunolabeling, (ii) histology and (iii) scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida), the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions - traditionally designated as 'ventral organs' - detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult) replenishment of olfactory neurons - as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient posterior
Magliulo, Giuseppe; Iannella, Giannicola; Valente, Michele; Greco, Antonio; Appiani, Mario Ciniglio
Objectives Discussion of a rare case of angioleiomyoma involving the geniculate ganglion and the intratemporal facial nerve segment and its surgical treatment. Design Case report. Setting Presence of an expansive lesion englobing the geniculate ganglion without any lesion to the cerebellopontine angle. Participants A 45-year-old man with a grade III facial paralysis according to the House-Brackmann scale of evaluation. Main Outcomes Measure Surgical pathology, radiologic appearance, histological features, and postoperative facial function. Results Removal of the entire lesion was achieved, preserving the anatomic integrity of the nerve; no nerve graft was necessary. Postoperative histology and immunohistochemical studies revealed features indicative of solid vascular leiomyoma. Conclusion Angioleiomyoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of geniculate ganglion lesions. Optimal postoperative facial function is possible only by preserving the anatomical and functional integrity of the facial nerve. PMID:23943721
Magliulo, Giuseppe; Iannella, Giannicola; Valente, Michele; Greco, Antonio; Ciniglio Appiani, Mario
Objectives Discussion of a rare case of angioleiomyoma involving the geniculate ganglion and the intratemporal facial nerve segment and its surgical treatment. Design Case report. Setting Presence of an expansive lesion englobing the geniculate ganglion without any lesion to the cerebellopontine angle. Participants A 45-year-old man with a grade III facial paralysis according to the House-Brackmann scale of evaluation. Main Outcomes Measure Surgical pathology, radiologic appearance, histological features, and postoperative facial function. Results Removal of the entire lesion was achieved, preserving the anatomic integrity of the nerve; no nerve graft was necessary. Postoperative histology and immunohistochemical studies revealed features indicative of solid vascular leiomyoma. Conclusion Angioleiomyoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of geniculate ganglion lesions. Optimal postoperative facial function is possible only by preserving the anatomical and functional integrity of the facial nerve.
Bontempo, Nicholas A; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C
Arthroscopy is an advancing field in orthopedics, the applications of which have been expanding over time. Traditionally, excision of ganglion cysts has been done in an open fashion. However, more recently, studies show outcomes following arthroscopic excision to be as good as open excision. Cosmetically, the incisions are smaller and heal faster following arthroscopy. In addition, there is the suggested benefit that patients will regain function and return to work faster following arthroscopic excision. More prospective studies comparing open and arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts need to be done in order to delineate if there is a true functional benefit.
DeCastro, S; Sparks, J R; Lapey, J D; Freidberg, S R
A case report, the third in the literature, is presented of a patient whose progressive numbness in the second and third divisions of the trigeminal nerve led to the discovery of an isolated amyloidoma of the gasserian ganglion. The clinical impression of tumor was confirmed by surgical and pathologic findings.
Lui, Tun Hing
The tarsal tunnel ganglion is a cause of posterior tarsal tunnel syndrome. Open resection of the ganglion calls for release of the flexor retinaculum and dissection around the tibial neurovascular bundle. This can induce fibrosis around the tibial nerve. We report the technique of endoscopic resection of the tarsal tunnel ganglion. It is indicated for tarsal tunnel ganglia arising from the adjacent joints or tendon sheaths and compressing the tibial nerve from its deep side. It is contraindicated if there is other pathology of the tarsal tunnel that demands open surgery; if the ganglion compresses the tibial nerve from its superficial side, which calls for a different endoscopic approach using the ganglion portal; or if an intraneural ganglion of the tibial nerve is present. The purpose of this technical note is to describe a minimally invasive approach for endoscopic resection of the tarsal tunnel ganglion.
Niemi, Jon P.; DeFrancesco-Lisowitz, Alicia; Cregg, Jared; Howarth, Madeline; Zigmond, Richard E.
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the regeneration of peripheral nerves following axotomy. An injury to the sciatic nerve leads to significant macrophage accumulation in the L5 DRG, an effect not seen when the dorsal root is injured. We recently demonstrated that this accumulation around axotomized cell bodies is necessary for a peripheral conditioning lesion response to occur. Here we asked whether overexpression of the monocyte chemokine CCL2 specifically in DRG neurons of uninjured mice is sufficient to cause macrophage accumulation and to enhance regeneration or whether other injury-derived signals are required. AAV5-EF1α-CCL2 was injected intrathecally, and this injection led to a time-dependent increase in CCL2 mRNA expression and macrophage accumulation in L5 DRG, with a maximal response at 3 wk post-injection. These changes led to a conditioning-like increase in neurite outgrowth in DRG explant and dissociated cell cultures. This increase in regeneration was dependent upon CCL2 acting through its primary receptor CCR2. When CCL2 was overexpressed in CCR2 −/− mice, macrophage accumulation and enhanced regeneration were not observed. To address the mechanism by which CCL2 overexpression enhances regeneration, we tested for elevated expression of regeneration-associated genes in these animals. Surprisingly, we found that CCL2 overexpression led to a selective increase in LIF mRNA and neuronal phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) in L5 DRGs, with no change in expression seen in other RAGs such as GAP-43. Blockade of STAT3 phosphorylation by each of two different inhibitors prevented the increase in neurite outgrowth. Thus, CCL2 overexpression is sufficient to induce macrophage accumulation in uninjured L5 DRGs and increase the regenerative capacity of DRG neurons via a STAT3-dependent mechanism. PMID:26431741
Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard
Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i) immunolabeling, (ii) histology and (iii) scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida), the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions – traditionally designated as ‘ventral organs’ – detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult) replenishment of olfactory neurons – as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient
Chen, Ying-Jiun J.; Friedman, Brad A.; Ha, Connie; Durinck, Steffen; Liu, Jinfeng; Rubenstein, John L.; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Modrusan, Zora
Many subtypes of cortical interneurons (CINs) are found in adult mouse cortices, but the mechanism generating their diversity remains elusive. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on the mouse embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), the major birthplace for CINs, and on MGE-like cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells. Two distinct cell types were identified as proliferating neural progenitors and immature neurons, both of which comprised sub-populations. Although lineage development of MGE progenitors was reconstructed and immature neurons were characterized as GABAergic, cells that might correspond to precursors of different CINs were not identified. A few non-neuronal cell types were detected, including microglia. In vitro MGE-like cells resembled bona fide MGE cells but expressed lower levels of Foxg1 and Epha4. Together, our data provide detailed understanding of the embryonic MGE developmental program and suggest how CINs are specified. PMID:28361918
Monoamine agonists and antagonists were applied to the lobster cardiac ganglion in an attempt to clarify the different actions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) and dopamine (DA) on this rhythmic pattern generator. Experiments were designed to determine whether the similar responses to 5HT and DA applied to the anterior region of the ganglion could be separated by pharmacological approaches, and whether the different responses to 5HT applied to the anterior and posterior regions of the ganglion could be attributed to mediation by different receptors. A small number of the 5HT agonists which were tested mimic the effects of 5HT, in that they increase the frequency of bursting and decrease burst duration when applied to the whole ganglion, but decrease burst frequency and increase burst duration when applied only to the posterior half. Other 5HT agonists decrease frequency and prolong bursts when applied to the whole ganglion. Of the DA agonists tested, none acts as DA itself does. Rather, they mimic the effects of 5HT applied to the posterior ganglion, by slowing bursting and prolonging bursts. The actions of agonists do not correspond in any clear way to the receptor specificities as defined in vertebrates. Most antagonists tested do not show similar specificities to their effects in vertebrates. In particular, most of the DA antagonists tested are more effective in blocking exogenous 5HT than DA. One monoamine agonist directly alters the properties of endogenous burst-organizing potentials (driver potentials) in the motorneurons of the ganglion.
Ohtani, Nobuyo; Goto, Tomohide; Waeber, Christian; Bhide, Pradeep G.
Dopamine is a neuromodulator the functions of which in the regulation of complex behaviors such as mood, motivation, and attention are well known. Dopamine appears in the brain early in the embryonic period when none of those behaviors is robust, raising the possibility that dopamine may influence brain development. The effects of dopamine on specific developmental processes such as neurogenesis are not fully characterized. The neostriatum is a dopamine-rich region of the developing and mature brain. If dopamine influenced neurogenesis, the effects would likely be pronounced in the neostriatum. Therefore, we examined whether dopamine influenced neostriatal neurogenesis by influencing the cell cycle of progenitor cells in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE), the neuroepithelial precursor of the neostriatum. We show that dopamine arrives in the LGE via the nigrostriatal pathway early in the embryonic period and that neostriatal neurogenesis progresses in a dopamine-rich milieu. Dopamine D1-like receptor activation reduces entry of progenitor cells from the G1-to S-phase of the cell cycle, whereas D2-like receptor activation produces the opposite effects by promoting G1- to S-phase entry. D1-like effects are prominent in the ventricular zone, and D2-like effects are prominent in the subventricular zone. The overall effects of dopamine on the cell cycle are D1-like effects, most likely because of the preponderance of D1-like binding sites in the embryonic neostriatum. These data reveal a novel developmental role for dopamine and underscore the relevance of dopaminergic signaling in brain development. PMID:12684471
Liu, Jiali; Chen, Dawei; Goldstein, Ronald S; Cui, Sheng
Sex steroids can influence developmental processes and support the survival of neurons in the embryonic central nervous system. Recent studies have shown that estrogen receptors are also expressed in the peripheral nervous system, in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of chick embryos. However, no studies have examined the effects of sex steroids on development of embryonic DRG. In the present study, 0.2 microg, 1.0 microg, 5.0 microg 10 microg, 20 microg, 25 microg, and 40 microg doses of testosterone or estradiol were delivered to chick embryos at Hamburger and Hamilton stage 18 (E3). The actions of these doses of sex steroids on the development of the C5DRG (fifth cervical ganglion, a "normal" DRG) and C2DRG (a transient ganglion known as a "Froriep's DRG") were then evaluated by quantifying ganglionic volumes, cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis after 1 day of growth to stage 23. We found that both testosterone and estradiol promoted proliferation of cells in both normal DRG and the Froriep's ganglia. By contrast, estradiol significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells, while testosterone strongly inhibited apoptosis. These actions of sex steroids on DRG development were dose-dependent, and C5DRG and C2DRG showed different sensitivities to the applied sex steroids. In addition, the present results demonstrated that specific ER and AR inhibitors (tamoxifen and flutamide) did not influence the effects of 5 microg E2 and 5 microg T on C2 and C5DRG significantly. These results demonstrate that male and female sex steroids can modulate DRG development through an epigenetic mechanism, as had been shown for the central nervous system.
Cooke, I M
1. An overview of studies on the decapod crustacean cardiac ganglion is given emphasizing contributions to questions of general interest in cellular neurophysiology. 2. John Welsh, in 1951, introduced this 9-celled, semi-autonomous ganglion as a preparation offering physiologists unique experimental possibilities. 3. It exhibits remarkable reliability and stability in rhythmic pattern generation. The neurons show endogenous burst-forming capability mediated by "driver potentials". 4. These regenerative, Ca-mediated potentials are restricted to the soma, while impulse-generating membrane is segregated to the distal axon. 5. Thus, voltage-clamp analysis of the ionic currents underlying the burst-forming potentials is possible by isolating the soma with a ligature. 6. The isolated ganglion is spontaneously active, but the normal mechanism of pacemaking remains to be clarified, including the possible contribution of stretch-sensitive dendrites. 7. The activity of the ganglion is subject to modulation by neurohumors. These include the transmitter at intraganglionic synapses, transmitters of the pair of inhibitory and the two pairs of acceleratory fibers, and neurohormones released from the pericardial organs. The transmitters are not established. 8. Effects on the ganglion of substances isolated from the pericardial organs have been described. 9. These include 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine, octopamine, and two peptides. 10. One of these, proctolin, produces a long-lasting sequence of effects. 11. The work continues to raise new questions for which the ganglion offers excellent research material.
Stocker, K M; Baizer, L; Ciment, G
Growth associated protein (GAP)-43 is a membrane-bound phosphoprotein expressed in neurons and is particularly abundant during periods of axonal outgrowth in development and regeneration of the nervous system. In previous work, we cloned a full-length chicken GAP-43 cDNA and described the expression of its corresponding mRNA during early development of the chicken nervous system. We report here that the GAP-43 mRNA is also expressed transiently in developing limbs of chicken embryos, which contain axons of spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion neurons, but do not contain neuronal cell bodies. GAP-43 mRNA was first detectable by RNA blot analysis in limbs from Embryonic Day 5 (E5) embryos, reached maximal levels between E6 and E8, and diminished by E10. In situ hybridization analysis showed that the GAP-43 mRNA was localized in distal regions of developing limbs and was particularly abundant in the mesenchyme surrounding the digital cartilage. In some regions of the limb, GAP-43 immunoreactivity colocalized in cells that were also immunoreactive for meromyosin, a muscle-specific marker. These data suggest that both GAP-43 mRNA and the protein are expressed in nonneuronal cells of the developing limb, some of which may be part of the muscle cell lineage.
Van den Dungen, Sophie; Marchesi, Simona; Ezzedine, Rabih; Bindou, David; Lorea, Patrick
Soft tissue ganglion cysts are the most common benign tumours of the wrist; their pathogenesis remains controversial. We prospectively screened the radiographic appearance of the wrists of 51 patients presenting to a single surgeon with dorsal wrist ganglions during a one-year period. Postero-anterior and lateral radiographs were systematically performed looking for possible associated intraosseous ganglion cysts. There were 51 dorsal soft tissue ganglion cysts in 51 patients. We detected 29 associated intraosseous ganglia in 24 patients (47%): 16 ganglia in the lunate bone (55%), 5 in the capitate bone, 7 in the scaphoid and 1 in the trapezoid. Mean size of the intraosseous ganglia was 3 mm (range, 2 to 5 mm). This high prevalence of intraosseous ganglia in association with soft tissue ganglia has to our knowledge never been reported previously. A common aetiology for these two types of ganglion cysts may explain this high association rate.
Linden, R W; Scott, B J
1. In anaesthetized cats recordings have been made in the mesencephalic nucleus of the fifth cranial nerve and the trigeminal ganglion from neurones that respond when forces are applied to the mandibular canine tooth. The site of the mechanoreceptors in the periodontal ligament and their distribution around the tooth root have been determined. 2. Receptors with their cell bodies in the mesencephalic nucleus were found to be situated in the periodontal ligament in a discrete area intermediate between the fulcrum and apex of the tooth, while those in the trigeminal ganglion were situated in the whole area of the periodontal ligament between the fulcrum and apex of the tooth. 3. All of the located mechanoreceptors responded maximally when that part of the ligament in which they lay was put under tension. 4. The directional sensitivities of the mechanoreceptors suggested that there was an uneven distribution around the tooth root of receptors with cell bodies in the mesencephalic nucleus. In contrast mechanoreceptors with cell bodies in the trigeminal ganglion were distributed more equally around the tooth root. The rationale for the differences requires further investigation. PMID:2795482
Hayashida, Yuki; Partida, Gloria J.; Ishida, Andrew T.
We describe here methods for dissociating retinal ganglion cells from adult goldfish and rat without proteolytic enzymes, and show responses of ganglion cells isolated this way to step-wise voltage changes and fluctuating current injections. Taking advantage of the laminar organization of vertebrate retinas, photoreceptors and other cells were lifted away from the distal side of freshly isolated goldfish retinas, after contact with pieces of membrane filter. Likewise, cells were sliced away from the distal side of freshly isolated rat retinas, after these adhered to a membrane filter. The remaining portions of retina were incubated in an enzyme-free, low Ca2+ solution, and triturated. After aliquots of the resulting cell suspension were plated, ganglion cells could be identified by dye retrogradely transported via the optic nerve. These cells showed no obvious morphological degeneration for several days of culture. Perforated-patch whole-cell recordings showed that the goldfish ganglion cells spike tonically in response to depolarizing constant current injections, that these spikes are temporally precise in response to fluctuating current injections, and that the largest voltage-gated Na+ currents of these cells were larger than those of ganglion cells isolated with a neutral protease. PMID:15196824
Coombs, J; van der List, D; Wang, G-Y; Chalupa, L M
The mouse retina offers an increasingly valuable model for vision research given the possibilities for genetic manipulation. Here we assess how the structural properties of mouse retinal ganglion cells relate to the stratification pattern of the dendrites of these neurons within the inner plexiform layer. For this purpose, we used 14 morphological measures to classify mouse retinal ganglion cells parametrically into different clusters. Retinal ganglion cells were labeled in one of three ways: Lucifer Yellow injection, 'DiOlistics' or transgenic expression of yellow fluorescent protein. The resulting analysis of 182 cells revealed 10 clusters of monostratified cells, with dendrites confined to either On or Off sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer, and four clusters of bistratified cells, dendrites spanning the On and Off sublaminae. We also sought to establish how these parametrically identified retinal ganglion cell clusters relate to cell types identified previously on the basis of immunocytochemical staining and the expression of yellow fluorescent protein. Cells labeled with an antibody against melanopsin were found to be located within a single cluster, while those labeled with the SMI-32 antibody were in four different clusters. Yellow fluorescent protein expressing cells were distributed within 13 of the 14 clusters identified here, which demonstrates that yellow fluorescent protein expression is a useful method for labeling virtually the entire population of mouse retinal ganglion cells. Collectively, these findings provide a valuable baseline for future studies dealing with the effects of genetic mutations on the morphological development of these neurons.
Osborne, Neville N
Retinal ganglion cell axons within the globe are functionally specialized being richly provided with many mitochondria. The mitochondria produce the high energy requirement for nerve conduction in the unmyelinated part of the ganglion cell axons. We have proposed that in the initiation of glaucoma, an alteration in the quality of blood flow dynamics in the optic nerve head causes a compromise in the retinal ganglion cell axon energy requirement, rendering the ganglion cells susceptible to additional insults. One secondary insult might be light entering the eye to further affect ganglion cell axon mitochondrial function. Other insults to the ganglion cells might be substances (e.g., glutamate, nitric oxide, TNF-alpha) released from astrocytes. These effects ultimately cause ganglion cell death because of the inability of mitochondria to maintain normal function. We therefore suggest that ganglion cell apoptosis in glaucoma is both receptor and mitochondrial mediated. Agents targeted specifically at enhancing ganglion cell mitochondrial energy production should therefore be beneficial in a disease like glaucoma. Ganglion cell death in glaucoma might therefore, in principle, not be unlike the pathophysiology of numerous neurological disorders involving energy dysregulation and oxidative stress. The trigger(s) for ganglion cell apoptosis in glaucoma is/are likely to be multifactorial, and the rationale for targeting impaired energy production as a possibility of improving a patient's quality of life is based on logic derived from laboratory studies where neuronal apoptosis is shown to occur via different mechanisms. Light-induced neuronal apoptosis is likely to be more relevant to ganglion cell death in glaucoma than, for example, neuronal apoptosis associated with Parkinson's disease. Logic suggests that enhancing mitochondrial function generally will slow down ganglion cell apoptosis and therefore benefit glaucoma patients. On the basis of our laboratory studies, we
Spinner, Robert J; Amrami, Kimberly K; Wang, Huan; Kliot, Michel; Carmichael, Stephen W
The appearances of intraneural ganglion cysts are being elucidated. We previously introduced the cross-over phenomenon to explain how a fibular (peroneal) or tibial intraneural ganglion cyst arising from the superior tibiofibular joint could give rise to multiple cysts: cyst fluid ascending up the primarily affected nerve could reach the level of the sciatic nerve, fill its common epineurial sheath and spread circumferentially (cross over), at which time pressure fluxes could result in further ascent up the sciatic or descent down the same parent nerve or the opposite, previously unaffected fibular or tibial nerves. In this study, we hypothesized that cross-over could occur in other nerves, potentially leading to the formation of more than one intraneural ganglion cyst in such situations. We analyzed the literature and identified a single case that we could review where proximal extension of an intraneural ganglion cyst involving a nerve at a different site could theoretically undergo cross-over in another major nerve large enough for available magnetic resonance images to resolve this finding. A case of a suprascapular intraneural ganglion cyst previously reported by our group that arose from the glenohumeral joint and extended to the neck was reanalyzed for the presence or absence of cross-over. An injection of dye into the outer epineurium of the suprascapular nerve in a fresh cadaveric specimen was performed to test for cross-over experimentally. Retrospective review of this case of suprascapular intraneural ganglion cyst demonstrated evidence to support previously unrecognized cross-over at the level of the upper trunk, with predominant ascent up the C5 and the C6 nerve roots and subtle descent down the anterior and posterior divisions of the upper trunk as well as the proximal portion of the suprascapular nerve. This appearance gave rise to multiple interconnected intraneural ganglion cysts arising from a single distant connection to the glenohumeral joint
Adn, M; Hamlat, A; Morandi, X; Guegan, Y
Intraneural ganglion cyst of the tibial nerve is very rare. To date, only 5 cases of this entity in the popliteal fossa have been reported. We report a new case and review the previously reported cases. A 40-year-old man experienced a mild vague pain in the medial half of his right foot for 3 years. Magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated a soft-tissue mass along the right tibial nerve. At surgery, an intraneural ganglion cyst was evacuated. After 12 months, the patient was pain-free with no signs of recurrence. Trauma might be a contributing factor to the development of intraneural ganglion cysts. Application of microsurgical techniques is encouraged.
Spinner, Robert J; Carmichael, Stephen W; Wang, Huan; Parisi, Thomas J; Skinner, John A; Amrami, Kimberly K
On the basis of the principles of the unifying articular theory, predictable patterns of proximal ascent have been described for fibular (peroneal) and tibial intraneural ganglion cysts in the knee region. The mechanism underlying distal descent into the terminal branches of the fibular and tibial nerves has not been previously elucidated. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate if and when cyst descent distal to the articular branch-joint connection occurs in intraneural ganglion cysts to understand directionality of intraneural cyst propagation. In Part I, the clinical records and MRIs of 20 consecutive patients treated at our institution for intraneural ganglion cysts (18 fibular and two tibial) arising from the superior tibiofibular joint were retrospectively analyzed. These patients underwent cyst decompression and disconnection of the articular branch. Five of these patients developed symptomatic cyst recurrence after cyst decompression without articular branch disconnection which was done elsewhere prior to our intervention. In Part II, five additional patients with intraneural ganglion cysts (three fibular and two tibial) treated at other institutions without disconnection of the articular branch were compared. These patients in Parts I and II demonstrated ascent of intraneural cyst to differing degrees (12 had evidence of sciatic nerve cross-over). In addition, all of these patients demonstrated previously unrecognized MRI evidence of intraneural cyst extending distally below the level of the articular branch to the joint of origin: cyst within the proximal most portions of the deep fibular and superficial fibular branches in fibular intraneural ganglion cysts and descending tibial branches in tibial intraneural ganglion cysts. The patients in Part I had complete resolution of their cysts at follow-up MRI examination 1 year postoperatively. The patients in Part II had intraneural recurrences postoperatively within the articular branch, the parent
Sarig, Oren; Hass, Avraham; Oron, Amir
Ganglion cysts are considered the most common tumor of the wrist and hand. They are most common between the second and fourth decades of life. The most common anatomical location is the dorsal wrist. This article includes a general review of these cysts including symptoms, pathology and methods of diagnosis, as well as a review of these cysts in specific anatomic locations. The article also includes an updated review of the literature comparing open surgery vs. arthroscopic treatment. The authors believe that arthroscopic surgery of ganglion cysts will gain an important role in the treatment of these cysts.
Crandall, James E.; Goodman, Timothy; McCarthy, Deirdre M.; Duester, Gregg; Bhide, Pradeep G.; Dräger, Ursula C.; McCaffery, Peter
The ganglionic eminence contributes cells to several forebrain structures including the cerebral cortex, for which it provides GABAergic interneurons. Migration of neuronal precursors from the retinoic-acid rich embryonic ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex is known to be regulated by several factors, but retinoic acid has not been previously implicated. We found retinoic acid to potently inhibit cell migration in slice preparations of embryonic mouse forebrains, which was reversed by an antagonist of the dopamine-D2 receptor, whose gene is transcriptionally regulated by retinoic acid. Histonedeacetylase inhibitors, which amplify nuclear receptor-mediated transcription, potentiated the inhibitory effect of retinoic acid. Surprisingly, when retinoic acid signalling was completely blocked with a pan-retinoic acid receptor antagonist, this also decreased cell migration into the cortex, implying that a minimal level of endogenous retinoic acid is necessary for tangential migration. Given these opposing effects of retinoic acid in vitro, the in vivo contribution of retinoic acid to migration was tested by counting GABAergic interneurons in cortices of adult mice with experimental reductions in retinoic acid signalling: a range of perturbations resulted in significant reductions in the numerical density of some GABAergic interneuron subpopulations. These observations suggest functions of retinoic acid in interneuron diversity and organization of cortical excitatory–inhibitory balance. PMID:21895658
Richards, K S; Marder, E
The motor patterns produced by the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) are strongly influenced by descending modulatory inputs from anterior ganglia. With these inputs intact, in control saline, the motor patterns produced by the stomatogastric nervous system of embryonic and larval lobsters are slower and less regular than those of adult lobsters. We studied the effects of the hormonal modulator, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) on the discharge patterns of STG motor patterns in embryos, larvae, and adult Maine lobsters, Homarus americanus, with the anterior inputs present and absent. In adults, CCAP initiated robust pyloric rhythms from STGs isolated from their descending control and modulatory inputs. Likewise, CCAP initiated robust activity in isolated embryonic and larval STGs. Nonetheless, quantitative analyses revealed that the frequency and regularity of the STG motor neuron discharge seen in the presence of CCAP in isolated STGs from embryos were significantly lower than those seen late in larval life and in adults under the same conditions. In contrast, when the descending control and modulatory pathways to the STG were left intact, the embryonic and larval burst frequency seen in the presence of CCAP was increased by CCAP, whereas the burst frequency in adults was decreased by CCAP, so that in CCAP the frequencies at all stages were statistically indistinguishable. These data argue that immature embryonic motor patterns seen in the absence of CCAP are a function of immaturity in both the STG and in the descending and modulatory pathways.
Cairns, Brian E; O'Brien, Melissa; Dong, Xu-Dong; Gazerani, Parisa
It has been proposed that after nerve injury or tissue inflammation, fractalkine (CX3CL1) released from dorsal root ganglion neurons acts on satellite glial cells (SGCs) through CX3C receptor 1 (CX3CR1) to induce neuroplastic changes. The existence and importance of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling in the trigeminal ganglia has not yet been clarified. This study investigated (1) whether trigeminal ganglion neurons that innervate temporalis muscle and their associated SGCs contain fractalkine and/or express CX3CR1, (2) if intraganglionic injection of fractalkine increases the mechanical sensitivity of temporalis muscle afferent fibers, (3) whether complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation of the temporalis muscle alters the expression of fractalkine or its receptor in the trigeminal ganglion, and (4) if intraganglionic administration of CX3CR1 antibodies alters afferent mechanical sensitivity. Immunohistochemistry and in vivo electrophysiological recordings in male and female rats were used to address these questions. It was found that ∼50 % of temporalis ganglion neurons and ∼25 % of their associated SGCs express CX3CR1, while only neurons expressed fractalkine. Temporalis muscle inflammation increased the expression of fractalkine, but only in male rats. Intraganglionic injection of fractalkine (25 g/ml; 3 μl) induced prolonged afferent mechanical sensitization. Intraganglionic injection of CX3CR1 antibody increased afferent mechanical threshold, but this effect was greater in controls than in rats with CFA-induced muscle inflammation. These findings raise the possibility that basal fractalkine signalling within the trigeminal ganglion plays an important role in mechanical sensitivity of masticatory muscle sensory afferent fibers and that inhibition of CX3CR1 signaling within the trigeminal ganglia may induce analgesia through a peripheral mechanism.
Cervical sympathetic and stellate ganglion blocks (SGB) provide a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic benefit to sympathetically maintained pain syndromes in the head, neck, and upper extremity. With the ongoing efforts to improve the safety of the procedure, the techniques for SGB have evolved over time, from the use of the standard blind technique, to fluoroscopy, and recently to the ultrasound (US)-guided approach. Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the ultrasound-guided technique and the many advantages that it might offer. Fluoroscopy is a reliable method for identifying bony surfaces, which facilitates identifying the C6 and C7 transverse processes. However, this is only a surrogate marker for the cervical sympathetic trunk. The ideal placement of the needle tip should be anterolateral to the longus colli muscle, deep to the prevertebral fascia (to avoid spread along the carotid sheath) but superficial to the fascia investing the longus colli muscle (to avoid injecting into the muscle substance). Identifying the correct fascial plane can be achieved with ultrasound guidance, thus facilitating the caudal spread of the injectate to reach the stellate ganglion at C7-T1 level, even if the needle is placed at C6 level. This allows for a more effective and precise sympathetic block with the use of a small injectate volume. Ultrasound-guided SGB may also improve the safety of the procedure by direct visualization of vascular structures (inferior thyroidal, cervical, vertebral, and carotid arteries) and soft tissue structures (thyroid, esophagus, and nerve roots). Accordingly, the risk of vascular and soft tissue injury may be minimized.
Lodato, Simona; Tomassy, Giulio Srubek; De Leonibus, Elvira; Uzcategui, Yoryani G; Andolfi, Gennaro; Armentano, Maria; Touzot, Audrey; Gaztelu, Jose M; Arlotta, Paola; Menendez de la Prida, Liset; Studer, Michèle
In rodents, cortical interneurons originate from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) according to precise temporal schedules. The mechanisms controlling the specification of CGE-derived interneurons and their role in cortical circuitry are still unknown. Here, we show that COUP-TFI expression becomes restricted to the dorsal MGE and CGE at embryonic day 13.5 in the basal telencephalon. Conditional loss of function of COUP-TFI in subventricular precursors and postmitotic cells leads to a decrease of late-born, CGE-derived, VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide)- and CR (calretinin)-expressing bipolar cortical neurons, compensated by the concurrent increase of early-born MGE-derived, PV (parvalbumin)-expressing interneurons. Strikingly, COUP-TFI mutants are more resistant to pharmacologically induced seizures, a phenotype that is dependent on GABAergic signaling. Together, our data indicate that COUP-TFI controls the delicate balance between MGE- and CGE-derived cortical interneurons by regulating intermediate progenitor divisions and ultimately affecting the activity of the cortical inhibitory circuitry.
Rücker, M.; Berg, S.; Armstrong, R. T.; Georgiadis, A.; Ott, H.; Schwing, A.; Neiteler, R.; Brussee, N.; Makurat, A.; Leu, L.; Wolf, M.; Khan, F.; Enzmann, F.; Kersten, M.
During imbibition, initially connected oil is displaced until it is trapped as immobile clusters. While initial and final states have been well described before, here we image the dynamic transient process in a sandstone rock using fast synchrotron-based X-ray computed microtomography. Wetting film swelling and subsequent snap off, at unusually high saturation, decreases nonwetting phase connectivity, which leads to nonwetting phase fragmentation into mobile ganglia, i.e., ganglion dynamics regime. We find that in addition to pressure-driven connected pathway flow, mass transfer in the oil phase also occurs by a sequence of correlated breakup and coalescence processes. For example, meniscus oscillations caused by snap-off events trigger coalescence of adjacent clusters. The ganglion dynamics occurs at the length scale of oil clusters and thus represents an intermediate flow regime between pore and Darcy scale that is so far dismissed in most upscaling attempts.
Depace, D M
The permeability of the blood vessels in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat was tested by intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). By light microscopy, peroxidase activity was found in three locations: in the capsule of the ganglion, in the lumina of the blood vessels, and within macrophages. Electron microscopy revealed that virtually all ganglionic blood vessels contained HRP 5 minutes following its administration. The intensity of peroxidase activity declined over the period of 15 minutes. The enzyme was localized on the luminal surface of the endothelial cells, attaching to the glycocalyx. Endothelial microvilli, projecting into the vessel lumen, were also covered with peroxidase. Micropinocytotic vesicles on the luminal surface of the endothelium contained reaction product. Some of these vesicles were free within the cytoplasm of the endothelium but none was observed on the abluminal surface. Peroxidase activity was not detected in the extracellular space even after 15 minutes. The majority of blood vessels in the superior cervical ganglion possess a continuous endothelium with tight junctions; features associated with the blood-brain barrier of the central nervous system and peripheral nerves. It is proposed that these vessels perform a barrier function between the capillary circulation and the superior cervical ganglion.
Ahumada, Albert J.
Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.
Liao, Chenlong; Yang, Min; Liu, Pengfei; Zhong, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchuan
Abstract Rationale: Thalamic pain is a distressing and treatment-resistant type of central post-stroke pain. Although stellate ganglion block is an established intervention used in pain management, its use in the treatment of thalamic pain has never been reported. Patient concerns: A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of severe intermittent lancinating pain on the right side of the face and the right hand. The pain started from the ulnar side of the right forearm after a mild ischemic stroke in bilateral basal ganglia and left thalamus. Weeks later, the pain extended to the dorsum of the finger tips and the whole palmar surface, becoming more severe. Meanwhile, there was also pain with similar characteristics emerging on her right face, resembling atypical trigeminal neuralgia. Diagnoses: Thalamic pain was diagnosed. Interventions: After refusing the further invasive treatment, she was suggested to try stellate ganglion block. Outcomes: After a 3-day period of pain free (numerical rating scale: 0) postoperatively, she reported moderate to good pain relief with a numerical rating scale of about 3 to 4 lasting 1 month after the first injection. Pain as well as the quality of life was markedly improved with less dose of analgesic agents. Lessons: Stellate ganglion block may be an optional treatment for thalamic pain. PMID:28151918
Shetty, Gautam M; Nha, Kyung Wook; Patil, Sachin P; Chae, Dong Ju; Kang, Ki Hoon; Yoon, Jung Ro; Choo, Suk Kyu; Yi, Jeong Woo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Baek, Jong Ryoon
Ganglion cysts of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) are uncommon lesions found incidentally on MRI and arthroscopy. Twenty patients (11 males and nine females) with the mean age of 35 years presenting with a variety of knee signs and symptoms were found to have PCL cysts on MRI. Out of these, thirteen patients (65%) had isolated symptomatic PCL cysts and seven patients had associated chondral and meniscal lesions. Eight out of the 20 patients (40%) gave a history of antecedent trauma. On arthroscopy, the majority of the cysts were situated at the midsubstance of the ligament with inter-cruciate distension and no involvement of the substance of the ligament. The content of the cysts varied with the majority having yellowish viscous fluid and three containing serous and bloody fluid. All cysts were successfully treated arthroscopically through standard anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral portals with no signs of recurrence on MRI at a mean followup of 24 months. PCL cysts may clinically mimic meniscal or chondral lesions and preoperatively, MRI is essential for the diagnosis of ganglion cysts arising from the PCL. Ganglion cysts of the PCL can be successfully treated arthroscopically using standard portals.
Harahush, Blake K; Hart, Nathan S; Collin, Shaun P
The development of the visual system in anamniotic vertebrates is a continual process, allowing for ontogenetic changes in retinal topography and spatial resolving power. We examined the number and distribution of retinal ganglion cells in wholemounted retinae throughout the protracted embryonic development (∼5 months) of a chondrichthyan, i.e. the brown-banded bamboo shark Chiloscyllium punctatum, from the beginning of retinal cell differentiation (approximately halfway through embryogenesis) to adulthood. We also identified and quantified the number of apoptosed cells within the ganglion cell layer to evaluate the contribution of apoptosis to changes in retinal topography. C. punctatum undergoes rapid changes in ganglion cell distribution during embryogenesis, where high levels of apoptosis, especially around the retinal periphery, result in relative increases in ganglion cell density in the central retina which progressively extend nasally and temporally to form a meridional band at hatching. After hatching, C. punctatum forms and maintains a horizontal streak, showing only minor changes in topography during growth, with basal levels of apoptosis. The total number of retinal ganglion cells reaches 547,881 in adult sharks, but the mean (3,228 cells·mm(-2)) and peak (4,983 cells·mm(-2)) retinal ganglion cell densities are highest around the time of hatching. Calculated estimates of spatial resolving power, based on ganglion cell spacing (assuming a hexagonal mosaic) and assessment of the focal length from cryosections of the eye, increase from 1.47 cycles·degree(-1) during embryogenesis to 4.29 cycles·degree(-1) in adults. The increase in spatial resolving power across the retinal meridian would allow this species to hunt and track faster, more mobile prey as it reaches maturity.
Demircay, Emre; Ofluoglu, Demet; Ozel, Omer; Oztop, Pinar
Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are rare, and bilateral ganglion cysts are even rarer. These cysts may cause intermittent or chronic nonspecific knee discomfort. Although three cases of bilateral ganglion cysts have been reported in the literature, the knees were not simultaneously affected in those cases. Herein, we report the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented with simultaneous bilateral ganglion cysts of the ACL that were symptomatic. She was successfully treated with arthroscopic resection and debridement. We also present a brief review of the literature, highlighting the aetiology, diagnosis and management of ganglion cysts of the ACL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous bilateral intra-articular ganglion cysts of the ACL.
Kapral, S; Krafft, P; Gosch, M; Fridrich, P; Weinstabl, C
We present a patient who developed a high central neural block after stellate-ganglion-blockade. The underlying pathophysiology was assessed via sonographic imaging. Stellate ganglion block was performed in a 19-year old patient according to the standard technique. Multiple aspiration tests were negative and a test dose of 3 ml bupivacaine 0.25% was injected. After a 3 min interval another 5 ml were injected. Two minutes after the local anaesthetic administration the patient reported nausea and sensations in the upper extremity. Spontaneous respiration efforts stopped, and the patient became unconscious. Tracheal intubation was performed, and the patient was ventilated in a controlled mode for two hours. Heart rate as well as blood pressure remained within the normal range. Neurologic recovery occurred rapidly and extubation was performed about two and a half hours after the event. Our sonographic studies demonstrated a local anaesthetic depot directly at the root of C 6, with a mean diameter of 10 mm and a length of 5 to 6 cm (about a third smaller than expected). Sonographic studies and clinical symptoms of our patient are most likely to occur with a subdural extra-arachnoidal block. Ultrasonographic guided puncture enhances the patient's safety by the opportunity to directly visualise transverse process, nerval root as well as local anaesthetic depot. In case of depot formation directly at the nerval root, injection may be stopped and the needle repositioned. Furthermore, direct visualisation of the great vessels (A. vertebralis) prevents intravascular injection and haematoma formation.
Kongstaponkit, S; Pradidarcheep, W; Toutip, S; Chunhabundit, P; Somana, R
Since there is only a limited number of studies of the blood supply to the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in mammalian species, the TG from 16 common tree shrews (Tupaia glis) were investigated by light microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the corrosion cast technique in conjunction with scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the TG contained clusters of neurons in the peripheral region whereas the bundles of nerve fibers were located more centrally. Each ganglionic neuron had a concentric nucleus and was ensheathed by satellite cells. It was noted that blood vessels of a continuous type were predominantly found in the area where the neurons were densely located and were much less frequently observed in the area occupied by nerve fibers. With TEM, the TG was shown to be mainly associated with large neurons containing big nuclei and prominent nucleoli. The blood supply of the TG is derived from the most rostral branch of the pontine artery, from the stapedial artery or sometimes from the supraorbital artery, and from the accessory meningeal artery which is a branch of the maxillary artery passing through the foramen ovale. These arteries give off branches and become capillary networks in the ganglion before draining blood to the peripheral region. The veins at the medial border drained into the cavernous sinus directly or through the inferior hypophyseal vein, while those at the lateral side of the ganglion carried the blood into the pterygoid plexus via an accessory meningeal vein. The veins along the trigeminal nerve root joined the posterior part of the cavernous sinus. These studies establish a unique anatomical distribution of the TG blood supply in the tree shrew and the utility of the cast/SEM technique in discerning detailed features of the blood supply in the nervous system.
Meister, Markus; Lagnado, Leon; Baylor, Denis A.
To analyze the rules that govern communication between eye and brain, visual responses were recorded from an intact salamander retina. Parallel observation of many retinal ganglion cells with a microelectrode array showed that nearby neurons often fired synchronously, with spike delays of less than 10 milliseconds. The frequency of such synchronous spikes exceeded the correlation expected from a shared visual stimulus up to 20-fold. Synchronous firing persisted under a variety of visual stimuli and accounted for the majority of action potentials recorded. Analysis of receptive fields showed that concerted spikes encoded information not carried by individual cells; they may represent symbols in a multineuronal code for vision.
Medina, Juana; Rivlin, Michael; Chan, Joanna; Beredjiklian, Pedro K.
Ganglion cysts are the most common wrist tumors, and 60 -70% originate dorsally from the scapholunate interval. Ossification of these lesions is exceedingly rare, with only one such lesion located in the finger reported in the literature. We present a case of an ossified dorsal wrist ganglion in a 68-year-old woman. PMID:27847858
Medina, Juana; Rivlin, Michael; Chan, Joanna; Beredjiklian, Pedro K
Ganglion cysts are the most common wrist tumors, and 60 -70% originate dorsally from the scapholunate interval. Ossification of these lesions is exceedingly rare, with only one such lesion located in the finger reported in the literature. We present a case of an ossified dorsal wrist ganglion in a 68-year-old woman.
Jose, Jean; O'Donnell, Kevin; Lesniak, Bryson
Ganglion cysts have been previously described throughout the body, most commonly about the wrist, hand, knee, ankle, and feet. When symptomatic, they may interfere with joint mechanics, resulting in snapping, catching, and locking. Intratendinous ganglion cysts lack a synovial epithelial lining and are thought to develop from the mucoid degeneration of connective tissue caused by chronic irritation, chronic repetitive injury, and chronic ischemia. On magnetic resonance imaging, ganglion cysts originating from tendons, ligaments, tendon sheaths, menisci, or joint capsules appear as well-defined lobulated masses that follow simple or complex fluid signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with enhancing walls and internal septations on post-contrast images. There may be appreciable degeneration and partial tearing of the structure of origin, particularly if associated with tendons. On ultrasonography, they present as hypoechoic masses, with internal septations and lobulations of varying sizes, without significant vascularity on power or color Doppler sampling. A thin fluid neck extending from the structure of origin (tail sign), when present, is a reliable sign of a ganglion cyst. This article describes a sonographically guided technique to treat symptomatic ganglion cysts within the patellar tendon. Complete evacuation of the ganglion cyst, with disappearance of the tail sign, is considered the determining factor for a successful procedure. A similar technique can be used for the treatment of other symptomatic intratendinous ganglion cysts elsewhere in the body. To our knowledge, symptomatic intratendinous ganglion cysts within the patellar tendon and their treatment have not been previously reported.
Willis-Owen, Charles A; Konyves, Arpad; Martin, David K
Symptomatic ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments are rare, and bilateral cases are extremely rare, with only one reported case in the literature. We report a case of bilateral cruciate ligament ganglion cysts successfully treated with arthroscopic resection, and review the literature regarding aetiology, diagnosis and management.
Prasad, Nikhil K; Spinner, Robert J; Smith, Jay; Howe, Benjamin M; Amrami, Kimberly K; Iannotti, Joseph P; Dahm, Diane L
OBJECT High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can distinguish between intraneural ganglion cysts and paralabral (extraneural) cysts at the glenohumeral joint. Suprascapular intraneural ganglion cysts share the same pathomechanism as their paralabral counterparts, emanating from a tear in the glenoid labrum. The authors present 2 cases to demonstrate that the identification and arthroscopic repair of labral tears form the cornerstone of treatment for intraneural ganglion cysts of the suprascapular nerve. METHODS Two patients with suprascapular intraneural ganglion cysts were identified: 1 was recognized and treated prospectively, and the other, previously reported as a paralabral cyst, was identified retrospectively through the reinter-pretation of high-resolution MR images. RESULTS Both patients achieved full functional recovery and had complete radiological involution of the intraneural ganglion cysts at the 3-month and 12-month follow-ups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Previous reports of suprascapular intraneural ganglion cysts described treatment by an open approach to decompress the cysts and resect the articular nerve branch to the glenohumeral joint. The 2 cases in this report demonstrate that intraneural ganglion cysts, similar to paralabral cysts, can be treated with arthroscopic repair of the glenoid labrum without resection of the articular branch. This approach minimizes surgical morbidity and directly addresses the primary etiology of intraneural and extraneural ganglion cysts.
Gatta, Gemma; Ferrari, Andrea; Stiller, Charles A; Pastore, Guido; Bisogno, Gianni; Trama, Annalisa; Capocaccia, Riccardo
Embryonal cancers are a heterogeneous group of rare cancers which mainly occur in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to estimate the burden (incidence, prevalence, survival and proportion of cured) for the principal embryonal cancers in Europe (EU27), using population-based data from cancer registries (CRs) participating in RARECARE. We identified 3322 cases diagnosed from 1995 to 2002 (latest period for which data are available): 44% neuroblastoma, 35% nephroblastoma, 13% retinoblastoma and 6% hepatoblastoma. Very few cases of pulmonary blastoma (43 cases) and pancreatoblastoma (seven cases) were diagnosed. About 2000 new embryonal cancers were estimated every year in EU27, for an annual incidence rate of 4 per million (1.8 neuroblastoma, 1.4 nephroblastoma, and 0.5 retinoblastoma); 91% of cases occurred in patients under 15 years. Five-year relative survival for all embryonal cancers was 80% (99% retinoblastoma, 90% nephroblastoma, 71% hepatoblastoma and 68% neuroblastoma). Overall survival was lower in adolescents and adults than in those under 15 years. The cure rate was estimated at 80%. Slightly less than 40,000 persons were estimated alive in EU27 with a diagnosis of embryonal cancer in 2008. Nephroblastoma was the most prevalent (18,150 cases in EU27), followed by neuroblastoma (12,100), retinoblastoma (5200), hepatoblastoma (2700) and pulmonary blastoma (614). This is the first study to delineate the embryonal cancer burden in Europe by age, sex and European region. Survival/cure rate is generally high, but there are considerable gaps in our understanding of the natural histories of these rare diseases particularly in adults.
Tai, Huanhuan; Lu, Xin; Opitz, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Lithio, Andrew; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank
Maize develops a complex root system composed of embryonic and post-embryonic roots. Spatio-temporal differences in the formation of these root types imply specific functions during maize development. A comparative transcriptomic study of embryonic primary and seminal, and post-embryonic crown roots of the maize inbred line B73 by RNA sequencing along with anatomical studies were conducted early in development. Seminal roots displayed unique anatomical features, whereas the organization of primary and crown roots was similar. For instance, seminal roots displayed fewer cortical cell files and their stele contained more meta-xylem vessels. Global expression profiling revealed diverse patterns of gene activity across all root types and highlighted the unique transcriptome of seminal roots. While functions in cell remodeling and cell wall formation were prominent in primary and crown roots, stress-related genes and transcriptional regulators were over-represented in seminal roots, suggesting functional specialization of the different root types. Dynamic expression of lignin biosynthesis genes and histochemical staining suggested diversification of cell wall lignification among the three root types. Our findings highlight a cost-efficient anatomical structure and a unique expression profile of seminal roots of the maize inbred line B73 different from primary and crown roots. PMID:26628518
Tai, Huanhuan; Lu, Xin; Opitz, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Lithio, Andrew; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank
Maize develops a complex root system composed of embryonic and post-embryonic roots. Spatio-temporal differences in the formation of these root types imply specific functions during maize development. A comparative transcriptomic study of embryonic primary and seminal, and post-embryonic crown roots of the maize inbred line B73 by RNA sequencing along with anatomical studies were conducted early in development. Seminal roots displayed unique anatomical features, whereas the organization of primary and crown roots was similar. For instance, seminal roots displayed fewer cortical cell files and their stele contained more meta-xylem vessels. Global expression profiling revealed diverse patterns of gene activity across all root types and highlighted the unique transcriptome of seminal roots. While functions in cell remodeling and cell wall formation were prominent in primary and crown roots, stress-related genes and transcriptional regulators were over-represented in seminal roots, suggesting functional specialization of the different root types. Dynamic expression of lignin biosynthesis genes and histochemical staining suggested diversification of cell wall lignification among the three root types. Our findings highlight a cost-efficient anatomical structure and a unique expression profile of seminal roots of the maize inbred line B73 different from primary and crown roots.
Egbogah, E.O.; Wright, R.J.; Dawe, R.A.
This paper presents a simple theory of the movement of a discontinuous oil droplet (ganglion) through a model porous medium. A quantitative description of the ganglion flow in the system was obtained through a tractable solution to the balance of forces controlling ganglion stability during flow of two immiscible fluids within a well-defined geometry. Calculations were based on a constricted conical (divergent-convergent) pore model. Experimental data from a tetragonally packed sphere model were used interactively with a theoretical static analysis to synthesize the relevant features of the ganglion mechanics into a coherent theory of oil mobilization. The model analysis also permits the computation of relative ganglion velocity under various flow conditions. This is an essential parameter for enhanced oil recovery modelling which facilitates the prediction of oil bank movements in porous media. 34 refs.
Shimokobe, Hisao; Gotoh, Masafumi; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Eiichiro; Kume, Shinichiro; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Nagata, Kensei; Shiba, Naoto
Studies have demonstrated favorable outcomes of arthroscopic decompression for ganglion cyst in the supraspinous fossa; however, little attention has been paid to the difficulty in detecting these cysts during arthroscopy. In this report, we present 2 cases in which ganglion cysts in the supraspinous fossa were undetectable during arthroscopy. The ganglion cysts were not identified in these cases during surgery despite arthroscopic decompression being performed through the area in which the cyst was expected until the suprascapular nerve was entirely exposed. After surgery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the disappearance of the ganglion cyst and external rotation strength was fully improved, without shoulder pain. We emphasize here that surgeons should be aware of this difficulty when performing arthroscopic decompression of ganglion cysts in the supraspinous fossa.
Boada, M Danilo
The trigeminal ganglia (TG) innervate a heterogeneous set of highly sensitive and exposed tissues. Weak, innocuous stimuli can evoke pain as a normal response in some areas such as the cornea. This observation implies, however, the capability of low-threshold mechanoreceptors, inducing pain in the normal condition. To clarify this matter, the present study correlates the electrical signature (both fiber conduction velocity and somatic electrical properties) with receptor field, mechanical threshold, and temperature responsiveness of sensory afferents innervating tissues with dissimilar sensitivity (skin vs. cornea) in the trigeminal domain. Intracellular recordings were obtained in vivo from 148 neurons of the left TG of 62 mice. In 111 of these neurons, the peripheral receptor field was successfully localized: 96 of them innervated the hairy skin, while the remaining 15 innervated the cornea. The electrical signature was defined and peripheral responses correlated with tissue target. No high threshold neurons were found in the cornea. Moreover, the electrical signature of corneal afferents resembles nociceptive neurons in the skin. TG skin afferents showed similar membrane electrical signature and sensory modality as skin afferents from dorsal root ganglion, although TG afferents exhibited a shorter duration of afterhyperpolarization then those previously described in dorsal root ganglion. These data suggest than new or different ways to classify and study TG sensory neurons may be required.
Kitazawa, Ayako; Shimizu, Norio
Mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are known to have the ability to differentiate into various cell lineages including neurons in vitro. We have reported that chick dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-conditioned medium (CM) promoted the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into motor neurons. We investigated the formation of undifferentiated iPS cell colonies and the differentiation of iPS cells into neurons using DRG-CM. When iPS cells were cultured in DMEM containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), the iPS cells appeared to be maintained in an undifferentiated state for 19 passages. The number of iPS cell colonies (200 μm in diameter) was maximal at six days of cultivation and the colonies were maintained in an undifferentiated state, but the iPS cell colonies at ten days of cultivation had hollows inside the colonies and were differentiated. By contrast, the number of ES cell colonies (200 μm in diameter) was maximal at ten days of cultivation. The iPS cells were able to proliferate and differentiate easily into various cell lineages, compared to ES cells. When iPS cell colonies were cultured in a manner similar to ES cells with DMEM/F-12K medium supplemented with DRG-CM, the iPS cells mainly differentiated into motor and sensory neurons. These results suggested that the differentiation properties of iPS cells differ from those of ES cells.
Lira-Ruan, Verónica; Ruiz-Kubli, Mariel
Rice (Oryza sativa) contains five copies of the non-symbiotic hemoglobin (hb) gene, namely hb1 to hb5. Previous analysis by RT-PCR revealed that rice hb1 expresses in roots and leaves and hb2 expresses in leaves. However, it is not known whether or not hb1 and hb2 express in rice embryonic organs. Here, we report the expression of hb1 and hb2 genes in rice embryonic organs using RT-PCR and specific oligos for Hb1 and Hb2. Our results indicate that hb1 and hb2 genes express in embryonic organs in rice growing under normal conditions. Specifically, hb1 expresses in rice embryos and seminal roots, and hb2 expresses in embryos, coleoptiles and seminal roots. These observations suggest that Hb1 and Hb2 coexist and function in rice embryonic organs. PMID:21966570
Prasad, Nikhil K; Desy, Nicholas M; Howe, B Matthew; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J
Over the last decade, the mechanism of formation of intraneural ganglion cysts has been established through a meticulous review of clinical findings and correlation with patterns produced on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pathognomonic imaging patterns distinguish these rare lesions from the more common extraneural variants in almost all cases. In this report, we present a new pattern of cyst occurrence in the subparaneurial compartment of the nerve and provide potential anatomic explanations for its pathogenesis. Using an anatomic framework of connective tissue compartments of the nerve, we reviewed 63 (56 fibular and seven tibial) intraneural ganglion cysts in the knee region evaluated at our institution and all reports with MRI in the world's literature for evidence of cyst occurrence in the subparaneurial compartment. We identified six cases (five in the common fibular nerve and one in the tibial nerve) at our institution that had MR evidence of cyst in the subparaneurial compartment with a new complex lobulated pattern. All cases had articular branch connections to the superior tibiofibular joint, which at operation were resected along with the joints. Follow-up revealed complete recovery in all instances and no clinical or radiological signs of recurrence. Three cases out of 80 in the literature exhibited the new complex lobulated MRI pattern. We present a new pattern of intraneural ganglion cyst occurrence in a potential space that surrounds peripheral nerves--the subparaneurial compartment. We believe that the unifying articular theory applies to the pathogenesis and management of these rare variants.
Boyan, George; Williams, Leslie; Legl, Andrea; Herbert, Zsofia
The central complex of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria develops to completion during embryogenesis. A major cellular contribution to the central complex is from the w, x, y, z lineages of the pars intercerebralis, each of which comprises over 100 cells, making them by far the largest in the embryonic protocerebrum. Our focus has been to find a cellular mechanism that allows such a large number of cell progeny to be generated within a restricted period of time. Immunohistochemical visualization of the chromosomes of mitotically active cells has revealed an almost identical linear array of proliferative cells present simultaneously in each w, x, y, z lineage at 50% of embryogenesis. This array is maintained relatively unchanged until almost 70% of embryogenesis, after which mitotic activity declines and then ceases. The array is absent from smaller lineages of the protocerebrum not associated with the central complex. The proliferative cells are located apically to the zone of ganglion mother cells and amongst the progeny of the neuroblast. Comparisons of cell morphology, immunoreactivity (horseradish peroxidase, repo, Prospero), location in lineages and spindle orientation have allowed us to distinguish the proliferative cells in an array from neuroblasts, ganglion mother cells, neuronal progeny and glia. Our data are consistent with the proliferative cells being secondary (amplifying) progenitors and originating from a specific subtype of ganglion mother cell. We propose a model of the way that neuroblasts, ganglion mother cells and secondary progenitors together produce the large cell numbers found in central complex lineages.
Endo, Jun; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sasho, Takahisa
Intratendinous ganglion cysts are rare lesions of unknown etiology that originate within a tendon. We report the case of a 34-year-old female with an intratendinous ganglion in the plantar portion of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. The intratendinous ganglion recurred after ultrasound-guided needle aspiration. Tendoscopic excision of the intratendinous ganglion cyst achieved a satisfactorily result without recurrence.
Rider, Stanley Dean; Hemm, Matthew R; Hostetler, Heather A; Li, Hui-Chun; Chapple, Clint; Ogas, Joe
Embryos express several unique differentiation characteristics, including the accumulation of a number of metabolites that are generally considered to be unique to seeds. PICKLE (PKL) codes for a CHD3-chromatin remodeling factor that is necessary for repression of embryonic traits in seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. In pkl mutants, primary roots are capable of expressing many embryonic traits after germination and are referred to as "pickle roots". In an attempt to examine the breadth of PKL-dependent repression of embryo-specific differentiation pathways, we determined the extent to which a variety of embryo-specific compounds accumulate in pickle roots. We found that pickle roots accumulate triacylglycerol with a fatty acid composition that is similar to that found in seeds. The major seed storage proteins are also present in pickle roots. In addition to these two well-characterized seed storage compounds, we observed that pickle roots accumulate phytate, a form of stored phosphate that is preferentially accumulated in seeds. Seeds of members of the Brassicaceae also accumulate a variety of unique secondary metabolites, including sinapate esters and glucosinolates. Surprisingly, the levels of secondary metabolites in pickle roots were not suggestive of an embryonic differentiation state, but did reveal that a mutation in PKL results in substantial changes in root secondary metabolism. Taken together, these data suggest that PKL is responsible for regulating some but not all aspects of the embryonic program as it relates to the accumulation of embryo-specific metabolites.
Mittal, Samarth; Singla, Amit; Nag, H L; Meena, Sanjay; Lohiya, Ramprakash; Agarwal, Abhinav
Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee joint are rare and most frequently are an incidental finding on MRI and arthroscopy. Most of the previous studies have reported a single ganglion cyst in the knee. There have been previous reports of more than one cyst in the same knee but not in the same structure within the knee. We are reporting a case of dual ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) ganglion cysts one of which was missed on radiological examination but later detected during arthroscopy. To the best of our knowledge, no such case has been reported in the indexed English literature till date.
Young, R. S.
The relationship between the developing embryo (both plant and animal) and a gravitational field has long been contemplated. The difficulty in designing critical experiments on the surface of the earth because of its background of 1 g, has been an obstacle to a resolution of the problem. Biological responses to gravity (particularly in plants) are obvious in many cases; however, the influence of gravity as an environmental input to the developing embryo is not as obvious and has proven to be extremely difficult to define. In spite of this, over the years numerous attempts have been made using a variety of embryonic materials to come to grips with the role of gravity in development. Three research tools are available: the centrifuge, the clinostat, and the orbiting spacecraft. Experimental results are now available from all three sources. Some tenuous conclusions are drawn, and an attempt at a unifying theory of gravitational influence on embryonic development is made.
Young, Allison; Petros, Timothy; Karayannis, Theofanis; McKenzie Chang, Melissa; Lavado, Alfonso; Iwano, Tomohiko; Nakajima, Miho; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Huang, Z. Josh; Heintz, Nathaniel; Oliver, Guillermo; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Machold, Robert P.
Neurogliaform (RELN+) and bipolar (VIP+) GABAergic interneurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex provide critical inhibition locally within the superficial layers. While these subtypes are known to originate from the embryonic caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE), the specific genetic programs that direct their positioning, maturation, and integration into the cortical network have not been elucidated. Here, we report that in mice expression of the transcription factor Prox1 is selectively maintained in postmitotic CGE-derived cortical interneuron precursors and that loss of Prox1 impairs the integration of these cells into superficial layers. Moreover, Prox1 differentially regulates the postnatal maturation of each specific subtype originating from the CGE (RELN, Calb2/VIP, and VIP). Interestingly, Prox1 promotes the maturation of CGE-derived interneuron subtypes through intrinsic differentiation programs that operate in tandem with extrinsically driven neuronal activity-dependent pathways. Thus Prox1 represents the first identified transcription factor specifically required for the embryonic and postnatal acquisition of CGE-derived cortical interneuron properties. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the recognition that 30% of GABAergic cortical interneurons originate from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE), to date, a specific transcriptional program that selectively regulates the development of these populations has not yet been identified. Moreover, while CGE-derived interneurons display unique patterns of tangential and radial migration and preferentially populate the superficial layers of the cortex, identification of a molecular program that controls these events is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that the homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 is expressed in postmitotic CGE-derived cortical interneuron precursors and is maintained into adulthood. We found that Prox1 function is differentially required during both embryonic and postnatal stages of development to
Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John
Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600
Dragoni, S; Giombini, A; Di Cesare, A; Ripani, M
The objective of the study is to describe two cases of proximal tibiofibular ganglion cysts in high level athletes. In May 2003 and March 2005 two athletes (one tennis player in the top eighty of the Italian national ranking and a gymnast belonging to the Italian rhythmic gymnastics national team) were referred to our institution complaining of postero-lateral knee discomfort and the presence of localized swelling over the fibular head and the antero-lateral aspect of the leg, with a clinically suspected diagnosis of ganglion cyst of the proximal tibiofibular joint. Ultrasonography clearly detected the fluid-filled structures while magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis, also showing precisely the anatomic relationship between the ganglions and the surrounding structures. Both athletes underwent surgical excision and the histological examination was compatible with a proximal tibiofibular joint ganglion cyst; as yet they have had no recurrence.
Hameed, Shamsi Abdul; Sujir, Premjit; Naik, Monappa A; Rao, Sharath K
Ganglion cysts are more commonly associated with the anterior cruciate ligament than the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). A literature review showed that all reported cases of ganglion cysts to date involved adults. We report a rare case of ganglion cyst in the PCL of a four-year-old boy, and discuss its aetiology, clinical presentation, imaging features and management. Ganglion cysts of the PCL may be confused with meniscal cysts arising from tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Hence, the posterior horn of the medial meniscus has to be carefully evaluated to rule out a tear. MR imaging is the method of choice to confirm diagnosis, and arthroscopic resection is a safe treatment modality even in children.
Haller, Justin M.; Potter, Michael Q.; Sinclair, Micah; Hutchinson, Douglas T.
Background Intraneural ganglions in peripheral nerves of the upper extremity are extremely rare and poorly understood. Case Description We report a patient with symptoms consistent with de Quervain tenosynovitis who was found to have an intraneural ganglion in the superficial radial nerve. The ganglion did not communicate with the wrist joint. We removed the intraneural ganglion, and the patient's symptoms resolved. At her 6-month postoperative follow-up, she remained asymptomatic. Literature Review: There is only one case report of intraneural ganglion in the superficial radial nerve. In that case, the patient had symptoms consistent with nerve irritation, including radiating pain and paresthesias. In contrast to that previous report, the patient in the current case had only localized pain, no paresthesias, and a physical exam consistent with de Quervain tenosynovitis. Clinical Relevance This case demonstrates that an intraneural ganglion cyst can mimic the symptoms of de Quervain tenosynovitis without the more usual presentation of painful paresthesias. PMID:25364639
Abbas, Syed Y.; Hamade, Khaldoun C.; Yang, Ellen J.; Nawy, Scott; Smith, Robert G.; Pettit, Diana L.
Retinal ganglion cells receive inputs from multiple bipolar cells which must be integrated before a decision to fire is made. Theoretical studies have provided clues about how this integration is accomplished but have not directly determined the rules regulating summation of closely timed inputs along single or multiple dendrites. Here we have examined dendritic summation of multiple inputs along On ganglion cell dendrites in whole mount rat retina. We activated inputs at targeted locations by uncaging glutamate sequentially to generate apparent motion along On ganglion cell dendrites in whole mount retina. Summation was directional and dependent13 on input sequence. Input moving away from the soma (centrifugal) resulted in supralinear summation, while activation sequences moving toward the soma (centripetal) were linear. Enhanced summation for centrifugal activation was robust as it was also observed in cultured retinal ganglion cells. This directional summation was dependent on hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels as blockade with ZD7288 eliminated directionality. A computational model confirms that activation of HCN channels can override a preference for centripetal summation expected from cell anatomy. This type of direction selectivity could play a role in coding movement similar to the axial selectivity seen in locust ganglion cells which detect looming stimuli. More generally, these results suggest that non-directional retinal ganglion cells can discriminate between input sequences independent of the retina network. PMID:23516351
Gruhl, Alexander; Bartolomaeus, Thomas
In contrast to other Bryozoa, members of the subtaxon Phylactolaemata bear a subepithelial cerebral ganglion that resembles a hollow vesicle rather than being compact. In older studies this ganglion was said to originate by an invagination of the pharyngeal epithelium. Unfortunately, documentation for this is fragmentary. In chordates the central nervous system also arises by an invagination-like process, but this mode is uncommon among invertebrate phyla. As a first attempt to gather more data about this phenomenon, cerebral ganglia in two phylactolaemate species, Fredericella sultana and Plumatella emarginata, were examined at the ultrastructural level. In both species the ganglion bears a small central lumen. The ganglionic cells are organized in the form of a neuroepithelium. They are polarized and interconnected by adherens junctions on their apical sides and reside on a basal lamina. The nerve cell somata are directed towards the central lumen, whereas the majority of nervous processes are distributed basally. Orientation of the neuroepithelial cells can be best explained by the possibility that they develop by invagination. A comparison with potential outgroups reveals that a neuroepithelial ganglion is at least derived. Since, however, a reliable phylogenetic system of the Bryozoa is missing, a decision on whether such a ganglion is apomorphic for Bryozoa or evolved within this taxon can hardly be made.
Lee, Sherwin C.; Ishida, Andrew T.
Antisera directed against hyperpolarization-activated mixed-cation (“Ih”) and K+ (“Kir”) channels bind to some somata in the ganglion cell layer of rat and rabbit retina. Additionally, the termination of hyperpolarizing current injections can trigger spikes in some cat retinal ganglion cells, suggesting a rebound depolarization due to activation of Ih. However, patch-clamp studies have reported that rat ganglion cells lack inward rectification, or present an inwardly rectifying K+ current. We therefore tested whether hyperpolarization activates Ih in dissociated, adult rat retinal ganglion cell somata. We report here that while we found no inward rectification in some cells, and a Kir-like current in a few cells, hyperpolarization activated Ih in roughly 75% of the cells we recorded from in voltage clamp. We show that this current is blocked by Cs+ or ZD7288 and only slightly reduced by Ba2+, that the current amplitude and reversal potential are sensitive to extracellular Na+ and K+, and that we found no evidence of Kir in cells presenting Ih. In current clamp, injecting hyperpolarizing current induced a slowly relaxing membrane hyperpolarization that rebounded to a few action potentials when the hyperpolarizing current was stopped; both the membrane potential relaxation and rebound spikes were blocked by ZD7288. These results provide the first measurement of Ih in mammalian retinal ganglion cells, and indicate that the ion channels of rat retinal ganglion cells may vary in ways not expected from previous voltage and current recordings. PMID:17488978
Walsh, C.; Polley, E.H.
The ganglion cells of the cat's retina form several classes distinguishable in terms of soma size, axon diameter, dendritic morphology, physiological properties, and central connections. Labeling with (/sup 3/H)thymidine shows that the ganglion cells which survive in the adult are produced as several temporally shifted, overlapping waves: medium-sized cells are produced before large cells, whereas the smallest ganglion cells are produced throughout the period of ganglion cell generation. Large cells and medium-sized cells show the same distinctive pattern of production, forming rough spirals around the area centralis. The oldest cells tend to lie superior and nasal to the area centralis, whereas cells in the inferior nasal retina and inferior temporal retina are, in general, progressively younger. Within each retinal quadrant, cells nearer the area centralis tend to be older than cells in the periphery, but there is substantial overlap. The retinal raphe divides the superior temporal quadrant into two zones with different patterns of cell addition. Superior temporal retina near the vertical meridian adds cells only slightly later than superior nasal retina, whereas superior temporal retina near the horizontal meridian adds cells very late, contemporaneously with inferior temporal retina. The broader wave of production of smaller ganglion cells seems to follow this same spiral pattern at its beginning and end. The presence of the area centralis as a nodal point about which ganglion cell production in the retinal quadrants pivots suggests that the area centralis is already an important retinal landmark even at the earliest stages of retinal development.
Paudel, Sharada; Kim, Yeoun-Hee; Huh, Man-Il; Kim, Song-Ja; Chang, Yongmin; Park, Young Jeung; Lee, Kyoo Won; Jung, Jae-Chang
Here, we examined the role of ADAM10 during retinal cell differentiation in retinal sections and in vitro cultures of developing chick retinal cells from embryonic day 6 (ED6). Immunohistochemistry showed that ADAM10 is abundantly expressed in the inner zone of neuroblastic layer at ED5, and it becomes more highly expressed in the ganglion cell layer at ED7 and ED9. Western blotting confirmed that ADAM10 was expressed as an inactive pro-form that was processed to a shorter, active form in control cultured cells, but in cultures treated with an ADAM10 inhibitor (GI254023X) and ADAM10-specific siRNA, the level of mature ADAM10 decreased. Phase-contrast microscopy showed that long neurite extensions were present in untreated cultures 24 h after plating, whereas cultures treated with GI254023X showed significant decreases in neurite extension. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that there were far fewer differentiated ganglion cells in ADAM10 siRNA and GI254023X-treated cultures compared to controls, whereas the photoreceptor cells were unaltered. The Pax6 protein was more strongly detected in the differentiated ganglion cells of control cultures compared to ADAM10 siRNA and GI254023X-treated cultures. N-cadherin ectodomain shedding was apparent in control cultures after 24 h, when ganglion cell differentiation was observed, but ADAM10 siRNA and GI254023X treatment inhibited these processes. In contrast, N-cadherin staining was strongly detected in photoreceptor cells regardless of ADAM10 siRNA and GI254023X treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the inhibition of ADAM10 can inhibit Pax6 expression and N-cadherin ectodomain shedding in retinal cells, possibly affecting neurite outgrowth and ganglion cell differentiation.
Pfaff, F; Schlottau, K; Scholes, S; Courtenay, A; Hoffmann, B; Höper, D; Beer, M
In June 2013, a 4-year-old Welsh Mountain ewe and in March 2014 a 10-day-old lamb of the same breed and the same flock presented progressive neurological signs including depressed sensorium, tremor, and unusual behaviour. Neuropathological examination of the brain and spinal cord detected non-suppurative polioencephalomyelitis and dorsal root ganglionitis, characteristic of a neurotropic viral agent in both sheep. Metagenomic analysis of different tissue samples from both animals identified a novel Ovine Astrovirus (OvAstV). The presence of viral genome in the central nervous system was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Although the cases presented nine months apart, the identified OvAstV shared nearly identical sequences, differing in only three nucleotide positions across the complete genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relation of OvAstV to neurotropic bovine astroviruses and an enteric OvAstV. In conclusion, these are the first reported cases of astrovirus infection in domestic sheep that were associated with encephalitis and ganglionitis.
Mead, Ben; Tomarev, Stanislav
Retinal ganglion cells (RGC) bear the sole responsibility of propagating visual stimuli to the brain. Their axons, which make up the optic nerve, project from the retina to the brain through the lamina cribrosa and in rodents, decussate almost entirely at the optic chiasm before synapsing at the superior colliculus. For many traumatic and degenerative ocular conditions, the dysfunction and/or loss of RGC is the primary determinant of visual loss and are the measurable endpoints in current research into experimental therapies. To actually measure these endpoints in rodent models, techniques must ascertain both the quantity of surviving RGC and their functional capacity. Quantification techniques include phenotypic markers of RGC, retrogradely transported fluorophores and morphological measurements of retinal thickness whereas functional assessments include electroretinography (flash and pattern) and visual evoked potential. The importance of the accuracy and reliability of these techniques cannot be understated, nor can the relationship between RGC death and dysfunction. The existence of up to 30 types of RGC complicates the measuring process, particularly as these may respond differently to disease and treatment. Since the above techniques may selectively identify and ignore particular subpopulations, their appropriateness as measures of RGC survival and function may be further limited. This review discusses the above techniques in the context of their subtype specificity.
An animal's ability to perceive the external world is conditioned by its capacity to extract and encode specific features of the visual image. The output of the vertebrate retina is not a simple representation of the 2D visual map generated by photon absorptions in the photoreceptor layer. Rather, spatial, temporal, direction selectivity and color "dimensions" of the original image are distributed in the form of parallel output channels mediated by distinct retinal ganglion cell (RGC) populations. We propose that visual information transmitted to the brain includes additional, light-independent, inputs that reflect the functional states of the retina, anterior eye and the body. These may include the local ion microenvironment, glial metabolism and systemic parameters such as intraocular pressure, temperature and immune activation which act on ion channels that are intrinsic to RGCs. We particularly focus on light-independent mechanical inputs that are associated with physical impact, cell swelling and intraocular pressure as excessive mechanical stimuli lead to the counterintuitive experience of "pressure phosphenes" and/or debilitating blinding disease such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. We point at recently discovered retinal mechanosensitive ion channels as examples through which molecular physiology brings together Greek phenomenology, modern neuroscience and medicine. Thus, RGC output represents a unified picture of the embodied context within which vision takes place.
Struebing, Felix L.; Lee, Richard K.; Williams, Robert W.; Geisert, Eldon E.
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the output neuron of the eye, transmitting visual information from the retina through the optic nerve to the brain. The importance of RGCs for vision is demonstrated in blinding diseases where RGCs are lost, such as in glaucoma or after optic nerve injury. In the present study, we hypothesize that normal RGC function is transcriptionally regulated. To test our hypothesis, we examine large retinal expression microarray datasets from recombinant inbred mouse strains in GeneNetwork and define transcriptional networks of RGCs and their subtypes. Two major and functionally distinct transcriptional networks centering around Thy1 and Tubb3 (Class III beta-tubulin) were identified. Each network is independently regulated and modulated by unique genomic loci. Meta-analysis of publically available data confirms that RGC subtypes are differentially susceptible to death, with alpha-RGCs and intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs) being less sensitive to cell death than other RGC subtypes in a mouse model of glaucoma. PMID:27733864
Balendra, S I; Normando, E M; Bloom, P A; Cordeiro, M F
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide and will affect 79.6 million people worldwide by 2020. It is caused by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), predominantly via apoptosis, within the retinal nerve fibre layer and the corresponding loss of axons of the optic nerve head. One of its most devastating features is its late diagnosis and the resulting irreversible visual loss that is often predictable. Current diagnostic tools require significant RGC or functional visual field loss before the threshold for detection of glaucoma may be reached. To propel the efficacy of therapeutics in glaucoma, an earlier diagnostic tool is required. Recent advances in retinal imaging, including optical coherence tomography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and adaptive optics, have propelled both glaucoma research and clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. However, an ideal imaging technique to diagnose and monitor glaucoma would image RGCs non-invasively with high specificity and sensitivity in vivo. It may confirm the presence of healthy RGCs, such as in transgenic models or retrograde labelling, or detect subtle changes in the number of unhealthy or apoptotic RGCs, such as detection of apoptosing retinal cells (DARC). Although many of these advances have not yet been introduced to the clinical arena, their successes in animal studies are enthralling. This review will illustrate the challenges of imaging RGCs, the main retinal imaging modalities, the in vivo techniques to augment these as specific RGC-imaging tools and their potential for translation to the glaucoma clinic. PMID:26293138
The function of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can be non-invasively assessed in experimental and genetic models of glaucoma by means of variants of the ERG technique that emphasize the activity of inner retina neurons. The best understood technique is the Pattern Electroretinogram (PERG) in response to contrast-reversing gratings or checkerboards, which selectively depends on the presence of functional RGCs. In glaucoma models, the PERG can be altered before histological loss of RGCs; PERG alterations may be either reversed with moderate IOP lowering or exacerbated with moderate IOP elevation. Under particular luminance-stimulus conditions, the Flash-ERG displays components that may reflect electrical activity originating in the proximal retina and be altered in some experimental glaucoma models (positive Scotopic Threshold response, pSTR; negative Scotopic Threshold Response, nSTR; Photopic Negative Response, PhNR; Oscillatory Potentials, OPs; multifocal ERG, mfERG). It is not yet known which of these components is most sensitive to glaucomatous damage. Electrophysiological assessment of RGC function appears to be a necessary outcome measure in experimental glaucoma models, which complements structural assessment and may even predict it. Neuroprotective strategies could be tested based on enhancement of baseline electrophysiological function that results in improved RGC survival. The use of electrophysiology in glaucoma models may be facilitated by specifically designed instruments that allow high throughput, robust assessment of electrophysiological function. PMID:25998495
Shahid, Kameron R; Hébert-Blouin, Marie-Noëlle; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J
Rupture of simple (extraneural) cysts such as popliteal cysts (Baker's cysts) is a well-known occurrence. The purpose of this report is to introduce the similar occurrence of extraneural rupture of peroneal and tibial intraneural cysts in the knee region, describe the associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and identify risk factors. There was MRI evidence of rupture in 20 of 38 intraneural cases reviewed, mainly in the region of the fibular head and popliteal fossa. Ruptured intraneural cysts and simple cysts share these MRI findings: T2 hyperintense fluid within surrounding intermuscular fascial planes and enhancement with intravenous contrast consistent with inflammation. The mean maximal diameter of the ruptured intraneural cysts was statistically significantly smaller than that of the unruptured cysts. The authors believe that extraneural rupture of an intraneural cyst is due to increased intraarticular pressures transmitted within the cyst and/or elevated extrinsic pressure delivered to the cyst, such as by trauma, akin to the etiology of rupture of extraneural ganglion cysts.
Samwel, H; Slappendel, R; Crul, B J; Voerman, V F
In this study, 54 patients suffering from chronic cervicobrachialgia (mean pain duration 7 years) were treated with radiofrequency lesioning of the cervical spinal dorsal root ganglion (RF-DRG). The aim of the study was to investigate whether psychological variables would be predictive for the changes in pain intensity after medical treatment. The following psychological aspects were measured: pain cognitions, negative self-efficacy and catastrophizing, physical and psychosocial dysfunction, and overall distress. The level of catastrophizing before treatment appeared to predict 10% of the changes in pain intensity after treatment. Changes in pain intensity after RF-DRG were positively correlated with changes in psychosocial dysfunction and negative self-efficacy.
Many important crops are members of the Poaceae family, and develop fibrous root systems characterized by a high-degree of root initiation from the basal nodes of the shoot, termed the crown. While this post-embryonic shoot-borne root system represents the major conduit for water uptake, little is k...
Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; del Río, Patricia; Blindert, Marcel; Ueffing, Marius; Hauck, Stefanie M.
Purpose Porcine retina is an excellent model for studying diverse retinal processes and diseases. The morphologies of porcine retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have, however, not yet been described comprehensively. The aim of the present study was to créate a classification of the RGCs using the 1, 1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) tracing method. Methods About 170 RGCs were retrogradely labeled by injecting DiI into the optic nerve of postmortem eyes and statistically analyzed by two different clustering methods: Ward’s algorithm and the K-means clustering. Major axis length of the soma, soma area size, and dendritic field area size were selected as main parameters for cluster classification. Results RGC distribution in clusters was achieved according to their morphological parameters. It was feasible to combine both statistical methods, thereby obtaining a robust clustering distribution. Morphological analysis resulted in a classification of RGCs in three groups according to the soma size and dendritic field: A (large somas and large dendritic fields), B (medium to large somas and medium to large dendritic fields), C (medium to small somas and medium to small dendritic fields). Within groups, fine clustering defined several subgroups according to dendritic arborization and level of stratification. Additionally, cells stratifying in two different levels of the inner plexiform layer were observed within the clusters. Conclusions This comprehensive study of RGC morphologies in the porcine retina provides fundamental knowledge about RGC cell types and provides a basis for functional studies toward selective RGC cell degeneration in retinal disorders. PMID:23687427
Fleischer, Joerg; Breer, Heinz
Within the nasal epithelium of mammals, there are several compartments which are populated with neuronal cells. One of them - the so-called Grueneberg ganglion - is composed of ciliated neurons residing in the anterior region of the nose. Although cells of the Grueneberg ganglion lack direct contact with the lumen of the nasal cavity, they are endowed with features indicative of olfactory sensory neurons, such as the olfactory marker protein and distinct olfactory receptors, as well as projection of axonal processes to the olfactory bulb of the brain. These findings have led to the notion that the Grueneberg ganglion might be a novel olfactory subsystem; a concept which was lately supported by the observation that chemical cues activate Grueneberg ganglion neurons. Unexpectedly, it was recently found that these cells also respond to cool ambient temperatures, presumably via a signaling pathway mediated by second messengers. Thus, the Grueneberg ganglion may operate as a dual sensory organ involved in the detection of both chemical and thermal stimuli.
Rask-Andersen, Helge; Liu, Wei; Linthicum, Fred H
Background/Aims EAS technique combines electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear and utilizes both low frequency acoustic hearing and electric stimulation of preserved neurons. We present data of ganglion cell and dendrite populations in ears from normal individuals and those suffered from adult-onset hereditary progressive hearing loss with various residual low tone hearing. Some of these were potential candidates for EAS surgery. The data may give us information about the neuro-anatomic situation in EAS ears. Methods Dendrites and ganglion cells were calculated and audio-cytocochleograms constructed. The temporal bones were from the collection at the House Ear Institute in Los Angeles, USA. Normal human anatomy, based on surgical specimens, is presented. Results IHCs and OHCs, supporting cells, ganglion cells and dendrites were preserved in the apical region. In the mid-frequency region, around 1 kHz, the OC with inner and outer hair cells were often conserved while in the lower basal turn, representing frequencies above 3 kHz, OC was atrophic and replaced by thin cells. Despite loss of hair cells and lamina fibers ganglion cells were present even after 28 years duration of deafness. Conclusions Conditions with profound SNHL with preserved low tone hearing may have several causes and the pathology may vary accordingly. In our patients with progressive adult-onset SNHL (amalgamated into “presbyacusis”) neurons were conserved even after long duration of deafness. These spiral ganglion cells may be excellent targets for electric stimulation using EAS technique. PMID:19955718
Costa, W S; Morais, R; Mandarim-De-Lacerda, C A
The right pterygopalatine ganglia (PG) of 9 male Wistar-strain rats were dissected, embedded in Epon (3 specimens) or paraffin (6 specimens), and prepared for stereological examination under light microscopy. The perikarya were quantitatively characterized, and the ganglionic volume was determined. Stereology is an efficient method for the quantitative evaluation of the perikarya of the PG. The results(expressed as mean +/- standard deviation) were: a) areal fraction occupied by the perikarya = 53.8 +/- 7.4%; b) the perikaryal surface area per volume = 0.101 +/- 0.013 microns-1; c) the number of perikarya per volume x 10(-5) = 5.26 +/- 0.99 microns-3; d) the mean profile area of the perikarya (apk) = 505.93 +/- 78.29 microns 2; e) the mean perikaryal volume (vpk) = 9,179.33 +/- 1,533.52 microns 3; and f) the ganglionic volume = 0.210 +/- 0.127 mm3. The low coefficient of variation the apk and vpk values suggests the presence of only one population of neurons in the PG of the rat. The number of perikarya in the PG is about 11,046 per ganglion. As compared to analogous data in the otic ganglion of the rat, the PG did not show statistically significant stereological differences, but the relatively higher number of neurons found in the PG is probably associated with the higher functional activity of this ganglion.
Haloperidol (a dopamine D2 blocker in vertebrates) and phentolamine (an alpha-adrenergic blocker) alter the pattern of bursting by the isolated cardiac ganglion of the lobster when perfused at concentrations of 10(-6)-10(-5) mol/l. Both drugs decrease the frequency of bursting and increase burst duration. They are most effective in slowing the ganglion when applied selectively to the anterior ganglionic trunk, the same region of the ganglion where dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) are most effective in speeding up bursting. When exogenous monoamine transmitters are applied in the presence of 3x10(-6) mol/l haloperidol, the effect of 5HT, but not of DA, is significantly reduced. At the same concentration, phentolamine does not suppress the actions of DA, 5HT or noradrenaline (NA). Both haloperidol and phentolamine significantly alter the properties of endogenous burst-organizing potentials (driver potentials) generated by motorneurons in the ganglion. It is possible that the effects of these drugs on bursting reflect alteration of endogenous electrical properties of the constituent neurons, rather than receptor antagonism.
Hoch, Renée V; Lindtner, Susan; Price, James D; Rubenstein, John L R
The Otx2 homeodomain transcription factor is essential for gastrulation and early neural development. We generated Otx2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice to investigate its roles in telencephalon development after neurulation (approximately embryonic day 9.0). We conducted transcriptional profiling and in situ hybridization to identify genes de-regulated in Otx2 cKO ventral forebrain. In parallel, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to identify enhancer elements, the OTX2 binding motif, and de-regulated genes that are likely direct targets of OTX2 transcriptional regulation. We found that Otx2 was essential in septum specification, regulation of Fgf signaling in the rostral telencephalon, and medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) patterning, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis. Within the MGE, Otx2 was required for ventral, but not dorsal, identity, thus controlling the production of specific MGE derivatives.
Nickells, Robert W
Glaucoma results from the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Over the last 20 years several important advancements have been made in our understanding of the molecular pathology of this disease, particularly through the development of rat models of experimental glaucoma and the characterization of a spontaneous secondary form of glaucoma in DBA/2 substrains of inbred mice. One of these advances is the observation that ganglion cells die by apoptosis, an intrinsic molecular pathway of programmed cell death. An important aspect of this cell death process is the concept that these cells actually undergo compartmentalized self-destruction. Importantly, genetic evidence now suggests that axons die independently of the apoptotic program that executes the cell body or soma. This review briefly summarizes some of the most significant developments in glaucoma research, with respect to the process of ganglion cell degeneration.
Schwartz, Greg; Taylor, Sam; Fisher, Clark; Harris, Rob; Berry, Michael J.
SUMMARY We show that when a moving object suddenly reverses direction, there is a brief, synchronous burst of firing within a population of retinal ganglion cells. This burst can be driven by either the leading or trailing edge of the object. The latency is constant for movement at different speeds, objects of different size, and bright versus dark contrasts. The same ganglion cells that signal a motion reversal also respond to smooth motion. We show that the brain can build a pure reversal detector using only a linear filter that reads out synchrony from a group of ganglion cells. These results indicate that not only can the retina anticipate the location of a smoothly moving object, but that it can also signal violations in its own prediction. We show that the reversal response cannot be explained by models of the classical receptive field and suggest that nonlinear receptive field subunits may be responsible. PMID:17880898
Yan, Huifeng; Li, Ke; Ding, Hong; Liao, Chengsong; Li, Xuexian; Yuan, Lixing; Li, Chunjian
The primary objective of this study was to better understand how root morphological alteration stimulates N uptake in maize plants after root growth restriction, by investigating the changes in length and number of lateral roots, (15)NO(3)(-) influx, the expression level of the low-affinity Nitrate transporter ZmNrt1.1, and proteomic composition of primary roots. Maize seedlings were hydroponically cultured with three different types of root systems: an intact root system, embryonic roots only, or primary roots only. In spite of sufficient N supply, root growth restriction stimulated compensatory growth of remaining roots, as indicated by the increased lateral root number and root density. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in (15)NO(3)(-) influx between control and primary root plants; neither in ZmNrt1.1 expression levels in primary roots of different treatments. Our data suggested that increased N uptake by maize seedlings experiencing root growth restriction is attributed to root morphological adaptation, rather than explained by the variation in N uptake activity. Eight proteins were differentially accumulated in embryonic and primary root plants compared to control plants. These differentially accumulated proteins were closely related to signal transduction and increased root growth.
Szczurkowski, Aleksander; Kuder, Tadeusz; Nowak, Elzbieta; Kuchinka, Jacek
Using the thiocholine method of Koelle and Friedenwald and histological techniques the pterygopalatine ganglion in Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus, Desmarest) was studied. The ganglion was found to be a single irregular cluster of neurocytes, situated on the medial surface of the maxillary nerve. The ganglion is composed of oval, elliptical and sometimes fusiform ganglionic neurones in compact arrangement without a thick connective-tissue capsule.
Szczurkowski, A; Kuder, T; Nowak, E; Kuchinka, J
Using the thiocholine method of Koelle and Friedenwald and histological techniques, the otic ganglion in Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus, Desmarest) was studied. The ganglion was found to be a single oval cluster of neurocytes, situated at the medial and posterior surface of the mandibular nerve just above the maxillary artery. The ganglion is composed of typical ganglionic neurons in compact arrangement without a thick connective-tissue capsule.
In the present study, we showed for the first time the localization of ZNT7 immunoreactivity in the mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) by means of immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Our results revealed that ZNT7 immunoreactivity was abundantly expressed in the nerve cells of...
Chaturvedi, A; Dash, Hh
Intra-arterial injection of a local anaesthetic during stellate ganglion blockade may cause life-threatening complications. The usual complications are apnoea, unconsciousness and seizures. However, occasionally an unusual complication, 'locked-in' syndrome, has also been reported. In this syndrome the patients remain conscious despite their inability to move, breathe or speak. Here we describe a patient who developed features akin to the locked-in syndrome along with severe hypotension and bradycardia, after an injection of only 2 ml of lignocaine during a stellate ganglion block.
Coimbra, João Paulo; Nolan, Paul M; Collin, Shaun P; Hart, Nathan S
Penguins are a group of flightless seabirds that exhibit numerous morphological, behavioral and ecological adaptations to their amphibious lifestyle, but little is known about the topographic organization of neurons in their retinas. In this study, we used retinal wholemounts and stereological methods to estimate the total number and topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in addition to an anatomical estimate of spatial resolving power in two species of penguins: the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, and the king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus. The total number of ganglion cells per retina was approximately 1,200,000 in the little penguin and 1,110,000 in the king penguin. The topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in both species revealed the presence of a prominent horizontal visual streak with steeper gradients in the little penguin. The little penguin retinas showed ganglion cell density peaks of 21,867 cells/mm², affording spatial resolution in water of 17.07-17.46 cycles/degree (12.81-13.09 cycles/degree in air). In contrast, the king penguin showed a relatively lower peak density of ganglion cells of 14,222 cells/mm², but--due to its larger eye--slightly higher spatial resolution in water of 20.40 cycles/degree (15.30 cycles/degree in air). In addition, we mapped the distribution of giant ganglion cells in both penguin species using Nissl-stained wholemounts. In both species, topographic mapping of this cell type revealed the presence of an area gigantocellularis with a concentric organization of isodensity contours showing a peak in the far temporal retina of approximately 70 cells/mm² in the little penguin and 39 cells/mm² in the king penguin. Giant ganglion cell densities gradually fall towards the outermost isodensity contours revealing the presence of a vertically organized streak. In the little penguin, we confirmed our cytological characterization of giant ganglion cells using immunohistochemistry for microtubule
Rajesh, M. C.; Deepa, K. V.; Ramdas, E. K.
Pain physicians and anesthesiologists routinely perform stellate ganglion block for the treatment of painful upper extremity sympathetic dystrophy. Close proximity of ganglion to vascular structures warrants some expertise and training in the procedure. Off late, successful use of the technique in intractable ventricular tachyarrhythmias has come in literature. We have few cases wherein we could successfully ablate intractable ventricular tachycardia with stellate block which was refractory to repeated shocks. We are reporting one such case with the intention of making an awareness in the anesthesia community about this treatment option. PMID:28298801
Pei, Xing; Moss, Frank
Finding low dimensional dynamical behavior in biological preparations has received much attention. Neurons are, however, subject to random processes, or "noise". Thus specific dynamical behavior is evidenced by well defined signatures embedded in noisy data files(D. Pierson and F. Moss Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2124 (1995)). We report the results of a statistical search for unstable periodic orbits in the periodically stimulated 6th ganglion of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Electrophysiological recordings from the caudal photoreceptor neuron within the ganglion provide the data. We discuss the results in terms of the cyclic theory of chaos.
Murata, Daiki; Sogawa, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Satoshi; Iwanaga, Tomoko; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Noriaki; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Fujiki, Makoto; Miura, Naoki
A 10-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever presented with progressive left hind lameness. Ultrasonography revealed large, subcutaneous, ovoid cysts around the stifle joint. Radiographic and computed tomographic images revealed periosteal reaction of the distal femur. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a large cyst that was hypointense in T1-weighted images, hyperintense in T2-weighted images and had a thin lining that was enhanced by intravenous gadonium injection. The cyst communicated with the joint cavity and other small cysts around the joint. Histopathology of an excisional biopsy specimen led to diagnosis of ganglion cyst. This report provides MR images of a ganglion cyst in a canine stifle.
Nielsen, Niels H Søe; Jensen, Nina Vendel
Ganglion cysts of the hand and wrist occur most frequently during the second through fourth decade and women are more frequently affected than men. Ganglion cysts may arise in any location in the hand and wrist but are usually adjacent to joins or tendons and sometimes bones. Patients often present with a history of an asymptomatic mass and many patients seek the advice of a physician because of the cosmetic appearance of the cyst. Observation is acceptable in most instances. Indication for operative treatment includes pain, interference with activity, nerve compression and ulceration of the mucous cysts.
Payatakes, A.C.; Ng, K.M.; Flumerfelt, R.W.
A model is formulated in order to study the transient behavior of oil ganglion populations during immiscible displacement in oil recovery processes. The model is composed of 3 components: a suitable model for granular porous media; a stochastic simulation method capable of predicting the expected fate (mobilization, breakup, stranding) of solitary oil ganglia moving through granular porous media; and 2 coupled ganglion population balance equations, one applying to moving ganglia and the other to stranded ones. The porous medium model consists of a regular network of randomly sized unit cells of the constricted tube type. 32 references.
Kuert, Philipp A; Hartenstein, Volker; Bello, Bruno C; Lovick, Jennifer K; Reichert, Heinrich
The central brain of Drosophila consists of the supraesophageal ganglion (SPG) and the subesophageal ganglion (SEG), both of which are generated by neural stem cell-like neuroblasts during embryonic and postembryonic development. Considerable information has been obtained on postembryonic development of the neuroblasts and their lineages in the SPG. In contrast, very little is known about neuroblasts, neural lineages, or any other aspect of the postembryonic development in the SEG. Here we characterize the neuroanatomy of the larval SEG in terms of tracts, commissures, and other landmark features as compared to a thoracic ganglion. We then use clonal MARCM labeling to identify all adult-specific neuroblast lineages in the late larval SEG and find a surprisingly small number of neuroblast lineages, 13 paired and one unpaired. The Hox genes Dfd, Scr, and Antp are expressed in a lineage-specific manner in these lineages during postembryonic development. Hox gene loss-of-function causes lineage-specific defects in axonal targeting and reduction in neural cell numbers. Moreover, it results in the formation of novel ectopic neuroblast lineages. Apoptosis block also results in ectopic lineages suggesting that Hox genes are required for lineage-specific termination of proliferation through programmed cell death. Taken together, our findings show that postembryonic development in the SEG is mediated by a surprisingly small set of identified lineages and requires lineage-specific Hox gene action to ensure the correct formation of adult-specific neurons in the Drosophila brain.
Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ávila-Mendoza, José; Wu, Yilun; Arellanes-Licea, Elvira Del Carmen; Louie, Marcela; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos; Harvey, Steve
Retinal growth hormone (GH) has been shown to promote cell survival in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) during developmental waves of apoptosis during chicken embryonic development. The possibility that it might also against excitotoxicity-induced cell death was therefore examined in the present study, which utilized quail-derived QNR/D cells as an in vitro RGC model. QNR/D cell death was induced by glutamate in the presence of BSO (buthionine sulfoxamide) (an enhancer of oxidative stress), but this was significantly reduced (P<0.01) in the presence of exogenous recombinant chicken GH (rcGH). Similarly, QNR/D cells that had been prior transfected with a GH plasmid to overexpress secreted and non-secreted GH. This treatment reduced the number of TUNEL-labeled cells and blocked their release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In a further experiment with dissected neuroretinal explants from ED (embryonic day) 10 embryos, rcGH treatment of the explants also reduced (P<0.01) the number of glutamate-BSO-induced apoptotic cells and blocked the explant release of LDH. This neuroprotective action was likely mediated by increased STAT5 phosphorylation and increased bcl-2 production, as induced by exogenous rcGH treatment and the media from GH-overexpressing QNR/D cells. As rcGH treatment and GH-overexpression cells also increased the content of IGF-1 and IGF-1 mRNA this neuroprotective action of GH is likely to be mediated, at least partially, through an IGF-1 mechanism. This possibility is supported by the fact that the siRNA knockdown of GH or IGF-1 significantly reduced QNR/D cell viability, as did the immunoneutralization of IGF-1. GH is therefore neuroprotective against excitotoxicity-induced RGC cell death by anti-apoptotic actions involving IGF-1 stimulation.
Cole, Alison G; Meinertzhagen, Ian A
Ascidian larvae develop after an invariant pattern of embryonic cleavage. Fewer than 400 cells constitute the larval central nervous system (CNS), which forms without either extensive migration or cell death. We catalogue the mitotic history of these cells in Ciona intestinalis, using confocal microscopy of whole-mount embryos at stages from neurulation until hatching. The positions of cells contributing to the CNS were reconstructed from confocal image stacks of embryonic nuclei, and maps of successive stages were used to chart the mitotic descent, thereby creating a cell lineage for each cell. The entire CNS is formed from 10th- to 14th-generation cells. Although minor differences exist in cell position, lineage is invariant in cells derived from A-line blastomeres, which form the caudal nerve cord and visceral ganglion. We document the lineage of five pairs of presumed motor neurons within the visceral ganglion: one pair arises from A/A 10.57, and four from progeny of A/A 9.30. The remaining cells of the visceral ganglion are in their 13th and 14th generations at hatching, with most mitotic activity ceasing around 85% of embryonic development. Of the approximately 330 larval cells previously reported in the CNS of Ciona, we document the lineage of 226 that derive predominantly from A-line blastomeres.
Ulupinar, E; Jacquin, M F; Erzurumlu, R S
We examined the effects of neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) on trigeminal axon growth patterns. Embryonic (E13-15) wholemount explants of the rat trigeminal pathway including the whisker pads, trigeminal ganglia, and brainstem were cultured in serum-free medium (SFM) or SFM supplemented with NGF or NT-3 for 3 days. Trigeminal axon growth patterns were analyzed with the use of lipophilic tracer DiI. In wholemount cultures grown in SFM, trigeminal axon projections, growth patterns, and differentiation of peripheral and central targets are similar to in vivo conditions. We show that in the presence of NGF, central trigeminal axons leave the tract and grow into the surrounding brainstem regions in the elongation phase without any branching. On the other hand, NT-3 promotes precocious development of short axon collaterals endowed with focal arbors along the sides of the central trigeminal tract. These neurotrophins also affect trigeminal axon growth within the whisker pad. Additionally, we cultured dissociated trigeminal ganglion cells in the presence of NGF, NT-3, or NGF+NT-3. The number of trigeminal ganglion cells, their size distribution under each condition were charted, and axon growth was analyzed following immunohistochemical labeling with TrkA and parvalbumin antibodies. In these cultures too, NGF led to axon elongation and NT-3 to axon arborization. Our in vitro analyses suggest that aside from their survival promoting effects, NGF and NT-3 can differentially influence axon growth patterns of embryonic trigeminal neurons.
Parlato, Rosanna; Mandl, Claudia; Hölzl-Wenig, Gabriele; Liss, Birgit; Tucker, Kerry L; Ciccolini, Francesca
The transcription factor CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein) regulates differentiation, migration, survival and activity-dependent gene expression in the developing and mature nervous system. However, its specific role in the proliferation of embryonic neural progenitors is still not completely understood. Here we investigated how CREB regulates proliferation of mouse embryonic neural progenitors by a conditional mutant lacking Creb gene in neural progenitors. In parallel, we explored possible compensatory effects by the genetic ablation of another member of the same gene family, the cAMP-responsive element modulator (Crem). We show that CREB loss differentially impaired the proliferation, clonogenic potential and self-renewal of precursors derived from the ganglionic eminence (GE), in comparison to those derived from the cortex. This phenotype was associated with a specific reduction of histone acetylation in the GE of CREB mutant mice, and this reduction was rescued in vivo by inhibition of histone deacetylation. These observations indicate that the impaired proliferation could be caused by a reduced acetyltransferase activity in Creb conditional knock-out mice. These findings support a crucial role of CREB in controlling embryonic neurogenesis and propose a novel mechanism by which CREB regulates embryonic neural development. PMID:27504469
Boerries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke
ABSTRACT Programmed cell death during chicken ciliary ganglion (CG) development is mostly discussed as an extrinsically regulated process, guided either by the establishment of a functional balance between preganglionic and postganglionic activity or the availability of target‐derived neurotrophic factors. We found that the expression of the gene coding for the nuclear retinoic acid receptor β (RARB) is transiently upregulated prior to and during the execution phase of cell death in the CG. Using retroviral vectors, the expression of RARB was knocked down during embryonic development in ovo. The knockdown led to a significant increase in CG neuron number after the cell death phase. BrdU injections and active caspase‐3 staining revealed that this increase in neuron number was due to an inhibition of apoptosis during the normal cell death phase. Furthermore, apoptotic neuron numbers were significantly increased at a stage when cell death is normally completed. While the cholinergic phenotype of the neurons remained unchanged after RARB knockdown, the expression of the proneural gene Cash1 was increased, but somatostatin‐like immunoreactivity, a hallmark of the mature choroid neuron population, was decreased. Taken together, these results point toward a delay in neuronal differentiation as well as cell death. The availability of nuclear retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) and RARβ‐induced transcription of genes could therefore be a new intrinsic cue for the maturation of CG neurons and their predisposition to undergo cell death. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 75: 1204–1218, 2015 PMID:25663354
Vogt, Daniel; Wu, Pei-Rung; Sorrells, Shawn F.; Arnold, Christine; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Rubenstein, John L. R.
GABAergic cortical interneurons, derived from the embryonic medial and caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE and CGE), are functionally and morphologically diverse. Inroads have been made in understanding the roles of distinct cortical interneuron subgroups, however, there are still many mechanisms to be worked out that may contribute to the development and maturation of different types of GABAergic cells. Moreover, altered GABAergic signaling may contribute to phenotypes of autism, schizophrenia and epilepsy. Specific Cre-driver lines have begun to parcel out the functions of unique interneuron subgroups. Despite the advances in mouse models, it is often difficult to efficiently study GABAergic cortical interneuron progenitors with molecular approaches in vivo. One important technique used to study the cell autonomous programming of these cells is transplantation of MGE cells into host cortices. These transplanted cells migrate extensively, differentiate, and functionally integrate. In addition, MGE cells can be efficiently transduced with lentivirus immediately prior to transplantation, allowing for a multitude of molecular approaches. Here we detail a protocol to efficiently transduce MGE cells before transplantation for in vivo analysis, using available Cre-driver lines and Cre-dependent expression vectors. This approach is advantageous because it combines precise genetic manipulation with the ability of these cells to disperse after transplantation, permitting greater cell-type specific resolution in vivo. PMID:25938985
Marcucci, Florencia; Murcia-Belmonte, Veronica; Coca, Yaiza; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Wang, Qing; Kuwajima, Takaaki; Khalid, Sania; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Herrera, Eloisa; Mason, Carol
Summary The retina of lower vertebrates grows continuously by integrating new neurons generated from progenitors in the ciliary margin zone (CMZ). Whether the mammalian CMZ provides the neural retina with retinal cells is controversial. Live-imaging of embryonic retina expressing eGFP in the CMZ shows that cells migrate laterally from the CMZ to the neural retina where differentiated retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) reside. As Cyclin D2, a cell-cycle regulator, is enriched in ventral CMZ, we analyzed Cyclin D2−/− mice to test whether the CMZ is a source of retinal cells. Neurogenesis is diminished in Cyclin D2 mutants, leading to a reduction of RGCs in the ventral retina. In line with these findings, in the albino retina, the decreased production of ipsilateral RGCs is correlated with fewer Cyclin D2+ cells. Together, these results implicate the mammalian CMZ as a neurogenic site that produces RGCs and whose proper generation depends on Cyclin D2 activity. PMID:28009286
Marcucci, Florencia; Cerullo, Isadora
The increasing availability of transcriptomic technologies within the last decade has facilitated high-throughput identification of gene expression differences that define distinct cell types as well as the molecular pathways that drive their specification. The retinal projection neurons, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), can be categorized into distinct morphological and functional subtypes and by the laterality of their projections. Here, we present a method for purifying the sparse population of ipsilaterally projecting RGCs in mouse retina from their contralaterally projecting counterparts during embryonic development through rapid retrograde labeling followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Through microarray analysis, we uncovered the distinct molecular signatures that define and distinguish ipsilateral and contralateral RGCs during the critical period of axonal outgrowth and decussation, with more than 300 genes differentially expressed within these two cell populations. Among the differentially expressed genes confirmed through in vivo expression validation, several genes that mark “immaturity” are expressed within postmitotic ipsilateral RGCs. Moreover, at least one complementary pair, Igf1 and Igfbp5, is upregulated in contralateral or ipsilateral RGCs, respectively, and may represent signaling pathways that determine ipsilateral versus contralateral RGC identity. Importantly, the cell cycle regulator cyclin D2 is highly expressed in peripheral ventral retina with a dynamic expression pattern that peaks during the period of ipsilateral RGC production. Thus, the molecular signatures of ipsilateral and contralateral RGCs and the mechanisms that regulate their differentiation are more diverse than previously expected. PMID:27957530
McCarthy, E F; Matz, S; Steiner, G C; Dorfman, H D
Three cases of periosteal ganglia of long bones are presented. These lesions are produced by mucoid degeneration and cyst formation of the periosteum to produce external cortical erosion and reactive periosteal new bone. They are not associated with a soft tissue ganglion or an intraosseous lesion. They may radiologically mimic other periosteal lesions or soft tissue neoplasms which erode bone.
Balaban, Carey D.
Aminoglycosides are toxic to both the inner ear hair cells and the ganglion cells that give rise to the eighth cranial nerve. According to recent studies, these cells have a repertoire of molecular responses to aminoglycoside exposure that engages multiple neuroprotective mechanisms. The responses appear to involve regulation of ionic homeostasis,…
Cerlier, Alexandre; Gay, André-Mathieu; Levadoux, Michel
Intraosseous ganglion cysts are rare causes of wrist pain. Surgical treatment of this pathologic condition yields good results and a low recurrence rate. The main complications are joint stiffness and vascular disturbances of the lunate bone. Wrist arthroscopy is a surgical technique that reduces the intra-articular operative area and therefore minimizes postoperative stiffness. This article describes an arthroscopic technique used for lunate intraosseous cyst resection associated with an autologous bone graft in a series of cases to prevent joint stiffness while respecting the scapholunate ligament. This study was based on a series of 4 patients, all of whom had wrist pain because of intraosseous ganglion cysts. Arthrosynovial cyst resection, ganglion curettage, and bone grafting were performed arthroscopically. Pain had totally disappeared within 2 months after the operation in 100% of patients. The average hand grip strength was estimated at 100% compared with the opposite side, and articular ranges of motion were the same on both sides in 100% of cases. No complications were reported after surgery. On the basis of these results, arthroscopic treatment of intraosseous synovial ganglion cysts seems to be more efficient and helpful in overcoming the limitations of classic open surgery in terms of complications.
Durante, Jaclyn A.
Objective: To present the diagnostic and clinical features of a ganglion cyst located on the posterior cruciate ligament and create awareness amongst clinicians of this uncommon diagnosis. Clinical Features: A 24-year old woman complaining of intermittent left knee pain brought on by an increase in mileage during her training for a half-marathon. A diagnosis of mild chondromalacia patella and a ganglion cyst on the posterior cruciate ligament was made via diagnostic imaging. Intervention and outcome: Patient was followed up with imaging. The patient chose to withdraw a surgical consult due to patient preference. No conservative treatment was provided. Conclusion: Although chondromalacia patella is the more probable, a secondary diagnostic consideration in this patient could be a ganglion cyst. A ganglion cyst on the posterior cruciate ligament is an uncommon diagnosis and the clinical manifestations are variable and non-specific. It is important to be aware of its clinical features and to obtain appropriate methods of imaging to generate the diagnosis promptly. PMID:20037698
Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang
Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667
Freeman, Daniel K; Rizzo, Joseph F; Fried, Shelley I
Retinal prostheses aim to restore functional vision to those blinded by outer retinal diseases using electric stimulation of surviving retinal neurons. The ability to replicate the spatiotemporal pattern of ganglion cell spike trains present under normal viewing conditions is presumably an important factor for restoring high-quality vision. In order to replicate such activity with a retinal prosthesis, it is important to consider both how visual information is encoded in ganglion cell spike trains, and how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation. The goal of the current review is to bring together these two concepts in order to guide the development of more effective stimulation strategies. We review the experiments to date that have studied how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation and discuss these findings in the context of known retinal signaling strategies. The results from such in vitro studies reveal the advantages and disadvantages of activating the ganglion cell directly with the electric stimulus (direct activation) as compared to activation of neurons that are presynaptic to the ganglion cell (indirect activation). While direct activation allows high temporal but low spatial resolution, indirect activation yields improved spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution. Finally, we use knowledge gained from in vitro experiments to infer the patterns of elicited activity in ongoing human trials, providing insights into some of the factors limiting the quality of prosthetic vision. PMID:21593546
Budi, Erine H.; Patterson, Larissa B.; Parichy, David M.
SUMMARY Vertebrate pigment cells are derived from neural crest cells and are a useful system for studying neural crest-derived traits during post-embryonic development. In zebrafish, neural crest-derived melanophores differentiate during embryogenesis to produce stripes in the early larva. Dramatic changes to the pigment pattern occur subsequently during the larva-to-adult transformation, or metamorphosis. At this time, embryonic melanophores are replaced by newly differentiating metamorphic melanophores that form the adult stripes. Mutants with normal embryonic/early larval pigment patterns but defective adult patterns identify factors required uniquely to establish, maintain, or recruit the latent precursors to metamorphic melanophores. We show that one such mutant, picasso, lacks most metamorphic melanophores and results from mutations in the ErbB gene erbb3b, encoding an EGFR-like receptor tyrosine kinase. To identify critical periods for ErbB activities, we treated fish with pharmacological ErbB inhibitors and also knocked-down erbb3b by morpholino injection. These analyses reveal an embryonic critical period for ErbB signaling in promoting later pigment pattern metamorphosis, despite the normal patterning of embryonic/early larval melanophores. We further demonstrate a peak requirement during neural crest migration that correlates with early defects in neural crest pathfinding and peripheral ganglion formation. Finally, we show that erbb3b activities are both autonomous and non-autonomous to the metamorphic melanophore lineage. These data identify a very early, embryonic, requirement for erbb3b in the development of much later metamorphic melanophores, and suggest complex modes by which ErbB signals promote adult pigment pattern development. PMID:18508863
Rocha, F A F; Saito, C A; Silveira, L C L; de Souza, J M; Ventura, D F
The turtle retina has been extensively used for the study of chromatic processing mechanisms. Color opponency has been previously investigated with trichromatic paradigms, but behavioral studies show that the turtle has an ultraviolet (UV) channel and a tetrachromatic visual system. Our laboratory has been working in the characterization of neuronal responses in the retina of vertebrates using stimuli in the UV-visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the present investigation, we recorded color-opponent responses from turtle amacrine and ganglion cells to UV and visible stimuli and extended our previous results that UV color-opponency is present at the level of the inner nuclear layer. We recorded from 181 neurons, 36 of which were spectrally opponent. Among these, there were 10 amacrine (5%), and 26 ganglion cells (15%). Morphological identification of color-opponent neurons was possible for two ganglion cell classes (G17 and G22) and two amacrine cell classes (A22 and A23b). There was a variety of cell response types and a potential for complex processing of chromatic stimuli, with intensity- and wavelength-dependent response components. Ten types of color opponency were found in ganglion cells and by adding previous results from our laboratory, 12 types of opponent responses have been found. The majority of the ganglion cells were R+UVBG- and RG+UVB-color-opponents but there were other less frequent types of chromatic opponency. This study confirms the participation of a UV channel in the processing of color opponency in the turtle inner retina and shows that the turtle visual system has the retinal mechanisms to allow many possible chromatic combinations.
Freeman, Daniel K; Graña, Gilberto; Passaglia, Christopher L
To accommodate the wide input range over which the visual system operates within the narrow output range of spiking neurons, the retina adjusts its sensitivity to the mean light level so that retinal ganglion cells can faithfully signal contrast, or relative deviations from the mean luminance. Given the large operating range of the visual system, the majority of work on luminance adaptation has involved logarithmic changes in light level. We report that luminance gain controls are recruited for remarkably small fluctuations in luminance as well. Using spike recordings from the rat optic tract, we show that ganglion cell responses to a brief flash of light are modulated in amplitude by local background fluctuations as little as 15% contrast. The time scale of the gain control is rapid (<125 ms), at least for on cells. The retinal locus of adaptation precedes the ganglion cell spike generator because response gain changes of on cells were uncorrelated with firing rate. The mechanism seems to reside within the inner retinal network and not in the photoreceptors, because the adaptation profiles of on and off cells differed markedly. The response gain changes follow Weber's law, suggesting that network mechanisms of luminance adaptation described in previous work modulates retinal ganglion cell sensitivity, not just when we move between different lighting environments, but also as our eyes scan a visual scene. Finally, we show that response amplitude is uniformly reduced for flashes on a modulated background that has spatial contrast, indicating that another gain control that integrates luminance signals nonlinearly over space operates within the receptive field center of rat ganglion cells.
Akaishi, Y; Uchiyama, H; Ito, H; Shimizu, Y
The distribution and morphology of the retinal ganglion cells was studied in a relative of the rabbit, the Afghan pika. The total number of retinal ganglion cells was approximately 170,000. The total number of optic nerve fibers was between 160,000 and 190,000, corresponding to the total number of retinal ganglion cells. Retinal ganglion cells were found to have a horizontal region of high-density. The maximum density was 5250 cells/mm2. This region was located in the central retina below the optic disc. This area contained numerous closely packed small ganglion cells, while the peripheral retina (especially in the dorsal periphery) contained large ganglion cells more loosely dispersed. The retinal ganglion cells labeled by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were morphologically classified into three types based on dendritic length and ramification pattern.
Background Proper binocular vision depends on the routing at the optic chiasm of the correct proportion of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons that project to the same (ipsilateral) and opposite (contralateral) side of the brain. The ipsilateral RGC projection is reduced in mammals with albinism, a congenital disorder characterized by deficient pigmentation in the skin, hair, and eyes. Compared to the pigmented embryonic mouse retina, the albino embryonic mouse retina has fewer RGCs that express the zinc-finger transcription factor, Zic2, which is transiently expressed by RGCs fated to project ipsilaterally. Here, using Zic2 as a marker of ipsilateral RGCs, Islet2 as a marker of contralateral RGCs, and birthdating, we investigate spatiotemporal dynamics of RGC production as they relate to the phenotype of diminished ipsilateral RGC number in the albino retina. Results At embryonic day (E)15.5, fewer Zic2-positive (Zic2+) RGCs are found in the albino ventrotemporal (VT) retina compared with the pigmented VT retina, as we previously reported. However, the reduction in Zic2+ RGCs in the albino is not accompanied by a compensatory increase in Zic2-negative (Zic2−) RGCs, resulting in fewer RGCs in the VT retina at this time point. At E17.5, however, the number of RGCs in the VT region is similar in pigmented and albino retinae, implicating a shift in the timing of RGC production in the albino. Short-term birthdating assays reveal a delay in RGC production in the albino VT retina between E13 and E15. Specifically, fewer Zic2+ RGCs are born at E13 and more Zic2− RGCs are born at E15. Consistent with an increase in the production of Zic2− RGCs born at later ages, more RGCs at E17.5 express the contralateral marker, Islet2, in the albino VT retina compared with the pigmented retina. Conclusions A delay in neurogenesis in the albino retina is linked to the alteration of RGC subtype specification and consequently leads to the reduced ipsilateral projection that
Guo, Zhaohua; Cao, Yu-Qing
TWIK-related spinal cord K(+) (TRESK) channel is abundantly expressed in trigeminal ganglion (TG) and dorsal root ganglion neurons and is one of the major background K(+) channels in primary afferent neurons. Mutations in TRESK channels are associated with familial and sporadic migraine. In rats, both chronic nerve injury and inflammation alter the expression level of TRESK mRNA. Functional studies indicate that reduction of endogenous TRESK channel activity results in hyper-excitation of primary afferent neurons, suggesting that TRESK is a potential target for the development of new analgesics. However, whether and how enhancing TRESK channel activity would decrease the excitability of primary afferent neurons has not been directly tested. Here, we over-expressed TRESK subunits in cultured mouse TG neurons by lipofectamine-mediated transfection and investigated how this altered the membrane properties and the excitability of the small-diameter TG population. To account for the heterogeneity of neurons, we further divided small TG neurons into two groups, based on their ability to bind to fluorescently-labeled isolectin B (IB4). The transfected TG neurons showed a 2-fold increase in the level of TRESK proteins. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the fraction of lamotrigine-sensitive persistent K(+) currents as well as the size of total background K(+) currents. Consequently, both IB4-positive and IB4-negative TG neurons over-expressing TRESK subunits exhibited a lower input resistance and a 2-fold increase in the current threshold for action potential initiation. IB4-negative TG neurons over-expressing TRESK subunits also showed a significant reduction of the spike frequency in response to supra-threshold stimuli. Importantly, an increase in TRESK channel activity effectively inhibited capsaicin-evoked spikes in TG neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that potent and specific TRESK channel openers likely would reduce the excitability of
Njå, A; Purves, D
1. The synaptic contribution of preganglionic nerve fibres arising from the last cervical (C8) and the first seven thoracic spinal cord segments (T1-T7) to neurones of the guinea-pig superior cervical ganglion has been studied by means of intracellular recording during ventral root stimulation in vitro. 2. The majority of neurones received innervation from the middle segments (T2 and T3) of the length of spinal cord from which preganglionic fibres derive; an intermediate number of ganglion cells were innervated by fibres from the segments adjacent to these (T1, T4, and T5), and relatively few neurones by fibres from the most rostral and caudal segments supplying innervation to the ganglion (C8, T6 and T7). 3. Each neurone received preganglionic terminals from multiple thoracic segments (range 1-7, mean = 4-0). The estimated minimum number of preganglionic fibres contacting each neurone was 10, on average. 4. As a rule, the spinal segments innervating a neurone were contiguous. Thus we rarely encountered neurones innervated by segments located both rostrally and caudally to a segment which failed to provide innervation. 5. Neurones tended to be innervated predominantly by axons arising from a single spinal segment, with adjacent segments contributing a synaptic influence that diminished as a function of their distance from the dominant segment. All segments provided dominant innervation to at least some neurones. 6. Stimulating the ventral roots of C8-T7 in vivo showed that the axons arising from each segment produced a characteristic pattern of peripheral effects. Thus different populations of neurones in the superior cervical ganglion of the guinea-pig are innervated by preganglionic axons from different levels of the spinal cord, as originally suggested by Langley (1892) for the cat, dog, and rabbit. 7. On the basis of our in vitro studies we conclude that underlying the specificity of innervation of neurones of the superior cervical ganglion that can be inferred
Steinecke, André; Gampe, Christin; Zimmer, Geraldine; Rudolph, Judith; Bolz, Jürgen
Inhibitory interneurons control the flow of information and synchronization in the cerebral cortex at the circuit level. During embryonic development, multiple subtypes of cortical interneurons are generated in different regions of the ventral telencephalon, such as the medial and caudal ganglionic eminence (MGE and CGE), as well as the preoptic area (POA). These neurons then migrate over long distances towards their cortical target areas. Diverse families of diffusible and cell-bound signaling molecules, including the Eph/ephrin system, regulate and orchestrate interneuron migration. Ephrin A3 and A5, for instance, are expressed at the borders of the pathway of MGE-derived interneurons and prevent these cells from entering inappropriate regions via EphA4 forward signaling. We found that MGE-derived interneurons, in addition to EphA4, also express ephrin A and B ligands, suggesting Eph/ephrin forward and reverse signaling in the same cell. In vitro and in vivo approaches showed that EphA4-induced reverse signaling in MGE-derived interneurons promotes their migration and that this effect is mediated by ephrin A2 ligands. In EphA4 mutant mice, as well as after ephrin A2 knockdown using in utero electroporation, we found delayed interneuron migration at embryonic stages. Thus, besides functions in guiding MGE-derived interneurons to the cortex through forward signaling, here we describe a novel role of the ephrins in driving these neurons to their target via reverse signaling.
Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel
Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent
Roman, Beth L.; Pekkan, Kerem
A plethora of biochemical signals provides spatial and temporal cues that carefully orchestrate the complex process of vertebrate embryonic development. The embryonic vasculature develops not only in the context of these biochemical cues, but also in the context of the biomechanical forces imparted by blood flow. In the mature vasculature, different blood flow regimes induce distinct genetic programs, and significant progress has been made toward understanding how these forces are perceived by endothelial cells and transduced into biochemical signals. However, it cannot be assumed that paradigms that govern the mature vasculature are pertinent to the developing embryonic vasculature. The embryonic vasculature can respond to the mechanical forces of blood flow, and these responses are critical in vascular remodeling, certain aspects of sprouting angiogenesis, and maintenance of arterial-venous identity. Here, we review data regarding mechanistic aspects of endothelial cell mechanotransduction, with a focus on the response to shear stress, and elaborate upon the multifarious effects of shear stress on the embryonic vasculature. In addition, we discuss emerging predictive vascular growth models and highlight the prospect of combining signaling pathway information with computational modeling. We assert that correlation of precise measurements of hemodynamic parameters with effects on endothelial cell gene expression and cell behavior is required for fully understanding how blood flow-induced loading governs normal vascular development and shapes congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. PMID:22744845
Landry, Donald W; Zucker, Howard A
The creation of human embryonic stem cells through the destruction of a human embryo pits the value of a potential therapeutic tool against that of an early human life. This contest of values has resulted in a polarized debate that neglects areas of common interest and perspective. We suggest that a common ground for pursuing research on human embryonic stem cells can be found by reconsidering the death of the human embryo and by applying to this research the ethical norms of essential organ donation.
Vergaño-Vera, Eva; Yusta-Boyo, María J; de Castro, Fernando; Bernad, Antonio; de Pablo, Flora; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos
During the embryonic period, many olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons arise in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) from precursor cells expressing Dlx2, Gsh2 and Er81 transcription factors. Whether GABAergic and dopaminergic interneurons are also generated within the embryonic OB has not been studied thoroughly. In contrast to abundant Dlx2 and Gsh2 expression in ganglionic eminences (GE), Dlx2 and Gsh2 proteins are not expressed in the E12.5-13.5 mouse OB, whereas the telencephalic pallial domain marker Pax6 is abundant. We found GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons originating from dividing precursor cells in E13.5 OB and in short-term dissociated cultures prepared from the rostral half of E13.5 OB. In OB cultures, 22% of neurons were GAD+, of which 53% were Dlx2+, whereas none expressed Gsh2. By contrast, 70% of GAD+ cells in GE cultures were Dlx2+ and 16% expressed Gsh2. In E13.5 OB slices transplanted with EGFP-labeled E13.5 OB precursor cells, 31.7% of EGFP+ cells differentiated to GABAergic neurons. OB and LGE precursors transplanted into early postnatal OB migrated and differentiated in distinct patterns. Transplanted OB precursors gave rise to interneurons with dendritic spines in close proximity to synaptophysin-positive boutons. Interneurons were also abundant in differentiating OB neural stem cell cultures; the neurons responded to the neurotrophin Bdnf and expressed presynaptic proteins. In vivo, the Bdnf receptor TrkB colocalized with synaptic proteins at the glomeruli. These findings suggest that, in addition to receiving interneurons from the LGE, the embryonic OB contains molecularly distinct local precursor cells that generate mature GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons.
Wu, K.; Black, I.B.
Rat superior cervical sympathetic ganglion was used to begin studying the regulation of molecular components of the synapse. Ganglionic postsynaptic densities (PSDs) exhibited a thin, disc-shaped profile electron microscopically, comparable to that described for brain. Moreover, the presumptive ganglionic PSD protein (PSDp) was phosphorylated in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ and calmodulin, bound /sup 125/I-labeled calmodulin, and exhibited a M/sub r/ of 51,000 all characteristic of the major PSD protein of brain. These initial studies indicated that ganglionic PSDp and the major PSD protein of brain are comparable, allowing the study synaptic regulation in the well-defined superior cervical sympathetic ganglion. To obtain enough quantities of ganglionic PSDp, the authors used synaptic membrane fractions. During postnatal development, calmodulin binding to the ganglionic PSDp increased 411-fold per ganglion from birth to 60 days, whereas synaptic membrane protein increased only 4.5-fold. Consequently, different synaptic components apparently develop differently. Moreover, denervation of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion in adult rats caused an 85% decrease in ganglionic PSDp-calmodulin binding, but denervation caused no change in synaptic membrane protein 2 weeks postoperatively. The observations suggest that presynaptic innervation selectively regulates specific molecular components of the postsynaptic membrane structure.
Maklad, A.; Fritzsch, B.
The endorgan-specific distribution of vestibular ganglion cells was studied in neonatal and postnatal rats and mice using indocarbocyanine dye (DiI) and dextran amines for retrograde and anterograde labeling. Retrograde DiI tracing from the anterior vertical canal labeled neurons scattered throughout the whole superior vestibular ganglion, with denser labeling at the dorsal and central regions. Horizontal canal neurons were scattered along the dorsoventral axis with more clustering toward the dorsal and ventral poles of this axis. Utricular ganglion cells occupied predominantly the central region of the superior vestibular ganglion. This utricular population overlapped with both the anterior vertical and horizontal canals' ganglion cells. Posterior vertical canal neurons were clustered in the posterior part of the inferior vestibular ganglion. The saccular neurons were distributed in the two parts of the vestibular ganglion, the superior and inferior ganglia. Within the inferior ganglion, the saccular neurons were clustered in the anterior part. In the superior ganglion, the saccular neurons were widely scattered throughout the whole ganglion with more numerous neurons at the posterior half. Small and large neurons were labeled from all endorgans. Examination of the fiber trajectory within the superior division of the vestibular nerve showed no clear lamination of the fibers innervating the different endorgans. These results demonstrate an overlapping pattern between the different populations within the superior ganglion, while in the inferior ganglion, the posterior canal and saccular neurons show tighter clustering but incomplete segregation. This distribution implies that the ganglion cells are assigned for their target during development in a stochastic rather than topographical fashion.
Case, C P; Matthews, M R
A quantitative ultrastructural study has been made of the reaction of the incoming synapses of small granule-containing cells after axotomy of the major post-ganglionic branches of the superior cervical ganglion of the young adult rat. These cells are intrinsic and interneurone-like in this ganglion, receiving a preganglionic input and giving outgoing synapses to principal post-ganglionic neurones. Unlike their outgoing synapses, which are lost after post-ganglionic axotomy (Case & Matthews, 1986), the incoming synapses of the small granule-containing cells in axotomized ganglia increased in incidence post-operatively. The increase first became clearly evident 5-7 days post-operatively and was greater, being both more sustained and progressive, after bilateral than after unilateral axotomy. After bilateral axotomy the incidence of incoming synapses rose to more than four times that of normal ganglia and was still elevated at 128 days post-operatively, but was within normal limits at 390 days. After a unilateral lesion, increases of similar extent and time course to those in the axotomized ganglia were seen in the incoming synapses of small granule-containing cells in the uninjured contralateral ganglia. The incoming synapses of the small granule-containing cells are multifocal, i.e. show several points or active foci of synaptic specialization. The increase in synapses expressed itself both through an increased incidence of these synaptic active foci per nerve terminal and through an increase in the number of presynaptic nerve terminal profiles associated with the cells. Control observations indicated that the increase in synapses was not due to surgical stress, nor was it attributable solely to post-operative ageing. The nerve terminals which were presynaptic to the small granule-containing cells post-operatively were all of preganglionic origin: no incoming synapses or presynaptic nerve terminals remained at 2 days after a preganglionic denervation of axotomized
Ju, Brian L; Weber, Kristy L; Khoury, Viviane
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided aspiration/injection of ganglion cysts in the lower extremities (knee and foot) that required referral to the radiology department for precise localization. The present study is the first series to describe such results. The study population consisted of 15 patients who had undergone treatment from April 2012 to January 2015. Follow-up was by telephone survey, which was performed at a mean of 15 ± 6 months after treatment. Almost 90% of patients experienced immediate improvement in symptoms (mostly pain), and 77% of these patients had not experienced a recurrence of symptoms at a mean follow-up time of 14 ± 6 months. In conclusion, ultrasound-guided therapy is a safe and potentially effective treatment for most cases of symptomatic lower extremity ganglion cysts.
Nayagam, Bryony A; Muniak, Michael A; Ryugo, David K
In mammals, the initial bridge between the physical world of sound and perception of that sound is established by neurons of the spiral ganglion. The cell bodies of these neurons give rise to peripheral processes that contact acoustic receptors in the organ of Corti, and the central processes collect together to form the auditory nerve that projects into the brain. In order to better understand hearing at this initial stage, we need to know the following about spiral ganglion neurons: (1) their cell biology including cytoplasmic, cytoskeletal, and membrane properties, (2) their peripheral and central connections including synaptic structure; (3) the nature of their neural signaling; and (4) their capacity for plasticity and rehabilitation. In this report, we will update the progress on these topics and indicate important issues still awaiting resolution. PMID:21530629
Perlmutter, J.S.; Raichle, M.E.
We present a patient with hemidystonia and an abnormality of the contralateral basal ganglion seen only with positron emission tomography. A 50-year-old sinistral man suffered minor trauma to the right side of his head and neck. Within 20 minutes he developed paroxysmal intermittent dystonic posturing of his right face, forearm, hand, and foot, with weaker contractions of the left foot, lasting several seconds and recurring every few minutes. Neurological findings between spells were normal. The following were also normal: electrolyte, calcium, magnesium, and arterial blood gas levels, and findings of drug screen, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalography with nasopharyngeal leads, computed tomographic scanning (initially and four weeks later), and cerebral angiography. Positron emission tomographic scanning revealed abnormalities in the left basal ganglion region, including decreased oxygen metabolism, decreased oxygen extraction, increased blood volume, and increased blood flow.
Hidmark, Asa S; Nawroth, Peter P; Fleming, Thomas
Streptozotocin (STZ) treatment, a common model for inducing diabetes in rodent models, induces thermal hyperalgesia and neuronal toxicity independently of hyperglycemia by oxidizing and activating TRPA1 and TRPV1. Following treatment with STZ, CD45(+) immune cells were found to be depleted in sciatic nerve (SN) and DRG in mice, prior to hyperglycemia. Macrophages were also lost in DRG and NFκB-p65-activation was increased in SN macrophages. Immune cells were significantly reduced in both SN and DRG up to three weeks, post-treatment. Loss of PNS-resident macrophages in response to STZ-mediated toxicity may affect the regenerative capacity of the nerve in response to further injury caused by diabetes.
Funk, Katharina; Woitecki, Anne; Franjic-Würtz, Christina; Gensch, Thomas; Möhrlen, Frank; Frings, Stephan
Background Chloride currents in peripheral nociceptive neurons have been implicated in the generation of afferent nociceptive signals, as Cl- accumulation in sensory endings establishes the driving force for depolarizing, and even excitatory, Cl- currents. The intracellular Cl- concentration can, however, vary considerably between individual DRG neurons. This raises the question, whether the contribution of Cl- currents to signal generation differs between individual afferent neurons, and whether the specific Cl- levels in these neurons are subject to modulation. Based on the hypothesis that modulation of the peripheral Cl- homeostasis is involved in the generation of inflammatory hyperalgesia, we examined the effects of inflammatory mediators on intracellular Cl- concentrations and on the expression levels of Cl- transporters in rat DRG neurons. Results We developed an in vitro assay for testing how inflammatory mediators influence Cl- concentration and the expression of Cl- transporters. Intact DRGs were treated with 100 ng/ml NGF, 1.8 μM ATP, 0.9 μM bradykinin, and 1.4 μM PGE2 for 1–3 hours. Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging with the Cl--sensitive dye MQAE revealed an increase of the intracellular Cl- concentration within 2 hours of treatment. This effect coincided with enhanced phosphorylation of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter NKCC1, suggesting that an increased activity of that transporter caused the early rise of intracellular Cl- levels. Immunohistochemistry of NKCC1 and KCC2, the main neuronal Cl- importer and exporter, respectively, exposed an inverse regulation by the inflammatory mediators. While the NKCC1 immunosignal increased, that of KCC2 declined after 3 hours of treatment. In contrast, the mRNA levels of the two transporters did not change markedly during this time. These data demonstrate a fundamental transition in Cl- homeostasis toward a state of augmented Cl- accumulation, which is induced by a 1–3 hour treatment with inflammatory mediators. Conclusion Our findings indicate that inflammatory mediators impact on Cl- homeostasis in DRG neurons. Inflammatory mediators raise intracellular Cl- levels and, hence, the driving force for depolarizing Cl- efflux. These findings corroborate current concepts for the role of Cl- regulation in the generation of inflammatory hyperalgesia and allodynia. As the intracellular Cl- concentration rises in DRG neurons, afferent signals can be boosted by excitatory Cl- currents in the presynaptic terminals. Moreover, excitatory Cl- currents in peripheral sensory endings may also contribute to the generation or modulation of afferent signals, especially in inflamed tissue. PMID:18700020
Barabas, Marie E.; Mattson, Eric C.; Aboualizadeh, Ebrahim; Hirschmugl, Carol J.; Stucky, Cheryl L.
Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy provides label-free imaging to detect the spatial distribution of the characteristic functional groups in proteins, lipids, phosphates, and carbohydrates simultaneously in individual DRG neurons. We have identified ring-shaped distributions of lipid and/or carbohydrate enrichment in subpopulations of neurons which has never before been reported. These distributions are ring-shaped within the cytoplasm and are likely representative of the endoplasmic reticulum. The prevalence of chemical ring subtypes differs between large- and small-diameter neurons. Peripheral inflammation increased the relative lipid content specifically in small-diameter neurons, many of which are nociceptive. Because many small-diameter neurons express an ion channel involved in inflammatory pain, transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), we asked whether this increase in lipid content occurs in TRPA1-deficient (knock-out) neurons. No statistically significant change in lipid content occurred in TRPA1-deficient neurons, indicating that the inflammation-mediated increase in lipid content is largely dependent on TRPA1. Because TRPA1 is known to mediate mechanical and cold sensitization that accompanies peripheral inflammation, our findings may have important implications for a potential role of lipids in inflammatory pain. PMID:25271163
Lee, Dong Woo; Cho, Pyung Sun; Lee, Han Kyu; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jung, Sung Jun; Oh, Seog Bae
TRPV1, a ligand-gated ion channel expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons is modulated by a variety of intracellular signaling pathways. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays important roles in motor control, cognition, and pain modulation in the CNS, and acts via a variety of dopamine receptors (D1R-D5R), a class of GPCRs. Although nociceptive sensory neurons express D1-like receptors, very little is known about the effect of dopamine on TRPV1 in the peripheral nervous system. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effects of D1R activation on TRPV1 in mouse DRG neurons using Ca(2+) imaging and immunohistochemical analysis. The D1R agonist SKF-38393 induced reproducible Ca(2+) responses via Ca(2+) influx through TRPV1 rather than Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed co-expression of D1R and TRPV1 in mouse DRG neurons. The PLC-specific inhibitor blocked the SKF-38393-induced Ca(2+) response, whereas the PKC, DAG lipase, AC, and PKA inhibitors had no effect on the SKF-38393-induced Ca(2+) response. Taken together, our results suggest that the SKF-38393-induced Ca(2+) response results from the direct activation of TRPV1 by a PLC/DAG-mediated membrane-delimited pathway. These results provide evidence that the trans-activation of TRPV1 following D1R activation may contribute to the modulation of pain signaling in nociceptive sensory neurons.
de Vries, Jan; Fischer, Angela Melanie; Roettger, Mayo; Rommel, Sophie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Bräutigam, Andrea; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Gould, Sven Bernhard
The phytohormones cytokinin and auxin orchestrate the root meristem development in angiosperms by determining embryonic bipolarity. Ferns, having the most basal euphyllophyte root, form neither bipolar embryos nor permanent embryonic primary roots but rather an adventitious root system. This raises the questions of how auxin and cytokinin govern fern root system architecture and whether this can tell us something about the origin of that root. Using Azolla filiculoides, we characterized the influence of IAA and zeatin on adventitious fern root meristems and vasculature by Nomarski microscopy. Simultaneously, RNAseq analyses, yielding 36,091 contigs, were used to uncover how the phytohormones affect root tip gene expression. We show that auxin restricts Azolla root meristem development, while cytokinin promotes it; it is the opposite effect of what is observed in Arabidopsis. Global gene expression profiling uncovered 145 genes significantly regulated by cytokinin or auxin, including cell wall modulators, cell division regulators and lateral root formation coordinators. Our data illuminate both evolution and development of fern roots. Promotion of meristem size through cytokinin supports the idea that root meristems of euphyllophytes evolved from shoot meristems. The foundation of these roots was laid in a postembryonically branching shoot system.
Roycewicz, Peter S; Malamy, Jocelyn E
Plants adapt to their unique soil environments by altering the number and placement of lateral roots post-embryonic. Mutants were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana that exhibit increased lateral root formation. Eight mutants were characterized in detail and were found to have increased lateral root formation due to at least three distinct mechanisms. The causal mutation in one of these mutants was found in the XEG113 gene, recently shown to be involved in plant cell wall biosynthesis. Lateral root primordia initiation is unaltered in this mutant. In contrast, synchronization of lateral root initiation demonstrated that mutation of XEG113 increases the rate at which lateral root primordia develop and emerge to form lateral roots. The effect of the XEG113 mutation was specific to the root system and had no apparent effect on shoot growth. Screening of 17 additional cell wall mutants, altering a myriad of cell wall components, revealed that many (but not all) types of cell wall defects promote lateral root formation. These results suggest that proper cell wall biosynthesis is necessary to constrain lateral root primordia emergence. While previous reports have shown that lateral root emergence is accompanied by active remodelling of cell walls overlying the primordia, this study is the first to demonstrate that alteration of the cell wall is sufficient to promote lateral root formation. Therefore, inherent cell wall properties may play a previously unappreciated role in regulation of root system architecture.
Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E; Jove-Colon, Carlos
Capillary trapping of a nonwetting fluid phase in the subsurface has been considered as an important mechanism for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO(2)). This mechanism can potentially relax stringent requirements for the integrity of cap rocks for CO(2) storage and therefore can significantly enhance storage capacity and security. We here apply ganglion dynamics to understand the capillary trapping of supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) under relevant reservoir conditions. We show that, by breaking the injected scCO(2) into small disconnected ganglia, the efficiency of capillary trapping can be greatly enhanced, because the mobility of a ganglion is inversely dependent on its size. Supercritical CO(2) ganglia can be engineered by promoting CO(2)-water interface instability during immiscible displacement, and their size distribution can be controlled by injection mode (e.g., water-alternating-gas) and rate. We also show that a large mobile ganglion can potentially break into smaller ganglia due to CO(2)-brine interface instability during buoyant rise, thus becoming less mobile. The mobility of scCO(2) in the subsurface is therefore self-limited. Vertical structural heterogeneity within a reservoir can inhibit the buoyant rise of scCO(2) ganglia. The dynamics of scCO(2) ganglia described here provides a new perspective for the security and monitoring of subsurface CO(2) storage.
Roehm, Pamela C.; Camarena, Vladimir; Nayak, Shruti; Gardner, James B.; Wilson, Angus; Mohr, Ian; Chao, Moses V.
Objectives/Hypothesis Vestibular neuritis is a common cause of both acute and chronic vestibular dysfunction. Multiple pathologies have been hypothesized to be the causative agent of vestibular neuritis; however, whether herpes simplex type I (HSV1) reactivation occurs within the vestibular ganglion has not been demonstrated previously by experimental evidence. We developed an in vitro system to study HSV1 infection of vestibular ganglion neurons (VGNs) using a cell culture model system. Study design basic science study. Results Lytic infection of cultured rat VGNs was observed following low viral multiplicity of infection (MOI). Inclusion of acyclovir suppressed lytic replication and allowed latency to be established. Upon removal of acyclovir, latent infection was confirmed with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and by RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization for the latency-associated transcript (LAT). 29% cells in latently infected cultures were LAT positive. The lytic IPC27 transcript was not detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Reactivation of HSV1 occurred at a high frequency in latently infected cultures following treatment with trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deactylase inhibitor. Conclusions VGNs can be both lytically and latently infected with HSV1. Furthermore, latently infected VGNs can be induced to reactivate using TSA. This demonstrates that reactivation of latent HSV1 infection in the vestibular ganglion can occur in a cell culture model, and suggests that reactivation of HSV1 infection a plausible etiologic mechanism of vestibular neuritis. PMID:21898423
Ahn, Jae Hoon; Choy, Won-Sik; Kim, Ha-Yong
The authors analyzed the clinical results of surgical excision for symptomatic or recurrent ganglion cysts of the foot and ankle, and tried to elucidate the prognostic factors. Fifty-three cases of ganglions in the foot and ankle were followed for more than 24 months after excision. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.7 years. As a preceding treatment, 17 cases received a mean of 1.3 aspirations, and 16 cases recurred after a mean of 1.7 operations. The cyst was most common in the dorsum of the foot and ankle, where 35 cases were found. Thirty cases originated from the tendon sheath, 19 cases from the joint, and 4 cases from others. Preoperative mean AOFAS foot scores were low in the cysts associated with the tarsal tunnel syndrome, and in the cysts of the plantar aspect of the first toe. Postoperative mean AOFAS foot scores were significantly increased in the preceding 2 groups. There were 3 (5.7%) cases of recurrence, all of which originated from the tendon sheath. In the case of ganglion cysts originating from the tendon sheath, careful attention should be paid to locate satellite masses to avoid recurrence.
Bischoff, J; Kortmann, K-B; Engelhardt, M
This is a report of a 70-year-old patient with spontaneous pain of the dorsum area of the left foot. A few days later there was a sudden onset of foot drop. First, an idiopathic peroneal palsy was assessed but an MRI showed a cystic tumour near the fibular head. These findings resulted in the patient attending our clinic for surgical treatment. During the operation we found an intraneural ganglion of the deep peroneal nerve and the common peroneal nerve. There was no connection with the superior tibiofibular joint. The ganglion was therefore removed. Two months after the operation the patient reported an improvement of the pain but no improvement of movement of the foot. An intraneural ganglion of the peroneal nerve derives from the superior tibiofibular joint. Given access to the articular branch, the cyst typically spreads out proximally from the deep peroneal nerve to the common peroneal nerve and to the point of the sciatic nerve. The clinical symptoms are correlated with the extent of cyst propagation. Recommended therapy would include the ligation of the aricular branch, or synovectomy, or resection of the superior tibiofibular joint and decompression of the cyst.
Tanaka, Suguru; Gotoh, Masafumi; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Shirachi, Isao; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Shiba, Naoto
We report a case of subcutaneous ganglion adjacent to the acromioclavicular joint with massive rotator cuff tear [1-7]. An 81-year-old woman presented with a ganglion adjacent to the acromioclavicular joint that had first been identified 9 months earlier. The ganglion had recurred after having been aspirated by her local physician, so she was referred to our hospital. The puncture fluid was yellowish, clear and viscous. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a massive rotator cuff tear with multi- lobular cystic lesions continuous to the acromioclavicular joint, presenting the "geyser sign". During arthroscopy, distal clavicular resection and excision of the ganglion were performed together with joint debridement. At present, the ganglion has not recurred and the patient has returned to normal daily activity. In this case, the ganglion may have developed subsequent to the concomitant massive cuff tear, due to subcutaneous fluid flow through the damaged acromioclavicular joint.
Zheng, Zhi Wei; Shao, Xia; Yang, Chi; Fang, Yi Ming
Ganglion cysts are common pseudocystic masses, whereas those arising from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are rare entities. We report a case of ganglion cyst of the right TMJ with symptomatic bilateral TMJ internal derangement in a 24-year-old man. Disk repositioning using bone anchors and excision of the ganglion cyst were performed. A unique characteristic of inflammatory infiltrates was revealed in the specimen, and the relationship between these 2 distinct entities and probable pathogenesis of infectious involvement are discussed.
Oshima, Yasushi; Fetto, Joseph F
The low incidence of intraneural ganglion makes it difficult to diagnose and treat before it becomes serious nerve damage. This case describes a 69-year-old female, who suffered from the right drop foot and was diagnosed as a peroneal intraneural ganglion. Resection of the mass relieved the pain; however, motor function was not recovered. Early diagnosis and nerve decompression are essential for the peroneal intraneural ganglion before critical nerve symptoms.
Jensen, Penny J; Gitlin, Jonathan D; Carayannopoulos, Mary O
GLUT1 is essential for human brain development and function, as evidenced by the severe epileptic encephalopathy observed in children with GLUT1 deficiency syndrome resulting from inherited loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding this facilitative glucose transporter. To further elucidate the pathophysiology of this disorder, the zebrafish orthologue of human GLUT1 was identified, and expression of this gene was abrogated during early embryonic development, resulting in a phenotype of aberrant brain organogenesis consistent with the observed expression of Glut1 in the embryonic tectum and specifically rescued by human GLUT1 mRNA. Affected embryos displayed impaired glucose uptake concomitant with increased neural cell apoptosis and subsequent ventricle enlargement, trigeminal ganglion cell loss, and abnormal hindbrain architecture. Strikingly, inhibiting expression of the zebrafish orthologue of the proapoptotic protein Bad resulted in complete rescue of this phenotype, and this occurred even in the absence of restoration of apparent glucose uptake. Taken together, these studies describe a tractable system for elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Glut1 deficiency and provide compelling in vivo genetic evidence directly linking nutrient availability and activation of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic mechanisms during embryonic brain development.
Baleriola, Jimena; Álvarez-Lindo, Noemí; de la Villa, Pedro; Bernad, Antonio; Blanco, Luis; Suárez, Teresa; de la Rosa, Enrique J.
Programmed cell death occurs naturally at different stages of neural development, including neurogenesis. The functional role of this early phase of neural cell death, which affects recently differentiated neurons among other cell types, remains undefined. Some mouse models defective in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair present massive cell death during neural development, occasionally provoking embryonic lethality, while other organs and tissues remain unaffected. This suggests that DSBs occur frequently and selectively in the developing nervous system. We analyzed the embryonic retina of a mouse model deficient in the error-prone DNA polymerase μ (Polμ), a key component of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair system. DNA DSBs were increased in the mutant mouse at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), as well as the incidence of cell death that affected young neurons, including retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Polμ−/− mice also showed disturbed RGC axonal growth and navigation, and altered distribution of the axonal guidance molecules L1-CAM and Bravo (also known as Nr-CAM). These findings demonstrate that Polμ is necessary for proper retinal development, and support that the generation of DSBs and their repair via the NHEJ pathway are genuine processes involved in neural development. PMID:27172884
Qu, Chunsheng; Bian, Dandan; Li, Xue; Xiao, Jian; Wu, Chunping; Li, Yue; Jiang, Tian; Zhou, Xiangtian; Qu, Jia; Chen, Jie-Guang
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are projection neurons in the neural retina that relay visual information from the environment to the central nervous system. The early expression of MATH5 endows the post-mitotic precursors with RGC competence and leads to the activation ofBrn3bthat marks committed RGCs. Nevertheless, this fate commitment process and, specifically, regulation ofBrn3bremain elusive. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying RGC generation in the mouse retina, we analyzed the expression and function of Fez family zinc finger 2 (FEZF2), a transcription factor critical for the development of projection neurons in the cerebral cortex.Fezf2mRNA and protein were transiently expressed at embryonic day 16.5 in the inner neuroblast layer and the prospective ganglion cell layer of the retina, respectively. Knockout ofFezf2in the developing retina reduced BRN3B+ cells and increased apoptotic cell markers.Fezf2knockdown by retinalin uteroelectroporation diminished BRN3B but not the coexpressed ISLET1 and BRN3A, indicating that the BRN3B decrease was the cause, not the result, of the overall reduction of BRN3B+ RGCs in theFezf2knockout retina. Moreover, the mRNA and promoter activity ofBrn3bwere increasedin vitroby FEZF2, which bound to a 5' regulatory fragment in theBrn3bgenomic locus. These results indicate that transient expression ofFezf2in the retina modulates the transcription ofBrn3band the survival of RGCs. This study improves our understanding of the transcriptional cascade required for the specification of RGCs and provides novel insights into the molecular basis of retinal development.
Hemodynamic alterations with the thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade were elucidated in the anesthetized open-chest dogs, under controlled ventilation with 100% oxygen and receiving fentanyl, pentobarbital and pancuronium administration, and the effect of blockade was assessed by increase in skin-surface temperature at the specific regions of the upper extremity. All dogs with thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade revealed the increased skin temperature in blocked extremities and decreased skin temperature in the contralateral side with simultaneous compensatory vasoconstriction ("Borrowing-Lending phenomenon"). Four groups were classified according to the side and range of blockade: A-group (right Th7.8 ganglion, N = 17), B-group (left-Th7.8 ganglion, N = 8), C-group (right Th2.3 ganglion, N = 13) and D-group (left-Th2.3 ganglion, N = 10). The hemodynamic variables after the middle thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade showed no remarkable changes but heart-rate, mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output decreased significantly with the upper right-side thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade, and the inhibited circulatory state lasted twenty minutes after blockade. No significant skin temperature changes were observed after blockade among four groups. The results suggest that the patient after upper thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade should be cared with these circulatory changes in mind.
MILLS, STEPHEN L.; XIA, XIAO-BO; HOSHI, HIDEO; FIRTH, SALLY I.; RICE, MARGARET E.; FRISHMAN, LAURA J.; MARSHAK, DAVID W.
Many retinal ganglion cells are coupled via gap junctions with neighboring amacrine cells and ganglion cells. We investigated the extent and dynamics of coupling in one such network, the OFF α ganglion cell of rabbit retina and its associated amacrine cells. We also observed the relative spread of Neurobiotin injected into a ganglion cell in the presence of modulators of gap junctional permeability. We found that gap junctions between amacrine cells were closed via stimulation of a D1 dopamine receptor, while the gap junctions between ganglion cells were closed via stimulation of a D2 dopamine receptor. The pairs of hemichannels making up the heterologous gap junctions between the ganglion and amacrine cells were modulated independently, so that elevations of cAMP in the ganglion cell open the ganglion cell hemichannels, while elevations of cAMP in the amacrine cell close its hemichannels. We also measured endogenous dopamine release from an eyecup preparation and found a basal release from the dark-adapted retina of approximately 2 pmol/min during the day. Maximal stimulation with light increased the rate of dopamine release from rabbit retina by 66%. The results suggest that coupling between members of the OFF α ganglion cell/amacrine cell network is differentially modulated with changing levels of dopamine. PMID:17711603
Martínez-de la Cruz, Enrique; García-Ramírez, Elpidio; Vázquez-Ramos, Jorge M; Reyes de la Cruz, Homero; López-Bucio, José
Maize (Zea mays) root system architecture has a complex organization, with adventitious and lateral roots determining its overall absorptive capacity. To generate basic information about the earlier stages of root development, we compared the post-embryonic growth of maize seedlings germinated in water-embedded cotton beds with that of plants obtained from embryonic axes cultivated in liquid medium. In addition, the effect of four different auxins, namely indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on root architecture and levels of the heat shock protein HSP101 and the cell cycle proteins CKS1, CYCA1 and CDKA1 were analyzed. Our data show that during the first days after germination, maize seedlings develop several root types with a simultaneous and/or continuous growth. The post-embryonic root development started with the formation of the primary root (PR) and seminal scutellar roots (SSR) and then continued with the formation of adventitious crown roots (CR), brace roots (BR) and lateral roots (LR). Auxins affected root architecture in a dose-response fashion; whereas NAA and IBA mostly stimulated crown root formation, 2,4-D showed a strong repressing effect on growth. The levels of HSP101, CKS1, CYCA1 and CDKA in root and leaf tissues were differentially affected by auxins and interestingly, HSP101 registered an auxin-inducible and root specific expression pattern. Taken together, our results show the timing of early branching patterns of maize and indicate that auxins regulate root development likely through modulation of the HSP101 and cell cycle proteins.
Li, Hui-Chun; Chuang, King; Henderson, James T.; Rider, Stanley Dean; Bai, Yinglin; Zhang, Heng; Fountain, Matthew; Gerber, Jacob; Ogas, Joe
SUMMARY PICKLE (PKL) codes for a CHD3 chromatin remodeling factor that plays multiple roles in Arabidopsis growth and development. Previous analysis of the expression of genes that exhibit PKL-dependent regulation suggested that PKL acts during germination to repress expression of embryonic traits. In this study, we examined the expression of PKL protein to investigate when and where PKL acts to regulate development. A PKL:eGFP translational fusion is preferentially localized in the nucleus of cells, consistent with the proposed role for PKL as a chromatin remodeling factor. A steroid-inducible version of PKL - a fusion of PKL to the glucocorticoid receptor (PKL:GR) - was used to examine when PKL acts to repress expression of embryonic traits. We found that activation of PKL:GR during germination was sufficient to repress expression of embryonic traits in the primary roots of pkl seedlings whereas activation of PKL:GR after germination had little effect. In contrast, we observed that PKL is required continuously after germination to repress expression of PHERES1, a type I MADS box gene that is normally expressed during early embryogenesis in wild-type plants. Thus PKL acts at multiple points during development to regulate patterns of gene expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:16359393
Li, Hui-Chun; Chuang, King; Henderson, James T; Rider, Stanley Dean; Bai, Yinglin; Zhang, Heng; Fountain, Matthew; Gerber, Jacob; Ogas, Joe
PICKLE (PKL) codes for a CHD3 chromatin remodeling factor that plays multiple roles in Arabidopsis growth and development. Previous analysis of the expression of genes that exhibit PKL-dependent regulation suggested that PKL acts during germination to repress expression of embryonic traits. In this study, we examined the expression of PKL protein to investigate when and where PKL acts to regulate development. A PKL:eGFP translational fusion is preferentially localized in the nucleus of cells, consistent with the proposed role for PKL as a chromatin remodeling factor. A steroid-inducible version of PKL [a fusion of PKL to the glucocorticoid receptor (PKL:GR)] was used to examine when PKL acts to repress expression of embryonic traits. We found that activation of PKL:GR during germination was sufficient to repress expression of embryonic traits in the primary roots of pkl seedlings, whereas activation of PKL:GR after germination had little effect. In contrast, we observed that PKL is required continuously after germination to repress expression of PHERES1, a type I MADS box gene that is normally expressed during early embryogenesis in wild-type plants. Thus, PKL acts at multiple points during development to regulate patterns of gene expression in Arabidopsis.
Rodgers, Helen M.; Belcastro, Marycharmain; Sokolov, Maxim
Purpose Photoreceptor cells are born in two distinct phases of vertebrate retinogenesis. In the mouse retina, cones are born primarily during embryogenesis, while rod formation occurs later in embryogenesis and early postnatal ages. Despite this dichotomy in photoreceptor birthdates, the visual pigments and phototransduction machinery are not reactive to visual stimulus in either type of photoreceptor cell until the second postnatal week. Several markers of early cone formation have been identified, including Otx2, Crx, Blimp1, NeuroD, Trβ2, Rorβ, and Rxrγ, and all are thought to be involved in cellular determination. However, little is known about the expression of proteins involved in cone visual transduction during early retinogenesis. Therefore, we sought to characterize visual transduction proteins that are expressed specifically in photoreceptors during mouse embryogenesis. Methods Eye tissue was collected from control and phosducin-null mice at embryonic and early postnatal ages. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qPCR) were used to measure the spatial and temporal expression patterns of phosducin (Pdc) and cone transducin γ (Gngt2) proteins and transcripts in the embryonic and early postnatal mouse retina. Results We identified the embryonic expression of phosducin (Pdc) and cone transducin γ (Gngt2) that coincides temporally and spatially with the earliest stages of cone histogenesis. Using immunohistochemistry, the phosducin protein was first detected in the retina at embryonic day (E)12.5, and cone transducin γ was observed at E13.5. The phosducin and cone transducin γ proteins were seen only in the outer neuroblastic layer, consistent with their expression in photoreceptors. At the embryonic ages, phosducin was coexpressed with Rxrγ, a known cone marker, and with Otx2, a marker of photoreceptors. Pdc and Gngt2 mRNAs were detected as early as E10.5 with qPCR, although at low levels. Conclusions Visual transduction
LaMotte, Robert H.; Chao, MA
The cell body or soma in the dosal root ganglion (DRG) is normally excitable and this excitability can increase and persist after an injury of peripheral sensory neurons. In a rat model of radicular pain, an intraforaminal implantation of a rod that chronically compressed the lumbar DRG (“CCD” model) resulted in neuronal somal hyperexcitability and spontaneous activity that was accompanied by hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral hind paw. By the 5th day after onset of CCD, there was a novel upregulation in neuronal expression of the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL2) and also its receptor, CCR2. The neurons developed, in response to topically applied MCP-1, an excitatory response that they normally do not have. CCD also activated non-neuronal cells including, for example, the endothelial cells as evidenced by angiogenesis in the form of an increased number of capillaries in the DRG after 7 days. A working hypothesis is that the CCD induced changes in neurons and non-neuronal cells that may act together to promote the survival of the injured tissue. The release of ligands such as CCL2, in addition to possibly activating nociceptive neurons (maintaining the pain), may also act to preserve injured cells in the face of ischemia and hypoxia, for example, by promoting angiogenesis. Thus, somal hyperexcitability, as often said of inflammation, may represent a double edged sword. PMID:18958366
LaMotte, Robert H; Ma, Chao
The cell body or soma in the dosal root ganglion (DRG) is normally excitable and this excitability can increase and persist after an injury of peripheral sensory neurons. In a rat model of radicular pain, an intraforaminal implantation of a rod that chronically compressed the lumbar DRG ("CCD" model) resulted in neuronal somal hyperexcitability and spontaneous activity that was accompanied by hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral hind paw. By the 5th day after onset of CCD, there was a novel upregulation in neuronal expression of the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL2) and also its receptor, CCR2. The neurons developed, in response to topically applied MCP-1, an excitatory response that they normally do not have. CCD also activated non-neuronal cells including, for example, the endothelial cells as evidenced by angiogenesis in the form of an increased number of capillaries in the DRG after 7 days. A working hypothesis is that the CCD induced changes in neurons and non-neuronal cells that may act together to promote the survival of the injured tissue. The release of ligands such as CCL2, in addition to possibly activating nociceptive neurons (maintaining the pain), may also act to preserve injured cells in the face of ischemia and hypoxia, for example, by promoting angiogenesis. Thus, somal hyperexcitability, as often said of inflammation, may represent a double edged sword.
Smith, A. H.; Abbott, U. K.
Experiments carried out on chicken eggs indicate that the embryo is affected during very early development, especially over the first four days, and during hatching. In the first four days, the brain develops as well as the anlage for all other organs. In addition, the heart commences to function and the extraembryonic membranes that compartmentalize the egg contents form. The latter require an appreciable extension and folding of tissue which may be disrupted by the mechanical load. Observations of embryonic abnormalities that occur during chronic acceleration suggest an inhibition of development of the axial skeleton, which is rarely seen otherwise, a general retardation of embryonic growth, and circulatory problems. The final stages of development (after 18 days) involve the uptake of fluids, the transition to aerial respiration, and the reorientation of the embryo into a normal hatching position. At 4 G mortality is very high during this period, with a majority of embryos failing to reorient into the normal hatching position.
Haddad, Nicholas; Houle, Daniel; Gupta, Indra R.
Metanephric kidney development in the mouse begins at embryonic day (E) 10.5, when the ureteric bud (UB), an outgrowth of the epithelial nephric duct, invades the neighboring metanephric mesenchyme (MM). The ureteric bud then undergoes a series of branching events to form the collecting duct network of the adult kidney (Fig. 19.1). As each ureteric bud tip forms, the adjacent undifferentiated mesenchyme is induced to epithelialize and form a nephron, the functional unit of the adult kidney that filters waste. Rodent embryonic kidneys can be dissected and cultured as explants such that branching morphogenesis and nephrogenesis can be observed ex vivo (Rothenpieler and Dressler, 1993; Vega et al., 1996; Piscione et al., 1997; Gupta et al., 2003).
Perry, P; Linke, B; Schmidt, W
Post-embryonic development of the root system is highly plastic to environmental cues, compensating for the sessile lifestyle of plants. The fate of epidermal cells of Arabidopsis roots is particularly responsive to nutritional signals, leading to an increase in the root's surface area in the absence of the essential but immobile minerals iron, phosphate and manganese. The resulting phenotype is characteristic of the respective condition. Growth under nutrient starvation affects the expression of genes involved in cell specification, indicating that environmental signals are perceived at an early stage of cell development. Cell fate decisions are controlled at different levels, probably integrated at the level of chromatin organization.
Ikushima, M; Watanabe, M; Ito, H
A ganglion cell density map was produced from the Nissl-stained retinal whole mount of the Japanese quail. Ganglion cell density diminished nearly concentrically from the central area toward the retinal periphery. The mean soma area of ganglion cells in isodensity zones increased as the cell density decreased. The histograms of soma areas in each zone indicated that a population of small-sized ganglion cells persists into the peripheral retina. The total number of ganglion cells was estimated at about 2.0 million. Electron microscopic examination of the optic nerve revealed thin unmyelinated axons to comprise 69% of the total fiber count (about 2.0 million). Since there was no discrepancy between both the total numbers of neurons in the ganglion cell layer and optic nerve fibers, it is inferred that displaced amacrine cells are few, if any. The spectrum in optic nerve fiber diameter showed a unimodal skewed distribution quite similar to the histogram of soma areas of ganglion cells in the whole retina. This suggests a close correlation between soma areas and axon diameters. Retinal ganglion cells filled from the optic nerve with horseradish peroxidase were classified into 7 types according to such morphological characteristics as size, shape and location of the soma, as well as dendritic arborization pattern. Taking into account areal ranges of somata of each cell type, it can be assumed that most of the ganglion cells in the whole retinal ganglion cell layer are composed of type I, II and III cells, and that the population of uniformly small-sized ganglion cells corresponds to type I cells and is an origin of unmyelinated axons in the optic nerve.
Rehkämper, G; Welsch, U; Dilly, P N
The ganglion of Cephalodiscus gracilis M'Intosh 1882 is entirely intraepithelial and located in the dorsal epidermis immediately behind the tentacular apparatus that is formed by the mesosome (collar). A characteristic feature of the ganglion is a well-developed neuropile in which different types of nerve fibres can be discerned, many of which contain small granules with electron-dense contents. There are no glia-like cells in association with these fibres. Only slender basal processes of epidermal epithelial cells traverse the neuropile. In the depth of the epithelium the neuropile borders the epidermal basal lamina; apically it is covered by a layer of cell bodies, the majority of which belong to what appear to be ordinary ciliated epidermal cells. Besides these epidermal cells the perikarya of two additional types of cells, which are considered to be neurons, can be discerned. One type is characterised by many rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns and mitochondria, the other by abundant small, electron-dense granules. The nuclei of these cells are comparatively pale and contain a prominent nucleolus. The neuron cell bodies do not form a distinct layer; but they are loosely distributed somewhat deeper than those of the ordinary epidermal cells. They probably send off an apical process to the epidermal surface and a basally directed one into the neuropile. The ganglion has been compared to the nervous systems in cnidarians, some spiralians, and especially other hemichordates, echinoderms, and chordates; it is found to be of primitive rather than degenerate nature. Furthermore, the possible functional significance of its close connection to the food-capturing tentacular apparatus is discussed.
Shinozaki, Koji; Miyagi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Michio; Miyata, Takaki; Ogawa, Masaharu; Aizawa, Shinichi; Suda, Yoko
Emx1 and Emx2, mouse orthologs of the Drosophila head gap gene, ems, are expressed during corticogenesis. Emx2 null mutants exhibit mild defects in cortical lamination. Segregation of differentiating neurons from proliferative cells is normal for the most part, however, reelin-positive Cajal-Retzius cells are lost by the late embryonic period. Additionally, late-born cortical plate neurons display abnormal position. These types of lamination defects are subtle in the Emx1 mutant cortex. In the present study we show that Emx1 and Emx2 double mutant neocortex is much more severely affected. Thickness of the cerebral wall was diminished with the decrease in cell number. Bromodeoxyuridine uptake in the germinal zone was nearly normal; moreover, no apparent increase in cell death or tetraploid cell number was observed. However, tangential migration of cells from the ganglionic eminence into the neocortex was greatly inhibited. The wild-type ganglionic eminence cells transplanted into Emx1/2-double mutant telencephalon did not move to the cortex. MAP2-positive neuronal bodies and RC2-positive radial glial cells emerged normally, but the laminar structure subsequently formed was completely abnormal. Furthermore, both corticofugal and corticopetal fibers were predominantly absent in the cortex. Most importantly, neither Cajal-Retzius cells nor subplate neurons were found throughout E11.5-E18.5. Thus, this investigation suggests that laminar organization in the cortex or the production of Cajal-Retzius cells and subplate neurons is interrelated to the tangential movement of cells from the ganglionic eminence under the control of Emx1 and Emx2.
Dakubo, Gabriel D; Wallace, Valerie A
The mature vertebrate retina develops from a population of multipotential neural progenitor cells that give rise to all of the retinal neurons and one glial cell type. Retinal histogenesis is regulated, in part, by cell extrinsic cues. A growing number of studies now implicate signaling by members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of morphogens in vertebrate retinal development. In this review we will discuss the role of Hh signals from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the retina, on proliferation, differentiation and lamination in the neural retina.
Kim, Gun Woo; Mun, Ki Ho; Song, Jeong Yun; Kim, Byung Gun; Jung, Jong Kwon; Lee, Choon Soo; Cha, Young Deog; Song, Jang Ho
Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disorder presumed to be caused by increased sebaceous gland secretion, metabolic changes in the cutaneous microflora, and changes in the host immune function. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is known to increase the blood flow rate without altering the blood pressure, heart rate, or cardiac output, to stabilize hypertonic conditions of the sympathetic nerves, and to affect the endocrine and immune systems. It is used in the differential diagnosis and treatment of autonomic nervous system disorders of the head, neck, and upper limbs. The authors report the first case of successful treatment of a patient with seborrheic dermatitis through repeated SGB trials.
Robbins, Matthew S; Robertson, Carrie E; Kaplan, Eugene; Ailani, Jessica; Charleston, Larry; Kuruvilla, Deena; Blumenfeld, Andrew; Berliner, Randall; Rosen, Noah L; Duarte, Robert; Vidwan, Jaskiran; Halker, Rashmi B; Gill, Nicole; Ashkenazi, Avi
The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) has attracted the interest of practitioners treating head and face pain for over a century because of its anatomical connections and role in the trigemino-autonomic reflex. In this review, we discuss the anatomy of the SPG, as well as what is known about its role in the pathophysiology of headache disorders, including cluster headache and migraine. We then address various therapies that target the SPG, including intranasal medication delivery, new SPG blocking catheter devices, neurostimulation, chemical neurolysis, and ablation procedures.
Osagie, Liza; Gallivan, Samantha; Wickham, Neil; Umarji, Shamim
Intraosseous cysts of the carpal bones are an infrequent cause of chronic wrist pain. The main body of work has investigated their occurrence in the proximal carpus, with limited incidence in the distal row. We review the current literature on the treatment of symptomatic carpal cysts following the report of a 17-year-old male with a 12-month history of progressive right wrist pain due to an intraosseous ganglion of the trapezoid. This review explores the pathology of carpal cysts, their varying presentation and current treatments.
Teotia, Pooja; Chopra, Divyan A; Dravid, Shashank Manohar; Van Hook, Matthew J; Qiu, Fang; Morrison, John; Rizzino, Angie; Ahmad, Iqbal
Glaucoma is a complex group of diseases wherein a selective degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) lead to irreversible loss of vision. A comprehensive approach to glaucomatous RGC degeneration may include stem cells to functionally replace dead neurons through transplantation and understand RGCs vulnerability using a disease in a dish stem cell model. Both approaches require the directed generation of stable, functional, and target-specific RGCs from renewable sources of cells, that is, the embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Here, we demonstrate a rapid and safe, stage-specific, chemically defined protocol that selectively generates RGCs across species, including human, by recapitulating the developmental mechanism. The de novo generated RGCs from pluripotent cells are similar to native RGCs at the molecular, biochemical, functional levels. They also express axon guidance molecules, and discriminate between specific and nonspecific targets, and are nontumorigenic. Stem Cells 2017;35:572-585.
VandenHeuvel, Katherine A; Carpentieri, David F; Chen, Jie; Fung, Kar-Ming; Parham, David M
Soft-tissue tumors known as "triton" tumors are rare lesions containing neural tissue and skeletal muscle at varying levels of maturity and malignant potential. Benign triton tumors, also called "neuromuscular choristomas" or "neuromuscular hamartomas," consist of neural tissue containing mature skeletal muscle in intimate relationship with peripheral nerve. These tumors are rare in the head and neck in children. Ectomesenchymomas are similar tumors consisting of a malignant mesenchymal component, usually embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and a neuroectodermal component represented by mature ganglion cells or primitive neuroblastic/neuroectodermal foci (primitive ectomesenchymoma). Benign triton tumors have been regarded as benign, whereas ectomesenchymomas have been operationally considered to be variants of rhabdomyosarcoma. We present here a unique case that combines features of these 2 entities in a recurrent lesion on the tongue of a 35-month-old girl. This lesion raises questions about the "benign" nature of benign triton tumor and its possible relationship to ectomesenchymoma.
Shigeno, S; Tsuchiya, K; Segawa, S
The embryonic development of the central nervous system (CNS) in the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana is described. It has three distinct phases: (1) The ganglionic accumulation phase: Ganglionic cell clusters develop by ingression, migration, and accumulation of neuroblasts. (2) The lobe differentiation phase: Ganglia differentiate into lobes. The phase is identified by the beginning of an axogenesis. During this phase, neuropils are first formed in the suboesophageal mass, then in the basal lobe system, and finally in the inferior frontal lobes and the superior frontal-vertical lobe systems. (3) The neuropil increment phase: After the shape of the lobes reached its typical form, neuropil growth occurs, specifically in the vertical lobe. The paralarval central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by neuronal gigantism of the giant fibers and some suboesophageal commissures and connectives. The neuropil formation in the CNS of S. lessoniana occurs somewhat earlier than in Octopus vulgaris, although the principal developmental plan is quite conservative among the other coleoids investigated. Some phylogenetic aspects are discussed based on the similarities in the morphologic organization of their brains.
Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Casais, Marilina; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María
Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. The purpose of this work was to analyse the ganglionic adrenergic influence on the ovarian release of steroids and NO and the possible steroids/NO relationship. The experiments were carried out in the ex vivo coeliac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve (SON)-ovary system of prepubertal rats. The coeliac ganglion-SON-ovary system was incubated in Krebs Ringer-bicarbonate buffer in presence of adrenergic agents in the ganglionic compartment. The accumulation of progesterone, androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. Norepinephrine in coeliac ganglion inhibited the liberation of progesterone and increased androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in ovary. The addition of alpha and beta adrenergic antagonists also showed different responses in the liberation of the substances mentioned before, which, from a physiological point of view, reveals the presence of adrenergic receptors in coeliac ganglion. In relation to propranolol, it does not revert the effect of noradrenaline on the liberation of progesterone, which leads us to think that it might also have a "per se" effect on the ganglion, responsible for the ovarian response observed for progesterone. Finally, we can conclude that the ganglionic adrenergic action via SON participates on the regulation of the prepubertal ovary in one of two ways: either increasing the NO, a gaseous neurotransmitter with cytostatic characteristics, to favour the immature follicles to remain dormant or increasing the liberation of androstenedione and oestradiol, the steroids necessary for the beginning of the near first estral cycle.
Zecha, Veronika; Wagenblast, Jens; Arnhold, Stefan; Edge, Albert S. B.; Stöver, Timo
Abstract The spiral ganglion is an essential functional component of the peripheral auditory system. Most types of hearing loss are associated with spiral ganglion cell degeneration which is irreversible due to the inner ear's lack of regenerative capacity. Recent studies revealed the existence of stem cells in the postnatal spiral ganglion, which gives rise to the hope that these cells might be useful for regenerative inner ear therapies. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of sphere-forming stem cells isolated from the spiral ganglion of postnatal mice. We show that spiral ganglion spheres have characteristics similar to neurospheres isolated from the brain. Importantly, spiral ganglion sphere cells maintain their major stem cell characteristics after repeated propagation, which enables the culture of spheres for an extended period of time. In this work, we also demonstrate that differentiated sphere-derived cell populations not only adopt the immunophenotype of mature spiral ganglion cells but also develop distinct ultrastructural features of neurons and glial cells. Thus, our work provides further evidence that self-renewing spiral ganglion stem cells might serve as a promising source for the regeneration of lost auditory neurons. PMID:24940560
Vatansever, A; Bal, E; Okcu, G
Proximal tibiofibular ganglion is a rare disorder. It may settle down in the subcutaneous tissue or may develop along the peroneal muscles and nerve. Common clinical findings are various sizes of mass, pain and hypoesthesis due to compression neuropathy. We report three cases of proximal tibiofibular ganglion and review the literature about the diagnostic tools, recurrence rates and treatment modalities.
Nicholson, Luke T; Freedman, Harold L
Ganglion cysts are lesions resulting from the myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue associated with joint capsules and tendon sheaths. Most common around the wrist joint, ganglion cysts may be found elsewhere in the body, including in and around the knee joint. Uncommonly, ganglion cysts can present intramuscularly. Previous reports document the existence of intramuscular ganglia, often without histologic confirmation. This article describes a case of an intramuscular ganglion cyst in the medial gastrocnemius muscle of a 53-year-old woman. The patient initially presented for discomfort associated with the lesion. Examination was consistent with intramuscular cystic lesion of unknown etiology. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the origin of the mass at the semimembranosus-gastrocnemius bursa. Because of its location, the mass was initially suspected to be a dissecting Baker's cyst, an uncommon but previously reported diagnosis. The patient underwent surgical excision, and examination of the intact specimen revealed a thin, fibrous, walled cyst with no lining epithelium, which was consistent with a ganglion cyst. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report in the orthopedic literature of a ganglion cyst dissecting into the gastrocnemius muscle. Because ganglion cysts commonly require excision for definitive treatment and do not respond well to treatment measures implemented for Baker's cysts, including resection of underlying meniscal tears, the authors believe it is important for orthopedic surgeons to be able to distinguish between Baker's and other cysts associated with the knee joint, including ganglion cysts, which may require more definitive treatment.
Nakama, Kenjiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Shirachi, Isao; Higuchi, Fujio; Nagata, Kensei
Two patients underwent arthroscopy-guided injections of autologous fibrin sealants to treat ganglion cysts causing suprascapular nerve palsies. After at least 2 years of follow-up, both patients had no suprascapular nerve symptoms and their external rotation strength had returned to normal. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed no evidence of ganglion cyst recurrence.
Takaki, Fumiya; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Kusakabe, Tatsumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio
The sympathetic ganglion contains small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells derived from the neural crest. We morphologically characterize SIF cells and focus on their relationship with ganglionic cells, preganglionic nerve fibers and sensory nerve endings. SIF cells stained intensely for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), with a few cells also being immunoreactive for dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH). Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)-immunoreactive puncta were distributed around some clusters of SIF cells, whereas some SIF cells closely abutted DBH-immunoreactive ganglionic cells. SIF cells contained bassoon-immunoreactive products beneath the cell membrane at the attachments and on opposite sites to the ganglionic cells. Ganglion neurons and SIF cells were immunoreactive to dopamine D2 receptors. Immunohistochemistry for P2X3 revealed ramified nerve endings with P2X3 immunoreactivity around SIF cells. Triple-labeling for P2X3, TH and VAChT allowed the classification of SIF cells into three types based on their innervation: (1) with only VAChT-immunoreactive puncta, (2) with only P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings, (3) with both P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings and VAChT-immunoreactive puncta. The results of retrograde tracing with fast blue dye indicated that most of these nerve endings originated from the petrosal ganglion. Thus, SIF cells in the superior cervical ganglion are innervated by preganglionic fibers and glossopharyngeal sensory nerve endings and can be classified into three types. SIF cells might modulate sympathetic activity in the superior cervical ganglion.
Background Spinal motoneuron neuroprotection by vitaminB12 was previously reported; the present study was carried out to evaluate neuroprotectivity in the dorsal root ganglion sensory neuron. Methods In present study thirty-six Wister-Albino rats (aged 8–9 weeks and weighing 200–250 g) were tested. The animals were randomly divided into 6 groups which every group contained 6 rats. Group A: received normal saline (for 42 days); Group B: vitamin B12 was administered (0.5 mg/kg/day for 21 days); Group C: received vitamin B12 (1 mg/kg/day for 21days); Group D: received vitamin B12 (0.5 mg/kg/day for 42 days); Group E; received vitamin B12 (1 mg/kg/day for 42 days); Group F; received no treatment. The L5 Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) neurons count compared to the number of left and right neurons .Furthermore, DRG sensory neurons for regeneration were evaluated 21 or 42 days after injury (each group was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA test). Results (1): The comparison of left crushed neurons (LCN) number with right non-crushed neurons in all experimental groups (B, C, D and C), indicating a significant decline in their neurons enumeration (p<0/05). (2): The comparison of test group’s LCN with the control group’s LCN revealed a significant rise in the number of experimental group neurons (p<0/05). (3): Moreover, comparing the number of right neurons in experimental groups with the number of neurons in crushed neurons indicated that the average number of right neurons showed a significant increase in experimental groups (p<0/05). Conclusion Consequently, the probability of nerve regeneration will be increased by the increment of the administered drug dosage and duration. On the other hand, the regeneration and healing in Dorsal Spinal Ganglion will be improved by increase of administration time and vitamin B12 dose, indicating that such vitamin was able to progress recovery process of peripheral nerves damage in experimental rats. Finally, our results have important
Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Harun-Or-Rashid, Mohammad; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta
We have studied the effect of α2-adrenergic receptor stimulation on the total excitotoxically injured chicken retinal ganglion cell population. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) was intraocularly injected at embryonic day 18 and Brn3a positive retinal ganglion cells (Brn3a+ RGCs) were counted in flat-mounted retinas using automated routines. The number and distribution of the Brn3a+ RGCs were analyzed in series of normal retinas from embryonic day 8 to post-hatch day 11 retinas and in retinas 7 or 14 days post NMDA lesion. The total number of Brn3a+ RGCs in the post-hatch retina was approximately 1.9x106 with a density of approximately 9.2x103 cells/mm2. The isodensity maps of normal retina showed that the density decreased with age as the retinal size increased. In contrast to previous studies, we did not find any specific region with increased RGC density, rather the Brn3a+ RGCs were homogeneously distributed over the central retina with decreasing density in the periphery and in the region of the pecten oculli. Injection of 5–10 μg NMDA caused 30–50% loss of Brn3a+ cells and the loss was more severe in the dorsal than in the ventral retina. Pretreatment with brimonidine reduced the loss of Brn3a+ cells both 7 and 14 days post lesion and the protective effect was higher in the dorsal than in the ventral retina. We conclude that α2-adrenergic receptor stimulation reduced the impact of the excitotoxic injury in chicken similarly to what has been shown in mammals. Furthermore, the data show that the RGCs are evenly distributed over in the retina, which challenges previous results that indicate the presence of specific high RGC-density regions of the chicken retina. PMID:27611432
Guo, Zhaohua; Cao, Yu-Qing
TWIK-related spinal cord K+ (TRESK) channel is abundantly expressed in trigeminal ganglion (TG) and dorsal root ganglion neurons and is one of the major background K+ channels in primary afferent neurons. Mutations in TRESK channels are associated with familial and sporadic migraine. In rats, both chronic nerve injury and inflammation alter the expression level of TRESK mRNA. Functional studies indicate that reduction of endogenous TRESK channel activity results in hyper-excitation of primary afferent neurons, suggesting that TRESK is a potential target for the development of new analgesics. However, whether and how enhancing TRESK channel activity would decrease the excitability of primary afferent neurons has not been directly tested. Here, we over-expressed TRESK subunits in cultured mouse TG neurons by lipofectamine-mediated transfection and investigated how this altered the membrane properties and the excitability of the small-diameter TG population. To account for the heterogeneity of neurons, we further divided small TG neurons into two groups, based on their ability to bind to fluorescently-labeled isolectin B (IB4). The transfected TG neurons showed a 2-fold increase in the level of TRESK proteins. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the fraction of lamotrigine-sensitive persistent K+ currents as well as the size of total background K+ currents. Consequently, both IB4-positive and IB4-negative TG neurons over-expressing TRESK subunits exhibited a lower input resistance and a 2-fold increase in the current threshold for action potential initiation. IB4-negative TG neurons over-expressing TRESK subunits also showed a significant reduction of the spike frequency in response to supra-threshold stimuli. Importantly, an increase in TRESK channel activity effectively inhibited capsaicin-evoked spikes in TG neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that potent and specific TRESK channel openers likely would reduce the excitability of primary
Kim, Eun Young; Chiu, Yu-Hsin; Dryer, Stuart E
Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels encoded by the Slo1 gene are often components of large multiprotein complexes in excitable and nonexcitable cells. Here we show that Slo1 proteins interact with Neph1, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed in slit diaphragm domains of podocytes and in vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. This interaction was established by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation of endogenous proteins from differentiated cells of a podocyte cell line, from parasympathetic neurons of the embryonic chick ciliary ganglion, and from HEK293T cells heterologously expressing both proteins. Neph1 can interact with all three extreme COOH-terminal variants of Slo1 (Slo1(VEDEC), Slo1(QEERL), and Slo1(EMVYR)) as ascertained by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays and by coimmunoprecipitation. Neph1 is partially colocalized in intracellular compartments with endogenous Slo1 in podocytes and ciliary ganglion neurons. Coexpression in HEK293T cells of Neph1 with any of the Slo1 extreme COOH-terminal splice variants suppresses their steady-state expression on the cell surface, as assessed by cell surface biotinylation assays, confocal microscopy, and whole cell recordings. Consistent with this, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of endogenous Neph1 in embryonic day 10 ciliary ganglion neurons causes an increase in steady-state surface expression of Slo1 and an increase in whole cell Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) current. Surprisingly, a comparable Neph1 knockdown in podocytes causes a decrease in surface expression of Slo1 and a decrease in whole cell BK(Ca) currents. In podocytes, Neph1 siRNA also caused a decrease in nephrin, even though the Neph1 siRNA had no sequence homology with nephrin. However, we could not detect nephrin in ciliary ganglion neurons.
Liets, Lauren C; Olshausen, Bruno A; Wang, Guo-Yong; Chalupa, Leo M
Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from morphologically identified ganglion cells in the intact retina of developing ferrets. As early as 3 d after birth, all ganglion cells exhibited bursts of spontaneous activity, with the interval between bursts gradually decreasing with maturity. By 2 weeks after birth, ganglion cells could be morphologically differentiated into three major classes (alpha, beta, and gamma), and at this time each cell class was characterized by a distinct pattern of spontaneous activity. Dual patch-clamp recordings from pairs of neighboring cells revealed that cells of all morphological classes burst in a coordinated manner, regardless of cell type. These observations suggest that a common mechanism underlies the bursting patterns exhibited by all ganglion cell classes, and that class-specific firing patterns emerge coincident with retinal ganglion cell morphological differentiation.
Wang, Shengtao; Zhu, Yangzi
Abstract Rationale: Stellate ganglion blocks have been shown to provide effective pain relief in a number of different conditions, but no one had reported stellate ganglion blocks for the treatment of epileptic pain. We describe a case report of the successful use of stellate ganglion block in the treatment of epileptic pain in the patient. Patient concerns: A 8-year-old girl who had experienced severe paroxysmal pain in her right upper limb. Diagnoses: She was diagnosed as drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Interventions: The patient received stellate ganglion blocks with lidocaine for 2 courses with 2 weeks in a course of treatment and oral carbamazepine once a day. Outcomes: Carbamazepine dosage gradually tapered until stop and epileptic pain attacks become less and less, eventually disappear. Lessons: Stellate ganglion block may be an effective treatment of intractable partial epilepsy. However, more research is now needed to verify the validity. PMID:28178147
Berkingali, Nurdanat; Warnecke, Athanasia; Gomes, Priya; Paasche, Gerrit; Tack, Jan; Lenarz, Thomas; Stöver, Timo
The morphological correlate of deafness is the loss of hair cells with subsequent degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGN). Neurotrophic factors have a neuroprotective effect, and especially brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been demonstrated to protect SGN in vitro and after ototoxic trauma in vivo. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates hair cell loss in rat cochlea explants that were treated with gentamycin. Recently, it has also been shown that EPO reduces the apoptose rate in hippocampal neurons. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the effects of EPO on SGN in vitro. Spiral ganglion cells were isolated from neonatal rats and cultured for 48 h in serum-free medium supplemented with EPO and/or BDNF. Results showed that survival rates of SGN were not significantly improved when cultivated with EPO alone. Also, EPO did not further increase BDNF-induced survival of SGN. However, significant elongation of neurites was determined when SGN were cultivated with EPO alone. Even though a less than additive effect was observed, combined treatment with BDNF and EPO led to a significant elongation of neurites when compared to individual treatment with BDNF or EPO. It can be concluded that EPO induces neurite outgrowth rather than promoting survival. Thus, EPO presents as an interesting candidate to enhance and modulate the regenerative effect of BDNF on SGN.
Spinner, Robert J; Vincent, Jean-François; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Scheithauer, Bernd W
We describe the first reported case of an intraneural ganglion cyst, an ulnar ("cubital") intraneural cyst, which, on literature review, dated to 1810. For over 80 years, its original brief description by Beauchêne was wrongly attributed to Duchenne, effectively making the reference and specimen inaccessible to scrutiny. Fortunately, the intact cyst had been safely housed in the Musée Dupuytren, Paris, France, thus permitting its examination. Although originally described as a "serous" cyst, our present understanding of the anatomy of the ulnar nerve and of peripheral nerve pathology allowed us to reinterpret it as a mucin-filled, elbow-level, ulnar intraneural ganglion cyst. In addition to its description as a fusiform cystic enlargement of the nerve, we documented similar enlargement of a lumen-bearing branch, the articular branch at the level of the elbow. Based on our assessment of the specimen and with a modern perspective, we concluded that the origin of the cyst was from the postero-medial aspect of the elbow joint and that its fluid content, having dissected through a capsular defect, followed the path of the articular branch into the parent ulnar nerve. The purpose of this report is to clarify historical misconceptions regarding the pathogenesis of this controversial entity.
Sensor, Jennifer D; Suydam, Robert; George, John C; Liberman, M C; Lovano, Denise; Rhaganti, Mary Ann; Usip, Sharon; Vinyard, Christopher J; Thewissen, J G M
With the increase of human activity and corresponding increase in anthropogenic sounds in marine waters of the Arctic, it is necessary to understand its effect on the hearing of marine wildlife. We have conducted a baseline study on the spiral ganglion and Rosenthal's canal of the cochlea in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) as an initial assessment of auditory anatomy and health. We present morphometric data on the length of the cochlea, number of whorls, neuron densities along its length, Rosenthal's canal length, and cross-sectional area, and show some histological results. In belugas, Rosenthal's canal is not a cylinder of equal cross-sectional area, but its cross-section is greatest near the apex of the basal whorl. We found systematic variation in the numbers of neurons along the length of the spiral ganglion, indicating that neurons are not dispersed evenly in Rosenthal's canal. These results provide data on functionally important structural parameters of the beluga ear. We observed no signs of acoustic trauma in our sample of beluga whales.
Desy, Nicholas M; Lipinski, Lindsay J; Tanaka, Shota; Amrami, Kimberly K; Rock, Michael G; Spinner, Robert J
The etiology of intraneural ganglion cysts has been poorly understood. This has resulted in the development of multiple surgical treatment strategies and a high recurrence rate. We sought to analyze these recurrences in order to provide a pathoanatomic explanation and staging classification for intraneural cyst recurrence. An expanded literature search was performed to identify frequencies and patterns in cases of intraneural ganglion cyst recurrences following primary surgery. Two univariate analyses were completed to identify associations between the type of revision surgery and repeat cyst recurrences. The expanded literature search found an 11% recurrence rate following primary surgery, including 64 recurrences following isolated cyst decompression (Group 1); six after articular branch resection (Group 2); and none following surgical procedures that addressed the joint (Group 3). Eight cases did not specify the type of primary surgery. In group 1, forty-eight of the recurrences (75%) were in the parent nerve, three involved only the articular branch, and one travelled along the articular branch in a different distal direction without involving the main parent nerve. In group 2, only one case (17%) recurred/persisted within the parent nerve, one recurred within a persistent articular branch, and one formed within a persistent articular branch and travelled in a different distal direction. Intraneural recurrences most commonly occur following surgical procedures that only target the main parent nerve. We provide proven or theoretical explanations for all identified cases of intraneural recurrences for an occult or persistent articular branch pathway.
De Smet, Ive
Plant growth relies heavily on a root system that is hidden belowground, which develops post-embryonically through the formation of lateral roots. The de novo formation of lateral root organs requires tightly coordinated asymmetric cell division of a limited number of pericycle cells located at the xylem pole. This typically involves the formation of founder cells, followed by a number of cellular changes until the cells divide and give rise to two unequally sized daughter cells. Over the past few years, our knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms behind lateral root initiation has increased dramatically. Here, I will summarize these recent advances, focusing on the prominent role of auxin and cell cycle activity, and elaborating on the three key steps of pericycle cell priming, founder cell establishment and asymmetric cell division. Taken together, recent findings suggest a tentative model in which successive auxin response modules are crucial for lateral root initiation, and additional factors provide more layers of control.
Edgar, Lois G.; Goldstein, Bob
The direct manipulation of embryonic cells is an important tool for addressing key questions in cell and developmental biology. C. elegans is relatively unique among genetic model systems in being amenable to manipulation of embryonic cells. Embryonic cell manipulation has allowed the identification of cell interactions by direct means, and it has been an important technique for dissecting mechanisms by which cell fates are specified, cell divisions are oriented, and morphogenesis is accomplished. Here, we present detailed methods for isolating, manipulating and culturing embryonic cells of C. elegans. PMID:22226523
Kameda, Yoko; Saitoh, Takayoshi; Nemoto, Noriko; Katoh, Tokio; Iseki, Sachiko
Hes1 gene represses the expression of proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor Mash1, which is essential for the differentiation of the sympathetic ganglia and carotid body glomus cells. The sympathetic ganglia, carotid body, and common carotid artery in Wnt1-Cre/R26R double transgenic mice were intensely labeled by X-gal staining, i.e., the neural crest origin. The deficiency of Hes1 caused severe hypoplasia of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG). At embryonic day (E) 17.5-E18.5, the volume of the SCG in Hes1 null mutants was reduced to 26.4% of the value in wild-type mice. In 4 of 30 cases (13.3%), the common carotid artery derived from the third arch artery was absent in the null mutants, and the carotid body was not formed. When the common carotid artery was retained, the organ grew in the wall of the third arch artery and glomus cell precursors were provided from the SCG in the null mutants as well as in wild-types. However, the volume of carotid body in the null mutants was only 52.5% of the value in wild-types at E17.5-E18.5. These results suggest that Hes1 plays a critical role in regulating the development of neural crest derivatives in the mouse cervical region.
Perianez-Rodriguez, Juan; Manzano, Concepcion; Moreno-Risueno, Miguel A.
Plants have extraordinary developmental plasticity as they continuously form organs during post-embryonic development. In addition they may regenerate organs upon in vitro hormonal induction. Advances in the field of plant regeneration show that the first steps of de novo organogenesis through in vitro culture in hormone containing media (via formation of a proliferating mass of cells or callus) require root post-embryonic developmental programs as well as regulators of auxin and cytokinin signaling pathways. We review how hormonal regulation is delivered during lateral root initiation and callus formation. Implications in reprograming, cell fate and pluripotency acquisition are discussed. Finally, we analyze the function of cell cycle regulators and connections with epigenetic regulation. Future work dissecting plant organogenesis driven by both endogenous and exogenous cues (upon hormonal induction) may reveal new paradigms of common regulation. PMID:24904615
Dean Rider, Stanley; Henderson, James T; Jerome, Ronald E; Edenberg, Howard J; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Ogas, Joe
In angiosperms, germination represents an important developmental transition during which embryonic identity is repressed and vegetative identity emerges. PICKLE (PKL) encodes a CHD3-chromatin-remodeling factor necessary for the repression of expression of LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), a central regulator of embryogenesis. A candidate gene approach and microarray analysis identified nine additional genes that exhibit PKL-dependent repression of expression during germination. Transcripts for all three LEAFY COTYLEDON genes, LEC1, LEC2, and FUS3, exhibit PKL-dependent repression, and all three transcripts are elevated more than 100-fold in pkl primary roots that inappropriately express embryonic traits (pickle roots). Three other genes that exhibit PKL-dependent regulation have expression patterns correlated with zygotic or somatic embryogenesis, and one gene encodes a putative Lin-11, Isl-1, MEC-3 (LIM) domain transcriptional regulator that is preferentially expressed in siliques. Genes that exhibit PKL-dependent repression during germination are not necessarily regulated by PKL at other points in development. Our data suggest that PKL selectively regulates a suite of genes during germination to repress embryonic identity. In particular, we propose that PKL acts as a master regulator of the LEAFY COTYLEDON genes, and that joint derepression of these genes is likely to contribute substantially to expression of embryonic identity in pkl seedlings.
Bongenhielm, U; Nosrat, C A; Nosrat, I; Eriksson, J; Fjell, J; Fried, K
The inferior alveolar nerve is a sensory branch of the trigeminal nerve that is frequently damaged, and such nerve injuries can give rise to persistent paraesthesia and dysaesthesia. The mechanisms behind neuropathic pain following nerve injury is poorly understood. However, remodeling of voltage-gated sodium channels in the neuronal membrane has been proposed as one possible mechanism behind injury-induced ectopic hyperexcitability. The TTX-resistant sodium channel SNS/PN3 has been implicated in the development of neuropathic pain after spinal nerve injury. We here study the effect of chronic axotomy of the inferior alveolar nerve on the expression of SNS/PN3 mRNA in trigeminal sensory neurons. The organization of sodium channels in the neuronal membrane is maintained by binding to ankyrin, which help link the sodium channel to the membrane skeleton. Ankyrin(G), which colocalizes with sodium channels in the initial segments and nodes of Ranvier, and is necessary for normal neuronal sodium channel function, could be essential in the reorganization of the axonal membrane after nerve injury. For this reason, we here study the expression of ankyrin(G) in the trigeminal ganglion and the localization of ankyrin(G) protein in the inferior alveolar nerve after injury. We show that SNS/PN3 mRNA is down-regulated in small-sized trigeminal ganglion neurons following inferior alveolar nerve injury but that, in contrast to the persistent loss of SNS/PN3 mRNA seen in dorsal root ganglion neurons following sciatic nerve injury, the levels of SNS/PN3 mRNA appear to normalize within a few weeks. We further show that the expression of ankyrin(G) mRNA also is downregulated after nerve lesion and that these changes persist for at least 13 weeks. This decrease in the ankyrin(G) mRNA expression could play a role in the reorganization of sodium channels within the damaged nerve. The changes in the levels of SNS/PN3 mRNA in the trigeminal ganglion, which follow the time course for
Kim, Yeoun-Hee; Chang, Yongmin; Jung, Jae-Chang
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Staurosporine mediates stimulation of RGC differentiation in vitro cultured retinal neuroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Staurosporine mediates uPA activation during RGC differentiation in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of uPA blocks the staurosporine mediated RGC differentiation both in vitro and in ovo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thus, uPA may play a role in the staurosporine-mediated stimulation of RGC differentiation. -- Abstract: Here, we investigated whether staurosporine-mediated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activation is involved in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation. Retinal cells were isolated from developing chick retinas at embryonic day 6 (E6). Relatively few control cells grown in serum-free medium started to form processes by 12 h. In contrast, staurosporine-treated cells had processes within 3 h, and processes were evident at 8 h. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Tuj-1-positive cells with shorter neurites could be detected in control cultures at 18 h, whereas numerous Tuj-1 positive ganglion cells with longer neuritic extensions were seen in staurosporine-treated cultures. BrdU-positive proliferating cells were more numerous in control cultures than in staurosporine-treated cultures, and the BrdU staining was not detected in post-mitotic Tuj-1 positive ganglion cells. Western blotting of cell lysates showed that staurosporine induced high levels of the active form of uPA. The staurosporine-induced uPA signal was localized predominantly in the soma, neurites and axons of Tuj-1-positive ganglion cells. Amiloride, an inhibitor of uPA, markedly reduced staurosporine-induced Tuj-1 staining, neurite length, neurite number, and uPA staining versus controls. In developing retinas in ovo, amiloride administration remarkably reduced the staurosporine-induced uPA staining and RGC differentiation. Taken together, our in vitro and in vivo data collectively indicate that
Wunk, D F; Werblin, F S
The postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) that form the ganglion cell light response were isolated by polarizing the cell membrane with extrinsic currents while stimulating at either the center or surround of the cell's receptive field. The time-course and receptive field properties of the PSPs were correlated with those of the bipolar and amacrine cells. The tiger salamander retina contains four main types of ganglion cell: "on" center, "off" center, "on-off", and a "hybrid" cell that responds transiently to center, but sustainedly, to surround illumination. The results lead to these inferences. The on-ganglion cell receives excitatory synpatic input from the on bipolars and that synapse is "silent" in the dark. The off-ganglion cell receives excitatory synaptic input from the off bipolars with this synapse tonically active in the dark. The on-off and hybrid ganglion cells receive a transient excitatory input with narrow receptive field, not simply correlated with the activity of any presynaptic cell. All cell types receive a broad field transient inhibitory input, which apparently originates in the transient amacrine cells. Thus, most, but not all, ganglion cell responses can be explained in terms of synaptic inputs from bipolar and amacrine cells, integrated at the ganglion cell membrane.
Renna, Jordan M; Chellappa, Deepa K; Ross, Christopher L; Stabio, Maureen E; Berson, David M
Melanopsin ganglion cells express the photopigment melanopsin and are the first functional photoreceptors to develop in the mammalian retina. They have been shown to play a variety of important roles in visual development and behavior in the early postnatal period (Johnson et al., 2010; Kirkby and Feller, 2013; Rao et al., 2013; Renna et al., 2011). Here, we probed the maturation of the dendritic arbors of melanopsin ganglion cells during this developmental period in mice. We found that some melanopsin ganglion cells (mainly the M1-subtype) transiently extend their dendrites not only into the inner plexiform layer (where they receive synaptic inputs from bipolar and amacrine cells) but also into the outer plexiform layer, where in mature retina, rod and cone photoreceptors are thought to contact only bipolar and horizontal cells. Thus, some immature melanopsin ganglion cells are biplexiform. This feature is much less common although still present in the mature retina. It reaches peak incidence 8-12 days after birth, before the eyes open and bipolar cells are sufficiently mature to link rods and cones to ganglion cells. At this age, some outer dendrites of melanopsin ganglion cells lie in close apposition to the axon terminals of cone photoreceptors and express a postsynaptic marker of glutamatergic transmission, postsynaptic density-95 protein (PSD-95). These findings raise the possibility of direct, monosynaptic connections between cones and melanopsin ganglion cells in the early postnatal retina. We provide a detailed description of the developmental profile of these processes and consider their possible functional and evolutionary significance.
Wang, Hui; Zhang, Chanjuan; Lu, Dan; Shu, Xiaoming; Zhu, Lihong; Qi, Renbing; So, Kwok-Fai; Lu, Daxiang; Xu, Ying
The death of retinal ganglion cells is a hallmark of many optic neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma and retinopathy. Oxidative stress is one of the major reasons to cause the cell death. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin has many health beneficial effects including antioxidative and neuroprotective actions. Here we tested whether oligomeric proanthocyanidin may protect retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress induced-apoptosis in vitro. Retinal ganglion cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide with or without oligomeric proanthocyanidin. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that treating retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5 cells with 20 μmol/L oligomeric proanthocyanidin significantly decreased the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced death. Results of flow cytometry and Hoechst staining demonstrated that the death of RGC-5 cells was mainly caused by cell apoptosis. We further found that expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 were significantly decreased while anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was greatly increased in H2O2 damaged RGC-5 cells with oligomeric proanthocyanidin by western blot assay. Furthermore, in retinal explant culture, the number of surviving retinal ganglion cells in H2O2-damaged retinal ganglion cells with oligomeric proanthocyanidin was significantly increased. Our studies thus demonstrate that oligomeric proanthocyanidin can protect oxidative stress-injured retinal ganglion cells by inhibiting apoptotic process. PMID:25206541
Xu, Lifang; Zhang, Ziyin; Xie, Tianhua; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Dai, Tu
Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protects retinal ganglion cells against ischemia in ocular degenerative diseases. We aimed to determine the effect of BDNF-AS on the ischemic injury of retinal ganglion cells. Methods: The levels of BDNF and BDNF-AS were measured in retinal ganglion cells subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation. The lentiviral vectors were constructed to either overexpress or knock out BDNF-AS. The luciferase reporter gene assay was used to determine whether BDNF-AS could target its seed sequence on BDNF mRNA. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was used to determine cell viability, and TUNEL staining was used for cell apoptosis. Results: The levels of BDNF-AS were negatively correlated with BDNF in ischemic retinal ganglion cells. BDNF-AS directly targeted its complementary sequences on BDNF mRNA. BDNF-AS regulated the expression of BDNF and its related genes in retinal ganglion cells. Down-regulation of BDNF-AS increased cell viability and decreased the number of TUNEL-positive retinal ganglion cells under oxygen and glucose deprivation conditions. Conclusion: Inhibition of BDNF-AS protected retinal ganglion cells against ischemia by increasing the levels of BDNF. PMID:27935942
Wilson, A M; Di Polo, A
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The primary cause of glaucoma is not known, but several risk factors have been identified, including elevated intraocular pressure and age. Loss of vision in glaucoma is caused by the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that convey visual information from the retina to the brain. Therapeutic strategies aimed at delaying or halting RGC loss, known as neuroprotection, would be valuable to save vision in glaucoma. In this review, we discuss the significant progress that has been made in the use of gene therapy to understand mechanisms underlying RGC degeneration and to promote the survival of these neurons in experimental models of optic nerve injury.
Weitz, A C; Behrend, M R; Humayun, M S; Chow, R H; Weiland, J D
The most common electrical stimulation pulse used in retinal implants is a symmetric biphasic current pulse. Prior electrophysiological studies in peripheral nerve have shown that adding an interphase gap (IPG) between the two phases makes stimulation more efficient. We investigated the effect of IPG duration on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) electrical threshold. We used calcium imaging to measure the activity of RGCs in isolated retina in response to electrical stimulation. By varying IPG duration, we were able to examine the effect of duration on threshold. We further studied this effect by simulating RGC behavior with a Hodgkin-Huxley-type model. Our results indicate that the threshold for electrical activation of RGCs can be reduced by increasing the length of the IPG.
Do, Michael Tri H; Kang, Shin H; Xue, Tian; Zhong, Haining; Liao, Hsi-Wen; Bergles, Dwight E; Yau, King-Wai
A subset of retinal ganglion cells has recently been discovered to be intrinsically photosensitive, with melanopsin as the pigment. These cells project primarily to brain centres for non-image-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex and circadian photoentrainment. How well they signal intrinsic light absorption to drive behaviour remains unclear. Here we report fundamental parameters governing their intrinsic light responses and associated spike generation. The membrane density of melanopsin is 10(4)-fold lower than that of rod and cone pigments, resulting in a very low photon catch and a phototransducing role only in relatively bright light. Nonetheless, each captured photon elicits a large and extraordinarily prolonged response, with a unique shape among known photoreceptors. Notably, like rods, these cells are capable of signalling single-photon absorption. A flash causing a few hundred isomerized melanopsin molecules in a retina is sufficient for reaching threshold for the pupillary light reflex.
Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Wong, Patricia M.; Miller, Megan A.; Donofry, Shannon D.; Kamarck, Marissa L.; Brainard, George C.
ROECKLEIN, K.A., WONG, P.M., MILLER, M.A., DONOFRY, S.D., KAMARCK, M.L., BRAINARD, G.C. Melanopsin, Photosensitive Ganglion Cells, and Seasonal Affective Disorder…NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV x(x) XXX-XXX, 2012. In two recent reports, melanopsin gene variations were associated with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and in changes in the timing of sleep and activity in healthy individuals. New studies have deepened our understanding of the retinohypothalamic tract, which translates environmental light received by the retina into neural signals sent to a set of nonvisual nuclei in the brain that are responsible for functions other than sight including circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral regulation. Because this pathway mediates seasonal changes in physiology, behavior, and mood, individual variations in the pathway may explain why approximately 1–2% of the North American population develops mood disorders with a seasonal pattern (i.e., Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorders with a seasonal pattern, also known as seasonal affective disorder/SAD). Components of depression including mood changes, sleep patterns, appetite, and cognitive performance can be affected by the biological and behavioral responses to light. Specifically, variations in the gene sequence for the retinal photopigment, melanopsin, may be responsible for significant increased risk for mood disorders with a seasonal pattern, and may do so by leading to changes in activity and sleep timing in winter. The retinal sensitivity of SAD is hypothesized to be decreased compared to controls, and that further decrements in winter light levels may combine to trigger depression in winter. Here we outline steps for new research to address the possible role of melanopsin in seasonal affective disorder including chromatic pupillometry designed to measure the sensitivity of melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells. PMID:23286902
Retamal, Mauricio A.; Reyes, Edison P.; Alcayaga, Julio
The petrosal ganglion (PG) is a peripheral sensory ganglion, composed of pseudomonopolar sensory neurons that innervate the posterior third of the tongue and the carotid sinus and body. According to their electrical properties PG neurons can be ascribed to one of two categories: (i) neurons with action potentials presenting an inflection (hump) on its repolarizing phase and (ii) neurons with fast and brisk action potentials. Although there is some correlation between the electrophysiological properties and the sensory modality of the neurons in some species, no general pattern can be easily recognized. On the other hand, petrosal neurons projecting to the carotid body are activated by several transmitters, with acetylcholine and ATP being the most conspicuous in most species. Petrosal neurons are completely surrounded by a multi-cellular sheet of glial (satellite) cells that prevents the formation of chemical or electrical synapses between neurons. Thus, PG neurons are regarded as mere wires that communicate the periphery (i.e., carotid body) and the central nervous system. However, it has been shown that in other sensory ganglia satellite glial cells and their neighboring neurons can interact, partly by the release of chemical neuro-glio transmitters. This intercellular communication can potentially modulate the excitatory status of sensory neurons and thus the afferent discharge. In this mini review, we will briefly summarize the general properties of PG neurons and the current knowledge about the glial-neuron communication in sensory neurons and how this phenomenon could be important in the chemical sensory processing generated in the carotid body. PMID:25538627
Hirayama, Michiko; Ogata, Masanori; Kawamata, Tomoyuki; Ishibashi, Hitoshi
Modulation of the membrane excitability of rat parasympathetic intracardiac ganglion neurons by muscarinic receptors was studied using an amphotericin B-perforated patch-clamp recording configuration. Activation of muscarinic receptors by oxotremorine-M (OxoM) depolarized the membrane, accompanied by repetitive action potentials. OxoM evoked inward currents under voltage-clamp conditions at a holding potential of -60 mV. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) markedly increased the OxoM-induced current (IOxoM). The inward IOxoM in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) was fully inhibited by removal of extracellular Na(+), indicating the involvement of non-selective cation channels. The IOxoM was inhibited by organic cation channel antagonists including SKF-96365 and ML-204. The IOxoM was antagonized by muscarinic receptor antagonists with the following potency: 4-DAMP > pirenzepine = darifenacin > methoctramine. Muscarinic toxin 7 (MT-7), a highly selective inhibitor for M1 receptor, produced partial inhibition of the IOxoM. In the presence of MT-7, concentration-inhibition curve of the M3-preferring antagonist darifenacin was shifted to the left. These results suggest the contribution of M1 and M3 receptors to the OxoM response. The IOxoM was inhibited by U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor. The membrane-permeable IP3 receptor blocker xestospongin C also inhibited the IOxoM. Furthermore, pretreatment with thapsigargin and BAPTA-AM inhibited the IOxoM, while KN-62, a blocker of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, had no effect. These results suggest that the activation mechanism involves a PLC pathway, release of Ca(2+) from intracellular Ca(2+) stores and calmodulin. The cation channels activated by muscarinic receptors may play an important role in neuronal membrane depolarization in rat intracardiac ganglion neurons.
Chun, Hye Jung; Lee, Mi Soon; Ahn, Ki Ryang; Kim, Chun Sook; Kang, Kyu Sik; Yoo, Sie Hyeon; Chung, Jin Hun; Kim, Nan-Seol; Seo, Yong Han; Gong, Hyung Youn; Lee, Yong Man
Background Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) disease has many symptoms such as globus pharyngeus, excessive throat clearing and hoarseness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stellate ganglion block (SGB) in addition to proton pump inhibitors (PPI) on LPR. Methods Fifty patients complaining of more than 3 typical LPR symptoms for over 3 months were enrolled in the study. The P group took PPI for 8 weeks. The SP group took PPI and interwent a series of 8 SGB procedure once a week during the period of treatment. The blocks were performed one at a time unilaterally on the right and left stellate ganglions by injecting 1% mepivacaine 6 ml. We evaluated the reflux symptom index (RSI) before treatment and following 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment in both groups. Results After 4 weeks of treatment, the RSI of the P group decreased, but not significantly, to 16.6 ± 6.8 compared with the baseline value of 19.2 ± 2.7 (P = 0.093), whereas the RSI of the SP group decreased significantly to 9.8 ± 3.3 compared with the baseline value of 19.0 ± 4.7 (P = 0.000). After 8 weeks of treatment, the RSI of the P group decreased significantly to 13.7 ± 6.7 (P = 0.001) and the RSI of the SP group also decreased significantly to 7.7 ± 3.4 (P = 0.000). There were significant differences in the RSI between the two groups after 4 weeks (P = 0.000) and 8 weeks (P = 0.001) of treatment. Conclusions The symptoms of LPR improved earlier when PPI therapy was combined with SGB compared with PPI therapy alone. PMID:23741567
Coombs, Julie L; Van Der List, Deborah; Chalupa, Leo M
Quantitative methods were used to assess dendritic stratification and other structural features of developing mouse retinal ganglion cells from birth to after eye opening. Cells were labeled by transgenic expression of yellow fluorescent protein, DiOlistics or diffusion of DiI, and subsequently imaged in three dimensions on a confocal microscope followed by morphometric analysis of 13 different structural properties. At postnatal day 1 (P1), the dendrites of all cells ramified across the vertical extent of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). By P3/4, dendrites were largely confined to different strata of the IPL. The stratification of dendrites initially reflected a retraction of widely ramifying dendritic processes, but for the most part this was due to the subsequent vertical expansion of the IPL. By P8, distinct cell classes could be recognized, although these had not yet attained adult-like properties. The structural features differentiating cell classes were found to follow three different developmental trends. The mean values of one set of morphological parameters were essentially unchanged throughout postnatal development; another set of measures showed a rapid rise with age to adult values; and a third set of measures first increased with age and later decreased, with the regressive events initiated around the time of eye opening. These findings suggest that the morphological development of retinal ganglion cells is regulated by diverse factors operating during different but overlapping time periods. Our results also suggest that dendritic stratification may be more highly specified in the developing mammalian retina than has been previously realized.
Herro, Angela M; Lam, Byron L
Background The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between topographic reduction in macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness as detected with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and visual field defects caused by ischemic occipital cortical injury. Methods This study was a retrospective review of all patients who presented to our eye institution between January 2012 and July 2014 with visual field defects secondary to ischemic cortical injury. The visual field defect pattern and mean deviation were analyzed. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular GCC were both assessed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Patients with any ocular pathology that could affect these measurements were excluded. The topographic relationship of visual field defect to reduction in GCC was specifically analyzed. Results Nine patients met the inclusion criteria. Their average age was 65 (57–73) years; eight were men and six had right hemianopsias. The laterality of the visual field defect was used to assign an affected and unaffected side of analysis for RNFL and GCC layer thickness. A right hemianopsia meant that the nasal fibers of the right eye and temporal fibers of the left eye were assigned as the “affected side”, and the temporal fibers of the right eye and nasal fibers of the left eye were assigned as “unaffected”. There was no statistically significant difference between affected and unaffected RNFL. However, there was a significant difference in GCC layer reduction between the affected and unaffected sides (P=0.029). Conclusion There is evidence of retrograde trans-synaptic retinal ganglion cell loss in patients with homonymous hemianopsias from cortical visual impairment. This relationship is reflected in thinning of the GCC and maintains the topographic relationship of the visual field defect. PMID:26089638
An ultrastructural double label has been employed to compare GABAergic and glycinergic systems in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the goldfish retina. Electron microscope autoradiography of /sup 3/H-GABA and /sup 3/H-glycine uptake was combined with retrograde HRP-labeling of ganglion cells. When surveyed for distribution, GABAergic and glycinergic synapses were found onto labeled ganglion cells throughout the IPL. This reinforces previous physiological work that described GABAergic and glycinergic influences on a variety of ganglion cells in goldfish and carp; These physiological effects often reflect direct inputs.
Squires, Judy H; Emery, Kathleen H; Johnson, Neil; Sorger, Joel
Intraneural ganglion cysts are uncommon cystic lesions of peripheral nerves that are typically encountered in adults. In the lower extremity, the peroneal nerve is most frequently affected with involvement of the tibial nerve much less common. This article describes a tibial intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Although extremely rare, intraneural ganglion cysts of the tibial nerve should be considered when a nonenhancing cystic structure with intra-articular extension is identified along the course of the nerve. This report also details the unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous treatment with US-guided cyst aspiration and steroid injection, an option recently reported as a viable alternative to open surgical resection.
Perucho, Laura; Artero-Castro, Ana; Guerrero, Sergi; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; LLeonart, Matilde E; Wang, Zhao-Qi
Ribosomal proteins are pivotal to development and tissue homeostasis. RP Large P1 (Rplp1) overexpression is associated with tumorigenesis. However, the physiological function of Rplp1 in mammalian development remains unknown. In this study, we disrupted Rplp1 in the mouse germline and central nervous system (Rplp1CNSΔ). Rplp1 heterozygosity caused body size reductions, male infertility, systemic abnormalities in various tissues and a high frequency of early postnatal death. Rplp1CNSΔ newborn mice exhibited perinatal lethality and brain atrophy with size reductions of the neocortex, midbrain and ganglionic eminence. The Rplp1 knockout neocortex exhibited progenitor cell proliferation arrest and apoptosis due to the dysregulation of key cell cycle and apoptosis regulators (cyclin A, cyclin E, p21CIP1, p27KIP1, p53). Similarly, Rplp1 deletion in pMEFs led to proliferation arrest and premature senescence. Importantly, Rplp1 deletion in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts did not alter global protein synthesis, but did change the expression patterns of specific protein subsets involved in protein folding and the unfolded protein response, cell death, protein transport and signal transduction, among others. Altogether, we demonstrated that the translation "fine-tuning" exerted by Rplp1 is essential for embryonic and brain development and for proper cell proliferation.
Butí, Elisenda; Mesquita, Duarte; Araújo, Sofia J
Cell migration is a widespread and complex process that is crucial for morphogenesis and for the underlying invasion and metastasis of human cancers. During migration, cells are steered toward target sites by guidance molecules that induce cell direction and movement through complex intracellular mechanisms. The spatio-temporal regulation of the expression of these guidance molecules is of extreme importance for both normal morphogenesis and human disease. One way to achieve this precise regulation is by combinatorial inputs of different transcription factors. Here we used Drosophila melanogaster mutants with migration defects in the ganglionic branches of the tracheal system to further clarify guidance regulation during cell migration. By studying the cellular consequences of overactivated Hh signalling, using ptc mutants, we found that Hh positively regulates Bnl/FGF levels during embryonic stages. Our results show that Hh modulates cell migration non-autonomously in the tissues surrounding the action of its activity. We further demonstrate that the Hh signalling pathway regulates bnl expression via Stripe (Sr), a zinc-finger transcription factor with homology to the Early Growth Response (EGR) family of vertebrate transcription factors. We propose that Hh modulates embryonic cell migration by participating in the spatio-temporal regulation of bnl expression in a permissive mode. By doing so, we provide a molecular link between the activation of Hh signalling and increased chemotactic responses during cell migration.
Cherkas, Pavel S; Huang, Tian-Ying; Pannicke, Thomas; Tal, Michael; Reichenbach, Andreas; Hanani, Menachem
Damage to peripheral nerves induces ectopic firing in sensory neurons, which can contribute to neuropathic pain. As most of the information on this topic is on dorsal root ganglia we decided to examine the influence of infra-orbital nerve section on cells of murine trigeminal ganglia. We characterized the electrophysiological properties of neurons with intracellular electrodes. Changes in the coupling of satellite glial cells (SGCs) were monitored by intracelluar injection of the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow. Electrophysiology of SGCs was studied with the patch-clamp technique. Six to eight days after axotomy, the percentage of neurons that fire spontaneously increased from 1.6 to 12.8%, the membrane depolarized from -51.1 to -45.5 mV, the percentage of cells with spontaneous potential oscillations increased from 19 to 37%, the membrane input resistance decreased from 44.4 to 39.5 MOmega, and the threshold for firing an action potential decreased from 0.61 to 0.42 nA. These changes are consistent with increased neuronal excitability. SGCs were mutually coupled around a given neuron in 21% of the cases, and to SGCs around neighboring neurons in only 4.8% of the cases. After axotomy these values increased to 37.1 and 25.8%, respectively. After axotomy the membrane resistance of SGCs decreased from 101 MOmega in controls to 40 MOmega, possibly due to increased coupling among these cells. We conclude that axotomy affects both neurons and SGCs in the trigeminal ganglion. The increased neuronal excitability and ectopic firing may play a major role in neuropathic pain.
Wang, Yves T.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Michael W.
Infrared control is a new technique that uses pulsed infrared lasers to thermally alter electrical activity. Originally developed for nerves, we have applied this technology to embryonic hearts using a quail model, previously demonstrating infrared stimulation and, here, infrared inhibition. Infrared inhibition enables repeatable and reversible block, stopping cardiac contractions for several seconds. Normal beating resumes after the laser is turned off. The block can be spatially specific, affecting propagation on the ventricle or initiation on the atrium. Optical mapping showed that the block affects action potentials and not just calcium or contraction. Increased resting intracellular calcium was observed after a 30-s exposure to the inhibition laser, which likely resulted in reduced mechanical function. Further optimization of the laser illumination should reduce potential damage. Stopping cardiac contractions by disrupting electrical activity with infrared inhibition has the potential to be a powerful tool for studying the developing heart.
Squires, Jason; Molinari, Robert W
Placement of C1 lateral mass screws may be facilitated by intentional C2 root sacrifice. Functional outcomes and morbidity following intentional sacrifice of the C2 root have not been reported in the literature. The objective is to find out if intentional C2 nerve root sacrifice affects functional outcomes and operative morbidity in patients undergoing posterior cervical fusion with C1 lateral mass screws. The study is a case report. Twenty-two consecutive elderly patients (10 males, 12 females with an average age of 77 years) with C1-2 instability were treated with posterior cervical fusion using C1 lateral mass screw placement. Five patients had preservation of the bilateral C2 nerve roots (PRES group) and 18 patients had intentional sacrifice of the bilateral C2 nerve root (SAC group). Operative times, blood loss, hospital length of stay, and complications were recorded for each patient. Functional outcomes, pain, and satisfaction scores were compared between the two groups at the time of ultimate follow-up. Average follow-up time was 19.3 months (range 6-66). The SAC group demonstrated significantly decreased operative time (109.4 vs. 187 min) and a trend towards decreased blood loss (344 vs. 1,030 mL). At ultimate follow-up both groups experienced similar mild disability with no significant difference in NDI scores, analog pain, and satisfaction scores. No patient had C2 root dysesthesia, swallowing, or speech difficulty. In this small case series, intentional sacrifice of the bilateral C2 nerve root ganglion resulted in less operative time and decreased blood loss in elderly patents undergoing C1-2 posterior fusion with the Harms technique. Functional outcome, pain and satisfaction scores were not adversely affected when this technique was used in elderly patients.
Cheng, Elise L.; Leigh, Braden; Guymon, C. Allan; Hansen, Marlan R.
The first successful in vitro experiments on the cochlea were conducted in 1928 by Honor Fell . Since then, techniques for culture of this tissue have been refined, and dissociated primary culture of the spiral ganglion has become a widely accepted in vitro model for studying nerve damage and regeneration in the cochlea. Additionally, patterned substrates have been developed that facilitate and direct neural outgrowth. A number of automated and semi-automated methods for quantifying this neurite outgrowth has been utilized in recent years [2,3]. We describe a method to study the effect of topographical cues on spiral ganglion neurite and Schwann cell alignment. We discuss our microfabrication process, characterization of pattern features, cell culture techniques for both spiral ganglion neurons and spiral ganglion Schwann cells. In addition, we describe protocols for reducing fibroblast count, immunocytochemistry, and methods for quantifying neurite and Schwann cell alignment. PMID:27259935
Aceto, M. D.; Bentley, H. C.; Dembinski, J. R.
1. The ganglion blocking agents, chlorisondamine, pentamethonium, mecamylamine, decamethonium and hexamethonium all block nicotine extensor convulsions when administered intraventricularly in mice. Tetraethylammonium was inactive. 2. For the intraventricular route, there is a relationship between ganglionic blocking potency and blocking of nicotine extensor convulsions. Indirect evidence suggests that the site(s) of action of nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality is central in origin and associated with brain areas near the ventricles. 3. When ganglion blocking agents are given orally, subcutaneously or intravenously varying degrees of protection can be observed probably depending on factors such as whether or not the drugs cross the blood-brain barrier, absorption, etc., and the effectiveness in protecting mice from nicotine is not related to ganglionic blocking potency. 4. Atropine and morphine given intraventricularly or subcutaneously did not protect mice from the LD95 of nicotine. Chlorpromazine gave very erratic results and phenobarbitone was effective subcutaneously and to a lesser extent intraventricularly. PMID:4390479
Salunke, Abhijeet Ashok; Singh, Saranjeet; Kanani, Himanshu; Chokshi, Jimmy; Nambi, G I; Raval, Pradyumna; Vala, Pathik; Jain, Shantanu; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Amit; Panchal, Ramesh
Intraosseous ganglion cyst is a rare bone tumor and the lesion could often be missed. The diagnosis could be delayed so proper radiologic investigation and index of suspicion is necessary .Differential diagnoses of painful cystic radiolucent carpal lesion are osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma and intraosseous ganglion. Curettage of the scaphoid lesion and filling of void with bone graft provides good functional outcomes. The cyst contains mucoid viscous material without epithelial or synovial lining. We present a case of 30 years old male with intraosseous ganglion cyst of scaphoid which was treated with curettage and bone grafting. Rarely ganglion cyst is found in small bones of hand and should be considered as differential diagnosis of chronic radial wrist pain.
Ding, Wei; Xiao, Lei; Jing, Wei; Zhang, Pu-Ming; Liang, Pei-Ji
A 'trial-to-trial adaptation' of bullfrog retinal ganglion cells in response to a repetitive light stimulus was investigated in the present study. Using the multielectrode recording technique, we studied the trial-to-trial adaptive properties of ganglion cells and explored the activity of population neurons during this adaptation process. It was found that the ganglion cells adapted with different degrees: their firing rates were decreased in different extents from early-adaptation to late-adaptation stage, and this was accompanied by a decrease in cross-correlation strength. In addition, adaptation behavior was different for ON-response and OFF-response, which implied that the mechanism of the trial-to-trial adaptation might involve bipolar cells and/or their synapses with other neurons and the stronger adaptation in the ganglion cells' OFF-responses might reflect the requirement to avoid possible saturation in the OFF circuit.
Pudendal nerve entrapment syndrome is an unusual cause of chronic pelvic pain. We experienced a case of pudendal neuralgia associated with a ganglion cyst. A 60-year-old male patient with a tingling sensation and burning pain in the right buttock and perineal area visited our outpatient rehabilitation center. Pelvis magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of multiple ganglion cysts around the right ischial spine and sacrospinous ligament, and the pudendal nerve and vessel bundle were located between the ischial spine and ganglion cyst at the entrance of Alcock's canal. We aspirated the lesions under ultrasound guidance, and consequently his symptoms subsided during a 6-month follow-up. This is the first report of pudendal neuralgia caused by compression from a ganglion cyst around the sacrospinous ligament. PMID:27606282
Lipton, Stuart A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Phillips, Micheal D.; Tauck, David L.; Aizenman, Elias
Functional nicotinic cholinergic receptors are found on mammalian retinal ganglion cell neurons in culture. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) can be detected in the medium of many of these retinal cultures, after release presumably from the choline acetyltransferase-positive amacrine cells. The postsynaptic effect of endogenous or applied ACh on the ganglion cells can be blocked with specific nicotinic antagonists. Here it is shown that within 24 hours of producing such a pharmacologic blockade, the retinal ganglion cells begin to sprout or regenerate neuronal processes. Thus, the growth-enhancing effect of nicotinic antagonists may be due to the removal of inhibition to growth by tonic levels of ACh present in the culture medium. Since there is a spontaneous leak of ACh in the intact retina, the effects of nicotinic cholinergic drugs on process outgrowth in culture may reflect a normal control mechanism for growth or regeneration of retinal ganglion cell processes that is exerted by ACh in vivo.
Kizilay, Zahir; Yilmaz, Ali; Gurcan, Sevilay; Berber, Osman; Ozsunar, Yelda; Eliyatkın, Nuket
The synovial and ganglion cysts originating from the facet joint have been named under the name of the Juxtafacet cyst by the several researchers. They put forward that the synovial cyst originated from the synovial joint. But, they failed to clarify the pathophysiology of the formation of the ganglion cyst. In this case report, we reported a 67-year-old male patient was referred to the emergency from another center with the complaint of a left leg pain and weakness in the left foot and patient was treated with microchirurgical technique. His patological examination was evaluated a ganglion cyst. We have discussed and explained the pathophysiology of the formation of a ganglion cyst derivered from a synovial cyst. And separately, we have presented the spinal cysts by grouping them under a new classification called a cystic formation of the soft tissue attachments of the mobile spine as well as dividing them into sub-groups.
Manipulation of neurotrophin (NT) signalling by administration or depletion of NTs, by transgenic overexpression or by deletion of genes coding for NTs and their receptors has demonstrated the importance of NT signalling for the survival and differentiation of neurons in sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Combination with mutation of the proapoptotic Bax gene allows the separation of survival and differentiation effects. These studies together with cell culture analysis suggest that NT signalling directly regulates the differentiation of neuron subpopulations and their integration into neural networks. The high-affinity NT receptors trkA, trkB and trkC are restricted to subpopulations of mature neurons, whereas their expression at early developmental stages largely overlaps. trkC is expressed throughout sympathetic ganglia and DRG early after ganglion formation but becomes restricted to small neuron subpopulations during embryogenesis when trkA is turned on. The temporal relationship between trkA and trkC expression is conserved between sympathetic ganglia and DRG. In DRG, NGF signalling is required not only for survival, but also for the differentiation of nociceptors. Expression of neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P, which specify peptidergic nociceptors, depends on nerve growth factor (NGF) signalling. ret expression indicative of non-peptidergic nociceptors is also promoted by the NGF-signalling pathway. Regulation of TRP channels by NGF signalling might specify the temperature sensitivity of afferent neurons embryonically. The manipulation of NGF levels "tunes" heat sensitivity in nociceptors at postnatal and adult stages. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling is required for subpopulations of DRG neurons that are not fully characterized; it affects mechanical sensitivity in slowly adapting, low-threshold mechanoreceptors and might involve the regulation of DEG/ENaC ion channels. NT3 signalling is required for the
Koo, Ja-Won; Homanics, Gregg E; Balaban, Carey D
This study documents morphologic alterations in the spiral ganglion and Scarpa's ganglion from gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor beta(3) subunit null mutant mice. The ganglion cells of the mutant mice were hypoplastic in hematoylin&eosin-stained sections. Hypoplasia was observed at every location of the spiral ganglion and Scarpa's ganglion except the apical cochlear turn. Calretinin immunostaining demonstrated a selective hypoplasia of calretinin-negative cells at every location of spiral and Scarpa's ganglion cells, while the soma area of calretinin-positive cells was not affected by the gene deletion. Meanwhile, in the spiral ganglion of both wild type and knockout mice, there were apical to basal gradients in the soma size and the proportion of calretinin-positive cells. The absence of statistically significant hypoplasia in hematoylin&eosin sections through the apical turn of the cochlea can be explained by the relatively higher proportion of calretinin-positive ganglion cells, which were unaffected by the gene deletion. These findings suggest that GABA(A) receptor isoforms containing the beta(3) subunit may play an important role in the development and differentiation of non-calyceal terminals of Scarpa's ganglion cells and type II and smaller type I spiral ganglion cells.
Dann, J F; Buhl, E H
The morphology of retinal ganglion cells was determined in megachiroptera, commonly known as flying foxes. Retinal ganglion cells were intracellularly injected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow in fixed retinae from adult little red flying foxes (Pteropus scapulatus) captured in their natural habitat. Ganglion cells closely resembled the three main classes of cat retinal ganglion cells, and therefore were classified into alpha-, beta-, and gamma-type cells. The size of the alpha- and beta-type somas and dendritic fields increased with increasing distance from the area centralis. However, this eccentricity dependence was not as pronounced as in the cat. The gamma-type cells were sub-divided into mono-, bi-, and diffusely stratified, in accordance with the ramification of their dendrites within the inner plexiform layer. The alpha- and beta-type cells were uni-stratified in either the sublamina of the inner plexiform layer closest to the ganglion cell layer or in that closest to the inner nuclear layer. These laminae correspond to those in the cat retina which contain the dendritic ramifications of ganglion cells whose central receptive fields respond best to onset of light (the "on-centre" cells), or to ganglion cells whose centres respond optimally to light being extinguished (the "off-centre" cells). Thus the flying fox retina contains a morphological correlate of the "on"/"off" dichotomy of alpha and beta cells in the cat retina. In general the flying fox retinal ganglion cells exhibit a degree of morphological complexity reminiscent of cat retinal cells and this may reflect similar functional properties.
Tong, Chih Kong
Microglia begin colonizing the developing brain as early as embryonic day 9, prior to the emergence of neurons and other glia. Their ontogeny is also distinct from other central nervous system cells, as they derive from yolk sac hematopoietic progenitors and not neural progenitors. In this review, we feature these unique characteristics of microglia and assess the spatiotemporal similarities between microglia colonization of the central nervous system and embryonic neurogenesis. We also infer to existing evidence for microglia function from embryonic through to postnatal neurodevelopment to postulate roles for microglia in neurogenesis. PMID:27555616
Pachman, Deirdre R.; Barton, Debra; Carns, Paul E.; Novotny, Paul J.; Wolf, Sherry; Linquist, Breanna; Kohli, Sadhna; Smith, DeAnne R.; Loprinzi, Charles L.
Purpose Hot flashes are a significant problem in breast cancer patients, especially because the most effective therapy, estrogen, is often contraindicated. Based on recent pilot data from a single group supporting the use of a stellate ganglion block for the treatment of hot flashes, the present pilot trial was done to further evaluate the hypothesis that a stellate ganglion block may be a safe and effective therapy for hot flashes. Methods In women with breast cancer who had hot flashes, a stellate ganglion block was performed after 1 week of baseline hot flash data collection. The main efficacy measures were the changes from baseline in hot flash frequency and hot flash score during the 6th week. Results Ten patients were enrolled between 4/23/2009 and 7/10/2009; eight patients were evaluable. After the stellate ganglion block, the mean hot flash frequency and score decreased from baseline values by over 60% during some of the post-treatment weeks. The mean hot flash frequency and score at week 6 decreased from baseline values by 44% and 45%, respectively. There were no significant adverse events clearly attributed to the stellate ganglion blocks. Conclusions The results of this pilot trial support that stellate ganglion blocks may be a helpful therapy for hot flashes. A prospective placebo-controlled clinical trial should be done to more definitively determine this contention. PMID:20496155
Marchiafava, P. L.; Torre, V.
1. Ganglion cells responses to illumination and to optic nerve stimulation were recorded intracellularly from the retina of the turtle. All ganglion cells were identified by their antidromic responses to optic nerve stimulation. 2. When solitary spikes are produced following antidromic, orthodromic or intracellular stimulation, about 20% of the recorded ganglion cells show an additional depolarization along the falling phase of the action potential (post-spike depolarization, PSD). 3. The PSD following the antidromic action potential disappears upon collision with a direct spike or when the antidromic spike is prevented from invading the cell soma. 4. By pairing two optic nerve stimuli the PSD is depressed with brief interstimulus intervals, but gradually recovers to the control amplitude 600-800 msec after the conditioning shock. 5. The PSD is tentatively interpreted as an e.p.s.p. transmitted by ganglion cell collaterals originating at the level of the soma dendritic complex of the recorded cell. 6. The interspike interval histogram of ganglion cells showing PSD is characterized by a peak at about 10 msec, as opposed to a peak between 12 and 100 msec observed in cells without PSD. It is suggested that the occurrence of PSD facilitate the onset of additional action potentials at brief interspikes intervals, thus potentiating ganglion cell discharges. PMID:874914
Satomi, H; Takahashi, K
The distribution and peripheral connections of aberrant ganglion cells in the facial nerve trunk of the cat were studied by means of Klüver-Barrera staining and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). By the Klüver-Barrera staining, aberrant ganglion cells were observed in the facial nerve trunk between the geniculate ganglion and the junction of the auricular branch of the vagus with the facial nerve trunk, although the number varied considerably with each animal. These cells were generally medium-sized and of round or oval shape, with densely stained Nissl substance, the features of which were essentially similar to those of the geniculate ganglion. In cases where HRP injections were made into the anterior wall of the auricle, several HRP-labeled cells were found ipsilaterally in the facial nerve trunk in addition to cell labeling of the geniculate ganglion. The present study in the cat demonstrated that at least some of the aberrant ganglion cells scattered in the facial nerve trunk are parental to the axons to the auricle, subserving the cutaneous sensory function.
Rozbruch, S R; Chang, V; Bohne, W H; Deland, J T
This article reviews 54 consecutive patients with lower extremity ganglion cysts that were surgically removed and histologically confirmed at the Hospital for Special Surgery from 1981 to 1993. Lower extremity ganglia were more common among women. Patients' ages ranged from 13 to 80 years, with the fifth and sixth decades being the most common. Size of the cysts ranged from 3 cm to 10 cm (average: 2.9 cm). Thirty-six (67%) patients had ganglion cysts of the foot and ankle, and 18 (33%) patients had ganglion cysts of the knee area. Four (7%) patients had intraosseous ganglia located in the proximal tibia, patella, and the first metatarsal head. Follow-up data of 40 (74%) patients at an average of 5.9 years (range: 1 to 12.5 years) were obtained. Satisfaction was reported by 83% of patients. Recurrence was seen in 10% of patients, and a report of no or mild pain was given by 86% of the group. Patients who underwent revision ganglion excision had inferior results. Only 25% reported satisfaction and 50% reported no or mild pain. Patients who underwent curettage of an intraosseous ganglion appeared to have superior results. All patients reported satisfaction and no or mild pain. The performance of a concomitant surgical procedure, the anatomic region of the ganglion, or type of postoperative immobilization did not appear to affect the outcome.
Harrison, Sarah Ellys; Sozen, Berna; Christodoulou, Neophytos; Kyprianou, Christos; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena
Mammalian embryogenesis requires intricate interactions between embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues to orchestrate and coordinate morphogenesis with changes in developmental potential. Here, we combine mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and extra-embryonic trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) in a 3D-scaffold to generate structures whose morphogenesis is remarkably similar to natural embryos. By using genetically-modified stem cells and specific inhibitors, we show embryogenesis of ESC- and TSC-derived embryos, ETS-embryos, depends on crosstalk involving Nodal signaling. When ETS-embryos develop, they spontaneously initiate expression of mesoderm and primordial germ cell markers asymmetrically on the embryonic and extra-embryonic border, in response to Wnt and BMP signaling. Our study demonstrates the ability of distinct stem cell types to self-assemble in vitro to generate embryos whose morphogenesis, architecture, and constituent cell-types resemble natural embryos.
Liang, Chengzhen; Li, Aifu; Yu, Hua; Li, Wenzhen; Liang, Chengzhi; Guo, Sandui; Zhang, Rui; Chu, Chengcai
It has been suggested that melatonin acts as an important regulator in controlling root growth and development, but the underlying molecular mechanism driving this relationship remains undetermined. In this study, we demonstrated that melatonin acts as a potent molecule to govern root architecture in rice. Treatments with melatonin significantly inhibited embryonic root growth, and promoted lateral root formation and development. Genome-wide expression profiling by RNA-sequencing revealed auxin-related genes were significantly activated under melatonin treatment. Moreover, several transcription factors and candidate cis-regulatory elements involved in root growth and developments, as well as auxin-related processes, were over-represented in both co-up and -down differentially expressed genes, suggesting that melatonin-mediated root growth occurs in an auxin signal pathway-dependent manner. Further, gravitropic response analysis determined that melatonin affects auxin-regulated processes in rice root. These data show that melatonin shapes root architecture by directly or indirectly activating the auxin signaling pathway. PMID:28223997
Wilson, William Wynne
This article describes techniques which enable the user of a comparatively simple calculator to perform calculations of cube roots, nth roots, trigonometric, and inverse trigonometric functions, logarithms, and exponentials. (DT)
Marsh, A. R.
Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)
Song, X J; Hu, S J; Greenquist, K W; Zhang, J M; LaMotte, R H
Chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion (CCD) was produced in adult rats by implanting a stainless steel rod unilaterally into the intervertebral foramen, one rod at L(4) and another at L(5). Two additional groups of rats received either a sham surgery or an acute injury consisting of a transient compression of the ganglion. Withdrawal of the hindpaw was used as evidence of a nocifensive response to mechanical and thermal stimulation of the plantar surface. In addition, extracellular electrophysiological recordings of spontaneous discharges were obtained from dorsal root fibers of formerly compressed ganglia using an in vitro nerve-DRG-dorsal root preparation. The mean threshold force of punctate indentation and the mean threshold temperature of heating required to elicit a 50% incidence of foot withdrawal ipsilateral to the CCD were significantly lower than preoperative values throughout the 35 days of postoperative testing. The number of foot withdrawals ipsilateral to the CCD during a 20-min contact with a temperature-controlled floor was significantly increased over preoperative values throughout postoperative testing when the floor was 4 degrees C (hyperalgesia) and, to a lesser extent, when it was 30 degrees C (spontaneous pain). Stroking the foot with a cotton wisp never elicited a reflex withdrawal before surgery but did so in most rats tested ipsilateral to the CCD during the first 2 postoperative weeks. In contrast, the CCD produced no changes in responses to mechanical or thermal stimuli on the contralateral foot. The sham operation and acute injury produced no change in behavior other than slight, mechanical hyperalgesia for approximately 1 day, ipsilateral to the acute injury. Ectopic spontaneous discharges generated within the chronically compressed ganglion and, occurring in the absence of blood-borne chemicals and without an intact sympathetic nervous system, were recorded from neurons with intact, conducting, myelinated or unmyelinated
The appearance of diploidy, the presence of two genomes or chromosome sets, is a fundamental hallmark of eukaryotic evolution and bisexual reproduction, because diploidy offers the basis for the bisexual life cycle, allowing for oscillation between diploid and haploid phases. Meiosis produces haploid gametes. At fertilization, male and female gametes fuse to restore diploidy in a zygote, which develops into a new life. At sex maturation, diploid cells enter into meiosis, culminating in the production of haploid gametes. Therefore, diploidy ensures pluripotency, cell proliferation, and functions, whereas haploidy is restricted only to the post-meiotic gamete phase of germline development and represents the end point of cell growth. Diploidy is advantageous for evolution. Haploidy is ideal for genetic analyses, because any recessive mutations of essential genes will show a clear phenotype in the absence of a second gene copy. Recently, my laboratory succeeded in the generation of medaka haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells capable of whole animal production. Therefore, haploidy in a vertebrate is able to support stable cell culture and pluripotency. This finding anticipates the possibility to generate haploid ES cells in other vertebrate species such as zebrafish. These medaka haploid ES cells elegantly combine haploidy and pluripotency, offering a unique yeast-like system for in vitro genetic analyses of molecular, cellular, and developmental events in various cell lineages. This chapter is aimed to describe the strategy of haploid ES cell derivation and their characteristics, and illustrate the perspectives of haploid ES cells for infertility treatment, genetic screens, and analyses.
Marques, Camila; Faustino, Francine; Bertolucci, Bruno; Paes, Maria do Carmo Faria; Silva, Regiane Cristina da; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada
The aim of this study was to characterize the embryonic development of Zungaro jahu, a fresh water teleostei commonly known as 'jaú'. Samples were collected at pre-determined times from oocyte release to larval hatching and analysed under light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. At the first collection times, the oocytes and eggs were spherical and yellowish, with an evident micropyle. Embryo development took place at 29.4 ± 1.5°C and was divided into seven stages: zygote, cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, organogenesis, and hatching. The differentiation of the animal and vegetative poles occured during the zygote stage, at 10 min post-fertilization (mpf), leading to the development of the egg cell at 15 mpf. From 20 to 75 mpf, successive cleavages resulted in the formation of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 blastomeres. The morula stage was observed between 90 and 105 mpf, and the blastula and gastrula stage at 120 and 180 mpf; respectively. The end of the gastrula stage was characterized by the presence of the yolk plug at 360 mpf. Organogenesis followed, with differentiation of the cephalic and caudal regions, elongation of the embryo by the cephalo-caudal axis, and somitogenesis. Hatching occurred at 780 mpf, with mean larval total length of 3.79 ± 0.11 mm.
Corky root rot (corchosis) was first reported in Argentina in 1985, but the disease was presumably present long before that. The disease occurs in most alfalfa-growing areas of Argentina but is more common in older stands. In space-planted alfalfa trials scored for root problems, corky root rot was ...
I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.
Datta, Sila; Ray, Jay Gopal; Deb, Tushar; Patsa, Santanu
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the malignant neoplasm of striated muscle and a relatively uncommon tumor of the oral cavity. Embryonal variety is the most common subtype, observed in children below 10 years of age but occasionally seen in adolescents and young adults. The present report describes a case of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in the left posterior buccal mucosa, with extension in the adjacent alveolus, soft palate, oropharynx and nasopharynx of a 17-year-old female. PMID:27721622
Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A
Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260).
Murakawa, K; Ishimoto, E; Noma, K; Ishida, K; Nishijima, M; Izumi, R
The circulatory effects of stellate ganglion block (SGB) on the blood flow through the common carotid artery were determined in 35 patients in acute phase of idiopathic facial palsy (Bell's palsy). SGB was performed by para-tracheal approach with 8 ml of 1% mepivacaine. The blood flow was measured with an ultrasonic blood flowmeter before and 30 minutes after SGB at both sides of the common carotid artery in 20 cases. Measurement was performed continuously for 90 minutes on the palsy side in the other 15 patients. Before SGB, there were no significant differences between the blood flow of the palsy side and the intact side. Thirty minutes after SGB, the blood flow markedly increased to 169.4 +/- 6.2% on the performed side with no change on the non-performed side in 20 cases. In the other 15 patients, the blood flow increased significantly 5 minutes after SGB and reached its peak of 179.7 +/- 11.1% at 20 minutes later. This increase continued for 75 minutes after SGB. It is well known that impaired microcirculation in the facial nerve has an important role in the pathophysiology of Bell's palsy. In view of the fact that the nutrient arteries for the facial nerve are the peripheral branches of the external carotid artery, we believe that SGB which causes significant increase in the blood flow through the common carotid artery is an effective treatment in Bell's palsy.
An animal's ability to perceive the external world is conditioned by its capacity to extract and encode specific features of the visual image. The output of the vertebrate retina is not a simple representation of the 2D visual map generated by photon absorptions in the photoreceptor layer. Rather, spatial, temporal, direction selectivity and color “dimensions” of the original image are distributed in the form of parallel output channels mediated by distinct retinal ganglion cell (RGC) populations. We propose that visual information transmitted to the brain includes additional, light-independent, inputs that reflect the functional states of the retina, anterior eye and the body. These may include the local ion microenvironment, glial metabolism and systemic parameters such as intraocular pressure, temperature and immune activation which act on ion channels that are intrinsic to RGCs. We particularly focus on light-independent mechanical inputs that are associated with physical impact, cell swelling and intraocular pressure as excessive mechanical stimuli lead to the counterintuitive experience of “pressure phosphenes” and/or debilitating blinding disease such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. We point at recently discovered retinal mechanosensitive ion channels as examples through which molecular physiology brings together Greek phenomenology, modern neuroscience and medicine. Thus, RGC output represents a unified picture of the embodied context within which vision takes place. PMID:26427477
Nakamura, Shiro; Bradley, Robert M
Geniculate ganglion (GG) cell bodies of chorda tympani (CT), greater superficial petrosal (GSP), and posterior auricular (PA) nerves transmit orofacial sensory information to the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract. We have used whole cell recording to investigate the characteristics of the Na(+) channels in isolated Fluorogold-labeled GG neurons that innervate different peripheral receptive fields. GG neurons expressed two classes of Na(+) channels, TTX sensitive (TTX-S) and TTX resistant (TTX-R). The majority of GG neurons expressed TTX-R currents of different amplitudes. TTX-R currents were relatively small in 60% of the neurons but were large in 12% of the sampled population. In a further 28% of the neurons, TTX completely abolished all Na(+) currents. Application of TTX completely inhibited action potential generation in all CT and PA neurons but had little effect on the generation of action potentials in 40% of GSP neurons. Most CT, GSP, and PA neurons stained positively with IB(4), and 27% of the GSP neurons were capsaicin sensitive. The majority of IB(4)-positive GSP neurons with large TTX-R Na(+) currents responded to capsaicin, whereas IB(4)-positive GSP neurons with small TTX-R Na(+) currents were capsaicin insensitive. These data demonstrate the heterogeneity of GG neurons and indicate the existence of a subset of GSP neurons sensitive to capsaicin, usually associated with nociceptors. Since there are no reports of nociceptors in the GSP receptive field, the role of these capsaicin-sensitive neurons is not clear.
Roecklein, Kathryn A; Wong, Patricia M; Miller, Megan A; Donofry, Shannon D; Kamarck, Marissa L; Brainard, George C
In two recent reports, melanopsin gene variations were associated with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and in changes in the timing of sleep and activity in healthy individuals. New studies have deepened our understanding of the retinohypothalamic tract, which translates environmental light received by the retina into neural signals sent to a set of nonvisual nuclei in the brain that are responsible for functions other than sight including circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral regulation. Because this pathway mediates seasonal changes in physiology, behavior, and mood, individual variations in the pathway may explain why approximately 1-2% of the North American population develops mood disorders with a seasonal pattern (i.e., Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorders with a seasonal pattern, also known as seasonal affective disorder/SAD). Components of depression including mood changes, sleep patterns, appetite, and cognitive performance can be affected by the biological and behavioral responses to light. Specifically, variations in the gene sequence for the retinal photopigment, melanopsin, may be responsible for significant increased risk for mood disorders with a seasonal pattern, and may do so by leading to changes in activity and sleep timing in winter. The retinal sensitivity of SAD is hypothesized to be decreased compared to controls, and that further decrements in winter light levels may combine to trigger depression in winter. Here we outline steps for new research to address the possible role of melanopsin in seasonal affective disorder including chromatic pupillometry designed to measure the sensitivity of melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells.
Martersteck, Emily M; Hirokawa, Karla E; Evarts, Mariah; Bernard, Amy; Duan, Xin; Li, Yang; Ng, Lydia; Oh, Seung W; Ouellette, Benjamin; Royall, Joshua J; Stoecklin, Michelle; Wang, Quanxin; Zeng, Hongkui; Sanes, Joshua R; Harris, Julie A
Understanding how >30 types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the mouse retina each contribute to visual processing in the brain will require more tools that label and manipulate specific RGCs. We screened and analyzed retinal expression of Cre recombinase using 88 transgenic driver lines. In many lines, Cre was expressed in multiple RGC types and retinal cell classes, but several exhibited more selective expression. We comprehensively mapped central projections from RGCs labeled in 26 Cre lines using viral tracers, high-throughput imaging, and a data processing pipeline. We identified over 50 retinorecipient regions and present a quantitative retina-to-brain connectivity map, enabling comparisons of target-specificity across lines. Projections to two major central targets were notably correlated: RGCs projecting to the outer shell or core regions of the lateral geniculate projected to superficial or deep layers within the superior colliculus, respectively. Retinal images and projection data are available online at http://connectivity.brain-map.org.
Pindrik, Jonathan; Macki, Mohamed; Bydon, Mohamad; Maleki, Zahra; Bydon, Ali
Typically situated posterolateral in the spinal canal, intraspinal facet cysts often cause radicular symptoms. Rarely, the midline location of these synovial or ganglion cysts may cause thecal sac compression leading to neurogenic claudication or cauda equina syndrome. This article summarizes the clinical presentation, radiographic appearance, and management of three intraspinal, midline facet cysts. Three patients with symptomatic midline intraspinal facet cysts were retrospectively reviewed. Documented clinical visits, operative notes, histopathology reports, and imaging findings were investigated for each patient. One patient presented with neurogenic claudication while two patients developed partial, subacute cauda equina syndrome. All 3 patients initially responded favorably to lumbar decompression and midline cyst resection; however, one patient required surgical stabilization 8 mo later. Following the three case presentations, we performed a thorough literature search in order to identify articles describing intraspinal cystic lesions in lateral or midline locations. Midline intraspinal facet cysts represent an uncommon cause of lumbar stenosis and thecal sac compression. Such entities should enter the differential diagnosis of midline posterior cystic lesions. Midline cysts causing thecal sac compression respond favorably to lumbar surgical decompression and cyst resection. Though laminectomy is a commonly performed operation, stabilization may be required in cases of spondylolisthesis or instability. PMID:24364023
Pindrik, Jonathan; Macki, Mohamed; Bydon, Mohamad; Maleki, Zahra; Bydon, Ali
Typically situated posterolateral in the spinal canal, intraspinal facet cysts often cause radicular symptoms. Rarely, the midline location of these synovial or ganglion cysts may cause thecal sac compression leading to neurogenic claudication or cauda equina syndrome. This article summarizes the clinical presentation, radiographic appearance, and management of three intraspinal, midline facet cysts. Three patients with symptomatic midline intraspinal facet cysts were retrospectively reviewed. Documented clinical visits, operative notes, histopathology reports, and imaging findings were investigated for each patient. One patient presented with neurogenic claudication while two patients developed partial, subacute cauda equina syndrome. All 3 patients initially responded favorably to lumbar decompression and midline cyst resection; however, one patient required surgical stabilization 8 mo later. Following the three case presentations, we performed a thorough literature search in order to identify articles describing intraspinal cystic lesions in lateral or midline locations. Midline intraspinal facet cysts represent an uncommon cause of lumbar stenosis and thecal sac compression. Such entities should enter the differential diagnosis of midline posterior cystic lesions. Midline cysts causing thecal sac compression respond favorably to lumbar surgical decompression and cyst resection. Though laminectomy is a commonly performed operation, stabilization may be required in cases of spondylolisthesis or instability.
Yu, Peng; Hochholdinger, Frank; Li, Chunjian
Background and Aims Shoot-borne roots contribute to most of the nutrient uptake throughout the life cycle of maize (Zea mays). Compared with numerous studies with embryonic roots, detailed information on the phenotypic plasticity of shoot-borne roots in response to a heterogeneous nitrogen supply is scarce. The present study therefore provides a comprehensive profile of fine-scale plastic responses of distinct root types to localized high nitrate supply. Methods Seedlings of the maize inbred line B73 were grown in split-root systems. The anatomy and morphological plasticity of the primary root and the roots initiated from the 2nd, 5th and 7th shoot nodes, and their lateral roots, were studied in response to local high nitrate supply to one side of the root system. Key Results In contrast to the insensitivity of axial roots, local high nitrate supply increased the length of 1st-order lateral roots on the primary root and the three whorls of shoot-borne roots at different growth stages, and increased the density of 1st-order lateral roots on the 7th shoot-borne root after silking. The length and density of 2nd-order lateral roots on the three whorls of shoot-borne roots displayed a more flexible response to local high nitrate than 1st-order lateral roots. Root diameter and number, and total area and diameter of metaxylem vessels increased from the primary root to early and then later developed shoot-borne roots, which showed a positive relationship with shoot growth and N accumulation. Conclusions Maize axial roots and lateral roots responded differently to local high nitrate, and this was related to their function. The extent of morphological plasticity of lateral roots in response to local high nitrate depended on the initiation time of the shoot-borne roots on which the lateral roots developed. Morphological plasticity was higher on 2nd-order than on 1st-order lateral roots. The results suggest that higher order lateral root branching might be a potential target
Atasever, A; Palaoğlu, S; Erbengi, A; Celik, H H
Recent studies have shown that injection of the tracer wheat-germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) into the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of one side results in labelling of neurons in the contralateral SCG and the stellate ganglion. This study was designed to verify whether or not bilateral projections from the superior cervical ganglion to the midline structures, particularly to the pineal gland, play a role in the transport of WGA-HRP to the contralateral SCG. One group of rats received WGA-HRP injection into the right SCG (group I). Four groups of rats underwent the following operations prior to the injection of WGA-HRP into the right superior cervical ganglion: transection of the external carotid nerve (group II), transection of the internal carotid nerve (group III), transection of the external carotid nerve combined with pinealectomy (group IV), transection of both the internal and the external carotid nerves (group V). The mean number of labelled neurons in the left SCG of each group were found as follows: group I, 1516 +/- 221 (mean +/- S.D.); group II, 861 +/- 122; group III, 543 +/- 99; group IV, 562 +/- 144; group V, 220 +/- 52. The results of this study suggest that the contralateral labelling depends on the transneuronal transport of WGA-HRP through the terminal fields of innervation of the midline structures that receive bilateral projections from both SCGs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7512544
Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.; Provencio, Ignacio
The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) receives direct retinal input via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), and the retinal ganglion cells contributing to this projection may be specialized with respect to direct regulation of the circadian clock. However, some ganglion cells forming the RHT bifurcate, sending axon collaterals to the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) through which light has secondary access to the circadian clock. The present studies provide a more extensive examination of ganglion cell bifurcation and evaluate whether ganglion cells projecting to several subcortical visual nuclei contain melanopsin, a putative ganglion cell photopigment. The results showed that retinal ganglion cells projecting to the SCN send collaterals to the IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, and superior colliculus, among other places. Melanopsin-immunoreactive (IR) ganglion cells are present in the hamster retina, and some of these cells project to the SCN, IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, or superior colliculus. Triple-label analysis showed that melanopsin-IR cells bifurcate and project bilaterally to each SCN, but not to the other visual nuclei evaluated. The melanopsin-IR cells have photoreceptive characteristics optimal for circadian rhythm regulation. However, the presence of moderately widespread bifurcation among ganglion cells projecting to the SCN, and projection by melanopsin-IR cells to locations distinct from the SCN and without known rhythm function, suggest that this ganglion cell type is generalized, rather than specialized, with respect to the conveyance of photic information to the brain. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Kikkawa, I; Sugimoto, H; Saita, K; Ookami, H; Nakama, S; Hoshino, Y
In the field of lumbar spine disorders, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can clearly depict a lumbar nerve root from the distal region to the dorsal root ganglion. In this study, we used a gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced-three-dimensional (3-D) fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence when examining lumbosacral disorders. The subjects were 33 patients (14 men and 19 women) in whom lumbosacral neural compression had been diagnosed clinically. Twenty-one patients had lumbar disc herniation, 11 had lumbar spinal stenosis, and 1 had lumbar radiculopathy caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Five subjects with low back pain were also studied as a control group. In all patients and in all 5 of the controls, the dorsal root ganglion of every root was enhanced clearly. There was no root enhancement in the 5 controls. Enhancement of the symptomatic nerve roots, caused by compression, was found in 11 of the 33 patients. All 11 patients had radiculopathy, and muscle weakness was more frequent in patients with enhanced nerve roots than in those without enhancement. There was no enhancement of the cauda equina, even in the patients with cauda syndrome. The enhancement effect may reflect some pathological condition of the compressed nerve root and needs to be studied further.
Singh, Ratnesh K.; Mallela, Ramya K.; Cornuet, Pamela K.; Reifler, Aaron N.; Chervenak, Andrew P.; West, Michael D.; Wong, Kwoon Y.; Nasonkin, Igor O.
Stem cell-based therapy of retinal degenerative conditions is a promising modality to treat blindness, but requires new strategies to improve the number of functionally integrating cells. Grafting semidifferentiated retinal tissue rather than progenitors allows preservation of tissue structure and connectivity in retinal grafts, mandatory for vision restoration. Using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we derived retinal tissue growing in adherent conditions consisting of conjoined neural retina and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and evaluated cell fate determination and maturation in this tissue. We found that deriving such tissue in adherent conditions robustly induces all eye field genes (RX, PAX6, LHX2, SIX3, SIX6) and produces four layers of pure populations of retinal cells: RPE (expressing NHERF1, EZRIN, RPE65, DCT, TYR, TYRP, MITF, PMEL), early photoreceptors (PRs) (coexpressing CRX and RCVRN), inner nuclear layer neurons (expressing CALB2), and retinal ganglion cells [RGCs, expressing BRN3B and Neurofilament (NF) 200]. Furthermore, we found that retinal progenitors divide at the apical side of the hESC-derived retinal tissue (next to the RPE layer) and then migrate toward the basal side, similar to that found during embryonic retinogenesis. We detected synaptogenesis in hESC-derived retinal tissue, and found neurons containing many synaptophysin-positive boutons within the RGC and PR layers. We also observed long NF200-positive axons projected by RGCs toward the apical side. Whole-cell recordings demonstrated that putative amacrine and/or ganglion cells exhibited electrophysiological responses reminiscent of those in normal retinal neurons. These responses included voltage-gated Na+ and K+ currents, depolarization-induced spiking, and responses to neurotransmitter receptor agonists. Differentiation in adherent conditions allows generation of long and flexible pieces of 3D retinal tissue suitable for isolating transplantable slices of tissue for
Feng, Shuang; Pflueger, Melissa; Lin, Shuang-Xiu; Groveman, Bradley R; Su, Jiping; Yu, Xian-Min
Voltage-gated sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+)channels have been found to be regulated by Src family kinases(SFKs).However, how these channels are regulated by SFKs in cochlear spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) remains unknown.Here, we report that altering the activity of endogenous SFKs modulated voltage-gated Na+, but not K+, currents recorded in embryonic SGNs in culture. Voltage-gated Na+ current was suppressed by inhibition of endogenous SFKs or just Src and potentiated by the activation of these enzymes. Detailed investigations showed that under basal conditions, SFK inhibitor application did not significantly affect the voltage-dependent activation, but shifted the steady-state inactivation curves of Na+ currents and delayed the recovery of Na+ currents from inactivation. Application of Src specific inhibitor, Src40–58,not only shifted the inactivation curve but also delayed the recovery of Na+ currents and moved the voltage-dependent activation curve towards the left. The pre-inhibition of SFKs occluded all the effects induced by Src40–58 application, except the left shift of the activation curve. The activation of SFKs did not change either steady-state inactivation or recovery of Na+ currents, but caused the left shift of the activation curve.SFK inhibitor application effectively prevented all the effects induced by SFK activation, suggesting that both the voltage-dependent activation and steady-state inactivation of Na+ current are subjects of SFK regulation. The different effects induced by activation versus inhibition of SFKs implied that under basal conditions, endogenously active and inactive SFKs might be differentially involved in the regulation of voltage-gated Na+ channels in SGNs.
Wang, Congmin; You, Yan; Qi, Dashi; Zhou, Xing; Wang, Lei; Wei, Song; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Huang, Weixi; Liu, Zhidong; Liu, Fang; Ma, Lan; Yang, Zhengang
In adult rodent and monkey brains, newly born neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the wall of the lateral ventricle migrate into the olfactory bulb (OB) via the rostral migratory stream (RMS). A recent study reported that interneurons are constantly generating in the adult human striatum from the SVZ. In contrast, by taking advantage of the continuous expression of Sp8 from the neuroblast stage through differentiation into mature interneurons, we found that the adult human SVZ does not generate new interneurons for the striatum. In the adult human SVZ and RMS, very few neuroblasts were observed, and most of them expressed the transcription factor Sp8. Neuroblasts in the adult rhesus monkey SVZ-RMS-OB pathway also expressed Sp8. In addition, we observed that Sp8 was expressed by most adult human and monkey OB interneurons. However, very few Sp8+ cells were in the adult human striatum. This suggests that neuroblasts in the adult human SVZ and RMS are likely destined for the OB, but not for the striatum. BrdU-labeling results also revealed few if any newly born neurons in the adult rhesus monkey striatum. Finally, on the basis of transcription factor expression, we provide strong evidence that the vast majority of interneurons in the human and monkey striatum are generated from the medial ganglionic eminence during embryonic developmental stages, as they are in rodents. We conclude that, although a small number of neuroblasts exist in the adult human SVZ, they do not migrate into the striatum and become mature striatal interneurons.
Casais, Marilina; Delgado, Silvia M; Sosa, Zulema; Telleria, Carlos M; Rastrilla, Ana M
Background Although the control of ovarian production of steroid hormones is mainly of endocrine nature, there is increasing evidence that the nervous system also influences ovarian steroidogenic output. The purpose of this work was to study whether the celiac ganglion modulates, via the superior ovarian nerve, the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the rat ovary. Using mid- and late-pregnant rats, we set up to study: 1) the influence of the noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion on the ovarian production of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione; 2) the modulatory effect of noradrenaline at the celiac ganglion on the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the ovary; and 3) the involvement of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters released in the ovary upon the combination of noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion and LH treatment of the ovary. Methods The ex vivo celiac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve-ovary integrated system was used. This model allows studying in vitro how direct neural connections from the celiac ganglion regulate ovarian steroidogenic output. The system was incubated in buffer solution with the ganglion and the ovary located in different compartments and linked by the superior ovarian nerve. Three experiments were designed with the addition of: 1) noradrenaline in the ganglion compartment; 2