Sample records for rosewood aniba rosaeodora

  1. Rosewood oil induces sedation and inhibits compound action potential in rodents.


    de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; Araújo, Demétrius Antonio Machado; Gonçalves, Juan Carlos Ramos; Montenegro, Fabrícia Costa; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Leite, José Roberto; Mattei, Rita; Benedito, Marco Antonio Campana; de Carvalho, José Gilberto Barbosa; Cruz, Jader Santos; Maia, José Guilherme Soares


    Aniba rosaeodora is an aromatic plant which has been used in Brazil folk medicine due to its sedative effect. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sedative effect of linalool-rich rosewood oil in mice. In addition we sought to investigate the linalool-rich oil effects on the isolated nerve using the single sucrose-gap technique. Sedative effect was determined by measuring the potentiation of the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. The compound action potential amplitude was evaluated as a way to detect changes in excitability of the isolated nerve. The results showed that administration of rosewood oil at the doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg significantly decreased latency and increased the duration of sleeping time. On the other hand, the dose of 100 mg/kg potentiated significantly the pentobarbital action decreasing pentobarbital latency time and increasing pentobarbital sleeping time. In addition, the effect of linalool-rich rosewood oil on the isolated nerve of the rat was also investigated through the single sucrose-gap technique. The amplitude of the action potential decreased almost 100% when it was incubated for 30 min at 100 microg/ml. From this study, it is suggested a sedative effect of linalool-rich rosewood oil that could, at least in part, be explained by the reduction in action potential amplitude that provokes a decrease in neuronal excitability.

  2. Classification of Amazonian rosewood essential oil by Raman spectroscopy and PLS-DA with reliability estimation.


    Almeida, Mariana R; Fidelis, Carlos H V; Barata, Lauro E S; Poppi, Ronei J


    The Amazon tree Aniba rosaeodora Ducke (rosewood) provides an essential oil valuable for the perfume industry, but after decades of predatory extraction it is at risk of extinction. The extraction of the essential oil from wood implies the cutting of the tree, and then the study of oil extracted from the leaves is important as a sustainable alternative. The goal of this study was to test the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) as means to classify the essential oil extracted from different parties (wood, leaves and branches) of the Brazilian tree A. rosaeodora. For the development of classification models, the Raman spectra were split into two sets: training and test. The value of the limit that separates the classes was calculated based on the distribution of samples of training. This value was calculated in a manner that the classes are divided with a lower probability of incorrect classification for future estimates. The best model presented sensitivity and specificity of 100%, predictive accuracy and efficiency of 100%. These results give an overall vision of the behavior of the model, but do not give information about individual samples; in this case, the confidence interval for each sample of classification was also calculated using the resampling bootstrap technique. The methodology developed have the potential to be an alternative for standard procedures used for oil analysis and it can be employed as screening method, since it is fast, non-destructive and robust. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Thai Essential Oils on Potentially Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus.


    Jantapan, Kittika; Poapolathep, Amnart; Imsilp, Kanjana; Poapolathep, Saranya; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Kumagai, Susumu; Jermnak, Usuma


     The antiaflatoxigenic and antifungal activities of essential oils (EOs) of finger root (Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf.), pine (Pinus pinaster), rosewood (Aniba rosaedora), Siam benzoin (Styrax tonkinensis), Thai moringa (Moringa oleifera), and ylang ylang (Cananga odorata) were tested for Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus in potato dextrose broth. Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) was extracted from culture using a QuEChERS-based extraction procedure and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector. EO of pine showed the greatest inhibition of growth and AFB 1 production of A. parasiticus, followed by EOs of rosewood, finger root, Siam benzoin, and ylang ylang. EO of finger root gave the best inhibitory effects on A. flavus, followed by EOs of rosewood, pine, ylang ylang, and Siam benzoin. EO of Thai moringa did not show any significant inhibition of aflatoxigenic fungi. The antiaflatoxigenic activities of EOs correlated with their antifungal activities in the dosedependent manner. Comparison of the application of the five selected EOs in peanut pods by direct and vapor exposure indicated that the AFB 1 production inhibitory effects of the five EOs by direct exposure were faster and more effective than by vapor exposure. EO of finger root showed the best inhibition of AFB 1 production of A. flavus in peanut pods by direct exposure, followed by EOs of pine, rosewood, ylang ylang, and Siam benzoin.

  4. DNA Barcoding of Malagasy Rosewoods: Towards a Molecular Identification of CITES-Listed Dalbergia Species.


    Hassold, Sonja; Lowry, Porter P; Bauert, Martin R; Razafintsalama, Annick; Ramamonjisoa, Lolona; Widmer, Alex


    Illegal selective logging of tropical timber is of increasing concern worldwide. Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot and home to some of the world's most sought after tropical timber species. Malagasy rosewoods belong to the genus Dalbergia (Fabaceae), which is highly diverse and has a pantropical distribution, but these timber species are among the most threatened as a consequence of intensive illegal selective logging and deforestation. Reliable identification of Dalbergia species from Madagascar is important for law enforcement but is almost impossible without fertile plant material, which is often unavailable during forest inventories or when attempting to identify logged trees of cut wood. DNA barcoding has been promoted as a promising tool for species identification in such cases. In this study we tested whether DNA barcoding with partial sequences of three plastid markers (matK, rbcL and trnL (UAA)) can distinguish between Dalbergia from Madagascar and from other areas of its distributional range, and whether Malagasy species can be distinguished from one another. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malagasy Dalbergia species studied form two monophyletic groups, each containing two subgroups, only one of which corresponds to a single species. We characterized diagnostic polymorphisms in the three DNA barcoding markers that allow rapid discrimination between Dalbergia from Madagascar and from other areas of its distribution range. Species identification success based on individual barcoding markers or combinations was poor, whereas subgroup identification success was much higher (up to 98%), revealing both the value and limitations of a DNA barcoding approach for the identification of closely related Malagasy rosewoods.

  5. Dalnigrin, a neoflavonoid marker for the identification of Brazilian rosewood (Dalbergia nigra) in CITES enforcement.


    Kite, Geoffrey C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Groves, Madeleine C; Gasson, Peter E; Simmonds, Monique S J


    International trade in Brazilian rosewood, Dalbergia nigra (Vell.) Allemão ex Benth., is regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). One problem in enforcing these regulations is the difficulty in distinguishing the wood of D. nigra from that of a closely-related but unregulated species, Dalbergia spruceana Benth. Using LC-MS to analyse methanol extracts of xylaria specimens, we identified a chemical marker for D. nigra heartwood, and determined its structure as the neoflavonoid 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (4'-O-methylmelanettin; dalnigrin), using spectroscopic techniques. Dalnigrin was present in all nine available heartwood specimens of D. nigra, but it was not detected in extracts of 59 other heartwood samples representing 15 species of Dalbergia, including D. spruceana. Five other phenolic compounds were also isolated from D. nigra heartwood and similarly identified as the neoflavonoids 3'-hydroxymelanettin, melanettin, melannein and dalbergin, and the isoflavone caviunin. In extracts of D. spruceana heartwood, pseudobaptigenin was identified by LC-MS to be a major phenolic component that was not detected in wood extracts of D. nigra. We conclude that chemical analysis, in combination with anatomical investigation, can provide persuasive evidence to support the positive identification of untreated heartwood of D. nigra. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Aniba canelilla bark in normotensive rats.


    Lahlou, Saad; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; de Siqueira, Rodrigo José Bezerra; Figueiredo, André Fernandes; Interaminense, Leylliane Fátima Leal; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Sousa, Pergentino José da Cunha


    Cardiovascular effects of intravenous (i.v.) treatment with the essential oil of the bark of Aniba canelilla (EOAC) were investigated in normotensive rats. In both pentobarbital-anesthetized and conscious rats, i.v. bolus injections of EOAC (1 to 20 mg/kg) elicited similar and dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia. Pretreatment of anesthetized rats with bilateral vagotomy significantly reduced the bradycardia without affecting the hypotension. In conscious rats, pretreatment with hexamethonium (30 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly reduced the EOAC-induced bradycardia without affecting the hypotension. The opposite effect was observed after i.v. pretreatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl esther (L-NAME, 20 mg/kg). However, both EOAC-induced hypotension and bradycardia were significantly reduced by pretreatment with methylatropine (1 mg/kg, i.v.). In rat endothelium-containing aorta preparations, EOAC (1-600 microg/mL) induced a concentration-dependent reduction of potassium (60 mM)-induced contraction [IC50 (geometric mean+/-95% confidence interval)=64.5 (45.6-91.2) microg/mL)], an effect that was significantly reduced by the addition of atropine (10 microM) in the perfusion medium [IC50=109.5 (72.5-165.4) microg/mL)]. Furthermore, the vasorelaxant effects of the EOAC were also but significantly reduced [IC50=139.1 (105.2-183.9) microg/mL)] by removal of the vascular endothelium. Furthermore, the CaCl2-induced contractions in calcium-free medium were reduced and even fully abolished by EOAC (100 and 600 microg/mL), respectively. However, EOAC (600 microg/mL) was without significant effect on caffeine-induced contractions in calcium-free medium. These data show that i.v. treatment of rats with EOAC induces dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia, which occurred independently. The bradycardia appears mainly dependent upon the presence of an operational and functional parasympathetic drive to the heart. However, the hypotension is

  7. Optimization, validation and application of headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography for the determination of 1-nitro-2-phenylethane and methyleugenol from Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez essential oil in skin permeation samples.


    Kreutz, Tainá; Lucca, Letícia G; Loureiro-Paes, Orlando A R; Teixeira, Helder F; Veiga, Valdir F; Limberger, Renata P; Ortega, George G; Koester, Letícia S


    Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez is an aromatic plant from the Amazon region whose essential oil has 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (NP) and methyleugenol (ME) as major compounds. Despite of the scientifically proven antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities for these compounds, there is no report up to date about the topical permeation or quantification of NP and ME on skin samples. The aim of this study was the validation of an optimized bioanalytical method by solid-phase microextraction in headspace mode in gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (HS-SPME-GC-FID) for the determination of NP and ME from the oil in different samples from permeation study, such as porcine ear skin (PES) layers (stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis) and receptor fluid (RF). For this propose polydimethylsiloxane fibers (100 μm) were used and HS-SPME extraction condition consisted of 53 °C, 21 min, and 5% w.v -1 NaCl addition. The wide range of the calibration curve (2.08-207.87 μg mL -1 for NP and 0.40-40.41 μg mL -1 for ME), the presence of matrix interferences and the intrinsic characteristics of HS-SPME required a data linearization using Log 10 . Thereby, data and the gained results presented homoscedasticity, normalization of residues and adequate linearity (r 2  > 0.99) and accuracy for both compounds. In order to verify the applicability of the validated method, the HS-SPME-GC-FID procedure was performed to determine the amount of NP and ME permeated and retained in samples after Franz diffusion cell study from different dosages (20, 100 and 200 μL) of A. canelilla oil. Compounds permeation showed a progressive increase and penetration dependence based on the dosage applied. Furthermore, retention was in order receptor fluid > dermis > epidermis > stratum corneum for both compounds, suggesting NP and ME could penetrate deep tissue, probably due to the partition coefficient, mass, size, and solubility of these compounds. In conclusion, the


    EPA Science Inventory

    In an extensive survey of the genera Baphia, Caesalpinia, Dalbergia, Haematoxylon, and Pterocarpus, we have identified a number of species whose cell cultures accumulated pigments similar to those in heartwood. Thirteen rosewood (Dalbergia) species produce...

  9. Synthesis and antimalarial and antituberculosis activities of a series of natural and unnatural 4-methoxy-6-styryl-pyran-2-ones, dihydro analogues and photodimers

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Stephen T.; Kaiser, Marcel; Boshoff, Helena I.; Boyd, Peter D. W.; Copp, Brent R.


    Previous studies have identified the 3,6-dialkyl-4-hydroxy-pyran-2-one marine microbial metabolites pseudopyronines A and B to be modest growth inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a range of tropical diseases including Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani. In an effort to expand the structure-activity relationship of this compound class towards. infectious diseases, a library of natural product and natural product-like 4-methoxy-6-styryl-pyran-2-ones and a subset of catalytically reduced examples were synthesised. In addition, the photochemical reactivity of several of the 4-methoxy-6-styryl-pyran-2-ones were investigated yielding head-to-head and head-to-tail cyclobutane dimers as well as examples of asymmetric aniba-dimer A-type dimers. All compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity and activity against M. tuberculosis, P. falciparum, L. donovani, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and T. cruzi. Of the styryl-pyranones, natural product 3 and non-natural styrene and naphthalene substituted examples 13, 18, 21, 22 and 23 exhibited antimalarial activity (IC50 < 10 μM) with selectivity indices (SI) > 10. Δ7 Dihydro analogues were typically less active or lacked selectivity. Head-to-head and head-to-tail photodimers 5 and 34 exhibited moderate IC50s of 2.3 to 17 μM towards several of the parasitic organisms, while the aniba-dimer-type asymmetric dimers 31 and 33 were identified as being moderately active towards P. falciparum (IC50 1.5 and 1.7 μM) with good selectivity (SI ∼ 80). The 4-tert-butyl aniba-dimer A analogue 33 also exhibited activity towards L. donovani (IC50 4.5 μM), suggesting further elaboration of this latter scaffold could lead to the identification of new leads for the dual treatment of malaria and leishmaniasis. PMID:22285027

  10. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.


    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G


    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  11. A Multifactorial Comparison of Ternary Combinations of Essential Oils in Topical Preparations to Current Antibiotic Prescription Therapies for the Control of Acne Vulgaris-Associated Bacteria.


    Owen, Lucy; Grootveld, Martin; Arroo, Randolph; Ruiz-Rodado, Victor; Price, Penny; Laird, Katie


    Acne vulgaris, a chronic condition associated with overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, is commonly treated with antibiotics. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistance has resulted in a need for alternative therapies. The aim of this study is to develop a topical preparation incorporating essential oils (EOs) for use against acne-associated bacteria and assess its efficacy against prescription therapies Dalacin T and Stiemycin. Antimicrobial screening of rosewood, clove bud and litsea EOs was conducted before interactions between binary and ternary combinations were determined against P. acnes and S. epidermidis (type and clinical isolates) using minimum inhibitory concentrations and fractional inhibitory concentrations. The EOs were characterised by both gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. A combination of 0.53 mg/mL litsea, 0.11 mg/mL rosewood and 0.11 mg/mL clove bud was formulated into herbal distillates and compared with Dalacin T and Stiemycin against antibiotic sensitive and resistant isolates (erythromycin). The distillate with EO had synergistic activity against P. acnes (7log 10 reduction) and indifferent activity against S. epidermidis (6log 10 reduction); antimicrobial activity was either significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more antimicrobial or equivalent to that of Dalacin T and Stiemycin. This formulation may serve as a valuable alternative for the control of acne vulgaris-associated bacteria. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gago, J.; Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J.


    In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

  13. Technology for the Sound of Music

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)


    In the early 1960s during an industry recession, Kaman Aircraft lost several defense contracts. Forced to diversify, the helicopter manufacturer began to manufacture acoustic guitars. Kaman's engineers used special vibration analysis equipment based on aerospace technology. While a helicopter's rotor system is highly susceptible to vibration, which must be reduced or "dampened," vibration enhances a guitar's sound. After two years of vibration analysis Kaman produced an instrument, which is very successful. The Ovation guitar is made of fiberglass. It is stronger than the traditional rosewood and manufactured with adapted aircraft techniques such as jigs and fixtures, reducing labor and assuring quality and cost control. Kaman Music Corporation now has annual sales of $100 million.

  14. Chemical constituents of the leaf of Alpinia mutica Roxb.


    Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Jani, Nor Akmalazura


    Hydrodistillation of the fresh leaves of Alpinia mutica afforded 0.005% colourless essential oil. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 33 components accounting for 92.9% of the total oil, dominated by 20 sesquiterpenes (76.7%) and 10 monoterpenes (8.3%). The major constituent was found to be β-sesquiphellandrene which was 29.2% of the total oil. Soxhlet extraction, followed by repeated column chromatography of the dried leaves yielded two phenolic compounds, identified as 5,6-dehydrokawain and aniba dimer A, together with one amide assigned as auranamide. The structures of these compounds were determined by using spectroscopic analysis. Antibacterial screening of the essential oil, the crude and isolated compounds showed weak to moderate inhibitory activity.

  15. Characterization of acoustic and mechanical properties of common tropical woods used in classical guitars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sproßmann, Robert; Zauer, Mario; Wagenführ, André

    There is a need of substitution woods for the use in musical instruments because of the limited availability of some commonly used tropical tonewoods. Before substitutions can be found, it is necessary to know about the required properties. Hence, in this paper acoustical, mechanical and physical properties of four common tropical hardwoods (Indian rosewood, ziricote, African blackwood and ebony) were determined because there are less literature values for some properties available, e.g. internal friction, hardness or swelling behaviour. The acoustic properties were determined by means of experimental modal analysis, the mechanical properties by means of static bending tests and tests of the Brinell hardness. For the swelling behaviour the volume swelling and also the differential swelling coefficients were determined. With the results it is possible to look for new 'tonewoods' or to specifically modified woods, e.g. thermally treated wood, to substitute tropical wood species.

  16. The Use of DNA Barcoding in Identification and Conservation of Rosewood (Dalbergia spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Hartvig, Ida; Czako, Mihaly; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Theilade, Ida


    The genus Dalbergia contains many valuable timber species threatened by illegal logging and deforestation, but knowledge on distributions and threats is often limited and accurate species identification difficult. The aim of this study was to apply DNA barcoding methods to support conservation efforts of Dalbergia species in Indochina. We used the recommended rbcL, matK and ITS barcoding markers on 95 samples covering 31 species of Dalbergia, and tested their discrimination ability with both traditional distance-based as well as different model-based machine learning methods. We specifically tested whether the markers could be used to solve taxonomic confusion concerning the timber species Dalbergia oliveri, and to identify the CITES-listed Dalbergia cochinchinensis. We also applied the barcoding markers to 14 samples of unknown identity. In general, we found that the barcoding markers discriminated among Dalbergia species with high accuracy. We found that ITS yielded the single highest discrimination rate (100%), but due to difficulties in obtaining high-quality sequences from degraded material, the better overall choice for Dalbergia seems to be the standard rbcL+matK barcode, as this yielded discrimination rates close to 90% and amplified well. The distance-based method TaxonDNA showed the highest identification rates overall, although a more complete specimen sampling is needed to conclude on the best analytic method. We found strong support for a monophyletic Dalbergia oliveri and encourage that this name is used consistently in Indochina. The CITES-listed Dalbergia cochinchinensis was successfully identified, and a species-specific assay can be developed from the data generated in this study for the identification of illegally traded timber. We suggest that the use of DNA barcoding is integrated into the work flow during floristic studies and at national herbaria in the region, as this could significantly increase the number of identified specimens and improve knowledge about species distributions. PMID:26375850

  17. Allergic airborne contact dermatitis from essential oils used in aromatherapy.


    Schaller, M; Korting, H C


    Contact allergy to various essential oils used in aromatherapy was demonstrated on patch testing in a 53-year-old patient suffering from relapsing eczema resistant to therapy on various uncovered parts of the skin, in particular the scalp, neck and hands. Sensitization was due to previous exposure to lavender, jasmine and rosewood. Laurel, eucalyptus and pomerance also produced positive tests, although there was no hint of previous exposure. A diagnosis of allergic airborne contact dermatitis was thus established. On topical and systemic glucocorticoid treatment (peroral methylprednisolone at an initial dose of 60 mg/day) the skin lesions eventually resolved. Due to persistence of the volatile essential oils in the patient's home after a year-long use of aroma lamps, complete renewal of the interior of the patient's flat was considered essential. Due to changing self-medication habits, with increasing orientation to 'natural' modes of treatment, increasing numbers of such sensitizations might be on the horizon.

  18. Antinociceptive activity of Riparin II from Aniba riparia: Further elucidation of the possible mechanisms.


    Rodrigues de Carvalho, Alyne Mara; Vasconcelos, Leonardo Freire; Moura Rocha, Nayrton Flávio; Vasconcelos Rios, Emiliano Ricardo; Dias, Marília Leite; Maria de França Fonteles, Marta; Gaspar, Danielle Macêdo; Barbosa Filho, José Maria; Chavez Gutierrez, Stanley Juan; Florenço de Sousa, Francisca Cléa


    Riparin II (RipII) has an anti-inflammatory activity potentially due its ability to decrease TNF-α and IL-1β production and its histamine antagonism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of RipII in the pain process and the possible antinociceptive mechanisms involved, using classic models of nociception. Male Swiss mice were used in the assays. Determinate the acute toxicity according to the OECD 425 test guideline. The models used were the acetic acid-, formalin-, hot plate and glutamate-induced nociception. For evaluation of antinociceptive effect, the involvement of TRPV1, TRPA1, TRPM8, ASICS, Bradykinin, PKC and PKA were performed using the paw licking using agonists. The acute toxicity study did not detect any clinical signs or changes in behavior or mortality. RipII, administered orally (25 and 50 mg/kg) caused a reduction of nociception induced by acetic acid, formalin (on the second phase) and glutamate. In the investigation of antinociceptive mechanism, we used capsaicin (2.2 μg/paw), cinnamaldehyde (10 nmol/paw), menthol (1.2 μmol/paw), ASICS (2% acetic acid, pH 1.98) and bradykinin (10 μg/paw). The results showed that TRPV1, TRPA1, TRPM8, ASICS and bradykinin play a role in the antinociceptive effect of RipII. The results also showed that PKA is involved too. These data demonstrate that RipII has a low or not toxicity and produced an important antinociceptive effect through mechanisms that probably involve an interaction, at least in part, TRPV1, TRPA1, TRPM8, ASICS, bradykinin and PKA participate in the RipII's antinociceptive effect. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Beta-cyclodextrin enhanced gastroprotective effect of (-)-linalool, a monoterpene present in rosewood essential oil, in gastric lesion models.


    da Silva, Francilene Vieira; de Barros Fernandes, Hélio; Oliveira, Irisdalva Sousa; Viana, Ana Flávia Seraine Custódio; da Costa, Douglas Soares; Lopes, Miriam Teresa Paz; de Lira, Kamila Lopes; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; de Sousa, Adriano Antunes; de Cássia Meneses Oliveira, Rita


    (-)-Linalool is a monoterpene constituent of many essential oils. This particular monoterpene has both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity. Moreover, this compound has been shown to be antinociceptive. However, the poor chemical stability and short half-life prevents the clinical application of (-)-linalool and many other essential oils. Important to the topic of this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been used to increase the solubility, stability, and pharmacological effects of numerous lipophilic compounds in vivo. In this study, the gastroprotective activities of (-)-linalool (LIN) and linalool incorporated into inclusion complex containing β-cyclodextrin (LIN-βCD) were evaluated using models of acute and chronic gastric ulcers in rodents. LIN and LIN-βCD showed strong gastroprotective activity (p < 0.001). The LIN-βCD complex revealed that the gastroprotective effect was significantly improved compared with LIN uncomplexed, suggesting that this improvement is related to increased solubility and stability. Taking together the potentiation of the antioxidant profile of this monoterpene, our results suggest that β-CD may represent an important tool for improved gastroprotective activity of (-)-linalool and other water-insoluble compounds.

  20. [Contact allergies in musicians].


    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M


    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. AlexSys: a knowledge-based expert system for multiple sequence alignment construction and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aniba, Mohamed Radhouene; Poch, Olivier; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Thompson, Julie Dawn


    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a cornerstone of modern molecular biology and represents a unique means of investigating the patterns of conservation and diversity in complex biological systems. Many different algorithms have been developed to construct MSAs, but previous studies have shown that no single aligner consistently outperforms the rest. This has led to the development of a number of ‘meta-methods’ that systematically run several aligners and merge the output into one single solution. Although these methods generally produce more accurate alignments, they are inefficient because all the aligners need to be run first and the choice of the best solution is made a posteriori. Here, we describe the development of a new expert system, AlexSys, for the multiple alignment of protein sequences. AlexSys incorporates an intelligent inference engine to automatically select an appropriate aligner a priori, depending only on the nature of the input sequences. The inference engine was trained on a large set of reference multiple alignments, using a novel machine learning approach. Applying AlexSys to a test set of 178 alignments, we show that the expert system represents a good compromise between alignment quality and running time, making it suitable for high throughput projects. AlexSys is freely available from∼aniba/alexsys. PMID:20530533

  2. Metabolic chemotypes of CITES protected Dalbergia timbers from Africa, Madagascar, and Asia.


    McClure, Pamela J; Chavarria, Gabriela D; Espinoza, Edgard


    The genus Dalbergia includes approximately 250 species worldwide. Of these, 58 species are of economic importance and listed under CITES. Identification of illegal transnational timber trade is a challenge because logs or boards lack the typical descriptors used for species identification such as leaves and flowers; therefore, frequently the lowest taxonomic determination of these tree byproducts is genus. In this study, we explore the use of Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS) in making species determinations of protected Dalbergia trees from Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. Metabolic profiles were collected using DART TOFMS from the heartwood of seven species and the sapwood of 17 species of Dalbergia. Also included in this study are 85 Dalbergia heartwood samples from Madagascar that were only identified to genus. In all, 21 species comprising 235 specimens were analyzed, the metabolic chemotypes were interpreted, and the spectra were analyzed using chemometric tools. Dalbergia cochinchinensis and Dalbergia spp. from Madagascar (both CITES Appendix II) could be differentiated from each other and from the non-protected Dalbergia latifolia and Dalbergia melanoxylon. DART TOFMS is a valuable high-throughput tool useful for making phytochemical classifications of Dalbergia spp. The data produced allows the protected Dalbergias from Madagascar to be distinguished and can differentiate closely related rosewood trees. Published in 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. The anxiolytic-like effect of 6-styryl-2-pyrone in mice involves GABAergic mechanism of action.


    Chaves, Edna Maria Camelo; Honório-Júnior, Jose Eduardo Ribeiro; Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Monteiro, Valdécio Silveira; Nonato, Dayanne Terra Tenório; Dantas, Leonardo Pimentel; Lúcio, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Patrocínio, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo; Viana, Glauce Socorro Barros; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes


    The present work aims to investigate the anxiolytic activity of 6-styryl-2-pyrone (STY), obtained from Aniba panurensis, in behavioral tests and amino acids dosage on male Swiss mice. The animals were treated with STY (1, 10 or 20 mg), diazepam (DZP 1 or 2 mg/kg) or imipramine (IMI 30 mg/kg). Some groups were administered with flumazenil, 30 min before administration of the STYor DZP. The behavioral tests performed were open field, rota rod, elevated plus maze (EPM), hole-board (HB) and tail suspension test (TST). After behavioral tests, these animals were sacrificed and had their prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST) dissected for assaying amino acids (aspartate- ASP, glutamate- GLU, glycine- GLY, taurine- TAU and Gamma-aminobutyric acid- GABA). In EPM test, STY or DZP increased the number of entries and the time of permanence in the open arms, but these effects were reverted by flumazenil. In the HB test, STY increased the number of head dips however this effect was blocked by flumazenil. The effects of the STY on amino acid concentration in PFC showed increased GLU, GABA and TAU concentrations. In hippocampus, STY increased the concentrations of all amino acids studied. In striatum, STY administration at lowest dose reduced GLU concentrations, while the highest dosage caused the opposite effect. GLI, TAU and GABA concentrations increased with STY administration at highest doses. In conclusion, this study showed that STY presents an anxiolytic-like effect in behavioral tests that probably is related to GABAergic mechanism of action.

  4. Spatial variation of chemical constituents from the burning of commonly used biomass fuels in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, T.; Saxena, M.; Singh, D. P.; Saraswati; Dahiya, Manisha; Sharma, S. K.; Datta, A.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T. K.


    In the present paper, we have determined emission factor of chemical composition of the emission from the burning of biomass (e.g. Dung cake, Acacia, Neem, Mulberry, Indian Rosewood, Pigeon pea etc.) commonly used as a residential fuel in the rural sector of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) (Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal), India. For comparison, we have selected only those biomass fuels, which are used in at least three of the above mentioned states. Dung cake from all the states reports highest emission of particulate matter (PM) (15.68 g kg-1), Organic Carbon (OC) (4.32 g kg-1) and Elemental Carbon (EC) (0.51 g kg-1). Among all biomass fuels studied, agricultural residue reports substantial amount of emission of Na+ (104 mg kg-1), K+ (331 mg kg-1) and Cl- (447 mg kg-1) particularly in Pigeon pea and Mustard stem. Eucalyptus (fuel wood) emits large amounts of Ca2+ (21.47 mg kg-1) and NO3- (614 mg kg-1). The emission of PM from dung cake is higher in Delhi (19.31 g kg-1) and followed by Uttar Pradesh (17.58 g kg-1) > Haryana (15.46 g kg-1) > Bihar (14.99 g kg-1) > Punjab (12.06 g kg-1) > West Bengal (5.90 g kg-1). Carbonaceous aerosols (OC and EC) and dominant Ionic species (Cl-, K+, SO42-, NO3- and PO43-) are altogether contributing 40-70% of total emissions. Characteristics and ratios of chemical species of emissions may help to develop a methodology of discriminating the sources of ambient particulate matter. Using a laboratory determined emission factor of chemical species, we have determined the emission budget over IGP, India.

  5. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.


    Lyttleton, Chris


    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  6. Spectral and computational features of the binding between riparins and human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, Cintia Ramos; Caruso, Ícaro Putinhon; Gutierrez, Stanley Juan Chavez; Fossey, Marcelo Andres; Filho, José Maria Barbosa; Cornélio, Marinônio Lopes


    The green Brazilian bay leaf, a spice much prized in local cuisine (Aniba riparia, Lauraceae), contains chemical compounds presenting benzoyl-derivatives named riparins, which have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anxiolytic properties. However, it is unclear what kind of interaction riparins perform with any molecular target. As a profitable target, human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the principal extracellular proteins, with an exceptional capacity to interact with several molecules, and it also plays a crucial role in the transport, distribution, and metabolism of a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands. To outline the HSA-riparin interaction mechanism, spectroscopy and computational methods were synergistically applied. An evaluation through fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the emission, attributed to Trp 214, at 346 nm decreased with titrations of riparins. A static quenching mechanism was observed in the binding of riparins to HSA. Fluorescence experiments performed at 298, 308 and 318 K made it possible to conduct thermodynamic analysis indicating a spontaneous reaction in the complex formation (ΔG < 0). The enthalpy-entropy balance experiment with a molecular modeling calculation revealed that hydrophobic, hydrogen bond and non-specific interactions are present for riparin I-III with HSA. The set of results from fractional fluorescence changes obtained through Schatchard was inconclusive in establishing what kind of cooperativity is present in the interaction. To shed light upon the HSA-riparins complex, Hill's approach was utilized to distinguish the index of affinity and the binding constant. A correspondence between the molecular structures of riparins, due to the presence of the hydroxyl group in the B-ring, with thermodynamic parameters and index of affinity were observed. Riparin III performs an intramolecular hydrogen bond, which affects the Hill coefficient and the binding constant. Therefore, the presence of hydroxyl groups is

  7. Rapid identification of Pterocarpus santalinus and Dalbergia louvelii by FTIR and 2D correlation IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang-Da; Xu, Chang-Hua; Li, Ming-Yu; Huang, An-Min; Sun, Su-Qin


    Since Pterocarpus santalinus and Dalbergia louvelii, which are of precious Rosewood, are very similar in their appearance and anatomy characteristics, cheaper Hongmu D. louvelii is often illegally used to impersonate valuable P. santalinus, especially in Chinese furniture manufacture. In order to develop a rapid and effective method for easy confused wood furniture differentiation, we applied tri-step identification method, i.e., conventional infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative infrared (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2DCOS-IR) spectroscopy to investigate P. santalinus and D. louvelii furniture. According to FT-IR and SD-IR spectra, it has been found two unconditional stable difference at 848 cm-1 and 700 cm-1 and relative stable differences at 1735 cm-1, 1623 cm-1, 1614 cm-1, 1602 cm-1, 1509 cm-1, 1456 cm-1, 1200 cm-1, 1158 cm-1, 1055 cm-1, 1034 cm-1 and 895 cm-1 between D. louvelii and P. santalinus IR spectra. The stable discrepancy indicates that the category of extractives is different between the two species. Besides, the relative stable differences imply that the content of holocellulose in P. santalinus is more than that of D. louvelii, whereas the quantity of extractives in D. louvelii is higher. Furthermore, evident differences have been observed in their 2DCOS-IR spectra of 1550-1415 cm-1 and 1325-1030 cm-1. P. santalinus has two strong auto-peaks at 1459 cm-1 and 1467 cm-1, three mid-strong auto-peaks at 1518 cm-1, 1089 cm-1 and 1100 cm-1 and five weak auto-peaks at 1432 cm-1, 1437 cm-1, 1046 cm-1, 1056 cm-1 and 1307 cm-1 while D. louvelii has four strong auto-peaks at 1465 cm-1, 1523 cm-1, 1084 cm-1 and 1100 cm-1, four mid-strong auto-peaks at 1430 cm-1, 1499 cm-1, 1505 cm-1 and 1056 cm-1 and two auto-peaks at 1540 cm-1 and 1284 cm-1. This study has proved that FT-IR integrated with 2DCOS-IR could be applicable for precious wood furniture authentication in a direct, rapid and holistic manner.

  8. Some notes on an early nineteenth century manuscript medical receipt book.


    Jackson, W A


    There are 97 remedies listed, including 11 veterinary ones. These numbers include several that are duplicates. The commonest types of medicament are salves or ointments, of which there are ten, but these ten do not include ointments for specific complaints such as haemorrhoids or scurvy. The most frequently found cures are for the itch (10), rheumatism (5), gravel (4), pain (4), and piles (3), all the others having only one or two entries. They were intended to treat 39 human complaints and 9 animal ones. In addition there were formulae for killing lice, making rat poison, and preparing damson wine! The number of different medicaments that were used in the recipes was relatively small, but more than were to be found in the smaller sizes of domestic medicine cabinet. In 1820 Reece's Traveller's Dispensary that was flat and would fit in the pocket of a carriage, only contained ten drugs plus court plaster, lint, scales and weights with a book of directions and cost L3.10s.0d. (L3.50). The Lady's Dispensary which contained twenty medicines, including two pills, with some dispensing equipment and a book of directions cost L5.10s.0d. (L5.50). In all, he listed twenty different cabinets and a sea medicine chest ranging in price from L3.10s.0d. to L32.10s.0d. They included ones suitable for the family, country clergymen, and travellers on the continent and in the tropics. In 1862 Savory and Moore stocked a range of sixty-seven different medicine chests and cases in rosewood, mahogany, walnut, boxwood and leather that were fitted with 'modern appliances and conveniences adapted for the requirements of families, clergymen, officers, owners of yachts, and travellers.' Unfortunately no prices are quoted. I think that we can safely assume that the treatment received at the hands of Evan Jones was likely to be rather rough and ready when compared to the ministrations of a physician, surgeon, clergyman or local 'Lady Bountiful', but, nevertheless, must have been of great value