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Sample records for ross estonian musicologist

  1. Online Estonian Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  2. Ross Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Icebergs in the Ross Sea     View Larger Image Two large icebergs, designated B-15A and C-16, are captured in this Multi-angle Imaging ... the longitudinal quadrant in which it is first seen, and new icebergs sighted in that quadrant are sequentially numbered. B-15 divided from ...

  3. Ross Ice Shelf

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... to hatch their young this year due to a combination of huge icebergs grounded near Ross Island and an unprecedented amount of sea ice in the Ross Sea. The grounded icebergs and sea ice have increased the distance between the penguins' feeding ...

  4. John Ross, Cherokee Chief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Gary Evan

    Emphasizing the dedication with which John Ross (1790-1866) labored to achieve Cherokee social and political cohesion, this biography details the historical and political events which influenced Ross's attempts to make the U.S. honor its treaty obligations and thwart the Federal "Removal Policy" (removal of American Indians from their…

  5. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. [Ross operation in Chile].

    PubMed

    Turner G, Eduardo; Muñoz C, Rodrigo; Cumsille G, Miguel; Iturra U, Sebastián; Strodthoff R, Pablo; Ulzurrún T, Nicolás; Rodríguez A, Juan

    2010-04-01

    Donald Ross introduced the pulmonary autograft for aortic valve replacement with reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract with a homograft. Despite its advantages over conventional valve prostheses, the Ross Operation is performed in a minority of patients who need an aortic valve replacement throughout the world. To report the operative and long term results of a series of patients subjected to Ross operation in Chile. Between 1996 and 2006, 131 patients aged 35+/-11 years (62% males) were subjected to an aortic root replacement with a pulmonary autograft and reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract with a pulmonary homograft. Seventy percent had congenital valve disease. Associated procedures were done in 39%. Patients were followed for a mean of 56+/-30 months. Operative mortality was 2.3%. Two patients had the autografts replaced intraoperatively because of tears in the proximal suture line and one within a month of the operation after suffering autograft endocarditis. At last follow up all patients are in functional class 1 or 2. Autograft reoperations were done in two patients who developed dilation with valve regurgitation (both had aortic regurgitation as primary indication for aortic valve replacement). Three patients required reoperation for pulmonary homograft dysfunction. Another three patients had uneventful pregnancies with normal newborns. Actuarial freedom from any reoperation at 10 years is 93%. The Ross Operation has low operative morbidity and mortality with excellent long term results. Reoperations have been rare within 10 years of follow up both for the autograft or the homograft.

  8. Ross during EVA 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-12-09

    S88-E-5093 (12-09-98) --- Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, requires artificial light to work during the second STS-88 space walk. Part of a pressurized mating adapter (PMA) is in the foreground. The photo was taken with an electronic still camera (ESC) at 23:49:36 GMT, Dec. 9.

  9. Bandura, Ross, and Ross: Observational Learning and the Bobo Doll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artino, Anthony R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Since the publication of their seminal article entitled, "Transmission of Aggression Through Imitation of Aggressive Models" (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961), the work of Albert Bandura and his co-authors has had an immeasurable impact on the field of psychology, in general, and educational psychology, more specifically. The purpose of this report is…

  10. Antarctica - Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf to the right and its border with the sea. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken about 6:20 p.m. PST on December 8, 1990. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica.

  11. Antarctica - Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf to the right and its border with the sea. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken about 6:20 p.m. PST on December 8, 1990. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica.

  12. Ross ice shelf vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromirski, P. D.; Diez, A.; Gerstoft, P.; Stephen, R. A.; Bolmer, T.; Wiens, D. A.; Aster, R. C.; Nyblade, A.

    2015-09-01

    Broadband seismic stations were deployed across the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) in November 2014 to study ocean gravity wave-induced vibrations. Initial data from three stations 100 km from the RIS front and within 10 km of each other show both dispersed infragravity (IG) wave and ocean swell-generated signals resulting from waves that originate in the North Pacific. Spectral levels from 0.001 to 10 Hz have the highest accelerations in the IG band (0.0025-0.03 Hz). Polarization analyses indicate complex frequency-dependent particle motions, with energy in several frequency bands having distinctly different propagation characteristics. The dominant IG band signals exhibit predominantly horizontal propagation from the north. Particle motion analyses indicate retrograde elliptical particle motions in the IG band, consistent with these signals propagating as Rayleigh-Lamb (flexural) waves in the ice shelf/water cavity system that are excited by ocean wave interactions nearer the shelf front.

  13. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  14. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  15. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  16. Earth - Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire Antarctic continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken on December 8, 1990.

  17. The Analysis of Low Accentuation in Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours…

  18. Early Vocabulary and Gestures in Estonian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Konstabel, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 592 children between the age of 0 ; 8 and 1 ; 4 completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (ECDI Infant Form). The relationships between comprehension and production of different categories of words and gestures were examined. According to the results of regression modelling the…

  19. Early Vocabulary and Gestures in Estonian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Konstabel, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 592 children between the age of 0 ; 8 and 1 ; 4 completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (ECDI Infant Form). The relationships between comprehension and production of different categories of words and gestures were examined. According to the results of regression modelling the…

  20. The Analysis of Low Accentuation in Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours…

  1. Bloom in the Ross Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired January 22, 2011 To see a detail of this image go to: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/5398237910 Every southern spring and summer, after the Sun has risen into its 24-hour circuit around the skies of Antarctica, the Ross Sea bursts with life. Floating, microscopic plants, known as phytoplankton, soak up the sunlight and the nutrients stirring in the Southern Ocean and grow into prodigious blooms. Those blooms become a great banquet for krill, fish, penguins, whales, and other marine species who carve out a living in the cool waters of the far south. This true-color image captures such a bloom in the Ross Sea on January 22, 2011, as viewed by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite. Bright greens of plant-life have replaced the deep blues of open ocean water. The Ross Sea is a relatively shallow bay in the Antarctic coastline and due south from New Zealand. As the spring weather thaws the sea ice around Antarctica, areas of open water surrounded by ice—polynyas—open up on the continental shelf. In this open water, sunlight provides the fuel and various current systems provide nutrients from deeper waters to form blooms that can stretch 100 to 200 kilometers (60 to 120 miles). These blooms are among the largest in extent and abundance in the world. Scientists have hypothesized that the Modified Circumpolar Deep Water is the engine behind the blooms, stirring up just the right mix of trace metals and minerals from the deep to sustain plankton growth. This month, researchers aboard the U.S. icebreaking ship Nathaniel B. Palmer are cruising in the Ross Sea in search of the signatures of this current system. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Mike Carlowicz, with information from Hugh Powell, COSEE-NOW. Instrument: Aqua - MODIS Credit: NASA Earth Observatory earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=48949 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  2. Bloom in the Ross Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired January 22, 2011 Every southern spring and summer, after the Sun has risen into its 24-hour circuit around the skies of Antarctica, the Ross Sea bursts with life. Floating, microscopic plants, known as phytoplankton, soak up the sunlight and the nutrients stirring in the Southern Ocean and grow into prodigious blooms. Those blooms become a great banquet for krill, fish, penguins, whales, and other marine species who carve out a living in the cool waters of the far south. This true-color image captures such a bloom in the Ross Sea on January 22, 2011, as viewed by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite. Bright greens of plant-life have replaced the deep blues of open ocean water. The Ross Sea is a relatively shallow bay in the Antarctic coastline and due south from New Zealand. As the spring weather thaws the sea ice around Antarctica, areas of open water surrounded by ice—polynyas—open up on the continental shelf. In this open water, sunlight provides the fuel and various current systems provide nutrients from deeper waters to form blooms that can stretch 100 to 200 kilometers (60 to 120 miles). These blooms are among the largest in extent and abundance in the world. Scientists have hypothesized that the Modified Circumpolar Deep Water is the engine behind the blooms, stirring up just the right mix of trace metals and minerals from the deep to sustain plankton growth. This month, researchers aboard the U.S. icebreaking ship Nathaniel B. Palmer are cruising in the Ross Sea in search of the signatures of this current system. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Mike Carlowicz, with information from Hugh Powell, COSEE-NOW. Instrument: Aqua - MODIS Go here to download the full high res file: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=48949 Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA

  3. Liquid hydrocarbons probable under Ross Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, A. K.; Davey, F.J.; Hinz, K.

    1988-01-01

    Thick glacial strata, which have no source-rock potential, cover the Ross Sea. If these strata persist to great depths, then hydrocarbon-generation prospects will be poor. Deeply buried strata within Ross Sea rift-grabens, if like other Gondwana rift-deposits, could have good potential for hydrocarbon generation. Current hydrocarbon assessments of the Ross Sea and adjacent areas must be considered highly speculative because the deeply buried rift(?) strata have not been sampled in situ. The assessment of the Ross Sea relies on geophysical/geologic data, two-stage rift models, and data from formerly nearby Gondwana rift-basins. We conclude that conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation and entrapment are likely throughout the Ross Sea, and especially in the Victoria Land basin, if adequate source beds exist. -Authors

  4. The analysis of low accentuation in Estonian.

    PubMed

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours are used as evidence to evaluate alternative phonological analyses of low accentuation, and H + L* is shown to account best for the data. The second study presents quantitative evidence from fundamental frequency values which supports this phonological analysis. Finally, the distribution of prenuclear pitch accents is discussed. High and low accents can co-occur in an intonational phrase, but only in patterns obeying a specific sequential constraint. A fragment of an intonational grammar for Estonian is presented capturing the observed distributional restrictions.

  5. Sir Donald Ross, pioneer aortic valve surgeon.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, David

    2015-06-01

    Tribute to Sir Donald Ross by David Wheatley, as read by Robert Kleinloog, President, Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons of South Africa at the Annual Congress of the South African Heart Association 19 October 2014.

  6. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  8. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  9. STS-110 Crew Interview: Jerry Ross

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission Specialist Jerry Ross is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Ross outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S0 Truss and Mobile Transporter) and the dry run installation of the S0 truss that will take place the day before the EVA for the actual installation. Ross discusses the planned EVAs in detail and outlines what supplies will be left for the resident crew of the International Space Station (ISS). He ends with his thoughts on the most valuable aspect of the ISS.

  10. 2. ROSS POWERHOUSE: TRANSFORMER DECK, TAILRACE, AND BOATHOUSE AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ROSS POWERHOUSE: TRANSFORMER DECK, TAILRACE, AND BOATHOUSE AS SEEN FROM EAST END OF TRANSFORMER DECK, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Ross Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 10.7 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  11. 5. ROSS POWERHOUSE: SAME CAMERA STATION AS ABOVE PHOTO BUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ROSS POWERHOUSE: SAME CAMERA STATION AS ABOVE PHOTO BUT LOOKING EAST. NOTE INFORMATION DISPLAY FOR TOURISTS AT FLOOR LEVEL, 1987. - Skagit Power Development, Ross Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 10.7 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  12. 20. ROSS POWERHOUSE: BUTTERFLY VALVE AS SEEN FROM INSIDE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. ROSS POWERHOUSE: BUTTERFLY VALVE AS SEEN FROM INSIDE THE SCROLL CASE, 1987. - Skagit Power Development, Ross Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 10.7 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  13. 18. ROSS POWERHOUSE: BUTTERFLY VALVE FROM BELOW AND SCROLL CASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. ROSS POWERHOUSE: BUTTERFLY VALVE FROM BELOW AND SCROLL CASE DRAIN. TAG INDICATES THE SCROLL CASE DRAIN WAS OPEN, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Ross Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 10.7 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  14. 12. ROSS POWERHOUSE: DETAIL OF GAUGES AND PUMPS IN UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ROSS POWERHOUSE: DETAIL OF GAUGES AND PUMPS IN UNIT 41 TURBINE PIT, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Ross Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 10.7 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  15. Improvements in Ross type astrometric objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J.

    1971-01-01

    It is shown that aspheric deformations of the first and fourth elements of the four element Ross objective can be introduced to permit one to obtain improved color corrections for astrometric purposes. The usual monochromatic aberrations are as well corrected as for the standard Ross lens. In addition, one can eliminate or reduce additional aberrations, such as secondary spectrum, chromatic spherical aberration, chromatic coma and chromatic distortion. The resulting objectives are suitable for use as intermediate and long focus astrometric objectives covering large angle fields.

  16. Icebergs in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Two large icebergs, designated B-15A and C-16, are captured in this MISR nadir camera view of the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea in Antarctica. The image was acquired on December 10, 2000 during Terra orbit 5220.

    Iceberg C-16 calved off the ice shelf in late September and is nearly 50 kilometers in length. It is seen here having migrated to the vicinity of Cape Bird on Ross Island. The initial letter designation in an iceberg's name denotes the longitudinal quadrant in which it is first seen, and new icebergs sighted in that quadrant are sequentially numbered. B-15 divided from the ice shelf last March, and initially was nearly as large as the state of Connecticut. It has since broken up into several pieces, hence the final letter designation in the berg shown in this image.

    Ross Island lies between 77 and 78 degrees south latitude, and consists of several volcanic peaks, of which the still active Mt. Erebus is the tallest (3794 meters). It overlooks McMurdo Station, a U.S. research facility located near the tip of the island's Hut Point Peninsula.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  17. Icebergs in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Two large icebergs, designated B-15A and C-16, are captured in this MISR nadir camera view of the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea in Antarctica. The image was acquired on December 10, 2000 during Terra orbit 5220.

    Iceberg C-16 calved off the ice shelf in late September and is nearly 50 kilometers in length. It is seen here having migrated to the vicinity of Cape Bird on Ross Island. The initial letter designation in an iceberg's name denotes the longitudinal quadrant in which it is first seen, and new icebergs sighted in that quadrant are sequentially numbered. B-15 divided from the ice shelf last March, and initially was nearly as large as the state of Connecticut. It has since broken up into several pieces, hence the final letter designation in the berg shown in this image.

    Ross Island lies between 77 and 78 degrees south latitude, and consists of several volcanic peaks, of which the still active Mt. Erebus is the tallest (3794 meters). It overlooks McMurdo Station, a U.S. research facility located near the tip of the island's Hut Point Peninsula.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  18. Rapid early-Holocene deglaciation in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Perry; Stone, John; Cowdery, Seth G.; Hall, Brenda; Conway, Howard; Bromley, Gordon

    2017-08-01

    Deglaciation of the Ross Sea following the last ice age provides an important opportunity to examine the stability of marine ice sheets and their susceptibility to changing environmental conditions. Insufficient chronology for Ross Sea deglaciation has helped sustain (i) the theory that this region contributed significantly to Meltwater Pulse 1A (MWP-1A) and (ii) the idea that Ross Sea grounding-line retreat occurred in a "swinging gate" pattern hinged north of Roosevelt Island. We present deglaciation records from southern Transantarctic Mountain glaciers, which delivered ice to the central Ross Sea. Abrupt thinning of these glaciers 9-8 kyr B.P. coincided with deglaciation of the Scott Coast, ˜800 km to the north, and ended with the Ross Sea grounding line near Shackleton Glacier. This deglaciation removed grounded ice from most of the central and western Ross Sea in less than 2 kyr. The Ross Sea Sector neither contributed nor responded significantly to MWP-1A.

  19. Climatological aspects of mesoscale cyclogenesis over the Ross Sea and Ross Ice shelf regions of Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco, J.F.; Bromwich, D.H.

    1994-11-01

    A one-year (1988) statistical study of mesoscale cyclogenesis near Terra Nova Bay and Byrd Glacier, Antarctica, was conducted using high-resolution digital satellite imagery and automatic weather station data. Results indicate that on average two (one) mesoscale cyclones form near Terra Nova Bay (Byrd Glacier) each week, confirming these two locations as mesoscale cyclogeneis areas. The maximum (minimum) weekly frequency of mesoscale cyclones occurred during the summer (winter). The satellite survey of mesoscale vortices was extended over the Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf. Results suggest southern Marie Byrd Land as another area of mesoscale cyclone formation. Also, frequent mesoscale cyclonic activity was noted over the Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf, where, on average, six and three mesoscale vortices were observed each week, respectively, with maximum (minimum) frequency during summer (winter) in both regions. The majority (70-80%) of the vortices were of comma-cloud type and were shallow. Only around 10% of the vortices near Terra Nova Bay and Byrd Glacier were classified as deep vortices, while over the Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf around 20% were found to be deep. The average large-scale pattern associated with cyclogenesis days near Terra Nova Bay suggests a slight decrease in the sea level pressure and 500-hPa geopotential height to the northwest of this area with respect to the annual average. This may be an indication of the average position of synoptic-scale cyclones entering the Ross Sea region. Comparison with a similar study but for 1984-85 shows that the overall mesoscale cyclogenesis activity was similar during the three years, but 1985 was found to be the year with greater occurrence of {open_quotes}significant{close_quotes} mesoscales cyclones. The large-scale pattern indicates that this greater activity is related to a deeper circumpolar trough and 500-hPa polar vortex for 1985 in comparison to 1984 and 1988. 64 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. STS-88 Crew Interview: Jerry Ross

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Jerry Ross discusses the seven-day mission that will be highlighted by the mating of the U.S.-built Node 1 station element to the Functional Energy Block (FGB) which will already be in orbit, and two spacewalks to connect power and data transmission cables between the Node and the FGB. Node 1 will be the first Space Station hardware delivered by the Space Shuttle. He also disscusses the assembly sequence. The crew will conduct a series of rendezvous maneuvers similar to those conducted on other Shuttle missions to reach the orbiting FGB. Once the two elements are docked, Ross and Newman will conduct two scheduled spacewalks to connect power and data cables between the Node, PMAs and the FGB. The day following the spacewalks, Endeavour will undock from the two components, completing the first Space Station assembly mission.

  1. Iceberg B-15, Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Iceberg B-15 broke from the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica in late March. Among the largest ever observed, the new iceberg is approximately 170 miles long x 25 miles wide. Its 4,250 square-mile area is nearly as large as the state of Connecticut. The iceberg was formed from glacial ice moving off the Antarctic continent and calved along pre-existing cracks in the Ross Ice Shelf near Roosevelt Island. The calving of the iceberg essentially moves the northern boundary of the ice shelf about 25 miles to the south, a loss that would normally take the ice shelf as long as 50-100 years to replace. This infrared image was acquired by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) F-13 satellite on April 13, 2000. For more images see Antarctic Meteorological Research Center Image courtesy of the University of Wisconsin - Madison, Space Science and Engineering Center, Antarctic Meteorological Research Center

  2. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  3. Dynamics of the Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casassa, Gino; Turner, John

    1991-01-01

    The changing flow of the Ross Ice Shelf is described based on AVHRR data from 18 cloud-free images which evince flow stripes and form the data for a glaciological map. The discharge region of the valley glaciers in the Transantarctic Mountains is found to have curvilinear stripes, and the brightness contrast is enhanced to examine the feature. The map of the region also shows rifts, ridge crests, surface folds, and large-scale lineaments.

  4. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  5. Results of geophysical research in Ross Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Hinz, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Ross Sea is underlain from the east to the west by three north-south-trending sedimentary basins: the Eastern basin (east of the 180/sup 0/ meridian), the Central basin (along 175/sup 0/), and the Victoria Land basin. In the center of the Eastern basin, the thickness of the sediments generally ranges between 3000 and 6000 m. The pre-late Oligocene sediments occur only in the center of the basin. There are no indications of block faulting in the sedimentary sequence, indicating that synsedimentary subsidence has been the dominant tectonic process. A broad basement high, the Central High, lies to the west of the Eastern basin. The top of basement is a peneplain over large parts of the high. The overlying sediments are mostly younger than Oligocene. The Central basin lies to the west of the Central High, extends approximately north-south through the central Ross Sea. Sedimentary thicknesses in excess of 6000 m were observed. A relatively narrow basement high, trending north-south, separates the Central basin from the complex Victoria Land basin. The Victoria Land basin is a 150-km wide basin that extends from the Ross Ice shelf to 75/sup 0/S. It is bounded to the north by a shallow and characteristically planated basement high, the Coulman High, and to the west by the uplifted Transantarctic Mountains. The Victoria Land basin is subdivided by north-south-trending zones of volcanic/magmatic intrusions, probably equivalents of the Neogene Hallett Volcanics and McMurdo Volcanics, respectively, that affected the Victoria Land basin, resulting in uplift and inversion of parts of the basin.

  6. Career Profile- Jim Ross, Aerial Photographer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-21

    Check out what it takes to “capture the moment” at Mach speeds. The stunning aerial imagery of NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center comes from well-skilled photographers like Jim Ross, Photo Lead. This career profile video highlights Jim’s job responsibilities in documenting aircraft hardware installations, aerial research, and mission work that happens both on center and around the world. During Jim’s 27-year career, he has logged over 800 flight hours in twelve different types of aircraft.

  7. Bloom in the Ross Sea [detail

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired January 22, 2011 To view the full image go to: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/5397636843 Every southern spring and summer, after the Sun has risen into its 24-hour circuit around the skies of Antarctica, the Ross Sea bursts with life. Floating, microscopic plants, known as phytoplankton, soak up the sunlight and the nutrients stirring in the Southern Ocean and grow into prodigious blooms. Those blooms become a great banquet for krill, fish, penguins, whales, and other marine species who carve out a living in the cool waters of the far south. This true-color image captures such a bloom in the Ross Sea on January 22, 2011, as viewed by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite. Bright greens of plant-life have replaced the deep blues of open ocean water. The Ross Sea is a relatively shallow bay in the Antarctic coastline and due south from New Zealand. As the spring weather thaws the sea ice around Antarctica, areas of open water surrounded by ice—polynyas—open up on the continental shelf. In this open water, sunlight provides the fuel and various current systems provide nutrients from deeper waters to form blooms that can stretch 100 to 200 kilometers (60 to 120 miles). These blooms are among the largest in extent and abundance in the world. Scientists have hypothesized that the Modified Circumpolar Deep Water is the engine behind the blooms, stirring up just the right mix of trace metals and minerals from the deep to sustain plankton growth. This month, researchers aboard the U.S. icebreaking ship Nathaniel B. Palmer are cruising in the Ross Sea in search of the signatures of this current system. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Mike Carlowicz, with information from Hugh Powell, COSEE-NOW. Instrument: Aqua - MODIS For more info go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=48949 Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA Goddard Space

  8. Sources of Individual Variation in Estonian Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urm, Ada; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The vocabulary size of 16- to 30-month-old children (N = 1235) was assessed using the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (ECDI-II). The relationship between children's expressive vocabulary size and different factors of the child and his/her social environment was examined. Results…

  9. Estonian Preschool Teachers' Views on Learning in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Tuul, Maire; Niglas, Katrin; Neudorf, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    As in many Western countries, children's learning in the curriculum of Estonian Early Childhood Education is seen as a lifelong process, wherein the teacher is primarily a guide to children's active learning. Thus, a child-centred approach to learning is valued in the national curriculum, but our interest was whether this approach is fixed in the…

  10. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  11. Sources of Individual Variation in Estonian Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urm, Ada; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The vocabulary size of 16- to 30-month-old children (N = 1235) was assessed using the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (ECDI-II). The relationship between children's expressive vocabulary size and different factors of the child and his/her social environment was examined. Results…

  12. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  13. Red in Estonian popular belief and folk costume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S.; Roper, J.

    2006-06-01

    A visit by one of the authors to Estonia, and the discovery that the term 'red' was used locally for the colour 'orange', led to a detailed study of the colour red in Estonian belief and culture. The study is reported here, together with an interpretation of the red/orange substitution based on Berlin and Kay's model of colour term development in language.

  14. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross as a Religious Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klass, Dennis; Hutch, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    Considers Elisabeth Kubler-Ross as a charismatic religious leader and examines the feminine quality of her message and leadership style. An examination of the prospects for an enduring cultural innovation based on Kubler-Ross's work concludes that her leadership does not conform to conditions necessary for institutionalization of her charismatic…

  15. 17. ROSS POWERHOUSE: BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROLS FOR UNIT 43. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. ROSS POWERHOUSE: BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROLS FOR UNIT 43. THE BUTTERFLY VALVE LOCK INDICATES THE BUTTERFLY VALVE IS CLOSED AS UNIT 43 WAS SHUT DOWN FOR REPAIRS, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Ross Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 10.7 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  16. The ocean tide in the southern Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard T.; Robinson, Edwin S.

    1980-11-01

    A survey of the ocean tide in the southern Ross Sea was done by measuring tidal variations of gravity at nine locations on the floating Ross Ice Shelf. Tidal water level fluctuations were calculated from recordings between 29 days and 58 days long of the periodic variation in gravity on the ice shelf surface that is caused by tidal changes in elevation and water mass. Conventional tide gauge measurements from McMurdo Sound were included in the survey. The data indicate that the Ross Sea tide is principally diurnal. Along the northern margin of the Ross Ice Shelf the tropic (diurnal spring) tidal range is between 1 m and ?; m. The range increases to more than 2 m in the southernmost part of the Ross Sea. It is more than 3 times larger than the equatorial (diurnal neap) tidal range. Amplitudes of the principal diurnal constituents K1 P1 and O1 are apparently magnified by a condition of diurnal resonance in the Ross Sea. This would be expected because wavelengths of the diurnal harmonic constituents are approximately 4 times the length of the Ross Sea in the direction of propagation. The diurnal constituent amplitudes also appear to vary proportionally with the fourth root of the water depth as predicted from the theory of long wave propagation in a canal. Semidiurnal constituents M2, S2, and N2 have small amplitudes and appear to progress clockwise around amphidromes located beneath the northwestern part of the Ross Ice Shelf.

  17. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross as a Religious Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klass, Dennis; Hutch, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    Considers Elisabeth Kubler-Ross as a charismatic religious leader and examines the feminine quality of her message and leadership style. An examination of the prospects for an enduring cultural innovation based on Kubler-Ross's work concludes that her leadership does not conform to conditions necessary for institutionalization of her charismatic…

  18. Ross opens Tool Stowage Assembly on ODS support structure

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-12-10

    S88-E-5104 (12-10-98) With the Shuttle in a "night side" position, astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, uses artificial light during the second STS-88 space walk. Ross is near a pressurized module adapter (PMA) on Endeavour's port side. The photo was taken with an electronic still camera (ESC) at 03:10:00 GMT, Dec. 10.

  19. Relationships in Areal Variability: The Ross Sea Polynya and Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jason Michael

    General increases in Antarctic sea ice coverage occur primarily in the Ross Sea. This study investigates the Ross Sea Polynya's relationship with the Ross Sea ice areal coverage. A unique, relatively long term Ross Sea Polynya area dataset was created through the application of the Polynya Signature Simulation Method (PSSM) onto Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data inputs. Bivariate regression analyses were used to determine the relationships, at the 95% confidence level, between Ross Sea Polynya and ice areal trends, annual seasonalities, and anomalies at the full temporal scale as well as the monthly level. Polynya and sea ice have significant positive relationships in the late austral summer and early spring (February to March), and a significant negative relationship in the late austral winter (August). The areal anomalies only had a significant relationship in February, while the trends were not correlated at any time.

  20. Seismic Stratigraphy Of The Ross Island Flexural Moat Under Western Mcmurdo-Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, H.; Naish, T.; Bannister, S.; Balfour, N.; Wilson, G.; Finnemore, F.

    2003-04-01

    Ross Island is a volcanic complex that began forming with the emplacement Mount Bird around 5 million years ago, though it has developed most significantly within the last 1 million years with the emplacement of the c. 4km high Mount Erebus. Throughout this time, loading of the lithosphere by this volcanic complex has warped the underlying crust into a subcircular submarine depression that has been accumulating sediment in series of flexural moat basins around the periphery of the island. Due to the depth of the floor of the depression (800-1000 m below sea level today), the sediment fill has largely escaped subsequent erosion by grounded ice of the McMurdo and Ross Ice Shelves (MRIS) and Ross Ice Sheet. Our interest is in the 1.5 km-thick sedimentary record that now lies beneath the deepest part of the depression and is covered by the MRIS. The sediments here have the potential to provide a continuous and high resolution (10^2-10^3 year) record back to 5 million years of the past behaviour of the MRIS and its influence on bottom water production in Ross Sea. The flexural moat basin-fill between the volcanic complexes of Ross and White Islands, which because of its remoteness is only now being investigated for the first time, is in a key location beneath the north western corner of the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) where it flows into the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS). This site forms one of the 4 objectives of the ANDRILL Programme and is scheduled for drilling in 2005. Here we present new multi-channel seismic reflection data from over-ice shelf surveys conducted between 2001-2003, that elucidate the geometry and stratigraphy of the flexural-moat basin-fill and its relationship to the adjacent volcanics. We illustrate the proposed drill sites and make an initial prognosis of the sedimentary fill. The uppermost c. 500 m of the sedimentary succession is expected to be fine-grained muds with occasional glacigene sediment and layers of volcanic ash. Underlying strata may become

  1. The Paediatric Cardiology Hall of Fame – Donald Nixon Ross.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Donald Nixon Ross, FRCS (4 October 1922 to 7 July 2014) was a South African-born British cardiothoracic surgeon, who developed the pulmonary autograft, known as the Ross procedure, for the treatment of aortic valve disease, and also performed the first heart transplant in the United Kingdom in 1968. This paper, written by Jane Somerville, Professor of Cardiology [Retired], Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, provides the personal recollections about Donald Ross from Jane Somerville, and thus provides a unique snapshot of cardiac surgical history.

  2. An overview of the NSCAT/N-ROSS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, B. D.; Freilich, Michael H.; Li, F. K.; Callahan, Phillip S.

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) to fly on the U.S. Navy Remote Ocean Sensing System (N-ROSS) mission is presented. The overall N-ROSS mission, the NSCAT flight instrument and groundbased data processing/distribution system, and NASA-supported science and verification activities are described. The N-ROSS system is designed to provide measurements of near-surface wind, ocean topography, wave height, sea-surface temperature, and atmospheric water content over the global oceans. The NSCAT is an improved version of the Seasat scatterometer. It will measure near surface vector winds.

  3. Seismic Stratigraphy of the Ross Island Flexural Basin, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenman, C. P.; Harry, D. L.; Jha, S.

    2014-12-01

    Marine seismic reflection data collected over the past 30+ years in the Ross Sea region of southwest Antarctica has been tied to the ANDRILL and CIROS boreholes to develop a seismic stratigraphic model that constrains the spatial and temporal evolution of the flexural basin surrounding Ross Island. Ross Island was formed from 4.6 Ma to present by extrusive volcanism in the Ross Sea at the southern end of the Terror Rift. Preliminary mapping has identified a hinge zone trending northeastward from Mt. Bird, separating the well-developed flexural moat on the west side of the island from sub-horizontal strata on the northeast and east sides. The flexural moat on the west and north-northwest sides of the island is approximately 40-45 km wide with sediment fill thickness of roughly 1100 m. Seismic lines to the east and northeast of the island do not indicate the presence of a flexural moat. Instead, the thickness of strata on the east side of the island that are time-equivalent to the infill of the flexural moat on the west side remains constant from the Coulman High westward to within ~28 km of Ross Island (the landward extent of the seismic data coverage). The concordant post-Miocene strata on the east and northeast sides of Ross Island imply either that the flexural basin does not extend more than ~28 km eastward from the Ross Island shoreline, or that the flexural basin is not present on that side of the island. The first scenario requires that the elastic strength of the lithosphere differ on either side of the hinge. The second scenario can be explained by a mechanical rupture in the lithosphere beneath Ross Island, with Ross Island acting as an end-load on a mechanical half-plate that forms the lithosphere beneath Ross Island and westward. In this model, the lithosphere east of Ross Island and the hinge forms a second half-plate, bearing little or none of the Ross Island volcanic load.

  4. Morphological investigations of fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust.

    PubMed

    Küng, V A

    1979-06-01

    A review of morphological investigations carried out to clarify the pathogenicity of industrial dust produced in the mining and processing of Estonian oil shale is given. Histological examination of lungs of workers in the oil shale industry taken at necropsies showed that the inhalation of oil shale dust over a long period (more than 20 years) may cause the development of occupational pneumoconiotic changes in oil shale miners. The pneumoconiotic process develops slowly and is characterized by changes typical of the interstitial form of pneumoconiotic fibrosis in the lungs. Emphysematous changes and chronic bronchitis also occur. The average chemical content of oil shale as well as of samples of oil shale dust generated during mining and sorting procedures is given. The results of experiments in white rats are presented; these studies also indicate a mild fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust.

  5. Morphological investigations of fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust.

    PubMed Central

    Küng, V A

    1979-01-01

    A review of morphological investigations carried out to clarify the pathogenicity of industrial dust produced in the mining and processing of Estonian oil shale is given. Histological examination of lungs of workers in the oil shale industry taken at necropsies showed that the inhalation of oil shale dust over a long period (more than 20 years) may cause the development of occupational pneumoconiotic changes in oil shale miners. The pneumoconiotic process develops slowly and is characterized by changes typical of the interstitial form of pneumoconiotic fibrosis in the lungs. Emphysematous changes and chronic bronchitis also occur. The average chemical content of oil shale as well as of samples of oil shale dust generated during mining and sorting procedures is given. The results of experiments in white rats are presented; these studies also indicate a mild fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. PMID:221215

  6. Rupturing otherness: becoming Estonian in the context of contemporary Britain.

    PubMed

    Märtsin, Mariann

    2010-03-01

    While identity construction continues to be a widely discussed and researched area in contemporary social sciences, the existing theories have overlooked the importance of understanding why and how identities as semiotic constructions emerge in individuals' consciousness in the flow of their everyday functioning. This article seeks to address this limitation in the theorizing by proposing an alternative conceptualization of identity, according to which identity construction is triggered by rupturing life-experience, which surfaces another perspective and makes the person aware of a possibility to be otherwise or of the reality of being different. Theoretical claims put forward in the paper are drawn from data gathered in a recent study, which explored lived-through experiences of young Estonians, who made study-visits to the United Kingdom. The discussed data will also highlight some interesting aspects in Estonians' self-definition as it is constructed in relation to Eastern-European identity in the context of contemporary Britain.

  7. Environmental Impact of Estonian Oil Shale CFB Firing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loosaar, J.; Parve, T.; Konist, A.

    Oil shale based power production has been the basement of Estonia's energetical independency and economy for over 60 years. At the same time oil shale power plants emissions still give the biggest share of Estonian stationary source pollution, having significant impact to the environment. Thanks to the introduction of oil shale large scale CFB firing, reduction of the total environmental impact was achieved in last years.

  8. Speech audiometry in Estonia: Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Jansen, Sofie; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is no up-to-date speech perception test available in the Estonian language that may be used to diagnose hearing loss and quantify speech intelligibility. Therefore, based on the example of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Audiologie (NVA)-lists ( Bosman, 1989 ; Wouters et al, 1994 ) an Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test has been developed. Two experimental steps were carried out: (1) selection and perceptual optimization of the monosyllables, and (2) construction of 14 lists and an evaluation in normal hearing (NH) subjects both in noise and in quiet. Thirty-six normal-hearing (NH) native speakers of Estonia (age range from 17 to 46 years). The reference psychometric curve for NH subjects was determined, with the slope and speech reception threshold being well in accordance with the respective values of the NVA lists. The 14 lists in noise yielded equivalent scores with high precision. The EWIN test is a reliable and valid speech intelligibility test, and is the first of its kind in the Estonian language.

  9. Career Management in Transition: HRD Themes from the Estonian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Christopher J.; Jarvalt, Jane; Metcalfe, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore, through a case study, some of the key career-related HRD issues that senior managers are currently facing in the Estonian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: Presents primary empirical research into career management in the Estonian civil service since 1991, that is, in the post-Soviet era. The research involved…

  10. Career Management in Transition: HRD Themes from the Estonian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Christopher J.; Jarvalt, Jane; Metcalfe, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore, through a case study, some of the key career-related HRD issues that senior managers are currently facing in the Estonian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: Presents primary empirical research into career management in the Estonian civil service since 1991, that is, in the post-Soviet era. The research involved…

  11. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  12. Macrostructure in the Narratives of Estonian Children with Typical Development and Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soodla, Piret; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the macrostructure in Estonian children's narratives according to the story grammar (SG) model. The study's aims were to determine whether differences exist in narrative macrostructure between Estonian- and English-speaking children, among typically developed (TD) children, and between children with and without…

  13. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  14. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  15. 27 CFR 9.221 - Fort Ross-Seaview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Fort Ross Road with the Middle Branch of Russian Gulch Creek, and then proceed south along that creek... line meanders north then south around the West Branch of Russian Gulch, returning to the beginning...

  16. 27 CFR 9.221 - Fort Ross-Seaview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Fort Ross Road with the Middle Branch of Russian Gulch Creek, and then proceed south along that creek... line meanders north then south around the West Branch of Russian Gulch, returning to the beginning...

  17. 27 CFR 9.221 - Fort Ross-Seaview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Fort Ross Road with the Middle Branch of Russian Gulch Creek, and then proceed south along that creek... line meanders north then south around the West Branch of Russian Gulch, returning to the beginning...

  18. Cretaceous and Tertiary extension throughout the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decesari, Robert C.; Wilson, Douglas C.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Faulkner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Marine geophysical data from the deep sea adjacent to the Ross Sea, Antarctica suggest that 70 km of extension occurred between East and West Antarctica from 46 to 2 Ma. The Northern and Victoria Land Basins in the western Ross Sea adjacent to the Transantarctic Mountains accommodated 95 km of this extension. Several kilometers of Oligocene sediments are found in the Central Trough and Eastern Basin in the eastern Ross Sea. Subsidence modeling accounts for these accumulations with about 40 km of extension in each basin centered on 35 Ma; therefore Ross Sea-wide Tertiary extension was comparable to extension in the deep-sea system. The early Tertiary geometry was of one oceanic rift that branched into at least three rifts in the continental lithosphere. This pattern is likely due to the contrast of physical properties and thermal state between the two different lithospheres at the continent-ocean boundary.

  19. The Ross II procedure: pulmonary autograft in the mitral position.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Thanos; Cherian, Ashok; Ross, Donald

    2004-10-01

    The surgical management of mitral valve disease in women of childbearing age, young patients, and children with congenital mitral valve defects is made difficult by the prospect of lifelong anticoagulation. We suggest the use of a pulmonary autograft in the mitral position (Ross II procedure) as an alternative surgical technique. We present a review of the literature, historical perspectives, indications, selection criteria, and surgical technique for the Ross II procedure. Our literature search identified 14 studies that reported results from the Ross II operation. Performed in 103 patients, the overall in-hospital mortality was 7 (6.7%), with a late mortality of 10 (9%). Although further research is needed, current evidence suggests the Ross II operation is a valuable alternative in low-risk young patients where valve durability and the complication rate from other procedures is unsatisfactory and anticoagulation not ideal.

  20. ROSS Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities Training Evaluation. Gaps and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Ala, Maureen; Gruidl, Jeremiah; Buddemeier, Brooke

    2015-09-30

    This document describes the development of the ROSS SKAs, the cross-mapping of the SKAs to the available training, identifies gaps in the SKA and training, and provides recommendations to address those gaps.

  1. Literature and Writing: A Conversation with Ramon Ross.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Writing Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Interviews Dr. Ramon Ross of San Diego State University, an experienced author and teacher. Discusses the relationship between writing and literature, and suggests techniques for using the two in harmony. (SR)

  2. Literature and Writing: A Conversation with Ramon Ross.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Writing Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Interviews Dr. Ramon Ross of San Diego State University, an experienced author and teacher. Discusses the relationship between writing and literature, and suggests techniques for using the two in harmony. (SR)

  3. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... the U.S./Canadian border to the end of the road at East Landing. (3) Access and circulatory roads...

  4. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... the U.S./Canadian border to the end of the road at East Landing. (3) Access and circulatory roads...

  5. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... the U.S./Canadian border to the end of the road at East Landing. (3) Access and circulatory roads...

  6. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... the U.S./Canadian border to the end of the road at East Landing. (3) Access and circulatory roads...

  7. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... the U.S./Canadian border to the end of the road at East Landing. (3) Access and circulatory roads...

  8. STS-74 M.S. Jerry L. Ross suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Spaceflight veteran Jerry L. Ross, Mission Specialist 2 on Shuttle Mission STS-74, is assisted by a suit technician as he finishes getting into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. Ross and four fellow astronauts will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits a second liftoff attempt during a seven-minute window scheduled to open at approximately 7:30 a.m. EST, Nov. 12.

  9. Circulation and melting beneath the ross ice shelf.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, S S; Gordon, A L; Ardai, J L

    1979-02-02

    Thermohaline observations in the water column beneath the Ross Ice Shelf and along its terminal face show significant vertical stratification, active horizontal circulation, and net melting at the ice shelf base. Heat is supplied by seawater that moves southward beneath the ice shelf from a central warm core and from a western region of high salinity. The near-freezing Ice Shelf Water produced flows northward into the Ross Sea.

  10. Western Ross Sea continental slope gravity currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Orsi, Alejandro H.; Muench, Robin; Huber, Bruce A.; Zambianchi, Enrico; Visbeck, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Antarctic Bottom Water of the world ocean is derived from dense Shelf Water that is carried downslope by gravity currents at specific sites along the Antarctic margins. Data gathered by the AnSlope and CLIMA programs reveal the presence of energetic gravity currents that are formed over the western continental slope of the Ross Sea when High Salinity Shelf Water exits the shelf through Drygalski Trough. Joides Trough, immediately to the east, offers an additional escape route for less saline Shelf Water, while the Glomar Challenger Trough still farther east is a major pathway for export of the once supercooled low-salinity Ice Shelf Water that forms under the Ross Ice Shelf. The Drygalski Trough gravity currents increase in thickness from ˜100 to ˜400 m on proceeding downslope from ˜600 m (the shelf break) to 1200 m (upper slope) sea floor depth, while turning sharply to the west in response to the Coriolis force during their descent. The mean current pathway trends ˜35° downslope from isobaths. Benthic-layer current and thickness are correlated with the bottom water salinity, which exerts the primary control over the benthic-layer density. A 1-year time series of bottom-water current and hydrographic properties obtained on the slope near the 1000 m isobath indicates episodic pulses of Shelf Water export through Drygalski Trough. These cold (<-1 °C), salty (>34.75) pulses correlate with strong downslope bottom flow. Extreme examples occurred during austral summer/fall 2003, comprising concentrated High Salinity Shelf Water (-1.9 °C; 34.79) and approaching 1.5 m s -1 at descent angles as large as ˜60° relative to the isobaths. Such events were most common during November-May, consistent with a northward shift in position of the dense Shelf Water during austral summer. The coldest, saltiest bottom water was measured from mid-April to mid-May 2003. The summer/fall export of High Salinity Shelf Water observed in 2004 was less than that seen in 2003. This

  11. A study on the polynyas of the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocco, D.; Biggs, N. R. T.; Zambianchi, E.; Wadhams, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Ross Sea polynya is a complex oceanographic feature with a strong influence on the heat balances of the Ross Sea. The opening of the Ross Sea polynya depends on three main factors: the katabatic surges associated with the cyclogenesys events on the Siple coast, the katabatic flow down the glaciers in the Eastern Ross Sea and the katabatic winds blowing from the Transantarctic Mountains, which are turned aside by Ross Island (Bromwich et al., 1998). In this work, the polynya opening and closure in 1999 is studied. A flux model (Biggs et al. 2000) is applied to a few case study in order to describe the polynya behaviour. Heat fluxes and sea ice production will be evaluated by using bulk formulae. The meteorological input for the calculations are provided by the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting. Sea ice concentration data will be used in order to validate the model. Daily ice concentration data were retrieved by using the Sea Lion algorithm to obtain maps of the polynya area with a spatial resolution of 12.5x12.5km2 (Kern and Heygster, 2001; Kern, 2001). This is achieved using the polarization difference of 85GHz brightness temperatures acquired by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). This study focuses on the Ross Sea Polynya, but nevertheless the Terra Nova Bay polynya case will be investigated.

  12. Odd cloud in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 28, 2002, MODIS captured this image of an interesting cloud formation in the boundary waters between Antarctica's Ross Sea and the Southern Ocean. A dragon? A snake? A fish? No, but it is an interesting example of the atmospheric physics of convection. The 'eye' of this dragon-looking cloud is likely a small spot of convection, the process by which hot moist air rises up into the atmosphere, often producing big, fluffy clouds as moisture in the air condenses as rises into the colder parts of the atmosphere. A false color analysis that shows different kinds of clouds in different colors reveals that the eye is composed of ice crystals while the 'body' is a liquid water cloud. This suggests that the eye is higher up in the atmosphere than the body. The most likely explanation for the eye feature is that the warm, rising air mass had enough buoyancy to punch through the liquid water cloud. As a convective parcel of air rises into the atmosphere, it pushes the colder air that is higher up out of its way. That cold air spills down over the sides of the convective air mass, and in this case has cleared away part of the liquid cloud layer below in the process. This spilling over of cold air from higher up in the atmosphere is the reason why thunderstorms are often accompanied by a cool breeze. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Odd cloud in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 28, 2002, MODIS captured this image of an interesting cloud formation in the boundary waters between Antarctica's Ross Sea and the Southern Ocean. A dragon? A snake? A fish? No, but it is an interesting example of the atmospheric physics of convection. The 'eye' of this dragon-looking cloud is likely a small spot of convection, the process by which hot moist air rises up into the atmosphere, often producing big, fluffy clouds as moisture in the air condenses as rises into the colder parts of the atmosphere. A false color analysis that shows different kinds of clouds in different colors reveals that the eye is composed of ice crystals while the 'body' is a liquid water cloud. This suggests that the eye is higher up in the atmosphere than the body. The most likely explanation for the eye feature is that the warm, rising air mass had enough buoyancy to punch through the liquid water cloud. As a convective parcel of air rises into the atmosphere, it pushes the colder air that is higher up out of its way. That cold air spills down over the sides of the convective air mass, and in this case has cleared away part of the liquid cloud layer below in the process. This spilling over of cold air from higher up in the atmosphere is the reason why thunderstorms are often accompanied by a cool breeze. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. Seismicity in the vicinity of Ross Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, C. A.; Kienle, J.

    1986-12-01

    Earthquakes in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, are of two types: volcanic, and those which appear to be of tectonic origin. Volcanic events in the vicinity of Ross Island are associated exclusively with Mount Erebus, Ross Island; this volcano erupts regularly, generating several earthquakes per day whose characteristics are quite distinct from non-volcanic events. These nonvolcanic earthquakes are recognizable by their distinct P- and S-wave arrivals, and a lack of the high frequency, often monochromatic character typical of Erebus events. One hundred fifty-seven tectonic microearthquakes (M < 2.0) were recorded in 1983 and 1984 by the ten station network on Ross Island; these events were located using the least-squares routine, HYPOELLIPSE. Of these events, 106 have RMS residual traveltime errors of less than or equal to 0.6 seconds; they are clustered in the vicinity of Ross Island, but are not restricted to it. There is a linear trend of epicenters cutting across the island and continuing northward. Most activity seems to center beneath Mount Terra Nova, between Mount Erebus and Mount Terror. Mean depth for events is 8.2 km; however, depths are rather evenly distributed over a range of 0 to 25 km. Modelling based on Bouger gravity anomalies and seismic refraction studies indicates a depth to the Moho of about 40 km beneath the continent, shallowing to 27 km beneath the Ross Sea. This 27 km depth is approximately equal to the lower limit of the tectonic seismicity detected by the Erebus network; hence, events are of crustal origin. These data suggest, with the rift-type geochemistry of Erebus' magma, that the Ross Sea is a site of active crustal extension and rifting.

  15. Glacial history of Prince Gustav Channel and James Ross Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, N. F.; Davies, B. J.; Hambrey, M.; Carrivick, J.; Nyvlt, D.; Smellie, J.

    2012-12-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Antarctica, circa 18 cal. ka BP, ice draining from northeast Antarctic Peninsula and an ice dome over James Ross Island coalesced in Prince Gustav Channel. These glaciers formed a palaeo-ice stream flowing northwards and southwards to the shelf edge, resulting in an ice divide off northwest James Ross Island. However, this record is largely derived from marine sediment cores and swath bathymetry. The onshore interaction of Antarctic Peninsula-derived ice and an extended Mount Haddington Ice Cap on James Ross Island remains uncertain, and chronostratigraphy is poor, being largely based on radiocarbon dates, which are influenced by the large marine reservoir effect. A key issue is the age of the glacial incursion that deposited the granite erratics on Ulu Peninsula. Our hypothesis is that James Ross Island was initially inundated by a thick Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet, which deposited the inland and high-elevation erratic boulders on James Ross Island. During deglaciation, this ice sheet was subsequently drained by fast-flowing ice streams including the ice stream that developed in the Prince Gustav Channel. At this time the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet ice was thinner and therefore only impinged on the coastal fringes of James Ross Island. We therefore anticipate that the inland and high-elevation granite boulders on basalt-rich glacial deposits will yield the age of pre-LGM ice advances of the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet onto James Ross Island, and that the erratic boulders associated with glacial deposits enriched in Trinity Peninsula erratics at low-lying coastal sites will represent the age of the deglacial Prince Gustav Ice Stream.

  16. Climate variability and Ross River virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Tong, S; Bi, P; Donald, K; McMichael, A J

    2002-08-01

    (1) To examine the feasibility to link climate data with monthly incidence of Ross River virus (RRv). (2) To assess the impact of climate variability on the RRv transmission. An ecological time series analysis was performed on the data collected between 1985 to 1996 in Queensland, Australia. Information on the notified RRv cases was obtained from the Queensland Department of Health. Climate and population data were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Spearman's rank correlation analyses were performed to examine the relation between climate variability and the monthly incidence of notified RRv infections. The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to perform a time series analysis. As maximum and minimum temperatures were highly correlated with each other (r(s)=0.75), two separate models were developed. For the eight major cities in Queensland, the climate-RRv correlation coefficients were in the range of 0.12 to 0.52 for maximum and minimum temperatures, -0.10 to 0.46 for rainfall, and 0.11 to 0.52 for relative humidity and high tide. For the whole State, rainfall (partial regression coefficient: 0.017 (95% confidence intervals 0.009 to 0.025) in Model I and 0.018 (0.010 to 0.026) in Model II), and high tidal level (0.030 (0.006 to 0.054) in Model I and 0.029 (0.005 to 0.053) in Model II) seemed to have played significant parts in the transmission of RRv in Queensland. Maximum temperature was also marginally significantly associated with the incidence of RRv infection. Rainfall, temperature, and tidal levels may be important environmental determinants in the transmission cycles of RRv disease.

  17. Epidemic polyarthritis (Ross River) virus infection in the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Rosen, L; Gubler, D J; Bennett, P H

    1981-11-01

    An epidemic of Ross River virus infection occurred in the Cook Islands early in 1980 and affected the majority of the inhabitants of Rarotonga, the most populated island in the group. This represents the easternmost extension of the virus which, until 1979, was believed limited to Australia, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. The clinical manifestations of Ross River disease, predominantly polyarthritis, did not differ significantly from those observed previously in Australia. However, unlike the experience in Australia, where Ross River virus has never been isolated from a patient with polyarthritis, the agent was recovered from the serum of one-half of approximately 100 such patients with serologically proven infections. It is not known if this latter observation is the result of a change in the virus, the different virus isolation technique employed, or other factors. It was found that the incubation period of the disease could be as short as 3 days--much less than previously suspected. Ross River virus was isolated from six pools of Aedes polynesiensis mosquitoes collected in nature and it appeared that this species was the most probable vector on Rarotonga. In view of the widespread distribution of Ae. polynesiensis on islands, in the eastern Pacific it would not be surprising if Ross River virus occurs in other previously unaffected areas in the future.

  18. Radiological Operations Support Specialist (ROSS) Pilot Course Summary and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Alai, M.; Askin, A.; Buddemeier, B.; Wogan, L.; Doshi, P.; Tai, L.

    2016-09-30

    In support of the Department of Homeland Security / Science and Technology Directorate’s (DHS/S&T) creation of a new position called the Radiological Operations Support Specialist (ROSS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Sub-task 1.1 and 1.2 has assisted in the development of the ROSS skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs); identified potentially relevant training; cross-mapped the training to the SKAs; and identified gaps in the training related to the SKAs, as well as their respective level of training knowledge - current versus desired. In the follow on task, Sub-task 1.3, a 5 day ROSS Pilot Training course was developed to fill the priority gaps identified in Sub-Task 1.2. Additionally, in Sub-Task 1.5, LLNL has performed a gap analysis of electronic tools, handbooks, and job-aides currently available to the ROSS and developed recommendations for additional and next generation tools to ensure the operational effectiveness of the ROSS position. This document summarizes the feedback received from the instructors and pilot course observers on what worked in the course and what could be improved as well as an assessment of the Pre- and Post-Test administered to the students.

  19. Physiochemical controls on phytoplankton distributions in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Smith, Walker O.

    2012-06-01

    The continental shelf of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, is characterized by extreme seasonal and interannual changes in atmospheric and oceanographic processes, which result in distinct temporal patterns in phytoplankton biomass and assemblage composition. However, the environmental forcing of these variations remains uncertain, especially when a series of correlated variables are considered. Hydrological profiles, dissolved nutrients, particulate matter, and phytoplankton pigments were measured in the southern Ross Sea in austral spring and summer during four years (1996-97, 2003-04, 2004-05, and 2005-06), and a series of multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the causative mechanisms in the control of phytoplankton distributions in the Ross Sea. Our results demonstrate that the significant interannual, seasonal and spatial variability that occurs in the southern Ross Sea in hydrographic and chemical properties is highly correlated with the variability in phytoplankton distributions. Although multiple controlling mechanisms were suggested, mixed layer depths did not appear to be a dominant factor regulating phytoplankton biomass or composition; conversely, we found a significant role of water column temperature in structuring phytoplankton assemblage composition in the southern Ross Sea, in that cooler water strongly selects for Phaeocystis antarctica, which is a dominant control of carbon flux to depth, and thus of substantial biogeochemical importance.

  20. Comparative inhalation studies with American and Estonian oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Vigil, E.A.; Gonzales, M.; Tillery, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents interim findings on studies comparing the effects of long-term inhalation of quartz, Estonian kukersite, or American Green River shales in rats. No tumors have been observed in the exposed animals. In the studies with Green River shales, the rate of death increased as the animals approached 2 years of exposure. Varying degrees of lung fibrosis has been noted in these animals also. Animals in the kukersite group exhibited only mild changes with some alveolar thickening, and increased macrophages and collagen. Quartz exposed animals suffered severe fibrosis after several months exposure and died after 12 to 15 months.

  1. A composite semiresorbable armoured scaffold stabilizes pulmonary autograft after the Ross operation: Mr Ross's dream fulfilled.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Francesco; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Fraldi, Massimiliano; Montagnani, Stefania; Fouret, Pierre; Chachques, Juan Carlos; Acar, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Use of resorbable external reinforcement of the pulmonary autograft during the Ross operation has been suggested, but the differential regional potential for dilation of the aorta, mainly regarding the neo-root and the neo-Valsalva sinuses, represents an unresolved issue. Auxetic materials could be useful in preventing dilation given their favorable mechanical properties. We designed a composite semiresorbable armoured bioprosthesis constituted by polydioxanone and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and evaluated its effectiveness as a pulmonary autograft reinforcement device in an animal model of the Ross procedure. An experimental model of the Ross procedure was performed in 20 three-month-old growing lambs. The pulmonary autograft was alternatively nonreinforced (control group n = 10) or reinforced with composite bioprosthesis (reinforced group n = 10). Animals were followed up during growth for 6 months by angiography and echocardiography. Specific stainings for extracellular matrix and immunohistochemistry for metalloproteinase-9 were performed. Reference aortic diameter increased from 14 ± 1 mm to 19 ± 2 mm over 6 months of growth. In the control group, pulmonary autograft distension (28 ± 2 mm) was immediately noted, followed by aneurysm development at 6 months (40 ± 2 mm, P < .001 vs reference). In the reinforced group, an initial dilation to 18 ± 1 mm was detected and the final diameter was 27 ± 2 mm (42% increase). Two deaths due to pulmonary autograft rupture occurred in the control group. On histology, the control group showed medial disruption with connective fibrous replacement, whereas in the reinforced group compensatory intimal hyperplasia was present in the absence of intimal tears. The bioprosthesis promoted a positive matrix rearrangement process favoring neoarterialization and elastic remodeling as demonstrated on specific staining for elastin collagen and metalloproteinase-9. The device adapted and functionally compensated for the

  2. B-15 iceberg family in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from September 17, 2000, shows the B15 family of icebergs that calved off the Ross Ice Shelf in March of 2000, at the end of the Antarctic summer melt season. The enormous bergs were locked up in winter sea ice before they could drift very far that first season, but at the onset of the winter thaw, soon after this image was acquired, the bergs began to drift. The large, southernmost berg is B-15, and it eventually drifted over toward Ross Island, seen at the bottom left of the image. The amazing shadow being cast on the ground south of Ross Island is from Mt. Erebus.

  3. Spring Phytoplankton Production in the Western Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; McClain, Charles R.

    1994-10-01

    Coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) imagery of the western Ross Sea revealed the presence of an intense phytoplankton bloom covering >106,000 square kilometers in early December 1978. This bloom developed inside the Ross Sea polynya, within 2 weeks of initial polynya formation in late November. Primary productivity calculated from December imagery (3.9 grams of carbon per square meter per day) was up to four times the values measured during in situ studies in mid-January to February 1979. Inclusion of this early season production yields a spring-to-summer estimate of 141 to 171 grams of carbon per square meter, three to four times the values previously reported for the western Ross Sea.

  4. N-ROSS: The dynamics and control issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    The Navy Remote Ocean Sensing System (N-ROSS) Dynamic Stability Study team concluded that the frozen April 1985 design was viable and contained no show stoppers, although it was also clear from the study results that the configuration required further optimization. While the frozen N-ROSS configuration used has since been superceded, and the vehicle is now under competitive procurement, several other results remain from the study that will have lasting value to the N-ROSS program. The importance of constructing an integrated simulation, to serve as a design and verification aid, has been clearly established. The two team approach to the study afforded the Navy a higher degree of confidence in the results than could have been accomplished by a single simulation, and the approach led to results that highlighted subtleties in the model and simulation development that surely would have been overlookded without the benefit of an independent companion simulation with which to compare it.

  5. Subsurface mapping of the Ross Island flexural basin, southwest Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenman, Christopher P.

    Ross Island is a post-Miocene (< 4.6 Ma) volcanic island located in the Ross Sea region of southwest Antarctica. This region of Antarctica borders the western edge of the West Antarctic Rift System, along the Transantarctic Mountain front. Marine and over-ice multi-channel seismic reflection surveys and borehole studies targeting the Ross Sea region over the last 30+ years have been used in this study to develop a seismic stratigraphic model of the development and evolution of the Ross Island flexural basin. Four key stratigraphic horizons were identified and mapped to fully capture the basin-fill, as well as strata lying above and below the flexural basin. From oldest to youngest these horizons are named RIB-m, RIM-g, RIM-b and RIB-r. Time structure, isochron and isochore maps were created for the horizons and the stratigraphic intervals they bound. The seismic stratigraphic record shows the Ross Island flexural moat formation post-dates the main tectonic subsidence phase within the Victoria Land Basin. The maps presented here are the first to fully illustrate the evolution of the Ross Island flexural basin. The maps highlight depositional patterns of two distinct periods of flexural subsidence and basin-filling superimposed on the older N-S trending Victoria Land Basin depocenter. Two units of flexural basin fill, Unit FFI between horizons RIM-g and RIM-b (the oldest flexural basin fill), and Unit FFII between horizons RIM-b and RIB-r (the youngest flexural basin fill) are associated with the two periods of flexural subsidence. Flexural moat subsidence and subsequent filling occurred episodically during periods of active volcanism on the island. Unit FFI is estimated to range from ca. 4 to 2 Ma, corresponding with formation of the Mt. Bird volcanic edifice on Ross Island. Unit FFII ranges in age from ca. 2 to 1 Ma, and is related to Mt. Terror, Mt. Erebus, and Hut Point Peninsula volcanism. The isochore maps suggest the depocenter of the flexural basin during

  6. STS-88 Mission Specialist Ross suits up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-88 Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross (left) and astronaut Charles Precourt pose for a photo during suiting up activities in the Operations and Checkout Building. STS-88 will be the sixth spaceflight for Ross, who is scheduled to perform three spacewalks on the mission. He and the five other STS-88 crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A where the Space Shuttle Endeavour is poised for liftoff on the first U.S. mission dedicated to the assembly of the International Space Station.

  7. Science opportunities using the NASA scatterometer on N-ROSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freilich, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration scatterometer (NSCAT) is to be flown as part of the Navy Remote Ocean Sensing System (N-ROSS) scheduled for launch in 1989. The NSCAT will provide frequent accurate and high-resolution measurements of vector winds over the global oceans. NSCAT data will be applicable to a wide range of studies in oceanography, meteorology, and instrument science. The N-ROSS mission, is outlined, are described. The capabilities of the NSCAT flight instrument and an associated NASA research ground data-processing and distribution system, and representative oceanographic meteorological, and instrument science studies that may benefit from NSCAT data are surveyed.

  8. Cocarcinogenicity of phenols from Estonian shale tars (oils).

    PubMed Central

    Bogovski, P A; Mirme, H I

    1979-01-01

    Many phenols have carcinogenic activity. The Estonian shale oils contain up to 40 vol % phenols. The promoting activity after initiation of phenols of Estonian shale oils was tested in mice with a single subthreshold dose (0.36 mg) of benzo(a)pyrene. C57Bl and CC57Br mice were used in skin painting experiments. Weak carcinogenic activity was found in the total crude water-soluble phenols recovered from the wastewater of a shale processing plant. In two-stage experiments a clear promoting action of the total crude phenols was established, whereas the fractions A and B (training reagents), obtained by selective crystallization of the total phenols exerted a considerably weaker promoting action. Epo-glue, a commercial epoxy product produced from unfractionated crude phenols, had no promoting activity, which may be due to the processing of the phenols involving polymerization. The mechanism of action of phenols is not clear. According to some data from the literature, phenol and 5-methylresorcinol reduce the resorption speed of BP in mouse skin, causing prolongation of the action fo the carcinogen. PMID:446449

  9. Exploring the sustainability of estonian forestry: the socioeconomic drivers.

    PubMed

    Urbel-Piirsalu, Evelin; Bäcklund, Ann-Katrin

    2009-03-01

    Forestry as an important industry has both direct as well as indirect effects on the Estonian economy. It is therefore essential that it is sustainably managed so that it can continue to contribute to the economy in the future. The first aim of this article is to establish the situation regarding felling and regeneration in Estonia. As the available forestry statistics display discrepancies and lack consistency, it was as a necessary first step to gather information about and analyze the validity and reliability of the prime data to make the data sets useful for comparison over time and establish the current trends in Estonian forestry. However, with the help of interviews we are able to show that economic instability in Estonia brings with it increased logging rates and hinders investments into regeneration and maintenance. The problems are particularly pronounced in private forestry. Second, the article seeks to explain the socioeconomic reasons behind this situation. Economic problems among private owners, a liberal forestry policy, together with rapid land reform and weak enforcement of forestry legislation are some of the reasons that can explain the forestry trends in Estonia.

  10. 76 FR 81962 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan, Ross Lake National Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... of Ross Lake NRA, Goodell Creek, and Newhalem Creek. Climate change impacts and Ross Lake NRA's... evaluating the changes and impacts of the other three alternatives. The emphasis of the No Action Alternative... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE Final Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan, Ross Lake...

  11. 76 FR 22338 - Proposed Fort Ross-Seaview Viticultural Area; Comment Period Reopening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Part 9 RIN 1513-AB44 Proposed Fort Ross-Seaview... the Fort Ross-Seaview viticultural area in western Sonoma County, California. Through this notice, TTB is soliciting comments on the establishment of the Fort Ross-Seaview viticultural area as proposed...

  12. Ross Ice Shelf airstream driven by polar vortex cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The powerful air and ocean currents that flow in and above the Southern Ocean, circling in the Southern Hemisphere's high latitudes, form a barrier to mixing between Antarctica and the rest of the planet. Particularly during the austral winter, strong westerly winds isolate the Antarctic continent from heat, energy, and mass exchange, bolstering the scale of the annual polar ozone depletion and driving the continent's record-breaking low temperatures. Pushing through this wall of high winds, the Ross Ice Shelf airstream (RAS) is responsible for a sizable amount of mass and energy exchange from the Antarctic inland areas to lower latitudes. Sitting due south of New Zealand, the roughly 470,000-square-kilometer Ross Ice Shelf is the continent's largest ice shelf and a hub of activity for Antarctic research. A highly variable lower atmospheric air current, RAS draws air from the inland Antarctic Plateau over the Ross Ice Shelf and past the Ross Sea. Drawing on modeled wind patterns for 2001-2005, Seefeldt and Cassano identify the primary drivers of RAS.

  13. Astronauts Jerry Ross and Sherwood Spring assemble ACCESS components

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-12-01

    Astronauts Jerry L. Ross (left) and Sherwood C. (Woody) Spring are photographed as they assemble pieces of the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activities (EASE) device in the open payload bay. The Canadian-built remote manipulator system (RMS) arm (partially obscured in the right portion of the frame) is in position to allow television cameras to record the activity.

  14. John Ross--The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Sara Gordon

    First elected Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1828, John Ross served his people with courage and honor through a difficult and tragic period in their history. Born in 1790, he grew up when the Cherokees' world was rapidly changing and treaties with federal and state governments ended in broken promises and the loss of Cherokee lands. He…

  15. STS-74 MS Jerry L. Ross in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross is nearly ready to enter the Space Shuttle Atlantis, scheduled for liftoff at about 7:30 a.m. EST, Nov. 12. Johnson Space Center Lockheed suit technician Ray Villalobos (left) is one member of the white room closeout crew that helps Shuttle crews into the orbiter.

  16. Ross Ice Shelf and the Queen Maude Mounains, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Part of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Queen Maude Mounains of Antarctica (55.5N, 178.0W) are in the background of this scene, oriented toward the south. Low stratocumulus clouds are predominant throughout most of the scene.

  17. STS-74 MS Jerry L. Ross in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross is nearly ready to enter the Space Shuttle Atlantis, scheduled for liftoff at about 7:30 a.m. EST, Nov. 12. Johnson Space Center Lockheed suit technician Ray Villalobos (left) is one member of the white room closeout crew that helps Shuttle crews into the orbiter.

  18. Abundances in the metal poor dwarf Ross 451

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiesman, William J.

    1990-01-01

    High dispersion echelle spectra of the high velocity subdwarf Ross 451 (= G236-080) were obtained using the 4-m telescope at Kitt Peak. Initial abundance determinations for six elements are presented, using absolute oscillator strengths and metal-poor stellar-atmosphere models.

  19. Ross Ice Shelf and the Queen Maude Mounains, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Part of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Queen Maude Mounains of Antarctica (55.5N, 178.0W) are in the background of this scene, oriented toward the south. Low stratocumulus clouds are predominant throughout most of the scene.

  20. John Ross--The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Sara Gordon

    First elected Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1828, John Ross served his people with courage and honor through a difficult and tragic period in their history. Born in 1790, he grew up when the Cherokees' world was rapidly changing and treaties with federal and state governments ended in broken promises and the loss of Cherokee lands. He…

  1. Tectonic and Geomporphic Overview of the Ross Embayment Extensional Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Ross Embayment is one of the lowest-standing continental regions on Earth. In essentially all places where basement topography has been mapped, the morphology is horst and graben. Several authors have suggested that the low topography is recent, with the area having been an orogenic highland in the Cretaceous. The tectonic extension driving the transition from high topography to low topography may have been as much as 500 km, with stretching factors of 2-3 over wide areas. Timing of the extension is incompletely known, but may have spanned most of the interval from 100 to 25 Ma. An analogy between the Ross Embayment and the North American Basin and Range province has often been suggested, and the case for that analogy has been growing. North American orogenic topography was probably highest 50 Ma, and margin-normal extension has been of the order of 200 km, and is ongoing. The Transantarctic Mountains bordering the Ross Embayment may share elements of their formation with the Wasatch Mountains of Utah and other parts of the eastern boundary of the Basin and Range. Glacial erosion and deposition have played a huge role in the geomorphic history of the Ross Embayment. The source region for the major ice streams, now well below sea level even after accounting for removal of the present ice load, restores with confidence to above sea level in the Eocene after accounting for the effects of 2 km of erosion and of thermal subsidence. The scale of these topographic changes is large enough that they need to be considered in detailed simulations of past climates, especially the initiation of the Antarctic ice sheets. Under generous interpretations of early Cenozoic tectonic extension in the Ross Embayment, the Late Cretaceous ancestral Transantarctic Mountains may have been high enough to host short-lived ice caps inferred from global sea level and oxygen-isotope records.

  2. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Milani, L; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-01-01

    Milani L, Leitsalu L, Metspalu A (University of Tartu). An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience (Review). J Intern Med 2015; 277: 188–200. The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-associated variants. The focus of genomic research has started to shift from identifying genetic and nongenetic risk factors associated with common complex diseases to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diseases and suggesting novel targets for therapy. However, translation of findings from genomic research into medical practice is still lagging, mainly due to insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility. In this review, we examine the different elements required for the implementation of personalized medicine based on genomic information. First, biobanks and genome centres are required and have been established for the high-throughput genomic screening of large numbers of samples. Secondly, the combination of susceptibility alleles into polygenic risk scores has improved risk prediction of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and several other diseases. Finally, national health information systems are being developed internationally, to combine data from electronic medical records from different sources, and also to gradually incorporate genomic information. We focus on the experience in Estonia, one of several countries with national goals towards more personalized health care based on genomic information, where the unique combination of elements required to accomplish this goal are already in place. PMID:25339628

  3. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  4. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  5. Ross syndrome: Unilateral hyperhidrosis, Adie's tonic pupils and diffuse areflexia.

    PubMed

    Yaşar, Sirin; Aslan, Canan; Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Demirci, Gülşen Tükenmez; Tutkavul, Kemal; Babalik, Dilek

    2010-12-01

    Ross syndrome is a rare disorder first described in 1958 with partial autonomic dysfunction. It has three basic components including unilateral or bilateral segmental anhidrosis, Adie's tonic pupils and areflexia or hyporeflexia of deep tendon reflexes. The most disturbing symptom in the patients is segmental compensatory hyperhidrosis and often the hypohidrosis or anhidrosis is not even noticed. While the pathogenesis of Ross syndrome is unclear, degenerative changes or damage to the peripheral autonomic nerve system or dorsal root ganglia have been suggested as possible causes. About 50 cases have been reported, usually by neurologists and ophthalmologists, and less often by dermatologists. We present a 26-year-old patient who displayed the classic triad of this syndrome, emphasizing that the presenting complaint may be hyperhidrosis and that multidisciplinary evaluation in neurology and ophthalmology is essential. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  6. Condition of the Ross Ice Shelf derived from AVHRR imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casassa, Gino

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery is combined with the Ross Ice Shelf Geophysical and Glaciological Survey (RIGGS) data to study recent changes on the Ross Ice Shelf. Flow stripes that appear on the AVHRR imagery agree with significant changes in ice flow that have occurred over the past 1,100 years on the ice shelf sector fed by East Antarctica. A large looping pattern of flow stripes that disagrees with RIGGS flow lines appears west of Crary Ice Rise, on the eastern part of the ice shelf. This looped pattern is interpreted as relict flow stripes related to past activity of a major ice stream of West Antarctica, which occurred about 800 years ago.

  7. Condition of the Ross Ice Shelf derived from AVHRR imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casassa, Gino

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery is combined with the Ross Ice Shelf Geophysical and Glaciological Survey (RIGGS) data to study recent changes on the Ross Ice Shelf. Flow stripes that appear on the AVHRR imagery agree with significant changes in ice flow that have occurred over the past 1,100 years on the ice shelf sector fed by East Antarctica. A large looping pattern of flow stripes that disagrees with RIGGS flow lines appears west of Crary Ice Rise, on the eastern part of the ice shelf. This looped pattern is interpreted as relict flow stripes related to past activity of a major ice stream of West Antarctica, which occurred about 800 years ago.

  8. ROSS: An Object-Oriented Language for Constructing Simulations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    W. Giarla, S. Narain, E. Cesar , and S. Turner, R-3158-AF, October 1984. Fast Concurrent Simulation Using the Time Warp Mechanism, Part I: Local Contru... Villanueva , and H. M. Markowitz, The Simscript H Pmoramming Language, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1968. Klahr, P., J. Ellis, W. Giarla, S...Narain, E. Cesar , and S. Turner, TWIRL Tactical Warfare in the ROSS Lanuage, The Rand Corporation, R.3158-AF, October 1984. Klahr, P., and W. S

  9. Provenance of Ross Sea Till From Sand Petrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, J. R.; Swope, R.; Licht, K. J.

    2002-12-01

    The 125-2000 micron fraction of till samples from cores retrieved beneath the Whillans Ice Stream and Ice Stream C in West Antarctica and samples collected proximal to four outlet glaciers in East Antarctica have distinct compositions. The sand fraction of East Antarctic till samples is dominantly composed of angular intermediate to mafic igneous lithic fragments, quartz-rich lithic fragments, rounded quartz grains, rounded carbonate lithic fragments, angular pyroxene grains, and rounded feldspar grains. The sand fraction of West Antarctic till is dominantly composed of rounded quartz grains, rounded feldspar grains, quartz-rich lithic fragments, and felsic igneous lithic fragments containing quartz, feldspar and phyllosillicates (biotite and chlorite). We also examined the 125-2000 micron fraction of several till samples from cores retrieved from the eastern Ross Sea. The samples are composed of (1) (25-40 %) rounded quartz grains; (2) (10-36 %) quartz-rich lithic fragments; (3) (8-20 %) quartzite fragments; (4) (5-15 %) felsic igneous lithic fragments containing quartz, feldspar, hornblende, and phyllosilicates (biotite and chlorite); (5) (5-10 %) intermediate igneous lithic fragments containing quartz, feldspar, pyroxene, and amphibole; (6) (<1 %) carbonate grains; and (7) (<1 %) feldspar grains. Compositional similarities in last glacial maximum till from the eastern Ross Sea and till collected from beneath ice streams in West Antarctica indicate the likelihood that eastern Ross Sea sediments were deposited by an advance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Most notable are the compositional similarities in the quartz grain and quartz-rich sedimentary lithic fragment percentages, and felsic lithic fragment percentages and composition. Future work involves sampling numerous last glacial maximum till samples across the Ross Sea using sand petrography as a provenance tracer to determine paleo ice flow paths.

  10. Ross sea ice motion, area flux, and deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    kwok, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The sea ice motion, area export, and deformation of the Ross Sea ice cover are examined with satellite passive microwave and RADARSAT observations. The record of high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, from 1998 and 2000, allows the estimation of the variability of ice deformation at the small scale (10 km) and to assess the quality of the longer record of passive microwave ice motion. Daily and subdaily deformation fields and RADARSAT imagery highlight the variability of motion and deformation in the Ross Sea. With the passive microwave ice motion, the area export at a flux gate positioned between Cape Adare and Land Bay is estimated. Between 1992 and 2003, a positive trend can be seen in the winter (March-November) ice area flux that has a mean of 990 x 103 km2 and ranges from a low of 600 x 103 km2 in 1992 to a peak of 1600 x 103 km2 in 2001. In the mean, the southern Ross Sea produces almost twice its own area of sea ice during the winter. Cross-gate sea level pressure (SLP) gradients explain 60% of the variance in the ice area flux. A positive trend in this gradient, from reanalysis products, suggests a 'spinup' of the Ross Sea Gyre over the past 12 yr. In both the NCEP-NCAR and ERA-40 surface pressure fields, longer-term trends in this gradient and mean SLP between 1979 and 2002 are explored along with positive anomalies in the monthly cross-gate SLP gradient associated with the positive phase of the Southern Hemisphere annular mode and the extrapolar Southern Oscillation.

  11. Astronaut Jerry Ross on RMS holds on to ACCESS device

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-12-01

    61B-102-022 (1 Dec 1985) --- Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, anchored to the foot restraint on the remote manipulator system (RMS), holds onto the tower-like Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) device, as the Atlantis flies over white clouds and blue ocean waters. The frame was exposed with a negative-equipped camera held by Astronaut Sherwood C. Spring, who was also on the EVA-task.

  12. Rosse, 3rd Earl of [William Parsons, Lord Rosse, Lord Oxmantown] (1800-67) and Rosse, 4th Earl of [Laurence Parsons, Lord Rosse, Lord Oxmantown] (1840-1908)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Irish astronomer and landowner, the 3rd Lord Rosse was educated at Trinity College, Dublin and Oxford as a mathematician. He became interested in astronomy and made at the family castle in Birr a 36 in reflector with the same design as William Herschel's (see HERSCEL FAMILY). Mapped the Moon, and observed nebulae with the intent to resolve them into stars. He developed the technology at Birr Cast...

  13. Ross sea ice motion, area flux, and deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    kwok, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The sea ice motion, area export, and deformation of the Ross Sea ice cover are examined with satellite passive microwave and RADARSAT observations. The record of high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, from 1998 and 2000, allows the estimation of the variability of ice deformation at the small scale (10 km) and to assess the quality of the longer record of passive microwave ice motion. Daily and subdaily deformation fields and RADARSAT imagery highlight the variability of motion and deformation in the Ross Sea. With the passive microwave ice motion, the area export at a flux gate positioned between Cape Adare and Land Bay is estimated. Between 1992 and 2003, a positive trend can be seen in the winter (March-November) ice area flux that has a mean of 990 x 103 km2 and ranges from a low of 600 x 103 km2 in 1992 to a peak of 1600 x 103 km2 in 2001. In the mean, the southern Ross Sea produces almost twice its own area of sea ice during the winter. Cross-gate sea level pressure (SLP) gradients explain 60% of the variance in the ice area flux. A positive trend in this gradient, from reanalysis products, suggests a 'spinup' of the Ross Sea Gyre over the past 12 yr. In both the NCEP-NCAR and ERA-40 surface pressure fields, longer-term trends in this gradient and mean SLP between 1979 and 2002 are explored along with positive anomalies in the monthly cross-gate SLP gradient associated with the positive phase of the Southern Hemisphere annular mode and the extrapolar Southern Oscillation.

  14. Trophic interactions within the Ross Sea continental shelf ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Smith, Walker O; Ainley, David G; Cattaneo-Vietti, Riccardo

    2007-01-29

    The continental shelf of the Ross Sea is one of the Antarctic's most intensively studied regions. We review the available data on the region's physical characteristics (currents and ice concentrations) and their spatial variations, as well as components of the neritic food web, including lower and middle levels (phytoplankton, zooplankton, krill, fishes), the upper trophic levels (seals, penguins, pelagic birds, whales) and benthic fauna. A hypothetical food web is presented. Biotic interactions, such as the role of Euphausia crystallorophias and Pleuragramma antarcticum as grazers of lower levels and food for higher trophic levels, are suggested as being critical. The neritic food web contrasts dramatically with others in the Antarctic that appear to be structured around the keystone species Euphausia superba. Similarly, we suggest that benthic-pelagic coupling is stronger in the Ross Sea than in most other Antarctic regions. We also highlight many of the unknowns within the food web, and discuss the impacts of a changing Ross Sea habitat on the ecosystem.

  15. Trophic interactions within the Ross Sea continental shelf ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Walker O; Ainley, David G; Cattaneo-Vietti, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    The continental shelf of the Ross Sea is one of the Antarctic's most intensively studied regions. We review the available data on the region's physical characteristics (currents and ice concentrations) and their spatial variations, as well as components of the neritic food web, including lower and middle levels (phytoplankton, zooplankton, krill, fishes), the upper trophic levels (seals, penguins, pelagic birds, whales) and benthic fauna. A hypothetical food web is presented. Biotic interactions, such as the role of Euphausia crystallorophias and Pleuragramma antarcticum as grazers of lower levels and food for higher trophic levels, are suggested as being critical. The neritic food web contrasts dramatically with others in the Antarctic that appear to be structured around the keystone species Euphausia superba. Similarly, we suggest that benthic–pelagic coupling is stronger in the Ross Sea than in most other Antarctic regions. We also highlight many of the unknowns within the food web, and discuss the impacts of a changing Ross Sea habitat on the ecosystem. PMID:17405209

  16. Qualification test of the Ross Double Planetary Mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kurt F.

    1993-01-01

    This test report describes the qualification test of the Ross Double Planetary Mixer used to mix room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone (Dow Corning 90-006-2) for the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) nozzle joints. Testing was completed 18 June 1993 in the M-113A Nozzle Fabrication Facility at Thiokol Corporation, Space Operations, Brigham City, Utah. The Ross mixer provides better mixing and better control on temperature and humidity, resulting in better quality RTV and a longer usable pot life. The test began on 3 May 1993 and was stopped due to operator error during the tensile strength and elongation testing. Specimens were ruined without gathering any useful data. A 'no test' was declared, the problem was remedied, and the test was re-run with MSFC approval. The test was run and all pass/fail criteria were met, most with a considerable margin. The Ross Double Planetary Mixer met all certification objectives and is recommended for immediate use for mixing RTV silicone for RSRM nozzle joints.

  17. Qualification test of the Ross Double Planetary Mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueders, Kurt F.

    1993-07-01

    This test report describes the qualification test of the Ross Double Planetary Mixer used to mix room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone (Dow Corning 90-006-2) for the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) nozzle joints. Testing was completed 18 June 1993 in the M-113A Nozzle Fabrication Facility at Thiokol Corporation, Space Operations, Brigham City, Utah. The Ross mixer provides better mixing and better control on temperature and humidity, resulting in better quality RTV and a longer usable pot life. The test began on 3 May 1993 and was stopped due to operator error during the tensile strength and elongation testing. Specimens were ruined without gathering any useful data. A 'no test' was declared, the problem was remedied, and the test was re-run with MSFC approval. The test was run and all pass/fail criteria were met, most with a considerable margin. The Ross Double Planetary Mixer met all certification objectives and is recommended for immediate use for mixing RTV silicone for RSRM nozzle joints.

  18. Ross Ice Shelf Polynya - Contribution to Antarctic Sea Ice Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, J. M.; Raphael, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    The complexity of the Antarctic sea ice system is contributed to by the numerous sea ice generating polynyas which occur around the continental coast. The Ross Ice Shelf Polynya is the largest by far and has the highest ice production rates. It is commonly assumed that the relationship between the size of the open water area and sea ice generation is positive. This study uses NASA Team sea ice concentration (SIC) and a new and unique dataset of daily RISP area to establish and examine the temporal geographical reach of the sea ice generated within the RISP. The dataset spans the period 1987 - 2015 and represents the longest timeseries of this polynya to date. Initial analyses show that areal variability of the RISP has significant effects on the SIC in the Ross Sea sector. The relationship varies in sign and strength depending on the time of year. During the warm season, the relationship is strongly negative suggesting that a larger polynya is associated with lower SIC. During the cold season, the relationship is positive and stronger in some months than others. These new findings are discussed. This study sheds new light on the way in which the RISP interacts with the SIC in the Ross Sea and has potential for increasing our understanding of sea ice variability in that region.

  19. Note On The Ross Sea Shelf Water Downflow Processes (antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamasco, A.; Defendi, V.; Spezie, G.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.

    In the framework of the CLIMA Project of the Italian National Program for Research in Antarctica, three different experimental data sets were acquired along the continental shelf break; two of them (in 1997 and 2001) close to Cape Adare, the 1998 one in the middle of the Ross Sea (i.e. 75 S, 177 W). The investigations were chosen in order to explore the downslope flow of the bottom waters produced in the Ross Sea, namely the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, the densest water mass of the southern ocean coming from its formation site in the polynya region in Terra Nova bay), and the Ice Shelf Water (ISW, originated below the Ross Ice Shelf and outflowing northward). Both bottom waters spill over the shelf edge and mix with the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) contributing to the formation of the Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW). Interpreting temperature, salinity and density maps in terms of cascading processes, both HSSW and ISW overflows are evidenced during, respectively, 1997 and 1998. During the 2001 acquisition there is no presence of HSSW along the shelf break, nevertheless distribution captures the evidence of a downslope flow process.

  20. The Hillary Canyon and the Iselin Bank (Eastern Ross Sea, Antarctica): Alongslope and Downslope Route For Ross Sea Bottom Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, L.; Bergamasco, A.; Colizza, E.; Geletti, R.; Accaino, F.; Wardell, N.; Olivo, E.; Petronio, L.; Henrys, S. A.; Black, J.; Mckay, R. M.; Bohm, G.

    2015-12-01

    The modern seabed of the Antarctic continental slope generally does not show a rugged geomorphology. Channel systems incise the lower continental rise, but in most cases they are inherited features formed as channel-levee turbiditic systems during past, more temperate times. The Hillary Canyon cuts the eastern Ross Sea continental slope and rise, to the Southeast of the Iselin Bank, and is directly connected to the Glomar Challenger Trough on the continental shelf. Cold dense salty water forms today in the Ross Sea polynya, spreads below the Ross Ice Shelf, becomes supercooled, fills up the landward deepening Glomar Challenger Trough and then spills over the sill of the shelf edge and flows downslope, often along the Hillary Canyon, in a geostrophic way, deviated westwards by the Coriolis Force, but sometimes also with a cascading a-geostrophic behaviour. This supercold water signal was found on the continental slope down to 1200 m depth. The shape of this tongue of modified ISW, whose thickness reaches up to 100 m, is very narrow, suggesting that the overflow occurs in very localized areas along the slope. Here we combine seismic stratigraphy analysis of multichannel seismic reflection profiles, box and gravity cores in the Hillary Canyon and along the eastern flank of the Iselin Bank, with seabed bathymetry and numerical modelling of thevertical and spatial distribution of the water masses, in order to identify modern and past pathways of the Ross Sea Bottom Water current. The results of this work show that the Hillary Canyon and the sediment mounds that formed along its flanks have been active since early Miocene times. Sediment drift-moat features and sediment waves are indicative of strong Northwest bottom currents reworking the seabed sediments at different water depths along the slope, possibly since the late Miocene. These sediment drifts are some of the targets of the IODP proposal 751-full.

  1. Amphibian Seismological Studies in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita; Kuk Hong, Jong; Lee, Won Sang; Geissler, Wolfram; Yun, Sukyoung; Gohl, Karsten; Park, Yongcheol; Yoo, Hyun Jae

    2016-04-01

    The Antarctic Ross Sea is one of the key regions for polar research activities. Research stations from several countries located at the coast are the base for inland expeditions. Even in the austral summer, the Ross Sea is party covered with drifting ice fields; this requires an icebreaker for all marine explorations. Therefore, large geophysical surveys in the Ross Sea are difficult. But the area is of special interest for seismologists: The Terror Rift in the western Ross Sea is a prominent neotectonic structure of the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS). It is located near the coast in the Victoria Land Basin and extends parallel to the Transantarctic Mountains. The rifting processes and the accompanying active onshore volcanism lead to increased seismicity in the region. The annual waxing and waning of the sea-ice and the dynamics of the large Ross Ice Shelf and nearby glaciers generate additional seismic signals. Investigation on seismological activities associated with the WARS and the cryogenic signals simultaneously would give us an unprecedented opportunity to have a better understanding of the Evolution of the WARS (EWARS) and the rapid change in the cryospheric environment nearby. The Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) and the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) have conducted a pilot study off the Korean Jang Bogo research station in the Terra Nova Bay by developing a collaborative research program (EWARS) since 2011 to explore seismicity and seismic noise in this region. Four broadband ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) from the German DEPAS pool were deployed in January 2012 with the Korean research icebreaker RV Araon. Three instruments could successfully be recovered after 13 months, the fourth OBS was not accessible due to local sea-ice coverage. We have successfully completed a second recovery operation in January 2014. All stations recorded data of good quality, one station stopped after 8 months due to a recorder error. The OBS recovered in 2014

  2. Ross Ice Shelf Seismic Survey and Future Drilling Recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haastrecht, Laurine; Ohneiser, Christian; Gorman, Andrew; Hulbe, Christina

    2016-04-01

    The Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) is one of three gateways through which change in the ocean can be propagated into the interior of West Antarctica. Both the geologic record and ice sheet models indicate that it has experienced widespread retreat under past warm climates. But inland of the continental shelf, there are limited data available to validate the models. Understanding what controls the rate at which the ice shelf will respond to future climate change is central to making useful climate projections. Determining the retreat rate at the end of the last glacial maximum is one part of this challenge. In November 2015, four lines of multi-channel seismic data, totalling over 45 km, were collected on the Ross Ice Shelf, approximately 300 km south of Ross Island using a thumper seismic source and a 96 channel snow streamer. The seismic survey was undertaken under the New Zealand Antarctic Research Institute (NZARI) funded Aotearoa New Zealand Ross Ice Shelf Programme to resolve bathymetric details and to image sea floor sediments under a proposed drilling site on the ice shelf, at about 80.7 S and 174 E. The thumper, a purpose-built, trailer mounted, weight-drop seismic source was towed behind a Hägglund tracked vehicle to image the bathymetry and sediments underneath the RIS. Seismic data collection on an ice shelf has unique challenges, in particular strong attenuation of the seismic energy by snow and firn, and complex multiple ray paths. The thumper, which consists of a heavy weight (250kg) that is dropped on a large, ski mounted steel plate, produced a consistent, repeatable higher energy signal when compared to sledge hammer source and allowed for a greater geographic coverage and lower environmental impact than an explosive source survey. Our survey revealed that the seafloor is smooth and that there may be up to 100 m of layered sediments beneath the seafloor and possibly deeper, more complex structures. A multiple generated by internally reflected seismic energy

  3. Unique manifestations of mixed-phase cloud microphysics over Ross Island and the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Ryan C.; Lubin, Dan

    2016-03-01

    Spaceborne radar and lidar observations from the CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites are used to compare seasonal variations in the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds over Ross Island, Antarctica, with two contrasting Arctic atmospheric observatories located in Barrow, Alaska, and Summit, Greenland. At Ross Island, downstream from recurrent intrusions of marine air over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and eastern Ross Ice Shelf, clouds exhibit a tendency toward the greatest geometrical thickness and coldest temperatures in summer, the largest average ice water content, IWC, at low altitude during summer and autumn, the most abundant IWC at cold mixed-phase temperatures (-40°C

  4. High-resolution Body Wave Tomography of the Ross Sea Embayment, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; White-Gaynor, A.; Wiens, D.; Aster, R. C.; Gerstoft, P.; Bromirski, P. D.; Stephen, R. A.; Winberry, J. P.; Huerta, A. D.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Wilson, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) remains the least understood continental rift system on the planet. The WARS is largely composed of the Ross Sea Embayment, which is overlain by the Ross Ice Shelf between Marie Byrd Land and the Transantarctic Mountains. Active volcanism on Ross Island continues to challenge our understanding of the seismically quiescent rift system. Previous regional-scale body wave tomographic investigations have identified areas of low seismic wave speed to about 200 km depth beneath Ross Island. However mantle structure under the Ross Sea Embayment away from Ross Island has not been previously well imaged. For this investigation we utilize teleseismic P waves recorded on the recently deployed RIS/DRIS network, which consists of 34 seismometers deployed across the Ross Ice Shelf, along with data from nearby POLENET stations and TAMSEIS stations. Relative P wave travel time residuals were obtained from 560 events using a multichannel cross correlation method, and have been inverted to obtain a preliminary model of the upper mantle. Initial results suggest that the low wave speed structure under Ross Island does not extend beneath the Ross Sea Embayment portion of the WARS.

  5. Potential drug interactions with statins: Estonian register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Volmer, Daisy; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In Estonia, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are widely used to modify lipid levels but there are no current data on additional medicines prescribed alongside the statins. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of potential clinically relevant interactions at a national level among an outpatient population treated with statins between January and June 2008, based on the prescription database of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund. This retrospective prevalence study included 203,646 outpatients aged 50 years or older, of whom 29,367 received statin therapy. The study analysed individuals who had used at least one prescription medicine for a minimum of 7 days concomitantly with statins. Potential drug interactions were analysed using Epocrates online, Stockley’s Drug Interactions, and the drug interaction database developed in Estonia. Statins metabolised by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme were prescribed to 64% of all statin users. Medicines known to have potentially clinically significant interactions with statins were prescribed to 4.6% of patients. The drugs prescribed concomitantly most often with simvastatin were warfarin (5.7%) and amiodarone (3.9%), whereas digoxin (1.2%) and ethinylestradiol (2%) were prescribed with atorvastatin. Potential interactions were not detected in the treatment regimens of rosuvastatin, pravastatin, and fluvastatin users. PMID:28352703

  6. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience.

  7. Downslope flow across the Ross Sea shelf break (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamasco, A.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.; Defendi, V.; Meloni, R.; Paschini, E.; Sclavo, M.; Spezie, G.

    2003-12-01

    The analysis of some high-resolution hydrological data sets acquired during the 1997, 1998, 2001 and 2003 austral summers across the Ross Sea continental shelf break are here presented. The main focus of these cruises carried out in the framework of the Italian National Antarctic Program was the investigation of the downslope flow of the dense waters originated inside the Ross Sea. Such dense waters, flow near the bottom and, reaching the continental shelf break, ventilate the deep ocean. Two Antarctic continental shelf mechanisms can originate dense and deep waters. The former mechanism involves the formation, along the Victoria Land coasts, of a dense and saline water mass, the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). The HSSW formation is linked to the rejection of salt into the water column as sea ice freezes, especially during winter, in the polynya areas, where the ice is continuously pushed offshore by the strong katabatic winds. The latter one is responsible of the formation of a supercold water mass, the Ice Shelf Water (ISW). The salt supplied by the HSSW recirculated below the Ross Ice Shelf, the latent heat of melting and the heat sink provided by the Ross Ice Shelf give rise to plumes of ISW, characterized by temperatures below the sea-surface freezing point. The dense shelf waters migrate to the continental shelf-break, spill over the shelf edge and descend the continental slope as a shelf-break gravity current, subject to friction and possibly enhanced by topographic channelling. Friction, in particular, breaks the constraint of potential vorticity conservation, counteracting the geostrophic tendency for along slope flow. The density-driven downslope motion or cascading entrains ambient water, namely the lower layer of the CDW, reaches a depth where density is the same and spreads off-slope. In fact, the cascading event is inhibited by friction without entrainment. The downslope processes are important for the ocean and climate system because they play a

  8. The possibility of compensation for damages in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life. An Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sõritsa, Dina; Lahe, Janno

    2014-04-01

    While case law in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life is completely missing in Estonia, this article is aimed at providing possible solutions under Estonian law to some of the legally complex problems that these cases contain. Through the analysis of Estonian, German and U.S. legal literature and case law, the article is mainly focused on proposing some solutions to the legal problems concerning compensable damage, but also explains the Estonian legal framework of the contractual and delictual basis for compensation for the damages. The application of several grounds for the possibility of limiting the compensation in the afore-mentioned cases are analysed.

  9. Positive mass balance of the Ross Ice Streams, West Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Joughin, Ian; Tulaczyk, Slawek

    2002-01-18

    We have used ice-flow velocity measurements from synthetic aperture radar to reassess the mass balance of the Ross Ice Streams, West Antarctica. We find strong evidence for ice-sheet growth (+26.8 gigatons per year), in contrast to earlier estimates indicating a mass deficit (-20.9 gigatons per year). Average thickening is equal to approximately 25% of the accumulation rate, with most of this growth occurring on Ice Stream C. Whillans Ice Stream, which was thought to have a significantly negative mass balance, is close to balance, reflecting its continuing slowdown. The overall positive mass balance may signal an end to the Holocene retreat of these ice streams.

  10. STS-110 M.S. Ross suits up for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialist Jerry Ross relaxes during suit fit, which is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight to provide flight crews an opportunity to participate in simulated launch countdown activities. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  11. STS-88 Mission Specialists Currie and Ross inside Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-88 Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, Ph.D., (back) and Jerry L. Ross (front) check over equipment inside orbiter Endeavour during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Activities (TCDT). The TCDT includes mission familiarization activities, emergency egress training, and the simulated main engine cut-off exercise. Mission STS-88 is targeted for launch on Dec. 3, 1998. It is the first U.S. flight for the assembly of the International Space Station and will carry the Unity connecting module. Unity will be mated with the already orbiting Russian-built Zarya control module. The 12-day mission includes three planned spacewalks to connect power, data and utility lines and install exterior equipment.

  12. STS-88 Mission Specialist Ross prepares to enter Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-88 Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross is assisted with his ascent and re-entry flight suit in the white room at Launch Pad 39A before entering Space Shuttle Endeavour for launch. During the nearly 12-day mission, the six-member crew will mate the first two elements of the International Space Station -- the already-orbiting Zarya control module with the Unity connecting module carried by Endeavour. He is making his sixth spaceflight and is one of two extravehicular activity crew members on this mission.

  13. Cryptoendolithic lichen and cyanobacterial communities of the Ross Desert, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, E I; Hua, M; Ocampo-Friedmann, R

    1988-01-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities in the Ross Desert (McMurdo Dry Valleys) are characterized on the basis of photosynthetic microorganisms and fungi. Two eukaryotic communities (the lichen-dominated and Hemichloris communities) and three cyanobacterial communities (the red Gloeocapsa, Hormathonema-Gloeocapsa, and Chroococcidiopsis communities) are described. Eleven coccoid, one pleurocapsoid, and five filamentous cyanobacteria occurring in these communities are characterized and illustrated. The moisture grade of the rock substrate seems to affect pH, formation of primary iron stain, and the distribution of microbial communities.

  14. Cryptoendolithic lichen and cyanobacterial communities of the Ross Desert, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, E. I.; Hua, M.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.

    1988-01-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities in the Ross Desert (McMurdo Dry Valleys) are characterized on the basis of photosynthetic microorganisms and fungi. Two eukaryotic communities (the lichen-dominated and Hemichloris communities) and three cyanobacterial communities (the red Gloeocapsa, Hormathonema-Gloeocapsa, and Chroococcidiopsis communities) are described. Eleven coccoid, one pleurocapsoid, and five filamentous cyanobacteria occurring in these communities are characterized and illustrated. The moisture grade of the rock substrate seems to affect pH, formation of primary iron stain, and the distribution of microbial communities.

  15. The Era of Newton, Herschel and Lord Rosse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Jim

    2009-08-01

    In the eighteenth century England was dominant in building telescopes and instrumentation. This paper describes the contributions of the most important opticians and telescope builders, from Newton’s Opticks and the telescope design that bears his name, through various instrument makers who constructed ‘popular’ telescopes and published descriptions of mirror grinding (Smith, the Dollonds and their patent on achromatic lenses), to Herschel, who refined the description of his polishing procedures, and Lord Rosse, who attempted to communicate his through publication. The narrative of theory, practice and communication takes unexpected turns.

  16. Ultraviolet spectrum synthesis of the helium white dwarf Ross 640

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottrell, P. L.; Greenstein, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The UV spectrum of the He-rich white dwarf Ross 640 was used to derive Mg, Si, and Fe abundances by a spectrum synthesis technique. The values obtained were: Mg/He = 6.8 x 10 to the -8th; Si/He = 3.2 x 10 to the -8th; Ca/He = 7.6 x 10 to the -10th; and Fe/He = 2.0 x 10 to the -9th. The abundances indicate the operation of diffusion processes within a helium-rich atmosphere, provided some mechanism exists to deposit metals in the observable layers.

  17. Cryptoendolithic lichen and cyanobacterial communities of the Ross Desert, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, E. I.; Hua, M.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.

    1988-01-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities in the Ross Desert (McMurdo Dry Valleys) are characterized on the basis of photosynthetic microorganisms and fungi. Two eukaryotic communities (the lichen-dominated and Hemichloris communities) and three cyanobacterial communities (the red Gloeocapsa, Hormathonema-Gloeocapsa, and Chroococcidiopsis communities) are described. Eleven coccoid, one pleurocapsoid, and five filamentous cyanobacteria occurring in these communities are characterized and illustrated. The moisture grade of the rock substrate seems to affect pH, formation of primary iron stain, and the distribution of microbial communities.

  18. Frank Elmore Ross and His Variable Star Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, W.

    2012-06-01

    Frank Ross (1874-1960) was a talented astronomer that excelled in such diverse fields as computational astronomy, optical instrument design, and astrophotography. His career and astronomical contributions are briefly summarized. One contribution was finding 379 probable new variable stars. Most of these variables are poorly studied, and for a number the identifications are still uncertain and the variability not yet confirmed more than eighty years after publication. Ross’s original observing cards and plates are being used to re-examine the stars and resolve the problem cases. Follow-up work on a few stars has yielded interesting results. This work is illustrated with one example.

  19. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  20. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  1. Conceptions of Finnish and Estonian Pre-School Teachers' Goals in Their Pedagogical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niikko, Anneli; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the conceptions of the Finnish and Estonian pre-school teachers' goals, and the achievement of these goals in their pedagogical work. The study consisted of 60 (30 from each country) interviews with pre-school teachers. The interview data was analyzed phenomenographically. The findings showed that children…

  2. Comprehension and Production of Noun Compounds by Estonian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and…

  3. Estonian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ets, Tiina K.

    This guide is designed for Estonian language training of Peace Corps workers in Estonia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 52 lessons, each addressing a specific language competency, organized in 14 topical units. An introductory section gives…

  4. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  5. Dialogue in Religious Education Lessons--Possibilities and Hindrances in the Estonian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schihalejev, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the limitations and potentials for dialogue in religious education (RE) classes on the basis of observations of Estonian RE lessons. I investigated how the way of asking questions contributes to the dialogue in the classroom. Additionally I investigated how students' readiness to engage in dialogue is influenced by others'…

  6. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  7. Changes in Estonian General Education from the Collapse of the Soviet Union to EU Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Edgar; Trasberg, Karmen

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces and discusses the nature and development of Estonian system of general education in the period of last thirty years. The main focus is paid on the changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the period of integration leading up to EU entry. Also changes in other spheres of education and social life are…

  8. Orthographic Depth and Spelling Acquisition in Estonian and English: A Comparison of Two Diverse Alphabetic Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viise, Neva M.; Richards, Herbert C.; Pandis, Meeli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the link between the orthographic transparency of a language and the ease or difficulty of acquiring spelling proficiency in that language. The two languages compared are English, with a highly irregular sound-to-print correspondence, and Estonian, a Finno-Ugric language that has one of the most highly regular…

  9. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  10. Composition of Estonian Infants' Expressive Lexicon According to the Adaptation of CDI/Words and Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The growth rate and the composition of expressive lexicon was studied in a sample of 903 infants between the age of 0;8 and 1;4 whose parents completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory-Words and Gestures. As expected, older children had on average larger vocabularies compared to younger children.…

  11. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  12. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  13. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  14. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  15. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  16. Assessing Estonian Mothers' Involvement in Their Children's Education and Trust in Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaires assessing mothers' involvement in children's education and their trust in teachers were developed for the usage in Estonian kindergartens and elementary schools. The scales were adapted based on the questionnaires by Fantuzzo and colleagues (parental involvement) and Adams and Christenson (trust). Mothers of 454 kindergarten…

  17. Composition of Estonian Infants' Expressive Lexicon According to the Adaptation of CDI/Words and Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The growth rate and the composition of expressive lexicon was studied in a sample of 903 infants between the age of 0;8 and 1;4 whose parents completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory-Words and Gestures. As expected, older children had on average larger vocabularies compared to younger children.…

  18. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  19. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  20. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  1. 75 FR 32802 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel ROSS CANDIES

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel ROSS CANDIES... Alternative Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel ROSS CANDIES as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c... CANDIES, O.N. 1222260. Full compliance with 72 COLREGS ] would hinder the vessel's ability to maneuver...

  2. Does temperature structure phytoplankton community composition in the Ross Sea, Antarctica?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ross Sea polynya experiences one of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Energy flow potential within the Ross Sea food web is primarily set by diatoms and prymnesiophytes, the latter dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica. We investigated physical, chemical,...

  3. 75 FR 69432 - Ross Bachofer v. Calpine Corporation; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Ross Bachofer v. Calpine Corporation; Notice of Complaint November 4, 2010..., 18 CFR 385.206 and section 206 of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 2824c, Ross Bachofer...

  4. Critiquing Research Methodology: Comments on Broader Concerns about Complex Statistical Studies. A Response to Ross

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Steven Ross's (2005) recent paper empirically measuring the efficacy of formative assessment compared to the summative variety found that the former produced positive effects on some aspects of language learning. In this critique, it is contended that Ross's study is flawed because his two groups of learners, one receiving summative assessment and…

  5. 77 FR 30320 - General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Ross Lake National Recreation Area, North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Ross Lake National Recreation... the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the new General Management Plan (GMP) for Ross...

  6. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  7. Giving to Excellence: Generating Philanthropic Support for UK Higher Education. Ross-CASE Report 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Yashraj

    2016-01-01

    This report presents findings from the 2016 Ross-CASE Survey of Philanthropic Giving to Universities in UK. The project was conducted by CASE Europe and funded by HEFCE and the Ross-Group. This year's survey comes at a time of great change for the UK charity sector. The historical trend data of previous surveys will be invaluable in helping…

  8. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  9. Response to Ross's "Commentary: Problems with the sexual disorders sections of DSM-5".

    PubMed

    Miccio-Fonseca, L C

    2015-01-01

    The recent commentary by Ross (2015) addresses concerns regarding the newly created Paraphilic Disorders section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, and "inconsistencies." The author's statements reflect notable confusion regarding issues related to human sexuality and the categories thereof in the DSM-5 (e.g., gender dysphoria and pedophilic disorder). This is a response to Ross's commentary.

  10. The Re-construction of the 6-foot Rosse Telescope of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubridy, Michael

    An article describing the reconstruction and restoration efforts by Michael Tubridy, the engineer of the project, of the Lord Rosse Leviathan of Parsonstown, a 6-foot telescope, and the first to reveal spiral structure in galaxies, and a brief biography on the third Earl of Rosse, William Parsons.

  11. Does temperature structure phytoplankton community composition in the Ross Sea, Antarctica?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ross Sea polynya experiences one of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Energy flow potential within the Ross Sea food web is primarily set by diatoms and prymnesiophytes, the latter dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica. We investigated physical, chemical,...

  12. The Oceanography and Ecology of the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walker O.; Ainley, David G.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Dinniman, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The continental shelf of the Ross Sea exhibits substantial variations in physical forcing, ice cover, and biological processes on a variety of time and space scales. Its circulation is characterized by advective inputs from the east and exchanges with off-shelf regions via the troughs along the northern portions. Phytoplankton biomass is greater there than anywhere else in the Antarctic, although nitrate is rarely reduced to levels below 10 μmol L-1. Overall growth is regulated by irradiance (via ice at the surface and by the depths of the mixed layers) and iron concentrations. Apex predators reach exceptional abundances, and the world's largest colonies of Adélie and emperor penguins are found there. Krill are represented by two species (Euphausia superba near the shelf break and Euphausia crystallorophias throughout the continental shelf region). Equally important and poorly known is the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum), which is also consumed by most upper-trophic-level predators. Future changes in the Ross Sea environment will have profound and unpredictable effects on the food web.

  13. Seasonal and diurnal calling patterns of Ross and leopards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Tracey L.; Rowney, Gayle A.; Ciaglia, Michaela B.; Cato, Douglas H.

    2005-09-01

    The temporal calling patterns of two Antarctic pack ice seals, the leopard and Ross seal, were examined. This included seasonal onset and decline of calling (coinciding with their breeding season) as well as diurnal changes. Understanding of calling behavior has important implications for acoustic surveying, since this allows the number of calls to be related to an index of the number of animals present and to estimate abundance. The monthly changes in diurnal calling and haul-out patterns (measured via satellite telemetry) were compared. Underwater acoustic recordings were made between 14 October 2003 and 10 January 2004 off Mawson, Eastern Antarctica (660 44.243S and 690 48.748E). Recordings were made using an Acoustics Recording Package (ARP by Dr. John Hildebrand, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA) which is designed to sit on the seafloor and passively record acoustic signals. The package was deployed at a depth of 1320.7 m. The sampling rate was 500 Hz and the effective bandwidth from 10 to 250 Hz, covering the bandwidth of only the low-frequency calls of the Ross and leopard seal.

  14. A Study of the Low Mass Binary Star Ross 614

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatewood, G.; Han, I.; Tangren, W.

    2001-12-01

    We have combined photograph, MAP, interferometric, and spectroscopic data to determine the orbital characteristics and masses of the Ross 614 binary star system. Attention was first drawn to the star by Frank E. Ross (1927, AJ 37, 193) who noticed its high proper motion in a comparison of new plates with those taken at the Yerkes Observatory by E.E. Barnard. The Binary nature of the star was recognized from accelerations in the star's proper motion (D. Reuyl 1936, AJ 55, 236) and the mass of the companion was first estimated by combining measurements of McCormick and Sproul plates with a separation measured by Walter Baade at the Hale 5-m reflector (S.L. Lippincott 1955, AJ 60, 379). In her paper Lippincott notes the companion's significance as defining the lower end of the observational main sequence. Fifty six years later the star still holds that honor. With a wealth of new data spanning more than 3 additional orbits, we find her value of 0.08 solar masses to be within our error of our value.

  15. The oceanography and ecology of the Ross Sea.

    PubMed

    Smith, Walker O; Ainley, David G; Arrigo, Kevin R; Dinniman, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The continental shelf of the Ross Sea exhibits substantial variations in physical forcing, ice cover, and biological processes on a variety of time and space scales. Its circulation is characterized by advective inputs from the east and exchanges with off-shelf regions via the troughs along the northern portions. Phytoplankton biomass is greater there than anywhere else in the Antarctic, although nitrate is rarely reduced to levels below 10 μmol L(-1). Overall growth is regulated by irradiance (via ice at the surface and by the depths of the mixed layers) and iron concentrations. Apex predators reach exceptional abundances, and the world's largest colonies of Adélie and emperor penguins are found there. Krill are represented by two species (Euphausia superba near the shelf break and Euphausia crystallorophias throughout the continental shelf region). Equally important and poorly known is the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum), which is also consumed by most upper-trophic-level predators. Future changes in the Ross Sea environment will have profound and unpredictable effects on the food web.

  16. Use of coals for cocombustion with Estonian shale oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.; Melnikov, D. A.; Vereshetin, V. A.; Attikas, Raivo

    2016-03-01

    The article reports the results of investigation into the possibility of using off-design coals as an additional fuel in connection with predicted reduction in the heat of combustion of shale oil and more stringent environmental regulations on harmful emissions. For this purpose, a mathematical model of a TP-101 boiler at the Estonian Power Plant has been constructed and verified; the model describes the boiler's current state. On the basis of the process flow chart, the experience of operating the boiler, the relevant regulations, and the environmental requirement criteria for evaluation of the equipment operation in terms of reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety have been developed. These criteria underlie the analysis of the calculated operating parameters of the boiler and the boiler plant as a whole upon combustion with various shale-oil-to-coal ratios. The computational study shows that, at the minimal load, the normal operation of the boiler is ensured almost within the entire range of the parts by the heat rate of coal. With the decreasing load on the boiler, the normal equipment operation region narrows. The basic limitation factors are the temperature of the steam in the superheater, the temperature of the combustion products at the furnace outlet and the flow rate of the combustion air and flue gases. As a result, the parts by heat rate of lignite and bituminous coal have been determined that ensure reliable and efficient operation of the equipment. The efficiency of the boiler with the recommended lignite-to-coal ratio is higher than that achieved when burning the design shale oil. Based on the evaluation of the environmental performance of the boiler, the necessary additional measures to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere have been determined.

  17. Organizational culture based on the example of an Estonian hospital.

    PubMed

    Saame, Iisi; Reino, Anne; Vadi, Maaja

    2011-01-01

    The concept of organisational culture (also referred to later as OC) is one of the approaches in modern organisational analysis exploring the values, attitudes and beliefs behind human behaviour in the workplace. OC as a social phenomenon is considered to be important for the sustainability of every organisation. In the service sector, OC may affect the nature and quality of the services provided. The aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand, to highlight the patterns of OC in a hospital; and, on the other hand, to outline relationships between OC and patient satisfaction. The study was conducted in Tartu University Hospital, one of the most influential health care organisations in Estonia. This paper has original value by presenting an insight into organisational culture in the Estonian health care sector, and the findings of the study will expand knowledge of OC in the health care sector in general. The OC instrument applied in a quantitative cross-sectional study was earlier developed according to the Competing Values Framework (CVF). Data from 456 medical and non-medical professionals were analysed using non-parametric tests of descriptive statistics. A factor analysis was performed to assess the instrument's compatibility for analysing the OC pattern in the health care sector. The dominant culture type in all the groups investigated was the Internal Processes type, mainly followed by the Rational Goal type, while different cultural patterns were observed in professional groups. The factor analysis yielded a three-subscale solution. Clinics with high patient satisfaction did not score more than clinics with low patient satisfaction in terms of the Human Relations type. In future studies a random sample design and a multidisciplinary approach to OC research should be followed in order to further explore OC patterns in hospitals and their consequences for different aspects of hospital performance.

  18. Decadal trends in air-sea CO2 exchange in the Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliabue, Alessandro; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2016-05-01

    Highly productive Antarctic shelf systems, like the Ross Sea, play important roles in regional carbon budgets, but the drivers of local variations are poorly quantified. We assess the variability in the Ross Sea carbon cycle using a regional physical-biogeochemical model. Regionally, total partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) increases are largely controlled by the biological pump and broadly similar to those in the offshore Southern Ocean. However, this masks substantial local variability within the Ross Sea, where interannual fluctuations in total pCO2 are driven by the biological pump and alkalinity, whereas those for anthropogenic pCO2 are related to physical processes. Overall, the high degree of spatial variability in the Ross Sea carbon cycle causes extremes in aragonite saturation that can be as large as long-term trends. Therefore, Antarctic shelf polynya systems like the Ross Sea will be strongly affected by local processes in addition to larger-scale phenomena.

  19. Department management of the Ross Aviation, Inc. , contract aircraft major spare parts inventory, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-26

    The purpose of this audit was to determine whether the Department of Energy's (Department) management of its contract with Ross Aviation, Inc. (Ross) provided reasonable assurance that the inventory of aircraft major spare parts at Ross was economical and efficient. The audit disclosed that approximately $447,000 (acquisition and interest carrying costs) of low-use major spare parts was excessive. Internal control deficiencies which fostered the excessive inventory included: (1) Ross had set stock levels without considering such factors as consumption or projected needs; and (2) the Department had not reviewed inventory quantities when appraising Ross' property management. The Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) agreed to take the corrective actions recommended in the report.

  20. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  1. The contribution of the Estonian Soil Sciences Society to the science, society and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossner, Helis; Reintam, Endla; Astover, Alar; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    Predecessor of todays Estonian Soil Science Society was Estonian Branch of All-Union Soil Society of Soil Scientist which acted from 1957 to 1991. In 1957-1964 Estonian Branch was leaded by prof. Osvald Hallik and in 1964-1991 by prof. Loit Reintam. After re-independence of Estonia in 1991 the society acted in informal way and was leaded by prof. L. Reintam. Non-profit organization "Estonian Soil Science Society" was officially (re)established in 10.23.2009. Estonian Soil Science Society (ESSS) is aimed to: • coordinate collaboration between institutions and individuals intrested of soil science, conservation and sustainable use of soils; • promoting soil science education and research, raising awareness of publicity on topics relating to soils in Estonia; • cooperation between local and foreign unions and associations. In recent years the ESSS had managed to reunite the number of soil scientist from different research institutions of Estonia and of related institutions. Also, the ESSS had provided numerous of materials based on later scientific findings. One of most important activity leaded by ESSS is the organizing Soil Day in Estonia with relevant seminar, where the speakers are sharing latest information with target group (researchers, teachers, policy makers, farmers, students etc.). In a frames of Soil Day the Soil of the Year is selected for Estonia. In 2015, the soil of the year is Leptosol. For current, International Year of the Soil ESSS had planned numerous activities to introduce the importance of soils to wider audience. In current presentation we would like to share the soil science researchers experience through- out the decades of soil science research in Estonia, show our latest findings and designed activities for the International Year of SOIL.

  2. Past ice-sheet behaviour: retreat scenarios and changing controls in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halberstadt, Anna Ruth W.; Simkins, Lauren M.; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Anderson, John B.

    2016-05-01

    Studying the history of ice-sheet behaviour in the Ross Sea, Antarctica's largest drainage basin can improve our understanding of patterns and controls on marine-based ice-sheet dynamics and provide constraints for numerical ice-sheet models. Newly collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data, combined with two decades of legacy multibeam and seismic data, are used to map glacial landforms and reconstruct palaeo ice-sheet drainage. During the Last Glacial Maximum, grounded ice reached the continental shelf edge in the eastern but not western Ross Sea. Recessional geomorphic features in the western Ross Sea indicate virtually continuous back-stepping of the ice-sheet grounding line. In the eastern Ross Sea, well-preserved linear features and a lack of small-scale recessional landforms signify rapid lift-off of grounded ice from the bed. Physiography exerted a first-order control on regional ice behaviour, while sea floor geology played an important subsidiary role. Previously published deglacial scenarios for Ross Sea are based on low-spatial-resolution marine data or terrestrial observations; however, this study uses high-resolution basin-wide geomorphology to constrain grounding-line retreat on the continental shelf. Our analysis of retreat patterns suggests that (1) retreat from the western Ross Sea was complex due to strong physiographic controls on ice-sheet drainage; (2) retreat was asynchronous across the Ross Sea and between troughs; (3) the eastern Ross Sea largely deglaciated prior to the western Ross Sea following the formation of a large grounding-line embayment over Whales Deep; and (4) our glacial geomorphic reconstruction converges with recent numerical models that call for significant and complex East Antarctic ice sheet and West Antarctic ice sheet contributions to the ice flow in the Ross Sea.

  3. Regional seismic stratigraphic correlations of the Ross Sea: Implications for the tectonic history of the West Antarctic Rift System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decesari, Robert C.; Sorlien, Christopher C.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.; Bartek, Louis; Diebold, John; Hopkins, Sarah E.

    2007-01-01

    Using existing and new seismic reflection data, new and updated correlations of late Oligocene-early Miocene RSS-2 strata were made between the southern parts of Ross Sea basins. Previous studies documented Cretaceous extension across much of Ross Sea. We interpret that Cenozoic extension also occurred across Ross Sea. Subsidence during and following this extension deepened existing basins and may have initiated basins in the west, subsiding ridges between basins below sea level during the late Oligocene. Pre-Oligocene strata record cessation of L. Cretaceous extension in easternmost Ross Sea. Successively younger Cenozoic extension occurred from east to west across the rest of Ross Sea.

  4. Late Wisconsin and early holocene glacial history, inner Ross Embayment, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, George H.; Bockheim, James G.; Wilson, Scott C.; Stuiver, Minze

    1991-01-01

    Lateral drift sheets of outlet glaciers that pass through the Transantarctic Mountains constrain past changes of the huge Ross ice drainage system of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Drift stratigraphy suggests correlation of Reedy III (Reedy Glacier), Beardmore, Britannia (Hatherton/Darwin Glaciers), Ross Sea (McMurdo Sound), and younger (Terra Nova Bay) drifts; radiocarbon dates place the outer limits of Ross Sea drift in late Wisconsin time at 24,000 to 13,000 yr B.P. Outlet glacier profiles from these drifts constrain late Wisconsin ice sheet surface elevations. Within these constraint, two extreme late Wisconsin reconstructions are given of the Ross ice drainage system. Both show little elevation change of the polar plateau coincident with extensive ice shelf grounding along the inner Ross Embayment. However, in the central Ross Embayment, one reconstruction shows floating shelf ice, where as the other shows a grounded ice sheet. Massive late Wisconsin/Holocene recession of grounded ice from the western Ross Embayment, which was underway at 13,040 yr B.P. and completed by 6600 to 6020 yr B.P., was accompanied by little change in plateau ice levels inland of the Transantarctic Mountains.

  5. Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-01-01

    Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

  6. Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-01-01

    Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

  7. Late Wisconsin and early holocene glacial history, inner Ross Embayment, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, George H.; Bockheim, James G.; Wilson, Scott C.; Stuiver, Minze

    1991-05-01

    Lateral drift sheets of outlet glaciers that pass through the Transantarctic Mountains constrain past changes of the huge Ross ice drainage system of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Drift stratigraphy suggests correlation of Reedy III (Reedy Glacier), Beardmore, Britannia (Hatherton/Darwin Glaciers), Ross Sea (McMurdo Sound), and younger (Terra Nova Bay) drifts; radiocarbon dates place the outer limits of Ross Sea drift in late Wisconsin time at 24,000 to 13,000 yr B.P. Outlet glacier profiles from these drifts constrain late Wisconsin ice sheet surface elevations. Within these constraint, two extreme late Wisconsin reconstructions are given of the Ross ice drainage system. Both show little elevation change of the polar plateau coincident with extensive ice shelf grounding along the inner Ross Embayment. However, in the central Ross Embayment, one reconstruction shows floating shelf ice, where as the other shows a grounded ice sheet. Massive late Wisconsin/Holocene recession of grounded ice from the western Ross Embayment, which was underway at 13,040 yr B.P. and completed by 6600 to 6020 yr B.P., was accompanied by little change in plateau ice levels inland of the Transantarctic Mountains.

  8. Post-LGM Retreat History in Ross Sea Reflects Changing Controls on Marine Ice Sheet Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halberstadt, A. R.; Simkins, L. M.; Anderson, J. B.; Prothro, L. O.; Demet, B. P.; Greenwood, S. L.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Newly collected high-resolution multibeam swath bathymetry data and sediment cores, combined with two decades of legacy multibeam and seismic data, are used to map glacial landforms, reconstruct paleodrainage and study patterns, timing, and controls on marine-based ice-sheet dynamics in Antarctica's largest drainage basin, the Ross Sea. This paleodrainage reconstruction independently validates recent numerical models that call for significant and dynamic East Antarctic Ice Sheet and West Antarctic Ice Sheet contributions to ice flow in the Ross Sea. Last Glacial Maximum grounded ice reached the continental shelf edge in the eastern but not western Ross Sea. Recessional geomorphic features in the western Ross Sea indicate frequent, small scale grounding line retreat from the outer shelf following an episode of ice shelf collapse. In contrast, well-preserved linear features and large, isolated grounding zone wedges record large scale (tens of kilometers) step-wise grounding line retreat in eastern Ross Sea. Physiography exerted a first-order control on ice behavior, while seafloor geology played an important subsidiary role. Our analysis of retreat patterns further indicates that: (1) initial ice sheet retreat was initiated by a large grounding line embayment in the eastern Ross Sea; (2) retreat was highly variable and asynchronous between troughs; and (3) subglacial meltwater played a role in destabilizing grounding lines in parts of the western Ross Sea.

  9. Influence of hydrography on phytoplankton distribution in the Amundsen and Ross Seas, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Glaucia M.; Smith, Walker O.

    2012-01-01

    The phytoplankton of the Ross Sea have been intensively studied, in contrast to that of the Amundsen Sea. This study focused on understanding the environmental variables that influence the spatial patterns of assemblages during late summer, 2007, and late spring-early summer, 2008 in the Amundsen and Ross Seas. Blooms of the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis antarctica, and the silicoflagellate Dictyocha speculum occurred in the southwestern to eastern parts of the Ross Sea, respectively, whereas diatoms dominated in southeastern Ross and the Amundsen Sea. Shallow mixed layers supported the growth of diatoms, but were not the only factor required for diatom bloom development. Modified Circumpolar Deep Water intruded into the subsurface waters (< 200 m) in the southwestern Ross Sea during February 2007, and possibly favored the formation of P. antarctica blooms. Photosynthetic quantum yield data suggest that blooms from the southwestern Ross Sea were approaching stress during January 2008, likely due to iron limitation, in contrast to blooms close to the ice edge in the Amundsen Sea, where iron may be more available to the phytoplankton. A detailed comparison between the Amundsen and Ross Seas may allow a greater understanding of the environmental-induced impacts on phytoplankton distribution and regional biogeochemical cycles.

  10. Ross E. Baker, DC: A Canadian chiropractic survivor

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an historical biography of a fortunate man. It begins with a glimpse of Ross E. Baker’s origins in south-western Ontario, watches him going to school and working in Hamilton before joining the Canadian Army and shipping off to Europe to fight in the Second World War. At War’s end, the article picks up Dr. Baker as he comes home, starts a family, becomes a chiropractor and sustains a viable practice. Now in the twilight of life, the good doctor is last seen content with his retirement, spending days at his cottage property, reviewing his memoirs and reflecting on the tumult, terror and eventual triumph of the D-Day landing at Normandy. PMID:24587499

  11. Gaussian estimation for discretely observed Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chao; Shu, Huisheng; Liu, Yurong

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the parameter estimation problem for Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model based on discrete observation. First, a new discretized process is built based on the Euler-Maruyama scheme. Then, the parameter estimators are obtained by employing the maximum likelihood method and the explicit expressions of the error of estimation are given. Subsequently, the consistency property of all parameter estimators are proved by applying the law of large numbers for martingales, Holder's inequality, B-D-G inequality and Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Finally, a numerical simulation example for estimators and the absolute error between estimators and true values is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the estimation approach used in this paper.

  12. The Kubler-Ross model, physician distress, and performance reporting.

    PubMed

    Smaldone, Marc C; Uzzo, Robert G

    2013-07-01

    Physician performance reporting has been proposed as an essential component of health-care reform, with the aim of improving quality by providing transparency and accountability. Despite strong evidence demonstrating regional variation in practice patterns and lack of evidence-based care, public outcomes reporting has been met with resistance from medical professionals. Application of the Kubler-Ross 'five stages of grief' model--a conceptual framework consisting of a series of emotional stages (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) inspired by work with terminally ill patients--could provide some insight into why physicians are reluctant to accept emerging quality-reporting mechanisms. Physician-led quality-improvement initiatives are vital to contemporary health-care reform efforts and applications in urology, as well as other medical disciplines, are currently being explored.

  13. [A reappraisal of the works of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross].

    PubMed

    Afonso, Selene Beviláqua Chaves; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a reappraisal of part of the works of Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, one of the most quoted authors addressing the end of life process, mourning and dying. Her work has contributed to a clearer understanding of these issues by health professionals, families, religious and lay people who handle and/or experience mourning. She has also been the subject of controversy related to ethical issues and the scientific rigor of her work. The books analyzed in this article are: On death and dying (1969); Questions and answers on death and dying (1971); Living with death and dying (1981); On children and death(1983); On life after death (1991) and Life lessons (2000).

  14. Albert Ross Tilley: The legacy of a Canadian plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Mowbrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The present article chronicles the career of Dr Albert Ross Tilley, one of the most important Canadian plastic surgeons of the 20th century. Tilley is most well known for his innovations of burn management during World War II and his treatment of a group of burn patients known affectionately as the 'Guinea Pig Club'. In addition to the superb surgical skills he applied to the physical wounds of his patients, Tilley was also a pioneer of caring for the emotional and psychological afflictions suffered by many airmen of World War II. As one of the founding fathers of the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons, Tilley's work was instrumental in establishing the specialty and ensured its prosperity for years to come. Serving in the capacity of leader, educator and innovator, Tilley remains one of Canada's most decorated physicians, and his body of work encompasses contributions to the medical field that remain significant and beneficial to patient care to this day.

  15. Low-frequency microwave radiometer for N-ROSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollinger, J. P.; Lo, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The all weather, global determination of sea surface temperature (SST) has been identified as a requirement needed to support naval operations. The target SST accuracy is + or - 1.0 K with a surface resolution of 10 km. Investigations of the phenomenology and technology of remote passive microwave sensing of the ocean environment over the past decade have demonstrated that this objective is presently attainable. Preliminary specification and trade off studies were conducted to define the frequency, polarization, scan geometry, antenna size, and other esstential parameters of the low frequency microwave radiometer (LFMR). It will be a dual polarized, dual frequency system at 5.2 and 10.4 GHz using a 4.9 meter deployable mesh surface antenna. It is to be flown on the Navy-Remote Ocean Sensing System (N-ROSS) satellite scheduled to be launched in late 1988.

  16. Testing the Visual Soil Assessment tool on Estonian farm fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reintam, Endla; Are, Mihkel; Selge, Are

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality estimation plays important role in decision making on farm as well on policy level. Sustaining the production ability and good health of the soil the chemical, physical and biological indicators should be taken into account. The system to use soil chemical parameters is usually quite well established in most European counties, including Estonia. However, measuring soil physical properties, such bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, structural stability ect is time consuming, needs special tools and is highly weather dependent. In that reason these parameters are excluded from controllable quality parameters in policy in Estonia. Within the project "Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience" (iSQAPER) the visual soil assessment (VSA) tool was developed for easy detection of soil quality as well the different soil friendly agricultural management practices (AMP) were detected. The aim of current study was to test the VSA tool on Estonian farm fields under different management practices and compare the results with laboratory measurements. The main focus was set on soil physical parameters. Next to the VSA, the undisturbed soil samples were collected from the depth of 5-10 cm and 25-30 cm. The study revealed that results of a visually assessed soil physical parameters, such a soil structure, soil structural stability, soil porosity, presence of tillage pan, were confirmed by laboratory measurements in most cases. Soil water stable structure measurement on field (on 1 cm2 net in one 1 l box with 4-6 cm air dry clods for 5-10 min) underestimated very well structured soil on grassland and overestimated the structure aggregates stability of compacted soil. The slightly better soil quality was detected under no-tillage compared to ploughed soils. However, the ploughed soil got higher quality points compared with minimum tillage. The slurry application (organic manuring) had

  17. The surface climatology of the Ross Ice Shelf Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lazzara, Matthew A.; Keller, Linda M.; Cassano, John J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The University of Wisconsin‐Madison Antarctic Automatic Weather Station (AWS) project has been making meteorological surface observations on the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) for approximately 30 years. This network offers the most continuous set of routine measurements of surface meteorological variables in this region. The Ross Island area is excluded from this study. The surface climate of the RIS is described using the AWS measurements. Temperature, pressure, and wind data are analysed on daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual time periods for 13 AWS across the RIS. The AWS are separated into three representative regions – central, coastal, and the area along the Transantarctic Mountains – in order to describe specific characteristics of sections of the RIS. The climatology describes general characteristics of the region and significant changes over time. The central AWS experiences the coldest mean temperature, and the lowest resultant wind speed. These AWSs also experience the coldest potential temperatures with a minimum of 209.3 K at Gill AWS. The AWS along the Transantarctic Mountains experiences the warmest mean temperature, the highest mean sea‐level pressure, and the highest mean resultant wind speed. Finally, the coastal AWS experiences the lowest mean pressure. Climate indices (MEI, SAM, and SAO) are compared to temperature and pressure data of four of the AWS with the longest observation periods, and significant correlation is found for most AWS in sea‐level pressure and temperature. This climatology study highlights characteristics that influence the climate of the RIS, and the challenges of maintaining a long‐term Antarctic AWS network. Results from this effort are essential for the broader Antarctic meteorology community for future research. PMID:28008213

  18. STS-110 Astronaut Jerry Ross Performs Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. In this photograph, Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, anchored on the end of the Canadarm2, moves near the newly installed S0 truss. Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, mission specialist, (out of frame), worked in tandem with Ross during this fourth and final scheduled session of EVA for the STS-110 mission. The final major task of the space walk was the installation of a beam, the Airlock Spur, between the Quest Airlock and the S0. The spur will be used by space walkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss.

  19. STS-110 Astronaut Jerry Ross Performs Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. In this photograph, Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, anchored on the end of the Canadarm2, moves near the newly installed S0 truss. Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, mission specialist, (out of frame), worked in tandem with Ross during this fourth and final scheduled session of EVA for the STS-110 mission. The final major task of the space walk was the installation of a beam, the Airlock Spur, between the Quest Airlock and the S0. The spur will be used by space walkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss.

  20. Mesoscale cyclogenesis dynamics over the southwestern Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Jorge F.; Bromwich, David H.

    1993-07-01

    Previous work has shown that frequent mesoscale cyclogenesis adjacent to Franklin Island is linked to the strong and persistent katabatic winds from East Antarctica which funnel into Terra Nova Bay and then blow out over the southwestern Ross Sea. Four mesoscale cyclones that formed near Terra Nova Bay between February 16 and 20, 1988 are examined to more clearly define the governing mechanisms. These events are investigated using all available observations, including automatic weather station data, high-resolution satellite images, satellite soundings, and hemispheric synoptic analyses. The first two cyclones formed on low-level baroclinic zones established by the synoptic scale advection of warm moist air toward the cold continental air blowing gently from East Antarctica. In the second case, baroclinic instability of this small-scale cold front was apparently triggered by the enhanced upward vertical motion associated with the approach of a midtropospheric trough. The third mesocyclone formed shortly after on a baroclinic zone over the polar plateau; the second vortex completely disrupted the usual katabatic drainage over the plateau and forced warm moist air over the coastal slopes. All three cyclones moved to the north in the prevailing cyclonic flow, but the plateau vortex lasted for only 6 hours. The fourth mesoscale low formed in conjunction with an abrupt and intense surge of katabatic air from Terra Nova Bay which resharpened the coastal baroclinic zone. At the same time a transiting midtropospheric trough probably associated with lower tropospheric upward vertical motion apparently accelerated the katabatic winds and triggered the vortex formation. A similar katabatic wind-forced mesocyclone formed near Byrd Glacier. The two vortices moved to the east-southeast and northeast, respectively, apparently being steered by the generating katabatic airstreams, and merged just to the north of the Ross Ice Shelf. The combined vortex reintensified as another

  1. The surface climatology of the Ross Ice Shelf Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Costanza, Carol A; Lazzara, Matthew A; Keller, Linda M; Cassano, John J

    2016-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Automatic Weather Station (AWS) project has been making meteorological surface observations on the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) for approximately 30 years. This network offers the most continuous set of routine measurements of surface meteorological variables in this region. The Ross Island area is excluded from this study. The surface climate of the RIS is described using the AWS measurements. Temperature, pressure, and wind data are analysed on daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual time periods for 13 AWS across the RIS. The AWS are separated into three representative regions - central, coastal, and the area along the Transantarctic Mountains - in order to describe specific characteristics of sections of the RIS. The climatology describes general characteristics of the region and significant changes over time. The central AWS experiences the coldest mean temperature, and the lowest resultant wind speed. These AWSs also experience the coldest potential temperatures with a minimum of 209.3 K at Gill AWS. The AWS along the Transantarctic Mountains experiences the warmest mean temperature, the highest mean sea-level pressure, and the highest mean resultant wind speed. Finally, the coastal AWS experiences the lowest mean pressure. Climate indices (MEI, SAM, and SAO) are compared to temperature and pressure data of four of the AWS with the longest observation periods, and significant correlation is found for most AWS in sea-level pressure and temperature. This climatology study highlights characteristics that influence the climate of the RIS, and the challenges of maintaining a long-term Antarctic AWS network. Results from this effort are essential for the broader Antarctic meteorology community for future research.

  2. Two-dimensional Tomographic Inversion Model of Ross Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraj, S.; Aster, R. C.; Knox, H. A.; Zandomeneghi, D.; Snelson, C. M.; Kyle, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    A controlled-source seismic refraction experiment (Tomo-Erebus; TE) was undertaken during the 2008-09 Austral summer field season to examine the magmatic system beneath the active Erebus volcano (TE-3D) and the crustal structure beneath Ross Island, including details of the Terror Rift (TE-2D). Previous geophysical studies north of Ross Island have determined the north-south trending Terror Rift within the broader Victoria Land Basin, which are part of the intraplate West Antarctic Rift System. For TE-2D, 21 seismic recorders (Ref Tek 130) with three-component 4.5 Hz geophones (Sercel L-28-3D) were deployed along a 77-km east-west line between Capes Royds and Crozier. For TE-3D, 79 similar instruments were deployed in a 3 x 3 km grid around the crater of Erebus, an array of 8 permanent short period and broadband sensors and 23 three-component sensors (Guralp CMG-40T, 30s-100 Hz) were positioned around the flanks and summit of Erebus. Fifteen chemical sources ranging from 75 to 600 kg of ANFO were used. An additional shot was detonated in the sea (McMurdo Sound) using 200 kg of dynamite. Although the station spacing is ~5 km, the data have a high signal to noise ratio with clear first arrivals and wide-angle reflections across the array. Forward modelling ray tracing was used to develop 1-D P-wave velocity models by matching layers of known velocities with the P-wave first arrival times. 1-D velocity models developed for 3 sources and show ~3 layers with a velocity of ~7 km/s below 6-8 km depth. The 1-D models were used as the starting model for a the P-wave tomographic velocity model.

  3. Freshening of the Ross Sea during the late 20th century.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, S S; Giulivi, C F; Mele, P A

    2002-07-19

    Ocean measurements in the Ross Sea over the past four decades, one of the longest records near Antarctica, reveal marked decreases in shelf water salinity and the surface salinity within the Ross Gyre. These changes have been accompanied by atmospheric warming on Ross Island, ocean warming at depths of approximately 300 meters north of the continental shelf, a more negative Southern Oscillation Index, and thinning of southeast Pacific ice shelves. The freshening appears to have resulted from a combination of factors, including increased precipitation, reduced sea ice production, and increased melting of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  4. Field of genes: the politics of science and identity in the Estonian Genome Project.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Amy L

    2004-04-01

    This case study of the Estonian Genome Project (EGP) analyses the Estonian policy decision to construct a national human gene bank. Drawing upon qualitative data from newspaper articles and public policy documents, it focuses on how proponents use discourse to link the EGP to the broader political goal of securing Estonia's position within the Western/European scientific and cultural space. This dominant narrative is then situated within the analytical notion of the "brand state", which raises potentially negative political consequences for this type of market-driven genomic research. Considered against the increasing number of countries engaging in gene bank and/or gene database projects, this analysis of Estonia elucidates issues that cross national boundaries, while also illuminating factors specific to this small, post-Soviet state as it enters the global biocybernetic economy.

  5. Cancer patterns in the oil shale area of the Estonian S.S.R.

    PubMed

    Purde, M; Rahu, M

    1979-06-01

    Age-adjusted incidence rates of stomach, lung, and skin cancer among urban (1967-1972) and rural (1963-1972) population of four administrative districts in the Estonian S.S.R. have been presented. In the Kohtla-Järve district (oil shale area) there was an excess of stomach and lung cancer. High rates of stomach cancer in towns and boroughs of oil shale area may be explained by migration. A great proportion of migrants comes from regions, where incidence rates are 1.6-2.5. times higher than among estonians. Elevated levels of stomach cancer incidence in rural areas of Kohtla-Järva district remained unexplainable. In a retrospective cohort study of 2069 workers who had been exposed to oil shale products from 10 to 20 years an excess of skin cancer in females was found.

  6. Cancer patterns in the oil shale area of the Estonian S.S.R.

    PubMed Central

    Purde, M; Rahu, M

    1979-01-01

    Age-adjusted incidence rates of stomach, lung, and skin cancer among urban (1967-1972) and rural (1963-1972) population of four administrative districts in the Estonian S.S.R. have been presented. In the Kohtla-Järve district (oil shale area) there was an excess of stomach and lung cancer. High rates of stomach cancer in towns and boroughs of oil shale area may be explained by migration. A great proportion of migrants comes from regions, where incidence rates are 1.6-2.5. times higher than among estonians. Elevated levels of stomach cancer incidence in rural areas of Kohtla-Järva district remained unexplainable. In a retrospective cohort study of 2069 workers who had been exposed to oil shale products from 10 to 20 years an excess of skin cancer in females was found. PMID:446453

  7. Energy and valuable material by-product from firing Estonian oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Hanni, R.

    1996-12-31

    Power plants of Eesti Energia burn Estonian oil shale, known geologically as kukersite, to produce electrical and heat energy. The burnt shale, or oil shale ash, secondary product is collected and stored in increasing quantities. It is a high calcium content material with a low particle size range. Limited investment and international support have minimized development; however, some possibilities for the use of the ash have been found with consequent improvement to the environment. This paper describes different ways in which this burnt ash may be used. In particular, research has shown that it is most effective as an addition to Portland cement production. An Estonian Standard for the use of burnt shale in the production of rapid hardening portland cement and shale Portland cement has been developed. Characteristic data for burnt shale and burnt shale cellular concrete, collation of shale Portland cement and ordinary Portland cements are given.

  8. [Profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the waters of the Estonian SSR].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Wettig, K

    1987-01-01

    The profiles of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in water and bottom sediments of some rivers of the Estonian SSR and bays of the Baltic Sea, as well as algae gathered from the latter waterbody, have been studied. These data were compared with profiles in oil-shale emissions, sewage and automobile exhaust gases. No distinct differences of the emission profiles could be detected and therefore it seems to be impossible to fix the main source of the PAH pollution of the waterbodies.

  9. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross and the Tradition of the Private Sphere: An Analysis of Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klass, Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Shows how Kubler-Ross' schema functions as a symbol system. Analyzes the symbol "acceptance." Shows how that symbol is part of a strong American tradition of symbols of the private sphere. (Author/JAC)

  10. Quadruple valve replacement and bypass surgery 23 years after the Ross operation†.

    PubMed

    Oeser, Claudia; Andreas, Martin; Habertheuer, Andreas; Kocher, Alfred

    2015-07-01

    This report describes a case of simultaneous quadruple valve replacement, coronary artery bypass surgery and reconstruction of one aortic sinus performed in a patient who had undergone the Ross operation 23 years previously.

  11. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross and the Tradition of the Private Sphere: An Analysis of Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klass, Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Shows how Kubler-Ross' schema functions as a symbol system. Analyzes the symbol "acceptance." Shows how that symbol is part of a strong American tradition of symbols of the private sphere. (Author/JAC)

  12. Drug utilisation pattern and off-label use of medicines in Estonian neonatal units.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jana; Käär, Ruth; Jõgi, Kaarin; Varendi, Heili; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Lutsar, Irja

    2011-12-01

    To characterise neonatal hospital drug use and to compare the availability of drug information between Estonian Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPCs) and other sources. This was a prospective cohort study in which pharmacotherapy information on neonates admitted to Tartu University Clinics between 1 February and 1 August 2008 and to Tallinn Children's Hospital between 1 February and 1 August 2009 was collected. Drug labelling status was determined according to Estonian SPCs, and neonatal information was compared with the British National Formulary for Children (BNFC) and the Thomson Micromedex database. Of 490 hospitalised neonates, 71% received pharmacotherapy. Within the entire study period, there were 1981 prescriptions for 115 products, with a median of four (interquartile range 2-7) products per child. Antibacterial, cardiovascular and central nervous system drugs were the most commonly prescribed. All treated preterm neonates received at least one unlicensed or age-related off-label prescription. All prescriptions for alimentary, genitourinary, musculoskeletal and sensory system drugs were off-label. There were large differences in the neonatal information provided by the different sources, with the largest differences found for term neonates, for whom the information was available for 67, 38 and 24% of prescriptions according to the BNFC, Micromedex and Estonian SPC, respectively. The high rate of age-related off-label prescribing for neonates calls for urgent action from medical professionals and others to reinforce effective and safe pharmacotherapy for this age group. The existing SPCs should be regularly updated and more closely harmonised to each other.

  13. Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies: from past to the future.

    PubMed

    Sak, Katrin; Jürisoo, Kadi; Raal, Ain

    2014-07-01

    Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advancements, the burden of cancer is still increasing worldwide. Toxicity of current chemotherapeutics to normal cells and their resistance to tumor cells highlights the urgent need for new drugs with minimal adverse side effects. The use of natural anticancer agents has entered into the area of cancer research and increased efforts are being made to isolate bioactive products from medicinal plants. To lead the search for plants with potential cytotoxic activity, ethnopharmacological knowledge can give a great contribution. Therefore, the attention of this review is devoted to the natural remedies traditionally used for the cancer treatment by Estonian people over a period of almost 150 years. Two massive databases, the first one stored in the Estonian Folklore Archives and the second one in the electronic database HERBA ( http://herba.folklore.ee/ ), containing altogether more than 30 000 ethnomedicinal texts were systematically reviewed to compile data about the Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies. As a result, 44 different plants with potential anticancer properties were elicited, 5 of which [Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae), Anthemis tinctoria L. (Asteraceae), Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae), and Prunus padus L. (Rosaceae)] have not been previously described with respect to their tumoricidal activities in the scientific literature, suggesting thus the potential herbal materials for further investigations of natural anticancer compounds.

  14. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    PubMed

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  15. Using Estonian/American Based Culture Models for Multicultural Studies. An Innovative Approach to Studying the Multi-cultural, Multi-ethnic Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koiva, Enn O., Ed.

    The document presents curriculum guidelines to help high school social studies classroom teachers develop and implement multi-cultural studies programs. Material is based on acculturation and assimilation experiences of Estonian/Americans. The Estonian/American group was used as the base group in the study of the peoples of America through the…

  16. Using Estonian/American Based Culture Models for Multicultural Studies. An Innovative Approach to Studying the Multi-cultural, Multi-ethnic Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koiva, Enn O., Ed.

    The document presents curriculum guidelines to help high school social studies classroom teachers develop and implement multi-cultural studies programs. Material is based on acculturation and assimilation experiences of Estonian/Americans. The Estonian/American group was used as the base group in the study of the peoples of America through the…

  17. STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Ross during EVA in OV-104's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross drifts outside Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, payload bay (PLB) as he attaches a tether to a port side guidewire during extravehicular activity (EVA). OV-104's wing tip is visible below Ross. The Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) deployable track appears mounted inside the PLB. Only the shoulder and upper arm of the deployed remote manipulator system (RMS) are visible at the right.

  18. STS-37 MS Godwin balances MS Ross using her index finger on OV-104's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Linda M. Godwin holds MS Jerry L. Ross over her head using only her index finger. The two crewmembers are participating in a microgravity balancing act on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA) bioprocessing test bed mixing and sampling configuration is attached to the forward middeck lockers at Ross' right. The sleep restraints are attached on the starboard wall behind the astronauts.

  19. STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Ross during EVA in OV-104's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross drifts outside Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, payload bay (PLB) as he attaches a tether to a port side guidewire during extravehicular activity (EVA). OV-104's wing tip is visible below Ross. The Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) deployable track appears mounted inside the PLB. Only the shoulder and upper arm of the deployed remote manipulator system (RMS) are visible at the right.

  20. Frank Ross's Early Direct Photographs of Venus and His Interpretation of Them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    2006-09-01

    Frank Ross was an outstandingly creative astronomical "jack of many trades" (Monet) or "cat with nine astronomical lives". After joining the Yerkes Observatory faculty in 1924, at age 50, he took a long series of almost nightly direct photographs of Venus in 1927 with the Mount Wilson 60-inch and 100-inch reflectors as a guest observer. He published many of these images in the ApJ in 1928, with his conclusions on the nature of Venus. Ross discovered markings, seen only in the ultraviolet images, parallel "belts" indicating rotation. They changed rapidly. From these photographs he developed a tentative picture of a deep opaque atmosphere, with high pressure at the surface of the planet. The changes were due to "violent events" (winds or storms) in its atmosphere. From spectroscopic results of Slipher, Adams, StJohn, and Nicholson he took the rotation period to be long. But bolometric observations of Pettit, Nicholson, Coblentz, and Lampland, indicated little temperature change between the illuminated and dark parts of the disk, so it could not be too slow. Ross settled on a "compromise" rotation period of about 30 days based on the data he had. The spectroscopic measurements showed there was very little, if any, H2O or O2 in the atmosphere. Ross is best known today for his Ross wide-angle camera design, his Ross high-proper-motion stars, his Ross photometer, and his Ross correctors for large reflecting telescopes, but his foray into planetary astronomy, long before the era of radar or close-up imaging and spectroscopy from space vehicles, was an important first step toward understanding Venus. His years of experience in laboratory studies of the properties of photographic plates, developers, and mensuration were highly important for this work. Equally so were his cheerful, peppery personality and his close relations with many Mount Wilson and Lowell Observatory staff members.

  1. Comparison of Cobb and Ross strains in embryo physiology and chick juvenile growth.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Onagbesan, O M; Kamers, B; Everaert, N; Bruggeman, V; Decuypere, E

    2010-08-01

    Broiler performance is known to be related to embryonic developmental parameters. However, strain or genotype differences with regard to embryo physiological parameters and juvenile growth have received little attention. A total of 1,200 hatching eggs produced by Cobb and Ross broiler breeders of the same age were studied. At setting for incubation and between 66 and 130 h of incubation, egg resonant frequency (RF) was measured as an indicator of embryonic development. Also, eggs were weighed before setting and at d 18. From d 10 to 18 of incubation, remaining albumen was weighed. During the last days of incubation, hatching events such as internal pipping (IP), external pipping, and hatch were monitored every 2 h. Hatched chicks were recorded and weighed. At IP stage, gas partial pressures in the egg air chamber were measured. Hatched chicks were reared for 7 d and weighed. Results indicate that RF of Ross eggs were lower than those of Cobb eggs (P < 0.01) and starting time point of RF decrease occurred earlier in Cobb eggs than in Ross eggs. Relative egg weight loss up to 18 d of incubation was lower in Cobb than in Ross (P < 0.05). At IP, partial pressure of CO(2) was higher in Cobb than in Ross (P < 0.05) with shorter incubation duration in Cobb. Between 6 and 60 h posthatch, heat production was higher in Cobb than in Ross (P < 0.05). At 7 d posthatch, Cobb chicks were heavier than Ross chicks (P < 0.05). It is concluded that Cobb and Ross embryos-chicks have different growth trajectories leading in different patterns of growth resulting from differences in physiological parameters.

  2. Fish, crustaceans, and the sea floor under the ross ice shelf.

    PubMed

    Bruchhausen, P M; Raymond, J A; Jacobs, S S; Devries, A L; Thorndike, E M; Dewitt, H H

    1979-02-02

    Baited traps and a camera lowered through the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, at a point 475 kilometers from the open Ross Sea and to 597 meters below sea level revealed the presence of fish, many amphipods, and one isopod. Biological or current markings were not evident on a soft bottom littered with subangular lumps. A fish was caught through a crevasse 80 kilometers from the shelf edge.

  3. Ross Sea Till Properties: Implications for Ice Sheet Bed Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halberstadt, A. R.; Anderson, J. B.; Simkins, L.; Prothro, L. O.; Bart, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Since the discovery of a pervasive shearing till layer underlying Ice Stream B, the scientific community has categorized subglacial diamictons as either deformation till or lodgement till primarily based on shear strength. Deformation till is associated with streaming ice, formed through subglacial deformation of unconsolidated sediments. Lodgement till is believed to be deposited by the plastering of sediment entrained at the base of slow-flowing ice onto a rigid bed. Unfortunately, there has been a paucity of quantitative data on the spatial distribution of shear strength across the continental shelf. Cores collected from the Ross Sea on cruises NBP1502 and NBP9902 provide a rich dataset that can be used to interpret till shear strength variability. Till strengths are analyzed within the context of: (1) geologic substrate; (2) water content and other geotechnical properties; (3) ice sheet retreat history; and (4) geomorphic framework. Tills display a continuum of shear strengths rather than a bimodal distribution, suggesting that shear strength cannot be used to distinguish between lodgement and deformation till. Where the substrate below the LGM unconformity is comprised of older lithified deposits, till shear strengths are both highly variable within the till unit, as well as highly variable between cores. Conversely, where ice streams flowed across unconsolidated Plio-Pleistocene deposits, shear strengths are low and less variable within the unit and between cores. This suggests greater homogenization of cannibalized tills, and possibly a deeper pervasive shear layer. Coarser-grained tills are observed on banks and bank slopes, with finer tills in troughs. Highly variable and more poorly sorted tills are found in close proximity to sediment-based subglacial meltwater channels, attesting to a change in ice-bed interaction as subglacial water increases. Pellets (rounded sedimentary clasts of till matrix) are observed in Ross Sea cores, suggesting a history of

  4. Mass Balance and Structure of the Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, I.; Padman, L.; Chu, W.; Fricker, H. A.; Becker, M. K.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Millstein, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in ice shelf mass balance is key to the long term stability of the Antarctic ice sheet. Although the most extensive thinning occurs on the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica, recent studies indicate that many other ice shelves are also experiencing widespread thinning. Here, we focus on the Ross Ice Self. An 18-year record (1994-2012) of satellite radar altimetry shows elevation change 1 m/yr across the shelf. Significant variability in ice shelf height on interannual time scales makes it difficult to detect a long-term mass budget trend of this ice shelf. Variability of radar signal penetration into the ice-shelf snow and firn layers further complicates assessment of mass changes. In this work, we investigate the Ross Ice Shelf mass balance using aerogeophyical data from the ROSETTA-ICE IcePod and NASA's Operation IceBridge. ROSSETTA-ICE is an aerogeophysical program planned to survey the ice shelf at a 10 km spacing over the course of two field seasons-2015 and 2016. This NSF/Moore Foundation supported multi-University collaborative project is designed to provide an integrated view of the ice shelf and the underlying bathymetry using the IcePod system including its ice-penetrating radars, laser altimetry, gravity meters and magnetometers. We present preliminary results from our ongoing efforts of quantifying the mass balance of the ice shelf using IcePod ice penetrating radars and laser altimetry along with satellite data. We will use internal layers traced from ice penetrating radars to outline the structure of the ice shelf. Airborne laser altimetry measurements from this IcePod survey and IceBridge will be used to study the elevation change of the ice shelf. Spatial variations of thickness of the internal layers in the first few meters of the ice shelf, particularly near the grounding line, will indicate the impact of wind-blown snow coming from the continent onto the ice shelf. In order to infer conditions of melt and freeze-on at the ice

  5. Neogene Development of the Terror Rift, western Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, C.; Sorlien, C. C.; Busetti, M.; De Santis, L.; Wardell, N.; Henrys, S. A.; Geletti, R.; Wilson, T. J.; Luyendyk, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Terror Rift is a >300 km-long, 50-70 km-wide, 14 km-deep sedimentary basin at the edge of the West Antarctic Rift System, adjacent to the Transantarctic Mountains. It is cut into the broader Victoria Land Basin (VLB). The VLB experienced 100 km of mid-Cenozoic extension associated with larger sea floor spreading farther north. The post-spreading (Neogene) development of Terror Rift is not well understood, in part because of past use of different stratigraphic age models. We use the new Rossmap seismic stratigraphy correlated to Cape Roberts and Andrill cores in the west and to DSDP cores in the distant East. This stratigraphy, and new fault interpretations, was developed using different resolutions of seismic reflection data included those available from the Seismic Data Library System. Depth conversion used a new 3D velocity model. A 29 Ma horizon is as deep as 8 km in the south, and a 19 Ma horizon is >5 km deep there and 4 km-deep 100 km farther north. There is a shallower northern part of Terror Rift misaligned with the southern basin across a 50 km right double bend. It is bounded by steep N-S faults down-dropping towards the basin axis. Between Cape Roberts and Ross Island, the Oligocene section is also progressively-tilted. This Oligocene section is not imaged within northern Terror Rift, but the simplest hypothesis is that some of the Terror Rift-bounding faults were active at least during Oligocene through Quaternary time. Many faults are normal separation, but some are locally vertical or even reverse-separation in the upper couple of km. However, much of the vertical relief of the strata is due to progressive tilting (horizontal axis rotation) and not by shallow faulting. Along the trend of the basin, the relief alternates between tilting and faulting, with a tilting margin facing a faulted margin across the Rift, forming asymmetric basins. Connecting faults across the basin form an accommodation zone similar to other oblique rifts. The Neogene basin is

  6. Quantifying fall migration of Ross's gulls (Rhodostethia rosea) past Point Barrow, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Davis, Shanti E.; Maftei, Mark; Gesmundo, Callie; Suydam, R.S.; Mallory, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The Ross's gull (Rhodostethia rosea) is a poorly known seabird of the circumpolar Arctic. The only place in the world where Ross's gulls are known to congregate is in the near-shore waters around Point Barrow, Alaska where they undertake an annual passage in late fall. Ross's gulls seen at Point Barrow are presumed to originate from nesting colonies in Siberia, but neither their origin nor their destination has been confirmed. Current estimates of the global population of Ross's gulls are based largely on expert opinion, and the only reliable population estimate is derived from extrapolations from previous counts conducted at Point Barrow, but these data are now over 25 years old. In order to update and clarify the status of this species in Alaska, our study quantified the timing, number, and flight direction of Ross's gulls passing Point Barrow in 2011. We recorded up to two-thirds of the estimated global population of Ross's gulls (≥ 27,000 individuals) over 39 days with numbers peaking on 16 October when we observed over 7,000 birds during a three-hour period.

  7. Ross, macdonald, and a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Smith, David L; Battle, Katherine E; Hay, Simon I; Barker, Christopher M; Scott, Thomas W; McKenzie, F Ellis

    2012-01-01

    Ronald Ross and George Macdonald are credited with developing a mathematical model of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission. A systematic historical review suggests that several mathematicians and scientists contributed to development of the Ross-Macdonald model over a period of 70 years. Ross developed two different mathematical models, Macdonald a third, and various "Ross-Macdonald" mathematical models exist. Ross-Macdonald models are best defined by a consensus set of assumptions. The mathematical model is just one part of a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens that also includes epidemiological and entomological concepts and metrics for measuring transmission. All the basic elements of the theory had fallen into place by the end of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP, 1955-1969) with the concept of vectorial capacity, methods for measuring key components of transmission by mosquitoes, and a quantitative theory of vector control. The Ross-Macdonald theory has since played a central role in development of research on mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and the development of strategies for mosquito-borne disease prevention.

  8. Ross, Macdonald, and a Theory for the Dynamics and Control of Mosquito-Transmitted Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David L.; Battle, Katherine E.; Hay, Simon I.; Barker, Christopher M.; Scott, Thomas W.; McKenzie, F. Ellis

    2012-01-01

    Ronald Ross and George Macdonald are credited with developing a mathematical model of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission. A systematic historical review suggests that several mathematicians and scientists contributed to development of the Ross-Macdonald model over a period of 70 years. Ross developed two different mathematical models, Macdonald a third, and various “Ross-Macdonald” mathematical models exist. Ross-Macdonald models are best defined by a consensus set of assumptions. The mathematical model is just one part of a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens that also includes epidemiological and entomological concepts and metrics for measuring transmission. All the basic elements of the theory had fallen into place by the end of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP, 1955–1969) with the concept of vectorial capacity, methods for measuring key components of transmission by mosquitoes, and a quantitative theory of vector control. The Ross-Macdonald theory has since played a central role in development of research on mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and the development of strategies for mosquito-borne disease prevention. PMID:22496640

  9. Height Connections and Land Uplift Rates in West-Estonian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgenson, H.; Liibusk, A.; Kall, T.

    2012-04-01

    Land uplift rates are largest in the western part of Estonia. The uplift is due to post-glacial rebound. In 2001-2011, the Estonian national high-precision levelling network was completely renewed and levelled. This was the third precise levelling campaign in the re-gion. The first one had taken place before the Second World War and the second one in the 1950s. The Estonian mainland was connected with the two largest islands (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) in the west-Estonian archipelago using the water level monitoring (hydrody-namic levelling) method. Three pairs of automatic tide gauges were installed on opposite coasts of each waterway. The tide gauges were equipped with piezoresistive pressure sen-sors. This represented the first use of such kind of equipment in Estonia. The hydrodynamic levelling series span up to two calendar years. Nevertheless, the obtained hydrodynamic levelling results need to be additionally verified using alternative geodetic methods. The obtained results were compared with the previous high-precision levelling data from the 1960s and 1970s. As well, the new Estonian gravimetric geoid model and the GPS survey were used for GPS-levelling. All the three methods were analyzed, and the preliminary results coincided within a 1-2 cm margin. Additionally, the tide gauges on the mainland and on both islands were connected using high-precision levelling. In this manner, three hydrodynamic and three digital levelling height differences formed a closed loop with the length of 250 km. The closing error of the loop was less than 1 cm. Finally, the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound was determined from repeated levelling as well as from repeated GPS survey. The time span between the two campaigns of the first-order GPS survey was almost 13 years. According to new calculations, the relative land uplift rates within the study area reached up to +2 mm/year. This is an area with a rela-tively small amount of input data for the Nordic models. In addition, a

  10. Confirming and Improving Ross Variable Star RV Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Tyler R.; Sanchez, Rick; Palser, Sage; Schultze, Kendra; Kenney, Jessica; Thompson, Briana; DeCoster, Richard; Mills, Frank; Osborn, Wayne; Hoette, Vivian L.; Skynet Junior Scholars; Stone Edge Observatory

    2017-01-01

    RV Del is an intrinsic pulsating variable star in the constellation Delphinus, discovered by Ross (1926). The AAVSO list RV Del as a RRAB type of variable star. RV Del has been found to have a magnitude that varies from 12.9 - 14.2 and a period of 11.9553 hours.The purpose of our research of RV Del is to confirm and improve previous results as well as explore different methods to engage middle school students in the scientific method and astronomy. The SKYNET network of telescopes allows students to request images from a group of international research class telescopes. The telescope request process allows students first-hand experience in astronomy while the data analysis allows students to understand advance software systems to produce publishable results. Data is being gathered using the SKYNET network and Stone Edge Observatory to gather photometry of RV Del and create a new light curve. Findings will be presented the January 2017 AAS.

  11. STS-88 Mission Specialist Ross arrives for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A smiling Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross prepares to exit the T-38 jet aircraft that brought him to the Shuttle Landing Facility. He joins other crew members Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie, Mission Specialist James H. Newman and Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, for pre-launch preparations for mission STS-88 aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scheduled time of launch is 3:56 a.m. EST on Dec. 3 from Launch Pad 39A. The mission is the first U.S. launch for the International Space Station. Endeavour carries the Unity connecting module which the crew will be mating with the Russian-built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC at 10:17 p.m. on Monday, Dec. 14.

  12. Movement of fuel spills in the Ross Ice Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeo, M.A.; Larson, M.K.

    1994-12-31

    Williams Field provides logistical support to McMurdo Station in Antarctica and managers large amounts of fuel for their cargo planes. Numerous spills have occurred at this site with little recovery or remediation of the spilled fuel. From 1980 to 1989, approximately 380,000 liters (L) leaked during documented fuel spills-197,600 L of that total came from one spill alone, in October of 1989, when fuel leaked onto the ice at Williams Field. An additional 20 spills of unknown quantities have also occurred at McMurdo Station and Williams Field. Although recent improvements in equipment and procedures in Antarctica have significantly reduced the accidental release of fuel and all but eliminated the risk of a large fuel spill, the potential for small releases still exists. To track the movement of fuel spills on the ice shelf more accurately and to established the basis for remediation methods NSF funded a 3-year study. This article discusses information obtained about the movement of fuel from a small oil spill from a flexible pipeline between McMurdo Station and Williams Field on the Ross Ice Shelf. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. STS-88 Mission Specialist Ross arrives for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A smiling Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross prepares to exit the T-38 jet aircraft that brought him to the Shuttle Landing Facility. He joins other crew members Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie, Mission Specialist James H. Newman and Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, for pre-launch preparations for mission STS-88 aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scheduled time of launch is 3:56 a.m. EST on Dec. 3 from Launch Pad 39A. The mission is the first U.S. launch for the International Space Station. Endeavour carries the Unity connecting module which the crew will be mating with the Russian-built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC at 10:17 p.m. on Monday, Dec. 14.

  14. Risks for Ross River virus disease in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Harley, David; Ritchie, Scott; Bain, Chris; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2005-06-01

    There are no analytical studies of individual risks for Ross River virus (RRV) disease. Therefore, we set out to determine individual risk and protective factors for RRV disease in a high incidence area and to assess the utility of the case-control design applied for this purpose to an arbovirus disease. We used a prospective matched case-control study of new community cases of RRV disease in the local government areas of Cairns, Mareeba, Douglas, and Atherton, in tropical Queensland, from January 1 to May 31, 1998. Protective measures against mosquitoes reduced the risk for disease. Mosquito coils, repellents, and citronella candles each decreased risk by at least 2-fold, with a dose-response for the number of protective measures used. Light-coloured clothing decreased risk 3-fold. Camping increased the risk 8-fold. These risks were substantial and statistically significant, and provide a basis for educational programs on individual protection against RRV disease in Australia. Our study demonstrates the utility of the case-control method for investigating arbovirus risks. Such a risk analysis has not been done before for RRV infection, and is infrequently reported for other arbovirus infections.

  15. Albert Ross Tilley: The legacy of a Canadian plastic surgeon

    PubMed Central

    Mowbrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The present article chronicles the career of Dr Albert Ross Tilley, one of the most important Canadian plastic surgeons of the 20th century. Tilley is most well known for his innovations of burn management during World War II and his treatment of a group of burn patients known affectionately as the ‘Guinea Pig Club’. In addition to the superb surgical skills he applied to the physical wounds of his patients, Tilley was also a pioneer of caring for the emotional and psychological afflictions suffered by many airmen of World War II. As one of the founding fathers of the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons, Tilley’s work was instrumental in establishing the specialty and ensured its prosperity for years to come. Serving in the capacity of leader, educator and innovator, Tilley remains one of Canada’s most decorated physicians, and his body of work encompasses contributions to the medical field that remain significant and beneficial to patient care to this day. PMID:24431953

  16. Seasonal circulation under the eastern Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctia

    SciTech Connect

    Hellmer, H.H.; Jacobs, S.S.

    1995-06-15

    An annual cycle of shelf water temperatures and salinities measured at depth near the eastern Ross Ice Shelf front is used to force a two-dimensional thermohaline circulation model adapted to different subice paths in the vicinity of Roosevelt Island. These paths were assumed to have constant water column thicknesses of 160, 200, and 240 m and lengths of 460-800 km. Additional simulations with the longer cavity included a 80-m thick interior water column in order to approximate conditions closer to the grounding line. Model results were compared with other long-term measurements that showed outflow from beneath the ice shelf. Shelf water flowing into the cavity west of Roosevelt Island appears to follow a cyclonic route around the island. The ice shelf base loses mass at a rate of 18-27 cm yr{sup {minus}1}, with seasonal forcing increasing the spatial and temporal variability of circulation and property distributions in the larger cavities. Shallow cavities reduce the influence of shelf water variability with increasing length. Introducing a transient shelf water temperature rise of 0.01{degrees}C yr {sup {minus}1} for 100 years increases the melt rate by 4-5 times. However, this increase is smaller if salinity also decreases over the same period of time, as might be expected from the added meltwater component. 42 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Antarctic marine ice sheet retreat in the Ross Sea during the early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckay, R. M.; Golledge, N.; Naish, T.; Maas, S.; Levy, R. H.; Kuhn, G.; Lee, J. I.; Dunbar, G. B.

    2015-12-01

    Geological constraints on the timing of the retreat of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Antarctic Ice Sheets provide critical insights into the processes controlling marine-based ice sheet stability. The over-deepened, seaward shallowing bathymetry of Antarctica's continental shelves is ideally configured to promote past, and potentially future, marine ice-sheet instability. The retreat history of the LGM ice sheet in the Ross Sea region is primarily constrained by C-14 ages on coastal beach ridges and relict penguin colonies along the Transantarctic Mountain front in the Western Ross Sea. Although these terrestrial sites offer more reliable dates than imprecise C-14 chronologies derived from bulk marine sediments, they may reflect retreat of local piedmont glaciers derived from East Antarctic outlet glaciers rather than representing the timing of retreat of the ice sheet in the central Ross Embayment. We present a sedimentary facies succession and foraminifera-based C-14 chronology from a core collected beneath the Ross Ice Shelf via a hot water drill access hole used for the ANDRILL Coulman High site survey. The site is to the east of Ross Island and distal from the coast, and yields a minimum age for glacial retreat that is approximately 1000 yrs earlier than suggested by coastal records along the nearby Victoria Land coast. We examine the implications of this constraint on the timing of ice sheet retreat in the context of model simulations and new multi-beam bathymetry data acquired in the Western Ross Sea. On the basis of these data we hypothesize that marine-based ice sheet retreat was triggered by oceanic forcings along most of the Pacific Ocean coastline of Antarctica simultaneously, but continued retreat in the Ross Sea occurred primarily as a consequence of marine ice sheet instability.

  18. Grounding zone heterogeneity around the Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Oliver; Floricioiu, Dana; Rack, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Grounding lines are most accurately mapped by identifying patterns of differential vertical movement from SAR interferometry. The apparent grounding line position at the upstream limit of flexure and the width of the flexure zone are influenced by satellite acquisition time relative to the tides, even for steep bedrock slopes. Here we identify and interpret spatial variations in flexure around the Ross Ice Shelf using a suite of TerraSAR-X interferograms. A small change in grounding line position can indicate short-term dynamic variability in ice thickness or the onset of ocean-induced instability, though neither are observed here. Nevertheless, interferograms also contain information about the stiffness of ice, its time-dependent response to tides and basal characteristics at the ice shelf boundary. Using flexure zone width, we estimate ice stiffness and link it to variations in thickness and rheology. Surface profiles across the grounding line from ICESat laser altimetry are re-interpreted and used to clarify the process of buoyancy-induced bending. Observations match well to theoretical models predicting an ice-shelf bump of variable amplitude and wavelength downstream of the transition. A deviation from hydrostatic balance is particularly clear at the steep, fast-flowing outlet glaciers of the Transantarctic Mountains (Mulock / Beardmore) but is also found in non-moving areas such as the Kamb Ice Stream. This deviation can lead to a positive bias of up to 15% of ice thickness and may cause significant miscalculation of ice shelf basal melt rates and errors in 'flux gate' type mass balance calculations. Here, cross-sections through the grounding line are modelled analytically in 1D from fundamental glaciological parameters using the new grounding line locations, leading to much improved estimates of ice thickness from ICESat surface profiles. Thickness is validated using airborne ground penetrating radar data where available.

  19. Springtime winds drive Ross Sea ice variability and change in the following autumn.

    PubMed

    Holland, Marika M; Landrum, Laura; Raphael, Marilyn; Stammerjohn, Sharon

    2017-09-28

    Autumn sea ice trends in the western Ross Sea dominate increases in Antarctic sea ice and are outside the range simulated by climate models. Here we use a number of independent data sets to show that variability in western Ross Sea autumn ice conditions is largely driven by springtime zonal winds in the high latitude South Pacific, with a lead-time of 5 months. Enhanced zonal winds dynamically thin the ice, allowing an earlier melt out, enhanced solar absorption, and reduced ice cover the next autumn. This seasonal lag relationship has implications for sea ice prediction. Given a weakening trend in springtime zonal winds, this lagged relationship can also explain an important fraction of the observed sea ice increase. An analysis of climate models indicates that they simulate weaker relationships and wind trends than observed. This contributes to weak western Ross Sea ice trends in climate model simulations.Antarctic sea ice extent continues to increase, with autumn sea ice advances in the western Ross Sea particularly anomalous. Here, based on analysis of independent datasets, the authors show that springtime zonal winds in the high latitude South Pacific drive western Ross Sea autumn sea ice conditions.

  20. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in Estonian arable soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in

  1. Natural changes in the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle.

    PubMed

    Viltro, A; Alaots, J; Pärn, M; Must, K

    2002-08-01

    The results of a survey conducted during 1993-2000 to study the spread of bovine viral diarrhoeal virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle are presented. The BVDV infection status of a representative random sample of cattle herds housing 20 or more dairy cows was established to estimate the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection [potentially having persistently infected (PI) cattle--suspect PI herds]. The herds investigated comprised approximately 70% of all Estonian dairy cows. The BVDV infection status was established in 315-350 herds (making the sampling fraction about 20%) during three sampling periods: 1993-95, 1997-98, 1999-2000. BVDV antibodies were detected in herd bulk milk samples and/or sera from young stock by a liquid-phase-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed in the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research. The results of the survey demonstrate the reduction in the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection in the studied fraction of the Estonian cattle population. During the first sampling period (1993-95) a prevalence of 46% (+/- 5%) for suspect PI herds was observed, during the second sampling period this prevalence was 16% (+/- 3%) and in the third period it was 18% (+/- 3%). As there is no control programme for BVDV in Estonia, the observed changes reflect the natural course of the infection in the study population. A possible cause for these changes is the decreased trade in breeding animals as a result of the economic difficulties present in cattle farming during the study period. The farming practices (most large herds are managed as closed herds) and the low density of cattle farms have obviously facilitated the self-clearance of herds from the BVDV infection, diminishing the new introduction of infection into the herds.

  2. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14) and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14) cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT) performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR) for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P < 0.05) and a time effect on all metabolites concentration (P < 0.01). The following differences were observed in EH compared to ER: lower blood insulin concentration 5 min after glucose infusion (P < 0.05), higher glucose concentration 20 (P < 0.01) and 30 min (P < 0.05) after infusion, and higher NEFA concentration before (P < 0.01) and 5 min after infusion (P < 0.05). Blood TG concentration in ER remained stable, while in EH there was a decrease from the basal level to the 40th min nadir (P < 0.01), followed by an increase to the 60th min postinfusion (P < 0.01). Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows. PMID:20089161

  3. Modernizing the Estonian farmhouse, redefining the family, 1880s-1930s.

    PubMed

    L'Heureux, Marie-Alice

    2010-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, the transition from a Baltic-German-controlled manor-and-serf economy to individually owned farmsteads transformed all aspects of life including the spatial organization and form of farmhouses in the western provinces of Tsarist Russia. Agricultural experts and social reformers discussed how to update the traditional threshing-room dwelling house (rehielamu) into a healthy dwelling for successful farmers and, after the Estonian War of Independence, for new settlers. Using material culture such as contemporary plans, I show that changing household relationships, in addition to economic and technological factors, helped to transform the ancient rehielamu into a modern dwelling.

  4. The vascular plant flora of Hopewell Culture National Historical Park. Ross County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Course, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    HopewellCulture National Historical Park, a unit of the United States National Park Service located in Ross County in south central Ohio, was created to restore, protect, and interpret the legacy of the mound building Hopewell prehistoric peoples. The vascular flora of the park had been estimated to be only 20% known prior to the undertaking of this project. During the spring, summer, and fall of 1995, almost 700 plant specimens were collected by three investigators from five units of the park. Totals of 438 species, 281 genera, and 93 families of vascular plants were discovered, representing 40% of the flora of Ross County, and 17% of the flora of Ohio. Introduced species constituted 32% of the flora. Sixty-five species are new records for Ross County. Two species of special concern, Spiranthes ovalis and Eleocharis ovata, are on the state's threatened and endangered species list. The Hopewell unit had the highest plant diversity of the five units.

  5. ‘Bellography’: Life and Contributions of Ross and Joyce Bell, two New England Naturalists

    PubMed Central

    Spence, John R.; Ball, George E.; Davidson, Robert L.; Rykken, Jessica J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The lives and contributions of Ross and Joyce Bell are described with particular attention to studies of invertebrate natural history in the state of Vermont and carabid beetles of several groups, including the world rhysodine fauna. Their work, all done at the University of Vermont, was mainly taxonomic in nature and included aspects of the biology of the species considered. During their careers they described more than 75% of the c. 340 rhysodine species known to science. Ross Bell also wrote a number of seminal papers about the basal relationships of the Adephaga and the comparative anatomy of carabid coxal cavities. Ross and Joyce inspired several generations of students at UVM to take up advanced work in entomology and natural history. PMID:22371660

  6. Paleobathymetric Reconstruction of Ross Sea: seismic data processing and regional reflectors mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivo, Elisabetta; De Santis, Laura; Wardell, Nigel; Geletti, Riccardo; Busetti, Martina; Sauli, Chiara; Bergamasco, Andrea; Colleoni, Florence; Vanzella, Walter; Sorlien, Christopher; Wilson, Doug; De Conto, Robert; Powell, Ross; Bart, Phil; Luyendyk, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    PURPOSE: New maps of some major unconformities of the Ross Sea have been reconstructed, by using seismic data grids, combined with the acoustic velocities from previous works, from new and reprocessed seismic profiles. This work is carried out with the support of PNRA and in the frame of the bilateral Italy-USA project GLAISS (Global Sea Level Rise & Antarctic Ice Sheet Stability predictions), funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Paleobathymetric maps of 30, 14 and 4 million years ago, three 'key moments' for the glacial history of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, coinciding with global climatic changes. The paleobathymetric maps will then be used for numeric simulations focused on the width and thickness of the Ross Sea Ice Sheet. PRELIMINARY RESULTS: The first step was to create TWT maps of three main unconformity (RSU6, RSU4, and RSU2) of Ross Sea, revisiting and updating the ANTOSTRAT maps, through the interpretation of sedimentary bodies and erosional features, used to infer active or old processes along the slope, we identified the main seismic unconformities. We used the HIS Kingdom academic license. The different groups contribution was on the analysis of the Eastern Ross Sea continental slope and rise (OGS), of the Central Basin (KOPRI) of the western and central Ross Sea (Univ. of Santa Barbara and OGS), where new drill sites and seismic profiles were collected after the publication of the ANTOSTRAT maps. Than we joined our interpretation with previous interpretations. We examined previous processing of several seismic lines and all the old acoustic velocity analysis. In addiction we reprocessed some lines in order to have a higher data coverage. Then, combining the TWT maps of the unconformity with the old and new speed data we created new depth maps of the study area. The new depth maps will then be used for reconstructing the paleobathymetry of the Ross Sea by applying backstripping technique.

  7. Identifying the role of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) in Fusarium solani spores inactivation.

    PubMed

    Du, Yilin; Xiong, Houfeng; Dong, Shuangshi; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongmei; Zhou, Dandan

    2016-12-01

    The inactivation mechanism of photocatalytic disinfectants on bacteria is well known. In contrast, the potential inactivation of fungal spores by visible-light induced photocatalysis has been recognized, but the inactivation mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesize that photocatalytically generated reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are directly involved in this mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we identified the roles of ROSs in the inactivation of Fusarium solani spores. As the photocatalysts, we doped TiO2 with 3 typical dopants, forming Ag/TiO2, N/TiO2 and Er(3+):YAlO3/TiO2. The Ag/TiO2 photocatalysis was dominated by H2O2, with the longest lifetime among the investigated ROSs. Ag/TiO2 photocatalysis yielded almost 100 % inactivation efficiency and preserved the cell-wall shape of the spores, thus minimizing the biomolecule leakage. Er(3+):YAlO3/TiO2 was dominated by h(+) ROSs, yielding an inactivation efficiency of 91 %; however, the severe leakage released large numbers of molecular bio-products. Severe damage to the cell walls by the h(+) species was confirmed in micrograph observations. Subsequent to cell wall breakage, the Er(3+):YAlO3/TiO2 nanoparticles entered the spore cells and directly oxidized the intracellular material. The N/TiO2 photocatalysis, with •O2(-) dominated ROSs, delivered intermediate performance. In conclusion, photocatalysts that generate H2O2-dominated ROSs are most preferred for spore inactivation.

  8. The role of thermal and mechanical processes in the formation of the Ross Sea summer polynya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Tasha E.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Holland, David M.

    2007-07-01

    Three decades of satellite observations collected during spring and early summer have shown a recurring region of ice-free water forming in the sea-ice cover of the Ross Sea, Antarctica. This Ross Sea summer polynya plays an important role in heat exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, ventilation of deep water, and is characterized by high biological productivity. Despite its appearance each year, the relative importance of different physical processes to its formation and maintenance are not widely agreed upon. Here we use a three-dimensional coupled ice/ocean model to better understand processes controlling the dynamics of the Ross Sea polynya. Results from the model control run agree favorably with satellite microwave imagery of sea ice. Model sensitivity studies suggest that polynya dynamics are insensitive to the amount of snowfall, the presence of the Ross Ice Shelf cavity, tides, and solar radiation penetrating the ice. The model results also corroborate earlier findings that both the advection of sea ice and heat entrainment from warm Modified Circumpolar Deep Water play a role in Ross Sea polynya development. More importantly, the model further demonstrates that advection of sea ice due to wind stress plays the primary role in summer polynya formation. Additionally, we suggest that (1) heat entrainment reduces the rate of sea ice formation rather than melts existing sea ice, and (2) advection of sea ice due to synoptic wind events associated with variations in atmospheric pressure are the processes primarily responsible for the formation and expansion of the Ross Sea summer polynya.

  9. 78 FR 12357 - Brockway Mould, Inc., a Division of Ross International Ltd. Including Robert Lerch From BJR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Brockway Mould, Inc., a Division of Ross International Ltd. Including... Brockway Mould, Inc., a division of Ross International Ltd, Brockport, Pennsylvania (subject firm). The...,862 is hereby issued as follows: ``All workers from Brockway Mould, Inc., a division of...

  10. The M51 mystery: Lord Rosse, Robinson, South and the discovery of spiral structure in 1845

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinicke, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    In April 1845 Lord Rosse discovered the spiral structure of M51 with his 72-inch reflector at Birr Castle. Already in March the new telescope had been pointed at the object in Canes Venatici, later nicknamed the 'Whirlpool Nebula'. Two experienced astronomers were present: Sir James South and the Reverend Thomas Romney Robin-son. The problem is that there is no record that they noticed the spiral structure, even though it was immediately seen by Lord Rosse the next month. The solution presented here is based on evidentiary facts, highlighting the nineteenth century astronomical praxis. Focal points are bias, fantasy and a sometimes fatal conspiracy of eye and brain.

  11. Barometric effects on tabular iceberg drift in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Ian D.

    The Inverse Barometer Effect (IBE) was observed in the nineteenth century by Sir James Clark Ross (Ross, 1854a), as deviations in sea-surface elevation in response to deviations in atmospheric pressure. This effect embodies the inverse relationship between sea-surface height (relative to long-term mean sea level) and atmospheric surface pressure. This thesis addresses the hypothesis that icebergs in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica are influenced by the same forces that create the IBE. This hypothesis is motivated by studies of icebergs in the Ross Sea, where drift data suggest that icebergs are drawn into temporary holding zones, or "Iceberg Parking Lots" situated where the surface pressure tends to display persistent, annual average low pressure. A physical explanation for the IBE's influence on icebergs is that they are often able to travel up the sea-surface slope induced by the IBE below atmospheric lows against the gravitational pull because of the pressure gradient force of the atmosphere acting on the iceberg's freeboard (the part of the iceberg that is above the waterline). Here, I evaluate the validity of the hypothesized IBE-iceberg relationship using a combined approach of data analysis and modeling. I have examined atmospheric surface pressure and wind records taken directly from the surfaces of four Ross Sea icebergs---B15A, B15K, C16, and B15J, and I have also built, and experimented with, models that predict iceberg drift response to atmospheric surface pressure and surface winds, using observed pressures and winds from B15A and B15J as model forcing. I additionally performed various experiments on a large, idealized tabular iceberg's physical sensitivity to the IBE using a model that treats atmospheric pressure and winds in an idealized, theoretical manner. I discovered that the IBE is indeed a significant influence on iceberg drift in and around Lewis Bay, just to the north of Ross Island, which will further our understanding of these icebergs

  12. STS-88 Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross suits up for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-88 Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross (right) suits up in the Operations and Checkout Building, as part of a flight crew equipment fit check, prior to his trip to Launch Pad 39A. He is helped by suit tech Leonard Groce II. The STS-88 crew is at KSC to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) which includes mission familiarization activities, emergency egress training, and a simulated launch countdown. This is Ross' sixth space flight. Mission STS-88 is targeted for launch on Dec. 3, 1998. It is the first U.S. flight for the assembly of the International Space Station and will carry the Unity connecting module.

  13. Holocene elephant seal distribution implies warmer-than-present climate in the Ross Sea.

    PubMed

    Hall, B L; Hoelzel, A R; Baroni, C; Denton, G H; Le Boeuf, B J; Overturf, B; Töpf, A L

    2006-07-05

    We show that southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) colonies existed proximate to the Ross Ice Shelf during the Holocene, well south of their core sub-Antarctic breeding and molting grounds. We propose that this was due to warming (including a previously unrecognized period from approximately 1,100 to 2,300 (14)C yr B.P.) that decreased coastal sea ice and allowed penetration of warmer-than-present climate conditions into the Ross Embayment. If, as proposed in the literature, the ice shelf survived this period, it would have been exposed to environments substantially warmer than present.

  14. Sea ice and oceanic processes on the Ross Sea continental shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, S. S.; Comiso, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of Antarctic sea ice concentrations on the Ross Sea continental shelf have been investigated in relation to oceanic and atmospheric forcing. Sea ice data were derived from Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) brightness temperatures from 1979-1986. Ice cover over the shelf was persistently lower than above the adjacent deep ocean, averaging 86 percent during winter with little month-to-month of interannual variability. The large spring Ross Sea polynya on the western shelf results in a longer period of summer insolation, greater surface layer heat storage, and later ice formation in that region the following autumn.

  15. On the quasi-stationary distribution of the Ross malaria model.

    PubMed

    Nåsell, I

    1991-12-01

    Approximations are derived for the quasi-stationary distribution of the fully stochastic version of the classical Ross malaria model. The approximations are developed in two stages. In the first stage, the Ross process is approximated with a bivariate Markov chain without an absorbing state. The second stage of the approximation uses ideas from perturbation theory to derive explicit expressions that serve as approximations of the joint stationary distribution of the approximating process. Numerical comparisons are made between the approximations and the quasi-stationary distribution.

  16. STS-37 MS Godwin balances MS Ross using her index finger on OV-104's middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-04-11

    STS037-29-002 (5-11 April 1991) --- Astronauts Linda M. Godwin and Jerry L. Ross perform a balancing act on Atlantis' middeck. With little effort Godwin is able to hold Ross up near the ceiling with her index finger. Although the area the two occupy is very small, a number of articles are seen, including two sleep restraints, the escape pole and Bioserve ITA Materials Dispersion Apparatus bioprocessing test bed (attached to stowage lockers at left). This was one of the visuals used by the STS-37 crewmembers during their April 19 post-flight press conference at the Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  17. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  18. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    PubMed

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  19. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  20. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in…

  1. The Teacher as the Main Factor Influencing the Welfare of a Child at School: Perspectives from Estonian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiko, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a larger study that examined the expectations and experiences of Estonian parents related to preparation for school, factors influencing the choice of the school, and school troubles and joys. This article focuses on the part of the study concerning the families' expectations for schools and teachers, and on the real…

  2. The Teacher as the Main Factor Influencing the Welfare of a Child at School: Perspectives from Estonian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiko, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a larger study that examined the expectations and experiences of Estonian parents related to preparation for school, factors influencing the choice of the school, and school troubles and joys. This article focuses on the part of the study concerning the families' expectations for schools and teachers, and on the real…

  3. Enhancing Teachers' Curriculum Ownership via Teacher Engagement in State-Based Curriculum-Making: The Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikser, Rain; Kärner, Anita; Krull, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' curriculum ownership is increasingly gaining attention in many countries. It is particularly important that under the conditions of centralized curriculum-making, teachers as final implementers of curricular ideas identify themselves with these ideas. This study investigates Estonian upper secondary school teachers' views on the impact…

  4. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  5. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  6. Enhancing Teachers' Curriculum Ownership via Teacher Engagement in State-Based Curriculum-Making: The Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikser, Rain; Kärner, Anita; Krull, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' curriculum ownership is increasingly gaining attention in many countries. It is particularly important that under the conditions of centralized curriculum-making, teachers as final implementers of curricular ideas identify themselves with these ideas. This study investigates Estonian upper secondary school teachers' views on the impact…

  7. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  8. James Ross Island captured by NASA photographer James Ross, from NASA's DC-8 aircraft during an AirSAR 2004 mission over the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-16

    James Ross Island captured by NASA photographer James Ross(no relation), from NASA's DC-8 aircraft during an AirSAR 2004 mission over the Antarctic Peninsula. James Ross Island, named for 19th century British polar explorer Sir James Clark Ross, is located at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. The island is about 1500 m high and 40-60 km wide. In recent decades, the area has experienced significant atmospheric warming (about 2 degrees C since 1950), which has triggered a vast and spectacular retreat of its floating ice shelves, glacier reduction, a decrease in permanent snow cover and a lengthening of the melt season. AirSAR 2004 is a three-week expedition in Central and South America by an international team of scientists that is using an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR), located onboard NASA's DC-8 airborne laboratory. Scientists from many parts of the world are combining ground research with NASA's AirSAR technology to improve and expand on the quality of research they are able to conduct. These photos are from the DC-8 aircraft while flying an AirSAR mission over Antarctica. The Antarctic Peninsula is more similar to Alaska and Patagonia than to the rest of the Antarctic continent. It is drained by fast glaciers, receives abundant precipitation, and melts significantly in the summer months. This region is being studied by NASA using a DC-8 equipped with the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar developed by scientists from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. AirSAR will provide a baseline model and unprecedented mapping of the region. This data will make it possible to determine whether the warming trend is slowing, continuing or accelerating. AirSAR will also provide reliable information on ice shelf thickness to measure the contribution of the glaciers to sea level.

  9. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  10. Herd factors influencing oocyst production of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-10-01

    Cryptosporidium and Eimeria are intestinal parasites which are sensitive to the surroundings, behaviour and well-being of their host. In the present study, a range of factors related to farm management systems, environment, housing and herd characteristics were investigated with regard to alterations in oocyst excretion in cattle, using a mixed-effects model. Information and samples for three age categories were obtained from 45 Estonian dairy farms, located in 15 counties. Leaving the calf with the mother after birth reduced the risk of shedding higher levels of Cryptosporidium (OR = 0.20) and Eimeria (OR = 0.68) oocysts in all animals. The calves younger than 3 months kept on farms housing at least 150 animals had less risk (OR = 0.39) of producing higher numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A somewhat lower infection level was observed in 3- to 12-month-old animals housed in separate buildings (OR = 0.64). The chance of shedding higher levels of Eimeria doubled (OR = 2.27) in cattle older than a year in case a vacancy period was used before replacing animals in pens and tripled (OR = 2.94) when the relative humidity exceeded 75% in the cowshed. Winter reduced the odds (OR = 0.25) of shedding Eimeria oocysts in the oldest animals compared to the fall season. Simple changes in handling and housing of cattle may produce a positive effect on controlling coccidian infections in Estonian dairy herds.

  11. Photographer: Digital Telepresence: Dr Murial Ross's Virtual Reality Application for Neuroscience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Photographer: Digital Telepresence: Dr Murial Ross's Virtual Reality Application for Neuroscience Research Biocomputation. To study human disorders of balance and space motion sickness. Shown here is a 3D reconstruction of a nerve ending in inner ear, nature's wiring of balance organs.

  12. Bursch, Ross and Smith talk in Zvezda during STS-110's visit to the ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-09

    STS110-E-5122 (10 April 2002) --- Astronauts Daniel W. Bursch (left), Expedition Four flight engineer, Jerry L. Ross and Steven L. Smith, both STS-110 mission specialists, converse in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). The image was taken with a digital still camera.

  13. Astronauts Ross and Helms at CAPCOM station during STS-61 simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Jerry L. Ross and Susan J. Helms are pictured at the Spacecraft Communicators console during joint integrated simulations for the STS-61 mission. Astronauts assigned to extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were simultaneously rehearsing in a neutral buoyancy tank at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Alabama.

  14. Ross In Situ Uranium Recovery Project NESHAP Subpart W Construction Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On May 5, 2015, EPA issued a Construction Approval under the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at 40 CFR Part 61, subpart W, to Strata Energy, Inc., for their Ross In Situ Recovery (ISR) Uranium Project in Crook County, WY.

  15. A Q-Methodological Study of the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Anne M.

    1979-01-01

    Investigated the correspondence between stage changes hypothesized by the Kubler-Ross theory and the perception of the course of illness by seriously ill patients and their spouses. Supported the use of Q-methodology as a research procedure for investigations of terminal illness. (Author)

  16. Photographer: Digital Telepresence: Dr Murial Ross's Virtual Reality Application for Neuroscience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Photographer: Digital Telepresence: Dr Murial Ross's Virtual Reality Application for Neuroscience Research Biocomputation. To study human disorders of balance and space motion sickness. Shown here is a 3D reconstruction of a nerve ending in inner ear, nature's wiring of balance organs.

  17. STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Ross during simulation in JSC's FB-SMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross 'borrows' the pilots station to rehearse some of his scheduled duties for his upcoming mission. He is on the flight deck of the fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) during this unsuited simulation. The SMS is part of JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  18. Nest morphology and body size of Ross' Geese and Lesser Snow Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    Arctic-nesting geese build large, insulated nests to protect developing embryos from cold ambient temperatures. Ross' Geese (Chen rossii) are about two-thirds the mass of Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens), have higher mass-specific metabolic rate, and maintain lower nest attentiveness, yet they hatch goslings with more functionally mature gizzards and more protein for their size than do Lesser Snow Geese. We compared nest size (a reflection of nest insulation) in four distinct habitats in a mixed breeding colony of Ross' Geese and Lesser Snow Geese at Karrak Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada. After adjusting measurements for nest-specific egg size and clutch size, we found that overall nest morphology differed between species and among habitats. Nest size increased progressively among heath, rock, mixed, and moss habitats. When nesting materials were not limiting, nests were smaller in habitats that provided cover from wind and precipitation than in habitats that did not provide cover. Ross' Geese constructed relatively larger, more insulated nests than did Lesser Snow Geese, which may hasten embryonic development, minimize energy expenditure during incubation, and minimize embryonic cooling during recesses. We suggest that relative differences in nest morphology reflect greater selection for Ross' Geese to improve nest insulation because of their smaller size (adults and embryos), higher mass-specific metabolic rate, and lower incubation constancy.

  19. A Q-Methodological Study of the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Anne M.

    1979-01-01

    Investigated the correspondence between stage changes hypothesized by the Kubler-Ross theory and the perception of the course of illness by seriously ill patients and their spouses. Supported the use of Q-methodology as a research procedure for investigations of terminal illness. (Author)

  20. Ross procedure in a child with Aspergillus endocarditis and bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulos, Fotios A; Kanakis, Meletios A; Contrafouris, Constantinos; Laskari, Cleo; Rammos, Spyridon; Apostolidis, Christos; Azariadis, Prodromos; Chatzis, Andrew C

    2014-08-23

    The case is presented of a previously healthy infant with a known asymptomatic bicuspid aortic valve who developed fungal endocarditis. The patient underwent aortic root replacement with a pulmonary autograft (Ross procedure). Cultured operative material revealed Aspergillus infection. The patient had an excellent recovery and remained well one year later.

  1. A Helping Hand in the Frederick Community—Ross Smith | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By day, Ross Smith is the compliance and security officer for Data Management Services, Inc., assigned to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick. His role is to ensure the secure operation of in-house computer systems, servers, and network connections. But in his spare time, Smith is also a volunteer firefighter and emergency medical technician (EMT).

  2. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Greene, H. Gary; Cochrane, Guy R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Watt, Janet T.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chin, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-12-03

    Potential marine benthic habitat types in the Offshore of Fort Ross map area include unconsolidated continental-shelf sediments, mixed continental-shelf substrate, and hard continental-shelf substrate. Rocky shelf outcrops and rubble are considered the primary habitat type for rockfish and lingcod, both of which are recreationally and commercially important species.

  3. REM/ROSS: a powerful tool for monitoring the prompt afterglow of γ-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliaferri, G.; Zerbi, F. M.; Chincarini, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Rodonò, M.; Palazzi, E.; Antonelli, L. A.; Conconi, P.; Covino, S.; Cutispoto, G.; Molinari, E.; Nicastro, L.; Tosti, G.; REM/ROSS Team

    2004-01-01

    Observations of the prompt afterglow of γ-ray burst events are unanimously considered of paramount importance for GRB science and cosmology. Such observations at NIR wavelengths are even more promising allowing the monitoring of high- z Ly-α absorbed bursts as well as events occurring in dusty star-forming regions. In these pages we present rapid eye mount (REM), a fully robotized fast slewing telescope equipped with a high throughput NIR (Z, J, H, K) camera dedicated to detecting the prompt IR afterglow. REM can discover objects at extremely high redshift and trigger large telescopes to observe them. The REM telescope will simultaneously feed REM optical slitless spectrograph (ROSS) via a dichroic. ROSS will intensively monitor the prompt optical continuum of GRB afterglows. The synergy between the REM-IR camera and the ROSS spectrograph makes REM a powerful observing tool for any kind of fast transient phenomena. Beside its ambitious scientific goals, REM is also technically challenging since it represent the first attempt to locate a NIR camera on a small telescope providing, with ROSS, unprecedented simultaneous wavelength coverage on a telescope of this size.

  4. Increased Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels in Prolonged Arthralgia in Ross River Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Girón, José Vicente; Gómez-Medina, Sergio; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Ross River virus, a mosquitoborne alphavirus, causes epidemic polyarthritis in Australia and the Pacific region. We analyzed serum cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor levels in travelers returning to Germany from Australia. Serum samples showed elevated concentrations in the acute phase of the illness and, more pronounced, in the long-lasting convalescent phase. PMID:28322700

  5. Overflow dynamics and bottom water formation in the western Ross Sea: Influence of tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Danilov, S.; Hellmer, H. H.; SchröTer, J.

    2010-10-01

    The tidal impact on overflow dynamics and bottom water production in the western Ross Sea is studied with the Finite Element Ocean Model, which allows embedding a mesh with 0.5 km resolution in a coarse resolution (30 km) setup without nesting. The simulated overflow properties inside and downstream of the western Ross Sea are described. The overflow exhibits pronounced variability at both daily and spring-neap tidal time scales in the western Ross Sea. Tides increase mixing over both the outer shelf and upper slope there. Plume jets are shaped by tidal currents at a bathymetric bend west of the Drygalski Trough mouth, descending rapidly and supplying the bottom water. A fraction of shelf water remains over the shelf and propagates westward from the Ross Sea, but it does not contribute significantly to bottom water formation because of energetic mixing over the upper slope. Compared to a simulation without tidal forcing, tides (with the major K1 and O1 constituents) increase the outflow rate over the continental slope off Cape Adare by about 70%. A set of sensitivity experiments show that the rate of bottom water production is not a monotonic function of the tidal currents amplitude. Tidal forcing with intermediate strength leads to the most efficient bottom water formation.

  6. STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Ross during simulation in JSC's FB-SMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross 'borrows' the pilots station to rehearse some of his scheduled duties for his upcoming mission. He is on the flight deck of the fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) during this unsuited simulation. The SMS is part of JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  7. Astronauts Ross and Helms at CAPCOM station during STS-61 simulations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-09-01

    S93-43752 (1 Sept 1993) --- Astronauts Jerry L. Ross and Susan J. Helms are pictured at the Spacecraft Communicators Console during joint integrated simulations for the STS-61 mission. Astronauts assigned to extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were simultaneously rehearsing in a Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) tank at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Alabama.

  8. A Helping Hand in the Frederick Community—Ross Smith | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By day, Ross Smith is the compliance and security officer for Data Management Services, Inc., assigned to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick. His role is to ensure the secure operation of in-house computer systems, servers, and network connections. But in his spare time, Smith is also a volunteer firefighter and emergency medical technician (EMT).

  9. Two Case Histories, Ishbel Ross and Emma Bugbee: Women Journalists Ride the Rail with the Suffragettes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, Beverly G.

    The rise to prominence of the women's suffrage movement in the World War I years brought women reporters into U.S. newsrooms for the first time. In 1911 Emma Bugbee became the first woman hired as a "hard" news reporter for the "New York Tribune" (later the "Herald Tribune"). Ishbel Ross, author of "Ladies of the…

  10. Distribution and ventilation of water masses in the western Ross Sea inferred from CFC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivaro, Paola; Ianni, Carmela; Magi, Emanuele; Massolo, Serena; Budillon, Giorgio; Smethie, William M.

    2015-03-01

    During the CLIMA Project (R.V. Italica cruise PNRA XVI, January-February 2001), hydrographic and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) observations were obtained, particularly in the western Ross Sea. Their distribution demonstrated water mass structure and ventilation processes in the investigated areas. In the surface waters (AASW) the CFC saturation levels varied spatially: CFCs were undersaturated in all the areas (range from 80 to 90%), with the exception of few stations sampled near Ross Island. In particular, the Terra Nova Bay polynya, where high salinity shelf water (HSSW) is produced, was a low-saturated surface area (74%) with respect to CFCs. Throughout most of the shelf area, the presence of modified circumpolar deep water (MCDW) was reflected in a mid-depth CFC concentration minima. Beneath the MCDW, CFC concentrations generally increased in the shelf waters towards the seafloor. We estimated that the corresponding CFCs saturation level in the source water region for HSSW was about 68-70%. Waters with high CFC concentrations were detected in the western Ross Sea on the down slope side of the Drygalski Trough, indicating that AABW was being supplied to the deep Antarctic Basin. Estimates of ventilation ages depend strongly on the saturation levels. We calculated ventilation ages using the saturation level calibrated tracer ratio, CFC11/CFC12. We deduced a mean residence time of the shelf waters of about 6-7 years between the western Ross Sea source and the shelf break.

  11. Temporal progression of photosynthetic-strategy in phytoplankton in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan-Keogh, Thomas J.; DeLizo, Liza M.; Smith, Walker O.; Sedwick, Peter N.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Moore, C. Mark; Bibby, Thomas S.

    2017-02-01

    The bioavailability of iron influences the distribution, biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the Ross Sea, one of the most productive regions in the Southern Ocean. We mapped the spatial and temporal extent and severity of iron-limitation of the native phytoplankton assemblage using long- (> 24 h) and short-term (24 h) iron-addition experiments along with physiological and molecular characterisations during a cruise to the Ross Sea in December-February 2012. Phytoplankton increased their photosynthetic efficiency in response to iron addition, suggesting proximal iron limitation throughout most of the Ross Sea during summer. Molecular and physiological data further indicate that as nitrate is removed from the surface ocean the phytoplankton community transitions to one displaying an iron-efficient photosynthetic strategy characterised by an increase in the size of photosystem II (PSII) photochemical cross section (σPSII) and a decrease in the chlorophyll-normalised PSII abundance. These results suggest that phytoplankton with the ability to reduce their photosynthetic iron requirements are selected as the growing season progresses, which may drive the well-documented progression from Phaeocystis antarctica- assemblages to diatom-dominated phytoplankton. Such a shift in the assemblage-level photosynthetic strategy potentially mediates further drawdown of nitrate following the development of iron deficient conditions in the Ross Sea.

  12. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice anomalies in the Ross Sea polynya region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Ethan R.; McDonald, Adrian J.; Coggins, Jack H. J.; Rack, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of strong wind events on the sea ice concentration within the Ross Sea polynya (RSP), which may have consequences on sea ice formation. Bootstrap sea ice concentration (SIC) measurements derived from satellite SSM/I brightness temperatures are correlated with surface winds and temperatures from Ross Ice Shelf automatic weather stations (AWSs) and weather models (ERA-Interim). Daily data in the austral winter period were used to classify characteristic weather regimes based on the percentiles of wind speed. For each regime a composite of a SIC anomaly was formed for the entire Ross Sea region and we found that persistent weak winds near the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf are generally associated with positive SIC anomalies in the Ross Sea polynya and vice versa. By analyzing sea ice motion vectors derived from the SSM/I brightness temperatures we find significant sea ice motion anomalies throughout the Ross Sea during strong wind events, which persist for several days after a strong wind event has ended. Strong, negative correlations are found between SIC and AWS wind speed within the RSP indicating that strong winds cause significant advection of sea ice in the region. We were able to partially recreate these correlations using colocated, modeled ERA-Interim wind speeds. However, large AWS and model differences are observed in the vicinity of Ross Island, where ERA-Interim underestimates wind speeds by a factor of 1.7 resulting in a significant misrepresentation of RSP processes in this area based on model data. Thus, the cross-correlation functions produced by compositing based on ERA-Interim wind speeds differed significantly from those produced with AWS wind speeds. In general the rapid decrease in SIC during a strong wind event is followed by a more gradual recovery in SIC. The SIC recovery continues over a time period greater than the average persistence of strong wind events and sea ice motion anomalies. This suggests that sea ice

  13. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ross Island area, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth?s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. The Ross Island area map is bounded by long 141? E. and 175? E. and by lat 76? S. and 81? S. The map covers the part of southern Victoria Land that includes the northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, the McMurdo Ice Shelf, part of the polar plateau and Transantarctic Mountains, the McMurdo Dry Valleys, northernmost Shackleton Coast, Hillary Coast, the southern part of Scott Coast, and Ross Island. Little noticeable change has occurred in the ice fronts on the map, so the focus is on glaciological features. In the western part of the map area, the polar plateau of East Antarctica, once thought to be a featureless region, has subtle wavelike surface forms (megadunes) and flow traces of glaciers that originate far inland and extend to the coast or into the Ross Ice Shelf. There are numerous outlet glaciers. Glaciers drain into the McMurdo Dry Valleys, through the Transantarctic Mountains into the Ross Sea, or into the Ross Ice Shelf. Byrd Glacier is the largest. West of the Transantarctic Mountains are areas of blue ice, readily identifiable on Landsat images, that have been determined to be prime areas for finding meteorites. Three subglacial lakes have been identified in the map area. Because McMurdo Station, the main U.S. scientific research station in Antarctica, is located on Ross Island in the map area, many of these and other features in the area have been studied extensively. The paper version of this map is

  14. Crustal Vp-Vs ratios and thickness for Ross Island and the Transantarctic Mountain front, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finotello, Marco; Nyblade, Andrew; Julia, Jordi; Wiens, Douglas; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar

    2011-04-01

    We investigate crustal Vp-Vs ratios and thickness along the Transantarctic Mountain (TAM) front and on Ross Island, Antarctica to determine if the TAM crust has been modified by the Neogene magmatism associated with Ross Island. A seismic low velocity zone (LVZ) in the upper mantle beneath Ross Island extends laterally ˜80 km under the TAM front, and mantle temperatures within the LVZ may be sufficiently elevated for partial melting to have occurred and modified the crust. Data for the study come from 16 temporary seismic stations that were part of the TAM Seismic Experiment and three permanent stations. Estimates of Vp/Vs (κ) and crustal thickness (H) have been obtained from receiver functions analysed using the H-κ stacking method for 10 of the stations, and for the remaining stations, crustal thickness has been calculated by using the Moho Ps arrival time with an assumed Vp/Vs value. A Vp/Vs value of 1.88 is obtained for Ross Island, consistent with the mafic composition of the volcanic rocks from Mt. Erebus. Vp/Vs values for stations in the TAM situated away from the LVZ range from 1.63 to 1.78, with a mean of 1.73, while values for stations in the TAM lying above the LVZ range from 1.67 to 1.78, with a mean of 1.72. This result indicates that there is little difference in bulk crustal composition for areas above and away from the LVZ, and together with a Vp/Vs value (1.73) that is typical for felsic to intermediate composition crust, suggests that the crust along the TAM front has not been altered significantly by mafic magmatism. Crustal thickness estimates along the coast are quite variable, ranging from 18 to 33 km, and increase to 39 km inland beneath the crest of the TAM. On Ross Island, crustal thickness estimates range between 19 and 27 km.

  15. The Scientific Papers of William Parsons, Third Earl of Rosse 1800-1867

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, William; Parsons, Charles

    2011-11-01

    From the Edinburgh Journal of Science: 1. 1828. Account of a new reflecting telescope; 2. 1828. Account of an apparatus for grinding and polishing the specula of reflecting telescopes; 3. 1830. Account of a series of experiments on the construction of large reflecting telescopes; From the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy: 4. 1840. Account of the three-feet telescope T. R. Robinson; 5. 1845. On Lord Rosse's telescope T. R. Robinson; 6. 1848. On Lord Rosse's telescope T. R. Robinson; 7. 1848. Observation of the nebula, Herschel 44 T. R. Robinson; 8. 1848. Contents of an ancient bronze vessel, in the collection of the Earl of Rosse T. R. Robinson; From Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science: 9. 1843. Presidential address by the Earl of Rosse; 10. 1844. On the construction of large reflecting telescopes; 11. 1851. Plain specula of silver; 12. 1852. Drawings to illustrate recent observations on nebulae; 13. 1853. First report of the committee … on the physical characteristics of the Moon's surface; 14. 1857. Mechanical science; 15. 1859. Mathematics and physics; From Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: 16. 1854. Notes on experiments relative to lunar photography and the construction of reflecting specula; 17. 1866. Description of an equatoreal clock; The Royal Society: 18. 1854. Address of the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse; From the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: 19. 1840. An account of experiments on the reflecting telescope; 20. 1844. Observations on some of the nebulae; 21. 1850. Observations on the nebulae; 22. 1861. On the construction of specula of six-feet aperture, and a selection from the observations of nebulae made with them; 23. 1867. An account of the observations on the great nebula in Orion, made at Birr Castle, with the 3-feet and 6-feet telescopes, between 1848 and 1867; Institution of Naval Architects: 24. 1854-65. A contribution to the history of ironclads.

  16. Widespread collapse of the Ross Ice Shelf during the late Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yusuke; Anderson, John B.; Yamane, Masako; Simkins, Lauren M.; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Koizumi, Mamito; Suga, Hisami; Kusahara, Kazuya; Prothro, Lindsay; Hasumi, Hiroyasu; Southon, John R.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    The stability of modern ice shelves is threatened by atmospheric and oceanic warming. The geologic record of formerly glaciated continental shelves provides a window into the past of how ice shelves responded to a warming climate. Fields of deep (−560 m), linear iceberg furrows on the outer, western Ross Sea continental shelf record an early post-Last Glacial Maximum episode of ice-shelf collapse that was followed by continuous retreat of the grounding line for ∼200 km. Runaway grounding line conditions culminated once the ice became pinned on shallow banks in the western Ross Sea. This early episode of ice-shelf collapse is not observed in the eastern Ross Sea, where more episodic grounding line retreat took place. More widespread (∼280,000 km2) retreat of the ancestral Ross Ice Shelf occurred during the late Holocene. This event is recorded in sediment cores by a shift from terrigenous glacimarine mud to diatomaceous open-marine sediment as well as an increase in radiogenic beryllium (10Be) concentrations. The timing of ice-shelf breakup is constrained by compound specific radiocarbon ages, the first application of this technique systematically applied to Antarctic marine sediments. Breakup initiated around 5 ka, with the ice shelf reaching its current configuration ∼1.5 ka. In the eastern Ross Sea, the ice shelf retreated up to 100 km in about a thousand years. Three-dimensional thermodynamic ice-shelf/ocean modeling results and comparison with ice-core records indicate that ice-shelf breakup resulted from combined atmospheric warming and warm ocean currents impinging onto the continental shelf. PMID:26884201

  17. Widespread collapse of the Ross Ice Shelf during the late Holocene.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yusuke; Anderson, John B; Yamane, Masako; Simkins, Lauren M; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Koizumi, Mamito; Suga, Hisami; Kusahara, Kazuya; Prothro, Lindsay; Hasumi, Hiroyasu; Southon, John R; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-03-01

    The stability of modern ice shelves is threatened by atmospheric and oceanic warming. The geologic record of formerly glaciated continental shelves provides a window into the past of how ice shelves responded to a warming climate. Fields of deep (-560 m), linear iceberg furrows on the outer, western Ross Sea continental shelf record an early post-Last Glacial Maximum episode of ice-shelf collapse that was followed by continuous retreat of the grounding line for ∼200 km. Runaway grounding line conditions culminated once the ice became pinned on shallow banks in the western Ross Sea. This early episode of ice-shelf collapse is not observed in the eastern Ross Sea, where more episodic grounding line retreat took place. More widespread (∼280,000 km(2)) retreat of the ancestral Ross Ice Shelf occurred during the late Holocene. This event is recorded in sediment cores by a shift from terrigenous glacimarine mud to diatomaceous open-marine sediment as well as an increase in radiogenic beryllium ((10)Be) concentrations. The timing of ice-shelf breakup is constrained by compound specific radiocarbon ages, the first application of this technique systematically applied to Antarctic marine sediments. Breakup initiated around 5 ka, with the ice shelf reaching its current configuration ∼1.5 ka. In the eastern Ross Sea, the ice shelf retreated up to 100 km in about a thousand years. Three-dimensional thermodynamic ice-shelf/ocean modeling results and comparison with ice-core records indicate that ice-shelf breakup resulted from combined atmospheric warming and warm ocean currents impinging onto the continental shelf.

  18. Distribution, density, and abundance of pack-ice seals in the Amundsen and Ross Seas, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtson, John L.; Laake, Jeff L.; Boveng, Peter L.; Cameron, Michael F.; Bradley Hanson, M.; Stewart, Brent S.

    2011-05-01

    We made three sets of population surveys of the four species of ice-inhabiting phocid pinnipeds in the Ross and Amundsen Seas between 26 December 1999 and 24 March 2000 using icebreakers and helicopters deployed from those icebreakers. We used line transect methods to survey 23,671 km by helicopter and 3,694 km by ship accounting for a total coverage of 53,217 km 2. We detected and identified 11,308 seals in 7,104 groups and estimated their abundance from estimates of densities using distance sampling methods and corrections for probability of haul out of seals derived from satellite telemetry of tagged seals. Crabeater seals were most abundant (ca 1.7 million) followed by Weddell seals (330,000), Ross seals (22,600), and leopard seals (15,000). Our estimates of abundance are difficult to directly compare with earlier estimates because of geographic areas covered and by our improvements in survey and analytical methods. Notwithstanding these limitations and with some adjustments for differences in methods, we found that our estimates of abundance for crabeater seals are similar to those from the most recent surveys in the Ross and Amundsen Seas and along the George-Oates Coast. Our estimates for Weddell seals are the first for the broad areas of pack ice that we surveyed in the Ross and Amundsen Seas but indicate that these habitats are ecologically important to this species. Our estimates of abundance of Ross seals were relatively similar to estimates for surveys in these areas in the 1970s and 1980s whereas our estimates of abundance of leopard seals were substantially lower.

  19. Hemispheric atmospheric variations and oceanographic impacts associated with katabatic surges across the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromwich, David H.; Carrasco, Jorge F.; Liu, Zhong; Tzeng, Ren-Yow

    1993-07-01

    Numerical simulations and surface-based observations show that katabatic winds persistently converge toward and blow across the Siple Coast part of West Antarctica onto the Ross Ice Shelf. About 14% of the time during winter (April to August 1988), thermal infrared satellite images reveal the horizontal propagation of this negatively buoyant katabatic airstream for about 1000 km across the ice shelf to its northwestern edge, a trajectory that nearly parallels the Transantarctic Mountains. This takes place when the pressure field supports such airflow, and is caused by synoptic scale cyclones that decay near and/or over Marie Byrd Land. The northwestward propagation of the katabatic winds is accompanied by other changes in the hemispheric long wave pattern. An upper level ridge develops over Wilkes Land, resulting in an enhancement of the split jet in the Pacific Ocean. Then, more frequent and/or intensified synoptic scale cyclones are steered toward Marie Byrd Land where they become nearly stationary to the northeast of the climatological location. The resulting isobaric configuration accelerates the katabatic winds crossing Siple Coast and supports their horizontal propagation across the Ross Ice Shelf. An immediate impact of this katabatic airflow, that crosses from the ice shelf to the Ross Sea, is expansion of the persistent polynya that is present just to the east of Ross Island. This polynya is a conspicuous feature on passive microwave images of Antarctic sea ice and plays a central role in the salt budget of water masses over the Ross Sea continental shelf. The impact of this katabatic airflow upon mesoscale cyclogenesis over the South Pacific Ocean is also discussed.

  20. Air-sea Forcing and Thermohaline Changes In The Ross Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, G.; Budillon, G.

    Heat exchanges between sea and atmosphere from 1986 to 2000 in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) were computed from climatological data obtained from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. They have been related with the thermo- haline changes observed during 5 hydrological surveys performed between the austral summer 1994-1995 and 2000-2001 in the western sector of the Ross Sea. The esti- mated heat fluxes show extremely strong spatial and temporal variability over all the Ross Sea. As can be expected the largest heat losses occur between May and August, while during the period November-February the heat budget becomes positive. In the first six years of the investigated period the heat loss is very strong with its maximum about 166 Wm-2; while during the period 1992-2000 the yearly heat losses are the lowest. Thermohaline changes in the surface layer (upper pycnocline) of the western Ross Sea follow the expected seasonal pattern of warming and freshening from the be- ginning to the end of the austral summer. The heating changes are substantially lower than the estimated heat supplied by the atmosphere during the summer, which under- lines the importance in this season of the advective component carried by the currents in the total heat budget of this area. The year to year differences are about one or two orders of magnitude smaller than the seasonal changes in the surface layer. In the in- termediate and deep layers, the summer heat and salt variability is of the same order as or one order higher than from one summer to the next. Moreover a freshening of the near bottom layer has been observed, it is consistent with the High Salinity Shelf Water salinity decrease recently detected in the Ross Sea.

  1. Large Trajectory Ensembles for understanding Snow Accumulation over the Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Ethan; McDonald, Adrian; Rack, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    We investigate how differing synoptic weather patterns over Antarctica affect the rate of precipitation. During the 2015/16 field season a 16m firn core was drilled on the Ross Ice Shelf (80.7o S 174.5o E). Oxygen (δ18O) and Deuterium (δ2H) isotope analysis of this core allow a 40 year record of snow accumulation and therefore precipitation over the Ross Ice Shelf to be produced. The resulting precipitation record differs significantly in magnitude and trend from climate model precipitation over a similar period of time. In an effort to interpret this core we have attempted to identify distinctive weather patterns impacting snow accumulation. Lagrangian back trajectories are calculated from reanalysis wind fields to examine the origin of the air. The spatial distribution of trajectories as a function of time over the period of the ice core record are examined in an attempt to relate specific periods of large and small snow accumulation to particular pathways. We also examine how large scale modes of variability (Southern Annular Mode, El Nino Southern Oscillation and the Amundsen Sea Low) impact the spatial distribution of trajectories. Re-analysis humidity data along each trajectory is also considered allowing a more comprehensive identification of the origin of moist air, also helping to identify a representative 'residence time' of moisture for which our trajectory analysis is completed. Similar to previous studies we find that during periods of precipitation, air over the Ross Ice Shelf more frequently originates in the Ross and Amundsen Seas. While during dry periods over the Ross Ice Shelf we find the air originates more frequently from the Bellingshausen and Weddell seas, as well as continental Antarctica.

  2. Use of supplemental food by breeding Ross's Geese and Lesser Snow Geese: Evidence for variable anorexia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Hobson, K.A.; Afton, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Recent research suggests that foods eaten during laying and incubation play a greater role in supplying energy and nutrients to arctic-nesting geese than previously believed. We conducted food-supplementation experiments with Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens) geese to evaluate: (1) if supplemental food was consumed by laying and incubating geese, (2) how food consumption influenced mass dynamics of somatic tissues of breeding geese, (3) if patterns of mass loss were consistent with fasting adaptations, and (4) whether energetic constraints would cause smaller Ross's Geese to consume more food relative to their body size than would larger Snow Geese. Quantity of supplemental food eaten by both species during laying and incubation was highly variable among individuals. Consumption of supplemental food during laying resulted in differences in overall body composition between control and treatment females. Treatment female Ross's Geese completed laying at a higher mass and with more abdominal fat than controls, whereas treatment female Snow Geese completed laying with heavier breast muscles and hearts. Overall body composition did not differ between control and treatment geese (both sexes and species) at the end of incubation, but treatment geese had heavier hearts than control geese. This suggests that treatment females did not rely to the same extent on metabolic adaptations associated with anorexia to meet energetic costs of incubation as did controls. Stable-nitrogen isotope analysis revealed patterns of protein maintenance during incubation consistent with metabolic adaptations to prolonged fasting. Our prediction that energetic constraints would cause smaller Ross's Geese to consume more food relative to their size than would Snow Geese was not supported. Mass-specific food consumption by Ross's Geese was 30% lower than that of Snow Geese during laying and 48% higher during incubation.

  3. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982-2014.

    PubMed

    Pärna, Kersti; Põld, Mariliis; Ringmets, Inge

    2017-07-25

    Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p < 0.0001 for trends). From 1982 to 2014, the biggest decline of current smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively) and 35-44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively) (p < 0.0001 for trends). Mean age of smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. In 1982-2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  4. Trans fatty acid contents in selected dietary fats in the Estonian market.

    PubMed

    Meremäe, Kadrin; Roasto, Mati; Kuusik, Sirje; Ots, Meelis; Henno, Merike

    2012-08-01

    In response to public concern, this study assessed the fatty acid (FA) composition of blended spreads, margarines and shortenings in the Estonian retail market in 2011. Special attention was paid to the trans fatty acids (TFA) composition. The changes in these characteristics of selected dietary fats in the market over recent years are also presented. Twenty-six edible fat brands, available in the Estonian retail market in 2011, were purchased and FA compositions were analyzed by chromatography. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were the dominant group of FAs for all blended spreads (49.6 to 65.8%), and for the majority of shortenings (from 21.1 to 54.6%). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the dominant group of FAs for the majority of margarines, ranging from 25.3% to 50.5%. The total TFA for blended spreads varied from 1.18% to 9.08%, for margarines from 0.04% to 34.96% and for shortenings from 0.14% to 39.50%. Octadecenoic (C18:1) isomers were the main TFA found. Compared to 2008/2009, the industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA) content in several of the dietary fat brands was much reduced in 2011. This voluntary reformulation was probably a response to consumer demand associated with a public health campaign directed against IP-TFA in Estonian foods, and were mainly achieved by replacing TFA with SFA C12:0-C16:0. Present paper is directed toward public health related institutions and food industries producing foods with potentially high contents of trans fatty acids (TFA). According to the public concern TFA content in domestic blended spreads has declined significantly over the past 3 y in Estonia. The reduction in the TFA content was achieved by replacing TFA with saturated fatty acids (SFA) (C12:0-C16:0). To shift food composition toward healthier product formulations, mandatory labeling of the sum of IP-TFA and SFA (C12:0-C16:0) was recommended. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Ross Sea paleo-ice sheet drainage and deglacial history during and since the LGM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John B.; Conway, Howard; Bart, Philip J.; Witus, Alexandra E.; Greenwood, Sarah L.; McKay, Robert M.; Hall, Brenda L.; Ackert, Robert P.; Licht, Kathy; Jakobsson, Martin; Stone, John O.

    2014-09-01

    Onshore and offshore studies show that an expanded, grounded ice sheet occupied the Ross Sea Embayment during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Results from studies of till provenance and the orientation of geomorphic features on the continental shelf show that more than half of the grounded ice sheet consisted of East Antarctic ice flowing through Transantarctic Mountain (TAM) outlet glaciers; the remainder came from West Antarctica. Terrestrial data indicate little or no thickening in the upper catchment regions in both West and East Antarctica during the LGM. In contrast, evidence from the mouths of the southern and central TAM outlet glaciers indicate surface elevations between 1000 m and 1100 m (above present-day sea level). Farther north along the western margin of the Ross Ice Sheet, surface elevations reached 720 m on Ross Island, and 400 m at Terra Nova Bay. Evidence from Marie Byrd Land at the eastern margin of the ice sheet indicates that the elevation near the present-day grounding line was more than 800 m asl, while at Siple Dome in the central Ross Embayment, the surface elevation was about 950 m asl. Farther north, evidence that the ice sheet was grounded on the middle and the outer continental shelf during the LGM implies that surface elevations had to be at least 100 m above the LGM sea level. The apparent low surface profile and implied low basal shear stress in the central and eastern embayment suggests that although the ice streams may have slowed during the LGM, they remained active. Ice-sheet retreat from the western Ross Embayment during the Holocene is constrained by marine and terrestrial data. Ages from marine sediments suggest that the grounding line had retreated from its LGM outer shelf location only a few tens of kilometer to a location south of Coulman Island by ˜13 ka BP. The ice sheet margin was located in the vicinity of the Drygalski Ice Tongue by ˜11 ka BP, just north of Ross Island by ˜7.8 ka BP, and near Hatherton Glacier by

  6. The Satellite Passive-Microwave Record of Sea Ice in the Ross Sea Since Late 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2009-01-01

    Satellites have provided us with a remarkable ability to monitor many aspects of the globe day-in and day-out and sea ice is one of numerous variables that by now have quite substantial satellite records. Passive-microwave data have been particularly valuable in sea ice monitoring, with a record that extends back to August 1987 on daily basis (for most of the period), to November 1970 on a less complete basis (again for most of the period), and to December 1972 on a less complete basis. For the period since November 1970, Ross Sea sea ice imagery is available at spatial resolution of approximately 25 km. This allows good depictions of the seasonal advance and retreat of the ice cover each year, along with its marked interannual variability. The Ross Sea ice extent typically reaches a minimum of approximately 0.7 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers in February, rising to a maximum of approximately 4.0 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers in September, with much variability among years for both those numbers. The Ross Sea images show clearly the day-by-day activity greatly from year to year. Animations of the data help to highlight the dynamic nature of the Ross Sea ice cover. The satellite data also allow calculation of trends in the ice cover over the period of the satellite record. Using linear least-squares fits, the Ross Sea ice extent increased at an average rate of 12,600 plus or minus 1,800 square kilometers per year between November 1978 and December 2007, with every month exhibiting increased ice extent and the rates of increase ranging from a low of 7,500 plus or minus 5,000 square kilometers per year for the February ice extents to a high of 20,300 plus or minus 6,100 kilometers per year for the October ice extents. On a yearly average basis, for 1979-2007 the Ross Sea ice extent increased at a rate of 4.8 plus or minus 1.6 % per decade. Placing the Ross Sea in the context of the Southern Ocean as a whole, over the November 1978-December 2007 period the Ross Sea had

  7. Seismic stratigraphy of the Plio-Pleistocene Ross Island flexural moat-fill: a prognosis for ANDRILL Program drilling beneath McMurdo-Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, H.; Naish, T.; Bannister, S.; Balfour, N.; Wilson, G.

    2005-02-01

    Ross Island volcanic complex began forming with the emplacement of the basaltic shield volcanoes of Mt. Bird and Mt. Terror between ca. 4.6 and 1.3 Ma, though it has developed most significantly over the last 1 Ma during an eruptive phase resulting in the 3794-m-high composite vent of Mt. Erebus. Throughout this time, loading of the lithosphere at the southern end of the Terror Rift by the Ross Island volcanic pile has progressively depressed the crust, resulting in a subcircular flexural moat around the periphery of the island. Multichannel seismic reflection data collected from the McMurdo-Ross Ice Shelf (MRIS) reveal the stratigraphic architecture of the moat-fill on the southeastern side of Ross Island. The moat region has accommodated a well-stratified, regionally extensive sedimentary succession of at least 1.2 km below the seafloor in the deepest part of the depression. Three seismic stratigraphic units are identified that generally thicken and dip towards Ross Island and are bounded by angular (onlap) unconformities. We infer that the three units were deposited in accommodation space created during discrete phases of volcanic load-induced subsidence: Unit III. Moderate to low-amplitude discontinuous reflectors are dislocated and tilted by normal faulting and interpreted to represent coarse-grained glacigenic and fine-grained marine sediments with likely intercalated volcanic ash. These strata may have started to accumulate during loading of the crust by Mt. Bird between ca. 4.6 and 3.8 Ma. Unit II. Moderate to high-amplitude continuous reflectors that onlap Unit III and are interpreted to represent coarse-grained glacigenic and fine-grained marine sediments with likely intercalated volcanic ash. These strata are inferred to have accumulated in the crustal depression resulting from loading by Mt. Terror between ca. 1.8 and 1.3 Ma. Unit I. Relatively continuous low-amplitude to seismically-opaque reflectors (Unit IB), onlap Unit II and grade upwards into

  8. Miocene Antarctic ice dynamics in the Ross Embayment (Western Ross Sea, Antarctica): Insights from provenance analyses of sedimentary clasts in the AND-2A drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornamusini, Gianluca; Talarico, Franco M.

    2016-11-01

    A detailed study of gravel-size sedimentary clasts in the ANDRILL-2A (AND-2A) drill core reveals distinct changes in provenance and allows reconstructions to be produced of the paleo ice flow in the McMurdo Sound region (Ross Sea) from the Early Miocene to the Holocene. The sedimentary clasts in AND-2A are divided into seven distinct petrofacies. A comparison of these with potential source rocks from the Transantarctic Mountains and the coastal Southern Victoria Land suggests that the majority of the sedimentary clasts were derived from formations within the Devonian-Triassic Beacon Supergroup. The siliciclastic-carbonate petrofacies are similar to the fossiliferous erratics found in the Quaternary Moraine in the southern McMurdo Sound and were probably sourced from Eocene strata that are currently hidden beneath the Ross Ice Shelf. Intraformational clasts were almost certainly reworked from diamictite and mudstone sequences that were originally deposited proximal to the drill site. The distribution of sedimentary gravel clasts in AND-2A suggests that sedimentary sequences in the drill core were deposited under two main glacial scenarios: 1) a highly dynamic ice sheet that did not extend beyond the coastal margin and produced abundant debris-rich icebergs from outlet glaciers in the central Transantarctic Mountains and South Victoria Land; 2) and an ice sheet that extended well beyond the coastal margin and periodically advanced across the Ross Embayment. Glacial scenario 1 dominated the early to mid-Miocene (between ca. 1000 and 225 mbsf in AND-2A) and scenario 2 the early Miocene (between ca. 1138 and 1000 mbsf) and late Neogene to Holocene (above ca. 225 mbsf). This study augments previous research on the clast provenance and highlights the added value that sedimentary clasts offer in terms of reconstructing past glacial conditions from Antarctic drill core records.

  9. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  10. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word.

  11. Recent trends in chemical composition of bulk precipitation at Estonian monitoring stations 1994-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treier, K.; Pajuste, K.; Frey, J.

    Monthly and annual means of main anions (SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl -) and summed base cations (Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +) in bulk precipitation were studied at 10 stations during an 8-year monitoring period. The data showed statistically significant decreasing trends in most cases. Average declines of mean annual volume-weighted concentrations for both anions and cations were about two-fold. Despite the decrease, the loads of S and cations are still relatively high in Estonia (about 4-14 kg S ha -1 and 0.6-1.2 keq ha -1, respectively) compared with the loads in Finland and Sweden. Estimated linear decline trends followed the same pattern as annually combusted oil shale from Estonian power plants and emissions of SO 2 and fly ash. Recent trends in chemical composition of bulk precipitation at the monitoring stations reflected economic changes in Estonia as well as transboundary fluxes from neighbouring countries.

  12. User Preferences for Improving the Estonian National e-Prescription Service.

    PubMed

    Parv, Liisa; Monkman, Helen; Laus, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    National e-Prescription services are becoming more common in Europe. While enhancing communication between levels of health care, few solutions have demonstrated enhanced quality of care and patient safety benefits. The article presents the results of a project to map the user needs the Estonian national e-prescription service. A survey was conducted among primary care physicians (PCPs) to inquire about their needs in the medication management process. The results showed that PCPs lacked a medication management tool to support patient care across different care settings. A mockup for the national service was developed based on the survey results. The medication management tool features a visual presentation of a patient's medication list and includes decision support functions for allergies and potential interactions. This mockup will be used to further investigate the needs of PCPs as well as other care providers in the medication management process.

  13. CLOUDS IN THE COLDEST BROWN DWARFS: FIRE SPECTROSCOPY OF ROSS 458C

    SciTech Connect

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Bochanski, John J.; Saumon, Didier; Mamajek, Eric E.; McMurtry, Craig; Pipher, Judith L.; Forrest, William J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Marley, Mark S.

    2010-12-20

    Condensate clouds are a salient feature of L dwarf atmospheres, but have been assumed to play little role in shaping the spectra of the coldest T-type brown dwarfs. Here we report evidence of condensate opacity in the near-infrared spectrum of the brown dwarf candidate Ross 458C, obtained with the Folded-Port Infrared Echellette (FIRE) spectrograph at the Magellan Telescopes. These data verify the low-temperature nature of this source, indicating a T8 spectral classification, log{sub 10} L{sub bol}/L{sub sun} = -5.62 {+-} 0.03, T{sub eff} = 650 {+-} 25 K, and a mass at or below the deuterium burning limit. The data also reveal enhanced emission at the K band associated with youth (low surface gravity) and supersolar metallicity, reflecting the properties of the Ross 458 system (age = 150-800 Myr, [Fe/H] = +0.2 to +0.3). We present fits of FIRE data for Ross 458C, the T9 dwarf ULAS J133553.45+113005.2, and the blue T7.5 dwarf SDSS J141624.08+134826.7B, to cloudless and cloudy spectral models from Saumon and Marley. For Ross 458C, we confirm a low surface gravity and supersolar metallicity, while the temperature differs depending on the presence (635{sup +25}{sub -35} K) or absence (760{sup +70}{sub -45} K) of cloud extinction. ULAS J1335+1130 and SDSS J1416+1348B have similar temperatures (595{sup +25}{sub -45} K), but distinct surface gravities (log g = 4.0-4.5 cgs versus 5.0-5.5 cgs) and metallicities ([M/H] {approx} +0.2 versus -0.2). In all three cases, cloudy models provide better fits to the spectral data, significantly so for Ross 458C. These results indicate that clouds are an important opacity source in the spectra of young cold T dwarfs and should be considered when characterizing planetary-mass objects in young clusters and directly imaged exoplanets. The characteristics of Ross 458C suggest that it could itself be regarded as a planet, albeit one whose cosmogony does not conform with current planet formation theories.

  14. Phytoplankton blooms during austral summer in the Ross Sea, Antarctica: Driving factors and trophic implications

    PubMed Central

    Saggiomo, Vincenzo; Bolinesi, Francesco; Margiotta, Francesca; Budillon, Giorgio; Cotroneo, Yuri; Misic, Cristina; Rivaro, Paola; Saggiomo, Maria

    2017-01-01

    During the austral summer of 2014, an oceanographic cruise was conducted in the Ross Sea in the framework of the RoME (Ross Sea Mesoscale Experiment) Project. Forty-three hydrological stations were sampled within three different areas: the northern Ross Sea (RoME 1), Terra Nova Bay (RoME 2), and the southern Ross Sea (RoME 3). The ecological and photophysiological characteristics of the phytoplankton were investigated (i.e., size structure, functional groups, PSII maximum quantum efficiency, photoprotective pigments), as related to hydrographic and chemical features. The aim was to identify the mechanisms that modulate phytoplankton blooms, and consequently, the fate of organic materials produced by the blooms. The observed biomass standing stocks were very high (e.g., integrated chlorophyll-a up to 371 mg m-2 in the top 100 m). Large differences in phytoplankton community composition, relative contribution of functional groups and photosynthetic parameters were observed among the three subsystems. The diatoms (in different physiological status) were the dominant taxa in RoME 1 and RoME 3; in RoME 1, a post-bloom phase was identified, whereas in RoME 3, an active phytoplankton bloom occurred. In RoME 2, diatoms co-occurred with Phaeocystis antarctica, but were vertically segregated by the upper mixed layer, with senescent diatoms dominating in the upper layer, and P. antarctica blooming in the deeper layer. The dominance of the phytoplankton micro-fraction over the whole area and the high Chl-a suggested the prevalence of non-grazed large cells, independent of the distribution of the two functional groups. These data emphasise the occurrence of significant temporal changes in the phytoplankton biomass in the Ross Sea during austral summer. The mechanisms that drive such changes and the fate of the carbon production are probably related to the variations in the limiting factors induced by the concurrent hydrological modifications to the Ross Sea, and they remain to

  15. Temporal and Spatial Variability of Ross polynya using Multi-Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Jo, Y. H.

    2014-12-01

    Polynyas are particularly vulnerable to not only local environmental changes, but also global climate changes through air-sea-ice interactions. In order to understand the large scales of its interactions, a temporal and spatial variation of polynyas and, areas of open water in the middle of ice shelf, around the Antarctica were analyzed based on remote sensing measurements. Especially, the polynya in the Ross Sea (Ross polynya) was analyzed, which was the largest on among the all of them around the Antarctica for last decades. Accordingly, the main purpose of this presentation is to (1) evaluate a variability of Ross polynya spatial and temporal characteristics and (2) address relationship between spatial polynya variability and global warming effect. In order to conduct research the observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMAR-E) were used. The products (SST, wind speed, cloud vapor, atmospheric water vapor and rain rate), including sea ice extent, are from June 2002 to October 2011. Additionally, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data sets were used to estimate mass changes in adjacent ice sheet affected by local atmospheric condition. Based on the nine year's data, research results suggest that Ross polynya normally started to appear around the end of December and persist for about 77.5 days. The extent of Ross polynya in 2011 is the largest and had a tendency to increase year after year. SST in adjacent sea has slightly decreased for the same period (as 0.054◦C yr-1) due to the melting ice and variation of wind, water vapor and rain rate are 0.054 m s-1 yr-1, -0.027 mm yr-1 and 0.001 mm hr-1 yr-1, respectively. Increase land mass in the west-southern Antarctica could be the result of accumulating snow which is made of vapor induced by extended polynya. In addition, we would conduct to evaluate a correlation with characteristics of other global and local components corresponding climate change and understand that how the

  16. Phytoplankton blooms during austral summer in the Ross Sea, Antarctica: Driving factors and trophic implications.

    PubMed

    Mangoni, Olga; Saggiomo, Vincenzo; Bolinesi, Francesco; Margiotta, Francesca; Budillon, Giorgio; Cotroneo, Yuri; Misic, Cristina; Rivaro, Paola; Saggiomo, Maria

    2017-01-01

    During the austral summer of 2014, an oceanographic cruise was conducted in the Ross Sea in the framework of the RoME (Ross Sea Mesoscale Experiment) Project. Forty-three hydrological stations were sampled within three different areas: the northern Ross Sea (RoME 1), Terra Nova Bay (RoME 2), and the southern Ross Sea (RoME 3). The ecological and photophysiological characteristics of the phytoplankton were investigated (i.e., size structure, functional groups, PSII maximum quantum efficiency, photoprotective pigments), as related to hydrographic and chemical features. The aim was to identify the mechanisms that modulate phytoplankton blooms, and consequently, the fate of organic materials produced by the blooms. The observed biomass standing stocks were very high (e.g., integrated chlorophyll-a up to 371 mg m-2 in the top 100 m). Large differences in phytoplankton community composition, relative contribution of functional groups and photosynthetic parameters were observed among the three subsystems. The diatoms (in different physiological status) were the dominant taxa in RoME 1 and RoME 3; in RoME 1, a post-bloom phase was identified, whereas in RoME 3, an active phytoplankton bloom occurred. In RoME 2, diatoms co-occurred with Phaeocystis antarctica, but were vertically segregated by the upper mixed layer, with senescent diatoms dominating in the upper layer, and P. antarctica blooming in the deeper layer. The dominance of the phytoplankton micro-fraction over the whole area and the high Chl-a suggested the prevalence of non-grazed large cells, independent of the distribution of the two functional groups. These data emphasise the occurrence of significant temporal changes in the phytoplankton biomass in the Ross Sea during austral summer. The mechanisms that drive such changes and the fate of the carbon production are probably related to the variations in the limiting factors induced by the concurrent hydrological modifications to the Ross Sea, and they remain to

  17. Effects of male removal on female reproductive biology in Ross' and Lesser Snow Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leschack, C.R.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    We studied effects of mate removal on nesting and hatching success, incubation behavior, body mass, and post-hatch dispersal distance of female Ross' (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens) at Karrak Lake. N.W.T., Canada. Male ge and widowed and paired control females were monitored through post-hatch dispersal. Nesting and hatching success did not differ between species or treatments (widowed vs paired) and averaged 77.5 ?? 3.8% and 64.0 ?? 3.6% (??SE), respectively. Paired females spent more time with their bills tucked (23.7 ?? 3.3% vs 9.1 ?? 4.0%) and less time alert (8.6 ?? 2.9% vs 22.9 ?? 3.5%) while on nests than did widowed females. Snow widowed females (31.1 ?? 4.7%) and Ross' widowed females (20.6 ?? 6.0%) generally spent more time each day in head-up alert than did Snow paired females (7.1 ?? 3.8%). Snow paired maleS (11.8 ?? 3.8%), Ross' paired females (9.4 ?? 3.6%), and Ross' paired males (7.9 ?? 3.6%). Body mass of paired and widowed female Ross' Geese did not differ at hatch or at time of post-hatch recapture; however, mean distance recaptured from the breeding colony was greater for paired (50.9 ?? 6.1 km) than for widowed females (27.3 ?? 6.6 km). Total mass gain (276 ?? 19 g) and rate of mass gain (8.4 ?? 0.5 g/day), from hatch until post-hatch recapture (33.1 ?? 1.2 days), were similar for widowed and paired female Ross' Geese. Male removal experiments in monogamous, precocial species generally have produced few effects on female nesting success or incubation behavior. We suggest that male parental care in arctic-nesting geese is more critical during laying and the post-hatch period than during incubation.

  18. Retreat history of the last glacial maximum ice sheet in Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, Stephanie Staples

    High-resolution geophysical and geologic data were acquired in western and central Ross Sea, Antarctica, to determine the: (1) maximum extent and configuration of the ice sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM); (2) conditions and processes at the base of the expanded ice sheet and their role in ice stream activity; and (3) relative retreat history of the ice sheet. This information can provide geologic constraints for modeling of ice-sheet retreat. The research formed the basis for development of a public Web site (http://www.glacier.rice.edu) and for middle-school earth-science instructional materials. Based on identification of isolated grounding-zone wedges and consistency of mega-scale glacial lineations, the LGM ice edge reached the Coulman Island region in western Ross Sea. The maximum extent in central Ross Sea occurred at the continental-shelf edge, based on the presence of mega-scale glacial lineations, glacio-tectonic features, and shelf-edge gullies. Streaming ice, overlying a deforming bed typically <5 m in thickness, filled the troughs. Thinner, divergent, slower moving ice, not underlain by deforming sediment, occupied the bank tops. The ice sheet eroded and conveyed sediment from the inner regions toward the outer shelf, where the material was deposited at the grounding line. No features associated with meltwater occur; water available to the subglacial system probably was incorporated into a deforming unit. The ice sheet may have undergone an initial phase of mass wasting, based the large, arcuate iceberg furrows associated with the grounding zones. Ice retreated first from western Ross Sea, possibly because of a diminished contribution from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Ice retreat from central Ross Sea lagged that of western Ross Sea. The banks remained ice covered after ice retreat from the troughs; ice shelves may have covered the troughs. During retreat, the grounded ice reworked the substrate into back-stepping grounding-zone wedges and

  19. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience.

    PubMed

    Zilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Ounap, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009-2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1-3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists.

  20. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Žilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Õunap, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009–2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1–3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists. PMID:24689080

  1. Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy farms in regard to age, species, and diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Raaperi, Kerli; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-12-23

    Eimeria and Cryptosporidium are among the most common bovine parasites in the world, but little is known about them in Estonia. Basic field research is needed to gain insight into pathogen dynamics, providing knowledge for veterinarians and research. A survey of 45 Estonian dairy farms in 15 counties was carried out between 2006 and 2007. Three age groups: <3, 3-12, and >12 months old animals were sampled. Collected faeces were examined by quantitative flotation and Ziehl-Neelsen contrast staining, and species examined morphologically. Selected samples containing Cryptosporidium were additionally examined by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and sequencing to determine genotypes. Twelve species of Eimeria were identified, seven previously unknown in Estonia. Main species in samples were E. bovis (30%), E. zuernii (23%), and E. ellipsoidalis (14%). All herds were infected and animals aged 3-12 months were more commonly infected with Eimeria oocysts (63%) than any other group. Calves <3 months shed most oocyst, but high counts were rare. A negative association (slope=-0.16, p<0.001) was found between the number of animals infected with Eimeria and the age category. Cryptosporidium were detected in 84% of the farms, and C. andersoni and C. parvum were successfully identified. Though prevalences of Cryptosporidium in the age groups were similar to the sample prevalence (30%) an increase in the infections was found with increasing age (p<0.001). Higher diarrhoea scores were negatively associated with Eimeria spp. infection (slope=-0.08, p<0.05), whereas Cryptosporidium could not be associated with the presence of diarrhoea. Frequent low intensity infections of animals in all age groups with both parasites apply a constant stress on the animals with impact on health and production. The Estonian results are different compared to available studies in regard of: older animals commonly being infected, finding of modest oocyst counts, and distribution of Eimeria species.

  2. [The resistance status of gastrointestinal strongyles against anthelmintics in three Estonian sheep flocks].

    PubMed

    Anupöld, Ann Mari; Hinney, Barbara; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Poor efficacy of anthelmintic drugs in sheep due to infections with resistant gastrointestinal strongyles is reported worldwide. The aim of this pilot study was to gain an insight into the current situation of anthelmintic efficacy in Estonian sheep flocks. From September to November 2012, faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were carried out in three Estonian sheep farms, evaluating the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin. Individual faecal samples were taken at the day of treatment and 10 to 14 days later and examined by a modified McMaster technique. Anthelmintic treatment was carried out with ivermectin (Bimectin 10 mg/ml, Bimeda Chemicals Export) subcutaneously with a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight in the IVM group (n = 20 animals/farms 1 and 2; n = 5 for farm 3) or albendazol (Endospec 10%, Bimeda Chemicals Export) orally in the dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight in the ALB group (n = 20 animals/ farm); animals in the control group (n = 20 animals for farms 1 and 3, n = 18 for farm 2) were left untreated. The FECRT was carried out according to the WAAVP guidelines. On farm 1 the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin was reduced with 66% and 65% FECR, respectively. With a FECR of 26% the results of farm 2 showed a pronounced albendazole resistance while ivermectin was still sufficiently efficient (99% reduction). Farm 3 showed nearly 100% efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin, but earlier problems with high endoparasite burden and mortality may indicate a possible developing albendazole resistance which could not be detected with the FECRT yet. The results of this study show that in Estonia resistance against benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones does occur, indicating that close countrywide monitoring is advisable.

  3. STS-88 Mission Specialist Jerry Ross arrives at KSC for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-88 Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross arrives after dark at the Shuttle Landing Facility to take part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT provides the crew with simulated countdown exercises, emergency egress training, and opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay. Mission STS-88 is targeted for launch on Dec. 3, 1998. It is the first U.S. flight for the assembly of the International Space Station and will carry the Unity connecting module. Others in the STS-88 crew are Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie and James H. Newman and Russian cosmonaut Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev. Ross and Newman will make three spacewalks to connect power, data and utility lines and install exterior equipment.

  4. Percutaneous valved stent repair of a failed homograft: implications for the Ross procedure.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Victor; Jones, Alan; Taylor, Dylan; Coe, Yashu; Ross, David B

    2008-08-01

    A case of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation following a failed homograft in the pulmonary position is reported. A 16-year-old boy developed infective endocarditis of his pulmonary homograft, which was implanted four years earlier during a Ross procedure for congenital aortic stenosis. Following successful medical therapy, the boy was symptomatic due to pulmonary stenosis and regurgitation. A 22 mm Melody valve (Medtronic, USA) was successfully implanted percutaneously. His symptoms resolved and he was discharged home one day after the procedure. Echocardiography at the six-month follow-up demonstrated a normally functioning pulmonary valve. Percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement may make the Ross procedure a more attractive option for patients with aortic stenosis, particularly in the pediatric population.

  5. STS-74 Mission Specialists McArther and Ross in OPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 2, STS-74 Mission Specialist William 'Bill' McArthur Jr. (left) and Jerry L. Ross are reviewing the configuration of payload elements in the orbiter Atlantis' payload bay. Ross and McArthur are participating in the Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), an opportunity for flight crew members to become familiar with the payload hardware they will be working with on-orbit. Located in Atlantis' payload bay are the Orbiter Docking System and the Docking Module, two pieces of flight hardware that will play a crucial role in the second docking of the Space Shuttle to the Russian Space Station Mir. STS-74 is currently targeted for an early November launch

  6. Isolated generalised anhidrosis induced by postganglionic sympathetic skin nerve fibre degeneration: an incomplete Ross syndrome?

    PubMed

    Donadio, V; Cortelli, P; Falzone, F; Bugiardini, E; Giuliani, A; Misciali, C; Montagna, P; Calzà, L; Liguori, R

    2008-08-01

    Ross syndrome is characterised by tonic pupil, areflexia and anhidrosis, and the underlying lesion affects postganglionic skin sympathetic nerve fibres. We describe a 51-year-old man who had complained of anhidrosis since adolescence, at which time this problem was limited to the lower arms. The thermoregulatory sweating test disclosed generalised anhidrosis (GA) except for two small skin areas that were located in the right palm and left neck. Immunofluorescence analysis disclosed no cholinergic sudomotor fibres around the sweat glands of non-sweating skin areas, which were evident although sparse and deranged in the sweating site. In our patient, GA was induced by degeneration of postganglionic sympathetic skin nerve fibres, as found in Ross syndrome, although his clinical picture was incomplete as it lacked tonic pupil and areflexia. Isolated GA induced by degeneration of postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers, directly evaluated by skin biopsy, has not previously been described.

  7. A Battle of Words: "Dignity" and "Peace" in the Writings of Elisabeth Kübler-Ross.

    PubMed

    Burnier, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the writings of Elisabeth Kübler-Ross through the discursive lens of the phrase "dying with dignity." For her, the phrase meant allowing someone to die comfortably his/her own death. This phrase has to be understood in relationship with the final "stage of acceptance" of her model. Describing this key part of her well-known scientific output, she often used, in the early 1970s, the phrase "dying in peace and dignity." An evaluation of the evidence suggests that because the concept of dignity was co-opted by the pro-euthanasia movement during this decade, the language of dignity was little by little abandoned by her. In later years, only "peace" survived from her favorite expression. Although this concept of peace remains present to the end in all Kübler-Ross writings, the pro-euthanasia movement has also started to speak the language of peace.

  8. Northern Victoria Land (western Ross Sea-Antarctica): inner shelf fine sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colizza, E.; Finocchiaro, F.; Ivaldi, R.; Pittà, A.; Tolotti, R.; Brambati, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Holocene sedimentation conditions are represented, in the western Ross Sea, by diatomaceous ooze in the uppermost part of sedimentary sequences, while diamicton deposited during Last Glacial Maximum are the basal unit of most cores. Thick layer (> 2 m) of diatomaceous ooze were sampled in the northern Joides Basin and into Granite Harbour. In Drygalski Ice Tongue area and along the coasts of northern Victoria Land, prevails coarse sedimentation, due to seaward flowing of large outlet glacier that drain the Transantarctic Mountain. During 1998-99 and 2001-02 PNRA antarctic cruises, favourable sea ice conditions, has allowed to sample inner shelf area, both in Wood Bay and south of Drygalski ice tongue (Nordenskjold basin). In both sites fine laminated diatomaceous mud are present. Preliminary seismostratigraphy and sedimentological data are here reported. This is the first note of new sites of fine sedimentation in the Ross Sea inner shelf.

  9. Dr Ross McIntire, otolaryngologist, and his care of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

    PubMed

    Ruben, Robert J

    2009-07-01

    The role that otolaryngologist Ross McIntire, MD, played in the care of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd President of the United States, was documented by reviewing primary source material pertaining to the relationship of McIntire and Roosevelt. This included material from various archives including the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library at Hyde Park, New York; United States National Archives; and numerous autobiographies and diaries. McIntire's belief in the value of confidentiality and to provide information only on a need-to-know basis is consistent with the strategy that he had devised earlier for protecting his patient's privacy. In the context of his time and his position, Dr McIntire served his patient and his country well by making appropriate medical and wise personal judgments. The career of Dr Ross T. McIntire, otolaryngologist and personal physician to the 32nd president of the United States, engenders a sense of honor to our profession.

  10. James Ross (1837-1892) and his forgotten neurology textbook of 1881.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    2010-09-01

    James Ross (1837-1892) was an Aberdeen medical graduate who, after 13 years in rural general practice, mainly in Lancashire, became a pathologist and then physician to the Manchester Royal Infirmary and professor of medicine at Owens College, Manchester. In mid-career he developed a major interest in clinical neurology and became, apart from Byrom Bramwell in Edinburgh, the only contemporary British physician outside London who had widely recognised neurological expertise. Ross made several notable original contributions to neurological knowledge, particularly in relation to aphasia and peripheral neuritis. He wrote the entire contents of the two editions of the massive two-volume A Treatise on the Diseases of the Nervous System (1881 and 1883), which was very favourably reviewed and commercially successful but which, like its author who died at the height of his powers, was soon forgotten once William Gowers' A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System became available in the late 1880s.

  11. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  12. Pharmacopoieal quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine formulations from Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal products market.

    PubMed

    Teder, Kersti; Pepeloshev, Andrei; Matto, Vallo; Meos, Andres

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacopoeial quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine tablets of the same batches purchased from the Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal product markets was evaluated. The IR spectroscopy, HPLC analysis for quantitative content and purity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and dissolution test techniques were applied. In the experiments with non-expired nifedipine tablets, in all Estonian (n = 8, label claims 10, 20, and 40 mg) and Russian Federation (n = 4, label claim 10 mg) registered formulations the API was identified and quantified as nifedipine in amounts set by the European Pharmacopoeia and without exceeding the tolerance limits for the impurities. The dissolution rate was variable but all 10 and 20 mg non-expired nifedipine tablets released at least 80% of API in 12 h. The expiration of the nifedipine tablets led to somewhat increased dissolution rate while only traces of the nifedipine degradation products were discovered in the dissolution medium. In conclusion, our present study shows that with minor variations the Estonian and Russian Federation registered nifedipine tablets are comparable, the API preserves well beyond the expiration date but the expired nifedipine tablets may release the API faster than the non-expired tablets.

  13. A new age constraint on the deglaciation of the Ross Sea from an ice core from Roosevelt Island, East Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. E.; Brook, E.; Blunier, T.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Vallelonga, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    A new ice core from Roosevelt Island was drilled for the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project to establish the history of deglaciation of the Ross Sea through the Holocene. Evidence of glacial retreat in the Ross Sea Embayment shows that deglaciation happened in several stages of rapid collapse and persisted well after the melting of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets was complete. The ice rise on Roosevelt Island should record the timing of the recession of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) past Roosevelt Island. The transition between ice originating from WAIS and ice originating local to Roosevelt Island could, in principle, be identified in the RICE ice core by the Total Air Content (TAC), which depends on surface air pressure and climate. Because the accumulation zone of WAIS is at a higher altitude than Roosevelt Island, it is expected that TAC will record a sharp drop during the transition. Existing data back to 3.7 ka show a relatively constant air content, probably implying only small elevation changes over that time. New results from deeper sections will be discussed at the meeting.

  14. Lesser snow geese and ross's geese form mixed flocks during winter but differ in family maintenance and social status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Smaller species are less likely to maintain families (or other forms of social groups) than larger species and are more likely to be displaced in competition with larger species. We observed mixed-species flocks of geese in southwest Louisiana and compared frequencies of social groups and success in social encounters of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter Snow Geese) with that of the smaller, closely- related Ross's Geese (C. rossii). Less than 7% of adult and Ross's Geese were in families, whereas 10-22% of adult and 12-15% of juvenile Snow Geese were in families. Snow Geese won 70% of interspecific social encounters and had higher odds of success against Ross's Geese than against individuals of their own species. The larger Snow Geese maintain families longer than Ross's Geese, which probably contributes to their dominance over Ross's Geese during winter. Predator vigilance probably is an important benefit of mixed flocking for both species. We suggest the long-standing association with Snow Geese (along with associated subordinate social status) has selected against family maintenance in Ross's Geese.

  15. Monitoring Subsurface Ice-Ocean Processes Using Underwater Acoustics in the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxel, J. H.; Dziak, R. P.; Matsumoto, H.; Lee, W. S.; Yun, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Ross Sea is a dynamic area of ice-ocean interaction, where a large component of the Southern Ocean's sea ice formation occurs within regional polynyas in addition to the destructive processes happening at the seaward boundary of the Ross Ice Shelf. Recent studies show the sea-ice season has been lengthening and the sea ice extent has been growing with more persistent and larger regional polynyas. These trends have important implications for the Ross Sea ecosystem with polynyas supporting high rates of primary productivity in the area. Monitoring trends in sea ice and ice shelf dynamics in the Southern Ocean has relied heavily on satellite imagery and remote sensing methods despite a significant portion of these physical processes occurring beneath the ocean surface. In January 2014, an ocean bottom hydrophone (OBH) was moored on the seafloor in the polynya area of Terra Nova Bay in the northwest region of the Ross Sea, north of the Drygalski Ice Tongue. The OBH recorded a year long record of the underwater low frequency acoustic spectrum up to 500 Hz from January 29 until it was recovered the following December 17, 2014. The acoustic records reveal a complex annual history of ice generated signals with over 50,000 detected events. These ice generated events related to collisions and cracking provide important insight for the timing and intensity of the ice-ocean dynamics happening below the sea surface as the polynya grows and expands and the nearby Drygalski ice tongue flows into Terra Nova Bay. Additionally, high concentrations of baleen whale vocalizations in frequencies ranging from 200-400 Hz from September - December suggest a strong seasonal presence of whales in this ecologically important polynya region.

  16. MR imaging of right ventricular function after the Ross procedure for aortic valve replacement: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Grotenhuis, Heynric B; de Roos, Albert; Ottenkamp, Jaap; Schoof, Paul H; Vliegen, Hubert W; Kroft, Lucia J M

    2008-02-01

    To prospectively assess right ventricular (RV) function after the Ross procedure by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The local ethics committee approved the study and informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to enrollment in the study. Seventeen patients (15 male, two female; mean age +/- standard deviation, 19 years +/- 3.9; imaging performed 8.3 years after surgery +/- 3.2) and 17 matched controls (15 male, two female; mean age +/- standard deviation, 20 years +/- 3.9) were studied by using MR imaging. Standard velocity-encoded and multisection multiphase imaging sequences were used to assess homograft valve function, systolic and diastolic RV function, and RV mass. The two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Minor degrees of homograft stenosis (peak flow velocity between 1.5 and 3.0 m/sec across the homograft valve) were found in 12 of 17 patients but not in controls (P < .001). A larger RV mass was present in Ross patients than in controls (17.0 g/m(2) +/- 4.8 vs 10.9 g/m(2) +/- 5.6, P = .004). In addition, impaired diastolic RV function was found, as shown by a decreased mean tricuspid valve early filling phase-atrial contraction phase (E/A) peak flow velocity ratio (1.56 +/- 0.75 vs 2.05 +/- 0.58, P = .03). Peak flow velocity across the homograft valve correlated with RV mass (r = 0.38, P = .03) and tricuspid valve E/A peak flow velocity ratio (r = 0.39, P = .02). RV systolic function was normal in Ross patients (mean RV ejection fraction, 52% +/- 8 vs 51% +/- 5; P = .74). RV hypertrophy and RV diastolic dysfunction are frequently observed in patients after the Ross procedure, even in the absence of overt homograft stenosis. RV systolic function is still preserved. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  17. Enumeration of Thermophilic Heterotrophs in Geothermally Heated Soils from Mount Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, J. Andrew; Daniel, Roy M.

    1988-01-01

    Soil samples with temperatures up to 64°C were collected from Mount Erebus, an active volcano located on Ross Island, Antarctica. Acridine orange direct counts and most probable number counts of soil samples stored at 4°C for 2 months showed a wide variation in the number of thermophilic microorganisms in different soils. Organisms similar to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, Bacillus schlegelii, and Bacillus acidocaldarius, as well as neutrophilic Bacillus strains, were isolated. PMID:16347573

  18. Enumeration of thermophilic heterotrophs in geothermally heated soils from mount erebus, ross island, antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J A; Daniel, R M

    1988-02-01

    Soil samples with temperatures up to 64 degrees C were collected from Mount Erebus, an active volcano located on Ross Island, Antarctica. Acridine orange direct counts and most probable number counts of soil samples stored at 4 degrees C for 2 months showed a wide variation in the number of thermophilic microorganisms in different soils. Organisms similar to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, Bacillus schlegelii, and Bacillus acidocaldarius, as well as neutrophilic Bacillus strains, were isolated.

  19. Clouds On A Cold Planet: FIRE Spectroscopy Of Ross 458C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Simcoe, R. A.; Bochanski, J. J.; Saumon, D.; Mamajek, E. E.; Cushing, M. C.; Marley, M. S.; McMurtry, C.; Pipher, J. L.; Forrest, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Ross 458C is a widely-separated (1100 AU), faint companion to the nearby M0.5 Ve + M7 Ross 458AB binary, identified in the UKIDSS survey by Goldman et al. and Scholz and suspected by both of being a young brown dwarf. We obtained near-infrared spectroscopy of this source with the newly-commissioned Folded-Port Infrared Echellette (FIRE) at the Magellan Telescopes, which revealed the presence of strong methane and water absorption consistent with a T8 dwarf. The age of this system (150-800 Myr) and the low luminosity of the companion (log Lbol/Lsun = -5.62±0.03) indicate a mass at or below the deuterium burning limit. This is verified through atmospheric model fits to the spectral data, which indicate a low temperature (635 [+25,-35] K), a low surface gravity (log g 4 cgs) and a model-dependent mass of <=6 Jupiter masses. The spectral models further indicate that condensate clouds are present in the atmosphere of Ross 458C, in contrast to results for other cold T dwarfs. These results provide further evidence that clouds are an important opacity source in the spectra of young substellar objects, from planetary-mass brown dwarfs in young clusters to directly-imaged exoplanets. Moreover, its low mass, cool atmosphere and physical association with a stellar system give Ross 458C all of the trappings of a planet, albeit one whose cosmogony may not conform with current planet formation theories. This result includes data gathered with the 6.5-m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Support for the modeling work of D.S. was provided by NASA through the Spitzer Science Center.

  20. Effects of physical constraints on the lability of POM during summer in the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misic, Cristina; Covazzi Harriague, Anabella; Mangoni, Olga; Aulicino, Giuseppe; Castagno, Pasquale; Cotroneo, Yuri

    2017-02-01

    The 0-200 m surface layer of the Ross Sea was studied during summer 2014 to investigate the lability of the particulate organic matter (POM) in response to physical parameters. With the use of satellite information, we selected three zones, characterised by different physical setting: a northern offshore area, crossing the summer-polynya area of the Ross Sea (hereafter called ROME 1), a more coastal area next to the Terra Nova Bay polynya (ROME 2); a southern offshore area, towards the Ross Ice Shelf (ROME 3). Ice-maps showed that the seasonal ice retreat had already occurred in early December for most of the stations. Statistical analysis of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the POM pointed to significant differences between the stations, especially in the upper mixed layer (UML). A comparison with previous studies showed that the localised pulses of POM accumulation in the UML were similar to those recorded at the highly productive marginal ice zones, providing notable trophic support to the ecosystem. The UML, although rather thin and easily subjected to alterations, confirmed its pivotal role in the ecosystem dynamics. A POM quality favourable to consumers was highlighted at several stations in ROME 1 and ROME 3. Reduced trophic support was, instead, found in ROME 2. Limited POM consumption where deep-water formation takes place would increase the POM role in the transfer of C to the depths.

  1. Collaborative Research and Education in the Ross Sea: A broader impact evaluation report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, C.; Kohut, J. T.; Lichtenwalner, C. S.; Clark, H.

    2010-12-01

    An interdisciplinary team of researchers will focus on describing the high productivity patchiness observed in phytoplankton blooms in the mid-to-late summer in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. They will use a novel sampling strategy that employs a remotely controlled glider (AUV) to locate and map circumpolar deep water in near real time and also to direct further ship-based sampling. This unusual coordination of a polar research vessel with AUVs provides an exciting opportunity to engage formal and informal educators in a research adventure. As part of this NSF-funded project’s Criterion 2 broader impact, joining the researchers virtually will be 30 New Jersey middle-school teachers and their students. This summer in New Jersey, in partnership with Liberty Science Center educators, COSEE-NOW (Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-Networked Ocean World) and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the project team introduced teachers to the Ross Sea, the research, the science behind it and the AUV. The summer workshop and ongoing schoolyear support is providing the teachers with the tools they need to bring the excitement of the research into their classrooms in real time during the Ross Sea cruise at the end of this year. This presentation by Chris Parsons, the project evaluator, will summarize the evaluation plan for this broader impact project, which follows teachers and their classes for a year, and provide the latest evaluation results from this project.

  2. Forced copulation results in few extrapair fertilizations in Ross's and lesser snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunn, P.O.; Afton, A.D.; Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    Extrapair paternity varies from 0 to over 70% of young among various populations of birds. Comparative studies have suggested that this variation is related to nesting density, breeding synchrony and the proportion of extrapair copulations. We used minisatellite DNA fingerprinting to examine levels of extrapair paternity in Ross's geese, Chen rossi, and lesser snow geese, C. caerulescens c. (hereafter snow geese) nesting in the largest known goose colony in the world. These geese have one of the highest known percentages of extrapair copulation (46-56% of all attempted copulations), and all of these appeared to be forced. Among all successful copulations, 33 and 38% were extrapair in Ross's and snow geese, respectively. Despite the high percentage of extrapair copulations, extrapair paternity was low in both Ross's and snow geese (2-5% of young). Extrapair paternity was not related to nest density in either species. However, in snow geese, extrapair paternity was more likely to occur in nests of females that nested asynchronously, either early or late in the season. This is one of a few reported examples of a negative relationship between extrapair paternity and breeding synchrony. Extrapair young also tended to come from eggs laid later in the clutch. Although forced extrapair copulations appear to be a relatively inefficient reproductive tactic for males, they may provide a reproductive advantage for some males.

  3. Tidal Modulation of Ice-shelf Flow: a Viscous Model of the Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Three stations near the calving front of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, recorded GPS data through a full spring-neap tidal cycle in November 2005. The data revealed a diurnal horizontal motion that varied both along and transverse to the long-term average velocity direction, similar to tidal signals observed in other ice shelves and ice streams. Based on its periodicity, it was hypothesized that the signal represents a flow response of the Ross Ice Shelf to the diurnal tides of the Ross Sea. To assess the influence of the tide on the ice-shelf motion, two hypotheses were developed. The first addressed the direct response of the ice shelf to tidal forcing, such as forces due to sea-surface slopes or forces due to sub-ice-shelf currents. The second involved the indirect response of ice-shelf flow to the tidal signals observed in the ice streams that source the ice shelf. A finite-element model, based on viscous creep flow, was developed to test these hypotheses, but succeeded only in falsifying both hypotheses, i.e. showing that direct tidal effects produce too small a response, and indirect tidal effects produce a response that is not smooth in time. This nullification suggests that a combination of viscous and elastic deformation is required to explain the observations.

  4. Model sensitivity of the Weddell and Ross seas, Antarctica, to vertical mixing and freshwater forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellsson, Joakim; Holland, Paul R.; Marshall, Gareth J.; Mathiot, Pierre; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Coward, Andrew C.; Bacon, Sheldon; Megann, Alex P.; Ridley, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    We examine the sensitivity of the Weddell and Ross seas to vertical mixing and surface freshwater forcing using an ocean-sea ice model. The high latitude Southern Ocean is very weakly stratified, with a winter salinity difference across the pycnocline of only ∼0.2 PSU. We find that insufficient vertical mixing, freshwater supply from the Antarctic Ice Sheet, or initial sea ice causes a high salinity bias in the mixed layer which erodes the stratification and causes excessive deep convection. This leads to vertical homogenisation of the Weddell and Ross seas, opening of polynyas in the sea ice and unrealistic spin-up of the subpolar gyres and Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The model freshwater budget shows that a ∼30% error in any component can destratify the ocean in about a decade. We find that freshwater forcing in the model should be sufficient along the Antarctic coastline to balance a salinity bias caused by dense coastal water that is unable to sink to the deep ocean. We also show that a low initial sea ice area introduces a salinity bias in the marginal ice zone. We demonstrate that vertical mixing, freshwater forcing and initial sea ice conditions need to be constrained simultaneously to reproduce the Southern Ocean hydrography, circulation and sea ice in a model. As an example, insufficient vertical mixing will cause excessive convection in the Weddell and Ross seas even in the presence of large surface freshwater forcing and initial sea ice cover.

  5. Frank Ross's Early Orbits of the First Irregular Satellites of Saturn and Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    2006-12-01

    Frank E. Ross, later the inventor of the wide-angle lens, photographic photometer, and correcting lens for large reflecting telescopes, developed for the 200-inch, that bear his name, was also an expert on celestial mechanics. After earning his PhD at Berkeley in 1901, he worked in Washington as chief assistant to Simon Newcomb, the leading astronomer of his time, until the latter's death in 1909. W. H. Pickering, who had discovered Phoebe, the first distant, irregular satellite of Saturn, was unable to calculate an orbit for it. He asked Newcomb to do it, but the "grim dean of American astronomy" was too busy, and turned the task over to Ross to do, mostly on his own time. The young assistant succeeded, but spent many sleepless nights on the job. He and his brother Walter were also running a cigar store in Washington at the time. Charles D. Perrine at Lick Observatory discovered J VI and J VII, the first two similar satellites of Jupiter, in 1904 and 1905, and could not obtain satisfactory orbits for them either, even with Director W. W. Campbell's help. Ross then calculated their orbits also, again at a tremendous cost of effort. He used log tables, pencil and paper, and a simple adding machine for his computing tasks, as all "computers" (persons) did at that time. These three satellites were the first to be discovered by photography.

  6. Competing connections between the Ross Ice Shelf with the Southern Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jendersie, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The stability of the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) is critical to both the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Results from a climatological ice shelf-ocean coupled numerical model (ROMS) suggest a new circulation mechanism associated with High Salinity Water (HSSW) production in the Ross Sea Polynya (RSP) that controls oceanic heat access to the RIS cavity. Within the RSP the dense water-saturated water column contracts during winter and causes a seasonal drop in Sea Surface Height (SSH) localised to a convection chimney under the RSP. The SSH gradients of up to 1.5 mm per km are sufficient to generate a barotropic pressure gradient that can counteract the wide scale horizontal baroclinic force and reverse the geostrophic circulation. In water depths between 600 and 800 m north of the western RIS the effect causes the seasonal occurrence of a cyclonic circulation cell with transports greater than 1Sv. Appearing with the beginning of winter sea ice formation in the RSP it significantly changes the dynamics at the ice shelf front. The new mechanism is described as one element in a framework of oceanographic processes that mitigate the exchange between the deep ocean and the ocean cavity under the RIS. Our study links local circulation features that are known from observation and previous model studies, and for the first time establishes a coherent system of responsible physical forcing processes in the Ross Sea.​

  7. Forced copulation results in few extrapair fertilizations in Ross's and lesser snow geese.

    PubMed

    Dunn; Afton; Gloutney; Alisauskas

    1999-05-01

    Extrapair paternity varies from 0 to over 70% of young among various populations of birds. Comparative studies have suggested that this variation is related to nesting density, breeding synchrony and the proportion of extrapair copulations. We used minisatellite DNA fingerprinting to examine levels of extrapair paternity in Ross's geese, Chen rossi, and lesser snow geese, C. caerulescens c. (hereafter snow geese) nesting in the largest known goose colony in the world. These geese have one of the highest known percentages of extrapair copulation (46-56% of all attempted copulations), and all of these appeared to be forced. Among all successful copulations, 33 and 38% were extrapair in Ross's and snow geese, respectively. Despite the high percentage of extrapair copulations, extrapair paternity was low in both Ross's and snow geese (2-5% of young). Extrapair paternity was not related to nest density in either species. However, in snow geese, extrapair paternity was more likely to occur in nests of females that nested asynchronously, either early or late in the season. This is one of a few reported examples of a negative relationship between extrapair paternity and breeding synchrony. Extrapair young also tended to come from eggs laid later in the clutch. Although forced extrapair copulations appear to be a relatively inefficient reproductive tactic for males, they may provide a reproductive advantage for some males. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  8. Control of phytoplankton bloom inception in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by Ekman restratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Matthew C.; Thomas, Leif N.; Dunbar, Robert B.

    2012-03-01

    Observations from November 2006 in the southwestern Ross Sea indicate that stratification developed in a localized fashion, proximal to upper ocean fronts. These regions were hotspots for biological productivity, exhibiting greater drawdown of CO2and accumulation of oxygen, indicative of enhanced photosynthesis and air-sea gas exchange. While the effect of stratification is clear, the reasons for its development was not; air temperatures were unseasonably cold, sea-ice melt and sea surface warming were not significant. By comparing a one-dimensional mixed layer model with two-dimensional numerical simulations that include horizontal density gradients characteristic of the region, it is shown that Ekman advection is critical to structuring early season stratification. Where fronts are forced by winds that oppose the surface frontal current, Ekman advection displaces lighter water over dense. As biological productivity is light limited in the Ross Sea, and thus sensitive to the depth of the mixed layer, Ekman restratification plays an important role in determining the spatial distribution and development of the annual phytoplankton bloom in the region. The presence of fronts is therefore of first-order importance to the restratification and bloom dynamics of the Ross Sea in the early spring.

  9. Dynamics of surface melting over Amery and Ross ice shelf in Antarctic using OSCAT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothale, R. V.; Rao, P. V. N.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Antarctic sea ice sheets play an important role in modulating the climate system. The present study investigates the dynamics of melt/freeze over Amery and Ross ice shelf located in Eastern and Southern part of continent using OSCAT, the microwave scatterometer data from OCEANSAT2. The study utilizes the sensitivity of backscatter coefficient values of scatterometer data to presence of liquid water in the snow caused due to melt conditions. The analysis carried out for four austral winters from 2010-2013 and five austral summer from 2009-2014 showed spatial and temporal variations in average backscatter coefficient over Amery and Ross shelf areas. A dynamic threshold based on the austral winter mean and standard deviation of HH polarization is considered for pixel by pixel analysis for the shelf area. There is significant spatio-temporal variability in melt extent, duration and melt index as observed in the analysis. Spatially, the melt over Amery shelf moves from South to North along coast and West towards inner shelf area. Maximum mean melt occurs on 9th January with January 1-15 fortnight accounting for 80 % of the melt. Extreme low melt conditions were observed during summer 2010-11 and 2011-12 indicating cold summer. Summer 2012-13 and 2013-14 were warm summer. Year 2014 experienced melt only in the month of January with entire shelf under melt conditions. Practically no melt was observed over Ross ice shelf.

  10. Vertical ocean heat redistribution sustaining sea-ice concentration trends in the Ross Sea.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Olivier; Goosse, Hugues; Fichefet, Thierry; de Lavergne, Casimir; Barthélemy, Antoine; Zunz, Violette

    2017-08-15

    Several processes have been hypothesized to explain the slight overall expansion of Antarctic sea ice over the satellite observation era, including externally forced changes in local winds or in the Southern Ocean's hydrological cycle, as well as internal climate variability. Here, we show the critical influence of an ocean-sea-ice feedback. Once initiated by an external perturbation, it may be sufficient to sustain the observed sea-ice expansion in the Ross Sea, the region with the largest and most significant expansion. We quantify the heat trapped at the base of the ocean mixed layer and demonstrate that it is of the same order of magnitude as the latent heat storage due to the long-term changes in sea-ice volume. The evidence thus suggests that the recent ice coverage increase in the Ross Sea could have been achieved through a reorganization of energy within the near-surface ice-ocean system.The mechanisms responsible for the overall expansion of Antarctic sea-ice in recent decades remain unclear. Here, using observations and model results, the authors show that ice-ocean feedbacks, triggered by an external perturbation, could be responsible for changes in sea-ice extent observed in the Ross Sea.

  11. Subglacial Lake Whillans, West Antarctica; Solute Dynamics and Fluxes to the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, M. L.; Michaud, A. B.; Achberger, A.; Barbante, C.; Christner, B. C.; Mikucki, J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Priscu, J. C.; Purcell, A. M.; van Gelder, W.; Vick-Majors, T.

    2014-12-01

    Subglacial Lake Whillans is located beneath the Whillans Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The lake is situated beneath 800 m of ice and ~ 70 km upstream of the grounding line where Whillans Ice Stream terminates into the Ross Sea. Subglacial Lake Whillans is a shallow lake and a component of a complex subglacial hydrological system that may resemble a large wetland along the Siple Coast of West Antarctica. Subglacial Lake Whillans drains and refills on a sub-decadal time scale discharging water towards the Ross Sea. Water and sediment samples were recovered from the lake, using clean access drilling technologies, in January, 2013. Isotopic analysis of the lake waters indicates basal meltwater from the ice sheet as the dominant water source. Geochemical analysis of the lake water reveals it is freshwater with mineral weathering as a significant solute source, with a minor contribution from sea water likely from relict marine sediments. Subglacial hydrothermal activity upstream may also contribute solutes. Nutrients N and P are present at micromolar concentrations. Sediment porewaters from shallow cores (~ 40 cm depth) of the subglacial lake sediments indicate increasing solute concentration with depth, with up to ~ five times greater solute concentrations than in the lake water. The waters and sediment contain metabolically active organisms which are likely involved in elemental cycling within the lake system. Here we will discuss solute sources to the lake, solute dynamics within the lake waters and sediment, and the fluxes of solute and nutrients to the Ross Sea and their implications for these marine ecosystems.

  12. Getting to know the nearest stars: Intermittent radio bursts from Ross 614

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterhalter, Daniel; Knapp, Mary; Bastian, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Radio observations have been used as a search tool for exoplanets since before the confirmed discovery of the first extrasolar planet. To date, there have been no definitive detections of exoplanets in the radio regime. We are engaged in an ongoing blind radio survey of the nearest star systems for exoplanetary radio emission. The goal of this survey is to obtain meaningful upper limits on radio emission from (or modulated by) sub-stellar companions of the nearest stars. Nearby stars are strongly preferred because they suffer the least from the dilution of potential radio signals by distance. Targets are selected by distance and observability (both LOFAR and VLA) only. Other properties of target stars, such as stellar type, are not considered to avoid biasing the search. Five survey targets, Procyon, GJ 1111, GJ 725, Ross 614, and UGPSJ072227.51, have been observed with the VLA telescope L- and S-band receivers. P-band observations are ongoing. Of particular interest are, at this time, our observation of the Ross 614 System. Ross 614 is an M-dwarf binary system at a distance of about 13 Ly, with an orbital period of 16.6 years. The binary companions are classified as flare stars because strong radio emission has been detected from the location of the system in previous work. Analyses are in progress to determine if the intermittent burst are similar to solar-type burst, and/or if there is any evidence for emissions from sub-stellar companions.

  13. On the dense water spreading off the Ross Sea shelf (Southern Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budillon, G.; Gremes Cordero, S.; Salusti, E.

    2002-07-01

    In this study, current meter and hydrological data obtained during the X Italian Expedition in the Ross Sea (CLIMA Project) are analyzed. Our data show a nice agreement with previous data referring to the water masses present in this area and their dynamics. Here, they are used to further analyze the mixing and deepening processes of Deep Ice Shelf Water (DISW) over the northern shelf break of the Ross Sea. In more detail, our work is focused on the elementary mechanisms that are the most efficient in removing dense water from the shelf: either classical mixing effects or density currents that interact with some topographic irregularity in order to drop to deeper levels, or also the variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) which, in its meandering, can push the dense water off the shelf, thus interrupting its geostrophic flow. We also discuss in detail the (partial) evidence of dramatic interactions of the dense water with bottom particulate, of geological or biological origin, thus generating impulsive or quasi-steady density-turbidity currents. This complex interaction allows one to consider bottom particular and dense water as a unique self-interacting system. In synthesis, this is a first tentative analysis of the effect of bottom particulate on the dense water dynamics in the Ross Sea.

  14. Applicability of highly branched isoprenoids as a sea ice proxy in the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jae Il; Belt, Simon T.; Gal, Jong-Ku; Smik, Lukas; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice is an integral component of the polar climate system, constraining the effect of changing surface albedo, ocean-atmosphere heat exchanges, the formation of deep and intermediate waters that participate in driving the meridional overturning circulation and thus global climate. In recent years, a mono-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkene which is biosynthesised by certain sea ice diatoms during the spring bloom and, upon ice melt, deposited into underlying sediments, has been uniquely observed in Arctic sea ice and in Arctic sediments. Hence, the term IP25 (ice proxy with 25 carbon atoms) was proposed to distinguish this compound from other HBI isomers and has become an established proxy for the reconstruction of Arctic sea ice. In contrast, a monounsaturated HBI alkene, i.e. IP25, has not been observed in sea ice or sediments from the Antarctic. Hence, the application of diene and triene HBI concentrations and the resulting diene/triene (D/T) ratio was alternatively introduced as sea ice/open water indicators in the Southern Ocean. However, there is still lack of data covering the wide areas around the Antarctic, especially from the Ross Sea. Hence, we investigated surface sediment samples from the Ross Sea (n=14) collected during the R/V ARAON cruise in 2015 as well as from the Antarctic Peninsula (n=17) collected during several R/V ARAON cruises between 2001 and 2013. We will present our preliminary results and will discuss the applicability of the HBI in the Ross Sea.

  15. Foraging time and dietary intake by breeding ross's and lesser snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Afton, A.D.; Slattery, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    We compared foraging times of female Ross's (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding at Karrak Lake, NT, Canada and examined variation due to time of day and reproductive stage. We subsequently collected female geese that had foraged for known duration and we estimated mass of foods consumed during foraging bouts. Female Ross's Geese spent more time foraging (mean % ?? SE = 28.4 ?? 1.3%; P = 0.0002), on average, than did female Lesser Snow Geese (21.5 ?? 1.4%). Foraging time by female geese differed among reproductive stages, but differences were not consistent among time periods (stage-by-time block interaction, P=0.0003). Females spent considerably more time foraging during prelaying and laying than during incubation. Ross's Geese also spent a greater percent of time feeding (83.0??2.8%) during incubation recesses than did Lesser Snow Geese (60.9??3.6%). Consumption of organic matter during foraging bouts was minimal; estimated consumption averaged 9.6??4.0 and 12.4??4.6 g (mean ?? SE) dry mass/day before incubation and 5.9??2.0 and 5.7??2.1 g dry mass/day during incubation for Lesser Snow and Ross's Geese, respectively. Diets consisted primarily of mosses (bryophytes), Chickweed (Stellaria spp.) and Sedges (Carex spp.). Before incubation, eggshell consumption was estimated as 4.3??3.2 and 0.4??0.3 g dry mass/day for Lesser Snow and Ross's Geese, respectively; neither species consumed eggshell during incubation. We conclude that eggshell from nests of previous years is likely an important source of dietary calcium used to meet mineral demands of eggshell formation at Karrak Lake. Our findings of wide disparities between foraging time and food intake indicate that results from studies that do not directly measure intake rates remain equivocal. Finally, we propose four hypotheses accounting for foraging effort that evidently yields little nutritional or energetic benefit to geese nesting at Karrak Lake.

  16. Decadal Changes in Hydrography of the Southern Pacific Ocean and Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, L. D.; Carter, B.; Warner, M. J.; Swift, J. H.; Orsi, A. H.; Sloyan, B.

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-decadal hydrographic sections of the GO-SHIP program cross the world's oceans with the highest accuracy measurements, documenting temporal variability in physical and chemical properties. The central southern Pacific and Ross Sea have been surveyed regularly along GO-SHIP sections P16S (150W) and S4P (67S) since the first occupation in WOCE in 1992. Observed changes are consistent with anthropogenic forcing. The central Ross Sea gyre's bottom 1000 m is nearly adiabatic (well mixed), and well-ventilated based on chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and sulfur hexafluoride observations (see Figure), and can be easily compared from one survey to the next. This Ross Sea bottom layer observed in March, 2014, on P16S continued to warm, with a monotonic increase over the 4 WOCE/GO-SHIP surveys thus far: 1992, 2005, 2011, and now 2014 (see Figure). Deep temperature has increased by 0.1°C since 1992, continuing the trend of enhanced global ocean deep warming in the Southern Ocean documented by Purkey/Johnson (2010) and IPCC AR5 WG1. The abyssal central Ross Sea waters also continued to freshen slightly. The upper ocean in the Ross Sea warmed, became more stratified, had higher nutrients and total carbon, and was less ventilated in terms of apparent oxygen utilization than in 2005. North of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current along 150W, the upper ocean's Subantarctic Mode Water became saltier, also continuing the subtropical trend of the past several decades (Durack/Wijffels 2010), with an apparently stronger incursion of saline subtropical waters that render it more salt and temperature stratified, ruling out a local deep mixed layer formation mechanism, with an increasing tendency towards double diffusive processes. The Antarctic Intermediate Water salinity minimum continued to freshen. The arrival in 2014 of CFC's at the ocean bottom between 32S and 40S indicates that the Antarctic Bottom Water there is about 40-50 years old. CFCs in the ocean's surface layer decreased, in

  17. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice anomalies in the Ross Sea Polynya region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Ethan; McDonald, Adrian; Rack, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Despite warming trends in global temperatures, sea ice extent in the southern hemisphere has shown an increasing trend over recent decades. Wind-driven sea ice export from coastal polynyas is an important source of sea ice production. Areas of major polynyas in the Ross Sea, the region with largest increase in sea ice extent, have been suggested to produce the vast amount of the sea ice in the region. We investigate the impacts of strong wind events on polynyas and the subsequent sea ice production. We utilize Bootstrap sea ice concentration (SIC) measurements derived from satellite based, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature images. These are compared with surface wind measurements made by automatic weather stations of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Meteorology Program. Our analysis focusses on the winter period defined as 1st April to 1st November in this study. Wind data was used to classify each day into characteristic regimes based on the change of wind speed. For each regime, a composite of SIC anomaly was formed for the Ross Sea region. We found that persistent weak winds near the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf are generally associated with positive SIC anomalies in the Ross Sea polynya area (RSP). Conversely we found negative SIC anomalies in this area during persistent strong winds. By analyzing sea ice motion vectors derived from SSM/I brightness temperatures, we find significant sea ice motion anomalies throughout the Ross Sea during strong wind events. These anomalies persist for several days after the strong wing event. Strong, negative correlations are found between SIC within the RSP and wind speed indicating that strong winds cause significant advection of sea ice in the RSP. This rapid decrease in SIC is followed by a more gradual recovery in SIC. This increase occurs on a time scale greater than the average persistence of strong wind events and the resulting Sea ice motion anomalies, highlighting the production

  18. Foraging time and dietary intake by breeding Ross's and Lesser Snow Geese.

    PubMed

    Gloutney, Mark L; Alisauskas, Ray T; Afton, Alan D; Slattery, Stuart M

    2001-03-01

    We compared foraging times of female Ross's (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding at Karrak Lake, NT, Canada and examined variation due to time of day and reproductive stage. We subsequently collected female geese that had foraged for known duration and we estimated mass of foods consumed during foraging bouts. Female Ross's Geese spent more time foraging (mean % ± SE =28.4±1.3%; P=0.0002), on average, than did female Lesser Snow Geese (21.5 ± 1.4%). Foraging time by female geese differed among reproductive stages, but differences were not consistent among time periods (stage-by-time block interaction, P=0.0003). Females spent considerably more time foraging during prelaying and laying than during incubation. Ross's Geese also spent a greater percent of time feeding (83.0±2.8%) during incubation recesses than did Lesser Snow Geese (60.9±3.6%). Consumption of organic matter during foraging bouts was minimal; estimated consumption averaged 9.6±4.0 and 12.4±4.6 g (mean ± SE) dry mass/day before incubation and 5.9±2.0 and 5.7±2.1 g dry mass/day during incubation for Lesser Snow and Ross's Geese, respectively. Diets consisted primarily of mosses (bryophytes), Chickweed (Stellaria spp.) and Sedges (Carex spp.). Before incubation, eggshell consumption was estimated as 4.3±3.2 and 0.4±0.3 g dry mass/day for Lesser Snow and Ross's Geese, respectively; neither species consumed eggshell during incubation. We conclude that eggshell from nests of previous years is likely an important source of dietary calcium used to meet mineral demands of eggshell formation at Karrak Lake. Our findings of wide disparities between foraging time and food intake indicate that results from studies that do not directly measure intake rates remain equivocal. Finally, we propose four hypotheses accounting for foraging effort that evidently yields little nutritional or energetic benefit to geese nesting at Karrak Lake.

  19. A case study of a Ross Ice Shelf Airstream event using high resolution observational data captured by SNOWWEB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Ben; McDonald, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The Ross Ice Shelf Airstream (RAS) is the dominant weather pattern over the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Characterised by a strong southerly flow over the ice shelf, the RAS plays a significant role in the northward transport of cold air from the interior of the continent out into the Ross Sea. As it passes by Ross Island - home to McMurdo Station and Scott Base - and out over the edge of the ice shelf, the RAS also helps to create and maintain the Ross Sea Polynya, the single largest contributor to sea ice growth in the Ross Sea region. Our area of interest is the McMurdo Ice Shelf, situated directly south of Ross Island and adjoining the north-western tip of the much larger Ross Ice Shelf. The terrain of this region is complex, with large mountains, islands, and cliffs dominating local flow. Additionally, severe weather - often experienced during a RAS event - can greatly impact human activity. These two factors make this region particularly interesting to study. During the 2013/14 austral summer season we deployed 14 weather stations on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, creating a dense spatial observational network. In combination with existing automatic weather stations and high resolution model output from the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS), we present a case study of a three day RAS event observed in November 2013. We find that AMPS represents the RAS well in general, however at the local scale there are some large discrepancies between observed and forecast winds. Predominantly these are a result of errors in timing, with AMPS incorrectly forecasting 'lulls' in the RAS when none were observed and vice-versa. There also appear to be some differences between AMPS and observations regarding the split of the southerly RAS flow around Ross Island. The representation within AMPS of both Hut Point Peninsula - a small yet important orographic feature running south-west from Ross Island that blocks relatively weak flows - and the Windless Bight high pressure

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble

  1. An analysis of the Ross Ice Shelf low-level wind field using surface observations and modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seefeldt, Mark William

    A dominant feature of the Ross Ice Shelf region wind field is the Ross Ice Shelf air stream (RAS). The RAS is a northward moving air stream in the lower atmosphere over the Ross Ice Shelf. The RAS is comprised of katabatic winds, barrier winds, and winds associated with the passage of cyclone and mesocyclones. An analysis of the surface wind field is done using automatic weather station (AWS) observations by dividing the wind field into dominant wind regimes. The dominant wind regimes are classified by identifying patterns in the wind speed and wind direction from AWS across the Ross Ice Shelf region. The results indicate that previous studies on the Ross Ice Shelf surface wind field, focusing on katabatic winds and barrier winds, represent less than half of the observed winds. An analysis of the presence and location of low-level jets (LLJs) across the Ross Ice Shelf region is presented based on the analysis of the archived real-time numerical weather prediction output. The method of self-organizing maps (SOMs) is used to objectively identify different patterns in column-averaged wind speed as an identifier to the location of LLJs. The results indicate three LLJs in the region. The largest and most dominant LLJ is along the Transantarctic Mountains by the Siple Coast and the southern end of the Ross Ice Shelf. The second LLJ extends from the base of Byrd Glacier and curves to the north passing by the eastern extremes of Ross Island. The third LLJ extends from the base of Reeves Glacier and curves to the north across the western Ross Sea. The low-level wind field is investigated to provide more insight into the RAS through the use of SOMs. Four generalized patterns are found in the low-level wind field. The patterns are associated with a weak synoptic environment, a Ross Sea cyclone, a Cape Colbeck cyclone, and an elongated cyclone near Cape Adare. A temporal sequence in the low-level wind field is presented based on an analysis of transitions in the low-level wind

  2. X-ray Ross filter method for impurity transport studies on DIII-D (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Kim, J. S.; Egdell, D. H.; Snider, R. T.; Brooks, N. H.; Wade, M. R.; West, W. P.

    2001-01-01

    The injection of Ar into the region of the DIII-D divertor is a promising technique for energy dissipation (through radiation and collisions) and consequently for reduction of the heat load on the plates. An important problem related to this technique, is the inherent poisoning of the core plasma by migrating Ar. The Ar core contamination seems also to improve the thermal transport in an advanced operating mode of the tokamak. It is therefore of great importance to measure the evolution of the impurity concentration profile within the core plasma. This goal could be achieved by using the Ross filter method in conjunction with the existing x-ray diagnostics on DIII-D. A basic Ross filter system consists of two identical detectors placed behind two different x-ray absorbing foils looking at the same plasma volume. The foils are made of different elements or compounds with adjacent or nearly adjacent atomic numbers. Their accurate thickness causes the x-ray transmission curves of the two foils to be effectively identical over the entire energy range except within the narrow region between their absorption edges. Since the transmission characteristics of the foils above and below their absorption edges are the same, any difference in the two detected signals is proportional to the total x-ray power of the emission spectrum between these two edge energies. An x-ray Ross filter with its energy pass band centered on the Ar XVII Kα line at 3.14 keV has been designed. This allows for the discrimination of the Ar Kα line only, regardless of Ar ionization state, against any background radiation with energies outside the energy pass band. The Ross filter was installed in front of two of the fan shaped poloidal x-ray arrays on DIII-D. The first measurements showed very good discrimination against Ne, another injected impurity. Emissivity profile evolution of the Kα lines and Ar enhanced continuum within the energy pass band of the Ross filter can be determined from the x

  3. Analyses on Origin of positive gravity anomalies of sedimentary basins of the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinyao; Yang, Chunguo; Ji, Fei; Wang, Wei; Shen, Zhongyan

    2017-04-01

    We have adopted gridded products describing surface elevation, ice-thickness and the sea floor and subglacial bed elevation south of 60◦ S from Bedmap2 and north of 60◦ S from JGP95E to calculate Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomaly of the Ross Sea region based on the DTU10 free-air gravity anomaly.Taking a view of the free-air, Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, it is unusual that high values overlay the Victoria Land Basin, Central Trough, Northern Basin and Northern Central Trough while basement highs are associated with low value. A number of studies have attributed the high gravity anomalies across the depocenters to high-density volcanics deep within the basins or magmatic intrusions within the region of the thinned crust or upper mantle (e. g., Edwards et al., 1987). According to the conclusion from Karner et al. (2005), the anticorrelation of gravity anomalies with sediment basement can be reproduced if the flexural strength of the lithosphere during the late Cretaceous rifting is significantly lower than the flexural strength of the lithosphere at the Oligocene and Neogene time of sedimentation. We note that the isostatic gravity anomalies are higher than the free-air gravity anomalies adjacent to the Transantarctic Mountains, and vice versa away from the Transantarctic Mountains. We may ignore the constraints offered by the tranditional isostasy in the local gravity studies of the Ross Sea basins, especially advancing the concept of high density material in the lower crust or upper mantle. In particular, the modeled gravity does not laterally integrate to zero, due to the existence of unbalanced forces induced by mantle. Along the outer shelf uplift zone surrouding Antarctica, the positive gravity belt has higher values in free-air gravity anomalies than those in isostatic gravity anomalies. Meanwhile, the positive gravity belt of isostatic gravity anomalies almost disappears in the background anomalies of 20 mGal to 10 mGal facing the

  4. Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: A collective story of Estonian adult educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jõgi, Larissa; Karu, Katrin

    2017-03-01

    Adult Education has many values, including experiences and co-operation among people, and the fact that adult education is full of stories from adult educators, which can help to understand trends in the past and developments in the present. Established in 1991 as part of a more general regional cooperation among five Nordic and three Baltic countries (NB8), Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education has been mutually enriching and has resulted in the growth of a professional network. The cooperation has led participants through a time of new sources of values, knowledge and contacts, socialisation and transformation, inspiration and challenges, which has influenced their experiences and professional identities. This paper is based on the results of a study entitled "Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: Experience and stories" and focuses on the experiences and professional identities of two generations of Estonian adult educators. The empirical data for the study were collected using narrative-biographical interviews. The paper discusses two research questions: (1) What is the perception and influence of experiences for adult educators? and (2) How have their experiences influenced the professional identity of adult educators?

  5. Bacteriological and histological investigation of the postpartum bovine uterus in two Estonian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Kask, K; Kindahl, H; Gustafsson, H

    1998-01-01

    Postpartum uterine infections, endometrial histology and resumption of ovarian activity in cows were studied in 2 Estonian dairy herds with different herd sizes, milk yields and management systems. Ten cows at Farm A and 5 cows at Farm B were studied in the experiment. All cows in the study had normal calving performance. Endometrial biopsies for bacteriological and histological examinations were collected once a week starting on the second week postpartum and continuing for 7 weeks postpartum. Milk progesterone samples were collected twice a week during the whole study period. In both herds, the uterine flora contained mainly facultative anaerobic bacteria (Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Proteus vulgaris). Among obligate anaerobic bacteria only Bacteroides spp. were found. After 7 weeks of collection at farm A, a bacterial uterine flora still persisted in 2 of the cows. At farm B, on the other hand, bacterial elimination was complete after 6 weeks. Presence of inflammatory cells in uterine histology specimens remained higher at the end of collection and resumption of ovarian activity was delayed at farm A. After 7 weeks postpartum, only 6 of the 10 cows at farm A had resumed ovarian cyclicity, while at farm B the first oestrous cycle had occurred in all cows. The study showed that differences regarding uterine infections and their clearance occurred between farms and, despite these differences, cows with normal calving performance will effectively recover without any treatment.

  6. Gender differences in factors associated with sexual intercourse among Estonian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Part, Kai; Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Karro, Helle

    2011-06-01

    To examine factors associated with early sexual intercourse among 15 to 16-year-old adolescents by gender. The data were collected from a random sample of Estonian basic schools' ninth grade pupils in 1999 using self-completed questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression analysis for boys and girls was used to test for associations between sexual intercourse, and personal gender role-related attitudes, attitudes towards sexual intercourse, pubertal timing, smoking status and experience of drunkenness. Of the respondents, 14.6% of boys and 13.1% of girls had experienced sexual intercourse. Traditional gender role-related attitudes were associated with sexual intercourse among girls, but not among boys. Smoking and experience of drunkenness was strongly associated with sexual intercourse for both genders. Gender differences in the association between gender role-related attitudes and early sexual intercourse were observed among 15 to 16-year-olds in Estonia. Smoking and experience of drunkenness were strongly related to sexual intercourse for both genders.

  7. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in Estonian medical students with sleep problems.

    PubMed

    Eller, Triin; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko; Veldi, Marlit

    2006-01-01

    High emotional stress in medical students has been observed in many studies. Our aim in this article was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression among Estonian medical students and to find relationships between sleep complaints and emotional symptoms. The study group consisted of 413 medical students, ages 19-33 years, at the University of Tartu. Each was asked to complete two questionnaires: the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q), containing 28 questions, and the Questionnaire on Sleep and Daytime Habits, with 25 questions. The anxiety and depression subscales from the EST-Q were applied. From the study group, 21.9% students had symptoms of anxiety, and 30.6% had symptoms of depression. The frequency of anxiety and depressive symptoms was higher in females. In regression and multiple regression analysis, we determined which sleep problems were related to emotional symptoms. The associations were different for men and women. In women, anxiety remained significantly related to waking up because of nightmares and feeling tired in the morning; depressive symptoms were related to difficulties in getting to sleep at night, waking up because of nightmares and nocturnal eating habits, daytime sleepiness, and sleepiness during school lessons. In men, significant relations were clear only for depression: difficulties in falling asleep at night before an exam and subjective sleep quality. The study demonstrated that a high percentage of medical students had emotional symptoms. We found that some sleep problems indicated underlying symptoms of anxiety and depression. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Sex education and contraceptive methods: knowledge and sources of information among the Estonian population.

    PubMed

    Kalda, R; Sarapuu, H; Pikk, A; Lember, M

    1998-06-01

    A survey on sex education and contraceptive methods was carried out within a monthly EMOR Omnibus Survey. By using a questionnaire, knowledge and attitudes, as well as the main sources of information on contraceptive methods and sex education, among the Estonian adult population (n = 618) was investigated. Of the respondents, 68% were female and 32% were males: the mean age was 34 years. Almost all respondents expressed the opinion that sex education should start at school and that education on contraceptive methods would reduce the number of abortions. The majority of the respondents believed that it would be more convenient to visit a family doctor than a gynecologist for family planning. Main sources of information on contraception were: literature, doctors and journals, as rated by females; and literature, partners and television, as rated by males. The roles of the school nurse, father and siblings were rated as comparatively small. The level of respondents' knowledge of contraceptive methods was not too high. It is concluded that the prerequisites for changing sexual behavior and knowledge over a short time are wider use of mass media and better sex education at schools. Also, it is necessary to prepare family doctors to offer family planning services to their patients.

  9. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    PubMed

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions.

  10. Microbial response to different phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter sources in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipler, R. E.; Spackeen, J.; McQuaid, J.; Bertrand, E. M.; Roberts, Q. N.; Baer, S. E.; Hutchins, D. A.; Allen, A. E.; Bronk, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    Western Antarctic shelves are highly productive regions that play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles, specifically serving as a critical sink for carbon dioxide. Fixed carbon is stored within the phytoplankton cell as particulate organic matter or released into the surrounding water as dissolved organic matter (DOM). These phytoplankton-derived sources of organic matter support higher trophic levels as well as heterotrophic bacterial growth and respiration. The composition of the phytoplankton-derived organic matter is a function of the taxa as well as the environmental conditions under which it is produced. Phytoplankton community composition within western Antarctic Seas changes throughout Austral spring and summer with early production dominated by ice algae, switching to pelagic diatoms and flagellates later in the season. The goal of this study was to compare the response of Ross Sea microbial communities to DOM produced by ice algae or late season diatoms, specifically recent isolates of Pseudo nitzschia obtained from the Ross Sea. During 5-day bioassay studies, exudates from a natural ice algal community and from Pseudo nitzschia sp. isolates were added to natural microbial communities collected from two different Ross Sea locations, an ice-edge and an ice-covered site. The bacterial response to the DOM additions was greatest in the ice-covered community with a 5 and 3-fold higher bacterial abundance in the ice algae DOM and Pseudo nitzschia DOM treatments, respectively, relative to the control. The ice edge bacterial community responded similarly to both sources with a 2-fold increase in bacterial abundance compared to the control. Unlike the bacterial response, there was little difference in chlorophyll a concentrations between treatments, indicating that phytoplankton growth was not stimulated or inhibited by our additions.

  11. Geology, geochronology and geochemistry of a basanitic volcano, White Island, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Alan F.; Adam, Lotte J.; Coulter, Roseanne F.; Eby, G. Nelson; McIntosh, William C.

    2007-09-01

    White Island, Ross Sea, Antarctica is a Plio-Pleistocene basanite to tephriphonolite shield volcano, forming part of the Erebus Province, McMurdo Volcanic Group. Four new 40Ar/ 39Ar dates extend the age of surface volcanism from a previously determined 0.17 Ma to 5.05 ± 0.31 Ma. A U/Pb age on zircon in an anorthoclasite nodule extends White Island magmatism back to 7.65 ± 0.69 Ma. Volcanism was predominantly subaerial with eruption of agglutinated spatter-clast breccias and lava flows from vents with a NNE structural alignment. An early phase of inferred subaqueous/subglacial activity formed pillow breccias. Two nunataks in the southern part of the island comprise basanitic tuff cones, composed of poorly bedded pyroclastic deposits dominated by sideromelane lapilli, and containing horizons rich in accretionary and armoured lapilli. Many of the basanites have compositions of near-primary magmas and contain an assortment of Cr-diopside and Al-augite suite mantle nodules, lower crustal gabbros, mafic granulites, and assorted megacrysts. Peridotites are dominated by spinel facies inclusions, but include plagioclase-spinel lherzolites derived from shallow mantle beneath the tectonically thinned and attenuated Ross Sea lithosphere. Mantle nodules contain accessory amounts of pale brown, metasomatic amphibole. Volcanic geochemistry is compatible with fractionation of olivine, pyroxene, titano-magnetite and minor apatite from a basanite parent yielding tephriphonolite residual liquids. Magmatism is focused along, or at the termination of, Cenozoic rift basins in the Ross Sea. The regional McMurdo Volcanic Group distribution and tectonic setting, and the history of Erebus Province volcanic centres are difficult to reconcile in terms of active mantle plumes. Instead, more randomly distributed magmatism is inferred to result from rift-related decompression melting of previously enriched mantle that may have been fertilized by plume interaction prior to Gondwana

  12. Legacy persistent organic pollutants including PBDEs in the trophic web of the Ross Sea (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Martellini, Tania; Randazzo, Demetrio; Vacchi, Marino; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2017-10-01

    The ecological features of the Ross Sea trophic web are peculiar and different from other polar food webs, with respect to the use of habitat and species interactions; due to its ecosystem integrity, it is the world's largest Marine Protected Area, established in 2016. Polar organisms are reported to bioaccumulate lipophilic contaminant, viz persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Legacy POPs and flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs) were studied in key species of the Ross Sea (Euphausia superba, Pleuragramma antarctica) and their predators (Dissostichus mawsoni, Pygoscelis adeliae, Aptenodytes forsteri, Catharacta maccormicki, Leptonychotes weddellii). Gaschromatography revealed the presence of PCBs, HCB, DDTs, PBDEs in most of the samples; HCHs, dieldrin, Eldrin, non-ortho PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs were detected only in some species. The average ∑PBDEs was 0.19-1.35 pg/g wet wt in the key-species and one-two order of magnitude higher in the predators. Penguins and skuas from an area where a long-term field camp is located showed higher BDE concentrations. The ΣDDTs was higher in the Antarctic toothfish (20 ± 6.73 ng/g wet wt) and in the South Polar skua (5.911 ± 3.425 ng/g wet wt). The TEQs were evaluated and the highest concentration was found in the Weddell seal, due to PCB169, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, and 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF. There was no significant relationship between the trophic level and the POP concentrations. Although low concentrations, organisms of the Ross Sea trophic web should be further studied: lack of information on some ecotoxicological features and human impacts including global change may distress the ecosystem with unpredictable effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Marine record of Holocene climate, ocean, and cryosphere interactions: Herbert Sound, James Ross Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minzoni, Rebecca Totten; Anderson, John B.; Fernandez, Rodrigo; Wellner, Julia Smith

    2015-12-01

    The sediment record offshore James Ross Island, northeast Antarctic Peninsula presents an unparalleled opportunity to directly compare marine and terrestrial climate records spanning the Holocene in maritime Antarctica. An 11 m drill core was collected between Herbert Sound and Croft Bay as part of the SHALDRIL NBP-0502 initiative and produced the southernmost sediment record from the eastern side of the AP. Thirty-eight radiocarbon ages are used to construct an age model of centennial-scale resolution. Multi-proxy records, including magnetic susceptibility, pebble content, particle size, total organic carbon, and diatom assemblages, were interrogated in the context of nearby Holocene-age ice core, lake, and drift records from James Ross Island. Differences in the timing and expression of Holocene events reflect marine controls on tidewater glaciers, such as water mass configurations and sea ice. Glacial behavior mimics ice core paleotemperatures during the Holocene, with the exception of distinct ocean warming events. Herbert Sound was fully occupied by grounded ice during the Last Glacial Maximum, and experienced rapid lift-off, followed by a floating ice phase. The canopy of floating ice receded by 10 ± 2.4 cal kyr BP, presumably in response to Early Holocene warming. Herbert Sound and Croft Bay fully deglaciated by 7.2 cal kyr BP, when the Mid Holocene Hypsithermal commenced and the sound became open and productive. An extreme peak in productivity ∼6.1 cal kyr BP indicates an oceanic warming event that is not reflected in atmospheric temperature or lacustrine sediment records. Increase in sea ice cover and ice rafting mark the onset of the Neoglacial ∼2.5 cal kyr BP, when pronounced atmospheric cooling is documented in the James Ross Island ice core. Our comparison facilitates more holistic understanding of atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere interactions that may aid predictions of glacial response to future warming and sea-level scenarios.

  14. Soil micromorphology, geochemistry and microbiology at two sites on James Ross Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Lars A.; Krauze, Patryk; Prater, Isabel; Scholten, Thomas; Wagner, Dirk; Kühn, Peter; Mueller, Carsten W.

    2017-04-01

    Referring to the fundamental question in ecosystem research, how biotic and abiotic processes interact, only a few studies exist for polar regions that integrate microbiological and soil scientific studies . Soils comprise the complex structure and environment that fosters water storage and nutrient cycling determined by its unique chemical, physical and biological properties with respect to the specific climate and parent material. In the extreme environment of Antarctica, soil biological processes are primarily controlled by microbial communities (Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi), and thus microbiota may also determine soils chemical and physical properties in a landscape lacking higher plants at an average air temperature below 0°C. James Ross Island, Maritime Antarctica, offers a pristine laboratory and an exceptional opportunity to study pedogenesis without the influence of vascular plants and burrowing animals. We analysed micromorphological features, chemical and microbiological measures at two sites on James Ross Island (Brandy Bay and St. Martha Cove) with similar substrates (mostly fine-grained calcareous sandstones and siltstones of the Alpha Member of the Santa Martha Formation with varying amounts of conglomerates and mudstones) at similar topographic positions (small plateaus at similar elevation (80m a.s.l.)). The sites represent luv- and leeward conditions with respect to the main southwesterly winds. The climate on James Ross Island is to be described as semi-arid polar-continental, which is in clear contrast to the Southern Shetlands (e.g. King George Island) north of the Antarctic Peninsula. We will present first results of soil physical (bulk density, soil moisture and grains size distribution), pedochemical (SOC, total N and S, pH, CECeff, and pedogenic oxides) micromorphological and microbial analyses (Microbial DNA content, microbial abundances).

  15. Ambient Seismic Signals Observed in Iceberg?Filled Waters of the Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macayeal, D. R.; Okal, E. A.; Aster, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    A two-year seismometer deployment on various icebergs in the Ross Sea and on the Ross Ice Shelf (PASSCAL project SOUTHBERG) have produced an unusual seismological "tone poem" constituting a sample of ambient conditions in an iceberg-covered, coastal sea of Antarctica. The original motivation of the project was to investigate the source of signals seen as T-phases in the equatorial Pacific [e.g., Talandier et al., 2002]. During the periods of continuous seismometer operation (i.e., during the October - April periods of 2003-4 and 2004-5 when photovoltaic charging systems kept seismometers in operation) on icebergs B15A, C16 and Nascent Iceberg (a site not yet calved from the Ross Ice Shelf), about 1300 events were observed (roughly one event per day). These events are attributed to the icebergs, and are loosely referred to as "iceberg tremor" due to their long duration (many hours) and spectral structure (e.g., characterized by clearly preferential frequencies in the 1-3 Hz range, accompanied by multiple harmonics of a variable-pitch fundamental). The purpose of this presentation is to give a general qualitative overview of the various categories of iceberg tremor, and to describe their relationship to other variables observed (e.g., iceberg drift velocity, iceberg-on-iceberg collision, iceberg-on-seabed scraping). Speculation on the cause or causes of iceberg tremor will be postponed pending further study. Suggestions as to the relationship between the ambient tone poem of iceberg-covered waters and hydro-acoustic and seismic signals seen in the ocean beyond Antarctica will be offered.

  16. Insights into accumulation variability over the last 2000 years at James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massam, A.; Mulvaney, R.; McConnell, J.; Abram, N.; Arienzo, M. M.; Whitehouse, P. L.

    2016-12-01

    The James Ross Island ice core, drilled to 364 m on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, preserves a climate record that spans beyond the Holocene period to the end of the last glacial maximum (LGM). Reanalysis of the ice core using high-resolution continuous flow analysis (CFA) highlighted errors in the identification of events of known age that had been used to constrain the earlier chronology. The new JRI2 chronology is annual layer counted to 300 years, with the remaining profile reconstructed using a new age-depth model that is tied to age horizons identified in the annual-layer counted WAIS Divide ice core record. An accurate age-depth profile requires reliable known-age horizons along the ice core profile. In addition, these allow us to determine a solution for the accumulation history and rate of compaction due to vertical strain. The accuracy of the known-age constraints used in JRI2 allows only a small uncertainty in the reconstruction of the most recent 2000 years of accumulation variability. Independently, the surface temperature profile has been estimated from the stable water isotope profile and calibrated to borehole temperature observations. We present the accumulation, vertical thinning and temperature history interpreted from the James Ross Island ice core for the most recent 2000 years. JRI2 reconstructions show accumulation variability on a decadal to centennial timescale up to 20% from the present-day mean annual accumulation rate of 0.63 m yr-1. Analysis of the accumulation profile for James Ross Island offers insight into the sensitivity of accumulation to a change in surface temperature, as well as the reliability of the assumed relationship between accumulation and surface temperature in climate reconstructions using stable water isotope proxies.

  17. Structural map of flow variability and propagation behavior in the Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeDoux, C. M.; Hulbe, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    Fracture geometries in the Ross Ice Shelf, observable using visible band satellite imagery from the MODIS Mosaic of Antarctica (MOA) and the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) provide a unique opportunity to study fracture propagation behavior and discharge variability in the ice streams and outlet glaciers feeding the shelf. Propagation is driven by changes in fracture length, near-field stress conditions, and the material properties of the ice. Changes in ice stream discharge and the development of "sticky spots," in both ice streams and within the shelf, lead to redirection of flow, changes in lateral gradients of ice velocity, and the propagation of fractures in response to changes in near-field stresses. The propagation behaviors most commonly observed in the ice shelf are the growth in the transverse direction of a fracture that formed within a shear zone and mechanical interactions between adjacent fracture tips. We use fracture mechanics theory and remote-sensed imagery to categorize fracture patterns and longitudinal zones of fractured ice in the Ross Ice Shelf. Near current sites of formation, simple fracture geometries and principal stresses are used to illustrate physical processes related to the formation and propagation of fractures. To compute flow lines and principal stresses, we derive a velocity map of the Ross Ice Shelf by merging two velocity datasets using a combination of statistical methods. A structural map of fracture geometries, relict shear margins, and structural boundaries is constructed. Using the ice shelf features, present-day flow lines, and principal stresses, we investigate the manner in which principal stresses affect fracture formation and propagation behavior and the variability of ice stream discharge into the shelf.

  18. Late Quaternary fluctuations of biogenic component fluxes on the continental slope of the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccaroni, L.; Frank, M.; Frignani, M.; Langone, L.; Ravaioli, M.; Mangini, A.

    1998-11-01

    A sediment core, collected from the western part of the continental slope of the Ross Sea at 2380 m water depth, records events of the last two climatic cycles (250 kyr). A 230Th ex-based chronology was obtained and boundaries of the isotope stages were set assuming that biological productivity was enhanced during periods of less ice cover. Then, 230Th ex0, organic carbon, biogenic silica and biogenic Ba distributions were compared to the glacial-interglacial stage boundaries and corresponding ages of the δ 18O record of Martinson et al. [Martinson, D.G., Pisias, N.G., Hays, J.D., Imbrie, J., Moore, T.C., Jr., Shackleton, N.J, 1987. Age dating and the orbital theory of the ice ages: development of a high-resolution 0 to 300,000-year chronostratigraphy. Quaternary Research, 27: 1-29]. Sediment accumulation rates ranged between 1.2 cm kyr -1 in the isotope stage 6 and 3.8 cm kyr -1 during the Holocene. Variations in the concentrations and fluxes of organic carbon, biogenic Ba, biogenic silica and Mn gave information on palaeoclimate changes. Processes of sediment redistribution in the Ross Sea margin were enlightened from a comparison of the measured and expected fluxes of 230Th ex. Calculation of the focusing-corrected accumulation rates of biogenic Ba enabled us to evaluate the export palaeoproductivity. Corrected accumulation rates of biogenic components and calculated palaeoproductivities were low, compared to the Antarctic Polar Front in the Atlantic sector, throughout the last two climatic cycles. Glacial-interglacial changes of sea ice cover and ventilation of the Ross Sea were probably major causes of variations in biogenic particle flux and distribution of redox-sensitive elements within the sediment column.

  19. Chili Cookoff: Unique Ingredients Prove Successful in Ross Smith’s Big Pot of Chili | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer If the past is any indication, judges at the Protective Services Chili Cookoff give high marks for chili recipes containing unique or uncommon ingredients. Previous winning recipes have included ingredients such as black beans, pumpkin, pineapple, pork loin, and even bourbon. Judges at the 12th annual event, held Jan. 5, continued this tradition by voting for Ross Smith’s Big Pot of Chili, which featured three types of meat, four different sauces, baker’s chocolate, and parmesan rind.  

  20. Outcomes of the Ross procedure in patients with an accompanying ascending aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Karaskov, A M; Bogachev-Prokofiev, A V; Sharifulin, R M; Demin, I I; Zheleznev, S I; Open, A B; Pivkin, A N

    2016-01-01

    Analysed in the article are the results of the Ross procedure in patients presenting with dilatation of the ascending portion of the aorta. A combination of aortic valve defects with dilatation of the ascending aorta of more than 45 mm supposes simultaneous prosthetic repair of the aortic valve and ascending aorta. The most common surgical procedure remains the Bentall-DeBono operation whose main disadvantage is associated with implantation of a mechanical prosthesis and the necessity of lifelong anticoagulant therapy. An alternative method is the Ross procedure demonstrating low risk of thromboembolic complications and freedom from anticoagulant therapy. Over the period from 2002 to April 2015, specialists of the Novosibirsk Scientific Research Institute of Circulatory Pathology named after Academician E.N. Meshalkin carried out a total of 162 Ross procedures in patients presenting with accompanying dilatation of the ascending aorta (more than 45 mm). The mean diameter of the aorta at the level of Valsalva sinuses amounted to 45.6±8.6 mm, with that of the ascending aortic portion equalling 53.4±7.8 mm. The technique of total replacement of the aortic root was used in all cases. When the aneurysm extended to distal portions of the ascending aorta, additionally performed were the following procedures: in 24 patients--reduction aortoplasty, in 6 patients--replacement of the resected aorta with an insert from xenopericardium, and in 2 patients with a vascular graft. The average duration of follow up amounted to 40.1±21.6 months. Ten patients were subjected to repeat operations for autograft dysfunction. There were no reoperations on the ascending portion of the aorta. The regression analysis revealed that predictors of the development of autograft dysfunction were the baseline dilatation of the fibrous ring (FR) of the aortic valve of more than 27 mm (p=0.04) and uncorrected arterial hypertension in the postoperative period (p=0.03). In the group of patients with

  1. Diet and trophic niche of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum in the Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, M H; Forman, J; Bury, S J; Brown, J; Horn, P; O'Driscoll, R L

    2013-01-01

    The diet of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum was evaluated by examining stomach contents of specimens collected in the Ross Sea (71°-77° S; 165°-180° E) in January to March 2008. Pleuragramma antarcticum (50-236 mm standard length, L(S)) and prey items were analysed for stable-isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen. According to index of relative importance (I(RI) ), which incorporates frequency of occurrence, mass and number of prey items, the most important prey items were copepods (81%I(RI) over all specimens), predominantly Metridia gerlachei and Paraeuchaeta sp., with krill and fishes having low I(RI) (2·2 and 5·6%I(RI) overall). According to mass of prey (M) in stomachs, however, fishes (P. antarcticum and myctophids) and krill dominated overall diet (48 and 22%M, respectively), with copepods being a relatively minor constituent of overall diet by mass (9·9%M). Piscivory by P. antarcticum occurred mainly in the extreme south-west of the region and near the continental slope. Krill identified to species level in P. antarcticum stomachs were predominantly Euphausia superba (14·1%M) with some Euphausia crystallophorias (4·8%M). Both DistLM modelling (PRIMER-permanova+) on stomach contents (by I(RI)) and stepwise generalized linear modelling on stable isotopes showed that L(S) and location were significant predictors of P. antarcticum diet. Postlarval P. antarcticum (50-89 mm L(S)) consumed exclusively copepods. Juvenile P. antarcticum (90-151 mm L(S)) consumed predominantly krill and copepods by mass (46 and 30%M, respectively). Small adult P. antarcticum (152-178 mm L(S)) consumed krill, fishes and copepods (37, 36 and 15%M, respectively). Large adult P. antarcticum (179-236 mm L(S)) consumed predominantly fishes and krill (55 and 17%M, respectively), especially in the north (near the Ross Sea slope) and in the SW Ross Sea. Amphipods were occasionally important prey items for P. antarcticum (western Ross Sea, 39%M). General

  2. The relevance of buttressing for Filchner-Ronne and Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Ronja; Gudmundsson, Hilmar; Levermann, Anders; Winkelmann, Ricarda

    2016-04-01

    Sub-shelf melting is an important component of Antarctica's mass budget. Although thinning of ice shelves does not directly contribute to sea-level rise, it may have a significant indirect impact through the potential of ice shelves to buttress their adjacent ice sheet. This is clearly seen in recent observations, e.g. in the Amundsen region (Pritchard et al., 2012) or at the Southern Antarctic Peninsula (Wouters et al, 2015) where increased ice loss of the adjacent upstream drainage basins is attributed to enhanced sub-shelf melting. In the extreme case, the complete disintegration of an ice shelf, e.g. during the calving events of Larsen A and B in 1995 and 2002, respectively, the adjacent ice streams subsequently accelerated significantly (Scambos et al., 2014). Here, we investigate the importance of buttressing using the finite-element, shallow-stream approximation numerical model Úa. We derive transfer functions for an idealized setup (Gudmundsson et al. 2012) and the Filchner-Ronne and Ross Ice Shelf. They allow for the computation of instantaneous changes in velocities to thickness perturbation patterns. Based on the transfer functions, we calculate the sensitivity of flux across the grounding line to regional varying melting patterns for the idealized setup and for Filchner-Ronne and Ross Ice Shelf. We find that the immediate response of velocities in the ice shelf-ice sheet system to changes in sub-shelf melting can be understood as the interaction of two effects: On the one hand, the spreading rate is a function of local ice thickness, indicating that a thinning of the ice shelf reduces velocities. On the other hand, ice shelf thinning weakens its ability to buttress, and thus enhances velocities. These two processes compete, leading to a complex pattern of velocity changes within the ice shelf. We find - both in the idealized setup and for Ross and Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelves - that the reduction in buttressing is dominating the velocity changes in the

  3. STS-110 M.S. Smith, Ross, and Walheim in Atlantis during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- (Left to right) STS-110 Mission Specialists Steven Smith, Jerry Ross and Rex Walheim settle into their seats aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis prior to a simulated launch countdown. The simulation is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. TCDT also includes emergency egress training and is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  4. STS-110 M.S. Ross and Smith in M-113 personnel carrier during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- With STS-110 Mission Specialists Jerry Ross (far left) and Steven Smith (third from left) on board, Commander Michael Bloomfield scatters dust as he practices driving the M-113 armored personnel carrier. The driving is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include emergency egress training and a simulated launch countdown. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  5. STS-110 M.S. Smith and Ross in slidewire basket during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith (left) and Jerry L. Ross (right) get ready to climb out of the slidewire basket, part of emergency egress equipment on the launch pad.. The crew is taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which also include a simulated launch countdown, held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  6. STS-110 M.S. Ross in M-113 personnel carrier during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialist Jerry Ross waits his turn at driving the M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. In the background, right, is Mission Specialist Lee Morin. TCDT includes emergency egress training and a simulated launch countdown, and is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  7. Moses presages Kubler-Ross: five stages in accepting death, as seen in the midrash.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, M C; Knight, L

    2001-11-01

    This paper elucidates and explains an ancient midrash (rabbinic interpretation of a biblical text) through the lens of modern psychological theory. The midrash describes Moses' reactions to his approaching death. The paper points out that these reactions anticipate the five classic stages, described by Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, of coming to accept terminal illness: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. The article shows the ancient rabbis' sensitivity to human feeling and the universal nature of human reaction through the dialogue and reactions they attribute to Moses. Finally, it shows how using this midrash offers a constructive model for approaching death, for Jewish and non-Jewish patients alike, as well as their caregivers.

  8. Newman and Ross work on the Early Communications System in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-19

    STS088-334-033 (4-15 Dec. 1998) --- Astronauts Jerry L. Ross (on left with camera) and James H. Newman, both mission specialists, work in the Unity Module (Node 1). This task was designed to complete the assembly of an early S-band communications system that will allow flight controllers in Houston, Texas, to send commands to Unity's systems and to keep tabs on the health of the station with a more extensive communications capability than exists through Russian ground stations.

  9. STS-37 Mission Specialist Ross in OV-104's payload bay (PLB) during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross, suited in extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), peers into Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, aft flight deck viewing window while performing emergency extravehicular activity (EVA) procedures in the payload bay (PLB). The unscheduled EVA was necessary to manually extend the Gamma Ray Observatory's (GRO's) high gain antenna (HGA). The GRO grappled by the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector and held above the PLB is visible in the background. The entire scene is backdropped against the blue and white surface of the Earth.

  10. STS-110 M.S. Ross in M-113 personnel carrier during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialist Jerry Ross waits his turn at driving the M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. In the background, right, is Mission Specialist Lee Morin. TCDT includes emergency egress training and a simulated launch countdown, and is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  11. Chili Cookoff: Unique Ingredients Prove Successful in Ross Smith’s Big Pot of Chili | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer If the past is any indication, judges at the Protective Services Chili Cookoff give high marks for chili recipes containing unique or uncommon ingredients. Previous winning recipes have included ingredients such as black beans, pumpkin, pineapple, pork loin, and even bourbon. Judges at the 12th annual event, held Jan. 5, continued this tradition by voting for Ross Smith’s Big Pot of Chili, which featured three types of meat, four different sauces, baker’s chocolate, and parmesan rind.  

  12. STS-110 M.S. Ross and Smith in M-113 personnel carrier during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- With STS-110 Mission Specialists Jerry Ross (far left) and Steven Smith (third from left) on board, Commander Michael Bloomfield scatters dust as he practices driving the M-113 armored personnel carrier. The driving is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include emergency egress training and a simulated launch countdown. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  13. STS-110 M.S. Smith and Ross in slidewire basket during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-110 Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith (left) and Jerry L. Ross (right) get ready to climb out of the slidewire basket, part of emergency egress equipment on the launch pad.. The crew is taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which also include a simulated launch countdown, held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  14. STS-110 M.S. Smith, Ross, and Walheim in Atlantis during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- (Left to right) STS-110 Mission Specialists Steven Smith, Jerry Ross and Rex Walheim settle into their seats aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis prior to a simulated launch countdown. The simulation is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. TCDT also includes emergency egress training and is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight. Scheduled for launch April 4, the 11-day mission will feature Shuttle Atlantis docking with the International Space Station (ISS) and delivering the S0 truss, the centerpiece-segment of the primary truss structure that will eventually extend over 300 feet.

  15. Remote sensing study of land use and sedimentation in the Ross Barnett Reservoir, Jackson, Mississippi area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mealor, W. T., Jr.; Pinson, T. W.; Wertz, D. L.; Hoskin, C. M.; Williams, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    This multi-year study is aimed at focusing on the recognition of sediment and other affluents in a selected area of the Ross Barnett Reservoir. The principle objectives are the determination of land use types, effect of land use on erosion, and the correlation of sediment with land use in the area. The I2S multi-band imagery was employed in conjunction with ground truth data for both water and land use studies. The selected test site contains approximately forty square miles including forest, open land, and water in addition to residential and recreational areas.

  16. The effects of changing winds and temperatures on the oceanography of the Ross Sea in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walker O.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.

    2014-03-01

    The Ross Sea is critically important in regulating Antarctic sea ice and is biologically productive, which makes changes in the region's physical environment of global concern. We examined the effects of projected changes in atmospheric temperatures and winds on aspects of the ocean circulation likely important to primary production using a high-resolution sea ice-ocean-ice shelf model of the Ross Sea. The modeled summer sea-ice concentrations decreased by 56% by 2050 and 78% by 2100. The duration of shallow mixed layers over the continental shelf increased by 8.5 and 19.2 days in 2050 and 2100, and the mean summer mixed layer depths decreased by 12 and 44%. These results suggest that the annual phytoplankton production in the future will increase and become more diatomaceous. Other components of the Ross Sea food web will likely be severely disrupted, creating significant but unpredictable impacts on the ocean's most pristine ecosystem.

  17. Mixed-phase cloud radiative properties over Ross Island, Antarctica: The influence of various synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Ryan C.; Lubin, Dan

    2014-06-01

    Spectral downwelling shortwave irradiance measurements made beneath overcast stratiform cloud decks at Ross Island, Antarctica (77.5°S, 167°E), are used in conjunction with discrete ordinates-based radiative transfer simulations to examine how mixed-phase clouds influence shortwave irradiance at the surface during austral spring-summer. From 10 October 2012 until 4 February 2013, an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Inc.) spectroradiometer deployed at the Arrival Heights (77.82°S, 166.65°E) laboratory of McMurdo Station measured in 1 min averages the downwelling spectral hemispheric (direct plus diffuse) irradiance spanning visible (VIS) and near-infrared regions of the solar spectrum, from 350 to 2200 nm. Conservative-scattering cloud optical depth τc is retrieved in the interval 1022-1033 nm, where the albedo of the snow-covered surface is lower than at VIS wavelengths. The impact of liquid versus mixed-phase cloud properties on the surface shortwave energy budget is discerned using irradiances in the 1.6 μm window. Five case studies employ NASA A-Train satellite and ancillary meteorological data sets to investigate the macrophysical, microphysical, and shortwave radiative characteristics of clouds possessing distinct meteorological histories. Cloud systems within marine air masses arriving at Ross Island after transiting the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) and the Ross Ice Shelf are radiatively dominated by the ice phase. In contrast, moist marine air moving directly onshore from the Ross Sea brings low clouds with a stronger influence of liquid water. Deep cyclonic disturbances over the Ross Sea are seen to be limited in their ability to deliver significant moisture as far south as Ross Island, where clouds are mainly optically thin.

  18. Evaluation of the Ross fast solution of Richards’ equation in unfavourable conditions for standard finite element methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crevoisier, David; Chanzy, André; Voltz, Marc

    2009-06-01

    Ross [Ross PJ. Modeling soil water and solute transport - fast, simplified numerical solutions. Agron J 2003;95:1352-61] developed a fast, simplified method for solving Richards' equation. This non-iterative 1D approach, using Brooks and Corey [Brooks RH, Corey AT. Hydraulic properties of porous media. Hydrol. papers, Colorado St. Univ., Fort Collins; 1964] hydraulic functions, allows a significant reduction in computing time while maintaining the accuracy of the results. The first aim of this work is to confirm these results in a more extensive set of problems, including those that would lead to serious numerical difficulties for the standard numerical method. The second aim is to validate a generalisation of the Ross method to other mathematical representations of hydraulic functions. The Ross method is compared with the standard finite element model, Hydrus-1D [Simunek J, Sejna M, Van Genuchten MTh. The HYDRUS-1D and HYDRUS-2D codes for estimating unsaturated soil hydraulic and solutes transport parameters. Agron Abstr 357; 1999]. Computing time, accuracy of results and robustness of numerical schemes are monitored in 1D simulations involving different types of homogeneous soils, grids and hydrological conditions. The Ross method associated with modified Van Genuchten hydraulic functions [Vogel T, Cislerova M. On the reliability of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity calculated from the moisture retention curve. Transport Porous Media 1988;3:1-15] proves in every tested scenario to be more robust numerically, and the compromise of computing time/accuracy is seen to be particularly improved on coarse grids. Ross method run from 1.25 to 14 times faster than Hydrus-1D.

  19. The Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) Project - Did the Ross Ice Shelf Collapse During MIS 5e?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertler, N. A. N.; Conway, H.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Blunier, T.; Brook, E.; Dadic, R.; Delmonte, B.; Dongqi, Z.; Edwards, R.; Emanuelsson, D. B.; Fudge, T. J.; Golledge, N.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.; Hawley, R. L.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Kurbatov, A.; Lee, J.; Mayewski, P. A.; Naish, T.; Neff, P. D.; Scherer, R. P.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Simonsen, M. F.; Steig, E. J.; Tuohy, A.; Vallelonga, P. T.; Waddington, E. D.

    2014-12-01

    Geological evidence and modelling experiments suggest that the removal of ice shelves from marine based ice sheets can lead to catastrophic collapse. Roosevelt and Ross Islands are thought to be key stabilization anchors for the Ross Ice Shelf and thus the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. As part of the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project, a 763m deep ice core was recovered during 2011-2013 from Roosevelt Island, at the northern edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. The ice at Roosevelt Island is grounded 210m below sea level and accumulates in situ, with the Ross Ice Shelf flowing around the rise. High resolution radar surveys show a well developed Raymond Bump at the divide of the ice dome. With the conclusion of the RICE core processing campaign in July 2014, a preliminary age model is developed using annual layer count, volcanic ash layers; and high resolution methane data tied to the WAIS Divide ice core record, and a glacial flow model. Here we show preliminary data spanning over 100 ka including evidence of ice from the Eemian period (MIS 5e) at the base of the core. The presence of Eemian ice in the RICE record raises the question: how much of the Ross Ice Shelf and West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapsed during the last interglacial, when global sea level was 4-8m higher than today? We discuss reconstructions of sea surface and air temperature, sea ice extent, atmospheric circulation patterns, and ice shelf retreat. An ensemble of sensitivity modelling experiments is used to determine thresholds for the removal of ice on Roosevelt Island and correlated grounding line and ice volume changes of the Ross Ice Shelf and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  20. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross and Payload Specialist Walter work in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross floats near cycle ergometer and Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) as German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter reviews a checklist in front of Rack 11 Experiment Rack. These experiment stations and the crewmembers are in the shirt-sleeve environment of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. In the background is the SL-D2 aft end cone. Behind Ross and Walter is Rack 12 Experiment Rack with Baroreflex (BA).

  1. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-117 - Ross Complex)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Elaine

    2003-01-16

    Vegetation Management for the non-electric portions of the Bonneville Power Administration’s Ross Complex. BPA proposes to manage and maintain grounds and landscaping in the non-electrical portions of the Ross Facility. Vegetation management at the Facility shall include: 1) bare ground management of graveled storage areas, perimeter roads and parking areas; 2) mechanical and/or spot herbicide control of some broad leafs and noxious weeds; 3) mowing, fertilizing, and broadleaf control of landscaped lawn areas; 4) weed control in ornamental shrub areas; and 4) areas requiring only mechanical control to manage unwanted grasses, and shrubs.

  2. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross and Payload Specialist Walter work in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross floats near cycle ergometer and Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) as German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter reviews a checklist in front of Rack 11 Experiment Rack. These experiment stations and the crewmembers are in the shirt-sleeve environment of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. In the background is the SL-D2 aft end cone. Behind Ross and Walter is Rack 12 Experiment Rack with Baroreflex (BA).

  3. The molecular and cellular aspects of arthritis due to alphavirus infections: lesson learned from Ross River virus.

    PubMed

    Rulli, Nestor E; Melton, Julian; Wilmes, Anja; Ewart, Gary; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2007-04-01

    Alphaviruses such as the Sindbis-group viruses, Scandinavian Ockelbo virus, the African Asian chikungunya virus, the African O'nyong-nyong virus, the South American Mayaro virus, and the Australasian Barmah Forest and Ross River viruses, are commonly associated with outbreaks of acute and persistent arthritis and arthralgia in humans. The mechanisms by which these viruses cause arthritis/arthralgia are poorly understood. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of viral arthritides using our newly developed mouse model of Ross River virus-induced joint and muscle inflammation.

  4. Increase of the Antarctic Sea Ice Extent is highly significant only in the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Naiming; Ding, Minghu; Ludescher, Josef; Bunde, Armin

    2017-01-01

    In the context of global warming, the question of why Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) has increased is one of the most fundamental unsolved mysteries. Although many mechanisms have been proposed, it is still unclear whether the increasing trend is anthropogenically originated or only caused by internal natural variability. In this study, we employ a new method where the underlying natural persistence in the Antarctic SIE can be correctly accounted for. We find that the Antarctic SIE is not simply short-term persistent as assumed in the standard significance analysis, but actually characterized by a combination of both short- and long-term persistence. By generating surrogate data with the same persistence properties, the SIE trends over Antarctica (as well as five sub-regions) are evaluated using Monte-Carlo simulations. It is found that the SIE trends over most sub-regions of Antarctica are not statistically significant. Only the SIE over Ross Sea has experienced a highly significant increasing trend (p = 0.008) which cannot be explained by natural variability. Influenced by the positive SIE trend over Ross Sea, the SIE over the entire Antarctica also increased over the past decades, but the trend is only at the edge of being significant (p = 0.034).

  5. Skeletal and isotopic composition and paleoclimatic significance of late Pleistocene carbonates, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Taviani, M. ); Reid, D.E.; Anderson, J.B. )

    1993-01-01

    Carbonates cover an extensive area of the northwestern Ross Sea continental shelf. Radiocarbon dates yield late Pleistocene (stage 3) ages for these deposits, hence the carbonates appear to be correlative with widespread tills and glacial marine deposits in the region. Four carbonate facies are recognized on the basis of skeletal composition: a barnacle/foraminifer facies, a muddy bryozoan facies, a bryozoan/barnacle/pelecypod/foraminifer facies, and a planktonic foraminiferal facies. These deposits occur on the shelf and upper slope, while carbonate turbidities derived from them occur on the adjacent continental slope and rise. Compositional analyses of Ross Sea carbonates lend support to previously recognized criteria for identifying cold water carbonates. These include: (1) the presence of an associated ice-rafted component (including dropstones); (2) a dominance of calcite relative to other carbonate minerals (the remaining fraction consists solely of aragonite); (3) allochems that are entirely skeletal; and (4) heavy oxygen isotopic compositions (in the range of +3.0 to +5.1% PDB).

  6. Krill distribution in relation to environmental parameters in mesoscale structures in the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonori, Iole; De Felice, Andrea; Canduci, Giovanni; Costantini, Ilaria; Biagiotti, Ilaria; Giuliani, Giordano; Budillon, Giorgio

    2017-02-01

    Krill, a key pelagic resource of the Antarctic food web, provides an important link between primary and secondary plankton production and top predators. Since krill abundance is a crucial factor in Antarctic ecosystem functioning, its monitoring supplies vital data. Acoustic surveys are an effective approach to estimating krill abundance. An acoustic survey was conducted in the western Ross Sea in January 2014-10 years after a similar survey by our team - to estimate krill abundance and biomass and monitor oceanographic conditions. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) was detected in the northern part of the western Ross Sea and dense swarms of ice krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) were found in its central coastal area. Data analysis revealed an inverse correlation between E. superba density and salinity in the water column, whereas a positive correlation was found between E. crystallorophias abundance and fluorescence; the latter relationship was confirmed in thematic maps of E. crystallorophias spatial distribution and fluorescence. Comparison of 2004 and 2014 biomass data showed a much greater abundance of both species in the more recent survey.

  7. Acoustic monitoring in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, using hydrophone of the Ocean Bottom Seismometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sukyoung; Lee, Won Sang; Kuk Hong, Jong; Yoo, Hyun Jae; Park, Yongcheol; Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita; Geissler, Wolfram H.

    2016-04-01

    Although a number of active source seismic experiments have been conducted over the last few decades to investigate the crustal structure in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, long-term observation to monitor underwater tectonic activities and changes in the cryospheric environment still remains challenging due to existence of sea ice in the study region. Korea Polar Research Institute has accomplished successful deployment of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) in the Ross Sea collaborating with Alfred Wegener Institute during the period of 2011-2012 and 2014 by Korean icebreaker RV Araon. The OBS system manufactured by K.U.M. contains a hydrophone sensor that allow us to monitor underwater acoustics generated by tectonic and ice-related events. We present spectrograms of the continuous hydroacoustic data and various types of signals, e.g. seismic T-waves, iceequakes, and tremors. There are periodic and harmonic tremors that might be related with tidal modulation, and the seasonal variation of the background noise seems to be related with sea ice concentration.

  8. Inland diatoms from the McMurdo Dry Valleys and James Ross Island, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esposito, R.M.M.; Spaulding, S.A.; McKnight, Diane M.; Van De Vijver, B.; Kopalova, K.; Lubinski, D.; Hall, B.; Whittaker, T.

    2008-01-01

    Diatom taxa present in the inland streams and lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and James Ross Island, Antarctica, are presented in this paper. A total of nine taxa are illustrated, with descriptions of four new species (Luticola austroatlantica sp. nov., Luticola dolia sp. nov., Luticola laeta sp. nov., Muelleria supra sp. nov.). In the perennially ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, diatoms are confined to benthic mats within the photic zone. In streams, diatoms are attached to benthic surfaces and within the microbial mat matrix. One species, L. austroatlantica, is found on James Ross Island, of the southern Atlantic archipelago, and the McMurdo Dry Valleys. The McMurdo Dry Valley populations are at the lower range of the size spectrum for the species. Streams flow for 6-10 weeks during the austral summer, when temperatures and solar radiation allow glacial ice to melt. The diatom flora of the region is characterized by species assemblages favored under harsh conditions, with naviculoid taxa as the dominant group and several major diatom groups conspicuously absent. ?? 2008 NRC.

  9. Interactive effects of iron, irradiance and CO 2 on Ross Sea phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Hare, C. E.; Rose, J. M.; Handy, S. M.; Ditullio, G. R.; Lee, P. A.; Smith, W. O., Jr.; Peloquin, J.; Tozzi, S.; Sun, J.; Zhang, Y.; Dunbar, R. B.; Long, M. C.; Sohst, B.; Lohan, M.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2010-03-01

    We conducted a factorial shipboard continuous culture experiment to examine the interactive effects of altered iron, irradiance and CO 2 on the summer phytoplankton community of the Ross Sea, Antarctica. After 18 days of continuous incubation, iron enrichment increased phytoplankton biomass, nutrient drawdown, diatom and Phaeocystis abundance, and some photosynthetic parameters. High irradiance significantly increased the number of Phaeocystis antarctica colonies, as well as P. antarctica abundance relative to diatoms. Iron and light had significant interactive effects on diatom and P. antarctica pigment concentrations, P. antarctica colony abundance, and Si:N, Si:C, and N:P ratios. The major influence of high CO 2 was on diatom community structure, by favoring the large centric diatom Chaetoceros lineola over the small pennate species Cylindrotheca closterium. The ratio of centric to pennate diatoms was significantly responsive to changes in all three variables individually, and to all of their possible two- and three-way combinations. These results suggest that shifts in light, iron, and CO 2 and their mutual interactions all play a role in controlling present day Ross Sea plankton community structure, and need to be considered when predicting the possible future responses of biology and biogeochemistry in this region.

  10. Ross ice shelf cavity circulation, residence time, and melting: Results from a model of oceanic chlorofluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Tasha E.; Holland, David M.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2010-04-01

    Despite their harmful effects in the upper atmosphere, anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons dissolved in seawater are extremely useful for studying ocean circulation and ventilation, particularly in remote locations. Because they behave as a passive tracer in seawater, and their atmospheric concentrations are well-mixed, well-known, and have changed over time, they are ideal for gaining insight into the oceanographic characteristics of the isolated cavities found under Antarctic ice shelves, where direct observations are difficult to obtain. Here we present results from a modeling study of air-sea chlorofluorocarbon exchange and ocean circulation in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. We compare our model estimates of oceanic CFC-12 concentrations along an ice shelf edge transect to field data collected during three cruises spanning 16 yr. Our model produces chlorofluorocarbon concentrations that are quite similar to those measured in the field, both in magnitude and distribution, showing high values near the surface, decreasing with depth, and increasing over time. After validating modeled circulation and air-sea gas exchange through comparison of modeled temperature, salinity, and chlorofluorocarbons with field data, we estimate that the residence time of water in the Ross Ice Shelf cavity is approximately 2.2 yr and that basal melt rates for the ice shelf average 10 cm yr -1. The model predicts a seasonal signature to basal melting, with highest melt rates in the spring and also the fall.

  11. Astronaut Ross Approaches Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross, perched on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) approaches the erected ACCESS. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  12. Competition among penguins and cetaceans reveals trophic cascades in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ainley, David G; Ballard, Grant; Dugger, Katie M

    2006-08-01

    An apparent trophic cascade that appears during summer in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, explains why the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum) there becomes cannibalistic; its principal prey, crystal krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) becomes scarce; and the diatom community is minimally grazed compared to adjacent areas. The krill is the major grazer of diatoms. On the basis of fieldwork at Ross Island, we suggest that the cascade results from foraging by unusually numerous Adélie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae), minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis), and fish-eating killer whales (Orcinus orca). These species and other top predators apparently deplete the krill and silverfish. In drawing our conclusions, we were aided by two "natural experiments." In one "experiment," large, grounded icebergs altered the seasonal pattern of change in regional sea-ice cover, but not the seasonal change in penguin diet and foraging behavior that was also detected during the pre-iceberg era. In the other "experiment," a short-term polynya (opening in the ice) brought penguins and whales together in a confined area, this time altering both penguin diet and foraging behavior. We conclude that the foraging of penguins and whales, and not a formerly hypothesized seasonal decrease in sea-ice cover, explains (1) the annual switch in the penguins' prey from krill to silverfish, (2) the subsequent lengthening of penguin foraging trips, and (3) a marked decline of cetaceans in the area later in the season. Reduction in the middle-trophic-level prey is expressed in the relaxed grazing pressure on phytoplankton.

  13. Nursing the dying: implications of Kübler-Ross' staging theory.

    PubMed

    Germain, C P

    1980-01-01

    Society's failure to value the work of nurses, the professionals most frequently involved in the care of the dying, is attributed to a cultural definition of nursing as a second-class occupation and the public's need to deny the realities of the suffering and indignities often associated with the process of dying. Efforts within the field of nursing to improve the care of the dying, by shifting emphasis from a narrow physical focus to a more holistic patient and family focus, preceded the past decade's contributions of Elisabeth Kübler-Ross. Although her staging theory has been cited as having limitations in development and in interpretation, Kübler-Ross' influence towards increasing awareness of the needs of the dying and others experiencing major losses has been substantial as evidenced by many references to staging theory in nursing literature, by a marked increase in attention to holistic care of the dying in the basic and continuing education programs of nursing, and by specialty role development in nursing care of the dying. This decade has also witnessed the major growth of professionalism in nursing, including strides towards professional autonomy. Conflict with the traditional pattern of medical dominance and bureacratic constraints in institutions is inevitable, especially when the medical goal of cure is not attainable. Change to an interdisciplinary model of care is viewed as essential for optimal care of the dying and their families.

  14. Glider observations of the biological response to Modified Circumpolar Deep Water Variability in the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, D.; Kaufman, D.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Smith, W.

    2011-12-01

    The Ross Sea is the most productive area within the Southern Ocean, and is believed to play a significant role in the global marine carbon cycle. This region is also characterized by strong spatial and temporal variability in both physical and biogeochemical conditions; however this variability occurs on spatial and temporal scales that are difficult to resolve with traditional data sources. In order to better understand this variability, two gliders were deployed in the Ross Sea in late November 2010 during the early stages of the summer plankton bloom. Together, the two gliders made over 1500 dives and collected data (salinity, temperature, fluorescence and oxygen) throughout the water column for roughly two months. The data from these gliders were used to identify the presence of the relatively high-nutrient Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW), which has been hypothesized to be a significant factor affecting the spatial and temporal extent of the summer plankton blooms. Preliminary data analyses indicate a positive correlation between areas of MCDW and high chlorophyll concentrations. The glider data were also compared to contemporaneous cruise data and satellite data and were found to fit well with these other data, yet were better able to resolve the high temporal and spatial variability of this region. Specifically, the lower resolution of the cruise data, as compared to the glider data, made it difficult to resolve the correlation of MCDW to high chlorophyll from the cruise data alone.

  15. Increase of the Antarctic Sea Ice Extent is highly significant only in the Ross Sea

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Naiming; Ding, Minghu; Ludescher, Josef; Bunde, Armin

    2017-01-01

    In the context of global warming, the question of why Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) has increased is one of the most fundamental unsolved mysteries. Although many mechanisms have been proposed, it is still unclear whether the increasing trend is anthropogenically originated or only caused by internal natural variability. In this study, we employ a new method where the underlying natural persistence in the Antarctic SIE can be correctly accounted for. We find that the Antarctic SIE is not simply short-term persistent as assumed in the standard significance analysis, but actually characterized by a combination of both short- and long-term persistence. By generating surrogate data with the same persistence properties, the SIE trends over Antarctica (as well as five sub-regions) are evaluated using Monte-Carlo simulations. It is found that the SIE trends over most sub-regions of Antarctica are not statistically significant. Only the SIE over Ross Sea has experienced a highly significant increasing trend (p = 0.008) which cannot be explained by natural variability. Influenced by the positive SIE trend over Ross Sea, the SIE over the entire Antarctica also increased over the past decades, but the trend is only at the edge of being significant (p = 0.034). PMID:28117453

  16. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

  17. Ross-Kabbani Operation in an Infant with Mitral Valve Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Napoleone, Carlo Pace; Oppido, Guido; Angeli, Emanuela; Giardini, Alessandro; Gargiulo, Gaetano

    2009-01-01

    Background. Mitral valve replacement can be very difficult to obtain in infants because the valve annulus diameter can be smaller than the available prosthesis. Case Report. We describe the case of a 2-month-old female weighing 3.5 kg affected by mitral valve dysplasia leading to severe valve stenosis. Despite full medication, the clinical conditions were critical and surgery was undertaken. The mitral valve was unsuitable for repair and the orifice of mitral anulus was 12 mm, too small for a mechanical prosthesis. Therefore, a Ross-Kabbani operation was undertaken, replacing the mitral valve with the pulmonary autograft and reconstructing the right ventricular outflow tract with an etherograft. Results. The postoperative course was uneventful and the clinical conditions are good at 4-month follow-up. Conclusion. The Ross-Kabbani operation can be an interesting alternative to mitral valve replacement in infants when valve repair is not achievable and there is little space for an intra-annular mechanical prosthesis implant. PMID:20049318

  18. The Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in the Ross Sea (Antarctica), Based on Downhole Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buecker, C.; Jarrard, R.; Ehrmann, W.; Niessen, F.; Wonik, T.

    2001-12-01

    Drillholes CRP-1 to 3 of the Cape Roberts Project in the Northern McMurdo Sound (Ross Sea, Antarctica) targeted the western margin of the Victoria Land Basin to investigate Neogene to Paleogene climatic and tectonic history. Drilling on fast sea ice resulted in coring a stratigraphic succession with a composite thickness of 1500 m and an age range of 17 - 34 Ma. Well logging of CRP-3 has provided a complete and comprehensive dataset of in situ geophysical measurements down to 939 meters below sea floor (mbsf). By cluster analysis of the downhole logging data, it was possible to divide the borehole into three main sections. The upper section down to 230 mbsf is dominated by mudstones with clearly different physical properties from the mudstones occurring below this depth. Beneath 230 mbsf sandstones are dominating the lithology. Two types of sandstones could be characterized, with the lower sandstone being dominant below 630 mbsf down to a brecciated shear zone at 790 mbsf. These two types of sandstones, which are differentiated mainly by their magnetic properties, can be correlated to the detrital mode provenance analysis. The boundary marks the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. Comparison of these results with the seismic stratigraphy shows that the major change in sediment source from Victoria to Taylor Group is not seen by seismic sequence analysis. This finding will have consequences for the entire Ross Sea seismic stratigraphy.

  19. Downhole measurements and their use for stratigraphic correlations in the Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bücker, C.; Jarrard, R.; Ehrmann, W.; Niessen, F.; Wonik, T.

    2003-04-01

    Drillholes CRP-1 to 3 of the Cape Roberts Project in the Northern McMurdo Sound (Ross Sea, Antarctica) targeted the western margin of the Victoria Land Basin to investigate Neogene to Paleogene climatic and tectonic history. Drilling on fast sea ice resulted in coring a stratigraphic succession with a composite thickness of 1500 m and an age range of 17 - 34 Ma. Well logging of CRP-3 has provided a complete and comprehensive dataset of in situ geophysical measurements down to 939 meters below sea floor (mbsf). By cluster analysis of the downhole logging data, it was possible to divide the borehole into three main sections. The upper section down to 230 mbsf is dominated by mudstones with clearly different physical properties from the mudstones occurring below this depth. Beneath 230 mbsf sandstones are dominating the lithology. Two types of sandstones could be characterized, with the lower sandstone being dominant below 630 mbsf down to a brecciated shear zone at 790 mbsf. These two types of sandstones, which are differentiated mainly by their magnetic properties, can be correlated to the detrital mode provenance analysis. The boundary marks the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. Comparison of these results with the seismic stratigraphy shows that the major change in sediment source from Victoria to Taylor Group is not seen by seismic sequence analysis. This finding will have consequences for the entire Ross Sea seismic stratigraphy.

  20. Acute plateletpheresis and aprotinin reduces the need for blood transfusion following Ross operation.

    PubMed

    Al-Rashidi, Faleh; Bhat, Misha; Pierre, Leif; Koul, Bansi

    2007-10-01

    The effect of acute intraoperative plateletpheresis (25% platelet yield) in combination with intraoperative low-dose aprotinin (2 million units) on blood conservation was investigated in 18 young adult patients undergoing elective Ross operation. The results were compared with a group of 19 similar patients without plateletpheresis (control group). The hematological and coagulation parameters at admission and discharge were statistically similar in both groups. The total blood product transfusion requirements were significantly reduced in the plateletpheresis group compared with the control group (3.2 units and 5.1 units, respectively, P=0.036). The total blood donor exposure was also reduced significantly in the plateletpheresis group compared with the control group (3.2 and 6.9 donors/patient, respectively, P<0.001). The direct costs for the hospital for the plateletpheresis procedure, including costs for all blood products, were similar to those for blood products alone in the control group. In summary, acute plateletpheresis in combination with low-dose aprotinin significantly reduces the blood product transfusions and blood donor exposures following the Ross operation; the treatment is cost-effective.

  1. Bacterivory by a Summer Assemblage of Nanoplankton in the Ross Sea, Antarctica: Mixotrophic Versus Heterotrophic Protists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, R. W.; Gast, R. J.

    2016-02-01

    Many protists traditionally described as phototrophic have recently been shown to have retained the primitive trait of phagotrophy, and thus function as mixotrophs. Mixotrophic nanoflagellates were identified in every sample examined from a summer cruise in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, where they often were more abundant than heterotrophic nanoflagellates that have previously been considered the major bacterivores in marine waters. Mixotrophs, identified by uptake of fluorescent tracers, comprised similar proportions (9-75%) of the total bacterivorous flagellates in summer as were previously determined for an earlier spring cruise in the Ross Sea. Protist diversity also was linked to functional bacterivores using a culture-independent method in which BrdU-labeled DNA of bacterial prey was incorporated into the DNA of eukaryotic grazers. Immunoprecipitation of the BrdU-labeld DNA was followed by high-throughput sequencing to identify a diverse group of bacterivores, including numerous uncultured eukaryotes. However, its utility for identification of mixotrophs was limited by the availability of sequences from known mixotrophs.

  2. Occurrence and metabolic activity of organisms under the ross ice shelf, antarctica, at station j9.

    PubMed

    Azam, F; Beers, J R; Campbell, L; Carlucci, A F; Holm-Hansen, O; Reid, F M; Karl, D M

    1979-02-02

    Seawater samples below the Ross Ice Shelf were collected through an access hole at J9, approximately 400 kilometers from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The 237-meter water column had sparse populations of bacteria (8.7 x 10(6) to 1.2 x 10(7) per liter), microplankters (10(2) to 10(3) per cubic meter), and zooplankters (10 to 20 per cubic meter) at the depths studied. Microbial biomass estimates from cellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate measurements were very low (10 to 150 nanograms of carbon per liter), comparable with values for the abyssal ocean. Microbial populations assimilated tritiated D-glucose, thymidine, uridine, and adenosine triphosphate at extremely low rates, comparable with deep-sea heterotrophic populations. Sediment samples had 10(7) to 10(8) bacteria per gram (dry weight), which were metabolically active as shown by respiration of uniformly labeled D-[(14)C]glucose. From this study it cannot be determined whether these organisms in the water column and sediments constitute a functioning food web.

  3. Recent changes in the flow of the Ross Ice Shelf, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulbe, Christina L.; Scambos, Ted A.; Lee, Choon-Ki; Bohlander, Jennifer; Haran, Terry

    2013-08-01

    Comparison of surface velocities measured during the Ross Ice Shelf Geophysical and Glaciological Survey (RIGGS, 1973 to 1978) and velocities measured via feature tracking between two Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) mosaics (compiled from 2003/4 and 2008/9 images) reveals widespread slowing and minor areas of acceleration in the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) over the approximately 30 year interval. The largest changes (-13 ma) occur near the Whillans and Mercer Ice Streams grounding line in the southernmost part of the ice shelf. Speed has increased over the interval (up to 5 ma) between the MacAyeal Ice Stream grounding line and the shelf front, and along the eastern shelf front. Changes in ice thickness computed using ICESat laser altimetry are used together with a well-tested model of the ice shelf to investigate underlying causes of change in the flow of the ice shelf over time. The observed transients represent a combination of recent forcings and ongoing response to ice stream discharge variations over the past millennium. While evidence of older events may be present, the modern signal is dominated by shorter time scale events, including the stagnation of Kamb Ice Stream about 160 years ago, recent changes in basal drag on the Whillans Ice Stream ice plain and, perhaps, iceberg calving. Details in embayment geometry, for example the shallow sea floor below Crary Ice Rise, modulate the spatial pattern of ice shelf response to boundary condition perturbations.

  4. Enhanced cross-shelf exchange by tides in the western Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Danilov, S.; Hellmer, H.; Sidorenko, D.; Schröter, J.; Jung, T.

    2013-11-01

    The western Ross Sea is one of the key sites for cross-shelf water exchange around Antarctica. The mechanism through which tides affect the cross-shelf exchange in the northwestern Ross Sea is investigated using numerical simulations. Tides are found to increase the high-salinity shelf water (HSSW) outflow through the impact on the warm water intrusion of open ocean origin. The residual tidal currents are onshore along the Modified Circumpolar Deep Water pathway and therefore enhance its intrusion. Lighter ambient water adjacent to the HSSW increases the cross-flow density gradient, thus strengthening the HSSW export. At the same time, the onshore residual current and increased dilution of the HSSW have the potential to reduce the export rate. Owing to the existence of opposite tidal effects, the strongest HSSW export happens at the intermediate tidal forcing strength. The amplification of tides on cross-shelf exchange indicates that the relevant dynamical processes should be simulated or parameterized in climate models in order to adequately predict the ocean.

  5. Estimating the benthic efflux of dissolved iron on the Ross Sea continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsay, C. M.; Sedwick, P. N.; Dinniman, M. S.; Barrett, P. M.; Mack, S. L.; McGillicuddy, D. J.

    2014-11-01

    Continental margin sediments provide a potentially large but poorly constrained source of dissolved iron (dFe) to the upper ocean. The Ross Sea continental shelf is one region where this benthic supply is thought to play a key role in regulating the magnitude of seasonal primary production. Here we present data collected during austral summer 2012 that reveal contrasting low surface (0.08 ± 0.07 nM) and elevated near-seafloor (0.74 ± 0.47 nM) dFe concentrations. Combining these observations with results from a high-resolution physical circulation model, we estimate dFe efflux of 5.8 × 107 mol yr-1 from the deeper portions (>400 m) of the Ross Sea continental shelf; more than sufficient to account for the inferred "winter reserve" dFe inventory at the onset of the growing season. In addition, elevated dFe concentrations observed over shallower bathymetry suggest that such features provide additional inputs of dFe to the euphotic zone throughout the year.

  6. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.

    PubMed

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10).

  7. New age control on a mid-shelf grounding event in Eastern Basin, Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, A. N.; Bart, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) was grounded at the continental shelf edge in the eastern Ross Sea during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but the precise chronology is debated. Post-LGM ice retreat chronologies have been developed using radiocarbon dating, mainly of acid-insoluble organics (AIO). Foraminifer tests yield more accurate radiocarbon dates than AIO because forams are less likely to be contaminated by allochthonous carbon, but unfortunately forams are sparse in Antarctic marine sediment cores. Here we show four consistent radiocarbon dates from forams in cored intervals within the foreset of a mid-continental-shelf grounding-zone wedge in Eastern Basin, Ross Sea. Our new radiocarbon dates reveal that the WAIS was grounded on the mid continental shelf circa 32,000 14C yr B.P., suggesting that retreat from this position began more than 10,000 years prior to the maximum sea level fall and global cooling associated with LGM. The dates contradict previous studies, which concluded that the WAIS was at its maximum shelf edge extent during LGM.

  8. Ice-stream initiation, duration and thinning on James Ross Island, northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, N. F.; Davies, B. J.; Carrivick, J. L.; Rodés, A.; Hambrey, M. J.; Smellie, J. L.; Domack, E.

    2014-02-01

    Predicting the future response of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to climate change requires an understanding of the ice streams that dominate its dynamics. Here we use cosmogenic isotope exposure-age dating (26Al, 10Be and 36Cl) of erratic boulders on ice-free land on James Ross Island, north-eastern Antarctic Peninsula, to define the evolution of Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ice in the adjacent Prince Gustav Channel. These data include ice-sheet extent, thickness and dynamical behaviour. Prior to ˜18 ka, the LGM Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet extended to the continental shelf-edge and transported erratic boulders onto high-elevation mesas on James Ross Island. After ˜18 ka there was a period of rapid ice-sheet surface-lowering, coincident with the initiation of the Prince Gustav Ice Stream. This timing coincided with rapid increases in atmospheric temperature and eustatic sea-level rise around the Antarctic Peninsula. Collectively, these data provide evidence for a transition from a thick, cold-based LGM Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet to a thinner, partially warm-based ice sheet during deglaciation.

  9. Changes on the ice plain of Ice Stream B and Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shabtaie, Sion

    1993-01-01

    During the 1970's and 1980's, nearly 200 stations from which accurate, three dimensional position fixes have been obtained from TRANSIT satellites were occupied throughout the Ross Ice Shelf. We have transformed the elevations obtained by satellite altimetry to the same geodetic datum, and then applied a second transformation to reduce the geodetic heights to elevations above mean sea level using the GEM-10C geoidal height. On the IGY Ross Ice Shelf traverse between Oct. 1957 and Feb. 1958, an accurate method of barometric altimetry was used on a loop around the ice shelf that was directly tied to the sea at both ends of the travel route, thus providing absolute elevations. Comparisons of the two sets of data at 32 station pairs on floating ice show a mean difference of 0 +/- 1 m. The elevation data were also compared with theoretical values of elevations for a hydrostatically floating ice shelf. The mean difference between theoretical and measured values of elevations is -2 +/- 1 m.

  10. Changes on the ice plain of Ice Stream B and Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shabtaie, Sion

    1993-01-01

    During the 1970's and 1980's, nearly 200 stations from which accurate, three dimensional position fixes have been obtained from TRANSIT satellites were occupied throughout the Ross Ice Shelf. We have transformed the elevations obtained by satellite altimetry to the same geodetic datum, and then applied a second transformation to reduce the geodetic heights to elevations above mean sea level using the GEM-10C geoidal height. On the IGY Ross Ice Shelf traverse between Oct. 1957 and Feb. 1958, an accurate method of barometric altimetry was used on a loop around the ice shelf that was directly tied to the sea at both ends of the travel route, thus providing absolute elevations. Comparisons of the two sets of data at 32 station pairs on floating ice show a mean difference of 0 +/- 1 m. The elevation data were also compared with theoretical values of elevations for a hydrostatically floating ice shelf. The mean difference between theoretical and measured values of elevations is -2 +/- 1 m.

  11. Iron and temperature interactive effects on diatoms and Phaeocystis antarctica from the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Xu, K.; Fu, F.; Spackeen, J.; Bronk, D. A.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    Future temperature and iron availability is predicted to change in the most biologically productive regions of the Southern Ocean, the coastal polynyas of Antarctica. We examined the individual and combined effects of iron addition (+500 nM) and temperature increases (4°C) on Phaeocystis antarctica and several dominant diatom species isolated from McMurdo Sound in the Ross Sea. Iron addition increased growth, carbon fixation, and iron uptake rates, cellular carbon quotas, and cell size of almost all tested species. Temperature increase only affected some species, and in particular had negative effects on P. antarctica growth. Concurrent increases in temperature and iron synergistically stimulated the growth rates of some diatom species, particularly Pseudo-nitzschia subcurvata. The diversity of their responses to iron and temperature may help to explain the current spatial and temporal distributions of diatoms and prymnesiophytes in the Ross Sea. In the future, potential temperature and iron increases may act together to shift the composition of the phytoplankton community in this biologically and biogeochemically important Southern Ocean polynya region.

  12. Increase of the Antarctic Sea Ice Extent is highly significant only in the Ross Sea.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Naiming; Ding, Minghu; Ludescher, Josef; Bunde, Armin

    2017-01-24

    In the context of global warming, the question of why Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) has increased is one of the most fundamental unsolved mysteries. Although many mechanisms have been proposed, it is still unclear whether the increasing trend is anthropogenically originated or only caused by internal natural variability. In this study, we employ a new method where the underlying natural persistence in the Antarctic SIE can be correctly accounted for. We find that the Antarctic SIE is not simply short-term persistent as assumed in the standard significance analysis, but actually characterized by a combination of both short- and long-term persistence. By generating surrogate data with the same persistence properties, the SIE trends over Antarctica (as well as five sub-regions) are evaluated using Monte-Carlo simulations. It is found that the SIE trends over most sub-regions of Antarctica are not statistically significant. Only the SIE over Ross Sea has experienced a highly significant increasing trend (p = 0.008) which cannot be explained by natural variability. Influenced by the positive SIE trend over Ross Sea, the SIE over the entire Antarctica also increased over the past decades, but the trend is only at the edge of being significant (p = 0.034).

  13. Astronaut Ross Approaches Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross, perched on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) approaches the erected ACCESS. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  14. Determination of embryonic temperature profiles and eggshell water vapor conductance constants in incubating Ross x Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs using temperature transponders.

    PubMed

    Pulikanti, R; Peebles, E D; Zhai, W; Gerard, P D

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive profiles of the internal and external temperatures of embryonated Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs during incubation were determined using temperature transponders, and eggshell water vapor conductance (G(H2O)), specific G(H2O) (g(H2O); G(H2O) adjusted to a 100 g set egg weight basis), and G(H2O) constants (K(H2O)) were calculated. On each of 8 replicate tray levels of an incubator, 2 nonembryonated and 4 embryonated eggs were each implanted with a transponder on d 10.5 of incubation for the determination of internal (air cell) temperatures of nonembryonated (T(nem)) and embryonated (T(emb)) eggs, respectively. In addition, 2 water-filled vials, each containing a transponder, were used on each tray level for the determination of the external microenvironment temperatures (T(ext)) of the embryonated and nonembryonated eggs. Between 10.5 and 18 d of incubation, incubator data logger temperatures were determined every 5 min; and incubator dry bulb temperature, T(ext), T(nem), T(emb), and the difference between T(emb) and T(nem) (T) were determined every 12 h. Over the days of incubation, regression coefficients for T(emb) and T were positive, whereas the regression coefficient for T(nem) was negative. There was a significant day of incubation × type of temperature measurement (T(ext), T(nem), and T(emb)) interaction for temperature. Between 13 and 18 d of incubation, mean values of T(emb) readings that were recorded every 12 h were consistently higher than those of T(ext) and T(nem), indicating the importance of air cell transponder implantation for the efficient estimation of broiler embryo temperature. Furthermore, mean values of the percentage of daily incubational egg weight loss, G(H2O), g(H2O), and K(H2O) of the embryonated eggs were 0.54 ± 0.019%, 14.4 ± 0.56 mg of H₂O/d per Torr, 25.0 ± 0.96 mg of H₂O/d per Torr per 100 g, and 5.20 ± 0.205, respectively. The results suggest that transponders may be implanted in the air cells of

  15. Climate change impacts on southern Ross Sea phytoplankton composition, productivity, and export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Daniel E.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Smith, Walker O.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Hemmings, John C. P.

    2017-03-01

    The Ross Sea, a highly productive region of the Southern Ocean, is expected to experience warming during the next century along with reduced summer sea ice concentrations and shallower mixed layers. This study investigates how these climatic changes may alter phytoplankton assemblage composition, primary productivity, and export. Glider measurements are used to force a one-dimensional biogeochemical model, which includes diatoms and both solitary and colonial forms of Phaeocystis antarctica. Model performance is evaluated with glider observations, and experiments are conducted using projections of physical drivers for mid-21st and late-21st century. These scenarios reveal a 5% increase in primary productivity by midcentury and 14% by late-century and a proportional increase in carbon export, which remains approximately 18% of primary production. In addition, scenario results indicate diatom biomass increases while P. antarctica biomass decreases in the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the century, diatom biomass remains relatively constant and P. antarctica biomass increases. Additional scenarios examining the independent contributions of expected future changes (temperature, mixed layer depth, irradiance, and surface iron inputs from melting ice) demonstrate that earlier availability of low light due to reduction of sea ice early in the growing season is the primary driver of productivity increases over the next century; shallower mixed layer depths additionally contribute to changes of assemblage composition and export. This study further demonstrates how glider data can be effectively used to facilitate model development and simulation, and inform interpretation of biogeochemical observations in the context of climate change.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding how the global ocean responds to climate change requires knowing the natural behavior of individual regions and anticipating how future</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=theories+AND+motivation&pg=4&id=EJ1114376','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=theories+AND+motivation&pg=4&id=EJ1114376"><span>Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=smart&pg=3&id=EJ1111787','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=smart&pg=3&id=EJ1111787"><span>The Role of Parents and Parental Mediation on 0-3-Year Olds' Digital Play with Smart Devices: <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Parents' Attitudes and Practices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=apps+AND+children&pg=7&id=EJ1111787','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=apps+AND+children&pg=7&id=EJ1111787"><span>The Role of Parents and Parental Mediation on 0-3-Year Olds' Digital Play with Smart Devices: <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Parents' Attitudes and Practices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=extrinsic+AND+intrinsic+AND+motivation&pg=3&id=EJ1114376','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=extrinsic+AND+intrinsic+AND+motivation&pg=3&id=EJ1114376"><span>Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.263....1T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.263....1T"><span>The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Klint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4241049','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4241049"><span>Prevalence of alcohol-related pathologies at autopsy: <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Forensic Study of Alcohol and Premature Death</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tuusov, Jana; Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Pärna, Kersti; Tõnisson, Mailis; Ringmets, Inge; McKee, Martin; Helander, Anders; Leon, David A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Aims Alcohol can induce diverse serious pathologies, yet this complexity may be obscured when alcohol-related deaths are classified according to a single underlying cause. We sought to quantify this issue and its implications for analysing mortality data. Design, Setting and Participants Cross-sectional study included 554 men aged 25–54 in Estonia undergoing forensic autopsy in 2008–09. Measurements Potentially alcohol-related pathologies were identified following macroscopic and histological examination. Alcohol biomarkers levels were determined. For a subset (26%), drinking behaviour was provided by next-of-kin. The <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Statistics Office provided underlying cause of death. Findings Most deaths (75%) showed evidence of potentially alcohol-related pathologies, and 32% had pathologies in two or more organs. The liver was most commonly affected [60.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 56.3–64.6] followed by the lungs (18.6%, 95% CI = 15.4–22.1), stomach (17.5%, 95% CI = 14.4–20.9), pancreas (14.1%, 95% CI = 11.3–17.3), heart (4.9%, 95% CI = 3.2–7.0) and oesophagus (1.4%, 95% CI = 0.6–2.8). Only a minority with liver pathology had a second pathology. The number of pathologies correlated with alcohol biomarkers (phosphatidylethanol, gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase in blood, ethylglucuronide, ethylsulphate in urine). Despite the high prevalence of liver pathology, few deaths had alcoholic liver disease specified as the underlying cause. Conclusion The majority of 554 men aged 25–54 undergoing forensic autopsy in Estonia in 2008–09 showed evidence of alcohol-related pathology. However, the recording of deaths by underlying cause failed to capture the scale and nature of alcohol-induced pathologies found. PMID:25066373</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24833681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24833681"><span>Non-cancer morbidity among <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati</p> <p>2014-05-14</p> <p>To examine non-cancer morbidity in the <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4024594','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4024594"><span>Non-cancer morbidity among <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Results Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. Conclusions No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. PMID:24833681</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3553157','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3553157"><span>Characterization of the Vaginal Micro- and Mycobiome in Asymptomatic Reproductive-Age <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G. G.; Metsis, Madis</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs. PMID:23372716</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28575199','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28575199"><span>Mixotrophy in Pyroleae (Ericaceae) from <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> boreal forests does not vary with light or tissue age.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lallemand, Félix; Puttsepp, Ülle; Lang, Mait; Luud, Aarne; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Palancade, Cécile; Selosse, Marc-André</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>In temperate forests, some green plants, namely pyroloids (Pyroleae, Ericaceae) and some orchids, independently evolved a mode of nutrition mixing photosynthates and carbon gained from their mycorrhizal fungi (mixotrophy). Fungal carbon is more enriched in 13C than photosynthates, allowing estimation of the proportion of carbon acquired heterotrophically from fungi in plant biomass. Based on 13C enrichment, mixotrophic orchids have previously been shown to increase shoot autotrophy level over the growth season and with environmental light availability. But little is known about the plasticity of use of photosynthetic versus fungal carbon in pyroloids. Plasticity of mixotrophy with leaf age or light level (estimated from canopy openness) was investigated in pyroloids from three <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> boreal forests. Bulk leaf 13C enrichment of five pyroloid species was compared with that of control autotrophic plants along temporal series (over one growth season) and environmental light gradients (n=405 samples). Mixotrophic 13C enrichment was detected at studied sites for Pyrola chlorantha and Orthilia secunda (except at one site for the latter), but not for Chimaphila umbellata, Pyrola rotundifolia and Moneses uniflora. Enrichment with 13C did not vary over the growth season or between leaves from current and previous years. Finally, although one co-occurring mixotrophic orchid showed 13C depletion with increasing light availability, as expected for mixotrophs, all pyroloids responded identically to autotrophic control plants along light gradients. A phylogenetic trend previously observed is further supported: mixotrophy is rarely supported by 13C enrichment in the Chimaphila + Moneses clade, whereas it is frequent in the Pyrola + Orthilia clade. Moreover, pyroloid mixotrophy does not respond plastically to ageing or to light level. This contrasts with the usual view of a convergent evolution with orchids, and casts doubt on the way pyroloids use the carbon gained from their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22608299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22608299"><span>Estimation of the economical effects of Eimeria infections in <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> dairy herds using a stochastic model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lassen, Brian; Ostergaard, Søren</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>In this study, a stochastic predictive model stimulating a constant infection pressure of Eimeria was used to estimate production outcome, economic, and effects of treatment decisions in a dairy herd of 100 cows. The intestinal parasite cause problems mainly in calves, and is known to have long term effects on the growth rate, and in severe cases can result in mortalities. Due to the inconspicuous nature of the parasite, the clinical signs and sub-clinical manifestations it may produce can be overlooked. Acquired data from literature and <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> dairy farms were implemented in the SimHerd IV model to simulate three scenarios of symptomatic treatment: no calves treated (NT), default estimate of the current treatment strategy (DT), and all calves treated (AT). Effects of metaphylactic treatment were studied as a lowering of the infection pressure. Delay in the age for beginning of insemination of heifers was the effect with the largest economic impact on the gross margin, followed by calf mortality and reduction in growth rate. Large expenses were associated with the introduction of replacement heifers and feeding of heifers as a result of the delay in reaching a specific body weight at calving. Compared to the control scenarios, with no effects and treatments of Eimeria, dairy farmers were estimated to incur annual losses ranging 8-9% in the balanced income. Providing metaphylactic drugs resulted in an increased gross margin of 6-7%. Purchase of new heifers compensated for some production losses that would otherwise have enhanced expenses related to Eimeria. The simulation illustrates how effects of Eimeria infections can have long lasting impact on interacting management factors. It was concluded that all three simulated symptomatic treatment regimes provided only small economic benefits if they were applied alone and not in combination with lowering of infection pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27723790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27723790"><span>Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We investigated <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14-18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24360408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24360408"><span>Five-year prospective surveillance of nosocomial bloodstream infections in an <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> paediatric intensive care unit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitt, P; Metsvaht, T; Adamson, V; Telling, K; Naaber, P; Lutsar, I; Maimets, M</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Few studies provide rates of nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in mixed neonatal and paediatric intensive care units (PICUs). To determine the rate, pathogens and outcome of BSIs in an <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> PICU. Data were collected prospectively from 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2008 in the PICU of Tartu University Hospital. The definition criteria of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were applied for the diagnosis of laboratory-confirmed BSI. A total of 126 episodes of BSI were identified in 89 patients (74 neonates, eight infants, seven patients aged >1 year). Among neonates 42 (57%) had birth weight <1000 g. The overall incidence of BSI was 9.2 per 100 admissions, incidence density 12.8 per 1000 patient-days. Primary BSI was diagnosed in 92 episodes. Central line (CL)-associated BSI incidence density for neonates was 8.6 per 1000 CL-days with the highest incidence (27.4) among neonates with extremely low birth weight. The most common pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci (43%) and Serratia marcescens (14%). Resistance to meticillin was detected in four out of seven S. aureus isolates (all were part of an outbreak) and 23% of Enterobacteriaceae were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains. Overall case-fatality rate was 10%. We observed higher rates of BSIs in our mixed PICU than reported previously. High levels of antimicrobial resistance were detected. Future research should focus on the effects of infection control measures to prevent outbreaks and to decrease incidence of CL-associated BSI. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/535360','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/535360"><span>The <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: I. Design and questionnaire data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tekkel, M.; Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>Nearly 2% of the male population of Estonia aged 20-39 years were sent to Chernobyl to assist in the cleanup activities after the reactor accident. A cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers was assembled based on multiple and independent sources of information. Information obtained from 3,704 responses to a detailed questionnaire indicated that 63% of the workers were sent to Chernobyl in 1986; 54% were of <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> and 35% of Russian ethnicity; 72% were married, and 1,164 of their 5,392 children were conceived after the Chernobyl disaster. The workers were less educated than their counterparts than their counterparts in the general population of Estonia, and only 8.5% had attended university. Based on doses entered in workers records, the mean dose was 11 cGy, with only 1.4% over 25 cGy. Nearly 85% of the workers were sent as part of military training activities, and more than half spent in excess of 3 months in the Chernobyl area. Thirty-six percent of the workers reported having worked within the immediate vicinity of the accident site; 11.5% worked on the roofs near the damaged reactor, clearing the highly radioactive debris. The most commonly performed task was the removal and burial of topsoil (55% of the workers). Potassium iodide was given to over 18% of the men. The study design also incorporates biological indicators of exposure based on the glycophorin A mutational assay of red blood cells and chromosome translocation analyses of lymphocytes; record linkage with national cancer registry and mortality registry files to determine cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality; thyroid screening examinations with ultrasound and fine-needle biopsy; and cryopreserved white blood cells and plasma for future molecular studies. Comprehensive studies of Chernobyl cleanup workers have potential to provide a new information about cancer risks due to protracted exposures to ionizing radiation. 21 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5056716','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5056716"><span>Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We investigated <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14–18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia. PMID:27723790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28762652','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28762652"><span>HIV incidence in the <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> population in 2013 determined using the HIV-1 limiting antigen avidity assay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soodla, P; Simmons, R; Huik, K; Pauskar, M; Jõgeda, E-L; Rajasaar, H; Kallaste, E; Maimets, M; Avi, R; Murphy, G; Porter, K; Lutsar, I</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Estonia has one the highest number of new HIV diagnoses in the European Union, mainly among injecting drug users and heterosexuals. Little is known of HIV incidence, which is crucial for limiting the epidemic. Using a recent HIV infection testing algorithm (RITA) assay, we aimed to estimate HIV incidence in 2013. All individuals aged ≥18 years newly-diagnosed with HIV in Estonia January- December 2013, except blood donors and those undergoing antenatal screening, were included. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> Health Board and the <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> HIV-positive patient database. Serum samples were tested for recent infection using the LAg-avidity EIA assay. HIV incidence was estimated based on previously published methods. Of 69,115 tested subjects, 286 (0.41%) were newly-diagnosed with HIV with median age of 33 years (IQR: 28-42) and 65% male. Self-reported routes of HIV transmission were mostly heterosexual contact (n = 157, 53%) and injecting drug use (n = 62, 21%); 64 (22%) were with unknown risk group. Eighty two (36%) were assigned recent, resulting in estimated HIV incidence of 0.06%, corresponding to 642 new infections in 2013 among the non-screened population. Incidence was highest (1.48%) among people who inject drugs. These high HIV incidence estimates in Estonia call for urgent action of renewed targeted public health promotion and HIV testing campaigns. © 2017 British HIV Association.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912637O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912637O"><span>Estimating the rates of regional sea level change from the <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> tide gauges with different noise models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oja, Tõnis; Liibusk, Aive; Kall, Tarmo</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Multi-decadal data series from the tide gauges along the <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> coast in the Baltic Sea reveal spatially and temporally variable rates of mean relative sea level change, primarily due to the combined effect of ongoing postglacial land uplift and climate-driven sea level variations. Concurrently, the satellite altimetry data collected now over two decades allow to determine the linear trends of absolute mean sea level rise in the Baltic Sea with high spatial resolution. The objectives of this research are to estimate the rates of relative sea level change by analyzing the longest time series (about 60…70 years) available from the network of <span class="hlt">Estonian</span> tide gauges, and to compare these rates with the predictions from different land uplift (LU) and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. The results are further used to validate the regional trend of the Baltic Sea level rise from the time series of satellite altimeter missions. Sea level observations exhibit temporal and spatial correlation, which sometimes are ignored in the estimation process of the rates of sea level change. Neglecting such correlations could have an impact on the estimated rates but also could cause an underestimation of the rate uncertainty. Different stochastic noise models were used in data analysis to quantify the noise properties of the sea level observations and the effect of temporal correlation on the estimated rates of mean relative sea level change. Keywords: sea level rise, postglacial rebound, noise model, Baltic Sea</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mens+AND+rea&id=EJ865906','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mens+AND+rea&id=EJ865906"><span>Men of Good Will: The Religious Education Association, J. Elliot <span class="hlt">Ross</span>, and the National Conference of Jews and Christians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nolan, Lucinda A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>An impetus of the Religious Education Association (REA) toward becoming an actively intercultural and interreligious agency emerged in the third decade of its existence. This article explores this period through an examination of the involvement of the REA members, Father John Elliot <span class="hlt">Ross</span> and others (1884-1946) in a series of seminars conducted by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ross&pg=6&id=EJ865906','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ross&pg=6&id=EJ865906"><span>Men of Good Will: The Religious Education Association, J. Elliot <span class="hlt">Ross</span>, and the National Conference of Jews and Christians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nolan, Lucinda A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>An impetus of the Religious Education Association (REA) toward becoming an actively intercultural and interreligious agency emerged in the third decade of its existence. This article explores this period through an examination of the involvement of the REA members, Father John Elliot <span class="hlt">Ross</span> and others (1884-1946) in a series of seminars conducted by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kubler+AND+ross&pg=2&id=EJ480622','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kubler+AND+ross&pg=2&id=EJ480622"><span>Coping with Dying: Lessons That We Should and Should Not Learn from the Work of Elisabeth Kubler-<span class="hlt">Ross</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Corr, Charles A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Appraises work of Elisabeth Kubler-<span class="hlt">Ross</span> in area of coping with dying. Suggests lessons from that work. Draws broad conclusions about processes involved in coping with dying, argues on behalf of need to develop better theoretical models to explicate what is involved in coping with dying, and suggests requirements for model. (Author/NB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJS..223...10G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJS..223...10G"><span>A New Analysis of the Two Classical ZZ Ceti White Dwarfs GD 165 and <span class="hlt">Ross</span> 548. II. Seismic Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Charpinet, S.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We present the second of a two-part seismic analysis of the bright, hot ZZ Ceti stars GD 165 and <span class="hlt">Ross</span> 548. In this second part, we report the results of detailed searches in parameter space for identifying an optimal model for each star that can account well for the observed periods, while being consistent with the spectroscopic constraints derived in our first paper. We find optimal models for each target that reproduce the six observed periods well within ∼0.3% on the average. We also find that there is a sensitivity on the core composition for <span class="hlt">Ross</span> 548, while there is practically none for GD 165. Our optimal model of <span class="hlt">Ross</span> 548, with its thin envelope, indeed shows weight functions for some confined modes that extend relatively deep into the interior, thus explaining the sensitivity of the period spectrum on the core composition in that star. In contrast, our optimal seismic model of its spectroscopic sibling, GD 165 with its thick envelope, does not trap/confine modes very efficiently, and we find weight functions for all six observed modes that do not extend into the deep core, hence accounting for the lack of sensitivity in that case. Furthermore, we exploit after the fact the observed multiplet structure that we ascribe to rotation. We are able to map the rotation profile in GD 165 (<span class="hlt">Ross</span> 548) over the outermost ∼20% (∼5%) of its radius, and we find that the profile is consistent with solid-body rotation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-29/pdf/2013-07332.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-29/pdf/2013-07332.pdf"><span>78 FR 19330 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> In-Situ Uranium Recovery Project in...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-29</p> <p>... statement; request for comment. SUMMARY: By letter dated January 4, 2011, Strata Energy, Inc., (Strata... Statement (Draft SEIS) for the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Project. The Draft SEIS is Supplement 5 to NUREG-1910, ``Generic...-415-4737, or by email to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . The Draft SEIS (NUREG-1910, Supplement 5) is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=188123&keyword=Algae+AND+Green&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78821331&CFTOKEN=55054332','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=188123&keyword=Algae+AND+Green&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78821331&CFTOKEN=55054332"><span>An examination of the role of colonial Phaeocystis antarctica in the microbial food web of the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The extensive buildup of phytoplankton biomass in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea conflicts with the view that high rates of herbivory occur in all regions of the Southern Ocean. Nano- and microplanktonic consumers comprise a significant fraction of total plankton biomass; however, the importance o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-16/pdf/2013-22466.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-16/pdf/2013-22466.pdf"><span>78 FR 56944 - Strata Energy, Inc. (<span class="hlt">Ross</span> In Situ Recovery Uranium Project); Notice of Atomic Safety and...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-16</p> <p>... COMMISSION Strata Energy, Inc. (<span class="hlt">Ross</span> In Situ Recovery Uranium Project); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing... (Board) in the above-captioned Strata Energy, Inc. case is hereby reconstituted by appointing Administrative Judge Craig M. White to serve on the Board in place of Administrative Judge Kenneth L. Mossman...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=188123&keyword=method+AND+Research+AND+mixed&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=188123&keyword=method+AND+Research+AND+mixed&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>An examination of the role of colonial Phaeocystis antarctica in the microbial food web of the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The extensive buildup of phytoplankton biomass in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea conflicts with the view that high rates of herbivory occur in all regions of the Southern Ocean. Nano- and microplanktonic consumers comprise a significant fraction of total plankton biomass; however, the importance o...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Elisabeth+AND+kubler&id=EJ480622','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Elisabeth+AND+kubler&id=EJ480622"><span>Coping with Dying: Lessons That We Should and Should Not Learn from the Work of Elisabeth Kubler-<span class="hlt">Ross</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Corr, Charles A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Appraises work of Elisabeth Kubler-<span class="hlt">Ross</span> in area of coping with dying. Suggests lessons from that work. Draws broad conclusions about processes involved in coping with dying, argues on behalf of need to develop better theoretical models to explicate what is involved in coping with dying, and suggests requirements for model. (Author/NB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8906927','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8906927"><span>Evidence of vertical transmission of <span class="hlt">Ross</span> River and Sindbis viruses (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southeastern Australia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dhileepan, K; Azuolas, J K; Gibson, C A</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ross</span> River and Sindbis viruses were isolated from Aedes camptorhynchus adults reared from immatures collected from a salt marsh in coastal Victoria, indicating the existence of field vertical transmission. These first isolations of an arbovirus from adult mosquitoes reared from field-collected immatures in Australia indicates one mechanism for arbovirus maintenance in temperate regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS43B0654T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS43B0654T"><span>Impact of the Inverse Barometer Effect on Iceberg Drift in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea Region, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turnbull, I. D.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The Inverse Barometer Effect (IBE) has been observed since the 19^{th} century, first by Sir James Clark <span class="hlt">Ross</span> [Wunsch and Stammer, 1997], as deviations in sea-surface elevation in response to deviations in atmospheric pressure. This effect is expressed by the formula η=-Δ p/(ρo× g), in which η represents the deviation in sea-surface height, Δ p is the deviation in atmospheric pressure, ρo is the ocean water density, and g is the gravitational acceleration. It has been hypothesized that icebergs in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea region of Antarctica are influenced by the same forces that create the IBE. This hypothesis is supported by studies of icebergs in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea, Antarctica, where drift data suggest that icebergs are drawn into temporary holding zones, or "iceberg graveyards" situated where the atmosphere tends to have persistent (annual average) low pressure. A physical explanation for the IBE influence on icebergs is that they are able to travel up the sea-surface slope induced by the IBE below atmospheric lows against the gravitational pull because of the pressure gradient force acting on the iceberg's freeboard (the part that is above the waterline). Here, I evaluate the validity of the hypothesized iceberg/IBE relationship using a numerical model of iceberg drift. I have run several experiments to determine how much influence the IBE would have on the movement of an iceberg the shape of B15A, as opposed to the influence wielded by the other major forces acting on the iceberg such as wind and ocean drag, and the Coriolis force. I have for now approached this problem from a theoretical standpoint, building models that employ geostrophic and Ekman approximations to create a wind and ocean current field, and I have placed the iceberg in a variety of pressure fields with one to multiple stationary or moving low pressure systems of varying or constant intensity. If time permits, I shall attempt to evaluate the effects of recorded wind data and use an actual mean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSMG41A..08R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSMG41A..08R"><span>Response of the marginal marine environment to post-glacial warming in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riesselman, C. R.; Parker, R. L.; Gilmer, G. J.; Lee, J. I.; Yoo, K. C.; Lee, M. K.; Subt, C.; Mckay, R. M.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Levy, R. H.; Ohneiser, C.; Dunbar, R. B.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The Holocene represents our most recent and accessible window into the forcings and feedbacks that drive global climate, and is characterized by episodes of abrupt change superimposed upon long-term trends. However these intervals of rapid change are not globally synchronous, highlighting the influence of regional climate processes that may operate on societally significant time scales. Around Antarctica, ice core and marine sediment paleoclimate records indicate heterogeneity in the timing and geographic locus of warming associated with deglaciation and Holocene climatic events. Regional variability in the extent of Antarctic warming throughout the Holocene is mirrored in recent observations, where overlapping modern instrumental records reveal dramatic regional differences in the extent and magnitude of polar warming and ice mass balance. In order to understand the processes by which the Antarctic cryosphere responds to - and impacts - a changing climate, it is therefore essential to develop regionally representative records from geographically dispersed locations around the continent and margin. Here, we summarize initial results from a suite of marine sediment cores collected in the Southern Ocean and western <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea by the R/V Araon during the 2015 ANA05B expedition. This expedition recovered 35 cores on a latitudinal transect from 69-77° S. In 18 of these, ice retreat is recognized in whole-core measurements of magnetic susceptibility and bulk density, and in a lithologic transition from terrigenous to diatomaceous sediments. To examine the evolution of the marginal marine environment following deglaciation, we focus specifically on cores collected from the Robertson Bay, Moubray Bay, Mawson Glacier, and <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Island regions. In many of these cores, the recovery of seasonally laminated diatom oozes enables us to develop high-resolution snapshot reconstructions of Holocene sea surface conditions, based on diatom micropaleontology and stable isotope</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021976','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021976"><span>Transect across the West Antarctic rift system in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Trey, H.; Cooper, A. K.; Pellis, G.; Della, Vedova B.; Cochrane, G.; Brancolini, Giuliano; Makris, J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>In 1994, the ACRUP (Antarctic Crustal Profile) project recorded a 670-km-long geophysical transect across the southern <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea to study the velocity and density structure of the crust and uppermost mantle of the West Antarctic rift system. Ray-trace modeling of P- and S-waves recorded on 47 ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) records, with strong seismic arrivals from airgun shots to distances of up to 120 km, show that crustal velocities and geometries vary significantly along the transect. The three major sedimentary basins (early-rift grabens), the Victoria Land Basin, the Central Trough and the Eastern Basin are underlain by highly extended crust and shallow mantle (minimum depth of about 16 km). Beneath the adjacent basement highs, Coulman High and Central High, Moho deepens, and lies at a depth of 21 and 24 km, respectively. Crustal layers have P-wave velocities that range from 5.8 to 7.0 km/s and S-wave velocities from 3.6 to 4.2 km/s. A distinct reflection (PiP) is observed on numerous OBS from an intra-crustal boundary between the upper and lower crust at a depth of about 10 to 12 km. Local zones of high velocities and inferred high densities are observed and modeled in the crust under the axes of the three major sedimentary basins. These zones, which are also marked by positive gravity anomalies, may be places where mafic dikes and sills pervade the crust. We postulate that there has been differential crustal extension across the West Antarctic rift system, with greatest extension beneath the early-rift grabens. The large amount of crustal stretching below the major rift basins may reflect the existence of deep crustal suture zones which initiated in an early stage of the rifting, defined areas of crustal weakness and thereby enhanced stress focussing followed by intense crustal thinning in these areas. The ACRUP data are consistent with the prior concept that most extension and basin down-faulting occurred in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea during late Mesozoic time, with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011DSRII..58..181O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011DSRII..58..181O"><span>Distribution, abundance and acoustic properties of Antarctic silverfish ( Pleuragramma antarcticum) in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Driscoll, Richard L.; Macaulay, Gavin J.; Gauthier, Stéphane; Pinkerton, Matt; Hanchet, Stuart</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Antarctic silverfish ( Pleuragramma antarcticum) is a key link between plankton and the community of top predators in the shelf waters of the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea. In spite of their abundance and important role in Antarctic food chains, very little is known of many ecological and biological aspects of this species. A combined trawl and acoustic survey of silverfish was carried out on the western <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea shelf during the New Zealand International Polar Year Census of Antarctic Marine Life research voyage on R.V. Tangaroa in February-March 2008. Multi-frequency acoustic data (12, 38, 70, and 120 kHz) allowed discrimination of silverfish marks from those of krill and other associated species. Mark identification was achieved using targeted midwater trawls. Additional midwater and demersal trawls were carried out at randomly selected locations over the shelf as part of the core biodiversity survey. Silverfish were widely distributed over the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea shelf. Adult silverfish tended to form layers at 100-400 m depth and were sometimes present close to the bottom, where they were frequently caught in demersal trawls shallower than 500 m. A weak layer at about 80 m depth was associated with juvenile silverfish of 50-80 mm standard length. Acoustic backscatter strength from both silverfish and krill marks increased with increasing frequency (i.e., was highest at 120 kHz), which is characteristic of species without an air-filled swimbladder. Acoustic target strengths (TS) for silverfish at 12, 18, 38, 70, and 120 kHz were estimated from anatomically detailed scattering models based on computed tomography (CT) scans of frozen specimens. The relationship between TS and fish length at 38 kHz was sensitive to estimates of density and sound speed contrast within the fish, especially for small specimens (less than 110 mm SL). Our best estimate of the acoustic biomass of silverfish in the study area was 592 000 t (95% confidence interval 326 000-866 000 t). However, the biomass of juvenile</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27300557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27300557"><span>Dilatation and Dysfunction of the Neo-aortic Root and in 76 Patients After the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Procedure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zimmermann, Corina A; Weber, Roland; Greutmann, Matthias; Dave, Hitendu; Müller, Christoph; Prêtre, René; Seifert, Burkhardt; Buechel, Emanuela Valsangiacomo; Kretschmar, Oliver; Attenhofer Jost, Christine H</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Pulmonary autograft replacement (<span class="hlt">Ross</span> procedure) is used as an alternative to prosthetic aortic valve replacement patients with aortic valve disease. There are limited data on incidence and risk factors for dilatation and dysfunction of the neo-aortic after the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> procedure. <span class="hlt">Ross</span> procedure was performed in 100 patients at our institution between 1993 and 2011. In 76 patients, complete follow-up data were available. Their median age at surgery was 16 (0.4-58) years (76 % males; 95 % with congenital aortic valve disease). Median follow-up duration was 5.2 years (0.3-16.0 years). We analyzed their clinical and echocardiographic follow-up to identify possible risk factors for neo-aortic root dilatation and dysfunction. <span class="hlt">Ross</span> procedure included reduction plasty of the native ascending aorta in 25 % of patients. During follow-up, 21 patients (28 %) developed neo-aortic root dilatation, 38 patients (50 %) dilatation oft the native ascending aorta and 7 patients (9 %) at least moderate neo-aortic regurgitation. Univariate risk factors for neo-aortic root dilatation were preoperative aortic regurgitation (p = 0.04), concomitant reduction plasty of the ascending aorta (p = 0.009) and a longer duration of follow-up (p = 0.005). Younger age at surgery was associated with dilatation of the ascending aorta (p = 0.03). Reoperation on the neo-aortic root because of severe dilatation was necessary in 6 patients (8 %), where 2 patients had at least moderate neo-aortic root regurgitation. Neo-aortic root and aortic dilatation are common after the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> procedure. This is often combined with neo-aortic valve dysfunction. Close follow-up of these patients is mandatory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JGR...10224669S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JGR...10224669S"><span>Cenozoic geodynamics of the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea region, Antarctica: Crustal extension, intraplate strike-slip faulting, and tectonic inheritance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salvini, Francesco; Brancolini, Giuliano; Busetti, Martina; Storti, Fabrizio; Mazzarini, Francesco; Coren, Franco</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>An integrated study of onshore and offshore geology of the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea region (namely, Victoria Land, north of <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Island, and the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea, Antarctica) has revealed a complex, post-Eocene tectonic framework. Regional NW-SE right-lateral, strike-slip faults are the outstanding feature of this framework and overprint an older Mesozoic extensional event, responsible for formation of N-S basins in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea. The Cenozoic framework includes kinematic deformation and reactivation along the NW-SE faults, including formation of pull-apart basins, both positive and negative flower structures, and push-up ridges. N-S extensional faults are well developed between NW-SE faults and indicate E-W extension during the Cenozoic, produced by the NW-SE right-lateral strike-slip motion together with regional crustal extension. NNW-SSE compression, induced by the right-lateral, strike-slip kinematics, is indicated by locally inverted NE-SW faults and basins. The evolution, geometry, and location of the Rennick Graben and the Lanterman Range fit well into this model. Variations in the deformational style across the region can be linked to corresponding variations in the bulk crustal rheology, from brittle behavior in the west, to ductile deformation (at subseismic-scale resolution) near the Eastern Basin. A semibrittle region that favors N-S clustering of Cenozoic magmatic activity lies in between. In this region, Cenozoic volcanoes develop at the intersections of the NW-SE and the major N-S faults. The NW-SE faults cut almost continually from the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea to East Antarctica through lithospheric sectors with different rheology and thickness. At least two of the NW-SE faults correspond to older Paleozoic terrane boundaries in northern Victoria Land. The NW-SE faults link in the Southern Ocean with major transform faults related to the plate motions of Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Tectp.347..121C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Tectp.347..121C"><span>Regional compilation and analysis of aeromagnetic anomalies for the Transantarctic Mountains <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea sector of the Antarctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiappini, M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Bozzo, E.; Damaske, D.</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>Magnetic observations over the area of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea have been compiled into a digital database that furnishes a new regional scale view of the magnetic anomaly crustal field in this key sector of the Antarctic continent. This compilation is a component of the ongoing IAGA/SCAR Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP). The aeromagnetic surveys total 115 000 line km, and are distributed across the Victoria Land sector of the TAM, the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea, and Marie Byrd Land. The magnetic campaigns were performed within the framework of the national and international Italian-German-US Antarctic research programs and conducted with differing specifications during nine field seasons from 1971 until 1997. Generally flight line spacing was less than 5 km while survey altitude varied from about 610 to 4000 m above sea level for barometric surveys and was equal to 305 m above topography for the single draped survey. Reprocessing included digitizing the old contour data, improved levelling by means of microlevelling in the frequency domain, and re-reduction to a common reference field based on the DGRF90 model. A multi-frequency grid procedure was then applied to obtain a coherent and merged total intensity magnetic anomaly map. The shaded relief map covers an area of approximately 380 000 km 2. This new compilation provides a regional image of the location and spatial extent of the Cenozoic alkaline magmatism related to the TAM-<span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea rift, Jurassic tholeiites, and crustal segments of the Early Palaeozoic magmatic arc. A linear, approximately 100-km wide and 600-km long Jurassic rift-like structure is newly identified. Magnetic fabric in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea rift often matches seismically imaged Cenozoic fault arrays. Major buried onshore pre-rift fault zones, likely inherited from the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Orogen, are also delineated. These faults may have been reactivated as strike-slip belts that segmented the TAM into various crustal blocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3155878','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3155878"><span>Iron Limitation of a Springtime Bacterial and Phytoplankton Community in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea: Implications for Vitamin B12 Nutrition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bertrand, Erin M.; Saito, Mak A.; Lee, Peter A.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DiTullio, Giacomo R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B12 colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B12 nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B12, cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B12 limitation in this location is consistent with previous <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B12 was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B12 uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B12, but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B12 uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95 pM B12. A rapid B12 uptake rate was observed after 13 min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52 h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B12 production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability. PMID:21886638</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17044377','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17044377"><span>Intermediate-term results of Medtronic freestyle valve for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> procedure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bilal, Mehmet S; Aydemir, Numan A; Cine, Nihat; Turan, Tamer; Yildiz, Yahya; Yalcin, Yalim; Celebi, Ahmet</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Ross</span> procedure has become the first choice for aortic valve replacement in children and young adults at many institutions. Since 1997, a lack of availability of homograft valves in Turkey has prompted the use of alternative substitutes for right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction during the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> procedure. Before April 2005, among 20 patients (age range: 14 months to 45 years) at the present authors' institution, the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> procedure was performed in 14 and a <span class="hlt">Ross</span>-Konno procedure in six. Sixteen patients underwent RVOT repair using alternative methods for homograft valve replacement. Fourteen patients received a Medtronic Freestyle valve and one patient a Medtronic Contegra bovine jugular vein conduit. An autologous RVOT repair was used in one patient. Ten of the Medtronic Freestyle valve patients were aged <16 years. In all patients who received a Medtronic Freestyle valve echocardiographic evaluations were conducted shortly after surgery and during follow up. There was no early mortality. One patient died from pneumonia after six months, and another (asymptomatic) patient died suddenly at 34 months after surgery. Before hospital discharge the mean peak pressure gradient across the Freestyle valve was 12.1 +/- 11.0 mmHg, and this increased to 24.1 +/- 20.0 mmHg after a mean follow up of 51.2 +/- 6.9 months (range: 6 to 101 months) (p <0.002). Mild pulmonary regurgitation was seen in two patients. One asymptomatic adult patient was reoperated on at another center because of a 60-mmHg echocardiographic peak gradient at four years postoperatively. Although long-term follow up is required to explain the durability of the Medtronic Freestyle valve, the present results show that the valve can be used with intermediate-term success in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> procedure - and even in children as an alternative - if homograft valves are not available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GGG.....712011W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GGG.....712011W"><span>Bedrock platforms within the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Embayment, West Antarctica: Hypotheses for ice sheet history, wave erosion, Cenozoic extension, and thermal subsidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, Douglas S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Ice-penetrating radar (mostly airborne) and marine seismic surveys have revealed plateaus and terraces about 100-350 m below sea level beneath parts of the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Embayment, including the West Antarctic ice sheet, the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Ice Shelf, and the eastern <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea. These surfaces cover many thousands of square kilometers and are separated by bedrock troughs occupied by the West Antarctic ice streams. Prominent plateaus are under Edward VII Peninsula, Siple Dome, and Roosevelt Island. Marine seismic data and gravity data over the buried plateaus support an interpretation that they were caused by erosion into basement. The flat and level nature of the surfaces that were formed by erosion, are near the same depth over large distances, and fringe the buried rugged bedrock topography of Marie Byrd Land supports an interpretation of marine rather than glacial erosion. Marine seismic reflection profiles over one of the plateau remnants show it as an angular unconformity cut into gently dipping sediments of late Oligocene age, draped with thin, flat-lying sediments, implying that the plateau is early Miocene or younger. The younger limit for plateau erosion follows from the interpretation of the mechanism: erosion must predate permanent ice along the coast associated with the growth of the West Antarctic ice sheet, probably prior to 10 Ma and possibly prior to 14 Ma. The plateaus along the Siple Coast, with depths around 350 meters, do not rebound to close to sea level and wave base for models of removing past and present ice load. This discrepancy can be explained if <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Embayment lithosphere has been cooling and subsiding since significant extension in Eocene to Oligocene time. Our interpretation requires crustal subsidence in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea, which in turn implies higher bedrock elevations in the past within this region. Higher-standing topography presented an opportunity for the accumulation of local ice sheets and caused sea level fluctuation prior to late Cenozoic time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414473D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414473D"><span>Mg/Casea surface temperatures during the Marine Isotope Stage 31 collapse of the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Ice Shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunbar, G. B.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The recovery of the AND-1b and CRP-1 drill cores from the Southwest <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea highlighted the potential instability in of the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Ice Shelf and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet it buttresses. Both cores recovered a few individuals of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma from marine isotope stage (MIS) 31. This interval is significant because it marks the youngest occurrence of open ocean diatom sediment at AND-1b, which is now situated under the McMurdo Ice Shelf, indicating a substantial retreat of the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Ice Shelf occurred during this interglacial. However, sediment deposited after MIS 31 at both sites is represented only by glacial-dominated sediment, suggesting a critical environmental threshold had been crossed enabling the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Ice Shelf to form and persist. Numerical modeling by Pollard and DeConto (Nature, 2009) suggested that sub-ice oceanic melting is a critical element in the stability of ice shelves and that "WAIS will begin to collapse when nearby ocean temperatures warm by roughly 5°C." Laser ablation ICPMS measurement of the Mg/Ca content of N. pachyderma shows that although there is considerable heterogeneity in the distribution of Mg in their tests the mean Mg/Ca of a sample population appears proportional to calcification temperature. By empirically calibrating Mg/Ca in CRP-1 N. pachyderma against values measured in modern populations collected from <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea and Southern Ocean sites with SSTs ranging from 1.2°C to 14°C it is concluded that SST during MIS 31 was warmer than today by 5-9°C, consistent with model projections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21886638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21886638"><span>Iron limitation of a springtime bacterial and phytoplankton community in the <span class="hlt">ross</span> sea: implications for vitamin b(12) nutrition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bertrand, Erin M; Saito, Mak A; Lee, Peter A; Dunbar, Robert B; Sedwick, Peter N; Ditullio, Giacomo R</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B(12) colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B(12) nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B(12), cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B(12) limitation in this location is consistent with previous <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B(12) was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B(12) uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B(12), but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B(12) uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95 pM B(12). A rapid B(12) uptake rate was observed after 13 min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52 h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B(12) production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GBioC..28..423W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GBioC..28..423W"><span>The contribution of aeolian sand and dust to iron fertilization of phytoplankton blooms in southwestern <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winton, V. H. L.; Dunbar, G. B.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Millet, M.-A.; Delmonte, B.; Atkins, C. B.; Chewings, J. M.; Andersson, P.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Iron is a limiting micronutrient for primary production in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea, Antarctica. Recent observations reveal low dissolved Fe (dFe) concentrations in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea polynya following high initial rates of primary production in summer, after the dFe winter reserve has been consumed. Significant new sources of dFe are therefore required to further sustain phytoplankton blooms. Iron from aeolian sand and dust (ASD) released from melting sea ice is one potential source. To constrain aeolian Fe inputs, we determined ASD mass accumulation rates and the total and soluble Fe content of ASD on sea ice in McMurdo Sound, southwestern (SW) <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea. The mean mass accumulation rate was ~1.5 g m-2 yr-1, total Fe content of this ASD was 4 ± 1 wt %, and the percentage of soluble Fe was 11 ± 1%. Our mean estimate of the bulk aeolian dFe flux of 122.1 µmol m-2 yr-1 for the McMurdo Sound region suggests that aeolian Fe can support between 9.0 × 109 and 4.1 × 1011 mol C yr-1 (0.1-4.9 Tg C yr-1) of new primary production. This equates to only ~15% of new primary production in the SW <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea, suggesting that aeolian dFe is a minor component of seasonal Fe supply. The very high ASD accumulation on sea ice in McMurdo Sound compared to other regions of Antarctica suggests that our results represent the upper limit of dFe supply to the ocean from this source in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/srp/srp063/of2007-1047srp063.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/srp/srp063/of2007-1047srp063.pdf"><span>The Cambrian <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Orogeny in northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) and New Zealand: A synthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Federico, L.; Capponi, G.; Crispini, L.; Bradshaw, J.D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In the Cambrian, the paleo-Pacific margin of the Gondwana supercontinent included East Antarctica, Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand and was affected by themajor <span class="hlt">Ross</span>-Delamerian Orogeny. In Antarctica, evidence suggests that this resulted from oblique subduction and that in northern Victoria Land it was accompanied by the opening and subsequent closure of a back-arc basin. Comparison of the type and timing of sedimentary, magmatic and metamorphic events in areas noted above shows strong similarities between northern Victoria Land and New Zealand. In both regions Middle Cambrian volcanites are interpreted as arc/back-arc assemblages produced by west-directed subduction; sediments interbedded with the volcanites show provenance both from the arc and from the Gondwana margin and therefore place the basin close to the continent. Back-arc closure in the Late Cambrian was likely accomplished through a second subduction system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/26826','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/26826"><span>Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Lake, Snohomish County, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dion, N.P.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A study of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Lake in 1975 showed that the lake has no well-defined surface-water inflow and that thermal stratification is well established in summer. The water is of a calcium bicarbonate type, which is typical of lakes in western Washington. Biological productivity in the lake was low, as indicated by low to moderate chlorophyll a concentrations, by the general lack of submerged plants on the lake bottom, and by the moderate dissolved-oxygen depletion in the deeper zones during thermal stratification. The productivity probably was limited by the amount of phosphorus available. Increased productivity and the resulting growth of nuisance plants in the lake can be avoided by limiting phosphate inputs to their present or lesser rates. (Woodard-USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23969993','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23969993"><span>Increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea, Antarctica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Qi-Hou; Sun, Li-Guang; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Emslie, Steven D; Liu, Xiao-Dong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Penguins are an important seabird species in Antarctica and are sensitive to climate and environmental changes. Previous studies indicated that penguin populations increased when the climate became warmer and decreased when it became colder in the maritime Antarctic. Here we determined organic markers in a sediment profile collected at Cape Bird, <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Island, high Antarctic, and reconstructed the history of Adélie penguin colonies at this location over the past 700 years. The region transformed from a seal to a penguin habitat when the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500-1800 AD) began. Penguins then became the dominant species. Penguin populations were the highest during ca. 1490 to 1670 AD, a cold period, which is contrary to previous results in other regions much farther north. Different responses to climate change may occur at low latitudes and high latitudes in the Antarctic, even if for same species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810770F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810770F"><span>Changes in sea-ice cover and temperature in the Western <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea during the Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fleury, Sophie; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Gal, Jong-Ku; Mezgec, Karin; Belt, Simon; Smik, Lukas; Stenni, Barbara; Melis, Romana; Crosta, Xavier; Shin, Kyung-Hoon</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Although changes in sea-ice cover contribute to global climatic variations, they are poorly constrained for periods earlier than the last decades. More records are especially required around Antarctica, where the formation of Antarctic Bottom Waters participates to global thermohaline circulation. However, this region provided only a few marine sediment cores spanning the entire Holocene, especially because of generally low sedimentation rates. This study focuses on marine sediment core ANTA99-CJ5 (73°49'S; 175°39'E), located in the open sea ice zone (OSIZ) of the western <span class="hlt">Ross</span> Sea. We analyzed several lipid biomarkers: highly branched isoprenoids (HBIs), sterols, diols and GDGTs. The combination of several biomarkers and the comparison of these results with a diatom record previously published on the same core enabled us to trace past changes in temperatures as well as in sea-ice condition over the last 11,600 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/srp/srp030/of2007-1047srp030.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/srp/srp030/of2007-1047srp030.pdf"><span>Geology of the Byrd Glacier Discontinuity (<span class="hlt">Ross</span> Orogen): New survey data from the Britannia Range, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Carosi, R.; Giacomini, F.; Talarico, F.; Stump, E.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Field activities in the Britannia Range (Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica) highlighted new geological features around the so-called Byrd Glacier discontinuity. Recent field surveys revealed the occurrence of significant amounts of medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks, intruded by abundant coarse-grained porphyritic granitoids. Most of the granitoids are deformed, with foliation parallel to the regional foliation in the metamorphics. Two main episodes of deformation are observed. Tight to isoclinal folds and penetrative axial plane foliation are related to the D1 phase, open folds to the D2. The main foliation (D1) trends nearly E-W in agreement with the trend in the southern portion of the Byrd Glacier. In most outcrops, granitic dykes are folded and stretched by the D2 deformation, which shows similar characteristics with the D2 deformation south of the Byrd Glacier. This suggests the occurrence in the <span class="hlt">Ross</span> orogen of an orogen-normal structure south and north of the Byrd Glacier.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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