Science.gov

Sample records for rotary kiln combustor

  1. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  2. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1990-08-15

    BCR National Laboratory (BCRNL) has initiated a project aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using a rotary kiln, suitably modified, to burn Pennsylvania anthracite wastes, co-fired with high-sulfur bituminous coal. Limestone will be injected into the kiln for sulfur control, to determine whether high sulfur capture levels can be achieved with high sorbent utilization. The principal objectives of this work are: (1) to prove the feasibility of burning anthracite refuse, with co-firing of high-sulfur bituminous coal and with limestone injection for sulfur emissions control, in a rotary kiln fitted with a Universal Energy International (UEI) air injector system; (2) to determine the emissions levels of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} and specifically to identify the Ca/S ratios that are required to meet New Source Performance Standards; (3) to evaluate the technical and economic merits of a commercial rotary kiln combustor in comparison to fluidized bed combustors; and, (4) to ascertain the need for further work, including additional combustion tests, prior to commercial application, and to recommend accordingly a detailed program towards this end.

  3. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1991-04-22

    The focus of our work during the first quarter of 1991 was on combustion tests at the PEDCO rotary kiln reactor at North American Rayon (NARCO) plant in Elizabethton, TN. The tests had essentially tow related objectives: (a) to obtain basic data on the combustion of anthracite culm in a rotary kiln reactor, and (b) upon the test results, determine how best to proceed with our own planned program at the Humphrey Charcoal kiln in Brookville, PA. The rationale for the tests at PEDCO arose from process analysis which posted red flags on the feasibility of burning low-grade, hard-to-burn fuels like anthracite culms, in the rotary kiln. The PEDCO unit afforded a unique opportunity to obtain some quick answers at low cost. Two different anthracite culm fuels were tested: a so-called Jeddo culm with an average heating value of 7000 Btu/lb, and a relatively poorer culm, and Emerald'' culm, with an average heating value of 5000 Btu/lb. An attempt was also made to burn a blend of the Emerald culm with bituminous coal in 75/25 percent proportions. This report describes the tests, their chronology, and preliminary results. As it turned out, the PEDCO unit is not configured properly for the combustion of anthracite culm. As a result, it proved difficult to achieve a sustained period of steady-state combustion operation, and combustion efficiencies were low even when supplemental fuel was used to aid combustion of the culm. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1991-08-29

    Several issues that could have an impact on the capability to burn anthracite culm in a rotary bed boiler were identified; specifically, questions were raised concerning the specifications of the anthracite culm itself and some relating to the equipment. The anthracite culm delivered was wet, (with more than 10 percent moisture), and coarser than feed material for fluidized boilers. It was felt that using finer fuel, ensuring that it is largely dry, would aid the combustion of anthracite culm. It also appeared that if provisions were made for more efficient internal and external recycle of ash, this would also enhance the combustion of this fuel. Accordingly, the decision was made to conduct an additional campaign of tests that would incorporate these changes. The tests, conducted on July 15 and 16, 1991, involved an anthracite culm that was, in fact, obtained from a fluidized bed a heating value of 3,000 Btu/lb and came with a top size of 1/4-inch. Despite these changes, sustained combustion could not be achieved without the use of large quantities of supplemental fuel. Based on these tests, we tend to conclude that the rotary kiln is ill suited for the combustion of hard-to-burn, low-grade solid fuels like anthracite culm.

  5. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor. Final report, March 15, 1990--July 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  6. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor. Quarterly report No. 1, April 16, 1990--July 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1990-08-15

    BCR National Laboratory (BCRNL) has initiated a project aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using a rotary kiln, suitably modified, to burn Pennsylvania anthracite wastes, co-fired with high-sulfur bituminous coal. Limestone will be injected into the kiln for sulfur control, to determine whether high sulfur capture levels can be achieved with high sorbent utilization. The principal objectives of this work are: (1) to prove the feasibility of burning anthracite refuse, with co-firing of high-sulfur bituminous coal and with limestone injection for sulfur emissions control, in a rotary kiln fitted with a Universal Energy International (UEI) air injector system; (2) to determine the emissions levels of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} and specifically to identify the Ca/S ratios that are required to meet New Source Performance Standards; (3) to evaluate the technical and economic merits of a commercial rotary kiln combustor in comparison to fluidized bed combustors; and, (4) to ascertain the need for further work, including additional combustion tests, prior to commercial application, and to recommend accordingly a detailed program towards this end.

  7. Combustion of high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes in a rotary kiln combustor with an advanced internal air distributor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr. ); Ahn, Y.K. ); Angelo, J.F. )

    1990-01-01

    Fluid bed combustors have received extensive testing with both high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes. Rotary kilns are effective and popular devices for waste combustion. The Angelo Rotary Furnace{trademark} has been developed to improve the operation of rotary pyrolyzer/combustor systems through enhanced air distribution, which in this process is defined as staged, swirled combustion air injection. Fourteen of these new furnaces have been installed worldwide. Two units in Thailand, designed for rice hull feed with occasional lignite feed, have been recently started up. An older unit in Pennsylvania is being upgraded with a new, more advanced air distribution system for a series of tests this fall in which inexpensive high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes will be fired with limestone. The purposes of these tests are to determine the burning characteristics of these two fuels in this system, to discover the Ca/S ratios necessary for operation of a rotary kiln combusting these fuels, and to observe the gas-borne emissions from the furnace. An extensive preliminary design study will be performed on a commercial installation for combustion of anthracite wastes. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Solar heated rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, Pamela K.

    1984-01-01

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  9. Solar heated rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, P.K.

    1984-04-17

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  10. Seals cap rotary kiln emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Gunkle, D.W. )

    1993-09-01

    The possibility of producing fugitive emissions is one of the most critical aspects of an incineration system. Whether such a system processes hazardous, medical, mixed or municipal waste, fugitive emissions are of special concern to system operators and the public alike. Effectively designed rotary-kiln seals can reduce fugitive emissions to acceptable, minimal levels. Modern air monitoring systems track incineration site emissions. Possible emissions sources include excavation and transfer sites, storage areas, material-feed systems, rotary kiln seals, and exhaust stacks. Several options are available for rotary-kiln seals. Six are discussed here: labyrinth; overlapping spring plate; graphite block; pneumatic; shrouded; and overpressure. Kiln seals are used to prevent process gases from escaping or ambient air from entering a rotary kiln uncontrolled. They are not designed to function as material seals, or prevent spills of solids or liquids. Seal design involves considering differential pressure produced by a kiln's internal-to-external temperature, pressure excursions (explosions) and material spills.

  11. Rotary kiln seal

    SciTech Connect

    Drexler, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    A rotary seal used to prevent the escape of contaminates from a rotating kiln incinerator. The rotating seal combines a rotating disc plate which is attached to the rotating kiln shell and four sets of non-rotating carbon seal bars housed in a primary and secondary housing and which rub on the sides of the disc. A seal air system is used to create a positive pressure in a chamber between the primary and secondary seals to create a positive air flow into the contaminated gas chamber. The seal air system also employs an air inlet located between the secondary and tertiary seals to further insure that no contaminates pass the seal and enter the external environment and to provide makeup air for the air which flows into the contaminated gas chamber. The pressure exerted by the seal bars on the rotating disc is controlled by means of a preload spring. The seal is capable of operating in a thermally changing environment where the both radial expansion and axial movement of the rotating kiln do not result in the failure of the seal.

  12. Solar-heated rotary kiln

    DOEpatents

    Shell, P.K.

    1982-04-14

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate is disclosed. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  13. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on secondary combustor/boiler ash from a rotary kiln burning hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Addink, R; Altwicker, E R

    2004-10-18

    Ash from the secondary combustor/boiler of a rotary kiln burning hazardous chemical waste was tested in the laboratory for its potential to form polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F). The ash contained only a small quantity of "native" PCDD/F, i.e., formed on the ash in the facility. However, it produced a considerable amount of these compounds when heated in 10% O(2)/N(2) under "de novo" conditions, i.e., with residual carbon (present on the ash as result of incomplete combustion) as the only organic material. The ash yielded PCDD/F for up to 90 min; gave PCDD/F yields proportional to the amount of ash used in the reaction bed; and displayed an optimum temperature range for formation (397-548 degrees C) higher than seen for most municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ashes. The role of copper and iron as catalytic material on the ash is discussed.

  14. Slagging rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Frericks, R.J.; Price, J.H. Jr.

    1993-08-24

    An improved kiln is described for burning waste, the kiln having a rotatable refractory lined kiln drum with a raised front nose ring and a front wall with a smile shaped oil cooled refractory support cantilevered from the front wall to support a cantilevered refractory portion which extends into the rotatable drum wherein the improvement comprises: the smile shaped oil cooled refractory support having a length so that its distal end is adjacent the edge of the front end of the front nose ring of the rotatable kiln drum; the nose ring having a height so that it extends radially inwardly beyond the lower portion of the smile shaped oil cooled refractory support; and the cantilevered refractory portion extends into the rotatable kiln drum beyond the smile shaped front wall support structure and over the heightened nose ring, whereby combustion air flows over the distal end of the smile shaped oil cooled refractory support to provide cooling, increase the life thereof and substantially reduce the amount of waste running over the front nose ring.

  15. Rotary kilns - transport phenomena and transport processes

    SciTech Connect

    Boateng, A.

    2008-01-15

    Rotary kilns and rotating industrial drying ovens are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This book treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution and Phenomenon Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns Chapter 5: Mixing and Segregation Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame - includes section on types of fuels used in rotary kilns, coal types, ranking and analysis, petroleum coke combustion, scrap tire combustion, pulverized fuel (coal/coke) firing in kilns, pulverized fuel delivery and firing systems. Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed Chapter 9: Mass and Energy Balance Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications.

  16. Transient phenomena in rotary-kiln incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Linak, W.P.; Kilgroe, J.D.; McSorley, J.A.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Dunn, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes results of an ongoing experimental investigation at the U.S. EPA into the waste properties and kiln parameters that determine both the instantaneous intensity and the total magnitude of transient puffs leaving the kiln. (NOTE: The batch introduction of waste-filled drums or containers into practical rotary-kiln incinerators can lead to transient overcharging conditions which, for brevity, are here denoted as 'puffs.') The experimental apparatus utilized was a 73-kW laboratory rotary-kiln simulator. Surrogate solid wastes (plastic rods) and surrogate liquid wastes (on corncob sorbent in cardboard containers) were investigated. A statistically designed parametric study was used to determine the extent to which waste and kiln variables (e.g., charge mass, charge surface area, charge composition, kiln temperature, and kiln rotation speed) affected the intensity (hydrocarbon peak height) and magnitude (hydrocarbon peak area) of puffs.

  17. Transient phenomena in rotary kiln incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Linak, W.P.; Kilgroe, J.D.; Wendt, J.O.; Mc Sorley, J.A.; Dunn, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes results of an ongoing experimental investigation at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency into the waste properties and kiln parameters that determine both the instantaneous intensity and the total magnitude of transient puffs leaving the kiln. The experimental apparatus utilized was a 73 kW (250,000 Btu/hr) laboratory rotary kiln simulator. Surrogate solid wastes in the form of plastic rods and surrogate liquid wastes on corncob sorbent in cardboard containers were investigated. A statistically designed parametric study was used to determine the extent to which waste and kiln variables (such as charge mass, charge surface area, charge composition, kiln temperature, and kiln rotation speed) affected the intensity (hydrocarbon peak height) and magnitude (hydrocarbon peak area) of puffs. Results demonstrate the relative ease with which failure conditions are achieved, even at high excess air values and high kiln temperatures. Transient puffs arising from even innocuous surrogate wastes can contain a number of hazardous compounds. Increasing kiln temperature and kiln rotation speed can cause an adverse effect on puff intensity, probably due to increased devolatilization rates.

  18. 38. DETAIL OF VIVIANNA WORKS ROTARY KILN FIREBOX ABOVE CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF VIVIANNA WORKS ROTARY KILN FIREBOX ABOVE CHANNEL FOR THE REMOVAL OF TAILINGS FROM THE ROTARY KILN LOOKING NORTHWEST. CONDENSER TO THE RIGHT, TWO STORY OFFICE AND STOREROOM STRUCTURE BEHIND. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  19. Modeling of pulverized coal combustion in cement rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Shijie Wang; Jidong Lu; Weijie Li; Jie Li; Zhijuan Hu

    2006-12-15

    In this paper, based on analysis of the chemical and physical processes of clinker formation, a heat flux function was introduced to take account of the thermal effect of clinker formation. Combining the models of gas-solid flow, heat and mass transfer, and pulverized coal combustion, a set of mathematical models for a full-scale cement rotary kiln were established. In terms of commercial CFD code (FLUENT), the distributions of gas velocity, gas temperature, and gas components in a cement rotary kiln were obtained by numerical simulation of a 3000 t/d rotary kiln with a four-channel burner. The predicted results indicated that the improved model accounts for the thermal enthalpy of the clinker formation process and can give more insight (such as fluid flow, temperature, etc,) from within the cement rotary kiln, which is a benefit to better understanding of combustion behavior and an improvement of burner and rotary kiln technology. 25 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Heat exchange apparatus and process for rotary kilns

    SciTech Connect

    De Beus, A.J.

    1987-06-30

    This patent describes a heat exchange apparatus for use in a rotary kiln, the heat exchange apparatus comprising: refractory means for transferring heat from an upper heated portion of a rotary kiln above a bed disposed in a lower portion to within the bed as the rotary kiln is rotated. The refractory means comprises: tubular refractory members; means for attaching the refractory means in a spaced apart relationship with an interior wall of the rotary kiln in order to cause the refractory means to pass through the bed with a portion of the bed passing under the refractory means. A portion of the bed passes over the refractory means in order to enhance heat transfer as the rotary kiln is rotated. The means for attaching the refractory means comprises rods supported by stanchions and tubular refractory member disposed on the rods; the means for attaching the refractory means and the refractory means is configured and operative for stirring the bed as the refractory means pass through the bed without significant lifting of the bed to the heated upper portions of the rotary kiln as the rotary kiln is rotated; and compressible refractory spacer means disposed between each tubular refractory member for accommodating heat expansion and compressible refractory sleeve means dispersed between the rods and the tubular refractory members for accommodating heat expansion of the rods. Compressible refractory sleeve means and tubular refractory member sized so that the tubular refractory members are tightly held against the tubular refractory spacer means when the rotary kiln is at operating temperatures in order to inhibit fracture of the tubular refractory member as they pass through the bed.

  1. Hazardous-waste incineration in a rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, W.D. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary-kiln simulator was used to develop a better understanding of how hazardous materials are removed from sorbent clays. Experimental results and associated numerical modeling on the combustion and desorption of toluene from a montmorillonite clay sorbent are presented. The purpose of these tests was to understand the mass and heat transfer characteristics of the material in a rotary kiln environment. The experiments were done in a batch mode, simulating a control volume of solids moving down the length of a full-scale rotary kiln, exchanging time for distance as the independent variable. Studies investigating the effect of oxygen concentration, charge size, rotational velocity, and kiln cavity temperature on the desorption rate were completed. Also, effects of water in the montmorillonite were examined. Two comprehensive models were developed to predict the thermal and mass desorption characteristics of the bed, respectively. Another series of studies in the rotary kiln simulator was focused on NO, formation from nitrogenous waste constituents. These tests were performed to simulate materials (plastics, nylons, dyes, and process waste) usually destroyed in hazardous-waste incinerators. Four surrogate wastes, Aniline, Pyridine, Malononitrile, and Ethylenediamine, were absorbed onto the montmorillonite clay sorbent. A detailed discussion regarding the design, construction and operation of the rotary-kiln simulator for research on the destruction of hazardous waste materials is presented in the Appendices. All facility calibration techniques and calculations in addition to data acquisition and reduction algorithms are also discussed there.

  2. A case study of air enrichment in rotary kiln incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, G.F.; Lacava, P.T.; Carvalho, J.A. Jr.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a case study of air enrichment in an industrial rotary kiln type incineration unit. The study is based on mass and energy balances, considering the combustion reaction of a mixture composed by the residue and the auxiliary fuel with air enriched with oxygen. The steps are shown for the primary chamber (rotary kiln) and secondary chamber (afterburner). The residence times in the primary and secondary chamber are 2.0 and 3.2 sec, respectively. The pressure is atmospheric in both chambers. Based on constant chamber gas residence time and gas temperature, it is shown that the residue input rates can be increased by one order of magnitude as air is substituted by pure oxygen. As the residue consumption rate in the rotary kiln is also dependent on residue physical characteristics (mainly size), the study was also carried out for different percentages of oxygen in the oxidizer gas.

  3. Zink rotary kiln seal: Cam followers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.L.

    1994-12-09

    The CIF will treat hazardous and mixed low-level radioactive waste in a rotary kiln and secondary combustion chamber. A high efficiency air pollution control system follows the secondary chamber. The rotary kiln is designed with a gas seal at each end of its rotating barrel which provides a barrier between the interior of the kiln and outside air. The internal pressure of the rotary kiln will be maintained below atmospheric pressure, so exterior air passing the seals is forced into the kiln`s interior. Positive pressure may be applied in the seal labyrinth, adding a barrier to flow. Both CIF seals will be covered entirely with exhaust hoods, drawing air over the outside of the seal and into a HEPA filtered exhaust system. Cam follower misalignment on a John Zink rotary kiln seal caused damage to the seal`s rotor. The misalignment was quantified, corrected, and checked to verify straightness. The primary purpose of the correction was to allow seal testing 1 to continue, but the information is applicable to the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) since two large seals of similar design will be installed there. Cam follower straightness was off as much as 3.5{degrees}, causing followers to run untrue on the rotor. High contact forces resulted, removing flakes of metal from the rotor surface. The misalignment caused weight bearing followers on one side of the seal to back out of their threaded mounts. The root cause was poor machining of the follower mounting holes. Correction was accomplished by relieving the holes and installing machined spacers and retaining nuts. Cam followers on the CIF`s Zink seals should be inspected for straightness before the seals are installed.

  4. Bi-flow rotary kiln coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Garside, P.G.

    1983-02-22

    A process is disclosed for gasifying solid coal particles in a rotary kiln that produces simultaneously and continuously two distinctly different fuel gas streams from the opposite ends of a single kiln. A relatively low temperature gas is discharged from the solids inlet end of the kiln, which contains substantially all tars produced by the process. A second of the gas streams is discharged from the solids discharge end of the kiln at approximately 1,900* F. And substantially tar-free. Heat is recovered from this tar-free gas after only a simple cleaning of particulate matter, as may be provided by a cyclone separator. The discharge of gas out the solids inlet end of the kiln and the gas discharged out the solids discharge end of the kiln, is adjustably proportioned relative to each other so that at least some high temperature tar-free gas will mix inside the kiln with the lower temperature tar-containing gas, in an amount sufficient to keep such mixed gases at a temperature high enough to avoid the tars condensing on equipment surfaces. Several process parameters are disclosed for adjusting the proportion of the gas flows out each end of the kiln to maintain the aforesaid condition of both gas streams.

  5. Environmental impact of incineration of calorific industrial waste: rotary kiln vs. cement kiln.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Isabel; Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Dewulf, Wim; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Rotary kiln incinerators and cement kilns are two energy intensive processes, requiring high temperatures that can be obtained by the combustion of fossil fuel. In both processes, fossil fuel is often substituted by high or medium calorific waste to avoid resource depletion and to save costs. Two types of industrial calorific waste streams are considered: automotive shredder residue (ASR) and meat and bone meal (MBM). These waste streams are of current high interest: ASR must be diverted from landfill, while MBM can no longer be used for cattle feeding. The environmental impact of the incineration of these waste streams is assessed and compared for both a rotary kiln and a cement kiln. For this purpose, data from an extensive emission inventory is applied for assessing the environmental impact using two different modeling approaches: one focusing on the impact of the relevant flows to and from the process and its subsystems, the other describing the change of environmental impact in response to these physical flows. Both ways of assessing emphasize different aspects of the considered processes. Attention is paid to assumptions in the methodology that can influence the outcome and conclusions of the assessment. It is concluded that for the incineration of calorific wastes, rotary kilns are generally preferred. Nevertheless, cement kilns show opportunities in improving their environmental impact when substituting their currently used fuels by more clean calorific waste streams, if this improvement is not at the expense of the actual environmental impact.

  6. Minimization of transient emissions from rotary-kiln incinerators, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Linak, W.P.; McSorley, J.A.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Dunn, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses combining experimental results from a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator with a theoretical model in order to explore the potential of minimizing transient emissions through changes in kiln rotation speed and temperature, steady state oxygen enrichment, and oxygen enrichment in a dynamic mode. Results indicate that transient organic emissions can indeed be minimized by changes in these kiln operating parameters but, because of the complex interactions of physical and chemical processes controlling emissions, the appropriate abatement procedures must be implemented carefully. Transient emissions of organics occur from rotary kiln incinerators when drums containing liquid wastes bound on sorbents are introduced in batches. Physical processes controlling the release of waste from the sorbent material are greatly affected by the rotation speed and temperature of the kiln. Local partial pressure of oxygen influences the rate of oxidation of the puff formed inside the kiln. These physical and chemical phenomena can be used to control transient emissions by oxygen enrichment, where it is done in either a steady or a dynamic mode.

  7. MINIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transient emissions of organics can occur from rotary kiln incinerators when drums containing liquid wastes bound on sorbents are introduced in a batch-wise fashion. Physical processes controlling the release of waste from the sorbent material are greatly affected by the rotation...

  8. TRANSIENT SUPPRESSION PACKAGING FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on g...

  9. Performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    De Conto, D; Silvestre, W P; Baldasso, C; Godinho, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. The product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. The maximum H2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. A H2/CO ratio suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was obtained. The biochars presented an alkaline pH (above 10) and interesting contents of nutrients, as well as low electrical conductivity, indicating a high potential as soil amendment.

  10. Device for charging combustible solids to rotary kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Tutt, J.R.; Benoit, M.R.

    1993-07-13

    An apparatus is described for controlling the entry of combustible solids through a port formed in a wall of a rotary kiln cylinder of an operating cement kiln at a location between an upper end and a lower fired end thereof, the kiln containing hot mineral material for combustion of said solids in contact with said mineral material, the apparatus comprising a port closure assembly comprising a closure movable between a port-opened and port-closed position and means for moving the closure between the port-opened and port-closed positions at predetermined times during rotation of the kiln cylinder; a staging assembly including a support projecting therefrom in alignment with the port for supporting combustible solids; and, a transfer assembly mounted on the kiln wall at a point in alignment with the port for transferring combustible solids from the staging assembly to the port, said transfer assembly being formed to include at least one slot sized to allow said support to pass there through so that combustible solids on the support are lifted from said support by the kiln wall mounted transfer assembly as it sweeps past the staging assembly during kiln cylinder rotation.

  11. Synthetic aggregates from combustion ashes using an innovative rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, P J; Cresswell, D J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a number of different combustion ashes to manufacture synthetic aggregates using an innovative rotary 'Trefoil' kiln. Three types of combustion ash were used, namely: incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA); municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA-- referred to here as BA); and pulverised fuel ash (Pfa). The fine waste ash fractions listed above were combined with a binder to create a plastic mix that was capable of being formed into 'green pellets'. These pellets were then fired in a Trefoil kiln to sinter the ashes into hard fused aggregates that were then tested for use as a replacement for the natural coarse aggregate in concrete. Results up to 28 days showed that these synthetic aggregates were capable of producing concretes with compressive strengths ranging from 33 to 51 MPa, equivalent to between 73 and 112% of that of the control concrete made with natural aggregates.

  12. Modeling of rotary cement kilns: Applications to reduction in energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Mujumdar, K.S.; Arora, A.; Ranade, V.V.

    2006-03-29

    We discuss and evaluate possible ways of reducing energy consumption in rotary cement kilns. A comprehensive one-dimensional model was developed to simulate complex processes occurring in rotary cement kilns. A modeling strategy comprising three submodels, viz. a model for simulating the variation of bed height in the kiln, a model for simulating reactions and heat transfer in the bed region, and a model for simulating coal combustion and heat transfer in the freeboard region, was developed. Melting and formation of coating within the kiln were accounted for. Combustion of coal in the freeboard region was modeled by accounting for devolatilization, finite-rate gas-phase combustion, and char reaction. The simulated results were validated with the available data from three industrial kilns. The model was then used to understand the influence of various design and operating parameters on kiln performance. Several ways of reducing energy consumption in kilns were then computationally investigated. The model was also used to propose and to evaluate a practical solution of using a secondary shell to reduce energy consumption in rotary cement kilns. Simulation results indicate that varying kiln operating variables, viz. solid flow rate or RPM, can result only in small changes in kiln energetics. Use of a secondary shell over the kiln and energy recovery by passing air through the annular gap between the two appears to be a promising way to achieve significant energy savings. The developed model and the presented results will be useful for enhancing the performance of rotary cement kilns.

  13. Carbon reactivation by externally-fired rotary kiln furnace. Final report Oct 75-Jan 78

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Directo, L.S.

    1980-08-01

    An externally-fired rotary kiln furnace system has been evaluated for cost-effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The pilot scale rotary kiln furnace was operated within the range of 682 kg/day (1,500 lb/day) to 909 kg/day (2,000 lb/day). The rotary kiln furnace was found to be as effective as the multiple hearth furnace in reactivating the exhausted granular activated carbon. The operating and maintenance of the rotary kiln system required less operator skill than the multiple hearth furnace system. However, the corrosion rate was higher in the rotary tube than in the multiple hearth furnace. Cost estimates based on a typical regeneration capacity of 182 kg/hr (400 lb/hr) have been made for both rotary kiln and multiple hearth furnace systems. These indicate that the capital cost for the multiple hearth furnace is about two times that of the rotary kiln furnace. The operation and maintenance costs for both furnace systems are similar. The overall process costs for the multiple hearth and rotary kiln furnace systems are estimated to be 33.2 cents/kg (15.1 cents/lb) of carbon regenerated and 29.2 cents/kg (13.3 cents/lb) of carbon regenerated, respectively.

  14. Rotary kiln incineration III. An in depth study-kiln exit/afterburner/stack train and kiln exit pattern factor measurements during liquid CCl sub 4 processing

    SciTech Connect

    Cundy, V.A.; Lester, T.W.; Sterling, A.M.; Montestru, A.N.; Morse, J.S.; Leger, C.B.; Acharya, Sumanta )

    1989-07-01

    Temperature and stable species concentration data are presents for various locations within a full-scale rotary kiln incinerator firing natural gas/carbon tetrachloride/air. The data are being collected as part of a cooperative program involving university, industry and government participation. The overall goal of the program is to develop a more sophisticated understanding of and a predictive capability for rotary kiln and afterburner performance as influenced by basic design and operational parameters. Non-uniformities in stable species and temperature exist for this particular kiln, at the kiln exit, under certain operating conditions. Flow perturbations from within the kiln were found to persist into the afterburner, but not into the stack. High destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE's) were achieved under the operating conditions of these tests through adequate secondary combustion processing.

  15. Thermal treatment of medical waste in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Bujak, J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of an experimental system with thermal treatment (incineration) of medical waste conducted at a large complex of hospital facilities. The studies were conducted for a period of one month. The processing system was analysed in terms of the energy, environmental and economic aspects. A rotary combustion chamber was designed and built with the strictly assumed length to inner diameter ratio of 4:1. In terms of energy, the temperature distribution was tested in the rotary kiln, secondary combustion (afterburner) chamber and heat recovery system. Calorific value of medical waste was 25.0 MJ/kg and the thermal efficiency of the entire system equalled 66.8%. Next, measurements of the pollutant emissions into the atmosphere were performed. Due to the nature of the disposed waste, particular attention was paid to the one-minute average values of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds as well as hydrochloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulphur dioxide and total dust. Maximum content of non-oxidized organic compounds in slag and bottom ash were also verified during the analyses. The best rotary speed for the combustion chamber was selected to obtain proper afterburning of the bottom slag. Total organic carbon content was 2.9%. The test results were used to determine the basic economic indicators of the test system for evaluating the profitability of its construction. Simple payback time (SPB) for capital expenditures on the implementation of the project was 4 years.

  16. A Thermoelectric Waste-Heat-Recovery System for Portland Cement Rotary Kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qi; Li, Peng; Cai, Lanlan; Zhou, Pingwang; Tang, Di; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie

    2015-06-01

    Portland cement is produced by one of the most energy-intensive industrial processes. Energy consumption in the manufacture of Portland cement is approximately 110-120 kWh ton-1. The cement rotary kiln is the crucial equipment used for cement production. Approximately 10-15% of the energy consumed in production of the cement clinker is directly dissipated into the atmosphere through the external surface of the rotary kiln. Innovative technology for energy conservation is urgently needed by the cement industry. In this paper we propose a novel thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system to reduce heat losses from cement rotary kilns. This system is configured as an array of thermoelectric generation units arranged longitudinally on a secondary shell coaxial with the rotary kiln. A mathematical model was developed for estimation of the performance of waste heat recovery. Discussions mainly focus on electricity generation and energy saving, taking a Φ4.8 × 72 m cement rotary kiln as an example. Results show that the Bi2Te3-PbTe hybrid thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system can generate approximately 211 kW electrical power while saving 3283 kW energy. Compared with the kiln without the thermoelectric recovery system, the kiln with the system can recover more than 32.85% of the energy that used to be lost as waste heat through the kiln surface.

  17. Modeling of heat transfer in a rotary kiln thermal desorder for removal of petroleum from soils

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, Hsien-Tsung; Krasnoperov, L.V.; Bozzelli, J.W.

    1996-10-01

    A continuous feed rotary kiln thermal desorber was designed and constructed to study the heat transfer in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils. A mathematical model of heat transfer that correlates temperatures of gas, soil, and kiln wall will purge gas flow, soil feed rate, kiln rotation speed and soil residence time in the kiln desorber is developed. A fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used to numerically integrate the heat transfer process along the kiln length and to calculate the temperature profiles. Comparison of predicted and measured gas and soil temperature profile is presented.

  18. PREPP (Process Experimental Pilot Plant) rotary kiln seals: Problem and resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Drexler, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is a facility designed to demonstrate processing of low level chemical and transuranic hazardous waste. The plant includes equipment for handling the incoming waste containers, shredding, incineration and cooling the waste, grouting the residue and scrubbing and filtration of the off gas. The process incinerator is a rotary kiln approximately 8-{1/2} ft diameter and 25 ft long with a rotary seal assembly at each end. Each seal assembly consists of a primary, secondary and tertiary seal, with a positive air pressure between primary and secondary seals to prevent out-leakage from the kiln. The kiln operates at 0.5 inch water negative pressure. From the very outset the kiln seals exhibited excessive drag which taxed the kiln drive capacity and excessive in-leakage which limited kiln temperature. An engineering evaluation concluded that the original seals supplied by the kiln vendor could not accommodate expansion and centerline shift of the kiln resulting from heatup of the kiln and its support system. A totally new concept kiln seal design has been generated to replace the (modified) original seals. This new seal system has been designed to provide a very tight long lasting seal which will accommodate the 1.5 inch axial shift and up to 1 inch radial movement of the kiln shell. Design lifetime of the seal is 10,000 operating hours between major maintenance services while maintaining an acceptable leak rate hot or cold, rotating or stopped. The design appears adaptable to any size kiln and is suitable for retrofit to existing kilns. A one-third scale prototype seal assembly is being built to verify the concept prior to construction of the 10 ft diameter seals for the PREPP rotary kiln. 4 figs.

  19. A COMPARISON OF IN-SITU VITRIFICATION AND ROTARY KILN INCINERATION FOR SOILS TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the hazardous waste community, the term "thermal destruction" is a catch-all phrase that broadly refers to high temperature destruction of hazardous contaminants. ncluded in the thermal destruction category are treatment technologies such as rotary kiln incineration, fluidized...

  20. MECHANISMS GOVERNING TRANSIENTS FROM THE BATCH INCINERATION OF LIQUID WASTES IN ROTARY KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When "containerized" liquid wastes, bound on sorbents. are introduced into a rotary kiln in a batch mode, transient phenomena in-volving heat transfer into, and waste mass transfer out of, the sorbent can oromote the raoid release of waste vaoor into the kiln environment. This ra...

  1. Rotary kiln incineration of dichloromethane and xylene: A comparison of incinerability characteristics under various operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cundy, V.A.; Lu, C.; Cook, C.A.; Sterling, A.M.; Leger, C.B.; Jakway, A.L.; Montestruc, A.N.; Conway, R. ); Lester, T.W. )

    1991-08-01

    Comparisons are made, for the first time, between the combustion characteristics of dicholoromethane and xylene in an industrial rotary kiln incinerator. The comparisons are made under different operating conditions, including variable kiln rotation rate and operation both with and without turbulence air. Continuous gas composition and temperature measurements and batch gas composition measurements were obtained from two vertical locations near the exit region of the rotary kiln. The measurements show that there is significant vertical stratification at the exit of the kiln. Addition of turbulence air enhanced combustion conditions throughout the kiln during xylene processing. During dichloromethane processing, however, the addition of turbulence air had minimal effect and only promoted greater bulk mixing; chlorinated compounds transported from the lower kiln during operation with turbulence air were not efficiently processed in the upper kiln. Evolution of test liquids from the bed was not constant but rather was characterized by intermittent peaks. The field-scale data of this work suggest that the evolution rate of the test liquid was increased as kiln rotation rate increased. Many of the differences between xylene and dichloromethane processing during these experiments are explained by a simple stoichiometric analysis.

  2. Research on application of polynomial fitting technique in rotary kiln infrared temperature measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhongyuan; Dai, Shaosheng; Liu, Jinsong; You, Changhui; Cheng, Yajun; Yu, Liangbing

    2016-11-01

    Aiming at the linear temperature compensation algorithm's disadvantage of temperature measurement error in rotary kiln infrared scanning temperature measurement process, this paper proposes a precise nonlinear cubic polynomial fitting temperature compensation algorithm. The proposed algorithm compensates the temperature values of scanning points on rotary kiln surface by following steps: Calculating temperature difference between the real temperature value of rotary kiln and temperature value measured by infrared scanning temperature measurement system; Fitting the temperature difference data with cubic polynomial; Using the obtained function to compensate temperature. Experimental result shows that compared with the usual linear temperature compensation algorithm, the accuracy of proposed algorithm has raised about 2.25 times when cubic polynomial is used.

  3. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

  4. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOEpatents

    McIntosh, Michael J.; Arzoumanidis, Gregory G.

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  5. A method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  6. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, Douglas L.; Hatfield, Kent E

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

  7. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

    2012-10-30

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

  8. Residence time distribution and material flow studies in a rotary kiln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai, P. S. T.; Surender, G. D.; Damodaran, A. D.; Suresh, V.; Philip, Z. G.; Sankaran, K.

    1990-12-01

    Experiments were conducted in a rotary kiln containing ilmenite particles to study the residence time distribution (RTD) of low-density particles, holdup, and bed depth profile. The variables include feed rate of solids, slope and rotational speed of the kiln, type and size of the tracer, and dam height. Correlations are presented for mean residence time, dispersion number, holdup, and steady-state throughput of solids in terms of the process variables. A simple method is proposed to estimate the dam height that gives rise to a flat profile of solids bed along the length of the kiln.

  9. Research on high precision equal-angle scanning method in rotary kiln temperature measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shaosheng; Guo, Zhongyuan; You, Changhui; Liu, Jinsong; Cheng, Yang; Tang, Huaming

    2016-05-01

    Aiming at traditional horizontal equal-angle scanning method's disadvantage of measurement error, a high precision equal-angle scanning method is proposed, the proposed method establishes a tilt scanning model by the following steps: introducing height variable, precisely calculating the viewing angle, building scanning model. The model is used to calculate scanning position on rotary kiln's surface, which helps to locate and track temperature variation. The experiment shows that the proposed method can effectively improve the precision of temperature spots' location on the rotary kiln surface.

  10. CFD modeling using PDF approach for investigating the flame length in rotary kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elattar, H. F.; Specht, E.; Fouda, A.; Bin-Mahfouz, Abdullah S.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are performed to investigate the flame length characteristics in rotary kilns using probability density function (PDF) approach. A commercial CFD package (ANSYS-Fluent) is employed for this objective. A 2-D axisymmetric model is applied to study the effect of both operating and geometric parameters of rotary kiln on the characteristics of the flame length. Three types of gaseous fuel are used in the present work; methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and biogas (50 % CH4 + 50 % CO2). Preliminary comparison study of 2-D modeling outputs of free jet flames with available experimental data is carried out to choose and validate the proper turbulence model for the present numerical simulations. The results showed that the excess air number, diameter of kiln air entrance, radiation modeling consideration and fuel type have remarkable effects on the flame length characteristics. Numerical correlations for the rotary kiln flame length are presented in terms of the studied kiln operating and geometric parameters within acceptable error.

  11. Three-dimensional detailed numerical model of a field-scale rotary kiln incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Leger, C.B.; Cundy, V.A.; Sterling, A.M. )

    1993-04-01

    A detailed three-dimensional numerical model of baseline (support burners only) operation in a rotary kiln incinerator is presented. The focus of this model is on gas-phase fluid mechanics, neglecting solid waste combustion and radiative heat transfer. The model is compared to experimental data, and although relatively crude, it demonstrates remarkably good qualitative and quantitative predictive capability. The model demonstrates that thermal buoyancy is the cause of observed vertical stratification near the exit of the modeled kiln. The model also suggests that the addition of turbulence mixing air actually increases the degree of stratification rather than augmenting mixing, as had been previously suggested. Elucidating the mechanism by which this occurs has resulted in a reinterpretation of the experimental data. The model also suggests that there is probably a zone of recirculation across the kiln exit plane. A parametric study using the model shows that the location and quantity of leak air into the kiln have a major influence on the flow inside the kiln. The study suggests that preheating turbulence air may have little effect on gas-phase mixing. Overall, this modeling study has demonstrated that a relatively simple numerical model of a rotary kiln incinerator can provide valuable insight into the process, especially when used in conjunction with experimental data. 21 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Pyrolysis of Uinta Basin Oil Sands in fluidized bed and rotary kiln reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nagpal, S.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.

    1995-12-31

    A pilot-scale fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was used to pyrolyze the mined and crushed ore from the PR Spring oil sands deposit which is located in the Uinta Basin of Utah. Liquid yields of approximately 80 wt% of the bitumen fed to the reactor were obtained. This compares to 55-70 wt% obtained from smaller laboratory scale fluidized bed reactors and a pilot-scale rotary kiln. The product yields and distributions exhibited no discernable trends with reactor temperature or solids retention time. The liquid products obtained from the pilot-scale fluidized bed reactor were upgraded compared to the bitumen in terms of volatility, viscosity, molecular weight, and metals (Ni and V) content. The nitrogen and sulphur contents of the total liquid products were also reduced relative to the bitumen. A comparison of oil sands pyrolysis yields from a pilot scale FBR and a rotary kiln of the same diameter (15.2 cm) was made. Under similar pyrolysis conditions, the rotary kiln produced a slightly more upgraded product but at lower total liquid yields. Kinetic modeling of the various reactors indicates that the pilot-scale FBR product distributions may be explained using a simplified two-reaction scheme. It is proposed that secondary cracking is suppressed in the large diameter FBR due to elimination of slugging and the superior quality of fluidization in the reactor. More experimental studies with the rotary kiln and an economic evaluation will be required before concluding which reactor is preferred for the thermal recovery process.

  13. Research on position calibration method in infrared scanning temperature measurement system of rotary kiln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shao-sheng; You, Chang-hui; Guo, Zhong-yuan; Cheng, Ya-jun; Yu, Liang-bing

    2016-11-01

    Aiming at the large error in the equal-interval locating method, a precise position calibration method is proposed. The proposed method improves the location measurement accuracy by introducing some feature temperature points to divide the rotary kiln into several segments, then the equal-interval locating method was applied to each segment, ultimately, a position calibration data more closing to the actual situation was got. The feature temperature points can be selected from the temperature points of kiln tyres or the highest temperature point and so on. Taking the practical application into consideration, the best result is obtained, when four feature temperature points was introduced to divide the rotary kiln into five segments. The experiment result shows that compared with the equal-interval method, the accuracy of the proposed method has raised about 5.6 times when four feature temperature points is used.

  14. Evaluation of the thermal stability POHC incinerability ranking in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.; Whitworth, W.E.; Carroll, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the thermal stability-based POHC incinerability ranking. In the tests, mixtures of 12 POHCs with predicted incinerability spanning the range of most to least difficult to incinerate class were combined with a clay-based sorbent and batch-fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator via a fiberpack drum ram feeder. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln exit POHC DREs were in the 99.99 percent range for the volatile POHCs for the baseline, mixing failure (increased charge mass), and matrix failure (decreased feed H/C) tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected in the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999 percent. The thermal failure (low kiln temperature) and worst case (combination of thermal, mixing, and matrix failure) tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln exit POHC DREs. These ranged from 99 percent or less for Freon 113 to greater than 99.999 percent for the less stable-ranked semivolatile POHCs. General agreement between relative kiln exit POHC DRE and predicted incinerability class was observed.

  15. Jet mixing in a down-scaled model of a rotary kiln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Sofia; Johansson, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Rotary kilns are large, cylindrical, rotating ovens with a burner in one end that are used in various industrial processes to heat up materials to high temperatures. Kiln burners are characterized by long diffusion flames where the combustion process is largely controlled by turbulent diffusion mixing between the burner fuel jet and the surrounding combustion air. The combustion air flow patterns have a significant effect on the mixing and hence the combustion efficiency and flame shape, motivating a systematic study of the kiln aerodynamics and the mixing characteristics. In this work, a downscaled, isothermal model of a rotary kiln is investigated experimentally through simultaneous particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements. The kiln is modeled as a cylinder with three inlets in one end; two semicircular-shaped inlets for what is called the secondary fluid divided by a wall in between, called the back plate, where the burner nozzle is located. Three momentum flux ratios of the secondary fluid are investigated, and the interaction with the burner jet is scrutinized. It is found that the burner jet characteristics, its mixing with the secondary fluid and the resulting flow field surrounding the jet are dependent on the momentum flux ratio.

  16. Application of the dynamic model of Saeman to an industrial rotary kiln incinerator: numerical and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, L G; Caillat, S; Chinnayya, A; Gambier, D; Baudoin, B

    2010-07-01

    In order to simulate granular materials structure in a rotary kiln under the steady-state regime, a mathematical model has been developed by Saeman (1951). This model enables the calculation of the bed profiles, the axial velocity and solids flow rate along the kiln. This model can be coupled with a thermochemical model, in the case of a reacting moving bed. This dynamic model was used to calculate the bed profile for an industrial size kiln and the model projections were validated by measurements in a 4 m diameter by 16 m long industrial rotary kiln. The effect of rotation speed under solids bed profile and the effect of the feed rate under filling degree were established. On the basis of the calculations and the experimental results a phenomenological relation for the residence time estimation was proposed for the rotary kiln.

  17. Mathematical modeling of pneumatic char injection in a direct reduction rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, V.; Sai, P.S.T.

    1999-10-01

    A one-dimensional steady-state mathematical model is proposed for direct reduction process in rotary kilns akin to the SL/RN process. The model takes into account pneumatic coal char injection from the discharge end of the kiln to supplement the heat availability. The model is based on material and energy conservation principles, and the empirical equations for kinetics and heat transfer are obtained from the literature. Predictions are carried out for both iron oxide reduction and ilmenite beneficiation processes. Improvement in the performance was predicted with pneumatic char injection.

  18. Field investigation of the temperature distribution in a commercial hazardous waste slagging rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Veranth, J.M.; Gao, D.; Silcox, G.D.

    1996-10-01

    Gas and bed temperatures were studied in a 4.4 m by 12 m, co-current flow, slagging rotary kiln at a commercial hazardous waste incinerator. The visual observations used by the kiln operators to control the process are described. These observations were quantified using thermocouples, radiation pyrometers, and phase-change indicators. The objectives were to estimate the peak bed temperature and compare this to measurements at the kiln exit. The maximum bed temperature occurs toward the middle of this type of kiln and not at the discharge. The slag melting temperature and test pellets with known melting points indicate that the peak bed temperature can be 100-300 K higher than the kiln exit temperature reported by the permanent instruments at this facility. Both broad-band radiation pyrometers and thermocouples give a qualitative temperature indication that can be used for process control, but the readings depend on the sensor locations relative to the incompletely mixed air and combustion products. Two-color radiation pyrometer measurements of surface temperature near the kiln exit are higher than the actual temperature due to reflected radiation. 7 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Leaching from waste incineration bottom ashes treated in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Hyks, Jiri; Nesterov, Igor; Mogensen, Erhardt; Jensen, Peter A; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash treated in a rotary kiln was quantified using a combination of lab-scale leaching experiments and geochemical modelling. Thermal treatment in the rotary kiln had no significant effect on the leaching of Al, Ba, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, Zn, sulfate and inorganic carbon. Leaching of these elements from the treated residues remained unchanged and was, in general, controlled by solubility of the same minerals as in the untreated residues. Leaching of Cd, Co, Ni, Ti, Be, Bi, and Sn from both untreated and treated residues was found to be close to or below their detection limits; no effects of the thermal treatment on leachability of these metals were observed. The leaching of Cl, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Cu and Pb decreased by at least one order of magnitude after the thermal treatment. This could be explained by evaporation (Cl) and by a better burnout of organic matter which then limited metal-DOC complexation and mobility. At the same time, leaching of Mo and Cr appeared to increase by a factor of 4 and more than two orders of magnitude, respectively. The large changes in Cr leaching may be explained by decreases in Al reduction capacity after the thermal treatment. Overall, rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended to reduce the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl and DOC; however, increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected.

  20. The desorption of toluene from a montmorillonite clay adsorbent in a rotary kiln environment

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, W.D.; Silcox, G.D.; Lighty, J.S.; Xiao Xue Deng; Pershing, D.W. ); Cundy, V.A.; Leger, C.B.; Jakway, A.L. )

    1992-05-01

    The vaporization of toluene from pre-dried, 3 mm montmorillonite clay particles was studied in a 130 kW pilot-scale rotary kiln with inside dimensions of 0.61 by 0.61 meters. Vaporization rates were obtained with a toluene weight fraction of 0.25 percent as a function of kiln fill fractions from 3 to 8 percent, rotation rates from 0.1 to 0.9 rpm, and kiln wall temperatures from 189 to 793 C. Toluene desorption rates were obtained from gas-phase measurements and interpreted using a desorption model that incorporates the slumping frequency of the solids, the fill fraction of the kiln, the diffusion of toluene in the bed, and the rate of particle desorption using an Arrhenius-type expression that is a function of bed temperature and average bed concentration. The model included three adjustable desorption parameters which were obtained by fitting the experimental data at one set of conditions with a least squares technique. Solid and kiln-wall temperatures were continuously recorded and used in the model at predicting the effects of fill fraction and rotation rate over a range of temperatures. A methodology for predicting full-scale performance was developed. Full-scale toluene desorption predictions were completed for different operating temperatures.

  1. [Comparison of fixation effects of heavy metals between cement rotary kiln co-processing and cement solidification/stabilization].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-li; Liu, Jian-guo; Li, Cheng; Jin, Yi-ying; Nie, Yong-feng

    2008-04-01

    Both cement rotary kiln co-processing hazardous wastes and cement solidification/stabilization could dispose heavy metals by fixation. Different fixation mechanisms lead to different fixation effects. The same amount of heavy metal compounds containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn were treated by the two kinds of fixation technologies. GB leaching test, TCLP tests and sequential extraction procedures were employed to compare the fixation effects of two fixation technologies. The leached concentration and chemical species distribution of heavy metals in two grounded mortar samples were analyzed and the fixation effects of two kinds of technologies to different heavy metals were compared. The results show the fixation effect of cement rotary kiln co-processing technology is better than cement solidification/stabilization technology to As, Pb, Zn. Calcinations in cement rotary kiln and then hydration help As, Pb, Zn contained in hazardous wastes transform to more steady chemical species and effectively dispose these heavy metals compounds. Cr3+ is liable to be converted to much more toxic and more mobile Cr6+ state in cement rotary kiln. And so Cr wastes are more fit for treatment by cement solidification/stabilization technology. The work could provide a basis when choosing disposal technologies for different heavy metals and be helpful to improve the application and development of cement rotary kiln co-processing hazardous wastes.

  2. Emissions study of co-firing waste carpet in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Paul; Stewart, Eric; Realff, Matthew; Mulholland, James A

    2004-01-01

    Post-consumer carpet represents a high volume, high energy content waste stream. As a fuel for co-firing in cement kilns, waste carpet, like waste tires, has potential advantages. Technological challenges to be addressed include assessing potential emissions, in particular NO emissions (from nylon fiber carpets), and optimizing the carpet feed system. This paper addresses the former. Results of pilot-scale rotary kiln experiments demonstrate the potential for using post-consumer waste carpet as a fuel in cement kilns. Continuous feeding of shredded carpet fiber and ground carpet backing, at rates of up to 30% of total energy input, resulted in combustion without transient puffs and with almost no increase in CO and other products of incomplete combustion as compared to kiln firing natural gas only. NO emissions increased with carpet waste co-firing due to the nitrogen content of nylon fiber. In these experiments with shredded fiber and finely ground backing, carpet nitrogen conversion to NO ranged from 3 to 8%. Conversion increased with enhanced mixing of the carpet material and air during combustion. Carpet preparation and feeding method are controlling factors in fuel N conversion.

  3. The numerical modelling and process simulation for the fault diagnosis of rotary kiln incinerator.

    PubMed

    Roh, S D; Kim, S W; Cho, W S

    2001-10-01

    The numerical modelling and process simulation for the fault diagnosis of rotary kiln incinerator were accomplished. In the numerical modelling, two models applied to the modelling within the kiln are the combustion chamber model including the mass and energy balance equations for two combustion chambers and 3D thermal model. The combustion chamber model predicts temperature within the kiln, flue gas composition, flux and heat of combustion. Using the combustion chamber model and 3D thermal model, the production-rules for the process simulation can be obtained through interrelation analysis between control and operation variables. The process simulation of the kiln is operated with the production-rules for automatic operation. The process simulation aims to provide fundamental solutions to the problems in incineration process by introducing an online expert control system to provide an integrity in process control and management. Knowledge-based expert control systems use symbolic logic and heuristic rules to find solutions for various types of problems. It was implemented to be a hybrid intelligent expert control system by mutually connecting with the process control systems which has the capability of process diagnosis, analysis and control.

  4. Nitric oxide formation in an iron oxide pellet rotary kiln furnace.

    PubMed

    Davis, R A

    1998-01-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate the effects of heat and mass transfer on the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in a rotary kiln furnace for iron oxide pellet induration. The modeled kiln has a length-to-diameter ratio of approximately seven. The principal mechanism of heat transfer is radiation from the flame, which was described by the net radiation method. The well known Zeldovich mechanism was used to predict thermal NOx generation. Temperature fluctuations in the vicinity of the flame were estimated with a clipped Gaussian probability density function. The thermal energy and mass balance model equations were solved numerically. The model is capable of predicting temperature profiles and NOx production rates in agreement with observed plant performance. The model was used to explore the effects of process changes on the total NOx formation in the kiln. It was concluded that the gas temperature as well as the partial pressure of oxygen in the process gases controls the rate of NOx formation. Lowering the temperature of the kiln gases by increasing the secondary air flow rates requires simultaneously decreasing the pellet production rate in order to maintain the pellet temperatures needed for blast furnace conditions.

  5. CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROTARY COMBUSTOR FOR REFIRING PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Murray F. Abbott; Jamal B. Mereb; Simon P. Hanson; Michael J. Virr

    2000-11-01

    The Rotary Combustor is a novel concept for burning coal with low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. It burns crushed coal in a fluid bed where the bed is maintained in a rotating drum by centripetal force. Since this force may be varied, the combustor may be very compact, and thus be a direct replacement for a p.c. burner on existing boilers. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate that a typical industrial boiler can be refired with the modified prototype Rotary Combustor to burn Ohio high-sulfur coal with low emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The primary problem that must be resolved to demonstrate sustained operations with coal is temperature control in the rotating fluid bed. The prototype Rotary Combustor was assembled and installed on the T-850P CNB boiler at the CONSOL Energy site in South Park, Pennsylvania. Several design improvements were investigated and implemented during the assembly to improve the prototype Rotary Combustor operations compared to prior tests at Detroit Stoker in Monroe, Michigan. An Operating Manual and Safety Review were completed. The shakedown test phase was initiated. Two major problems were initially encountered: binding of the rotating drum at operating temperatures, and reduced fluid-bed pressure drop after short periods of operation. Plating the brush seal rotary land ring with a chrome carbide plasma spray and lubricating the seal prior to each test sufficiently resolved these problems to permit a limited number of operations tests. Unlike previous tests at Detroit Stoker, sustained operation of the prototype Rotary Combustor was accomplished burning a high-Btu fuel, metallurgical coke. The prototype Rotary Combustor was operated with coke in gasifier mode on two occasions. Fluid-bed temperature spiking was minimized with manual control of the feeds (coke, air and steam), and no clinker formation problems were encountered in either test. Emission levels of NO{sub x} were measured at about 270 ppmv which

  6. The production of synthetic aggregate from a quarry waste using an innovative style rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, R J; Cresswell, D J F; van der Sloot, H A

    2002-06-01

    The large volumes of wastes generated by industrialised society has led to efforts to find practical uses for these wastes, whilst also offsetting the consumption of natural resources. This paper describes the use of an innovative rotary kiln to produce synthetic aggregates from a variety of waste streams. The main waste used was a quarry fines which was blended with either paper sludge, clay, or a dredged harbour sediment. The different combinations were extruded and fired in the kiln to produce a material suitable for natural aggregate replacement. Two of the synthetic aggregates produced were tested by incorporation in to concrete as coarse aggregate replacement. The concrete 28-day compressive strengths achieved were above 40 N mm(-2) and compared favourably with control concretes made with natural aggregates and a commercially available lightweight aggregate (Lytag). Leaching tests have also been carried out to assess the potential environmental impact of utilisation. Although not finalised, these tests have also given favourable results.

  7. Thermal co-treatment of combustible hazardous waste and waste incineration fly ash in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Huber, Florian; Blasenbauer, Dominik; Mallow, Ole; Lederer, Jakob; Winter, Franz; Fellner, Johann

    2016-12-01

    As current disposal practices for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash are either associated with significant costs or negative environmental impacts, an alternative treatment was investigated in a field scale experiment. Thereto, two rotary kilns were fed with hazardous waste, and moistened MSWI fly ash (water content of 23%) was added to the fuel of one kiln with a ratio of 169kg/Mg hazardous waste for 54h and 300kg/Mg hazardous waste for 48h while the other kiln was used as a reference. It was shown that the vast majority (>90%) of the inserted MSWI fly ash was transferred to the bottom ash of the rotary kiln. This bottom ash complied with the legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills, thereby demonstrating the potential of the investigated method to transfer hazardous waste (MSWI fly ash) into non-hazardous waste (bottom ash). The results of a simple mixing test (MSWI fly ash and rotary kiln bottom ash have been mixed accordingly without thermal treatment) revealed that the observed transformation of hazardous MSWI fly ash into non-hazardous bottom ash during thermal co-treatment cannot be referred to dilution, as the mixture did not comply with legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills. For the newly generated fly ash of the kiln, an increase in the concentration of Cd, K and Pb by 54%, 57% and 22%, respectively, was observed. In general, the operation of the rotary kiln was not impaired by the MSWI fly ash addition.

  8. PIV/PLIF experiments of jet mixing in a model of a rotary kiln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, I. A. Sofia; Johansson, Simon P. A.; Lundström, T. Staffan; Marjavaara, B. Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The jet mixing in a downscaled, isothermal model of a rotary kiln is investigated experimentally through simultaneous particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements. The kiln is modeled as a cylinder with three inlets in one end, two semicircular-shaped inlets for what is called the secondary fluid divided by a wall in between, called the back plate, where the burner nozzle is located. The scaling of the burner nozzle between real kiln and model and the corresponding jet flow through it is determined by the Craya-Curtet parameter. Three momentum flux ratios of the secondary fluid are investigated, and the interaction with the burner jet is scrutinized. It is found that the burner jet characteristics, its mixing with the secondary fluid and the resulting flow field surrounding the jet are dependent on the momentum flux ratio. A particular result is that stable shear layers give a more even mixing as compared to a case with shear layers subjected to a more prominent vortex shedding.

  9. Coal pyrolysis in a rotary kiln: Part 2. Overall model of the furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Patisson, F.; Lebas, E.; Hanrot, F.; Ablitzer, D.; Houzelot, J.L.

    2000-04-01

    In order to simulate coal pyrolysis in a rotary kiln in the steady-state regime, a mathematical model has been developed which calculates the temperature profiles in the charge, the gas, and the furnace walls, together with the gas composition and the degree of removal of volatile species. The model takes into account the principal physiochemical and thermal phenomena involved, including the complex movements of the charge; the gas flow; heat transfer between the charge, the gas phase, and the furnace walls; drying and pyrolysis of the coal; the cracking of tars; the combustion of volatile species; and the combustion and extinction of the coke. The data necessary for the model were obtained by specific experiments or from the literature. The model has been validated by comparing its predictions to measurements performed to an industrial rotary kiln. The model has been used to study the influence of operating parameters such as the furnace rotation speed, in order to optimize the process. It is shown how a modification to the extinction zone leads to an increase in coke yield of 0.75 pct.

  10. Modeling the combustion behavior of hazardous waste in a rotary kiln incinerator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxiang; Pijnenborg, Marc J A; Reuter, Markus A; Verwoerd, Joep

    2005-01-01

    Hazardous wastes have complex physical forms and chemical compositions and are normally incinerated in rotary kilns for safe disposal and energy recovery. In the rotary kiln, the multifeed stream and wide variation of thermal, physical, and chemical properties of the wastes cause the incineration system to be highly heterogeneous, with severe temperature fluctuations and unsteady combustion chemistry. Incomplete combustion is often the consequence, and the process is difficult to control. In this article, modeling of the waste combustion is described by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Through CFD simulation, gas flow and mixing, turbulent combustion, and heat transfer inside the incinerator were predicted and visualized. As the first step, the waste in various forms was modeled to a hydrocarbon-based virtual fuel mixture. The combustion of the simplified waste was then simulated with a seven-gas combustion model within a CFD framework. Comparison was made with previous global three-gas combustion model with which no chemical behavior can be derived. The distribution of temperature and chemical species has been investigated. The waste combustion model was validated with temperature measurements. Various operating conditions and the influence on the incineration performance were then simulated. Through this research, a better process understanding and potential optimization of the design were attained.

  11. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A VENTURI/PACKED COLUMN SCRUBBER - VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 5-week series of pilot-scale incineration tests, employing a synthetic waste feed, was performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with a venturi scrubber/p...

  12. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite.

  13. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Bao, Y B; Cai, X L; Chen, C H; Ye, X C

    2014-08-15

    The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  14. Combustion modeling and performance evaluation in a full-scale rotary kiln incinerator.

    PubMed

    Chen, K S; Hsu, W T; Lin, Y C; Ho, Y T; Wu, C H

    2001-06-01

    This work summarizes the results of numerical investigations and in situ measurements for turbulent combustion in a full-scale rotary kiln incinerator (RKI). The three-dimensional (3D) governing equations for mass, momentum, energy, and species, together with the kappa - epsilon turbulence model, are formulated and solved using a finite volume method. Volatile gases from solid waste were simulated by gaseous CH4 distributed nonuniformly along the kiln bed. The combustion process was considered to be a two-step stoichiometric reaction for primary air mixed with CH4 gas in the combustion chamber. The mixing-controlled eddy-dissipation model (EDM) was employed to predict the conversion rates of CH4, O2, CO2, and CO. The results of the prediction show that reverse flows occur near the entrance of the first combustion chamber (FCC) and the turning point at the entrance to the second combustion chamber (SCC). Temperature and species are nonuniform and are vertically stratified. Meanwhile, additional mixing in the SCC enhances postflame oxidation. A combustion efficiency of up to 99.96% can be achieved at approximately 150% excess air and 20-30% secondary air. Reasonable agreement is achieved between numerical predictions and in situ measurements.

  15. Trace-metal fate in a rotary-kiln incinerator with an ionizing wet scrubber (journal article)

    SciTech Connect

    Waterland, L.R.; Fournier, D.J.; Lee, J.W.; Carroll, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with an ionizing wet scrubber (IWS) for particulate and acid gas control. Test variables were kiln temperature, ranging from 816 to 927 C (1500 to 1700 F); afterburner temperature, ranging from 982 to 1204 C (1800 to 2200 F); and feed chlorine content, ranging from 0 to 8 percent. The test program evaluated the fate of five hazardous constituent trace metals (arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, and lead) and four nonhazardous constituent trace metals (bismuth, copper, magnesium, and strontium). The test results indicate that cadmium and bismuth were relatively volatile, with an average of less than 40 percent discharged with the kiln ash. Arsenic, barium, chromium, copper, lead, magnesium, and strontium were relatively nonvolatile, with an average of greater than 80 percent discharged with the kiln ash. Observed relative metal volatilities generally agreed with the volatilities predicted based on vapor pressure/temperature relationships, with the exception of arsenic which was much less volatile than predicted. The volatility of cadmium, bismuth, and lead increased as kiln temperature was increased; the discharge distributions of the remaining metals were not significantly affected by changes in kiln temperature. Apparent scrubber collection efficiencies for the metals averaged 22 to 71 percent, and were generally higher for the less volatile metals. The overall average metal collection efficiency was 43 percent.

  16. Modeling of Process Parameters and Analysis of Effect of Variables in the Dead Burning of Magnesite in Rotary Kiln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, B. K.

    The challenges of improving sintered MgO raw materials with special high temperature properties demand higher temperature calcination. In the process of dead burning of magnesite (DBM) in rotary kiln, the heat expenditures were found to be mainly due to dead burning of magnesite, loss through exhaust gases, loss through kiln shell by radiation & convection, clinker exit etc. The calcination process is highly energy intensive and involves various interdependent variable factors. An attempt was made to build a model and a screening design of experiment was performed with few process variables to identify the greatest effect of variables on the response quality. The design variables chosen were raw magnesite (RM) feed rate, kiln rotation (RPM), fuel consumption and burning zone temperature (BZT). The response variables were exit gas temperature and density of dead burnt magnesite (DBM). A fractional factorial design was used to keep the number of experimental runs to a minimum. ANOVA and normal plots were used to evaluate the effects of different variable factors on the sensory/response properties. The Experimental Design, ANNOVA, Response surface etc. given an insight of dead burning of magnesite in rotary kiln. This work had enabled us to correlate the BZT, RPM, RM feed with the exit gas temp and density of magnesite produced. The result opens up an avenue to look into the optimum region of operations within the ranges of variables considered in order to minimize the exhaust gas temp. and to maximize the density of the DBM produced.

  17. Re-cycling of sugar-ash: a raw feed material for rotary kilns.

    PubMed

    Kantiranis, Nikolaos

    2004-01-01

    Large amounts of sugar-ash, a material rich in calcium carbonate, are produced as a by-product in the Greek Sugar Industry. This work explores the possibility of re-cycling sugar-ash for use in the lime industry. A representative sample of sugar-ash from the Plati Imathias sugar plant was studied by PXRD, TG/DTG, calcination experiments at temperatures between 650 and 1150 degrees C and experiments to determine the quality of the quicklime produced at temperatures between 850 and 1150 degrees C following methods described in ASTM C110 standard. The sugar-ash was found to consist of 90 wt% calcium rich minerals (calcite and monohydrocalcite) and 10 wt% amorphous material. Traces of quartz were also detected. The quicklime of highest quality was produced at 950 degrees C. It is concluded that this "useless" material (sugar-ash) can be re-cycled for use in rotary kilns in the lime industry at calcination temperatures up to 950-1000 degrees C.

  18. Determination of the optimal area of waste incineration in a rotary kiln using a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Bujak, J

    2015-08-01

    The article presents a mathematical model to determine the flux of incinerated waste in terms of its calorific values. The model is applicable in waste incineration systems equipped with rotary kilns. It is based on the known and proven energy flux balances and equations that describe the specific losses of energy flux while considering the specificity of waste incineration systems. The model is universal as it can be used both for the analysis and testing of systems burning different types of waste (municipal, medical, animal, etc.) and for allowing the use of any kind of additional fuel. Types of waste incinerated and additional fuel are identified by a determination of their elemental composition. The computational model has been verified in three existing industrial-scale plants. Each system incinerated a different type of waste. Each waste type was selected in terms of a different calorific value. This allowed the full verification of the model. Therefore the model can be used to optimize the operation of waste incineration system both at the design stage and during its lifetime.

  19. Thermal treatment of the fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerator with rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Wey, Ming-Yen; Liu, Kuang-Yu; Tsai, Tsung-Hsun; Chou, Jing-Tong

    2006-09-21

    Reuse of the fly ash from the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) is a policy of Taiwan EPA. However, the fly ash is often classified as a hazardous waste and cannot be reused directly because the concentrations of heavy metals exceed the TCLP regulations. The main objective of this study is to investigate the continuous sintering behavior of fly ash with a rotary kiln and seek a solution to reduce the concentrations of heavy metal to an acceptable value. The partitions of the heavy metals in the process are also considered. The results of TCLP showed that among the metals of Cr, Cd, Cu and Pb, only the concentrations of Pb in raw fly ash exceeded the regulation. At sintering temperatures of 700, 800 and 900 degrees C, the concentration of Pb decreased in sintering products, however, the concentration of Pb still exceeded the limitation at 700 and 800 degrees C. Additionally, the water-washing was used to pre-treat the fly ash before sintering process. The washing treatment effectively reduced the leaching concentrations of Pb to agree the regulations. Therefore, water-washing followed by a sintering treatment is an available process for detoxifying the fly ash of MSWI.

  20. Industrial hazardous waste treatment featuring a rotary kiln and grate furnace incinerator: a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pan; Ma, Zengyi; Yan, Jianhua; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2011-10-01

    As one of the fastest developing countries, China is facing severe problems concerning hazardous waste treatment and disposal. This paper presents a new incineration technology and demonstration project in eastern China. The incineration system includes a rotary kiln, a grate furnace for burning out the kiln residue and a flue gas post-combustion chamber. Flue gas treatment and emission control is based on: a quench tower, followed by dry hydrated lime and activated carbon injection, a dual bag filter system, and a wet scrubber. It demonstrated that this incineration technology can effectively dispose of industrial hazardous waste with variable and complex characteristics. Gas emissions meet the demands of the Chinese Environmental Protection Association standard.

  1. Novel method of reducing transient emissions from rotary-kiln incinerators through modified waste packaging. Rept. for Mar 90-May 92

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Linak, W.P.; Wendt, J.O.L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives results of tests on a 73 kW pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator to examine the effect of modified waste packaging on the ability of the incineration system to respond to transients imposed due to batch charging of volatile liquid surrogate hazardous wastes bound on corncob sorbents. Normally, the waste container ruptures soon after its introduction into the kiln, rapidly releasing any contained volatile materials. This rapid release of combustibles has the potential to locally deplete available oxygen supplied by the main burner. This can lead to a transient puff of unburned material that must be dealt with by downstream equipment, such as an afterburner. Innovative waste packaging methods were used to delay the time required for waste vaporization, which significantly decreased the measured amount of unburned material exiting the kiln. This concept has advantageous implications for rotary kiln incinerators as a way to both reduce transient emissions and increase the feed rate of containerized liquids.

  2. Occurrence of transient puffs in a rotary-kiln incinerator simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Linak, W.P.; Kilgroe, J.D.; McSorley, J.A.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Dunn, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses a statistically designed parametric investigation to determine which waste and kiln variables (charge mass, charge surface area, charge composition, and kiln temperature) significantly affect both instantaneous intensity and total magnitude of the puffs leaving a kiln used to incinerate simple prototype plastic wastes, ranging from polyethylene to polyvinychloride. Results show the relative ease with which failure conditions are achieved, even at high excess air values and high kiln temperatures. Transient puffs leaving the kiln contain a number of hazardous compounds. Increasing kiln temperature does not necessarily decrease the puff intensity and may in fact cause an increase. However, the total mass emitted always decreases with increasing temperature. In addition, the mass, surface area, and composition of the charge are all important.

  3. High vacuum indirectly-heated rotary kiln for the removal and recovery of mercury from air pollution control scrubber waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, G.G.; Aulbaugh, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    SepraDyne corporation (Denton, TX, US) has conducted pilot-scale treatability studies of dewatered acid plant blowdown sludge generated by a copper smelter using its recently patented high temperature and high vacuum indirectly-heated rotary retort technology. This unique rotary kiln is capable of operating at internal temperatures up to 850 C with an internal pressure of 50 torr and eliminates the use of sweep gas to transport volatile substances out of the retort. By removing non-condensables such as oxygen and nitrogen at relatively low temperatures and coupling the process with a temperature ramp-up program and low temperature condensation, virtually all of the retort off-gases produced during processing can be condensed for recovery. The combination of rotation, heat and vacuum produce the ideal environment for the rapid volatilization of virtually all organic compounds, water and low-to-moderate boiling point metals such as arsenic, cadmium and mercury.

  4. Recovery of aluminum oxide by the Ames lime-soda sinter process: scale-up using a rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Murtha, M.J.; Burnet, G.; Harnby, N.

    1985-01-01

    The Ames Lime-Soda Sinter Process provides a means for recovering aluminum oxide from power plant fly ash while producing a residue that can be used in the manufacture of sulfate resistant (Type V) portland cement. The process has been fully researched and its feasibility is now being demonstrated through pilot plant scale investigation. This paper reports results of the pelletized feed preparation by agglomeration in a rotary pan granulator, continuous feed sintering in an electrically heated rotary kiln, and product recovery from the clinker by aqueous extraction, desilication of the filtrate, and precipitation of a hydrated aluminum oxide. Results from earlier bench-scale research have been found to apply consistently to the pilot plant scale work.

  5. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A SINGLE-STAGE IONIZING WET SCRUBBER - VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with an ionizing wet scrubber (IWS) for particulate and acid gas control. ...

  6. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A VENTURI/PACKED COLUMN SCRUBBER - VOLUME I: TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A five week series of pilot-scale incineration tests, using a synthetic waste feed, was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator. Eight tests studied the fate of five ha...

  7. FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A SINGLE-STAGE IONIZING WET SCRUBBER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with an ionizing wet scrubber (IWS) for particulate and acid gas control. ...

  8. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FULL SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR FIELD TRIAL: PHASE I, VERIFICATION TRIAL BURN ON DIOXIN/HERBICIDE ORANGE CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study reports on the results of one of a series of field trials using various remedial action technologies that may be capable of restoring Herbicide Orange (HO)XDioxin contaminated sites. A full-scale field trial using a rotary kiln incinerator capable of pro...

  9. On flow induced kinetic diffusion and rotary kiln bed burden heat transport

    SciTech Connect

    Boateng, A.A.

    1997-07-01

    The cross-section of a partially-filled cylindrical kiln rotating on its horizontal axis and processing granular solids produces a shear zone (active layer) at the free surface which grows with the kiln's rotational rate. The active layer, although relatively thin, compared with the rest of the bed burden, drives all physical/chemical reactions. This is because of the high rate of surface renewal which, in turn, promotes heat exchange between the exposed surface and the higher temperature freeboard gas. Unlike packed beds, particulate diffusion induced by the flow of granules, adds a significant component to the overall heat transfer in the bed. Problem formulation and modeling of heat conduction using flow fields derived from experiments suggest that at slow kiln speeds the diffusion effect may not be recognized due to long term duration of particle contacts and hence packed-bed heat conduction models may provide adequate characterization. However, at moderate and high kiln speeds particle collisions are short-termed and kinetic diffusion contributes to the effective thermal conductivity by as much as tenfold thereby resulting in a well-mixed conditions and a homogeneous bed temperature. Industrial processing ramifications such as kiln speed control and product quality are discussed hereafter.

  10. Evaluation of near-infrared tunable diode lasers for detection of transient emissions from a rotary kiln.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaddix, Christopher R.; Ottesen, David K.; Allendorf, Sarah W.; Miller, C. Andy; Lemieux, Paul M.

    2003-12-01

    Near-infrared tunable diode lasers (TDLs) were evaluated for their suitability as fast-response combustion performance indicators during tests at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's pilot-scale Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator (RKIS) facility. Transient emissions (i.e., 'puffs') of various magnitudes and duration were generated by injecting a mixture of toluene and methylene chloride into the rotary kiln, through use of a computer-controlled liquid gun or by ram-loading containers of the waste surrogate adsorbed onto corncob. Two wavelength-modulated TDLs that span carbon monoxide (CO) and methane absorption lines at 1.57 and 1.65 pm, respectively, provided information on these species as well as total laser transmittance (an indicator of soot loading). Fiber-optic cables transmitted the laser light from the remotely situated TDLs to two line-of-sight measurement locations. In addition, the TDLs were used with a multi-pass optical cell to perform more sensitive extractive measurements. Over the optical pathlength available in this facility, in situ measurements of methane down to a concentration of {approx} 100 ppm were demonstrated during non-sooty conditions. CO could not be reliably quantified in situ, even at concentrations as high as 0.7%, due to the combination of weak absorption line strength and interfering water and carbon-dioxide hot-bands. The soot produced during the toluene/methylene chloride puffs typically attenuated over 90% of the TDL laser beam, preventing effective in situ TDL measurements during the puffs. In contrast, the extractive TDL measurements demonstrated good accuracy and sensitivity for both methane and CO under all reactor conditions. Furthermore, the in situ laser transmittance profiles during the puffs provided new insights into the composition of the puffs as a function of puff magnitude and residence time.

  11. Fate of trace metals in a rotary-kiln incinerator with a single-stage ionizing wet scrubber. Volume 1. Technical results

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, D.J.; Waterland, L.R.

    1991-07-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with an ionizing wet scrubber (IWS) for particulate and acid gas control. Test variables were kiln temperature, ranging from 816 to 927 C (1500 to 1700 F); afterburner temperature, ranging from 982 to 1204 C (1800 to 2200 F); and feed chlorine content, ranging from 0 to 8 percent. The test program evaluated the fate of five hazardous constituent trace metals (arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, and lead) and four nonhazardous constituent trace metals (bismuth, copper, magnesium, and strontium). The test results indicate that cadmium and bismuth were relatively volatile, with an average of less than 40 percent discharged with the kiln ash. Arsenic, barium, chromium, copper, lead, magnesium, and strontium were relatively nonvolatile, with an average of greater than 80 percent discharged with the kiln ash. Observed relative metal volatilities generally agreed with the volatilities predicted based on vapor pressure/temperature relationships, with the exception of arsenic which was much less volatile than predicted. The volatility of cadmium, bismuth, and lead increased as kiln temperature was increased; the discharge distributions of the remaining metals were not significantly affected by changes in kiln temperature. Apparent scrubber collection efficiencies for the metals averaged 22 to 71 percent, and were generally higher for the less volatile metals. The overall average metal collection efficiency was 43 percent.

  12. Comparison of the fixation effects of heavy metals by cement rotary kiln co-processing and cement based solidification/stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junli; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Cheng; Jin, Yiying; Nie, Yongfeng; Li, Jinhui

    2009-06-15

    Cement rotary kiln co-processing of hazardous wastes and cement based solidification/stabilization could both immobilize heavy metals. The different retention mechanisms of the two technologies lead to different fixation effects of heavy metals. The same amount of heavy metal compounds were treated by the two types of fixation technologies. Long-term leaching test (160 days), the maximum availability leaching test (NEN 7341) and a modified three-step sequential extraction procedure, proposed by the Commission of the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR) were employed to compare the fixation effects of the two fixation technologies. The leaching concentrations in NEN 7341 and long-term leaching tests were compared with identification standard for hazardous wastes (GB5085.3-1996) and drinking water standard (GB5749-2005). The results indicate that the leaching concentrations of the long-term leaching test and NEN 7341 test were lower than the regulatory limits and the leached ratios were small. Both cement based solidification/stabilization and cement rotary kiln co-processing could effectively fix heavy metals. Calcination in a cement rotary kiln and the following hydration that follows during cement application could fix As, Cd, Pb and Zn more effectively and decrease the release to the environment. Cement solidification/stabilization technology has better effect in immobilizing Cr and Ni. Cr wastes are more fitful to be treated by cement solidification/stabilization.

  13. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Lucero Konopa; James A. Mulholland; Matthew J. Realff; Paul M. Lemieux

    2008-08-15

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particleboard combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. S{sub 2} emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion.

    PubMed

    Konopa, Stephanie Lucero; Mulholland, James A; Realff, Matthew J; Lemieux, Paul M

    2008-08-01

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particle-board combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. SO2 emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet.

  15. Effects of alternate fuels report No. 8: analysis of degradiation of magnesia-based refractory bricks from a residual oil-fired rotary cement kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Federer, J.I.; Tennery, V.J.

    1980-05-01

    Residual oil was used as an alternate fuel to natural gas to supply heat in a rotary cement kiln. Principal impurities in the residual oil were Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Ni, P.S. and V. the kiln operators were concerned about the effects of these oil impurities on observed degradation of the magnesia-based bricks used as a liner in the burning zone of the kiln. Two degraded bricks, which had been in service for six to nine months, were analyzed to determine the role of fuel impurities on the observed degradation. The maximum hot-face temperature of the refractory during service was about 1500/sup 0/C. One brick had decreased in thickness about 45%, the about 15%. Various analytical measurements on these samples failed to reveal the presence of fuel impurities at or near the hot face of the bricks, and therefore it is concluded that the relatively short service life of these refractories was not due to use of residual oil as the fuel in the kiln. The observed degradation, therefore, was attributed to other reactions and to thermal mechanical conditions in the kiln, which inevitably resulted in extensive erosion of the bricks.

  16. Full scale treatment of ASR wastes in a modified rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Mancini, G; Viotti, P; Luciano, A; Raboni, M; Fino, D

    2014-11-01

    A plant, designed for the thermo-valorisation of tyres, was specifically modified in order to treat Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR). Results from two full-scale combustion experiments, carried out on large ASR feeding lots (thousands of tons) indicate the proposed technology as a potential route to help the fulfilling of impending 95% reuse and recovery target set by the End of life Vehicle (ELV) Directive (January 2015). The paper describes the main operational troubleshot occurred during the first experiment (emissions at the stack out of regulatory limits and problems of clogging on the conveyer belt) and the consequent upgrading solutions (pre-treatment, introduction of waste double low-flow screw feeder and a cyclone prior to the main fan, modification of rotatory kiln inlet) adopted to allow, during the second long-term experiment, a continuous basis operation of the plant in full compliance with the discharge limit to the atmosphere. Characterization of both ASR and combustion residues allowed to quantify a 18% of combustion residues as not dangerous waste while only the 2% as hazardous one. A pre-treatment for the reduction of fines in the ASR was recommended in order to achieve the required energy recovery efficiency.

  17. Ultra high temperature gasification of municipal wastewater primary biosolids in a rotary kiln reactor for the production of synthesis gas.

    PubMed

    Gikas, Petros

    2016-03-03

    Primary Fine-Sieved Solids (PFSS) are produced from wastewater by the use of micro-sieves, in place of primary clarification. Biosolids is considered as a nuisance product, however, it contains significant amounts of energy, which can be utilized by biological (anaerobic digestion) or thermal (combustion or gasification) processes. In the present study, an semi-industrial scale UHT rotary kiln gasifier, operating with electric energy, was employed for the gasification of PFSS (at 17% moisture content), collected from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Two gasification temperatures (950 and 1050 °C) had been tested, with minimal differences, with respect to syngas yield. The system appears to reach steady state after about 30-40 min from start up. The composition of the syngas at near steady state was measured approximately as 62.4% H2, 30.0% CO, 2.4% CH4 and 3.4% CO2, plus 1.8% unidentified gases. The potential for electric energy production from the syngas produced is theoretically greater than the electric energy required for gasification. Theoretically, approximately 3.8 MJ/kg PFSS of net electric energy may be produced. However, based on the measured electric energy consumption, and assuming that all the syngas produced is used for electric energy production, addition of excess electric energy (about 0.43 MJ/kg PFSS) is required to break even. The latter is probably due to heat losses to the environment, during the heating process. With the improvement of energy efficiency, the process can be self sustained, form the energy point of view.

  18. Numerical approach to the flux distribution effect on a solar rotary kiln performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Alessandro; Alonso, Elisa; Pérez-Enciso, Ricardo; Fuentealba, Edward; Pérez-Rábago, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    New investigations on solar thermochemical storage and other high temperature process are starting at the University of Antofagasta. A small cavity-type solar rotary reactor will be constructed to develop gas-solid reactions. For this reactor concept, is expected that the most part of the solid reactants will remain in the central sector of the drum. Thus, high temperatures at this area will benefit the process performance. Since the radiation profile feeding the solar reactor could have a significant effect on the temperature distribution, in this work it is presented a numerical model to analyze how the use of different concentrators affects the cavity walls temperature. First, a reference case was simulated with flat profile radiation. Then, a solar simulator composed of an elliptical mirror and a high power lamp and a multi-faceted concentrator were considered for the analysis. Their radiation profiles were obtained by ray tracing simulations and integrated in a CFD model that predicts the cavity temperature. It was found a relation between the flux profile and the temperature distribution. This way, higher temperatures were achieved at the back side of the cavity, where the most part of the radiation impinged. The most homogeneous temperature distribution was achieved for the multi-faceted concentrator case, in which lower differences between the back and the lateral wall were found.

  19. Operation and maintenance of a new hazardous waste multi-purpose rotary kiln incinerator (system) in compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency and Louisiana (US) regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fontenot, M.M. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The proper management of hazardous and non-hazardous waste generated by modern society will continue to be a challenge for the world. Waste minimization and recycling practices will play a significant role in reducing the amount of waste to be managed. Total elimination of all waste in present day society is unlikely to occur in the future. Therefore, generators must take a proactive and responsible care approach to manage their wastes. An effective treatment operation to manage combustible waste is incineration. Properly designed, high efficiency waste incineration systems are very effective treatment solutions for waste management, particularly when compared to land disposal alternatives. High temperature incineration provides a permanent solution for destroying combustible waste and eliminate harmful or toxic organic constituents in the waste. The Novartis Crop Protection, Inc., St. Gabriel Facility, top environmental priority in the management of waste is to minimize waste at the source. The remaining wastes are recycled, detoxified, and/or incinerated. Land disposal of waste is the last resort for waste management. To achieve the St. Gabriel Facility waste management priorities, a new multi-purpose rotary kiln incinerator was constructed in 1992--93. The incinerator is the first of its kind constructed and permitted in the State of Louisiana since the promulgation of RCRA. The final operating conditions under RCRA were obtained from the regulatory agencies in 1996. This paper will discuss the operating and maintenance programs that were implemented for the new multi-purpose rotary kiln incinerator system to meet the RCRA permit conditions. A review of the preventative maintenance programs (i.e., equipment, monitors, analyzers), computer control, waste analysis, tracking of key parameters, operational cost and equipment reliability of the incinerator system will be presented.

  20. Waste fuel delivery to long kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, M.R.; Hansen, E.R.; Reese, T.J.

    1993-07-06

    Method for charging combustible waste to a rotary cement kiln is described comprising a rotating kiln cylinder to burn said waste in contact with in-process mineral material, said method comprising the steps of (1) modifying said cement kiln to provide a port in the rotary kiln cylinder at a point along its length where waste charged through the port will contact calcining mineral during kiln operation, said port having a closure moveable between a port-closed and a port-opened position; (2) positioning the waste in alignment with said port during rotation of the kiln cylinder; (3) moving the port closure to the port-opened position and charging the waste into the kiln through the port; (4) moving the port closure to the port-closed position; and (5) repeating steps 2-4 during kiln operation whereby combustible waste is used to provide up to 40% or more of the energy requirements of kiln operation.

  1. Evaluation of primary air vitiation for nitric oxide reduction in a rotary cement kiln. Volume 1. Technical report. Final report, June 1983-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, R.C.; Hunter, S.C.

    1986-10-01

    The report gives results of tests to evaluate combustion modifications for nitric oxide (NO) reduction and cement-product quality in a pilot-scale long-dry-process cement kiln firing pulverized coal. The kiln is rated at 11.35 kg/s (1080 tons/day) of cement with a thermal input rate of 70.3 MW (240 million Btu/hr). Of the combustion modifications evaluated in previous studies, vitiation of the primary air with inert gas (nitrogen) was considered the best alternative for NO reduction on a pilot-scale kiln. The percent reduction was established from a reference baseline of 1050 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) and a kiln exit oxygen of 1.82%. The NO volumetric emissions were lowered to 880 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) with a kiln exit oxygen of 0.7%. NOx reductions during the short-term nitrogen injection tests were about 25-30% with no adverse effects on product quality. Because of the interacting feed chemistry/kiln operations, it was not possible to clearly isolate the effect of nitrogen injection.

  2. Evaluation of primary air vitiation for nitric oxide reduction in a rotary cement kiln. Volume 2. Data supplement A. Final report, June 1983-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, R.C.; Frohoff, R.A.; Parker, N.R.

    1986-10-01

    The report gives results of tests to evaluate combustion modifications for nitric oxide (NO) reduction and cement-product quality in a pilot-scale long-dry-process cement kiln firing pulverized coal. The kiln is rated at 11.35 kg/s (1080 tons/day) of cement with a thermal input rate of 70.3 MW (240 million Btu/hr). Of the combustion modifications evaluated in previous studies, vitiation of the primary air with inert gas (nitrogen) was considered the best alternative for NO reduction on a pilot-scale kiln. The percent reduction was established from a reference baseline of 1050 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) and a kiln exit oxygen of 1.82%. The NO volumetric emissions were lowered to 880 ppm (corrected to 3% O/sub 2/) with a kiln exit oxygen of 0.7%. NOx reductions during the short-term nitrogen injection tests were about 25-30% with no adverse effects on product quality. Because of the interacting feed chemistry/kiln operations, it was not possible to clearly isolate the effect of nitrogen injection.

  3. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Waste Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Waste Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Waste Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must...

  6. Kiln control for incinerating waste

    SciTech Connect

    Byerly, H.L.; Kuhn, B.R.; Matter, D.C.; Vassiliou, E.

    1993-07-20

    An incinerating kiln device is described capable of controlling the viscosity of molten slag contained within and discharged from the kiln, the device comprising a rotary kiln having a substantially cylindrical shape, an outside skin, a center axis, an inlet, and an outlet opposite the inlet, the kiln being inclined so that the slag exits from the outlet at a discharge position, and wherein the center axis and a line crossing the center axis and having the direction of gravity define a plane of zero position, the distance between the discharge position and the plane of zero position being an indirect measure of the angular viscosity of the slag, the higher said distance the higher the angular viscosity; first detection means at the outlet of the kiln for detecting the distance between the discharge position and the plane of zero position, thus determining the angular viscosity of the slag; and means for correcting the viscosity of the slag, if the distance between the plane of zero position and the discharge position deviates from a desired value, by feeding an additive to the inlet of the kiln.

  7. System for recycling char in iron oxide reducing kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.C.; Keran, V.P.

    1983-03-08

    A method and means for improving the efficiency of the process for directly reducing ore containing iron oxide in a rotary kiln using a solid carbonaceous reducing agent, such as coal, introduced from the ore feed and discharge ends of the kiln, as both fuel and reductant, is disclosed wherein the charred coal or char found in the discharge product is recycled into the process at the discharge end of the kiln rather than the feed end as in the prior art. In particular, the recovered char, both coarse and finer particles, are transported to a recycle bin from which they are returned at a preselected rate to the kiln process by being injected along with the coal blown into the discharge end of the kiln. Alternatively, the recycle char alone may be fed without any coal at the discharge end of the kiln.

  8. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hazardous Waste Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hazardous Waste Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must...

  10. LIME KILN BUILDING, KILN BOTTOM SHOWING ROTATOR GEAR. (GEAR IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LIME KILN BUILDING, KILN BOTTOM SHOWING ROTATOR GEAR. (GEAR IS POINTED DOWN FOR PROPER ORIENTATION). - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  11. Packaged kiln dried firewood

    SciTech Connect

    Cutrara, A.

    1986-07-01

    A process is described for kiln drying firewood consisting of essentially uniform lengths of split firewood pieces, the process comprising splitting essentially uniform lengths of green tree logs to form firewood pieces, placing the firewood pieces in open mesh bags to provide a plurality of bags of firewood, placing the plurality of bags of green firewood pieces in a kiln drying oven, kiln drying the pieces at temperatures in excess of 150/sup 0/F. by moving heated air over the pieces until the pieces have an overall moisture content ranging from 15% up to 30% by weight, operating the kiln at a temperature below a level which would render the structural characteristics of the bag useless and removing the kiln dried firewood pieces in the plurality of bags from the kiln drying oven.

  12. Evaluating tunnel kiln performance

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, K.R.; Carty, W.M.; Ninos, N.J.

    1997-08-01

    Process improvements in the production of whitewares provide the potential for substantial savings for manufacturers. A typical whiteware manufacturer incurs an annual defective product loss of {approximately}$20 million when accounting for raw materials, energy, labor and waste disposal. Reduction in defective product loss of 1% could result in a savings in excess of $1 million annually. This study was designed to establish benchmarks for two conventional tunnel kilns used to bisque-fire dinnerware at Buffalo China Inc. (Buffalo, NY). The benchmark was established by assessing the current conditions and variability of the two tunnel kilns as a function of the fracture strength of sample bars that were made from production body. Sample bars were fired in multiple locations in both kilns to assess the conditions and variability of firing within each kiln. Comparison of strength results between the two kilns also was assessed. These comparisons were accomplished through applied statistical analysis, wherein significant statistical variations were identified and isolated for both tunnel kilns. The statistical methods and tools used in this analysis are readily accessible to manufacturers, thus allowing implementation of similar analysis, or benchmarking, in-house.

  13. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Brownfield, L.A.

    1980-12-02

    The major components of this rotary engine are two equal sized rotary units, the housing containing them along with associated ignition and cooling systems. Each of the rotary units consists of a shaft, gear, two outer compressor wheels, and one center power wheel which has twice the axial thickness as the compressor wheel. All the wheels are cylindrical in shape with a lobe section comprising a 180/sup 0/ arc on the periphery of each wheel which forms an expanding and contracting volumetric chamber by means of leading and trailing lips. The lobes of the first rotary unit are situated 180/sup 0/ opposite the lobes of the second adjacent mating rotary unit, thus lobes can intermesh with its corresponding wheel.

  14. 40 CFR 444.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Commercial hazardous waste combustor means any thermal unit, except a cement kiln, that is subject either to... commercial hazardous waste combustors include hazardous waste incinerators, rotary kiln incinerators, lime kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, and boilers. A facility not otherwise a commercial hazardous...

  15. 40 CFR 444.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste combustor means any thermal unit, except a cement kiln, that is subject either to 40 CFR... commercial hazardous waste combustors include hazardous waste incinerators, rotary kiln incinerators, lime kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, and boilers. A facility not otherwise a commercial hazardous...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1205 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns that are effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; and (7) Particulate matter in excess of 57 mg/dscm corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (b) Emission limits... Combustors Interim Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight... that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1221? (a) Emission limits...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (b) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for new sources. You must not... Pollutants from Hazardous Waste Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1205 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns that are effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; and (7) Particulate matter in excess of 57 mg/dscm corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (b) Emission limits... Combustors Interim Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight... that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1221? (a) Emission limits...

  19. Rotary Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  20. Rotary ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P.; Stock, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual “machine elements” to the requirement of the right “fuel” and “oil” for different types of motors. PMID:23369889

  1. Combustor and combustor screech mitigation methods

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Kwanwoo; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Uhm, Jong Ho; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto

    2014-05-27

    The present application provides for a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a cap member and a number of fuel nozzles extending through the cap member. One or more of the fuel nozzles may be provided in a non-flush position with respect to the cap member.

  2. ROTARY SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Watterberg, J.P.E.

    1960-03-15

    BS>A compact rotary-type switoh was designed wherein an insulating shell carries circumferentially spaced contacts exposed to its interior and also carries, on a re-entrant portion, resilient contact arms having contact portions aligned wth and biased toward the spaced contacts. A dielectric rotor with a movable wall between the contacts and contact arms has an aperture that may be turned into or out of registry with the contacts so as to establish or interrupt circuits.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSIENT PUFF EMISSIONS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Symposium Paper Transient puff emissions were characterized from burning carpet charges that were fed to a pilotscale rotary kiln combustor to assess the potential impact on emissions of using post-consumer carpet as an alternative fuel in cement kilns.

  4. Kiln emissions and potters' exposures.

    PubMed

    Hirtle, B; Teschke, K; van Netten, C; Brauer, M

    1998-10-01

    Some ten thousand British Columbia potters work in small private studios, cooperative facilities, educational institutions, or recreation centers. There has been considerable concern that this diffuse, largely unregulated activity may involve exposures to unacceptable levels of kiln emissions. Pottery kiln emissions were measured at 50 sites--10 from each of 5 categories: professional studios, recreation centers, elementary schools, secondary schools, and colleges. Area monitoring was done 76 cm from firing kilns and 1.6 m above the floor to assess breathing zone concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, aldehydes, aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc. Personal exposures to the same metals were measured at 24 sites. Almost all measured values were well below permissible concentrations for British Columbia work sites and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) with the following two exceptions. A single firing duration (495 minute) acrolein measurement adjacent to an electric kiln (0.109 ppm) exceeded these guidelines. One 15-minute sulfur dioxide measurement collected adjacent to a gas kiln (5.7 ppm) exceeded the ACGIH short-term exposure limit. The fact that concentrations in small, ventilated kiln rooms ranked among the highest measured gives rise to concern that unacceptable levels of contamination may exist where small kiln rooms remain unventilated. Custom designed exhaust hoods and industrial heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems were the most effective ventilation strategies. Passive diffusion and wall/window fans were least effective.

  5. Fuel cell system combustor

    DOEpatents

    Pettit, William Henry

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode and cathode effluents. The combustor includes a turbulator section at its input end for intimately mixing the anode and cathode effluents before they contact the combustors primary catalyst bed. The turbulator comprises at least one porous bed of mixing media that provides a tortuous path therethrough for creating turbulent flow and intimate mixing of the anode and cathode effluents therein.

  6. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  7. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  8. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  9. Rotary latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Joel M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A rotary latch is disclosed, including a hollow, cylindrical outer member and a concentrically arranged inner rotor. The rotor is rotatable within the outer cylindrical member. The outer cylindrical member includes a pair of aligned openings as a cylinder first end facing a latch pin. The rotor includes a pair of aligned slots at a rotor first end facing the latch pin. Slot extensions are provided in the rotor, the slot extensions extending generally perpendicularly to the slots and generally parallel to the rotor first end. In a first position, the outer cylindrical member openings and the rotor slots are aligned to allow receipt of the latch pin. In a second position, the openings and the slot extensions are aligned thereby engaging the latch pin within a closed area defined by the rotor slot extensions and the outer cylinder openings.

  10. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Meyman, U.

    1987-02-03

    A rotary engine is described comprising: two covers spaced from one another; rotors located between the covers and rotating and planetating in different phases; the rotors interengaging to form working chambers therebetween; means to supply fluid to the working chambers and means to exhaust fluid from the working chambers during the operating cycle of the engine; gearing for synchronizing rotation and planetation of the rotors and each including first and second gears arranged so that one of the gears is connected with the rotors while the other of the gears is connected with an immovable part of the engine and the gears engage with one another; carriers interconnecting the rotors and planetating in the same phase with the planetation of the rotors for synchronizing the rotation and planetation of the rotors; shafts arranged to support the carriers during their planetations; and elements for connecting the covers with one another.

  11. A Pottery Electric Kiln Using Decompression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoe, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Nakayama, Minoru; Minamide, Akiyuki; Takemata, Kazuya

    This paper presents a novel type electric kiln which fires the pottery using the decompression. The electric kiln is suitable for the environment and the energy saving as the pottery furnace. This paper described the baking principle and the baking characteristic of the novel type electric kiln.

  12. Modular combustor dome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, Christopher Charles (Inventor); Halila, Ely Eskenazi (Inventor); Bibler, John David (Inventor); Morris, David Byron (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A combustor dome module includes a mixer tube having a hollow heat shield sealingly joined around the outlet end thereof. The modules may then be assembled in an array for defining the combustor dome, with each module being individually removable therefrom.

  13. Clean catalytic combustor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekstedt, E. E.; Lyon, T. F.; Sabla, P. E.; Dodds, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    A combustor program was conducted to evolve and to identify the technology needed for, and to establish the credibility of, using combustors with catalytic reactors in modern high-pressure-ratio aircraft turbine engines. Two selected catalytic combustor concepts were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The combustors were sized for use in the NASA/General Electric Energy Efficient Engine (E3). One of the combustor designs was a basic parallel-staged double-annular combustor. The second design was also a parallel-staged combustor but employed reverse flow cannular catalytic reactors. Subcomponent tests of fuel injection systems and of catalytic reactors for use in the combustion system were also conducted. Very low-level pollutant emissions and excellent combustor performance were achieved. However, it was obvious from these tests that extensive development of fuel/air preparation systems and considerable advancement in the steady-state operating temperature capability of catalytic reactor materials will be required prior to the consideration of catalytic combustion systems for use in high-pressure-ratio aircraft turbine engines.

  14. Variable volume combustor

    DOEpatents

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  15. Gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burd, Steven W. (Inventor); Cheung, Albert K. (Inventor); Dempsey, Dae K. (Inventor); Hoke, James B. (Inventor); Kramer, Stephen K. (Inventor); Ols, John T. (Inventor); Smith, Reid Dyer Curtis (Inventor); Sowa, William A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a combustor module including an annular combustor having a liner assembly that defines an annular combustion chamber having a length, L. The liner assembly includes a radially inner liner, a radially outer liner that circumscribes the inner liner, and a bulkhead, having a height, H1, which extends between the respective forward ends of the inner liner and the outer liner. The combustor has an exit height, H3, at the respective aft ends of the inner liner and the outer liner interior. The annular combustor has a ratio H1/H3 having a value less than or equal to 1.7. The annular combustor may also have a ration L/H3 having a value less than or equal to 6.0.

  16. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.L.

    1987-03-31

    An internal combustion four cycle rotary engine is described comprising: a generally cylindrical having one or more accurately spaced cylinders, each carrying a piston therein extending radially of a central rotational axis of the rotor; stationary bearings support shaft means disposed coaxially of the rotor, unitary combustion chamber means carrying main bearing means for rotatably supporting the same on the shaft means and providing one or more individual combustion chambers, each independently communicating with one of the cylinders; the chamber means being mounted concentrically of the rotor and rotatably moveable therewith about the shaft means; cam means comprising a pair of registeringly aligned, axially spaced, continuously curvilinear cam track means which are formed radially assymmetrical about a central axis coincident with the rotational axis of the rotor; the pair of cam track means being located axially outwardly of the cylinders in parallel planes lying formal to the rotational axis and adjacent opposite axial ends of the rotor; cam rider assembly means, each having follower means engaged with the track means for following the contour thereof; and means coupling a rider assembly means to the piston in each cylinder whereby to effect reciprocal strokes of each piston coaxially of its associated cylinder and radially of the rotor in response to the movements of the follower means along the track means; the track means being constructed and arranged to produce distinctly dissimilar movements of the pistons, to produce strokes of unequal duration and length during the respective intake, compression, combustion and exhaust strokes thereof.

  17. Transient catalytic combustor model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    A quasi-steady gas phase and thermally thin substrate model is used to analyze the transient behavior of catalytic monolith combustors in fuel lean operation. The combustor response delay is due to the substrate thermal inertia. Fast response is favored by thin substrate, short catalytic bed length, high combustor inlet and final temperatures, and small gas channel diameters. The calculated gas and substrate temperature time history at different axial positions provides an understanding of how the catalytic combustor responds to an upstream condition change. The computed results also suggest that the gas residence times in the catalytic bed in the after bed space are correlatable with the nondimensional combustor response time. The model also performs steady state combustion calculations; and the computed steady state emission characteristics show agreement with available experimental data in the range of parameters covered. A catalytic combustor design for automotive gas turbine engine which has reasonably fast response ( 1 second) and can satisfy the emission goals in an acceptable total combustor length is possible.

  18. Transient catalytic combustor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, J. S.

    1981-05-01

    A quasi-steady gas phase and thermally thin substrate model is used to analyze the transient behavior of catalytic monolith combustors in fuel lean operation. The combustor response delay is due to the substrate thermal inertia. Fast response is favored by thin substrate, short catalytic bed length, high combustor inlet and final temperatures, and small gas channel diameters. The calculated gas and substrate temperature time history at different axial positions provides an understanding of how the catalytic combustor responds to an upstream condition change. The computed results also suggest that the gas residence times in the catalytic bed in the after bed space are correlatable with the nondimensional combustor response time. The model also performs steady state combustion calculations; and the computed steady state emission characteristics show agreement with available experimental data in the range of parameters covered. A catalytic combustor design for automotive gas turbine engine which has reasonably fast response ( 1 second) and can satisfy the emission goals in an acceptable total combustor length is possible.

  19. Combustor liner cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

    2013-08-06

    A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

  20. Dual-Mode Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  1. Combustor diffuser interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Ram; Thorp, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    Advances in gas turbine engine performance are achieved by using compressor systems with high stage loading and low part count, which result in high exit Mach numbers. The diffuser and combustor systems in such engines should be optimized to reduce system pressure loss and to maximize the engine thrust-to-weight ratio and minimize length. The state-of-the-art combustor-diffuser systems do not meet these requirements. Detailed understanding of the combustor-diffuser flow field interaction is required for designing advanced gas turbine engines. An experimental study of the combustor-diffuser interaction (CDI) is being conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of analytical models applicable to a wide variety of diffuser designs. The CDI program consists of four technical phases: Literature Search; Baseline Configuration; Parametric Configurations; and Performance Configurations. Phase 2 of the program is in progress.

  2. Composite Matrix Experimental Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Preliminary (Macro) Combustor Design ............................. 28 4.1 Preliminary Design Study-Early Concept Combustion System ............. 28 4.2...provided in Appendix B. 4.1 PRELIMINARY DESIGN STUDY-EARLY CONCEPT COMBUSTION SYSTEM The preliminary design effort resulted in the selection of the early...overall flowpath. The concept I combustor is a compact, annular, reverse-flow design incorporating a single row of primary combustion air holes and a

  3. Combustor liner durability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, V.

    1981-01-01

    An 18 month combustor liner durability analysis program was conducted to evaluate the use of advanced three dimensional transient heat transfer and nonlinear stress-strain analyses for modeling the cyclic thermomechanical response of a simulated combustor liner specimen. Cyclic life prediction technology for creep/fatigue interaction is evaluated for a variety of state-of-the-art tools for crack initiation and propagation. The sensitivity of the initiation models to a change in the operating conditions is also assessed.

  4. Combustor liner support assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A support assembly for a gas turbine engine combustor includes an annular frame having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart tenons, and an annular combustor liner disposed coaxially with the frame and including a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart tenons circumferentially adjoining respective ones of the frame tenons for radially and tangentially supporting the liner to the frame while allowing unrestrained differential thermal radial movement therebetween.

  5. 7. Front of northern kiln group, looking north. Vents are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Front of northern kiln group, looking north. Vents are visible in all kilns, in two rows above present grade. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  6. 62. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE LIME KILNS AND MOTOR DRIVES FOR THE KILNS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  7. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns. Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Zhou, Nan; Thekdi, Arvind; Lan, Wang

    2011-07-01

    The study documented in this report was initiated in order to conduct an energy assessment and to identify the relationship between combustion issues and emissions from cement kilns. A new suspension preheater/precalciner (NSP) rotary cement kiln at one cement manufacturing facility (referred to as Shui Ni 1 in this report) and a vertical shaft kiln (VSK) at another cement manufacturing facility (referred to as Shui Ni 2 in this report), which are both in Shandong Province, were selected to conduct the energy and emission assessments through collection of data. Based on analysis of the data collected during this assessment, several actions are suggested that could lead to reduction in coal use and reduction in emission of gaseous pollutants from the system.

  8. Apparatus for treating cement kiln dust

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, R.

    1986-04-22

    An apparatus is described for treating cement kiln dust comprising an elongate reaction chamber, kiln dust entry means in the reaction chamber, atomized-spray nozzles in the reaction chamber for introducing atomized spray to kiln dust, separate conduits for liquid and gas separately connected to the atomized-spray nozzles for atomizing liquid by gas to form a fog of the liquid in an atmosphere of the gas, mixing means in the reaction chamber for mixing the kiln dust in contact with the fog and gaseous atmosphere of the reaction chamber, discharge means at one end of the reaction chamber for discharging the mixed and contacted kiln dust product from the reaction chamber. The kiln dust entry means are located in an upper region of the reaction chamber for depositing kiln dust gravitationally to a lower region of the reaction chamber. The atomized-spray nozzles are located in the upper region of the reaction chamber for depositing fog on kiln dust during mixing thereof, gas entry means on the reaction chamber for delivering gas to the reaction chamber for reaction with kiln dust and fog, gas exit means on the reaction chamber for discharging gas products from the reaction chamber. The gas entry and exit means are at opposite ends of the reaction chamber, and pre-entry liquid atomizing spray means in the gas entry means for treating gas by atomized liquid spray to effectively saturate the gas before delivery to the reaction chamber.

  9. Lime kiln dust as a potential raw material in portland cement manufacturing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M. Michael; Callaghan, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, the manufacture of portland cement involves burning in a rotary kiln a finely ground proportional mix of raw materials. The raw material mix provides the required chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron, and small amounts of other ingredients. The majority of calcium is supplied in the form of calcium carbonate usually from limestone. Other sources including waste materials or byproducts from other industries can be used to supply calcium (or lime, CaO), provided they have sufficiently high CaO content, have low magnesia content (less than 5 percent), and are competitive with limestone in terms of cost and adequacy of supply. In the United States, the lime industry produces large amounts of lime kiln dust (LKD), which is collected by dust control systems. This LKD may be a supplemental source of calcium for cement plants, if the lime and cement plants are located near enough to each other to make the arrangement economical.

  10. The use of fluidized bed combustor ash in the solidification of high oil and grease sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.G.; Stine, E.F. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    A multi-part treatability study was conducted to identify lower cost solidification reagents for the solidification of oily sediments from several storm sewer impoundment ponds. The information from the treatability study was successfully applied to full-scale remediation. Several reagents were investigated including Portland cement, Class C fly ash, lime, cement kiln dust, and fluidized bed combustor ash. Screening tests were performed using single reagents and blended mixes of reagents. Testing included strength development, permeability, oil retention and volume increase due to treatment. The applicability of using the fluidized bed combustor ash was tested in a full scale field pilot study prior to full scale remediation. This paper will present background and experimental data from this study showing the successful substitution of fluidized bed combustor ash for cement as a primary solidification reagent.

  11. Gas turbine topping combustor

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Janos; Dowdy, Thomas E.; Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1997-01-01

    A combustor for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone.

  12. Rotary drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kenderdine, Eugene W.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary drive mechanism includes a rotary solenoid having a stator and multi-poled rotor. A moving member rotates with the rotor and is biased by a biasing device. The biasing device causes a further rotational movement after rotation by the rotary solenoid. Thus, energization of the rotary solenoid moves the member in one direction to one position and biases the biasing device against the member. Subsequently, de-energization of the rotary solenoid causes the biasing device to move the member in the same direction to another position from where the moving member is again movable by energization and de-energization of the rotary solenoid. Preferably, the moving member is a multi-lobed cam having the same number of lobes as the rotor has poles. An anti-overdrive device is also preferably provided for preventing overdrive in the forward direction or a reverse rotation of the moving member and for precisely aligning the moving member.

  13. Combustor and method for purging a combustor

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight; Hughes, Michael John

    2015-06-09

    A combustor includes an end cap. The end cap includes a first surface and a second surface downstream from the first surface, a shroud that circumferentially surrounds at least a portion of the first and second surfaces, a plate that extends radially within the shroud, a plurality of tubes that extend through the plate and the first and second surfaces, and a first purge port that extends through one or more of the plurality of tubes, wherein the purge port is axially aligned with the plate.

  14. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  15. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  16. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  17. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  18. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  19. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  20. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln...

  1. Combustor burner vanelets

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin [Greer, SC; Varatharajan, Balachandar [Loveland, OH; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto [Greer, SC; Yilmaz, Ertan [Albany, NY; Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC

    2012-02-14

    The present application provides a burner for use with a combustor of a gas turbine engine. The burner may include a center hub, a shroud, a pair of fuel vanes extending from the center hub to the shroud, and a vanelet extending from the center hub and/or the shroud and positioned between the pair of fuel vanes.

  2. Risks associated with waste-fuel use in cement kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Mix, T.W.; Murphy, B.L.

    1984-02-01

    Risks from lead emissions in kiln dust, released of materials including dioxins during upset conditions, and transportation related accidents are described for a cement kiln burning waste fuels. The disposition of the lead fed to the kiln may be deduced both from prior cement-kiln test burns of hazardous wastes and from studies of municipal refuse incinerators. Cement-kiln test data on the disposition of lead is included.

  3. Rotary drill bit with rotary cutters

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenstein, M.; Ernst, H.M.; Kunkel, H.; Olschewski, A.; Walter, L.

    1981-03-31

    A rotary drill bit is described that has a drill bit body and at least one trunnion projecting from the drill bit body and a rotary cutter supported on at least one pair of radial rolling bearings on the trunnion. The rolling elements of at least one bearing are guided on at last one axial end facing the drill bit body in an outer bearing race groove incorporated in the bore of the rotary cutter. The inner bearing groove is formed on the trunnion for the rolling elements of the radial roller bearing. A filling opening is provided for assembly of the rolling elements comprising a channel which extends through the drill bit body and trunnion and is essentially axially oriented having one terminal end adjacent the inner bearing race groove and at least one filler piece for sealing the opening. The filling opening is arranged to provide a common filling means for each radial bearing.

  4. Rotary drill bit with rotary cutters

    SciTech Connect

    Lachonius, L.

    1981-04-28

    A rotary drill bit is described having a drill bit body and at least one trunnion projecting from the drill bit body and a rotary cutter supported on at least one radial roller bearing on the trunnion. The rolling elements of the bearing are guided on at least one axial end facing the drill bit body in an outer bearing race groove incorporated in the bore of the rotary cutter. The inner bearing race groove is formed on the trunnion for the rolling elements of the radial roller bearing. At least one filling opening is provided which extends through the drill bit body and trunnion and is essentially axially oriented having one terminal end adjacent the inner bearing race groove and at least one pair of filler piece for sealing the opening. One of the filler pieces is made of an elastically compressible material.

  5. Rotary drill bit with rotary cutter

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenstein, M.; Kunkel, H.; Olschewski, A.; Walter, L.

    1981-03-17

    A rotary drill bit having a drill bit body and at least one trunnion projecting from the drill bit body and a rotary cutter supported on at least one radial roller bearing on the trunnion. The rolling elements of the bearing are guided on at least one axial end facing the drill bit body in an outer bearing race groove incorporated in the bore of the rotary cutter. The inner bearing race groove is formed on the trunnion for the rolling elements of the radial roller bearing. At least one filling opening is provided which extends through the drill bit body and trunnion and is essentially axially oriented having one terminal end adjacent the inner bearing race groove and at least one filler piece for sealing the opening.

  6. Rotary filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Herman, David T.; Maxwell, David N.

    2011-04-19

    A rotary filtration apparatus for filtering a feed fluid into permeate is provided. The rotary filtration apparatus includes a container that has a feed fluid inlet. A shaft is at least partially disposed in the container and has a passageway for the transport of permeate. A disk stack made of a plurality of filtration disks is mounted onto the shaft so that rotation of the shaft causes rotation of the filtration disks. The filtration disks may be made of steel components and may be welded together. The shaft may penetrate a filtering section of the container at a single location. The rotary filtration apparatus may also incorporate a bellows seal to prevent leakage along the shaft, and an around the shaft union rotary joint to allow for removal of permeate. Various components of the rotary filtration apparatus may be removed as a single assembly.

  7. Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Gorog, John Peter; Hemrick, James Gordon; Walker, Harold; Leary, William R; Ellis, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, the industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading some

  8. Fluidized bed combustor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, M.; Rengarajan, P.; Krishnan, R.; Wen, C. Y.

    1977-01-01

    A general mathematical model for the prediction of performance of a fluidized bed coal combustor (FBC) is developed. The basic elements of the model consist of: (1) hydrodynamics of gas and solids in the combustor; (2) description of gas and solids contacting pattern; (3) kinetics of combustion; and (4) absorption of SO2 by limestone in the bed. The model is capable of calculating the combustion efficiency, axial bed temperature profile, carbon hold-up in the bed, oxygen and SO2 concentrations in the bubble and emulsion phases, sulfur retention efficiency and particulate carry over by elutriation. The effects of bed geometry, excess air, location of heat transfer coils in the bed, calcium to sulfur ratio in the feeds, etc. are examined. The calculated results are compared with experimental data. Agreement between the calculated results and the observed data are satisfactory in most cases. Recommendations to enhance the accuracy of prediction of the model are suggested.

  9. Microwave radiometry for cement kiln temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Karl D; Wang, Lingyun; Ryza, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The maximum temperature inside a cement kiln is a critical operating parameter, but is often difficult or impossible to measure. We present here the first data that show a correlation between cement kiln temperature measured using a microwave radiometer and product chemistry over an eight-hour period. The microwave radiometer senses radiation in the 12-13 GHz range and has been described previously [Stephan and Pearce (2002), JMPEE 37: 112-124].

  10. Gas turbine topping combustor

    DOEpatents

    Beer, J.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1997-06-10

    A combustor is described for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone. 14 figs.

  11. Ceramic combustor mounting

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Melvin G.; Janneck, Frank W.

    1982-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine engine includes a metal engine block including a wall portion defining a housing for a combustor having ceramic liner components. A ceramic outlet duct is supported by a compliant seal on the metal block and a reaction chamber liner is stacked thereon and partly closed at one end by a ceramic bypass swirl plate which is spring loaded by a plurality of circumferentially spaced, spring loaded guide rods and wherein each of the guide rods has one end thereof directed exteriorly of a metal cover plate on the engine block to react against externally located biasing springs cooled by ambient air and wherein the rod spring support arrangement maintains the stacked ceramic components together so that a normal force is maintained on the seal between the outlet duct and the engine block under all operating conditions. The support arrangement also is operative to accommodate a substantial difference in thermal expansion between the ceramic liner components of the combustor and the metal material of the engine block.

  12. Treatability testing of KILnGAS and Texaco coal gasification wastewaters: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.; Eis, B.J.; Zeien, C.T.; Moe, T.A.; Turner, C.D.; Mayer, G.G.; Stephan, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    This report presents the results of treatability testing of wastewater from two coal gasification plants: the 600-tpd KILnGAS rotary-kiln gasifier in East Alton, Illinois, and the 1000-tyd Texaco entrained-flow gasifier at the Cool Water facility in Daggett, California. The wastewater was collected during steady-state operation of the gasifiers and shipped in barrels to the testing laboratory for characterization and treatment. Solvent extraction, steam stripping, biological treatment, granular activated carbon adsorption, ozonation, ion exchange, chemical precipitation, cooling tower evaporation, and wet air oxidation were evaluated in terms of their ability to meet the project's effluent quality targets. Preliminary process design criteria were also developed. Two sets of effluent discharge targets as well as a zero effluent discharge condition were established as goals for the testing. All of the effluent targets were met by the combination of processes used in the treatability testing program, with the exception of cyanide and COD for the KILnGAS wastewater and cyanide under one of the discharge conditions for the Texaco wastewater. These targets could likely be met by additional process steps or by further treatment with the processes tested. This test program confirmed that the principal containmants in these coal gasification wastewaters can be reduced to low concentrations by use of commercially proven treatment processes. 15 refs., 50 figs., 93 tabs.

  13. Equations For Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

  14. Compact rotary sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    Rotary sequencer is assembled from conventional planetary differential gearset and latching mechanism utilizing inputs and outputs which are coaxial. Applications include automated production-line equipment in home appliances and in vehicles.

  15. Preliminary operating assessment advanced Heat Recovery Incinerator (HRI). Site One: O'Connor Combustor Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollander, H. I.; Matzuk, G. J.; Romine, G.

    1983-07-01

    This brief evaluation of the first O'Connor (rotary waterwell) Combustor plant built in the U.S.A. describes design features and considerations as well as initial operating advantages and difficulties. A brief general description of a co-located, proprietary fuel preparation system is included. The major conclusion presented alludes to a waste fuel availability requirement approaching 60 tons per day (tpd) for probable cost-effectiveness of this technology.

  16. VIEW OF LIME KILN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STONE ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LIME KILN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STONE ELEVATOR (ON THE LEFT) AND SOUTH CONVEYOR. - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  17. General view looking west from eastern edge of complex. Kilns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking west from eastern edge of complex. Kilns have been demolished but kiln stacks still stand. - Harbison-Walker Refractories Company, West end of Shirley Street, Mount Union, Huntingdon County, PA

  18. VIEW OF MLT BUILDING (LIME KILN BUILDING DIRECTLY BEHIND IT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MLT BUILDING (LIME KILN BUILDING DIRECTLY BEHIND IT WITH GOOD VIEW OF SKIP CAR TRACK) LOOKING EAST. - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  19. 4. Front of isolated (southernmost) kiln. Visible through the doorway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Front of isolated (southernmost) kiln. Visible through the doorway are temporary supports installed in 1986. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  20. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  1. 63. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE FIRE BOX AND KILN FOR DILLUTANT. APRIL 22, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  2. HYPULSE combustor analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizkalla, O. F.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of selected data from tests of unit fuel injectors in a generic scramjet combustor model is presented. The tests were conducted in the NASA HYPULSE expansion tube at conditions typical of flight at Mach 13.5 and 17. The analysis used a three-stream tube method, with finite-rate chemistry, in which the fuel, test gas, and mixing/combustive streams were treated independently but with the same static pressure. Performance of three candidate fuel injectors is examined based on deduced mixing and combustion efficiencies.

  3. 40 CFR 63.1344 - Operating limits for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing... sufficient cement kiln dust to maintain the desired product quality. (i) New and reconstructed kilns and...

  4. 7 CFR 300.2 - Dry Kiln Operator's Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dry Kiln Operator's Manual. 300.2 Section 300.2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE § 300.2 Dry Kiln Operator's Manual. (a) The Dry Kiln Operator's Manual, which was published in August 1991 as Agriculture Handbook No. 188 by...

  5. 7 CFR 300.2 - Dry Kiln Operator's Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry Kiln Operator's Manual. 300.2 Section 300.2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE § 300.2 Dry Kiln Operator's Manual. (a) The Dry Kiln Operator's Manual, which was published in August 1991 as Agriculture Handbook No. 188 by...

  6. 7 CFR 300.2 - Dry Kiln Operator's Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry Kiln Operator's Manual. 300.2 Section 300.2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE § 300.2 Dry Kiln Operator's Manual. (a) The Dry Kiln Operator's Manual, which was published in August 1991 as Agriculture Handbook No. 188 by...

  7. 7 CFR 300.2 - Dry Kiln Operator's Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dry Kiln Operator's Manual. 300.2 Section 300.2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE § 300.2 Dry Kiln Operator's Manual. (a) The Dry Kiln Operator's Manual, which was published in August 1991 as Agriculture Handbook No. 188 by...

  8. 7 CFR 300.2 - Dry Kiln Operator's Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dry Kiln Operator's Manual. 300.2 Section 300.2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE § 300.2 Dry Kiln Operator's Manual. (a) The Dry Kiln Operator's Manual, which was published in August 1991 as Agriculture Handbook No. 188 by...

  9. 3. Rear elevations of kilns, looking south. Note loading door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Rear elevations of kilns, looking south. Note loading door and position of kilns on the slope. This placement facilitated access to the upper door. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  10. 5. Front of northern kiln group, looking northwest. Note cables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Front of northern kiln group, looking northwest. Note cables encircling the walls. Barricades at doorway were placed by Forest Service to prevent cattle from entering the kilns. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  11. 6. Front of northern kiln group, looking west. Vents, plugged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Front of northern kiln group, looking west. Vents, plugged with loose bricks and clay, are distinguishable in the nearest and farthest kilns, slightly above current grade. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  12. Rotary Series Elastic Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A rotary actuator assembly is provided for actuation of an upper arm assembly for a dexterous humanoid robot. The upper arm assembly for the humanoid robot includes a plurality of arm support frames each defining an axis. A plurality of rotary actuator assemblies are each mounted to one of the plurality of arm support frames about the respective axes. Each rotary actuator assembly includes a motor mounted about the respective axis, a gear drive rotatably connected to the motor, and a torsion spring. The torsion spring has a spring input that is rotatably connected to an output of the gear drive and a spring output that is connected to an output for the joint.

  13. Rotary series elastic actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A rotary actuator assembly is provided for actuation of an upper arm assembly for a dexterous humanoid robot. The upper arm assembly for the humanoid robot includes a plurality of arm support frames each defining an axis. A plurality of rotary actuator assemblies are each mounted to one of the plurality of arm support frames about the respective axes. Each rotary actuator assembly includes a motor mounted about the respective axis, a gear drive rotatably connected to the motor, and a torsion spring. The torsion spring has a spring input that is rotatably connected to an output of the gear drive and a spring output that is connected to an output for the joint.

  14. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  15. Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Joseph N.; De Lucia, David E.; Jackson, William M.; Porter, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

  16. Rotary mechanical latch

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Martinez, Michael A.; Marron, Lisa C.

    2012-11-13

    A rotary mechanical latch for positive latching and unlatching of a rotary device with a latchable rotating assembly having a latching gear that can be driven to latched and unlatched states by a drive mechanism such as an electric motor. A cam arm affixed to the latching gear interfaces with leading and trailing latch cams affixed to a flange within the drive mechanism. The interaction of the cam arm with leading and trailing latch cams prevents rotation of the rotating assembly by external forces such as those due to vibration or tampering.

  17. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  18. Contactless Rotary Electrical Couplings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumagai, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Rotary electrical couplings based on induction (transformer action) rather than conduction between rotating and stationary circuitry have been invented. These couplings provide an alternative to slip rings and contact brushes. Mechanical imperfections of slip-ring and brush contact surfaces and/or dust particles trapped between these surfaces tend to cause momentary interruptions in electrical contact and thereby give rise to electrical noise. This source of noise can be eliminated in the inductive rotary couplings because no direct contact is necessary for transformer action.

  19. Segmented annular combustor

    DOEpatents

    Reider, Samuel B.

    1979-01-01

    An industrial gas turbine engine includes an inclined annular combustor made up of a plurality of support segments each including inner and outer walls of trapezoidally configured planar configuration extents and including side flanges thereon interconnected by means of air cooled connector bolt assemblies to form a continuous annular combustion chamber therebetween and wherein an air fuel mixing chamber is formed at one end of the support segments including means for directing and mixing fuel within a plenum and a perforated header plate for directing streams of air and fuel mixture into the combustion chamber; each of the outer and inner walls of each of the support segments having a ribbed lattice with tracks slidably supporting porous laminated replaceable panels and including pores therein for distributing combustion air into the combustion chamber while cooling the inner surface of each of the panels by transpiration cooling thereof.

  20. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  1. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  2. Rotary pneumatic valve

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary pneumatic valve which is thrust balanced and the pneumatic pressure developed produces only radial loads on the valve cylinder producing negligible resistance and thus minimal torque on the bearings of the valve. The valve is multiplexed such that at least two complete switching cycles occur for each revolution of the cylinder spindle.

  3. Rotary echo nutation NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, R.; Tijink, G. A. H.; Veeman, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    A two-dimensional solid state NMR experiment which combines rotary echoes and nutation NMR is investigated and used to study different sodium sites in zeolite NaA. It is shown that with this technique sodium ions with different relaxation rates in the rotating frame can be distinguished.

  4. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  5. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  6. JV Task-Long-Kiln NOx Reduction Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Folkedahl; Joshua Strege; Darren Schmidt; Lingbu Kong

    2008-07-01

    Field sampling was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at two Lafarge North America cement kiln locations in Canada. Emissions including SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and particulate were measured and reported at various locations throughout the kilns. At each site data were collected on two kilns during field sampling. However, only Kiln 1 at the Ravena site was utilized for modeling efforts. Experimental work was then conducted to estimate the effectiveness of various NO{sub x} control techniques on limiting both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions in cement kiln exhaust. Theory-based models were constructed to estimate both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions from cement kilns. These models were then applied to estimating the impact of various NO{sub x} control strategies on kiln exhaust emissions. The sulfur model constructed as part of this work was successful at predicting SO{sub 2} emissions and sulfur capture in the Alpena kiln. This model is designed to run as a postprocessing step that uses the output of a NO{sub x} model as input. With an accurate NO{sub x} model, the sulfur model may prove to be a valuable tool in estimating the impact of kiln modifications on sulfur emissions. The NO{sub x} model was also applied to model several operating scenarios on three of Lafarge's kilns: Alpena 20/21, Alpena 22/23, and Ravena 1. The predictions of the flue gas temperature at the kiln feed end, the kiln shell heat loss, the quality of clinker, and the excess O{sub 2} in the flue gas are consistent with the audit data. The developed simulation tool in this project has proven to be an effective way to investigate the NO{sub x} emissions, to optimize kiln performance, and to assess changes in operating condition on kiln performance.

  7. Method of operating an oil shale kiln

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-05-23

    Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

  8. Experimental clean combustor program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, D. W.; Gleason, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    Full annular versions of advanced combustor designs, sized to fit within the CF6-50 engine, were defined, manufactured, and tested at high pressure conditions. Configurations were screened, and significant reductions in CO, HC, and NOx emissions levels were achieved with two of these advanced combustor design concepts. Emissions and performance data at a typical AST cruise condition were also obtained along with combustor noise data as a part of an addendum to the basic program. The two promising combustor design approaches evolved in these efforts were the Double Annular Combustor and the Radial/Axial Combustor. With versions of these two basic combustor designs, CO and HC emissions levels at or near the target levels were obtained. Although the low target NOx emissions level was not obtained with these two advanced combustor designs, significant reductions were relative to the NOx levels of current technology combustors. Smoke emission levels below the target value were obtained.

  9. Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-11-30

    The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber{trademark} for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe{trademark} concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising.

  10. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajarathnam, Uma; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Maithel, Sameer; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Kumar, Sonal; Baum, Ellen; Weyant, Cheryl; Bond, Tami

    2014-12-01

    India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing.

  11. Steelworks residues and the Waelz kiln treatment of electric arc furnace dust

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmeier, G.; Bonestell, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    Electric arc furnace dust with a combined zinc and lead content in excess of 20% renders the dumping of this material impossible in many countries, for both statutory and financial reasons. In the Waelz process, dust is treated in a rotary kiln where it is heated to approximately 1,200 C. lead and zinc are volatilized under reducing conditions and collected as fine dust in the off-gas dust collection system. The oxide recovered in the off-gas filters contains approximately 55% Zn and up to 10% Pb, and is ideal feedstock for the Imperial Smelting furnace for lead/zinc recovery. The remaining slag is inert and unleachable so that it can be used as a building aggregate.

  12. Combustor flame flashback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, M. P.; Tien, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    A stainless steel, two-dimensional (rectangular), center-dump, premixed-prevaporized combustor with quartz window sidewalls for visual access was designed, built, and used to study flashback. A parametric study revealed that the flashback equivalence ratio decreased slightly as the inlet air temperature increased. It also indicated that the average premixer velocity and premixer wall temperature were not governing parameters of flashback. The steady-state velocity balance concept as the flashback mechanism was not supported. From visual observation several stages of burning were identified. High speed photography verified upstream flame propagation with the leading edge of the flame front near the premixer wall. Combustion instabilities (spontaneous pressure oscillations) were discovered during combustion at the dump plane and during flashback. The pressure oscillation frequency ranged from 40 to 80 Hz. The peak-to-peak amplitude (up to 1.4 psi) increased as the fuel/air equivalence ratio was increased attaining a maximum value just before flashback. The amplitude suddenly decreased when the flame stabilized in the premixer. The pressure oscillations were large enough to cause a local flow reversal. A simple test using ceramic fiber tufts indicated flow reversals existed at the premixer exit during flickering. It is suspected that flashback occurs through the premixer wall boundary layer flow reversal caused by combustion instability. A theoretical analysis of periodic flow in the premixing channel has been made. The theory supports the flow reversal mechanism.

  13. Two stage catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Inventor); Bachovchin, Dennis (Inventor); Smeltzer, Eugene E. (Inventor); Lippert, Thomas E. (Inventor); Bruck, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A catalytic combustor (14) includes a first catalytic stage (30), a second catalytic stage (40), and an oxidation completion stage (49). The first catalytic stage receives an oxidizer (e.g., 20) and a fuel (26) and discharges a partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture (36). The second catalytic stage receives the partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture and further oxidizes the mixture. The second catalytic stage may include a passageway (47) for conducting a bypass portion (46) of the mixture past a catalyst (e.g., 41) disposed therein. The second catalytic stage may have an outlet temperature elevated sufficiently to complete oxidation of the mixture without using a separate ignition source. The oxidation completion stage is disposed downstream of the second catalytic stage and may recombine the bypass portion with a catalyst exposed portion (48) of the mixture and complete oxidation of the mixture. The second catalytic stage may also include a reticulated foam support (50), a honeycomb support, a tube support or a plate support.

  14. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  15. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  16. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  17. Combustor and method for distributing fuel in the combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David

    2016-04-26

    A combustor includes a tube bundle that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor. The tube bundle includes an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface. A plurality of tubes extends from the upstream surface through the downstream surface, and each tube provides fluid communication through the tube bundle. A baffle extends axially inside the tube bundle between adjacent tubes. A method for distributing fuel in a combustor includes flowing a fuel into a fuel plenum defined at least in part by an upstream surface, a downstream surface, a shroud, and a plurality of tubes that extend from the upstream surface to the downstream surface. The method further includes impinging the fuel against a baffle that extends axially inside the fuel plenum between adjacent tubes.

  18. Sequenced drive for rotary valves

    DOEpatents

    Mittell, Larry C.

    1981-01-01

    A sequenced drive for rotary valves which provides the benefits of applying rotary and linear motions to the movable sealing element of the valve. The sequenced drive provides a close approximation of linear motion while engaging or disengaging the movable element with the seat minimizing wear and damage due to scrubbing action. The rotary motion of the drive swings the movable element out of the flowpath thus eliminating obstruction to flow through the valve.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1345 - Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers... for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1345 - Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers... for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1348 - Standards for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw... Industry Emission Standards and Operating Limits § 63.1348 Standards for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw...

  2. Radial midframe baffle for can-annular combustor arrangement having tangentially oriented combustor cans

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Jose L.

    2015-09-15

    A can-annular gas turbine engine combustion arrangement (10), including: a combustor can (12) comprising a combustor inlet (38) and a combustor outlet circumferentially and axially offset from the combustor inlet; an outer casing (24) defining a plenum (22) in which the combustor can is disposed; and baffles (70) configured to divide the plenum into radial sectors (72) and configured to inhibit circumferential motion of compressed air (16) within the plenum.

  3. Pulse combustor with controllable oscillations

    DOEpatents

    Richards, George A.; Welter, Michael J.; Morris, Gary J.

    1992-01-01

    A pulse combustor having thermally induced pulse combustion in a continuously flowing system is described. The pulse combustor is fitted with at lease one elongated ceramic body which significantly increases the heat transfer area in the combustion chamber of the combustor. The ceramic body or bodies possess sufficient mass and heat capacity to ignite the fuel-air charge once the ceramic body or bodies are heated by conventional spark plug initiated combustion so as to provide repetitive ignition and combustion of sequentially introduced fuel-air charges without the assistance of the spark plug and the rapid quenching of the flame after each ignition in a controlled manner so as to provide a selective control over the oscillation frequency and amplitude. Additional control over the heat transfer in the combustion chamber is provided by employing heat exchange mechanisms for selectively heating or cooling the elongated ceramic body or bodies and/or the walls of the combustion chamber.

  4. Dynamic modelling of a dehumidifier wood drying kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z.F.; Carrington, C.G.

    1999-04-01

    For the optimum design and operating information of heat pump dehumidifier wood drying kilns, a comprehensive kiln model has been developed, which solves the fundamental balance equations for the whole system. The model is suitable for analyzing the influence of design and control variables on the performance of the system as a whole. To illustrate the application of the model, the operation of a dehumidifier wood drying kiln has been analyzed under typical operating conditions and kiln controls. The drying performance has been discussed in detail.

  5. Combustor with fuel preparation chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelina, Joseph (Inventor); Myers, Geoffrey D. (Inventor); Srinivasan, Ram (Inventor); Reynolds, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An annular combustor having fuel preparation chambers mounted in the dome of the combustor. The fuel preparation chamber comprises an annular wall extending axially from an inlet to an exit that defines a mixing chamber. Mounted to the inlet are an air swirler and a fuel atomizer. The air swirler provides swirled air to the mixing chamber while the atomizer provides a fuel spray. On the downstream side of the exit, the fuel preparation chamber has an inwardly extending conical wall that compresses the swirling mixture of fuel and air exiting the mixing chamber.

  6. Methanol tailgas combustor control method

    DOEpatents

    Hart-Predmore, David J.; Pettit, William H.

    2002-01-01

    A method for controlling the power and temperature and fuel source of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to supply heat to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual fuel inlet streams including a first fuel stream, and a second fuel stream of anode effluent from the fuel cell and reformate from the fuel processor. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is determined by regulating the amount of the first and/or second fuel streams and the quantity of the first air flow stream to support fuel processor power requirements.

  7. Energy Efficient Engine: Combustor component performance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubiel, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Combustor Component Performance analysis as developed under the Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) program are presented. This study was conducted to demonstrate the aerothermal and environmental goals established for the EEE program and to identify areas where refinements might be made to meet future combustor requirements. In this study, a full annular combustor test rig was used to establish emission levels and combustor performance for comparison with those indicated by the supporting technology program. In addition, a combustor sector test rig was employed to examine differences in emissions and liner temperatures obtained during the full annular performance and supporting technology tests.

  8. HSCT Sector Combustor Evaluations for Demonstration Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenfield, Stuart; Heberling, Paul; Kastl, John; Matulaitis, John; Huff, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    In LET Task 10, critical development issues of the HSCT lean-burn low emissions combustor were addressed with a range of engineering tools. Laser diagnostics and CFD analysis were applied to develop a clearer understanding of the fuel-air premixing process and premixed combustion. Subcomponent tests evaluated the emissions and operability performance of the fuel-air premixers. Sector combustor tests evaluated the performance of the integrated combustor system. A 3-cup sector was designed and procured for laser diagnostics studies at NASA Glenn. The results of these efforts supported the earlier selection of the Cyclone Swirler as the pilot stage premixer and the IMFH (Integrated Mixer Flame Holder) tube as the main stage premixer of the LPP combustor. In the combustor system preliminary design subtask, initial efforts to transform the sector combustor design into a practical subscale engine combustor met with significant challenges. Concerns about the durability of a stepped combustor dome and the need for a removable fuel injection system resulted in the invention and refinement of the MRA (Multistage Radial Axial) combustor system in 1994. The MRA combustor was selected for the HSR Phase II LPP subscale combustor testing in the CPC Program.

  9. Rotary and Magnus balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  10. Multi-port dump combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, L. A.; Grenleski Jr., S. E.; Keirsey, J. L.; Stevens, C. E.

    1985-09-10

    A four-ported dump combustor is designed for use with a ramjet engine and provides high combustion efficiency and pressure recovery for length-to-diameter (L/D) ratios of between 1.3 and 4.4, over a range of operating conditions.

  11. Premixed Prevaporized Combustor Technology Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Forum was held to present the results of recent and current work intended to provide basic information required for demonstration of lean, premixed prevaporized combustors for aircraft gas turbine engine application. Papers are presented which deal with the following major topics: (1) engine interfaces; (2) fuel-air preparation; (3) autoignition; (4) lean combustion; and (5) concept design studies.

  12. 40 CFR 63.1343 - Standards for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limits are on a dry basis, corrected to 7 percent oxygen. All total hydrocarbon (THC) emission limits are... hydrocarbon (THC) limits and monthly for the 50 ppmv THC limit. (b) Existing kilns located at major sources... particulate matter control device is 204 °C (400 °F) or less. (4) Contain total hydrocarbons (THC), from...

  13. 46. KILN ROOM, SOUTH END OF THE EAST WING. UNIQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. KILN ROOM, SOUTH END OF THE EAST WING. UNIQUE ELECTRIC KILN, MANUFACTURED BY HED INDUSTRIES IN RINGOES, NJ. INSTALLED IN 1986. USED FOR GLAZE FIRING. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  14. 9. Rear of northern kiln group, looking northeast. Although not ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Rear of northern kiln group, looking northeast. Although not visible from this distance, the Viola Mine was located in the mountain range in the background. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  15. New emission controls for Missouri batch-type charcoal kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Yronwode, P.; Graf, W.J.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal kilns have been exempted from air emission regulation in the state of Missouri. Today, 80% of US charcoal production takes place in Missouri. As a result of a petition filed by people in the area around an installation in southern Missouri, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set up air monitors and measured ambient air levels at that charcoal manufacturing installation. These monitors yielded the highest particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM{sub 10}) levels ever recorded in the state. Earlier stack testing at another charcoal manufacturing installation indicated that toxics and carcinogens are present in charcoal kiln air emissions. A Charcoal Kiln Workgroup was formed to determine the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for charcoal kilns and to draft a charcoal kiln rule that requires BACT. The BACT report determined that afterburners were suitable for controlling emissions from batch-type charcoal kilns. In addition, the charcoal industry supported incorporating the BACT limits and requirements into an enforceable state rule and submitting this rule to the EPA for federal approval. A consent agreement between the EPA and three major charcoal companies was signed with provisions to install, operate, and maintain emission control devices on charcoal kilns. This agreement was to settle complaints alleging that the three major charcoal producers had failed to report toxic air emissions to federal and state regulators. The agreement provided that industry would install control devices on a set schedule with some charcoal kilns being shut down.

  16. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

    1989-10-01

    Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.

  17. EVALUATION OF ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR OPERATION AT LOW TO MODERATE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate volatilities (boiling points). The data in the Appendix contain: incinerator operating data, laboratory analyses, sampl...

  18. EVALUATION OF ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR OPERATION AT LOW TO MODERATE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate temperatures in decontaminating soils containing organic compounds with different volatilities (boiling points). The da...

  19. Clarification That BACT Analysis Under PSD is Applicable for A Proposed Modification to the Rotary Kiln

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. OPERATING PARAMETERS TO MINIMIZE EMISSIONS DURING ROTARY KILN EMERGENCY SAFETY VENT OPENINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certain designs of hazardous waste incinerator systems include emergency safety vents (ESVs). ESVs (also called dump stacks, vent stacks, emergency by-pass stacks, thermal relief valves, and pressure relief valves) are regarded as true emergency devices. Their purpose is to vent ...

  1. Evaluation of rotary kiln incinerator operation at low-to-moderate temperature conditions. Volume 2. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Fournier, D.; King, C.; Venkatesh, S.; Goldman, C.

    1996-09-01

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate volatilities (boiling points). The data in the Appendix contain: incinerator operating data, laboratory analyses, sample train worksheets, and data analysis worksheets.

  2. Experimental clean combustor program, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, C. C.; Rogers, D. W.; Bahr, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The primary objectives of this three-phase program are to develop technology for the design of advanced combustors with significantly lower pollutant emission levels than those of current combustors, and to demonstrate these pollutant emission reductions in CF6-50C engine tests. The purpose of the Phase 2 Program was to further develop the two most promising concepts identified in the Phase 1 Program, the double annular combustor and the radial/axial staged combustor, and to design a combustor and breadboard fuel splitter control for CF6-50 engine demonstration testing in the Phase 3 Program. Noise measurement and alternate fuels addendums to the basic program were conducted to obtain additional experimental data. Twenty-one full annular and fifty-two sector combustor configurations were evaluated. Both combustor types demonstrated the capability for significantly reducing pollutant emission levels. The most promising results were obtained with the double annular combustor. Rig test results corrected to CF-50C engine conditions produced EPA emission parameters for CO, HC, and NOX of 3.4, 0.4, and 4.5 respectively. These levels represent CO, HC, and NOX reductions of 69, 90, and 42 percent respectively from current combustor emission levels. The combustor also met smoke emission level requirements and development engine performance and installation requirements.

  3. Rotary multiposition valve

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Dyson, Jack E.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a rotary multiposition valve for selectively directing the flow of a fluid through a plurality of paths. The valve comprises an inner member and a hollow housing with a row of ducts on its outer surface. The ducts are in fluid communication with the housing. An engaging section of the inner member is received in the housing. A seal divides the engaging section into a hollow inlet segment and a hollow outlet segment. A plurality of inlet apertures are disposed in the inlet segment and a plurality of outlet apertures are disposed in the outlet segment. The inlet apertures are disposed in a longitudinally and radially spaced-apart pattern that can be a helix. The outlet apertures are disposed in a corresponding pattern. As the inner member is rotated, whenever an inlet aperture overlaps one of the ducts, the corresponding outlet aperture overlaps a different duct, thus forming a fluid pathway.

  4. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  5. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, Clair O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  6. Rotary multiposition valve

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.; Dyson, J.E.

    1984-04-06

    The disclosure is directed to a rotary multiposition valve for selectively directing the flow of a fluid through a plurality of paths. The valve comprises an inner member and a hollow housing with a row of ducts on its outer surface. The ducts are in fluid communication with the housing. An engaging section of the inner member is received in the housing. A seal divides the engaging section into a hollow inlet segment and a hollow outlet segment. A plurality of inlet apertures are disposed in the inlet sgegment and a plurality of outlet apertures are disposed in the outlet segment. The inlet apertures are disposed in a longitudinally and radially spaced-apart pattern that can be a helix. The outlet apertures are disposed in a corresponding pattern. As the inner member is rotated, whenever an inlet aperture overlaps one of the ducts, the corresponding outlet aperture overlaps a different duct, thus forming a fluid pathway.

  7. Rotary Blood Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  8. Rotary blood pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Greg S. (Inventor); Vandamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A rotary blood pump is presented. The pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial, and radial clearances of the blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion, and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with crosslinked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  9. Integrated CFD modeling of gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, E. J.; Smith, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    3D, curvilinear, multi-domain CFD analysis is becoming a valuable tool in gas turbine combustor design. Used as a supplement to experimental testing. CFD analysis can provide improved understanding of combustor aerodynamics and used to qualitatively assess new combustor designs. This paper discusses recent advancements in CFD combustor methodology, including the timely integration of the design (i.e. CAD) and analysis (i.e. CFD) processes. Allied Signal's F124 combustor was analyzed at maximum power conditions. The assumption of turbulence levels at the nozzle/swirler inlet was shown to be very important in the prediction of combustor exit temperatures. Predicted exit temperatures were compared to experimental rake data, and good overall agreement was seen. Exit radial temperature profiles were well predicted, while the predicted pattern factor was 25 percent higher than the harmonic-averaged experimental pattern factor.

  10. Variable residence time vortex combustor

    DOEpatents

    Melconian, Jerry O.

    1987-01-01

    A variable residence time vortex combustor including a primary combustion chamber for containing a combustion vortex, and a plurality of louvres peripherally disposed about the primary combustion chamber and longitudinally distributed along its primary axis. The louvres are inclined to impel air about the primary combustion chamber to cool its interior surfaces and to impel air inwardly to assist in driving the combustion vortex in a first rotational direction and to feed combustion in the primary combustion chamber. The vortex combustor also includes a second combustion chamber having a secondary zone and a narrowed waist region in the primary combustion chamber interconnecting the output of the primary combustion chamber with the secondary zone for passing only lower density particles and trapping higher density particles in the combustion vortex in the primary combustion chamber for substantial combustion.

  11. Combustor with multistage internal vortices

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer Yu; Harrington, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    A fluidized bed combustor is provided with a multistage arrangement of vortex generators in the freeboard area. The vortex generators are provided by nozzle means which extend into the interior of the freeboard for forming vortices within the freeboard areas to enhance the combustion of particulate material entrained in product gases ascending into the freeboard from the fluidized bed. Each of the nozzles are radially inwardly spaced from the combustor walls defining the freeboard to provide for the formation of an essentially vortex-free, vertically extending annulus about the vortices whereby the particulate material centrifuged from the vortices against the inner walls of the combustor is returned through the annulus to the fluidized bed. By adjusting the vortex pattern within the freeboard, a significant portion of the full cross-sectional area of the freeboard except for the peripheral annulus can be contacted with the turbulent vortical flow for removing the particulate material from the gaseous products and also for enhancing the combustion thereof within the freeboard. 2 figs.

  12. Vertical combustor for particulate refuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, P. M.; Carlson, L.

    1981-03-01

    A one-dimensional model is constructed of a vertical combustor for refuse particle combustion in order to analyze it for waste energy recovery. The three components of the model, fuel particles, inert solid particles and the gaseous mixture are described by momentum, energy, and mass conservation equations, resulting in three different flow velocities and temperatures for the medium. The gaseous component is further divided into six chemical species that evolve in combustion at temperatures below about 1367 K. A detailed description is given of the fuel particle combustion through heating, devolatilization, and combustion of the volatile gas in the boundary layer, return of the flame sheet to the fuel surface, and char combustion. The solutions show the combustor to be viable for U.S. refuse which consists of combustibles that can be volatilized up to 85 to 95% below 1366 K. Char combustion, however, is found to be too slow to be attempted in the combustor, where the fuel residence time is of the order of 2 s.

  13. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance: Part A: Combustor Performance Part B: Combustor Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shouse, D. T.; Neuroth, C.; Henricks, R. C.; Lynch, A.; Frayne, C.; Stutrud, J. S.; Corporan, E.; Hankins, T.

    2010-01-01

    Alternate aviation fuels for military or commercial use are required to satisfy MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 (2010) standards, respectively, and are classified as drop-in fuel replacements. To satisfy legacy issues, blends to 50% alternate fuel with petroleum fuels are certified individually on the basis of feedstock. Adherence to alternate fuels and fuel blends requires smart fueling systems or advanced fuel-flexible systems, including combustors and engines without significant sacrifice in performance or emissions requirements. This paper provides preliminary performance (Part A) and emissions and particulates (Part B) combustor sector data for synthetic-parafinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type fuel and blends with JP-8+100 relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling.

  14. Real-time simulation of solar kiln drying of timber

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmann, D.E.

    1995-05-01

    A major problem in optimizing solar kiln design and control is that natural weather conditions cannot be repeated in consecutive drying runs. All results are, therefore, dependent on the specific weather conditions during any given drying run. The construction and testing of a simulation system to overcome this problem of non-repeatability is described. The simulation system consists of a miniature solar kiln placed inside a climatic chamber and was used to dry pieces of wood using a selected weather sequence which was repeated for consecutive drying runs. The performance of the simulation system was compared to that of the solar kiln and very good agreement was achieved. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Coal fueled ported kiln direct reduction process in Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Rierson, D.W.

    1994-12-31

    Allis Mineral Systems (AMS), formerly the minerals processing group at Allis-Chalmers Corporation, developed a ported kiln process in the 1960`s specifically for the direct reduction of iron ore. The process is called ACCAR. This ported kiln technology has more recently been coupled with AMS` GRATE-KILN System for iron oxide pelletizing into the GRATE-CAR Process, for minerals reduction. The GRATE-CAR Process can handle a fine grained ore concentrate through the steps of agglomeration, induration and reduction in a single production line.

  16. 57. ORIGINAL TILE PRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL KILN, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. ORIGINAL TILE PRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL KILN, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING, HENRY MERCER USED THE KILN FOR HIS EARLIEST GLAZE TESTS. THE PRESS WAS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH METAL CASED MOLDS. SINCE ONLY THE EARLIEST TILE DESIGNS ARE IN METAL CASES. THIS TECHNIQUE WAS PROBABLY DISCONTINUED. THIS PRESS WAS, THEREFORE, PROBABLY NOT USED EXTENSIVELY AT THIS SITE. THE UPPER PART OF GLAZE KILN No. 2 IS AT THE LEFT REAR. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  17. The primary evaluation and characterization of obsolete DDT pesticide from a precalciner of a cement kiln.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei; He, Jie

    2014-01-01

    1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bi(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) pesticide that has been extensively used in agriculture in China in the last century, and even now, has been banned from all purposes. The disposal of obsolete DDT pesticide has been an urgent task for the Chinese government. In order to evaluate the feasibility of co-processing DDT in the current new style dry-process rotary kiln with a precalciner as the feeding point, the destruction efficiency (DE) of DDTs (including p,p(')-DDT, o,p(')-DDT, p,p(')-DDE and p,p(')-DDD), proportion of DDTs in the combustion residue and exhaust gas, and the release of chlorine were studied under different operating conditions of temperature, oxygen content and gas retention time in the laboratory. The DE of DDTs exceeded 99% when the temperature was over 800 °C with enough oxygen. As the temperature increased from 600 °C to 1200 °C, the proportion of p,p(')-DDD increased and p,p(')-DDT decreased but still the main effective component remained in the combustion residue. In the exhaust gas, the most dominant phenomenon was the rapid increase in p,p(')-DDE concentration as the temperature increased. The release of chlorine reached a peak between 800 °C and 900 °C. It was found that the oxygen content had a positive correlation with the process of dechlorination. The proportion of p,p(')-DDE increased as the oxygen content was increased in the exhaust gas. The gas retention time had almost no influenced on the DE of DDTs, but affected the degradation extent of DDTs in the gas phase. These experiments showed that co-processing of obsolete DDT pesticide in cement kiln precalciners is feasible.

  18. 25. INTERIOR OF GLAZE KILN NO. 2, SHOWING HOW SAGGERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR OF GLAZE KILN NO. 2, SHOWING HOW SAGGERS AND LOOSE QUARRY TILES WERE STACKED. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  19. A commercially viable solar wood drying kiln system

    SciTech Connect

    Vore, J.B. de; Denny, G.S.; Harper, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to create a totally passive solar wood drying kiln that would dry lumber to 9% moisture content in a reasonable amount of time. A series of modifications led to a kiln design that dried freshly-cut lumber to 8% in a 29-day period with no case hardening or cracking. Air speed, internal and external temperatures and relative humidity levels were measured at 5-minute intervals. The average temperature inside the kiln was 12% higher with relative humidity levels 19% lower than outside the kiln. It is hypothesized that the daily cycles of heating and cooling permitted the interior moisture of the wood to reach the surface through diffusion, thus lessening stress and speeding drying of the lumber.

  20. 24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW OF CHARCOAL KILNS AND IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW OF CHARCOAL KILNS AND IRON PLANT FROM SOUTH END OF BEACH, probably 1901. (From the Robert Teagle Private Collection, Port Townsend, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  1. VIEW OF TUNNEL TO MLT BUILDING UNDER LIME KILNS. CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TUNNEL TO MLT BUILDING UNDER LIME KILNS. CONVEYOR MOVES HOT STONE TO MLT'S. THIS IS THE DRIVE END OF CONVEYOR BELT. - Solvay Process Company, Milk of Lime Towers Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  2. VIEW OF TUNNEL TO MLT BUILDING UNDER LIME KILNS, CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TUNNEL TO MLT BUILDING UNDER LIME KILNS, CONVEYOR MOVES HOT STONE TO MLT'S (CONVEYOR ON RIGHT). - Solvay Process Company, Milk of Lime Towers Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  3. Slagging retrofit pulsed coal combustor: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A concept for a novel form of slagging retrofit pulsed coal combustor was tested in the laboratory. The combustor is based on controlled use of a form of high pressure amplitude combustion instability. The approach adopted was to resolve, in single pulse experiments, the basic technical issues arising in the development of the combustor. In a cold flow device, the issues of coal spatial distribution were addressed and a combustor and solids disperser configuration was developed to give uniform coal distribution in the combustor. Single pulse ignition experiments were conducted to determine the pressure rise in combustor, pressure rise-decay times, and coal conversion a function of various operating variables. Coal injection, flame propagation, and blowdown times leading to potential combustor size reduction of three times over steady flow combustors were demonstrated. The results give high pressure exhaust leading to potentially improved downstream heat transfer and reduced boiler size. Finally, zero-, one-, and two-dimensional mathematical models were developed in support of the experiments and also to provide design capability. 11 refs., 43 figs.

  4. Analytical fuel property effects--small combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, R. D.; Troth, D. L.; Miles, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The consequences of using broad-property fuels in both conventional and advanced state-of-the-art small gas turbine combustors are assessed. Eight combustor concepts were selected for initial screening, of these, four final combustor concepts were chosen for further detailed analysis. These included the dual orifice injector baseline combustor (a current production 250-C30 engine combustor) two baseline airblast injected modifications, short and piloted prechamber combustors, and an advanced airblast injected, variable geometry air staged combustor. Final predictions employed the use of the STAC-I computer code. This quasi 2-D model includes real fuel properties, effects of injector type on atomization, detailed droplet dynamics, and multistep chemical kinetics. In general, fuel property effects on various combustor concepts can be classified as chemical or physical in nature. Predictions indicate that fuel chemistry has a significant effect on flame radiation, liner wall temperature, and smoke emission. Fuel physical properties that govern atomization quality and evaporation rates are predicted to affect ignition and lean-blowout limits, combustion efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions.

  5. Combustor with non-circular head end

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a head end with a non-circular configuration, a number of fuel nozzles positioned about the head end, and a transition piece extending downstream of the head end.

  6. Low NO(x) Combustor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastl, J. A.; Herberling, P. V.; Matulaitis, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of these efforts was the development of an ultra-low emissions, lean-burn combustor for the High Speed Civil Transport. The HSCT Mach 2.4 FLADE C1 Cycle was selected as the baseline engine cycle. A preliminary compilation of performance requirements for the HSCT combustor system was developed. The emissions goals of the program, baseline engine cycle, and standard combustor performance requirements were considered in developing the compilation of performance requirements. Seven combustor system designs were developed. The development of these system designs was facilitated by the use of spreadsheet-type models which predicted performance of the combustor systems over the entire flight envelope of the HSCT. A chemical kinetic model was developed for an LPP combustor and employed to study NO(x) formation kinetics, and CO burnout. These predictions helped to define the combustor residence time. Five fuel-air mixer concepts were analyzed for use in the combustor system designs. One of the seven system designs, one using the Swirl-Jet and Cyclone Swirler fuel-air mixers, was selected for a preliminary mechanical design study.

  7. 51. UPPER CHAMBER OF BISCUIT KILN No. 4, FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. UPPER CHAMBER OF BISCUIT KILN No. 4, FROM THE SECOND FLOOR. ALL BRICK KILNS AT THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS HAD TWO CHAMBERS. WARE WAS STACKED IN THE LOWER CHAMBERS FOR FIRING AND THE UPPER CHAMBERS PROVIDED ACCESS TO FLUES AND DAMPERS FROM THE SECOND FLOOR. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  8. 38. SLABROLLING ROOM, SHOWING BISCUIT KILN No. 4 IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SLAB-ROLLING ROOM, SHOWING BISCUIT KILN No. 4 IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND AND BISCUIT KILN No. 5 AT THE RIGHT. TILE PRESSES ARE THROUGH THE DOORWAY AT THE LEFT. NOTE THE AIR FILTER, INSTALLED IN 1986. HANGING IN THE CENTER OF THE ROOM. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  9. TRW advanced slagging coal combustor utility demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The TRW Advanced Entrained Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/oil unit to fire 2.5% sulfur coal. The slagging combustor process will provide NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Environmental Standards. The TRW-Utility Demonstration Unit (UDU) is responsible for the implementation of program policies and overall direction of the project. The following projects will be carried out: process and design development of clean coal technology CCT-1 the development and operation of the entrained coal combustor will enable the boiler to burn low and medium sulfur coal while meeting all the Federal/State emission requirements; demonstrate sulfur dioxide emissions control by pulverized limestone injection into the entrained coal combustor system.

  10. Experimental clean combustor program, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A.; Greene, W.

    1977-01-01

    A two-stage vortex burning and mixing combustor and associated fuel system components were successfully tested at steady state and transient operating conditions. The combustor exceeded the program goals for all three emissions species, with oxides of nitrogen 10 percent below the goal, carbon monoxide 26 percent below the goal, and total unburned hydrocarbons 75 percent below the goal. Relative to the JT9D-7 combustor, the oxides of nitrogen were reduced by 58 percent, carbon monoxide emissions were reduced by 69 percent, and total unburned hydrocarbons were reduced by 9 percent. The combustor efficiency and exit temperature profiles were comparable to those of production combustor. Acceleration and starting characteristics were deficient relative to the production engine.

  11. HSCT Sector Combustor Hardware Modifications for Improved Combustor Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenfield, Stuart C.; Heberling, Paul V.; Moertle, George E.

    2005-01-01

    An alternative to the stepped-dome design for the lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) combustor has been developed. The new design uses the same premixer types as the stepped-dome design: integrated mixer flameholder (IMFH) tubes and a cyclone swirler pilot. The IMFH fuel system has been taken to a new level of development. Although the IMFH fuel system design developed in this Task is not intended to be engine-like hardware, it does have certain characteristics of engine hardware, including separate fuel circuits for each of the fuel stages. The four main stage fuel circuits are integrated into a single system which can be withdrawn from the combustor as a unit. Additionally, two new types of liner cooling have been designed. The resulting lean blowout data was found to correlate well with the Lefebvre parameter. As expected, CO and unburned hydrocarbons emissions were shown to have an approximately linear relationship, even though some scatter was present in the data, and the CO versus flame temperature data showed the typical cupped shape. Finally, the NOx emissions data was shown to agree well with a previously developed correlation based on emissions data from Configuration 3 tests performed at GEAE. The design variations of the cyclone swirler pilot that were investigated in this study did not significantly change the NOx emissions from the baseline design (GEAE Configuration 3) at supersonic cruise conditions.

  12. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  13. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  14. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  15. Repulsive force actuated rotary micromirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Siyuan; Ben Mrad, Ridha

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, a novel repulsive force based rotary micromirror is proposed. A repulsive force is produced in the rotary micromirror and the mirror plate is pushed up and away from the substrate. Therefore the rotation angle of the micromirror is not limited to the space underneath the mirror plate and thus the "pull-in" effect is completely circumvented. The novel rotary micromirror can achieve a large rotation angle with a large mirror plate. In addition the novel micromirror has a very simple structure and can be fabricated by standard surface micromachining technology. Numerical simulation is used to verify the working principle of the novel micromirror. A prototype of the novel rotary micromirror is fabricated by a commercially available surface microfabrication process called MUMPs. The prototype has a mirror size of 300μm x 300μm. The experimental measurements show that the prototype can achieve a mechanical rotation of 2.25 degrees (an optical angle of 4.5 degrees) at a driving voltage of 170 volts. A conventional surface micromachined attractive force based rotary micromirror of the same size can only achieve an angle of 0.1~0.2 degree.

  16. Rotary Power Transformer and Inverter Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.; Bridgeforth, A. O.

    1985-01-01

    Noise lower than with sliprings. Rotary transformer transfers electric power across rotary joint. No wearing contacts, no contact noise, and no contamination from lubricants or wear debris. Because additional inductor not required, size and complexity of circuit reduced considerably.

  17. Rich burn combustor technology at Pratt and Whitney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, Robert P.; Rosfjord, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: near term objectives; rich burn quick quench combustor (RBQC); RBQC critical technology areas; cylindrical RBQQ combustor rig; modular RBQQ combustor; cylindrical rig objectives; quench zone mixing; noneffusive cooled liner; variable geometry requirements; and sector combustor rig.

  18. Low NOx Advanced Vortex Combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, R.G.; Williams, J.T.; Steele, R.C.; Straub, D.L.; Casleton, K.H.; Bining, Avtar

    2008-05-01

    A lean-premixed advanced vortex combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown, WV. All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx /CO/unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions corrected to 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated marked acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions, which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean-premixed combustion approaches. In addition, the measured 1.75% pressure drop is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors, which could translate into an overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvement. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drop achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.

  19. Wedge edge ceramic combustor tile

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Holsapple, A.C.

    1997-06-10

    A multipiece combustor has a portion thereof being made of a plurality of ceramic segments. Each of the plurality of ceramic segments have an outer surface and an inner surface. Each of the plurality of ceramic segments have a generally cylindrical configuration and including a plurality of joints. The joints define joint portions, a first portion defining a surface being skewed to the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint portions have a second portion defining a surface being skewed to the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint portions further include a shoulder formed intermediate the first portion and the second portion. The joints provide a sealing interlocking joint between corresponding ones of the plurality of ceramic segments. Thus, the multipiece combustor having the plurality of ceramic segment with the plurality of joints reduces the physical size of the individual components and the degradation of the surface of the ceramic components in a tensile stress zone is generally eliminated reducing the possibility of catastrophic failures. 7 figs.

  20. Wedge edge ceramic combustor tile

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.; Holsapple, Allan C.

    1997-01-01

    A multipiece combustor has a portion thereof being made of a plurality of ceramic segments. Each of the plurality of ceramic segments have an outer surface and an inner surface. Each of the plurality of ceramic segments have a generally cylindrical configuration and including a plurality of joints. The joints define joint portions, a first portion defining a surface being skewed to the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint portions have a second portion defining a surface being skewed to the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint portions further include a shoulder formed intermediate the first portion and the second portion. The joints provide a sealing interlocking joint between corresponding ones of the plurality of ceramic segments. Thus, the multipiece combustor having the plurality of ceramic segment with the plurality of joints reduces the physical size of the individual components and the degradation of the surface of the ceramic components in a tensile stress zone is generally eliminated reducing the possibility of catastrophic failures.

  1. Rotary head type reproducing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Takayama, Nobutoshi; Edakubo, Hiroo; Kozuki, Susumu; Takei, Masahiro; Nagasawa, Kenichi

    1986-01-01

    In an apparatus of the kind arranged to reproduce, with a plurality of rotary heads, an information signal from a record bearing medium having many recording tracks which are parallel to each other with the information signal recorded therein and with a plurality of different pilot signals of different frequencies also recorded one by one, one in each of the recording tracks, a plurality of different reference signals of different frequencies are simultaneously generated. A tracking error is detected by using the different reference signals together with the pilot signals which are included in signals reproduced from the plurality of rotary heads.

  2. Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1988-01-01

    This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.

  3. Low NOx Heavy Fuel Combustor Concept Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novick, A. S.; Troth, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development of the technology required to operate an industrial gas turbine combustion system on minimally processed, heavy petroleum or residual fuels having high levels of fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) while producing acceptable levels of exhaust emissions is discussed. Three combustor concepts were designed and fabricated. Three fuels were supplied for the combustor test demonstrations: a typical middle distillate fuel, a heavy residual fuel, and a synthetic coal-derived fuel. The primary concept was an air staged, variable-geometry combustor designed to produce low emissions from fuels having high levels of FBN. This combustor used a long residence time, fuel-rich primary combustion zone followed by a quick-quench air mixer to rapidly dilute the fuel rich products for the fuel-lean final burnout of the fuel. This combustor, called the rich quench lean (RQL) combustor, was extensively tested using each fuel over the entire power range of the model 570 K engine. Also, a series of parameteric tests was conducted to determine the combustor's sensitivity to rich-zone equivalence ratio, lean-zone equivalence ratio, rich-zone residence time, and overall system pressure drop. Minimum nitrogen oxide emissions were measured at 50 to 55 ppmv at maximum continuous power for all three fuels. Smoke was less than a 10 SAE smoke number.

  4. Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer

    DOEpatents

    Pettit, William Henry

    2000-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

  5. Combustor oscillating pressure stabilization and method

    DOEpatents

    Gemmen, Randall S.; Richards, George A.; Yip, Mui-Tong Joseph; Robey, Edward H.; Cully, Scott R.; Addis, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    High dynamic pressure oscillations in hydrocarbon-fueled combustors typically occur when the transport time of the fuel to the flame front is at some fraction of the acoustic period. These oscillations are reduced to acceptably lower levels by restructuring or repositioning the flame front in the combustor to increase the transport time. A pilot flame front located upstream of the oscillating flame and pulsed at a selected frequency and duration effectively restructures and repositions the oscillating flame in the combustor to alter the oscillation-causing transport time.

  6. Combustor oscillating pressure stabilization and method

    DOEpatents

    Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.T.J.; Robey, E.H.; Cully, S.R.; Addis, R.E.

    1998-08-11

    High dynamic pressure oscillations in hydrocarbon-fueled combustors typically occur when the transport time of the fuel to the flame front is at some fraction of the acoustic period. These oscillations are reduced to acceptably lower levels by restructuring or repositioning the flame front in the combustor to increase the transport time. A pilot flame front located upstream of the oscillating flame and pulsed at a selected frequency and duration effectively restructures and repositions the oscillating flame in the combustor to alter the oscillation-causing transport time. 7 figs.

  7. Chaos in an imperfectly premixed model combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Kabiraj, Lipika Saurabh, Aditya; Paschereit, Christian O.; Karimi, Nader; Sailor, Anna; Mastorakos, Epaminondas; Dowling, Ann P.

    2015-02-15

    This article reports nonlinear bifurcations observed in a laboratory scale, turbulent combustor operating under imperfectly premixed mode with global equivalence ratio as the control parameter. The results indicate that the dynamics of thermoacoustic instability correspond to quasi-periodic bifurcation to low-dimensional, deterministic chaos, a route that is common to a variety of dissipative nonlinear systems. The results support the recent identification of bifurcation scenarios in a laminar premixed flame combustor (Kabiraj et al., Chaos: Interdiscip. J. Nonlinear Sci. 22, 023129 (2012)) and extend the observation to a practically relevant combustor configuration.

  8. The Effect of Kiln Drying on the Strength of Airplane Woods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T R C

    1920-01-01

    This report is a very complete treatise on the comparative strength of air and kiln dried wood. The series of tests includes 26 species of wood, approximately 100 kiln runs, and over 10,000 mechanical tests.

  9. Regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, Naotsugu; Watanabe, Hiroichi; Raggi, L.; Isshiki, Seita; Hirata, Koichi

    1996-12-31

    A few rotary displacer Stirling engines in which the displacer has one gas pocket space at one side and rotates in a main enclosed cylinder, which is heated from one side and cooled from opposite side without any regenerator, have been studied for some time by the authors. The authors tried to improve this engine by equipping it with a regenerator, because without a regenerator, pressure oscillation and efficiency are too small. Here, several types of regenerative rotary displacer piston Stirling engines are proposed. One is the contra-rotating tandem two disc type displacer engine using axial heat conduction through side walls or by heat pipes and another is a single disc type with circulating fluid regenerator or heat pipes. Stirling engines of this new rotary displacer type are thought to attain high speed. Here, experimental results of the original rotary displacer Stirling engine without a regenerator, and one contra-rotating tandem displacer engine with side wall regenerator by axial heat conduction are reported accompanied with a discussion of the results.

  10. Combustor design and analysis using the Rocket Combustor Interactive Design (ROCCID) methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klem, Mark D.; Pieper, Jerry L.; Walker, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    The ROCket Combustor Interactive Design (ROCCID) Methodology is a newly developed, interactive computer code for the design and analysis of a liquid propellant rocket combustion chamber. The application of ROCCID to design a liquid rocket combustion chamber is illustrated. Designs for a 50,000 lbf thrust and 1250 psi chamber pressure combustor using liquid oxygen (LOX)RP-1 propellants are developed and evaluated. Tradeoffs between key design parameters affecting combustor performance and stability are examined. Predicted performance and combustion stability margin for these designs are provided as a function of the combustor operating mixture ratio and chamber pressure.

  11. Combustor design and analysis using the ROCket Combustor Interactive Design (ROCCID) Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klem, Mark D.; Pieper, Jerry L.; Walker, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    The ROCket Combustor Interactive Design (ROCCID) Methodology is a newly developed, interactive computer code for the design and analysis of a liquid propellant rocket combustion chamber. The application of ROCCID to design a liquid rocket combustion chamber is illustrated. Designs for a 50,000 lbf thrust and 1250 psi chamber pressure combustor using liquid oxygen (LOX)RP-1 propellants are developed and evaluated. Tradeoffs between key design parameters affecting combustor performance and stability are examined. Predicted performance and combustion stability margin for these designs are provided as a function of the combustor operating mixture ratio and chamber pressure.

  12. Thermally-Choked Combustor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, William H.; Gloyer, P.; Goodman, J.; Litchford, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    A program is underway to demonstrate the practical feasibility of thermally-choked combustor technology with particular emphasis on rocket propulsion applications. Rather than induce subsonic to supersonic flow transition in a geometric throat, the goal is to create a thermal throat by adding combustion heat in a diverging nozzle. Such a device would have certain advantages over conventional flow accelerators assuming that the pressure loss due to heat addition does not severely curtail propulsive efficiency. As an aid to evaluation, a generalized one-dimensional compressible flow analysis tool was constructed. Simplified calculations indicate that the process is fluid dynamically and thermodynamically feasible. Experimental work is also being carried out in an attempt to develop, assuming an array of practical issues are surmountable, a practical bench-scale demonstrator using high flame speed H2/O2 combustibles.

  13. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance. Parts A and B; (A) Combustor Performance; (B) Combustor Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shouse, D. T.; Hendricks, R. C.; Lynch, A.; Frayne, C. W.; Stutrud, J. S.; Corporan, E.; Hankins, T.

    2012-01-01

    Alternate aviation fuels for military or commercial use are required to satisfy MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 (2010) standards, respectively, and are classified as "drop-in" fuel replacements. To satisfy legacy issues, blends to 50% alternate fuel with petroleum fuels are certified individually on the basis of processing and assumed to be feedstock agnostic. Adherence to alternate fuels and fuel blends requires "smart fueling systems" or advanced fuel-flexible systems, including combustors and engines, without significant sacrifice in performance or emissions requirements. This paper provides preliminary performance (Part A) and emissions and particulates (Part B) combustor sector data. The data are for nominal inlet conditions at 225 psia and 800 F (1.551 MPa and 700 K), for synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type (Fisher-Tropsch (FT)) fuel and blends with JP-8+100 relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling. Assessments are made of the change in combustor efficiency, wall temperatures, emissions, and luminosity with SPK of 0%, 50%, and 100% fueling composition at 3% combustor pressure drop. The performance results (Part A) indicate no quantifiable differences in combustor efficiency, a general trend to lower liner and higher core flow temperatures with increased FT fuel blends. In general, emissions data (Part B) show little differences, but with percent increase in FT-SPK-type fueling, particulate emissions and wall temperatures are less than with baseline JP-8. High-speed photography illustrates both luminosity and combustor dynamic flame characteristics.

  14. Effects of charcoal kiln saunas (Jjimjilbang) on psychological states.

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, Shinya; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kajii, Eiji; Ide, Masahiro; Shibata, Yosuke; Noda, Tatsuya; Murata, Chiyoe; Nagata, Katsutaro; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2008-05-01

    This uncontrolled intervention study explored the effects of sauna bathing utilizing residual heat from charcoal kilns (charcoal kiln saunas) on psychological states. Forty-five volunteers (24 males and 21 females; mean age 51.9 years (S.D. 15.7) visiting a bamboo charcoal kiln in Japan participated in the study. They completed a shortened version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after charcoal kiln sauna bathing in order to determine mood and anxiety states. Six factors relating to mood were measured using the POMS: Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Vigor, Fatigue, and Confusion. The two anxiety concepts of state anxiety and trait anxiety were also measured. Changes in psychological states before and after sauna bathing were then determined. All mood scales and both manifest anxiety measures were improved after sauna bathing. Charcoal kiln sauna bathing appears to improve mood and decrease anxiety. It is a limitation of this study that this was a descriptive prospective and an uncontrolled intervention study. Further investigation of the improvement of trait anxiety is required.

  15. Determining controls on element concentrations in cement kiln dust leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Duchesne, J.; Reardon, E.J.

    1998-12-31

    Cement kiln dust is a waste residue composed chiefly of oxidized, anhydrous, micron-sized particles generated as a by-product of the manufacture of Portland cement. When cement kiln dust is brought into contact with water, high concentrations of potassium, sulfate and caustic alkalinity are leached. Other constitutents are leached to a lesser extent. The objective of this study was to determine whether the concentration of a given chemical constituent in kiln dust leachate is controlled by the precipitation of a secondary mineral phase or whether its concentration depends on its initial availability to the leachate solution and its subsequent diffusive flux from hydrating particles with time. Differentiating between these two distinctive styles of leaching behavior is necessary to predict the chemical composition of kiln dust leachate under dynamic flow conditions in disposal environments. Evidence of solubility control was found for Si, Ca, Mg, Al, Zn, Ti, Sr, and Ba. The concentrations of Na, Cl, K, Mo, Cr and Se, however, were found to have no solubility control. Because of the observed lack of solubility control and the particularly high concentrations of Cr and Mo in kiln dust leachate, The authors tested two additives to reduce their concentrations: (1) aluminum oxide to promote the precipitation of calcium aluminosulfates and the proxying of chromate and molybdate for sulfate in their structures; and (2) iron metal to promote the reduction of chromate and molybdate to lower valent and less soluble forms. Neither treatment had any effect on the concentration levels of Cr and Mo in solution.

  16. Large hole rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, J.L.; Calder, P.N.

    1996-12-31

    Large hole rotary drilling is one of the most common methods of producing blastholes in open pit mining. Large hole drilling generally refers to diameters from 9 to 17 inch (229 to 432 mm), however a considerable amount of rotary drilling is done in diameters from 6{1/2} to 9 inch (165 to 229 mm). These smaller diameters are especially prevalent in gold mining and quarrying. Rotary drills are major mining machines having substantial capital cost. Drill bit costs can also be high, depending on the bit type and formation being drilled. To keep unit costs low the drills must perform at a high productivity level. The most important factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor is given for calculating the penetration rate based on rock strength, pulldown weight and the RPM. The importance of using modern drill performance monitoring systems to calibrate the penetration equation for specific rock formations is discussed. Adequate air delivered to the bottom of the hole is very important to achieving maximum penetration rates. If there is insufficient bailing velocity cuttings will not be transported from the bottom of the hole rapidly enough and the penetration rate is very likely to decrease. An expression for the balancing air velocity is given. The amount by which the air velocity must exceed the balancing velocity for effective operation is discussed. The effect of altitude on compressor size is also provided.

  17. High torque miniature rotary actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbandian, Ruben

    2005-07-01

    This paper summarizes the design and the development of a miniature rotary actuator (36 mm diameter by 100 mm length) used in spacecraft mechanisms requiring high torques and/or ultra-fine step resolution. This actuator lends itself to applications requiring high torque but with strict volume limitations which challenge the use of conventional rotary actuators. The design challenge was to develop a lightweight (less than 500 grams), very compact, high bandwidth, low power, thermally stable rotary actuator capable of producing torques in excess of 50 N.m and step resolutions as fine as 0.003 degrees. To achieve a relatively high torsional stiffness in excess of 1000 Nm/radian, the design utilizes a combination of harmonic drive and multistage planetary gearing. The unique design feature of this actuator that contributes to its light weight and extremely precise motion capability is a redundant stepper motor driving the output through a multistage reducing gearbox. The rotary actuator is powered by a high reliability space-rated stepper motor designed and constructed by Moog, Inc. The motor is a three-phase stepper motor of 15 degree step angle, producing twenty-four full steps per revolution. Since micro-stepping is not used in the design, and un-powered holding torque is exhibited at every commanded step, the rotary actuator is capable of reacting to torques as high as 35 Nm by holding position with the power off. The output is driven through a gear transmission having a total train ratio of 5120:1, resulting in a resolution of 0.003 degrees output rotation per motor step. The modular design of the multi-stage output transmission makes possible the addition of designs having different output parameters, such as lower torque and higher output speed capability. Some examples of an actuator family based on this growth capability will be presented in the paper.

  18. Development of an Advanced Annular Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusnak, J. P.; Shadowen, J. H.

    1969-01-01

    The objective of the effort described in this report was to determine the structural durability of a full-scale advanced annular turbojet combustor using ASTM A-1 type fuel and operating at conditions typical of advanced supersonic aircraft. A full-scale annular combustor of the ram-induction type was fabricated and subjected to a 325-hour cyclic endurance test at conditions representative of operation in a Mach 3.0 aircraft. The combustor exhibited extensive cracking and scoop burning at the end of the test program. But these defects had no appreciable effect on combustor performance, as performance remained at a high level throughout the endurance program. Most performance goals were achieved with pressure loss values near 6% and 8%, and temperature rise variation ratio (deltaTVR) values near 1.25 and l.22 at takeoff and cruise conditions, respectively. Combustion efficiencies approached l004 and the exit radial temperature profiles were approximately as desired.

  19. Combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J; Fox, Timothy A

    2013-02-19

    A combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine. The combustor assembly includes a combustor device coupled to a main engine casing, a first fuel injection system, a transition duct, and an intermediate duct. The combustor device includes a flow sleeve for receiving pressurized air and a liner disposed radially inwardly from the flow sleeve. The first fuel injection system provides fuel that is ignited with the pressurized air creating first working gases. The intermediate duct is disposed between the liner and the transition duct and defines a path for the first working gases to flow from the liner to the transition duct. An intermediate duct inlet portion is associated with a liner outlet and allows movement between the intermediate duct and the liner. An intermediate duct outlet portion is associated with a transition duct inlet section and allows movement between the intermediate duct and the transition duct.

  20. Experimental clean combustor program, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Peduzzi, A.; Vitti, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    The alternate fuels investigation objective was to experimentally determine the impacts, if any, on exhaust emissions, performance, and durability characteristics of the hybrid and vorbix low pollution combustor concepts when operated on test fuels which simulate composition and property changes which might result from future broadened aviation turbine fuel specifications or use of synthetically derived crude feedstocks. Results of the program indicate a significant increase in CO and small NOX increase in emissions at idle for both combustor concepts, and an increase in THC for the vorbix concept. Minimal impact was observed on gaseous emissions at high power. The vorbix concept exhibited significant increase in exhaust smoke with increasing fuel aromatic content. Altitude stability was not affected for the vorbix combustor, but was substantially reduced for the hybrid concept. Severe carbon deposition was observed in both combustors following limited endurance testing with No. 2 home heat fuel. Liner temperature levels were insensitive to variations in aromatic content over the range of conditions investigated.

  1. Experimental clean combustor program: Noise study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofrin, T. G.; Riloff, N., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Under a Noise Addendum to the NASA Experimental Clean Combustor Program (ECCP) internal pressure fluctuations were measured during tests of JT9D combustor designs conducted in a burner test rig. Measurements were correlated with burner operating parameters using an expression relating farfield noise to these parameters. For a given combustor, variation of internal noise with operating parameters was reasonably well predicted by this expression but the levels were higher than farfield predictions and differed significantly among several combustors. For two burners, discharge stream temperature fluctuations were obtained with fast-response thermocouples to allow calculation of indirect combustion noise which would be generated by passage of the temperature inhomogeneities through the high pressure turbine stages of a JT9D turbofan engine. Using a previously developed analysis, the computed indirect combustion noise was significantly lower than total low frequency core noise observed on this and several other engines.

  2. Introducing the VRT gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melconian, Jerry O.; Mostafa, Abdu A.; Nguyen, Hung Lee

    1990-01-01

    An innovative annular combustor configuration is being developed for aircraft and other gas turbine engines. This design has the potential of permitting higher turbine inlet temperatures by reducing the pattern factor and providing a major reduction in NO(x) emission. The design concept is based on a Variable Residence Time (VRT) technique which allows large fuel particles adequate time to completely burn in the circumferentially mixed primary zone. High durability of the combustor is achieved by dual function use of the incoming air. The feasibility of the concept was demonstrated by water analogue tests and 3-D computer modeling. The computer model predicted a 50 percent reduction in pattern factor when compared to a state of the art conventional combustor. The VRT combustor uses only half the number of fuel nozzles of the conventional configuration. The results of the chemical kinetics model require further investigation, as the NO(x) predictions did not correlate with the available experimental and analytical data base.

  3. Application of Gas Analysis to Combustor Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, R. R.; Evans, Albert

    1959-01-01

    The performance of turbine-engine combustors usually is given in terms of operating limits and combustion efficiency. The latter property is determined most often by measuring the increase in enthalpy across the combustor through the use of thermocouples. This investigation was conducted to determine the ability of gas-analytical techniques to provide additional information about combustor performance. Gas samples were taken at the outlet and two upstream stations and their compositions determined. In addition to over-all combustion efficiency, estimates of local fuel-air ratios, local combustion efficiencies, and heat-release rates can be made. Conclusions can be drawn concerning the causes of combustion inefficiency and may permit corrective design changes to be made more intelligently. The purpose of this investigation was not to present data for a given combustor but rather to show the types and value of additional information that can be gained from gas-analytical data.

  4. Validation of a dynamic model for a dehumidifier wood drying kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z.F.; Carrington, C.G.; Bannister, P.

    1999-04-01

    The validation of a dehumidifier wood drying kiln model established previously has been conducted by using the performance data for a commercial scale kiln. The good agreement between the modelled and measured performance results shows that the model can be used for the design and analysis of dehumidifier wood drying kilns.

  5. Operational Characteristics of an Ultra Compact Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    recirculation conditions. If fuel is mixed into core flows too quickly or escapes into cold spots of a combustor liner , then it will remain...of fuel like a cylinder in a cross flow as it circulates about the cavity. The impact of the flow upon these cylindrical plumes creates a stagnation...combustor liner or the entrainment of cavity flow into core flow within a UCC. Therefore, the test matrix in Table 3.5 was built to highlight changes to

  6. Hypermixer Pylon Fuel Injection for Scramjet Combustors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-11

    wall cavities, intrusive geometries like pylons and struts , or a combination thereof. The type of fuel injection strategy largely depends on the...be affixed to combustor walls or placed on intru- sive geometries like struts or pylons. Wall injection comes with an inherent combustor airflow...only one wall . Using in-stream struts and pylons as fueling devices has been a common practice in scramjet design. Much research continues to be

  7. Multiducted Inlet Combustor Research and Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    qualitative data from the multi-ducted inlet combustor configuration for flow analysis and matematical modeling purposes. The major portion of the support...data on multi-ducted inlet combustor configurations. These efforts will provide the information necessary to perform flow field analysis and aid in the...instrumentation, test program, data reduction, data presentation, flow field analysis and math modelling efforts, and conclusions and recommendations. SECTION 2

  8. Experimental clean combustor program; noise measurement addendum, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmerling, J. J.; Bekofske, K. L.

    1976-01-01

    Combustor noise measurements were performed using wave guide probes. Test results from two full scale annular combustor configurations in a combustor test rig are presented. A CF6-50 combustor represented a current design, and a double annular combustor represented the advanced clean combustor configuration. The overall acoustic power levels were found to correlate with the steady state heat release rate and inlet temperature. A theoretical analysis for the attenuation of combustor noise propagating through a turbine was extended from a subsonic relative flow condition to include the case of supersonic flow at the discharge side. The predicted attenuation from this analysis was compared to both engine data and extrapolated component combustor data. The attenuation of combustor noise through the CF6-50 turbine was found to be greater than 14 dB by both the analysis and the data.

  9. Small Gas Turbine Combustor Primary Zone Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. E.; Young, E. R.; Miles, G. A.; Williams, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A development process is described which consists of design, fabrication, and preliminary test evaluations of three approaches to internal aerodynamic primary zone flow patterns: (1) conventional double vortex swirl stabilization; (2) reverse flow swirl stabilization; and (3) large single vortex flow system. Each concept incorporates special design features aimed at extending the performance capability of the small engine combustor. Since inherent geometry of these combustors result in small combustion zone height and high surface area to volume ratio, design features focus on internal aerodynamics, fuel placement, and advanced cooling. The combustors are evaluated on a full scale annular combustor rig. A correlation of the primary zone performance with the overall performance is accomplished using three intrusion type gas sampling probes located at the exit of the primary zone section. Empirical and numerical methods are used for designing and predicting the performance of the three combustor concepts and their subsequent modifications. The calibration of analytical procedures with actual test results permits an updating of the analytical design techniques applicable to small reverse flow annular combustors.

  10. Rolling contact mounting arrangement for a ceramic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A combustor assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is mounted within a gas turbine engine housing having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the combustor assembly. The combustor assembly is constructed of a inlet end portion, a outlet end portion and a plurality of combustor ring segments positioned between the end portions. A mounting assembly is positioned between the combustor assembly and the gas turbine engine housing to allow for the difference in the rate of thermal expansion while maintaining axially compressive force on the combustor assembly to maintain contact between the separate components.

  11. Rolling contact mounting arrangement for a ceramic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.L.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-10-17

    A combustor assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is mounted within a gas turbine engine housing having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the combustor assembly. The combustor assembly is constructed of a inlet end portion, a outlet end portion and a plurality of combustor ring segments positioned between the end portions. A mounting assembly is positioned between the combustor assembly and the gas turbine engine housing to allow for the difference in the rate of thermal expansion while maintaining axially compressive force on the combustor assembly to maintain contact between the separate components. 3 figs.

  12. Analysis of the elemental composition of Tang Sancai from the four major kilns in China using EDXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bo; Liu, Long; Feng, Song-Lin; Xu, Qing; Feng, Xiang-Qian

    2014-01-01

    Tang Sancai was widely used in the Tang Dynasty, and the study of this pottery provides information about the sociocultural aspects of the Tang people. To understand the characteristics of the different kilns for the production of Tang Sancai, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to analyze 174 Tang Sancai shards. These specimens were selected from four production centers in the Tang Dynasty, namely, the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln, the Xing Kiln and the Liquanfang Kiln. The results demonstrate that the clay bodies from different kilns have varying compositions, and each kiln has a unique elemental fingerprint. Of the 17 elements analyzed, TiO2 and Fe2O3 had distinctly different contents in the samples from the Huangye Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangye Kiln, the characteristic elements are Fe2O3 and MnO. For the Xing Kiln and the Huangbu Kiln, the most dissimilar elements are TiO2, MnO and ZnO. When the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed, the data points for the Huangye Kiln, the Huangbu Kiln and the Xing Kiln fell into distinct areas. For the Liquanfang Kiln, the contents of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in white-bodied samples are different from those of other colors, which indicates that at least two types of raw materials were used. When compared with the white-bodied samples from the other three kilns, the white-bodied samples from the Liquanfang Kiln were found to have compositions similar to those of the samples from the Huangye Kiln, rather than the Huangbu Kiln, although the latter is much closer geographically than the former. All the obtained data provide valuable scientific criteria for provenance identification for Tang Sancai of unknown origin.

  13. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1204 What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1204 What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1204 What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1204 What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1205 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns that are effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under Â... Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1205 What are the standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns that...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1221 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1221 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1205 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns that are effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under Â... Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1205 What are the standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns that...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1205 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns that are effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under Â... Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1205 What are the standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns that...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1221 What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1204 What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the...

  4. Rotary Transformer Seals Power In

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.; Paulkovich, J.

    1982-01-01

    Rotary transformer originally developed for spacecraft transfers electrical power from stationary primary winding to rotating secondary without sliding contacts and very little leakage of electromagnetic radiation. Transformer has two stationary primary windings connected in parallel. Secondary, mounted on a shaft that extends out of housing, rotates between two windings of primary. Shaft of secondary is composed of electrically conducting inner and outer parts separated by an insulator. Electrical contact is made from secondary winding, through shaft, to external leads.

  5. Improved Superconducting Magnetic Rotary Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Royston, James

    1992-01-01

    Improved magnetic rotary bearings designed by exploiting properties of type-II superconducting materials. Depending on design and application, bearing provides fixed or adjustable compensation for lateral vector component of weight or other lateral load on rotor. Allows applied magnetic field to penetrate partially in clusters of field lines, with concomitant establishment of undamped circulating electrical currents within material. Type-II superconductors have critical magnetic fields and critical temperatures greater than type-I superconductors.

  6. Formation, release and control of dioxins in cement kilns.

    PubMed

    Karstensen, Kåre Helge

    2008-01-01

    Co-processing of hazardous wastes in cement kilns have for decades been thought to cause increased emissions of PCDD/PCDFs--a perception that has been evaluated in this study. Hundreds of PCDD/PCDF measurements conducted by the cement industry and others in the last few years, on emissions and solid materials, as well as recent test burns with hazardous wastes in developing countries do not support this perception. Newer data has been compared with older literature data and shows in particular that many emission factors have to be reconsidered. Early emission factors for cement kilns co-processing hazardous waste, which are still used in inventories, are shown to be too high compared with actual measurements. Less than 10 years ago it was believed that the cement industry was the main contributor of PCDD/PCDFs to air; data collected in this study indicates however that the industry contributes with less than 1% of total emissions to air. The Stockholm Convention on POPs presently ratified by 144 parties, classifies cement kilns co-processing hazardous waste as a source category having the potential for comparatively high formation and release of PCDD/PCDFs. This classification is based on early investigations from the 1980s and 1990s where kilns co-processing hazardous waste had higher emissions compared to those that did not burn hazardous waste. However, the testing of these kilns was often done under worst case scenario conditions known to favour PCDD/PCDF formation. More than 2000 PCDD/PCDF cement kiln measurements have been evaluated in this study, representing most production technologies and waste feeding scenarios. They generally indicate that most modern cement kilns co-processing waste today can meet an emission level of 0.1ngI-TEQ/m(3), when well managed and operated. In these cases, proper and responsible use of waste including organic hazardous waste to replace parts of the fossil fuel does not seem to increase formation of PCDD/PCDFs. Modern preheater

  7. A Comparison of Combustor-Noise Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2012-01-01

    The present status of combustor-noise prediction in the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP)1 for current-generation (N) turbofan engines is summarized. Several semi-empirical models for turbofan combustor noise are discussed, including best methods for near-term updates to ANOPP. An alternate turbine-transmission factor2 will appear as a user selectable option in the combustor-noise module GECOR in the next release. The three-spectrum model proposed by Stone et al.3 for GE turbofan-engine combustor noise is discussed and compared with ANOPP predictions for several relevant cases. Based on the results presented herein and in their report,3 it is recommended that the application of this fully empirical combustor-noise prediction method be limited to situations involving only General-Electric turbofan engines. Long-term needs and challenges for the N+1 through N+3 time frame are discussed. Because the impact of other propulsion-noise sources continues to be reduced due to turbofan design trends, advances in noise-mitigation techniques, and expected aircraft configuration changes, the relative importance of core noise is expected to greatly increase in the future. The noise-source structure in the combustor, including the indirect one, and the effects of the propagation path through the engine and exhaust nozzle need to be better understood. In particular, the acoustic consequences of the expected trends toward smaller, highly efficient gas-generator cores and low-emission fuel-flexible combustors need to be fully investigated since future designs are quite likely to fall outside of the parameter space of existing (semi-empirical) prediction tools.

  8. Rotary balances: A selected, annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, Marie H.; Kilgore, Robert A.; Sych, Karen L.

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography on rotary balances contains 102 entries. It is part of NASA's support of the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel Working Group 11 on Rotary Balances. This bibliography includes works that might be useful to anyone interested in building or using rotor balances. Emphasis is on the rotary balance rigs and testing techniques rather than the aerodynamic data. Also included are some publications of historical interest which relate to key events in the development and use of rotary balances. The arrangement is chronological by date of publication in the case of reports and by presentation in the case of papers.

  9. Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

  10. Exhaust gas measurements in a propane fueled swirl stabilized combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aanad, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Exhaust gas temperature, velocity, and composition are measured and combustor efficiencies are calculated in a lean premixed swirl stabilized laboratory combustor. The radial profiles of the data between the co- and the counter swirl cases show significant differences. Co-swirl cases show evidence of poor turbulent mixing across the combustor in comparison to the counter-swirl cases. NO sub x levels are low in the combustor but substantial amounts of CO are present. Combustion efficiencies are low and surprisingly constant with varying outer swirl in contradiction to previous results under a slightly different inner swirl condition. This difference in the efficiency trends is expected to be a result of the high sensitivity of the combustor to changes in the inner swirl. Combustor operation is found to be the same for propane and methane fuels. A mechanism is proposed to explain the combustor operation and a few important characteristics determining combustor efficiency are identified.

  11. 7 CFR 305.28 - Kiln sterilization treatment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kiln sterilization treatment schedule. 305.28 Section 305.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.28...

  12. Burning chemical wastes as fuels in cement kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Lauber, J.D.

    1982-07-01

    Hazardous wastes in the environment represent one of our most serious problems. Ever increasing quantities of toxic wastes have contaminated our land, air, and water. Lack of adequate hazardous waste disposal facilities is a critical problem. Landfilling toxic wastes is no longer considered safe. The tragedy of the Love Canal has demonstrated the need for proper hazardous waste disposal facilities. The best organic chemical waste disposal method is process incineration. Cement kilns have been used for burning toxic chemical industrial wastes in Canada, Michigan, New York, Sweden, etc. Existing cement kilns, when properly operated, can destroy most organic chemical wastes. Even the most complex chlorinated hydrocarbons, including PCB can be completely destroyed during normal cement kiln operations, with minimal emissions to the environment. Burning toxic chemical wastes in cement kilns, and other mineral industries, is mutually beneficial to both industry, who generates such wastes, and to society and government, who want to dispose properly of such wastes in a safe, environmentally acceptable manner. The added benefit of energy conservation is important, since large quantities of valuable fuel can be saved in the manufacture of cement when such techniques are employed. (Refs. 16).

  13. Dish stirling solar receiver combustor test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Back, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The operational and energy transfer characteristics of the Dish Stirling Solar Receiver (DSSR) combustor/heat exchanger system was evaluated. The DSSR is designed to operate with fossil fuel augmentation utilizing a swirl combustor and cross flow heat exchanger consisting of a single row of 4 closely spaced tubes that are curved into a conical shape. The performance of the combustor/heat exchanger system without a Stirling engine was studied over a range of operating conditions and output levels using water as the working fluid. Results show that the combustor may be started under cold conditions, controlled safety, and operated at a constant air/fuel ratio (10 percent excess air) over the required range of firing rates. Furthermore, nondimensional heat transfer coefficients based on total heat transfer are plotted versus Reynolds number and compared with literature data taken for single rows of closely spaced tubes perpendicular to cross flow. The data show enhanced heat transfer for the present geometry and test conditions. Analysis of the results shows that the present system meets specified thermal requirements, thus verifying the feasibility of the DSSR combustor design for final prototype fabrication.

  14. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Anna E.; Saxena, Nikita T.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize alternative fueling for military and commercial use, the industry has set forth guidelines that must be met by each fuel. These aviation fueling requirements are outlined in MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 Annex (2011) standards, and are classified as "drop-in" fuel replacements. This report provides combustor performance data for synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) fuel and blends with JP-8+100, relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling. Data were taken at various nominal inlet conditions: 75 psia (0.52 MPa) at 500 degF (533 K), 125 psia (0.86 MPa) at 625 degF (603 K), 175 psia (1.21 MPa) at 725 degF (658 K), and 225 psia (1.55 MPa) at 790 degF (694 K). Combustor performance analysis assessments were made for the change in flame temperatures, combustor efficiency, wall temperatures, and exhaust plane temperatures at 3, 4, and 5 percent combustor pressure drop (DP) for fuel:air ratios (F/A) ranging from 0.010 to 0.025. Significant general trends show lower liner temperatures and higher flame and combustor outlet temperatures with increases in FT fueling relative to JP-8+100 fueling. The latter affects both turbine efficiency and blade and vane lives.

  15. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Anna E.; Saxena, Nikita T.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to realize alternative fueling for military and commercial use, the industry has set forth guidelines that must be met by each fuel. These aviation fueling requirements are outlined in MILDTL- 83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 Annex (2011) standards, and are classified as drop-in fuel replacements. This paper provides combustor performance data for synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type (Fisher-Tropsch (FT)) fuel and blends with JP-8+100, relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling. Data were taken at various nominal inlet conditions: 75 psia (0.52 MPa) at 500 F (533 K), 125 psia (0.86 MPa) at 625 F (603 K), 175 psia (1.21 MPa) at 725 F (658 K), and 225 psia (1.55 MPa) at 790 F (694 K). Combustor performance analysis assessments were made for the change in flame temperatures, combustor efficiency, wall temperatures, and exhaust plane temperatures at 3%, 4%, and 5% combustor pressure drop (% delta P) for fuel: air ratios (F/A) ranging from 0.010 to 0.025. Significant general trends show lower liner temperatures and higher flame and combustor outlet temperatures with increases in FT fueling relative to JP-8+100 fueling. The latter affects both turbine efficiency and blade/vane life.

  16. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in

  17. Performance of low-Btu fuel gas turbine combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, S.; Bowen, J.H.; Feitelberg, A.S.; Hung, S.L.; Lacey, M.A.; Manning, K.S.

    1995-11-01

    This reports on a project to develop low BTU gas fuel nozzle for use in large gas turbine combustors using multiple fuel nozzles. A rich-quench-lean combustor is described here which reduces the amount of NO{sub x} produced by the combustion of the low BTU gas. The combustor incorporates a converging rich stage combustor liner, which separates the rich stage recirculation zones from the quench stage and lean stage air.

  18. Experimental clean combustor program noise measurement addendum, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmerling, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The test results of combustor noise measurements taken with waveguide probes are presented. Waveguide probes were shown to be a viable measurement technique for determining high sound pressure level broadband noise. A total of six full-scale annular combustors were tested and included the three advanced combustor designs: swirl-can, radial/axial, and double annular.

  19. Multi-Ducted Inlet Combustor Research and Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    of a reactor or combustor as defined in equation (1) is the combustor volume divided by the fluid flow rate through the combustor. Therefore, for a...Development Laboratories, Inc., Costa Mesa, California, March, 1983. 3. 0. Levenspiel , Chemical Reaction Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, 1962. 59 •rac v £98 kg3-ඃ-,162-;8b

  20. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces..., solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces to minimize emissions... acid production furnace may request that the Director address permit conditions that minimize...

  1. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces..., solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces to minimize emissions... acid production furnace may request that the Director address permit conditions that minimize...

  2. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces..., solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces to minimize emissions... acid production furnace may request that the Director address permit conditions that minimize...

  3. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces..., solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces to minimize emissions... acid production furnace may request that the Director address permit conditions that minimize...

  4. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces..., solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces to minimize emissions... acid production furnace may request that the Director address permit conditions that minimize...

  5. LDV Measurements in an Annular Combustor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barron, Dean A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis covers the design and setup of a laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system used to take velocity measurements in an annular combustor model. The annular combustor model is of contemporary design using 60 degree flat vane swirlers, producing a strong recirculation zone. Detailed measurements are taken of the swirler inlet air flow and of the downstream enclosed swirling flow. The laser system used is a two color, two component system set up in forward scatter. Detailed are some of the special considerations needed for LDV use in the confined turbulent flow of the combustor model. LDV measurements in a single swirler rig indicated that the flow changes radically in the first duct height. After this, a flow profile is set up and remains constant in shape. The magnitude of the velocities gradually decays due to viscous damping.

  6. Combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J; Fox, Timothy A

    2015-04-28

    A combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine includes a combustor device, a fuel injection system, a transition duct, and an intermediate duct. The combustor device includes a flow sleeve for receiving pressurized air and a liner surrounded by the flow sleeve. The fuel injection system provides fuel to be mixed with the pressurized air and ignited in the liner to create combustion products. The intermediate duct is disposed between the liner and the transition duct so as to define a path for the combustion products to flow from the liner to the transition duct. The intermediate duct is associated with the liner such that movement may occur therebetween, and the intermediate duct is associated with the transition duct such that movement may occur therebetween. The flow sleeve includes structure that defines an axial stop for limiting axial movement of the intermediate duct.

  7. Preliminary calibration of a generic scramjet combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, P. A.; Morgan, R. G.; Rogers, R. C.; Wendt, M.; Brescianini, C.; Paull, A.; Kelly, G.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a preliminary investigation of the combustion of hydrogen fuel at hypersonic flow conditions are provided. The tests were performed in a generic, constant-area combustor model with test gas supplied by a free-piston-driven reflected-shock tunnel. Static pressure measurements along the combustor wall indicated that burning did occur for combustor inlet conditions of P(static) approximately equal to 19kPa, T(static) approximately equal to 1080 K, and U approximately equal to 3630 m/s with a fuel equivalence ratio approximately equal to 0.9. These inlet conditions were obtained by operating the tunnel with stagnation enthalpy approximately equal to 8.1 MJ/kg, stagnation pressure approximately equal to 52 MPa, and a contoured nozzle with a nominal exit Mach number of 5.5.

  8. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  9. Flow establishment in a generic scramjet combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, P. A.; Rogers, R. C.; Weidner, E. H.; Bittner, R. D.

    1990-10-01

    The establishment of a quasi-steady flow in a generic scramjet combustor was studied for the case of a time varying inflow to the combustor. Such transient flow is characteristic of the reflected shock tunnel and expansion tube test facilities. Several numerical simulations of hypervelocity flow through a straight duct combustor with either a side wall step fuel injector or a centrally located strut injector are presented. Comparisons were made between impulsively started but otherwise constant flow conditions (typical of the expansion tube or tailored operations of the reflected shock tunnel) and the relaxing flow produced by the 'undertailored' operations of the reflected shock tunnel. Generally the inviscid flow features, such as the shock pattern and pressure distribution, were unaffected by the time varying inlet conditions and approached steady state in approx. the times indicated by experimental correlations. However, viscous features, such as heat transfer and skin friction, were altered by the relaxing inlet flow conditions.

  10. Laser diagnostics on a hypersonic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, David J.; Oldenborg, R. C.; Tiee, J. J.; Northam, G. Burton; Antcliff, Richard R.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Jarrett, O.; Smith, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Langley has implemented a laser-based multipoint/multiparameter diagnostics system at its hypersonic direct-connect combustor, in order to measure both temperature and majority species densities in two dimensions, using spatially-scanned CARS; in addition, line-imaged measurements of radical densities are simultaneously generated by LIF at any of several planes downstream of the fuel injector. Initial experimental trials have demonstrated successful detection of one-dimensional images of OH density, as well as CARS N2-temperature measurements, in the turbulent reaction zone of the hypersonic combustor.

  11. Low NO.sub.x combustor

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Jack R.

    1987-01-01

    A combustor having an annular first stage, a generally cylindrically-shaped second stage, and an annular conduit communicably connecting the first and second stages. The conduit has a relatively small annular height and a large number of quench holes in the walls thereof such that quench air injected into the conduit through the quench holes will mix rapidly with, or quench, the combustion gases flowing through the conduit. The rapid quenching reduces the amount of NO.sub.x produced in the combustor.

  12. Variable volume combustor with aerodynamic support struts

    DOEpatents

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Stewart, Jason Thurman; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-03-07

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles and a fuel injection system for providing a flow of fuel to the micro-mixer fuel nozzles. The fuel injection system may include a number of support struts supporting the fuel nozzles and providing the flow of fuel therethrough. The support struts may include an aerodynamic contoured shape so as to distribute evenly a flow of air to the micro-mixer fuel nozzles.

  13. Micro-combustor for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Scott M.

    2010-11-30

    An improved gas turbine combustor (20) including a basket (26) and a multiplicity of micro openings (29) arrayed across an inlet wall (27) for passage of a fuel/air mixture for ignition within the combustor. The openings preferably have a diameter on the order of the quenching diameter; i.e. the port diameter for which the flame is self-extinguishing, which is a function of the fuel mixture, temperature and pressure. The basket may have a curved rectangular shape that approximates the shape of the curved rectangular shape of the intake manifolds of the turbine.

  14. Development of cleaner-burning brick kilns in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Charles W; Corral, Alba Yadira; Lara, Antonio S

    2007-04-01

    The following results provide a comparison between net airborne contamination produced by the traditional form of kiln used in Northern Mexico and by those modified according to a design by Dr. Robert Marquez. What has become known as the MK style kiln was intended to significantly reduce contaminant emissions. The concept involves covering the kiln with a dome and channeling the output of an active kiln through a second, identical loaded kiln for its additional filtration of the effluents. Kilns of a pair are connected via clay brick channels. The roles are reversed after the initial kiln is refilled. Significant reductions in the particulate and gaseous emissions were achieved in the prototype system, but a connectional problem with recent kiln pairs has also limited the degree of operational success. The problem did not mask the potential of the MK kiln, as will be shown. Additional anticipated benefits to the owners of MK kilns, such as reduced operating cycles and decreased quantities of fuel, also have been verified. Key measurements made during all of the burns were of aerosol densities and buoyancies in the flues, kiln temperatures, and, on a number of occasions, chemical analyses of both aerosol and gaseous effluents. Continuous time histories of aerosol densities for most burns (of a total of -40) provide a basis for examining features and the effects of differing styles of operation with respect to burn efficiency and net contaminant masses. Covering the active kiln with a dome produces a net reduction in dry aerosol effluent mass of a factor between 5 and 10, whereas the addition of a filter kiln produces a net reduction of about a factor of 2. The use of used motor oil as a fuel further reduced aerosol contamination by -1 order of magnitude.

  15. Rotary high power transfer apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Peter E. (Inventor); Porter, Ryan S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for reducing terminal-to-terminal circuit resistance and enhancing heat transfer in a rotary power transfer apparatus of the roll ring type comprising a connecting thimble for attaching an external power cable to a cone shaped terminal which is attached to a tab integral to an outer ring. An inner ring having a spherical recess mates with the spherical end of a tie connector. A cone shaped terminal is fitted to a second connecting thimble for attaching a second external power cable.

  16. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  17. Torque-balanced vibrationless rotary coupling

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Donald M.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure describes a torque-balanced vibrationless rotary coupling for transmitting rotary motion without unwanted vibration into the spindle of a machine tool. A drive member drives a driven member using flexible connecting loops which are connected tangentially and at diametrically opposite connecting points through a free floating ring.

  18. A multifunctional rotary photoelectric encoder management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zunzhong; Ying, Yibin

    2005-11-01

    The rotary photoelectric encoder can be used in many fields, such as robot research, fruit assembly lines, and so on. If there have many photoelectric encoders in one system, it's difficult to manage them and acquire the right pulse number. So it's important to design a multifunctional management system. It includes a powerful microchip with high processing speed, assuring the acquisition precision of rotary pulse. It uses a special method to judge the rotary direction and will be competent for many occasions which rotary direction changes quickly. Considering encoder data transmission, the management system provides a serial port using RS-485 protocol to transmit current pulse data and rotary direction. It allows linking a maximum of 100 management systems using only two communication lines to up-systems and also configing the encoder counting pattern locally (using the keyboard) or remotely (through the computer).

  19. Industrial-scale demonstration of a new sorbent reactivation technology for fluidized bed combustors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Edward J; McCleave, Robert; Gandolfi, Eduardo; Wang, Jinsheng

    2003-10-01

    To minimize the disposal of highly reactive spent sorbent from a fluidized bed combustor, a new method for reactivation has been developed. The method consists of grinding the spent ash in a rotary mill, hydrating the ash with an excess of water, and mixing the wet ground ash with dry solids to absorb the excess water. The mixing process eliminates the formation of a concrete-like product that normally results as wet fluidized bed combustor ash ages. Pilot-scale combustion trials proved to be successful, and the process was scaled up using a 35MWt utility boiler at Purdue University. The test lasted for 3 days and resulted in net reduction of limestone sorbent use of 18%. The results generated in this work have been used to develop an economic evaluation for a 165MWe circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, which projects significant savings due to reduction of limestone supply and ash disposal costs. The evaluation also suggests that the process is cost competitive with other processes, albeit that those processes have not been demonstrated at industrial scale. Furthermore, it also has the potential to make a small net reduction in CO(2) emissions, due to reduced limestone usage.

  20. Compliant Metal Enhanced Convection Cooled Reverse-Flow Annular Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    shock tests were performed to addition, there were 16 static pressure taps assess the durability of the CME combustor . The throughout the combustor rig...Scheme for Small Gas Turbine Combustors ," AIAA Paper No. 7. M.D. Paskin, H.C. Mongia , and W.A. Acosta, 90-2158, July 1990. "An Efficient Liner Cooling...for Combustor Applications," NASA CR-168103, April 1983. 8. M.D. Paskin and H.C. Mongia , "Composite Matrix Experimnental Combustor ," NASA CR- 5. D.B

  1. System and method for controlling a combustor assembly

    DOEpatents

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2013-03-05

    A system and method for controlling a combustor assembly are disclosed. The system includes a combustor assembly. The combustor assembly includes a combustor and a fuel nozzle assembly. The combustor includes a casing. The fuel nozzle assembly is positioned at least partially within the casing and includes a fuel nozzle. The fuel nozzle assembly further defines a head end. The system further includes a viewing device configured for capturing an image of at least a portion of the head end, and a processor communicatively coupled to the viewing device, the processor configured to compare the image to a standard image for the head end.

  2. Active Control of High-Frequency Combustor Instability Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of aerospace propulsion systems, extensive research is being done in the development of lean-burning (low fuel-to-air ratio) combustors that can reduce emissions throughout the mission cycle. However, these lean-burning combustors have an increased susceptibility to thermoacoustic instabilities-high-pressure oscillations much like sound waves that can cause severe high-frequency vibrations in the combustor. These pressure waves can fatigue the combustor components and even the downstream turbine blades. This can significantly decrease the combustor and turbine safe operating life. Thus, suppression of the thermoacoustic combustor instabilities is an enabling technology for lean, low-emissions combustors. Under the Propulsion and Power Program, the NASA Glenn Research Center in partnership with Pratt & Whitney, United Technologies Research Center, and Georgia Institute of Technology is developing technologies for the active control of combustion instabilities.

  3. Combustor for a low-emissions gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Glezer, Boris; Greenwood, Stuart A.; Dutta, Partha; Moon, Hee-Koo

    2000-01-01

    Many government entities regulated emission from gas turbine engines including CO. CO production is generally reduced when CO reacts with excess oxygen at elevated temperatures to form CO2. Many manufactures use film cooling of a combustor liner adjacent to a combustion zone to increase durability of the combustion liner. Film cooling quenches reactions of CO with excess oxygen to form CO2. Cooling the combustor liner on a cold side (backside) away from the combustion zone reduces quenching. Furthermore, placing a plurality of concavities on the cold side enhances the cooling of the combustor liner. Concavities result in very little pressure reduction such that air used to cool the combustor liner may also be used in the combustion zone. An expandable combustor housing maintains a predetermined distance between the combustor housing and combustor liner.

  4. Flashback Arrestor for LPP, Low NOx Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, Gil; Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Lean premixed, prevaporized (LPP) high temperature combustor designs as explored for the Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) and High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) combustors can achieve low NO(x), emission levels. An enabling device is needed to arrest flashback and inhibit preignition at high power conditions and during transients (surge and rapid spool down). A novel flashback arrestor design has demonstrated the ability to arrest flashback and inhibit preignition in a 4.6 cm diameter tubular reactor at full power inlet temperatures (725 C) using Jet-A fuel at 0.4 less than or equal To phi less than or equal to 3.5. Several low pressure loss (0.2 to 0.4% at 30 m/s) flashback arrestor designs were developed which arrested flashback at all of the test conditions. Flame holding was also inhibited off the flash arrestor face or within the downstream tube even velocities (less than or equal to 3 to 6 m/s), thus protecting the flashback arrestor and combustor components. Upstream flow conditions influence the specific configuration based on using either a 45% or 76% upstream geometric blockage. Stationary, lean premixed dry low NO(x) gas turbine combustors would also benefit from this low pressure drop flashback arrestor design which can be easily integrated into new and existing designs.

  5. Low NOx heavy fuel combustor concept program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. J.; Lecren, R. T.; Batakis, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    A total of twelve low NOx combustor configurations, embodying three different combustion concepts, were designed and fabricated as modular units. These configurations were evaluated experimentally for exhaust emission levels and for mechanical integrity. Emissions data were obtained in depth on two of the configurations.

  6. Stably operating pulse combustor and method

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, B.T.; Reiner, D.

    1990-05-29

    A pulse combustor apparatus is described which is adapted to burn either a liquid fuel or a pulverized solid fuel within a preselected volume of the combustion chamber. The combustion process is substantially restricted to an optimum combustion zone in order to attain effective pulse combustion operation. 4 figs.

  7. Steam Reformer With Fibrous Catalytic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed steam-reforming reactor derives heat from internal combustion on fibrous catalyst. Supplies of fuel and air to combustor controlled to meet demand for heat for steam-reforming reaction. Enables use of less expensive reactor-tube material by limiting temperature to value safe for material yet not so low as to reduce reactor efficiency.

  8. Stably operating pulse combustor and method

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, Ben T.; Reiner, David

    1990-01-01

    A pulse combustor apparatus adapted to burn either a liquid fuel or a pulverized solid fuel within a preselected volume of the combustion chamber. The combustion process is substantially restricted to an optimum combustion zone in order to attain effective pulse combustion operation.

  9. Static analysis of masonry kilns built with fictile tubules bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivito, Renato S.; Scuro, Carmelo; Codispoti, Rosamaria

    2016-12-01

    Industrial archeology is a branch that studies all the testimony (tangible and intangible, direct and indirect) related to the process of industrialization since its origins. This technical field is based on an interdisciplinary approach, it has the task of deepening the story, understanding the technological development made by man over the centuries. The present work focused attention on the study and analysis of a masonry kiln, built with the technique of hollow clay fictile tubules. The study, in particular, has been carried out analyzing the stress state caused by the wind on the structure. The kiln is constituted by a particular geometric configuration that develops in height due to the presence of chimney over the dome.

  10. Mössbauer Study of a Celtic Pottery-Making Kiln in Lower Bavaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhard, R.; Guggenbichler, E.; Häusler, W.; Riederer, J.; Schmotz, K.; Wagner, F. E.; Wagner, U.

    2004-06-01

    In 1995 a well preserved 3rd century BC Celtic kiln for pottery making was excavated at Schmiedorf in Lower Bavaria. The firing chamber and the flue plate of the kiln were preserved, whereas the dome was not found. We report on a study of material from this kiln by neutron activation analysis, thin-section microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy, all performed with the aim to learn more about pottery-making procedures in Celtic times.

  11. Effect of kiln dust from a cement factory on growth of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ismet; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Oztürk, Münir

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to study the effects of different amounts of kiln dust mixed with soil on the seed germination, plant growth, leaf area and water content of Vicia faba cv. Eresen. The reason for this was that cement kiln dust generated as a by-product from the cement factories is rich in potassium, sulfate and other compounds. This product becomes a serious problem when it comes in contact with water. The dust was collected from a cement factory located in Canakkale. Various elements such as Al, Co, Mo, Ca, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se and Zn were determined both in soil as well as kiln dust. Kiln dust was mixed with soil in pots (20 cm diameter) to make seven different treatments varying from 15 to 105 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil. The experiment lasted for 4 months. Seeds of V faba were sown in the pots filled with mixtures of preanalysed kiln dust and soil. Germination was high in the pots with a lower treatment of cement kiln dust. However, lower germination rates were observed in the pots mixed with the highest and the medium amounts of cement kiln dust. Plants growing in the soil including 15 g kiln dust showed better performance in length as compared to control. Leaf area increased with increase in cement kiln dust content up to 60 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil, but declined after 75 g kg(-1). Water content of leaves (mg cm(-2) leaf area) was found to be constantly decreasing with respect to increasing cement kiln content in the pots. Differences between the averages were evaluated by Tukey test and results were found to be significant.

  12. [Study on colored drawing technique of Qionglai kiln by SRXRF].

    PubMed

    Luan, Tian; Mao, Zhen-Wei; Wang, Chang-Sui

    2006-08-01

    The colored drawing technique of Qionglai kiln is a debate problem in the archaeology and ancient ceramic research. In the present paper, SRXRF linescan technology was used to study the distribution mode of the colorific elements on the cross-sections of samples. The analytical result indicates that there existed two kinds of decoration techniques of colored drawing, i. e. the techniques of the underglaze color and oveglaze color coexisted in that time.

  13. Floating seal system for rotary devices

    DOEpatents

    Banasiuk, Hubert A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to a floating seal system for rotary devices to reduce gas leakage around the rotary device in a duct and across the face of the rotary device to an adjacent duct. The peripheral seal bodies are made of resilient material having a generally U-shaped cross section wherein one of the legs is secured to a support member and the other of the legs forms a contacting seal against the rotary device. The legs of the peripheral seal form an extended angle of intersection of about 10.degree. to about 30.degree. in the unloaded condition to provide even sealing forces around the periphery of the rotary device. The peripheral seal extends around the periphery of the support member except where intersected by radial seals which reduce gas leakage across the face of the rotary device and between adjacent duct portions. The radial seal assembly is fabricated from channel bars, the smaller channel bar being secured to the divider of the support member and a larger inverted rigid floating channel bar having its legs freely movable over the legs of the smaller channel bar forming therewith a tubular channel. A resilient flexible tube is positioned within the tubular channel for substantially its full length to reduce gas leakage across the tubular channel. A spacer extends beyond the face of the floating channel near each end of the floating channel a distance to provide desired clearance between the floating channel and the face of the rotary device.

  14. Floating seal system for rotary devices

    DOEpatents

    Banasiuk, H.A.

    1983-08-23

    This invention relates to a floating seal system for rotary devices to reduce gas leakage around the rotary device in a duct and across the face of the rotary device to an adjacent duct. The peripheral seal bodies are made of resilient material having a generally U-shaped cross section wherein one of the legs is secured to a support member and the other of the legs forms a contacting seal against the rotary device. The legs of the peripheral seal form an extended angle of intersection of about 10[degree] to about 30[degree] in the unloaded condition to provide even sealing forces around the periphery of the rotary device. The peripheral seal extends around the periphery of the support member except where intersected by radial seals which reduce gas leakage across the face of the rotary device and between adjacent duct portions. The radial seal assembly is fabricated from channel bars, the smaller channel bar being secured to the divider of the support member and a larger inverted rigid floating channel bar having its legs freely movable over the legs of the smaller channel bar forming therewith a tubular channel. A resilient flexible tube is positioned within the tubular channel for substantially its full length to reduce gas leakage across the tubular channel. A spacer extends beyond the face of the floating channel near each end of the floating channel a distance to provide desired clearance between the floating channel and the face of the rotary device. 5 figs.

  15. Advantages and disadvantages of burning hazardous waste in a precalciner kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.; Kluesner, M.

    1997-12-31

    Lone Star Industries, Inc., operates a precalciner kiln in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. In May 1992, the company started burning hazardous waste in the hot end of the kiln as a partial fuel replacement. This paper examines the advantages and disadvantages Lone Star has experienced since it began using hazardous waste as an alternate fuel supply. The use of hazardous waste has produced a number of ancillary benefits and a few hindrances to kiln operations. How each of these aspects has affected kiln operation and performance will be examined. 4 tabs.

  16. Process and shaft kiln for the burning of lime or similar bulk materials

    SciTech Connect

    Von Z. H.

    1981-09-01

    A proces is disclosed for the burning of lime, cement or other lumpy bulk materials in a shaft kiln using coal. Coal dust or particulated dry coal is continuously fed into a gasification chamber positioned in the center of the shaft kiln and is therein partially or fully gasified by the addition of air in substoichiometric proportions. The partially or fully gasified fuel is mixed with air at an elevated temperature. Such mixture is then burned in the burning zone of the shaft kiln. The flow of the heating medium, i.e., the burnt fuel, and the flow of the kiln charge are co-current within the kiln. The shaft kiln has a centrally positioned gasification chamber which is mounted on radial supports which are positioned in the shaft kiln in such a way as to produce a space below the supports. The space is substantially free from kiln charge. Uniform distribution of the gases is guaranteed across the cross section of the shaft kiln by the space.

  17. Mass balance of dioxins over a cement kiln in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yeqing; Chen, Tong; Zhang, Jiang; Meng, Weijie; Yan, Mi; Wang, Huanzhong; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-02-01

    The cement production process may be a potential source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, "dioxins"), due to the widespread distribution of dioxins and potential precursors in raw materials and to conditions favorable to de novo formation in the heat exchangers. The emission, gas/particle distribution, and mass balance of PCDD/Fs were investigated at a typical state-of-the-art Chinese cement kiln. Input and output inventories were established for three campaigns, including two in normal operation and one while co-processing refuse derived fuel (RDF). Sample analysis from stack gas, cement kiln dust, raw meal, fly dust and clinker for the analysis of PCDD/Fs were reported in this study. Dioxins were also analyzed at various positions in the pre-heater, presenting an adsorption-desorption circulation process of PCDD/Fs. The over-all dioxin mass balance was negative, indicating that this cement kiln is not a source but a sink process of dioxins.

  18. Analysis of rotary engine combustion processes based on unsteady, three-dimensional computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Willis, E. A.

    1989-01-01

    A new computer code was developed for predicting the turbulent, and chemically reacting flows with sprays occurring inside of a stratified charge rotary engine. The solution procedure is based on an Eulerian Lagrangian approach where the unsteady, 3-D Navier-Stokes equations for a perfect gas mixture with variable properties are solved in generalized, Eulerian coordinates on a moving grid by making use of an implicit finite volume, Steger-Warming flux vector splitting scheme, and the liquid phase equations are solved in Lagrangian coordinates. Both the details of the numerical algorithm and the finite difference predictions of the combustor flow field during the opening of exhaust and/or intake, and also during fuel vaporization and combustion, are presented.

  19. Rotary Valve FY 2016 Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Fitsos, P.

    2016-12-07

    The fiscal year started with the Rotary Valve (RV) being reassembled after having crashed in June of 2015. The crash occurred when the RV inner surface contacted the housing. The cause of the crash was never confirmed. No particles were found in the 2.5 thousandths of an inch gap and the filters the helium gas passed through were all clean. There were marks on the bearings that looked like electrostatic discharge as shown below in Figure 1. These marks hadn’t been seen before and there were similar discharge marks on some of the ball bearings. Examples of this were found in a literature search of bearing failures. This leads to a possible cause due to this arcing affecting the rotational accuracy of the bearings driving the RV into the housing.

  20. Rotary recuperative magnetic heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirol, Lance D.; Dacus, Michael W.

    A bench scale rotary magnetic heat pump now being built is described. The unique design feature of this heat pump is the method for achieving recuperator fluid flow, which relies simply on parallel flow paths; the primary flow leg allows heat transfer between external load and sink and magnetic working material, while parallel flow accomplishes recuperation. The bench scale test is intended to demonstrate feasibility of the concept and to verify that all significant loss mechanisms are identified and treated properly in performance models, but is not a scaled down version of a practical heat pump. Working material is gadolinium foil 76 microns thick with 127-micron spaces for fluid flow. Magnetic fields are created by neodymium-iron-boron-permanent magnets with an air gap field of about 0.9 Tesla. Due to the low field (practical heat pumps will use superconducting magnets with field strength around 9 T); temperature lift is limited to 11 K.

  1. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L.; Batcheller, Tom A.; Rindfleisch, J. A.; Morgan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  2. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  3. Aerodynamic seals for rotary machine

    DOEpatents

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Cirri, Massimiliano; Thatte, Azam Mihir; Williams, John Robert

    2016-02-09

    An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having multiple labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device segment also includes multiple flexures connected to the shoe plate and to a top interface element, wherein the multiple flexures are configured to allow the high pressure fluid to occupy a forward cavity and the low pressure fluid to occupy an aft cavity. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal attached to the top interface element at one first end and positioned about the flexures and the shoe plate at one second end.

  4. Advanced Low NOx Combustors for Aircraft Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. B.; White, D. J.; Shekleton, J. R.; Butze, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    A test rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating and minimizing the exhaust emissions, in particular NOx, of two advanced aircraft combustor concepts at a simulated high-altitude cruise condition. The two pre-mixed, lean-reaction designs are known as the Jet Induced Circulation (JIC) combustor and the Vortex Air Blast (VAB) combustor and were rig tested in the form of reverse flow can combustors in the 0.13 ni (5.0 in. ) size range. Various configuration modifications were applied to the JIC and VAB combustor designs in an effort to reduce the emissions levels. The VAB combustor demonstrated a NOx level of 1.11 gm NO2/kg fuel with essentially 100 percent combustion efficiency at the simulated cruise combustor condition of 507 kPa (5 atm), 833 K (1500 R), inlet pressure and temperature respectively, and 1778 K (3200 R) outlet temperature on Jet-Al fuel. These configuration screening tests were carried out on essentially reaction zones only, in order to simplify the construction and modification of the combustors and to uncouple any possible effects on the emissions produced by the dilution flow. Tests were also conducted however at typical engine idle conditions on both combustors equipped with dilution ports in order to better define the problem areas involved in the operation of such concepts over a complete engine operational envelope. Versions of variable-geometry, JIC and VAB annular combustors are proposed.

  5. Kiln dust-fly ash systems for highway bases and subbases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of substituting kiln dusts for hydrated lime in lime-fly ash-aggregate road base systems. A total of 45 kiln dust samples, including 33 cement dusts and 12 lime dusts, were obtained in accordance with a standard sampling procedure. In addition, 18 fly ashes (including 5 Class C ash samples) and 6 aggregates were included in the sampling program. Kiln dust and fly ash samples were characterized by Trow, Ltd. to determine physical properties and chemical, as well as mineralogical, composition. Optimum kiln dust-fly ash ratios were developed for 66 mix combinations. Kiln dust-fly ash-aggregate compressive strength tests were performed. Engineering properties (durability, volume stability, etc.) of optimum mix combinations were tested and compared with conventional lime-fly ash-aggregate mixtures. Most kiln dust-fly ash-aggregate mixes were comparable to, and in many cases demonstrated higher early strength development than, lime-fly ash-aggregate mixes. Optimum mix strengths for kiln dust-fly ash-aggregate compositions were generally attained at kiln dust-fly ash ratios of 2:1 using cement kiln dust and 1:1 using lime kiln dust. By contrast, most lime-fly ash-aggregate mixes have lime-fly ash ratios of 1:3 or 1:4. Therefore, higher concentrations of kiln dust are required compared to commercial lime. Mixes containing Class C fly ash developed higher strengths than comparable mixes with Class F fly ash.

  6. Rotary adsorbers for continuous bulk separations

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    A rotary adsorber for continuous bulk separations is disclosed. The rotary adsorber includes an adsorption zone in fluid communication with an influent adsorption fluid stream, and a desorption zone in fluid communication with a desorption fluid stream. The fluid streams may be gas streams or liquid streams. The rotary adsorber includes one or more adsorption blocks including adsorbent structure(s). The adsorbent structure adsorbs the target species that is to be separated from the influent fluid stream. The apparatus includes a rotary wheel for moving each adsorption block through the adsorption zone and the desorption zone. A desorption circuit passes an electrical current through the adsorbent structure in the desorption zone to desorb the species from the adsorbent structure. The adsorbent structure may include porous activated carbon fibers aligned with their longitudinal axis essentially parallel to the flow direction of the desorption fluid stream. The adsorbent structure may be an inherently electrically-conductive honeycomb structure.

  7. Unidirectional rotary motion in achiral molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Kistemaker, Jos C M; Štacko, Peter; Visser, Johan; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-11-01

    Control of the direction of motion is an essential feature of biological rotary motors and results from the intrinsic chirality of the amino acids from which the motors are made. In synthetic autonomous light-driven rotary motors, point chirality is transferred to helical chirality, and this governs their unidirectional rotation. However, achieving directional rotary motion in an achiral molecular system in an autonomous fashion remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we report an achiral molecular motor in which the presence of a pseudo-asymmetric carbon atom proved to be sufficient for exclusive autonomous disrotary motion of two appended rotor moieties. Isomerization around the two double bonds enables both rotors to move in the same direction with respect to their surroundings--like wheels on an axle--demonstrating that autonomous unidirectional rotary motion can be achieved in a symmetric system.

  8. Unidirectional rotary motion in achiral molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistemaker, Jos C. M.; Štacko, Peter; Visser, Johan; Feringa, Ben L.

    2015-11-01

    Control of the direction of motion is an essential feature of biological rotary motors and results from the intrinsic chirality of the amino acids from which the motors are made. In synthetic autonomous light-driven rotary motors, point chirality is transferred to helical chirality, and this governs their unidirectional rotation. However, achieving directional rotary motion in an achiral molecular system in an autonomous fashion remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we report an achiral molecular motor in which the presence of a pseudo-asymmetric carbon atom proved to be sufficient for exclusive autonomous disrotary motion of two appended rotor moieties. Isomerization around the two double bonds enables both rotors to move in the same direction with respect to their surroundings—like wheels on an axle—demonstrating that autonomous unidirectional rotary motion can be achieved in a symmetric system.

  9. Rotary stripper for shielded and unshielded FCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Chambers, C. M.

    1971-01-01

    Rotary stripper removes narrow strips of insulation and shielding to any desired depth. Unshielded cables are stripped on both sides with one stroke, shielded cables are stripped in steps of different depths.

  10. Energy efficient engine combustor test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeisser, M. H.; Greene, W.; Dubiel, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The combustor for the Energy Efficient Engine is an annular, two-zone component. As designed, it either meets or exceeds all program goals for performance, safety, durability, and emissions, with the exception of oxides of nitrogen. When compared to the configuration investigated under the NASA-sponsored Experimental Clean Combustor Program, which was used as a basis for design, the Energy Efficient Engine combustor component has several technology advancements. The prediffuser section is designed with short, strutless, curved-walls to provide a uniform inlet airflow profile. Emissions control is achieved by a two-zone combustor that utilizes two types of fuel injectors to improve fuel atomization for more complete combustion. The combustor liners are a segmented configuration to meet the durability requirements at the high combustor operating pressures and temperatures. Liner cooling is accomplished with a counter-parallel FINWALL technique, which provides more effective heat transfer with less coolant.

  11. Systems Characterization of Combustor Instabilities With Controls Design Emphasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George

    2004-01-01

    This effort performed test data analysis in order to characterize the general behavior of combustor instabilities with emphasis on controls design. The analysis is performed on data obtained from two configurations of a laboratory combustor rig and from a developmental aero-engine combustor. The study has characterized several dynamic behaviors associated with combustor instabilities. These are: frequency and phase randomness, amplitude modulations, net random phase walks, random noise, exponential growth and intra-harmonic couplings. Finally, the very cause of combustor instabilities was explored and it could be attributed to a more general source-load type impedance interaction that includes the thermo-acoustic coupling. Performing these characterizations on different combustors allows for more accurate identification of the cause of these phenomena and their effect on instability.

  12. Wave combustors for trans-atmospheric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, Gene P.; Adelman, Henry G.; Cambier, Jean-Luc; Bowles, Jeffrey V.

    1989-01-01

    The Wave Combustor is an airbreathing hypersonic propulsion system which utilizes shock and detonation waves to enhance fuel-air mixing and combustion in supersonic flow. In this concept, an oblique shock wave in the combustor can act as a flameholder by increasing the pressure and temperature of the air-fuel mixture and thereby decreasing the ignition delay. If the oblique shock is sufficiently strong, then the combustion front and the shock wave can couple into a detonation wave. In this case, combustion occurs almost instantaneously in a thin zone behind the wave front. The result is a shorter, lighter engine compared to the scramjet. This engine, which is called the Oblique Detonation Wave Engine (ODWE), can then be utilized to provide a smaller, lighter vehicle or to provide a higher payload capability for a given vehicle weight. An analysis of the performance of a conceptual trans-atmospheric vehicle powered by an ODWE is given here.

  13. Advanced composite combustor structural concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sattar, M. A.; Lohmann, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to assess the feasibility of and benefits derived from the use of high temperature composite materials in aircraft turbine engine combustor liners. The study included a survey and screening of the properties of three candidate composite materials including tungsten reinforced superalloys, carbon-carbon and silicon carbide (SiC) fibers reinforcing a ceramic matrix of lithium aluminosilicate (LAS). The SiC-LAS material was selected as offering the greatest near term potential primarily on the basis of high temperature capability. A limited experimental investigation was conducted to quantify some of the more critical mechanical properties of the SiC-LAS composite having a multidirection 0/45/-45/90 deg fiber orientation favored for the combustor linear application. Rigorous cyclic thermal tests demonstrated that SiC-LAS was extremely resistant to the thermal fatigue mechanisms that usually limit the life of metallic combustor liners. A thermal design study led to the definition of a composite liner concept that incorporated film cooled SiC-LAS shingles mounted on a Hastelloy X shell. With coolant fluxes consistent with the most advanced metallic liner technology, the calculated hot surface temperatures of the shingles were within the apparent near term capability of the material. Structural analyses indicated that the stresses in the composite panels were low, primarily because of the low coefficient of expansion of the material and it was concluded that the dominant failure mode of the liner would be an as yet unidentified deterioration of the composite from prolonged exposure to high temperature. An economic study, based on a medium thrust size commercial aircraft engine, indicated that the SiC-LAS combustor liner would weigh 22.8N (11.27 lb) less and cost less to manufacture than advanced metallic liner concepts intended for use in the late 1980's.

  14. Fuel property effects in stirred combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Soot formation in strongly backmixed combustion was investigated using the jet-stirred combustor (JSC). This device provided a combustion volume in which temperature and combustion were uniform. It simulated the recirculating characteristics of the gas turbine primary zone; it was in this zone where mixture conditions were sufficiently rich to produce soot. Results indicate that the JSC allows study of soot formation in an aerodynamic situation revelant to gas turbines.

  15. Advanced Catalytic Combustors for Low Pollutant Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    concepts were selected for further design efforts. Results of the Phase I design effort indicate that catalytic combustion is a promising means for...L VAMD. Recent efforta to develop fuel-air carburetion concepts fol use in gas turbine catalytic combustion systems, which are summarized in...Radial/Axial Parallel-Staged combustor shown in F’gure 10 (Con- cept 6) is essentially two separate combustion systems in parallel. In this design concept

  16. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mansour, Momtaz N.

    1993-10-26

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

  17. Laser Diagnostic System Validation and Ultra-Compact Combustor Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    run 15 Specified V, S same as last run 16 Chapman - Jouguet detonation of last-run mixture 17 One of the above at specified composition 18...turbofan engine (Ref. 7). Since a traditional combustor is too big to fit between turbine stages, the idea of an ultra-compact combustor emerged...obtained along with an enhanced combustion efficiency of about 18 99% (Ref. 12). Compared to traditional swirl stabilized combustors, TVC

  18. Low NOx Fuel Flexible Combustor Integration Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Joanne C.; Chang, Clarence T.; Lee, Chi-Ming; Kramer, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Technology Demonstration (ITD) 40A Low NOx Fuel Flexible Combustor Integration development is being conducted as part of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Phase 2 of this effort began in 2012 and will end in 2015. This document describes the ERA goals, how the fuel flexible combustor integration development fulfills the ERA combustor goals, and outlines the work to be conducted during project execution.

  19. Porous Media Combustors for Clean Gas Turbine Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    emissions , no cooling requirement for the! combustor itself and the potential to operate free from combustion- induced noise. The reduced combustion...that the combustor operates in a "super-adiabatic" mode, with low emissions . Intrinsic pressure loss is within values, commonly accepted for propulsion...principles for low emissions turbulent flame gas turbine combustors are well established. The preferred strategy remains lean burn, often with staging to

  20. Advanced liner-cooling techniques for gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Component research for advanced small gas turbine engines is currently underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center. As part of this program, a basic reverse-flow combustor geometry was being maintained while different advanced liner wall cooling techniques were investigated. Performance and liner cooling effectiveness of the experimental combustor configuration featuring counter-flow film-cooled panels is presented and compared with two previously reported combustors featuring: splash film-cooled liner walls; and transpiration cooled liner walls (Lamilloy).

  1. High-temperature durability considerations for HSCT combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1992-01-01

    The novel combustor designs for the High Speed Civil Transport will require high temperature materials with long term environmental stability. Higher liner temperatures than in conventional combustors and the need for reduced weight necessitates the use of advanced ceramic matrix composites. The combustor environment is defined at the current state of design, the major degradation routes are discussed for each candidate ceramic material, and where possible, the maximum use temperatures are defined for these candidate ceramics.

  2. Rapid-quench axially staged combustor

    DOEpatents

    Feitelberg, Alan S.; Schmidt, Mark Christopher; Goebel, Steven George

    1999-01-01

    A combustor cooperating with a compressor in driving a gas turbine includes a cylindrical outer combustor casing. A combustion liner, having an upstream rich section, a quench section and a downstream lean section, is disposed within the outer combustor casing defining a combustion chamber having at least a core quench region and an outer quench region. A first plurality of quench holes are disposed within the liner at the quench section having a first diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to the core region of the quench section of the combustion chamber. A second plurality of quench holes are disposed within the liner at the quench section having a second diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to the outer region of the quench section of the combustion chamber. In an alternative embodiment, the combustion chamber quench section further includes at least one middle region and at least a third plurality of quench holes disposed within the liner at the quench section having a third diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to at least one middle region of the quench section of the combustion chamber.

  3. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1 - Implementation Plan, Phase 2 - Validation Testing and Phase 3 - Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  4. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Laster, W. R.; Anoshkina, E.

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1- Implementation Plan, Phase 2- Validation Testing and Phase 3 – Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  5. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina; P. Szedlacsek

    2006-03-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse is conducting a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1-Implementation Plan, Phase 2-Validation Testing and Phase 3-Field Testing. The Phase 1 program has been completed. Phase II was initiated in October 2004. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCL{trademark}) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to react part of the fuel, increasing the fuel/air mixture temperature. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the catalytic concept will be demonstrated through subscale testing. Phase III will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  6. Investment opportunity: the FPL (Forest Products Laboratory) low-cost solar-dry kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Harpole, G.B.

    1988-09-01

    Two equations are presented that may be used to estimate a maximum investment limit and working capital requirements for the FPL low-cost solar-dry kiln systems. The equations require data for drying-cycle time, green-lumber cost, and kiln-dried lumber costs. Results are intended to provide a preliminary estimate.

  7. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

  8. NASA/GE advanced low emissions combustor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekstedt, E. E.; Fear, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Low Emissions Combustor Program consisted of the design and testing of advanced combustor concepts utilizing lean, premixed, prevaporized fuel and variable geometry. The objective was to evaluate the potential of these combustor systems to provide very low pollutant emissions levels, superior performance and high durability relative to contemporary combustor designs. Four full annular combustor concepts were designed and fabricated for a 30:1 pressure ratio high bypass turbofan engine. The four full annular combustors with active variable geometry were tested at pressures up to approximately 0.7 MPa with Jet A fuel. The two most promising concepts were also tested in a high pressure sector combustor test rig capable of operation at the maximum engine pressures. The high pressure sector combustor tests were conducted with Jet A and a fuel with reduced hydrogen content. Results of the sector combustor tests are presented in this paper. The potential for very low emissions with premixed fuel was demonstrated. However, autoignition or flashback within the premixing systems was encountered at high pressures. Further development effort is required to address this problem area.

  9. Controlled pilot oxidizer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    Laster, Walter R.; Bandaru, Ramarao V.

    2010-07-13

    A combustor (22) for a gas turbine (10) includes a main burner oxidizer flow path (34) delivering a first portion (32) of an oxidizer flow (e.g., 16) to a main burner (28) of the combustor and a pilot oxidizer flow path (38) delivering a second portion (36) of the oxidizer flow to a pilot (30) of the combustor. The combustor also includes a flow controller (42) disposed in the pilot oxidizer flow path for controlling an amount of the second portion delivered to the pilot.

  10. Apparatus and method for cooling a combustor cap

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Baifang; Washam, Roy Marshall; Wu, Chunyang

    2014-04-29

    A combustor includes an end cap having a perforated downstream plate and a combustion chamber downstream of the downstream plate. A plenum is in fluid communication with the downstream plate and supplies a cooling medium to the combustion chamber through the perforations in the downstream plate. A method for cooling a combustor includes flowing a cooling medium into a combustor end cap and impinging the cooling medium on a downstream plate in the combustor end cap. The method further includes flowing the cooling medium into a combustion chamber through perforations in the downstream plate.

  11. High Bandwidth Rotary Fast Tool Servos and a Hybrid Rotary/Linear Electromagnetic Actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Montesanti, Richard Clement

    2005-09-01

    This thesis describes the development of two high bandwidth short-stroke rotary fast tool servos and the hybrid rotary/linear electromagnetic actuator developed for one of them. Design insights, trade-o® methodologies, and analytical tools are developed for precision mechanical systems, power and signal electronic systems, control systems, normal-stress electromagnetic actuators, and the dynamics of the combined systems.

  12. Modification of Waelz kiln processing of La Oroya zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, P.C.; Etsell, T.H.; Murland, A.L.

    2008-05-15

    La Oroya zinc ferrite (19.5% Zn, 26.6% Fe, 0.052% Ga, 0.075% In) was roasted with coal under conditions more oxidizing than normally used in a Waelz kiln, and the roasted residues were leached with 200 g/L H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Overall zinc recoveries of up to 97% were achieved, with 35% of the zinc reporting to the fume after roasting at 1,100{sup o}C with a bituminous coal addition of 20%. Under these conditions, 93.2% of the Cd, 13.4% of the Cu, 33% of the Ga, 61% of the In and 18.2% of the Pb were recovered either in the fume or in the leach solution. At 2006 metal prices, the value of the recovered metals is comparable to that obtained from commercial Waelz kiln processing of this residue. Zinc in the franklinite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) mineral is reduced to zinc vapor, and, after oxidation, some of the zinc is found as ZnO or as Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} in the roasted residue. Iron reacts to form either hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), with no metallic iron detected in the roasted residue, and less than 2% of the iron is solubilized during leaching. The residue produced after roasting and leaching is, therefore, much more stable than the residue from Waelz kiln processing and should be suitable for disposal in a landfill.

  13. Man-made rotary nanomotors: a review of recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Liang, Z. X.; Zhu, F. Q.; Fan, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    The development of rotary nanomotors is an essential step towards intelligent nanomachines and nanorobots. In this article, we review the concept, design, working mechanisms, and applications of state-of-the-art rotary nanomotors made from synthetic nanoentities. The rotary nanomotors are categorized according to the energy sources employed to drive the rotary motion, including biochemical, optical, magnetic, and electric fields. The unique advantages and limitations for each type of rotary nanomachines are discussed. The advances of rotary nanomotors is pivotal for realizing dream nanomachines for myriad applications including microfluidics, biodiagnosis, nano-surgery, and biosubstance delivery.

  14. Airborne rotary air separator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  15. Carpet As An Alternative Fuel in Cement Kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew J Realff

    2007-02-06

    Approximately 5 billion lbs of carpet will be removed from buildings in the US each year for the foreseeable future. This carpet is potentially a valuable resource because it contains plastic in the face of the carpet that can be re-used. However, there are many different types of carpet, and at least four major different plastics used to make the face. The face is woven through a backing fabric and held in place by a “glue” that is in most cases a latex cross-linked polymer which is heavily loaded with chalk (calcium carbonate). This backing has almost no value as a recycled material. In addition, carpet is a bulky material that is difficult to handle and ship and must be kept dry. It would be of significant benefit to the public if this stream of material could be kept out of landfills and some of its potential value unlocked by having high volume alternatives for recycled carpet use. The research question that this project investigated was whether carpet could be used as a fuel in a cement kiln. If this could be done successfully, there is significant capacity in the US cement industry to absorb carpet and use it as a fuel. Cement kilns could serve as a way to stimulate carpet collection and then side streams be taken for higher value uses. The research demonstrated that carpet was technically a suitable fuel, but was unable to conclude that the overall system could be economically feasible at this time with the constraints placed on the project by using an existing system for feeding the kiln. Collection and transportation were relatively straightforward, using an existing collector who had the capacity to collect high volumes of material. The shredding of the carpet into a suitable form for feeding was more challenging, but these problems were successfully overcome. The feeding of the carpet into the kiln was not successfully carried out reliably. The overall economics were not positive under the prevailing conditions of costs for transportation and size

  16. Kiln for hot-pressing compacts in a continuous manner

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, C.D Jr.

    1983-08-08

    The invention is directed to a hot pressing furnace or kiln which is capable of preheating, hot pressing, and cooling a plurality of articles in a sequential and continuous manner. The hot pressing furnace of the present invention comprises an elongated, horizontally disposed furnace capable of holding a plurality of displaceable pusher plates each supporting a die body loaded with refractory or ceramic material to be hot pressed. Each of these plates and the die body supported thereby is sequentially pushed through the preheating zone, a temperature stabilizing and a hot pressing zone, and a cooling zone so as to provide a continuous hot-pressing operation of a plurality of articles.

  17. Kiln for hot-pressing compacts in a continuous manner

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Jr., Carl D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a hot pressing furnace or kiln which is capable of preheating, hot pressing, and cooling a plurality of articles in a sequential and continuous manner. The hot pressing furnace of the present invention comprises an elongated, horizontally disposed furnace capable of holding a plurality of displaceable pusher plates each supporting a die body loaded with refractory or ceramic material to be hot pressed. Each of these plates and the die body supported thereby is sequentially pushed through the preheating zone, a temperature stabilizing and a hot pressing zone, and a cooling zone so as to provide a continuous hot-pressing operation of a plurality of articles.

  18. Design and fabrication of a meso-scale stirling engine and combustor.

    SciTech Connect

    Echekki, Tarek (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Haroldsen, Brent L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Krafcik, Karen L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Morales, Alfredo Martin; Mills, Bernice E.; Liu, Shiling; Lee, Jeremiah C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Karpetis, Adionos N. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Chen, Jacqueline H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ceremuga, Joseph T. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Raber, Thomas N.; Hekmuuaty, Michelle A.

    2005-05-01

    Power sources capable of supplying tens of watts are needed for a wide variety of applications including portable electronics, sensors, micro aerial vehicles, and mini-robotics systems. The utility of these devices is often limited by the energy and power density capabilities of batteries. A small combustion engine using liquid hydrocarbon fuel could potentially increase both power and energy density by an order of magnitude or more. This report describes initial development work on a meso-scale external combustion engine based on the Stirling cycle. Although other engine designs perform better at macro-scales, we believe the Stirling engine cycle is better suited to small-scale applications. The ideal Stirling cycle requires efficient heat transfer. Consequently, unlike other thermodynamic cycles, the high heat transfer rates that are inherent with miniature devices are an advantage for the Stirling cycle. Furthermore, since the Stirling engine uses external combustion, the combustor and engine can be scaled and optimized semi-independently. Continuous combustion minimizes issues with flame initiation and propagation. It also allows consideration of a variety of techniques to promote combustion that would be difficult in a miniature internal combustion engine. The project included design and fabrication of both the engine and the combustor. Two engine designs were developed. The first used a cylindrical piston design fabricated with conventional machining processes. The second design, based on the Wankel rotor geometry, was fabricated by through-mold electroforming of nickel in SU8 and LIGA micromolds. These technologies provided the requisite precision and tight tolerances needed for efficient micro-engine operation. Electroformed nickel is ideal for micro-engine applications because of its high strength and ductility. A rotary geometry was chosen because its planar geometry was more compatible with the fabrication process. SU8 lithography provided rapid

  19. Numerical Analysis and Optimization of the Ultra Compact Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Armstrong, Jason M, “Effect of Equivalence Ratio on G-Loading on In-situ Mea- surements of Chemiluminescence in an Ultra Compact Combustor,” M.S. thesis...S., “Experimental and Computational Study of Trapped Vortex Combustor Sector Rig with Tri-Pass Diffuser,” NASA/TM–2004-212507, Jan 2004. 10. Heywood

  20. Variable volume combustor with nested fuel manifold system

    SciTech Connect

    McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-13

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles, a fuel manifold system in communication with the micro-mixer fuel nozzles to deliver a flow of fuel thereto, and a linear actuator to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles and the fuel manifold system.

  1. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Joel Meier; Mosbacher, David Matthew; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  2. Combustor technology for future small gas turbine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Niedzwiecki, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    To enhance fuel efficiency, future advanced small gas turbine engines will utilize engine cycles calling for overall engine pressure ratios, leading to higher combustor inlet pressures and temperatures. Further, the temperature rise through the combustor and the corresponding exit temperature are also expected to increase. This report describes future combustor technology needs for small gas turbine engines. New fuel injectors with large turndown ratios which produce uniform circumferential and radial temperature patterns will be required. Uniform burning will be of greater importance because hot gas temperatures will approach turbine material limits. The higher combustion temperatures and increased radiation at high pressures will put a greater heat load on the combustor liners. At the same time, less cooling air will be available as more of the air will be used for combustion. Thus, improved cooling concepts and/or materials requiring little or no direct cooling will be required. Although presently there are no requirements for emissions levels from small gas turbine engines, regulation is anticipated in the near future. This will require the development of low emission combustors. In particular, nitrogen oxides will increase substantially if new technologies limiting their formation are not evolved and implemented. For example, staged combustion employing lean, premixed/prevaporized, lean direct injection, or rich burn-quick quench-lean burn concepts could replace conventional single stage combustors. Due to combustor size considerations, staged combustion is more easily accommodated in large engines. The inclusion of staged combustion in small engines will pose greater combustor design challenges.

  3. Preliminary Investigation of Combustion of Diborane in a Turbojet Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Warner B; Gibbs, James B; Branstetter, J Robert

    1957-01-01

    Boron and its hydrides offer increased flight range relative to conventional fuels for turbojet engines. Preliminary evaluation has been made of the combustion characteristics and deposition problems resulting from burning diborone in a single, modified J33 combustor. A combustor relatively free of deposits for the limited test conditions has been developed. Three possible methods of alleviating deposits on the turbine blades are reported.

  4. Noise addendum experimental clean combustor program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofrin, T. G.; Ross, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The development of advanced CTOL aircraft engines with reduced exhaust emissions is discussed. Combustor noise information provided during the basic emissions program and used to advantage in securing reduced levels of combustion noise is included. Results are presented of internal pressure transducer measurements made during the scheduled emissions test program on ten configurations involving variations of three basic combustor designs.

  5. Serial cooling of a combustor for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Abreu, Mario E.; Kielczyk, Janusz J.

    2001-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine engine uses compressed air to cool a combustor liner and uses at least a portion of the same compressed air for combustion air. A flow diverting mechanism regulates compressed air flow entering a combustion air plenum feeding combustion air to a plurality of fuel nozzles. The flow diverting mechanism adjusts combustion air according to engine loading.

  6. Premixing and flash vaporization in a two-stage combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoblom, B.G.A.

    1982-01-01

    A double recirculation zone two-stage combustor fitted with airblast atomizers has been investigated in a previous work. This paper describes further tests with premixing tubes in the secondary combustion zone. Flash vaporization was employed to ensure complete vaporization of the secondary fuel, which was heated to 600K by the combustor inlet air. 9 refs.

  7. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  8. Integrated assessment of brick kiln emission impacts on air quality.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoang Anh; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents monitoring results of daily brick kiln stack emission and the derived emission factors. Emission of individual air pollutant varied significantly during a firing batch (7 days) and between kilns. Average emission factors per 1,000 bricks were 6.35-12.3 kg of CO, 0.52-5.9 kg of SO(2) and 0.64-1.4 kg of particulate matter (PM). PM emission size distribution in the stack plume was determined using a modified cascade impactor. Obtained emission factors and PM size distribution data were used in simulation study using the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) dispersion model. The model performance was successfully evaluated for the local conditions using the simultaneous ambient monitoring data in 2006 and 2007. SO(2) was the most critical pollutant, exceeding the hourly National Ambient Air Quality Standards over 63 km(2) out of the 100-km(2) modelled domain in the base case. Impacts of different emission scenarios on the ambient air quality (SO(2), PM, CO, PM dry deposition flux) were assessed.

  9. Acceptable approaches for beneficial use of cement kiln dust

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.J.; Smeenk, S.D.

    1998-12-31

    One beneficial use of cement kiln dust (CKD) is application of CKD to cropland as agricultural lime or fertilizer. However, the EPA has expressed a concern over land application of CKD when the metals constituents in the CKD are above the industry-wide median levels presented in EPA`s Report to Congress on Cement Kiln Dust. Under the Clean Water Act, EPA has established limits for metals concentrations in sewage sludge that is applied to the land for beneficial use of the nitrogen in the sludge. The limits for land application of sewage sludge were established based on the results of exposure risk assessments. A comparison of the median industry-wide metals concentrations in CKD to the metals concentration limits for land application of sewage sludge indicates that all trace metal concentrations IN CKD are below the corresponding sewage sludge land application limit, with the exception of the median level of arsenic from one data set. EPA has determined that land application of CKD with metals concentration limits at or below the industry-wide median concentrations does not pose a significant human cancer or non-cancer health risk. Therefore, with appropriate limits, CKD can be beneficially reused for land application on agricultural land in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment.

  10. Improvements of gas-fired kiln by use of a microcomputer control system for the porcelain manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Loong, H.; Liang, C.C.; Tseng, K.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of microcomputer control system to gas-fired kiln not only enhanced the porcelain kiln's productivity from 75% to 95% but also saved its operation cost around US$ 200,000 per year. The self-designed microcomputer control system can simultaneous set and control the firing conditions of the period kiln which was built up in our laboratory. Our period kiln having volume of 4 M/sup 3/ was insulated by ceramic fiber which is different from use of refractory in traditional kilns. At the bottom of the kiln is an off-gas tunnel connected with a chimney. Besides the auto start-up and continuous operation of kiln, the main functions of this microcomputer control system are summarized.

  11. Coal gasification: New challenge for the Beaumont rotary feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of rotary feeders in the coal gasification process is described with emphasis on the efficient conversion of coal to clean gaseous fuels. Commercial applications of the rotary feeder system are summarized.

  12. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  13. Active Control of Combustor Instability Shown to Help Lower Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2002-01-01

    In a quest to reduce the environmental impact of aerospace propulsion systems, extensive research is being done in the development of lean-burning (low fuel-to-air ratio) combustors that can reduce emissions throughout the mission cycle. However, these lean-burning combustors have an increased susceptibility to thermoacoustic instabilities, or high-pressure oscillations much like sound waves, that can cause severe high-frequency vibrations in the combustor. These pressure waves can fatigue the combustor components and even the downstream turbine blades. This can significantly decrease the safe operating life of the combustor and turbine. Thus, suppression of the thermoacoustic combustor instabilities is an enabling technology for lean, low-emissions combustors. Under the Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base Research and Technology Program, the NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with Pratt & Whitney and United Technologies Research Center, is developing technologies for the active control of combustion instabilities. With active combustion control, the fuel is pulsed to put pressure oscillations into the system. This cancels out the pressure oscillations being produced by the instabilities. Thus, the engine can have lower pollutant emissions and long life.The use of active combustion instability control to reduce thermo-acoustic-driven combustor pressure oscillations was demonstrated on a single-nozzle combustor rig at United Technologies. This rig has many of the complexities of a real engine combustor (i.e., an actual fuel nozzle and swirler, dilution cooling, etc.). Control was demonstrated through modeling, developing, and testing a fuel-delivery system able to the 280-Hz instability frequency. The preceding figure shows the capability of this system to provide high-frequency fuel modulations. Because of the high-shear contrarotating airflow in the fuel injector, there was some concern that the fuel pulses would be attenuated to the point where they would

  14. Critical Propulsion Components. Volume 2; Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that a supersonic aircraft, if environmentally acceptable and economically viable, could successfully compete in the 21st century marketplace. However, before industry can commit to what is estimated as a 15 to 20 billion dollar investment, several barrier issues must be resolved. In an effort to address these barrier issues, NASA and Industry teamed to form the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. As part of this program, the Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) element was created and assigned the task of developing those propulsion component technologies necessary to: (1) reduce cruise emissions by a factor of 10 and (2) meet the ever-increasing airport noise restrictions with an economically viable propulsion system. The CPC-identified critical components were ultra-low emission combustors, low-noise/high-performance exhaust nozzles, low-noise fans, and stable/high-performance inlets. Propulsion cycle studies (coordinated with NASA Langley Research Center sponsored airplane studies) were conducted throughout this CPC program to help evaluate candidate components and select the best concepts for the more complex and larger scale research efforts. The propulsion cycle and components ultimately selected were a mixed-flow turbofan (MFTF) engine employing a lean, premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor coupled to a two-dimensional mixed compression inlet and a two-dimensional mixer/ejector nozzle. Due to the large amount of material presented in this report, it was prepared in four volumes; Volume 1: Summary, Introduction, and Team. Propulsion System Studies, Volume 2: Combustor, Volume 3: Exhaust Nozzle, and Volume 4: Inlet and Fan/Inlet Acoustic Team.

  15. Pulse Combustor Design, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-07-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Pulse Combustor Design Qualification Test, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Pulse combustion is a method intended to increase the heat-transfer rate in a fired heater. The desire to demonstrate the use of pulse combustion as a source of heat for the gasification of coal, thus avoiding the need for an oxygen plant, prompted ThermoChem, Inc. (TCI), to submit a proposal for this project. In October 1992, TCI entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. In 1998, the project was restructured and scaled down, and in September 1998, a new cooperative agreement was signed. The site of the revised project was TCI's facilities in Baltimore, Maryland. The original purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate a unit that would employ ten identical 253-resonance tube combustors in a coal gasification unit. The objective of the scaled-down project was to test a single 253-resonance-tube combustor in a fluidized sand bed, with gasification being studied in a process development unit (PDU). DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding of $8.6 million. The design for the demonstration unit was completed in February 1999, and construction was completed in November 2000. Operations were conducted in March 2001.

  16. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Srinivasan, Shiva; York, William David

    2016-11-29

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes an end cap that extends radially across the combustor and includes an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface. A combustion chamber is downstream of the end cap, and tubes extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface. Each tube provides fluid communication through the end cap to the combustion chamber. The system further includes means for reducing combustion dynamics in the combustor. A method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes flowing a working fluid through tubes that extend axially through an end cap that extends radially across the combustor and obstructing at least a portion of the working fluid flowing through a first set of the tubes.

  17. L-star pulsed coal combustor for residential space heating

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This quarter, substantial improvement in the coal carbon conversion was achieved. Specifically, for a scaled-down version of the residential combustor, coal carbon conversions exceeding 97 percent were realized, when utilizing methane as carrier gas for the coal. Design changes include insulation of the combustor, introduction of a flame holder, combustion air preheat and presence of an obstructing plate at the combustor exhaust port. Only the first two changes contributed towards substantial improvement in coal conversion. In addition, monitoring of CH{sub 4} concentration in the exhaust gases gave a real time indication of the combustor performance. Finally, the results of experiments performed in this quarter contributed to design changes that have led to a combustor that has achieved the program goal of > 99 percent conversion of coal carbon. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Experimental evaluation of combustor concepts for burning broad property fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, J. M.; Ekstedt, E. E.; Dodds, W. J.; Shayeson, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    A baseline CF6-50 combustor and three advanced combustor designs were evaluated to determine the effects of combustor design on operational characteristics using broad property fuels. Three fuels were used in each test: Jet A, a broad property 13% hydrogen fuel, and a 12% hydrogen fuel blend. Testing was performed in a sector rig at true cruise and simulated takeoff conditions for the CF6-50 engine cycle. The advanced combustors (all double annular, lean dome designs) generally exhibited lower metal temperatures, exhaust emissions, and carbon buildup than the baseline CF6-50 combustor. The sensitivities of emissions and metal temperatures to fuel hydrogen content were also generally lower for the advanced designs. The most promising advanced design used premixing tubes in the main stage. This design was chosen for additional testing in which fuel/air ratio, reference velocity, and fuel flow split were varied.

  19. Energy efficient engine sector combustor rig test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubiel, D. J.; Greene, W.; Sundt, C. V.; Tanrikut, S.; Zeisser, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine program, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft has successfully completed a comprehensive combustor rig test using a 90-degree sector of an advanced two-stage combustor with a segmented liner. Initial testing utilized a combustor with a conventional louvered liner and demonstrated that the Energy Efficient Engine two-stage combustor configuration is a viable system for controlling exhaust emissions, with the capability to meet all aerothermal performance goals. Goals for both carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were surpassed and the goal for oxides of nitrogen was closely approached. In another series of tests, an advanced segmented liner configuration with a unique counter-parallel FINWALL cooling system was evaluated at engine sea level takeoff pressure and temperature levels. These tests verified the structural integrity of this liner design. Overall, the results from the program have provided a high level of confidence to proceed with the scheduled Combustor Component Rig Test Program.

  20. Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Mowery, Kenneth D.; Ripley, Eugene V.

    2001-01-01

    A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.

  1. A bistable electromagnetically actuated rotary gate microvalve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luharuka, Rajesh; Hesketh, Peter J.

    2008-03-01

    Two types of rotary gate microvalves are developed for flow modulation in microfluidic systems. These microvalves have been tested for an open flow rate of up to 100 sccm and operate under a differential pressure of 6 psig with flow modulation of up to 100. The microvalve consists of a suspended gate that rotates in the plane of the chip to regulate flow through the orifice. The gate is suspended by a novel fully compliant in-plane rotary bistable micromechanism (IPRBM) that advantageously constrains the gate in all degrees of freedom except for in-plane rotational motion. Multiple inlet/outlet orifices provide flexibility of operating the microvalve in three different flow configurations. The rotary gate microvalve is switched with an external electromagnetic actuator. The suspended gate is made of a soft magnetic material and its electromagnetic actuation is based on the operating principle of a variable-reluctance stepper motor.

  2. Effect of brick kiln emissions on commonly used vegetables of Kashmir Valley.

    PubMed

    Skinder, Bhat M; Sheikh, Afeefa Q; Pandit, Ashok K; Ganai, Bashir A; Kuchy, Aashiq H

    2015-11-01

    To study the impact of brick kiln emissions on plant growth and productivity, a study was conducted on various biochemical parameters of three main vegetables Brassica oleracea L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Solanum melongena L. cultivated in the vicinity of the brick kiln area of the Panzan village of district Budgam (J&K). Plants in the vicinity of brick kilns are direct recipients of emissions and therefore important materials for assessing potential effects of kiln pollutants. The biochemical values of all the three vegetables of the brick kiln site when compared to the control site are significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different. The findings of the present work depict that the brick kilns are the prime reason for the deterioration of important consumable vegetables, which could lead to chaos in the food security of the area in concern besides a threat to local people in terms of health if proper pollution control devices or the replacement of brick kilns are not put in place with new technology.

  3. Combined fluidized bed retort and combustor

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Notestein, John E.; Mei, Joseph S.; Zeng, Li-Wen

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.

  4. High pressure combustor for generating steam downhole

    SciTech Connect

    Retallick, W.B.

    1983-08-09

    A catalytic combustor for generating a mixture of steam and combustion gas is located downhole in oil well, so that the gas mixture can be injected directly into the oil reservoir to displace heavy oils from the reservoir. There can be a single stage of catalytic combustion, or there can be a stage of thermal combustion followed by a catalytic stage. In either case the purpose of the catalyst is drive the combustion to completion so that the gas mixture contains no soot that would plug the reservoir.

  5. Radial inlet guide vanes for a combustor

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Simons, Derrick; York, William; Ziminsky, Willy S

    2013-02-12

    A combustor may include an interior flow path therethrough, a number of fuel nozzles in communication with the interior flow path, and an inlet guide vane system positioned about the interior flow path to create a swirled flow therein. The inlet guide vane system may include a number of windows positioned circumferentially around the fuel nozzles. The inlet guide vane system may also include a number of inlet guide vanes positioned circumferentially around the fuel nozzles and adjacent to the windows to create a swirled flow within the interior flow path.

  6. Testing and Characterization of CMC Combustor Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Verrilli, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple combustor liner applications, both segmented and fully annular designs, have been configured for exposure in NASA's High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR). The segmented liners were attached to the rig structure with SiC/SiC fasteners and exposed to simulated gas turbine conditions for nearly 200 hours. Test conditions included pressures of 6 atm., gas velocity of 42 m/s, and gas temperatures near 1450 C. The temperatures of both the cooled and combustion flow sides of the liners were measured using optical and contact measurement techniques. Minor weight loss was observed, but the liners remained structural sound, although damage was noted in some fasteners.

  7. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  8. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  10. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  12. Methods and apparatus for controlling rotary machines

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Barnes, Gary R.; Fric, Thomas Frank; Lyons, James Patrick Francis; Pierce, Kirk Gee; Holley, William Edwin; Barbu, Corneliu

    2009-09-01

    A control system for a rotary machine is provided. The rotary machine has at least one rotating member and at least one substantially stationary member positioned such that a clearance gap is defined between a portion of the rotating member and a portion of the substantially stationary member. The control system includes at least one clearance gap dimension measurement apparatus and at least one clearance gap adjustment assembly. The adjustment assembly is coupled in electronic data communication with the measurement apparatus. The control system is configured to process a clearance gap dimension signal and modulate the clearance gap dimension.

  13. Stratified charge rotary engine for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, R. E.; Parente, A. M.; Hady, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    A development history, a current development status assessment, and a design feature and performance capabilities account are given for stratified-charge rotary engines applicable to aircraft propulsion. Such engines are capable of operating on Jet-A fuel with substantial cost savings, improved altitude capability, and lower fuel consumption by comparison with gas turbine powerplants. Attention is given to the current development program of a 400-hp engine scheduled for initial operations in early 1990. Stratified charge rotary engines are also applicable to ground power units, airborne APUs, shipboard generators, and vehicular engines.

  14. Drying firewood in a temporary solar kiln: a case study. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, G.R.; Gasbarro, A.F.

    1986-08-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to determine drying rates for small-diameter, unsplit paper birch firewood that was dried: (1) in a conventional top-covered pile; (2) in a simple, temporary solar kiln; and (3) in tree length. Drying rates were the same for firewood piles whether they were in the temporary kiln or only covered on top to keep rain or snow from entering the pile. Trees that were severed at the stump and left to dry in tree length form, complete with branches and leaves, however, dried slower than firewood cut to length, stacked and top-covered or placed in the temporary solar kiln.

  15. Substitution of oil by hogged fuel in a kraft process lime sludge kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, I.G.

    1984-02-01

    Hogged fuel, typically at 55% moisture content, was combusted in a wet-cell burner and the flue gases applied to a lime sludge kiln. Up to 78% oil substitution was achieved, consistent with satisfactory lime quality and availability. Specific energy consumption was high because heat transfer was less efficient. Computer simulation techniques were used to develop parameter profiles throughout the kiln and to predict optimal performance. Optimized kiln conversion was shown to be economically advantageous if hogged fuel is available for $7.00 per cubic meter or less, assuming an oil price of $30/bbl ($0.189/l).

  16. Laser-Induced Fluorescence and Synthetic Jet Fuel Analysis in the Ultra Compact Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    flame temperatures, emissions and other characteristics. 6 II. Theory and Previous Research II.1 Standard Gas Turbine Engine Combustor A...losses occur in standard combustors resulting in decreased efficiencies and increased emissions . Combustors create heat and entropy (S) in the...and lowering of the amount of harmful emissions produced. Conventional combustor designs are limited by the fact that combustion reactions require

  17. ULTRA-LOW NOX ADVANCED VORTEX COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan G. Edmonds; Robert C. Steele; Joseph T. Williams; Douglas L. Straub; Kent H. Casleton; Avtar Bining

    2006-05-01

    An ultra lean-premixed Advanced Vortex Combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE NETL) test facility in Morgantown (WV). All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx/CO/UHC emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions are at 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated tremendous acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean premixed combustion approaches. In addition, a pressure drop of 1.75% was measured which is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors. Potentially, this lower pressure drop characteristic of the AVC concept translates into overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvements of up to one full percentage point. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drops achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.

  18. Ultra-Low NOx Advanced Vortex Combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, R.G.; Steele, R.C.; Williams, J.T.; Straub, D.L.; Casleton, K.H.; Bining, Avtar

    2006-05-01

    An ultra lean-premixed Advanced Vortex Combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE NETL) test facility in Morgantown (WV). All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx/CO/UHC emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions are at 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated tremendous acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean premixed combustion approaches. In addition, a pressure drop of 1.75% was measured which is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors. Potentially, this lower pressure drop characteristic of the AVC concept translates into overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvements of up to one full percentage point. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drops achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.

  19. Error Reduction Program. [combustor performance evaluation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, S. A.; Chiappetta, L. M.; Gosman, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The details of a study to select, incorporate and evaluate the best available finite difference scheme to reduce numerical error in combustor performance evaluation codes are described. The combustor performance computer programs chosen were the two dimensional and three dimensional versions of Pratt & Whitney's TEACH code. The criteria used to select schemes required that the difference equations mirror the properties of the governing differential equation, be more accurate than the current hybrid difference scheme, be stable and economical, be compatible with TEACH codes, use only modest amounts of additional storage, and be relatively simple. The methods of assessment used in the selection process consisted of examination of the difference equation, evaluation of the properties of the coefficient matrix, Taylor series analysis, and performance on model problems. Five schemes from the literature and three schemes developed during the course of the study were evaluated. This effort resulted in the incorporation of a scheme in 3D-TEACH which is usuallly more accurate than the hybrid differencing method and never less accurate.

  20. Wave combustors for trans-atmospheric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, Gene P.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Adelman, Henry G.; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1989-01-01

    A performance analysis is given of a conceptual transatmospheric vehicle (TAV). The TAV is powered by a an oblique detonation wave engine (ODWE). The ODWE is an airbreathing hypersonic propulsion system which utilizes shock and detonation waves to enhance fuel-air mixing and combustion in supersonic flow. In this wave combustor concept, an oblique shock wave in the combustor can act as a flameholder by increasing the pressure and temperature of the air-fuel mixture, thereby decreasing the ignition delay. If the oblique shock is sufficiently strong, then the combustion front and the shock wave can couple into a detonation wave. In this case, combustion occurs almost instantaneously in a thin zone behind the wave front. The result is a shorter lighter engine compared to the scramjet. The ODWE-powered hypersonic vehicle performance is compared to that of a scramjet-powered vehicle. Among the results outlined, it is found that the ODWE trades a better engine performance above Mach 15 for a lower performance below Mach 15. The overall higher performance of the ODWE results in a 51,000-lb weight savings and a higher payload weight fraction of approximately 12 percent.

  1. Investigation of combustion instability in ramjet combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    This research is concerned with investigation of the mechanisms responsible for the driving of longitudinal instabilities in dump-type ramjet combustors. In particular, the coupling between the core flame which is stabilized at the entrance of the combustor and the longitudinal acoustic field was studied. The time-dependent structure of premixed V-shaped flames was experimentally examined using pressure measurements, space- and time-resolved C-H radical radiation measurements, high-speed shadow cine photography, and laser-Doppler velocimetry. The investigation revealed that the acoustic energy to sustain the instability is mainly supplied by the oscillatory heat release from the flame. Based on this finding, a model was developed that is capable of predicting the acoustic pressure spectrum from measured heat-release rates. Furthermore, it was shown that the periodic heat-release rates largely result from periodic changes in the flame surface area caused by acoustically triggered symmetric vortex shedding in the wake of the flame holders. Lastly, experiments were conducted that used this mechanism to show the suppression of instabilities at the fundamental acoustic mode by staggering multiple flames so that the unsteady heat release fields destructively interfere with one another.

  2. Low NO.sub.x multistage combustor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Breault, Ronald W.; Litka, Anthony F.; McClaine, Andrew W.; Shukla, Kailash

    2000-01-01

    A high efficiency, Vortex Inertial Staged Air (VIStA) combustor provides ultra-low NO.sub.X production of about 20 ppmvd or less with CO emissions of less than 50 ppmvd, both at 3% O.sub.2. Prompt NO.sub.X production is reduced by partially reforming the fuel in a first combustion stage to CO and H.sub.2. This is achieved in the first stage by operating with a fuel rich mixture, and by recirculating partially oxidized combustion products, with control over stoichiometry, recirculation rate and residence time. Thermal NO.sub.X production is reduced in the first stage by reducing the occurrence of high temperature combustion gas regions. This is achieved by providing the first stage burner with a thoroughly pre-mixed fuel/oxidant composition, and by recirculating part of the combustion products to further mix the gases and provide a more uniform temperature in the first stage. In a second stage combustor thermal NO.sub.X production is controlled by inducing a large flow of flue gas recirculation in the second stage combustion zone to minimize the ultimate temperature of the flame. One or both of the first and second stage burners can be cooled to further reduce the combustion temperature and to improve the recirculation efficiency. Both of these factors tend to reduce production of NO.sub.X.

  3. Combustor Computations for CO2-Neutral Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C.; Huber, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Knowing the pure component C(sub p)(sup 0) or mixture C(sub p) (sup 0) as computed by a flexible code such as NIST-STRAPP or McBride-Gordon, one can, within reasonable accuracy, determine the thermophysical properties necessary to predict the combustion characteristics when there are no tabulated or computed data for those fluid mixtures 3or limited results for lower temperatures. (Note: C(sub p) (sup 0) is molar heat capacity at constant pressure.) The method can be used in the determination of synthetic and biological fuels and blends using the NIST code to compute the C(sub p) (sup 0) of the mixture. In this work, the values of the heat capacity were set at zero pressure, which provided the basis for integration to determine the required combustor properties from the injector to the combustor exit plane. The McBride-Gordon code was used to determine the heat capacity at zero pressure over a wide range of temperatures (room to 6,000 K). The selected fluids were Jet-A, 224TMP (octane), and C12. It was found that each heat capacity loci were form-similar. It was then determined that the results [near 400 to 3,000 K] could be represented to within acceptable engineering accuracy with the simplified equation C(sub p) (sup 0) = A/T + B, where A and B are fluid-dependent constants and T is temperature (K).

  4. Emission characteristics of a liquid spray sudden expansion combustor using computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Daniel

    A sudden expansion combustor (SUE) is analyzed using computation fluid dynamics (CFD). CO emissions and NOx emissions are computed for various operating conditions of the SUE combustor using a can type and an annular type geometrical configurations. The goal of this thesis is to see if the SUE combustor is a viable alternative to conventional combustors which utilize swirlers. It is found that for the can type combustor the NO x emissions were quite low compared to other combustor types but the CO emissions were fairly high. The annular combustor shows better CO emissions compared to the can type, but the CO emissions are still high compared to other combustors. Emissions can be improved by providing better mixing in the primary combustion zone. The SUE combustor design needs to be further refined in order for it to be a viable alternative to conventional combustors with swirlers.

  5. Combustor technology for future small gas turbine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Niedzwiecki, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Future engine cycles proposed for advanced small gas turbine engines will increase the severity of the operating conditions of the combustor. These cycles call for increased overall engine pressure ratios which increase combustor inlet pressure and temperature. Further, the temperature rise through the combustor and the corresponding exit temperature also increase. Future combustor technology needs for small gas turbine engines is described. New fuel injectors with large turndown ratios which produce uniform circumferential and radial temperature patterns will be required. Uniform burning will be of greater importance because hot gas temperatures will approach turbine material limits. The higher combustion temperatures and increased radiation at high pressures will put a greater heat load on the combustor liners. At the same time, less cooling air will be available as more of the air will be used for combustion. Thus, improved cooling concepts and/or materials requiring little or no direct cooling will be required. Although presently there are no requirements for emissions levels from small gas turbine engines, regulation is expected in the near future. This will require the development of low emission combustors. In particular, nitrogen oxides will increase substantially if new technologies limiting their formation are not evolved and implemented. For example, staged combustion employing lean, premixed/prevaporized, lean direct injection, or rich burn-quick quench-lean burn concepts could replace conventional single stage combustors.

  6. Preliminary investigation of a two-zone swirl flow combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaglow, J. A.; Johnson, S. M.; Smith, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of full-annular swirling-flow on a flow-zone combustor design is investigated. Swirl flow angles of 25, 35, and 45 degrees were investigated in a combustor design envelope typical of those used in modern engines. The two-zone combustor had 24 pilot-zone fuel injectors and 24 main-fuel injectors located in the centerbody between the pilot and swirl passage. Combustor performance was determined at idle, and two parametric 589 K inlet temperature conditions. Combustor performance was highest with the 45 degree swirl vane design; at the idle condition, combustion efficiency was 99.5 percent. The 45 degree swirl vane also produced the lowest pattern factor of the three angles and showed a combustor lean blowout limit below a 0.001 fuel-air ratio. Combustor total pressure drop varied from a low of 4.6 percent for the 25 degree swirl to a high of 4.9 percent for the 45 degree swirl.

  7. Rotary machine having back to back turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgy, N. Frank (Inventor); Palgon, Alfred M. (Inventor); Branstrom, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A rotary machine having a pair of back to back turbines in serial flow relationship is disclosed. Various construction details are developed which permit for a compact design. In one detailed embodiment the turbine has a housing having an inlet manifold and an exit manifold which are disposed between the outlet manifold for an associated turbopump.

  8. Deformation analysis of rotary combustion engine housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilmann, Carl

    1991-01-01

    This analysis of the deformation of rotary combustion engine housings targeted the following objectives: (1) the development and verification of a finite element model of the trochoid housing, (2) the prediction of the stress and deformation fields present within the trochoid housing during operating conditions, and (3) the development of a specialized preprocessor which would shorten the time necessary for mesh generation of a trochoid housing's FEM model from roughly one month to approximately two man hours. Executable finite element models were developed for both the Mazda and the Outboard Marine Corporation trochoid housings. It was also demonstrated that a preprocessor which would hasten the generation of finite element models of a rotary engine was possible to develop. The above objectives are treated in detail in the attached appendices. The first deals with finite element modeling of a Wankel engine center housing, and the second with the development of a preprocessor that generates finite element models of rotary combustion engine center housings. A computer program, designed to generate finite element models of user defined rotary combustion engine center housing geometries, is also included.

  9. 21 CFR 872.4840 - Rotary scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rotary scaler. 872.4840 Section 872.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy. (b) Classification. Class II....

  10. Automated Welding of Rotary Forge Hammers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    NUMBER OF PAGES Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) Welding. Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding, 34 Metal Powder, Rotary Forge Hammers. Hardfacing 16. PRICE CODE 17...filled with required hardfacing materials ............................................... 26 8. Top and side schematic views, respectively, of forging...superalloy hardfacing deposit. In addition to the hardfacing layer, an underlying layer of buffer material must first be deposited to minimize cracking

  11. Benefits of the rotary diaphragm pump.

    PubMed

    Borstell, D

    2005-03-01

    The huge variety of applications in the medical field represents a challenge for the design of miniature pumps. There are well-known designs such as piston pumps, eccenter diaphragm pumps and peristaltic pumps. There are lesser-known types such as the rotary diaphragm pump, the subject of this article. Its design features, variants, and advantages and disadvantages are examined.

  12. 21 CFR 872.4840 - Rotary scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rotary scaler. 872.4840 Section 872.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... abrasive device intended to be attached to a powered handpiece to remove calculus deposits from...

  13. 21 CFR 872.4840 - Rotary scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rotary scaler. 872.4840 Section 872.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... abrasive device intended to be attached to a powered handpiece to remove calculus deposits from...

  14. 21 CFR 872.4840 - Rotary scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rotary scaler. 872.4840 Section 872.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... abrasive device intended to be attached to a powered handpiece to remove calculus deposits from...

  15. 21 CFR 872.4840 - Rotary scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rotary scaler. 872.4840 Section 872.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... abrasive device intended to be attached to a powered handpiece to remove calculus deposits from...

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Waste Tires Utilization in Cement Kilns.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Michèle; Cernuschi, Stefano; Ghezzi, Umberto; Grosso, Mario

    1999-12-01

    The present work outlines the main results of a full-scale study conducted on the utilization of waste tires as auxiliary fuel in cement production. Experimental tests were conducted for determining the influence of shredded tires on combustion conditions, emissions produced, and the characteristics of clinker obtained, for feeding ratios over 35% in terms of total heat input. The addition of tire chips did not lead to any appreciable modification in either the whole process or the quality of clinker produced; gaseous emissions were mostly unaffected, with significant improvements related to the reductions obtained in nitrogen and sulfur oxides concentrations. Experimental findings from tests conducted with tire chips exposed to kiln combustion flue gases compare favorably with the typical burnout times derived from theoretical approaches. These experimental data and calculations to estimate particle trajectories beyond the injection point, through proper theoretical analysis of the kinetic behavior, result in important indications for the shredding operation and for optimum injection modes.

  17. Solidification of cement kiln dust using sulfur binder.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Abdel-Mohsen O; El Gamal, Maisa M

    2011-08-30

    The present study aims to offer a new methodology for consuming two industrial wastes; sulfur, from petroleum and natural gas industries, and cement kiln dust (CKD), from Portland cement industries, in construction industry. Sulfur solidified cement kiln dust material (SSCKDM) was manufactured by mixing molten sulfur, treated sulfur, CKD and sand at a controlled temperature in excess of 120°C. The hot mixture was subsequently cast and shaped into the desired mold and was then allowed to solidify at a specified cooling rate. Solidified materials were immersed for time periods up to 28 days in distilled water at different temperatures of 25 and 60°C, sea water, and acidic and basic universal buffer solutions of pH4 and pH9, respectively. Solidified material performance as function of time and type of aqueous solution exposed to was evaluated in view of compressive strength variations and leachability of metal and heavy metal ions. The results indicated that the solidified articles exhibit homogenous and compact internal microstructure with excellent mechanical properties. However, it showed durability problem upon exposure to aqueous solution environments due to the initial chemical composition of the CKD, whose leached test showed release of relatively high amounts of sulfates and alkali metals. Durability of SSCKDM articles in relation to strength reduction and crack formations control was improved by addition of glass fiber while, the use of anti-leaching agent such as anhydrous sodium sulfide resulted in reduction of leached heavy metals without any measurable decrease in leached amounts of alkali metals and anions from the solidified matrix. Furthermore, based on leachability index method of calculation, potential chemical mobility of metal and heavy metal ions from the solidified matrix was characterized as medium.

  18. Insulation performance data and assessment procedures for steam kiln energy conservation investments

    SciTech Connect

    Zaccor, J.V.

    1980-09-01

    For a demonstration project, the costs and benefits of insulating concrete block curing kilns to isolate the kiln thermal mass from the curing cycle are determined. Data were developed on service life of FOAMGLAS insulation, the effect of Johnson burners on the insulation and mounting, performance of an alternative insulation (a rapidly installed, spray-on polyurethane foam), and a simple incentive to promote implementation of industrial energy conservation concepts. Data are tabulated and compared for the FOAMGLAS and CPR 480 polyurethane insulations. Specific studies of insulation that was installed on inside surfaces of kilns to lock the kiln-mass out of the curing cycle are given for Blocklite plant in California, the Ameron pipe plant in California, and the Superlite plant in Phoenix, Arizona. (MCW)

  19. Combustion efficiency and hydrocarbon emissions from charcoal production kilns in the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.E.; Hao, W.M.; Babbitt, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Charcoal is one of the major energy resources in tropical countries. We investigate the combustion processes in charcoal production kilns in Zambia and Brazil. The Zambian kilns were made of earth and there was sufficient air for combustion inside the kilns. The Brazilian kilns were made of bricks which limited the available oxygen. The combustion efficiency and the concentrations of CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}-C{sub 6} alkanes and alkenes, and aromatic compounds produced were monitored throughout the combustion processes. The contributions of charcoal production processes to the atmospheric sources of these gases were estimated. The strategies for improving charcoal yield and reducing emissions of carbon-containing compounds are discussed.

  20. Achieving improved cycle efficiency via pressure gain combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmen, R.S.; Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Norton, T.S.; Rogers, W.A.

    1995-04-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, an investigation is being performed to evaluate ``pressure gain`` combustion systems for gas turbine applications. This paper presents experimental pressure gain and pollutant emission data from such combustion systems. Numerical predictions for certain combustor geometries are also presented. It is reported that for suitable aerovalved pulse combustor geometries studied experimentally, an overall combustor pressure gain of nearly 1 percent can be achieved. It is also shown that for one combustion system operating under typical gas turbine conditions, NO{sub x} and CO emmissions, are about 30 ppmv and 8 ppmv, respectively.

  1. Small gas-turbine combustor study: Fuel injector evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a continuing effort at the Lewis Research Center to improve performance, emissions, and reliability of turbine machinery, an investigation of fuel injection technique and effect of fuel type on small gas turbine combustors was undertaken. Performance and pollutant emission levels are documented over a range of simulated flight conditions for a reverse flow combustor configuration using simplex pressure-atomizing, spill-flow return, and splash cone airblast injectors. A parametric evaluation of the effect of increased combustor loading with each of the fuel injector types was obtained. Jet A and an experimental referee broad specification fuel were used to determine the effect of fuel type.

  2. Ramjet-Mode Operation in a Combined Cycle Engine Combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kanenori; Kudo, Kenji; Murakami, Atsuo; Tani, Kouichiro; Kanda, Takeshi

    A rocket-ramjet combined-cycle engine was tested in ramjet-mode. The combustor model had two rockets in the combustor section. They were used as an igniter in this operation mode. In the preliminary tests, the downstream combustion ramjet-mode was demonstrated with a 1.4-degree of divergent duct condition. In this study, the upstream and downstream combustion ramjet-mode operations were applied to the combined cycle engine model with large angle of divergent duct condition. In the case of upstream combustion ramjet-mode, the combustion condition at the exit of the combustor showed high combustion efficiency.

  3. Systems and methods for detection of blowout precursors in combustors

    DOEpatents

    Lieuwen, Tim C.; Nair, Suraj

    2006-08-15

    The present invention comprises systems and methods for detecting flame blowout precursors in combustors. The blowout precursor detection system comprises a combustor, a pressure measuring device, and blowout precursor detection unit. A combustion controller may also be used to control combustor parameters. The methods of the present invention comprise receiving pressure data measured by an acoustic pressure measuring device, performing one or a combination of spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis on received pressure data, and determining the existence of a blowout precursor based on such analyses. The spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis further comprise their respective sub-methods to determine the existence of blowout precursors.

  4. Exhaust emissions of a double annular combustor: Parametric study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    A full scale double-annular ram-induction combustor designed for Mach 3.0 cruise operation was tested. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and smoke were measured over a range of combustor operating variables including reference velocity, inlet air temperature and pressure, and exit average temperature. ASTM Jet-A fuel was used for these tests. An equation is provided relating oxides of nitrogen emissions as a function of the combustor, operating variables. A small effect of radial fuel staging on reducing exhaust emissions (which were originally quite low) is demonstrated.

  5. Stratified charge rotary engine combustion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, H.; Hamady, F.; Somerton, C.; Stuecken, T.; Chouinard, E.; Rachal, T.; Kosterman, J.; Lambeth, M.; Olbrich, C.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of the combustion process in a stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) continue to be the subject of active research in recent years. Specifically to meet the demand for more sophisticated products, a detailed understanding of the engine system of interest is warranted. With this in mind the objective of this work is to develop an understanding of the controlling factors that affect the SCRE combustion process so that an efficient power dense rotary engine can be designed. The influence of the induction-exhaust systems and the rotor geometry are believed to have a significant effect on combustion chamber flow characteristics. In this report, emphasis is centered on Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements and on qualitative flow visualizations in the combustion chamber of the motored rotary engine assembly. This will provide a basic understanding of the flow process in the RCE and serve as a data base for verification of numerical simulations. Understanding fuel injection provisions is also important to the successful operation of the stratified charge rotary engine. Toward this end, flow visualizations depicting the development of high speed, high pressure fuel jets are described. Friction is an important consideration in an engine from the standpoint of lost work, durability and reliability. MSU Engine Research Laboratory efforts in accessing the frictional losses associated with the rotary engine are described. This includes work which describes losses in bearing, seal and auxillary components. Finally, a computer controlled mapping system under development is described. This system can be used to map shapes such as combustion chamber, intake manifolds or turbine blades accurately.

  6. Detection of hidden pre-industrial charcoal kilns by high-resolution LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Thomas; Raab, Alexandra; Nicolay, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Rösler, Horst; Bönisch, Eberhard

    2013-04-01

    Over the last decade, systematic archaeological excavations in the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (Brandenburg, Germany) have revealed one of the largest, archaeologically excavated pre-industrial charcoal production area in Central Europe. Many of the charcoal kiln relics are easy to detect by survey as they lie close to the surface and charcoal pieces hint on their existence. In the excavations the remains of the charcoal kilns are distinct, black circles in the light-coloured sands. To date, in the former Königlich-Taubendorfer Forst c. 800 remains of charcoal hearths have been excavated and documented by archaeologists in an area of about 20 km2. Further c. 300 charcoal hearths are prospected by survey. Unfortunately, the spatial information about the charcoal kiln sites in Lower Lusatia (and elsewhere) is incomplete since we only have data from the archaeological excavation and prospection in the directly affected mining district. To fill this gap, we decided to test the applicability of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data for charcoal kiln prospection. The particularly improved quality of the recent high-resolution light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data enabled the computer-aided detection of charcoal kilns and their evaluation using a geographical information system (GIS). Following data processing, the charcoal kilns are visible as buttons-like shapes in the shaded-relief maps (SRM). The characteristic shapes arise because the kiln plates are some centimetres to decimetres higher than the ditches around them. Numerous ground checks confirmed the applicability of the prospection by ALS data. But, we also assume that c. 10% of the charcoal kilns remain unidentified. A 26.6 km2 study area in the Tauerscher Forst, a forest about 10 km northwest of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde, was selected for prospection using a 1 m resolution ALS data set from the year 2011. Today, the area is forested with pine, and no archaeological excavation has been carried out so far

  7. Induction time effects in pulse combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J B; Marcus, D L; Pember, R B

    1999-04-09

    Combustion systems that take advantage of a periodic combustion process have many advantages over conventional systems. Their rate of heat transfer is greatly enhanced and their pollutant emissions are lower. They draw in their own supply of fuel and air and they are self-venting. They have few moving parts. The most common type of pulse combustor is based on a Helmholtz resonator - a burning cycle drives a resonant pressure wave, which in turn enhances the rate of combustion, resulting in a self-sustaining, large-scale oscillation. Although the basic physical mechanisms controlling such a process were explained by Rayleigh over a century ago, a full understanding of the operation of a pulse combustor still does not exist. The dominant processes in such a system--combustion, turbulent fluid dynamics, acoustics--are highly coupled and interact nonlinearly, which has reduced the design process to a costly and inefficient trial-and-error procedure. Several recent numerical and experimental studies, however, have been focused towards a better understanding of the basic underlying physics. Barr et al. [l] have elucidated the relative roles of the time scales governing the energy release, the turbulent mixing, and the acoustics. Keller et al. [5] have demonstrated the importance of the phase relation between the resonant pressure field in the tailpipe and the periodic energy release. Marcus et al. [6] have developed the capability for a fully three-dimensional simulation of the reacting flow in a pulse combustor. This paper is an application of that methodology to a detailed investigation of the frequency response of the model to changes in the chemical kinetics. The methodology consists of a fully conservative second-order Godunov algorithm for the inviscid, reacting gas dynamics equations coupled to an adaptive mesh refinement procedure[2]. The axisymmetric and three-dimensional simulations allow us to explore in detail the interaction between the transient fluid

  8. Advanced Low Emissions Subsonic Combustor Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Reid

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in commercial and military aircraft gas turbines have yielded significant improvements in fuel efficiency and thrust-to-weight ratio, due in large part to increased combustor operating pressures and temperatures. However, the higher operating conditions have increased the emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), which is a pollutant with adverse impact on the atmosphere and environment. Since commercial and military aircraft are the only important direct source of NOx emissions at high altitudes, there is a growing consensus that considerably more stringent limits on NOx emissions will be required in the future for all aircraft. In fact, the regulatory communities have recently agreed to reduce NOx limits by 20 percent from current requirements effective in 1996. Further reductions at low altitude, together with introduction of limits on NOx at altitude, are virtual certainties. In addition, the U.S. Government recently conducted hearings on the introduction of federal fees on the local emission of pollutants from all sources, including aircraft. While no action was taken regarding aircraft in this instance, the threat of future action clearly remains. In these times of intense and growing international competition, the U.S. le-ad in aerospace can only be maintained through a clear technological dominance that leads to a product line of maximum value to the global airline customer. Development of a very low NOx combustor will be essential to meet the future needs of both the commercial and military transport markets, if additional economic burdens and/or operational restrictions are to be avoided. In this report, Pratt & Whitney (P&W) presents the study results with the following specific objectives: Development of low-emissions combustor technologies for advances engines that will enter into service circa 2005, while producing a goal of 70 percent lower NOx emissions, compared to 1996 regulatory levels. Identification of solution approaches to

  9. New R-SiC extends service life in kiln furniture

    SciTech Connect

    Sonntag, A.

    1997-11-01

    Silicon carbide kiln furniture systems are an essential part of modern high-temperature technology. SiC ceramics have exceptional high-temperature stability and thermal shock resistance., They show no plastic deformation (creep) under mechanical load and maintain their geometry after each high-temperature cycle. Therefore, various new kiln systems with light and open setting patterns can be realized where more fired goods can be produced with less kiln furniture ballast and within shorter firing cycles. The fast-firing technology of porcelain is an opportunity for new SiC kiln furniture ceramics. The new SiC ceramic systems available include: (1) recrystallized SiC (R-SiC); (2) silicon-infiltrated reaction-bonded SiC (SiSiC); and (3) nitride-bonded SiC (NSiC). The new SiC ceramics have an important production criterion in common. They show practically no shrinkage during production. This is important for the manufacture of large shapes, such as beams, rollers and setter plates, as well as tailored geometries that allow light and open kiln furniture construction. Because of the extraordinarily high thermal shock resistance, high strength and high-temperature creep stability of these SiC ceramics, delicate and precise kiln furniture configurations have been introduced. One application is the fast firing of tableware with automatic setting robots.

  10. Oxy-combustor operable with supercritical fluid

    DOEpatents

    Brun, Klaus; McClung, Aaron M.; Owston, Rebecca A.

    2017-04-04

    An oxy-combustor is provided which comprises a combustion vessel including at least one solid fuel slurry inlet port, at least one oxygen inlet port and at least one supercritical fluid inlet port, wherein the combustion vessel is operable at an operating pressure of at least 1,100 psi; an interior of the combustion vessel comprises a combustion chamber and a supercritical fluid infusion chamber surrounding at least a part of the combustion chamber, the supercritical fluid infusion chamber and the combustion chamber are separated by a porous liner surrounding the combustion chamber, and the supercritical infusion chamber is located between the porous liner and an outer casing of the combustion vessel.

  11. Numerical Analysis of the SCHOLAR Supersonic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Carlos G.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2003-01-01

    The SCHOLAR scramjet experiment is the subject of an ongoing numerical investigation. The facility nozzle and combustor were solved separate and sequentially, with the exit conditions of the former used as inlet conditions for the latter. A baseline configuration for the numerical model was compared with the available experimental data. It was found that ignition-delay was underpredicted and fuel-plume penetration overpredicted, while the pressure rise was close to experimental values. In addition, grid-convergence by means of grid-sequencing could not be established. The effects of the different turbulence parameters were quantified. It was found that it was not possible to simultaneously predict the three main parameters of this flow: pressure-rise, ignition-delay, and fuel-plume penetration.

  12. Liquid rocket combustor computer code development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, P. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Rocket Injector/Combustor Code (ARICC) that has been developed to model the complete chemical/fluid/thermal processes occurring inside rocket combustion chambers are highlighted. The code, derived from the CONCHAS-SPRAY code originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory incorporates powerful features such as the ability to model complex injector combustion chamber geometries, Lagrangian tracking of droplets, full chemical equilibrium and kinetic reactions for multiple species, a fractional volume of fluid (VOF) description of liquid jet injection in addition to the gaseous phase fluid dynamics, and turbulent mass, energy, and momentum transport. Atomization and droplet dynamic models from earlier generation codes are transplated into the present code. Currently, ARICC is specialized for liquid oxygen/hydrogen propellants, although other fuel/oxidizer pairs can be easily substituted.

  13. Low NOx heavy fuel combustor concept program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Three simulated coal gas fuels based on hydrogen and carbon monoxide were tested during an experimental evaluation with a rich lean can combustor: these were a simulated Winkler gas, Lurgi gas and Blue Water gas. All three were simulated by mixing together the necessary pure component species, to levels typical of fuel gases produced from coal. The Lurgi gas was also evaluated with ammonia addition. Fuel burning in a rich lean mode was emphasized. Only the Blue Water gas, however, could be operated in such fashion. This showed that the expected NOx signature form could be obtained, although the absolute values of NOx were above the 75 ppm goals for most operating conditions. Lean combustion produced very low NOx well below 75 ppm with the Winkler and Lurgi gases. In addition, these low levels were not significantly impacted by changes in operating conditions.

  14. CFD Code Development for Combustor Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    During the lifetime of this grant, work has been performed in the areas of model development, code development, code validation and code application. For model development, this has included the PDF combustion module, chemical kinetics based on thermodynamics, neural network storage of chemical kinetics, ILDM chemical kinetics and assumed PDF work. Many of these models were then implemented in the code, and in addition many improvements were made to the code, including the addition of new chemistry integrators, property evaluation schemes, new chemistry models and turbulence-chemistry interaction methodology. Validation of all new models and code improvements were also performed, while application of the code to the ZCET program and also the NPSS GEW combustor program were also performed. Several important items remain under development, including the NOx post processing, assumed PDF model development and chemical kinetic development. It is expected that this work will continue under the new grant.

  15. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  16. A clean coal combustion technology-slagging combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S. L.; Berry, G. F.

    1989-03-01

    Slagging combustion is an advanced clean coal technology technique characterized by low NOx and SOx emission, high combustion efficiency, high ash removal, simple design and compact size. The design of slagging combustors has operational flexibility for a wide range of applications, including retrofitting boilers, magnetohydrodynamic combustors, coal-fired gas turbines, gasifiers and hazardous waste incinerators. In recent years, developers of slagging combustors have achieved encouraging progress toward the commercialization of this technology. Although there is a diversity of technical approaches among the developers, they all aim for a compact design of pulverized coal combustion with high heat release and sub-stoichiometric combustion regimes of operation to suppress NOx formation, and most aim to capture sulfur by using sorbent injection in the combustor. If the present pace toward commercialization continues, retrofitting boilers of sizes ranging from 20 to 250 MMBtu/hr (5.9 to 73 MWt) may be available for commercial use in the 1990's. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Investigation of a low NOx full-scale annular combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An atmospheric test program was conducted to evaluate a low NOx annular combustor concept suitable for a supersonic, high-altitude aircraft application. The lean premixed combustor, known as the vortex air blast (VAB) concept, was tested as a 22.0-cm diameter model in the early development phases to arrive at basic design and performance criteria. Final demonstration testing was carried out on a full scale combustor of 0.66-m diameter. Variable geometry dilution ports were incorporated to allow operation of the combustor across the range of conditions between idle (T(in) = 422 K, T(out) = 917 K) and cruise (T(in) = 833 K, T(out) - 1778 K). Test results show that the design could meet the program NOx goal of 1.0 g NO2/kg fuel at a one-atmospheric simulated cruise condition.

  18. Method for operating a combustor in a fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Chalfant, Robert W.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2002-01-01

    A method of operating a combustor to heat a fuel processor in a fuel cell system, in which the fuel processor generates a hydrogen-rich stream a portion of which is consumed in a fuel cell stack and a portion of which is discharged from the fuel cell stack and supplied to the combustor, and wherein first and second streams are supplied to the combustor, the first stream being a hydrocarbon fuel stream and the second stream consisting of said hydrogen-rich stream, the method comprising the steps of monitoring the temperature of the fuel processor; regulating the quantity of the first stream to the combustor according to the temperature of the fuel processor; and comparing said quantity of said first stream to a predetermined value or range of predetermined values.

  19. Combustor materials requirements and status of ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Ralph J.; Johnson, Andrew M.

    1992-01-01

    The HSCT combustor will be required to operate with either extremely rich or lean fuel/air ratios to reduce NO(x) emission. NASA High Speed Research (HSR) sponsored programs at Pratt & Whitney (P&W) and GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) have been studying rich and lean burn combustor design approaches which are capable of achieving the aggressive HSCT NO(x) emission goals. In both of the combustor design approaches under study, high temperature (2400-3000 F) materials are necessary to meet the HSCT emission goals of 3-8 gm/kg. Currently available materials will not meet the projected requirements for the HSCT combustor. The development of new materials is an enabling technology for the successful introduction to service of the HSCT.

  20. Flame Driving of Longitudinal Instabilities in Liquid Fueled Dump Combustors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    instabilities These instabilities are characterized by either low frequency (i.e., rumble) or high frequency (i.e., screech ) pressure and velocity...in Lhe combusTor . In contrast, the high frequency screech occurs when one of the tangential acoustic modes of the combustor is excited (e.g., see...result in excessive vibrational loads on the system. On the other hand screech type instabilities result in an increase in heat transfer rates to