Charged rotating dilaton black strings
Dehghani, M.H.; Farhangkhah, N.
2005-02-15
In this paper we, first, present a class of charged rotating solutions in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with zero and Liouville-type potentials. We find that these solutions can present a black hole/string with two regular horizons, an extreme black hole or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. We also compute the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and show that they satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Second, we obtain the (n+1)-dimensional rotating solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential. We find that these solutions can present black branes, naked singularities or spacetimes with cosmological horizon if one chooses the parameters of the solutions correctly. Again, we find that the thermodynamic quantities of these solutions satisfy the first law of thermodynamics.
Extremal charged rotating dilaton black holes in odd dimensions
Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lerida, Francisco
2010-09-15
Employing higher-order perturbation theory, we find a new class of charged rotating black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with general dilaton coupling constant. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter, and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta in odd dimensions. We perform the perturbations up to 4th order for black holes in 5 dimensions and up to 3rd order in higher odd dimensions. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge and the dilaton coupling constant.
Rotating black holes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory.
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen
2011-04-15
We construct generalizations of the Kerr black holes by including higher-curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet density coupled to the dilaton. We show that the domain of existence of these Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton (EGBD) black holes is bounded by the Kerr black holes, the critical EGBD black holes, and the singular extremal EGBD solutions. The angular momentum of the EGBD black holes can exceed the Kerr bound. The EGBD black holes satisfy a generalized Smarr relation. We also compare their innermost stable circular orbits with those of the Kerr black holes and show the existence of differences which might be observable in astrophysical systems.
Nonlinear electrodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of rotating dilaton black branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, A.; Naeimipour, F.; Zebarjad, S. M.
2016-07-01
We construct a new class of rotating dilaton solutions in the presence of logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics. These solutions represent black branes with flat horizon and contain k=[(n-1)/2] rotation parameters in n-dimensional spacetime where [ x] is the integer part of x. We study the causal structure of the spacetime and calculate thermodynamic and conserved quantities and show that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics on the black brane horizon, { dM}={ TdS}+{{{sum _{i=1}k}}}Ω id{J}i+{ Ud}{Q}. Then, we study geometrical approach towards thermodynamics by choosing an appropriate geometrical metric. We show that the singularity of the Ricci scalar coincides exactly with the phase transition points. We observe that our system encounters two types of phase transitions depending on the metric parameters. For the first one the heat capacity is zero and for the second one the heat capacity diverges. In the first kind of phase transition, the brane has a transition from an unstable non-physical to a stable physical state. In the second type of phase transition the brane moves from a stable to an unstable state. Finally, we comment on the dynamical stability of the obtained solutions under perturbations in four dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakalli, I.
2016-10-01
Charged massive scalar field perturbations are studied in the gravitational, electromagnetic, dilaton, and axion fields of rotating linear dilaton black holes. In this geometry, we separate the covariant Klein-Gordon equation into radial and angular parts and obtain the exact solutions of both the equations in terms of the confluent Heun functions. Using the radial solution, we study the problems of resonant frequencies, entropy/area quantization, and greybody factor. We also analyze the behavior of the wave solutions near the event horizon of the rotating linear dilaton black hole and derive its Hawking temperature via the Damour-Ruffini-Sannan method.
Quantum (in)stability of 2D charged dilaton black holes and 3D rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.
1999-02-01
The quantum properties of charged black holes (BHs) in two-dimensional (2D) dilaton-Maxwell gravity (spontaneously compactified from heterotic string) with N dilaton coupled scalars are studied. We first investigate 2D BHs found by McGuigan, Nappi, and Yost. Kaluza-Klein reduction of 3D gravity with minimal scalars leads also to 2D dilaton-Maxwell gravity with dilaton coupled scalars and the rotating BH solution found by Bañados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli, which can be also described by 2D charged dilatonic BHs. Evaluating the one-loop effective action for dilaton coupled scalars in large N (and the s-wave approximation for the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli case), we show that quantum-corrected BHs may evaporate or else antievaporate similarly to 4D Nariai BHs as is observed by Bousso and Hawking. Higher modes may cause the disintegration of BHs in accordance with recent observation by Bousso.
Rotating black holes in Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with finite coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maselli, Andrea; Pani, Paolo; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Ferrari, Valeria
2015-10-01
Among various strong-curvature extensions of general relativity, Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet gravity stands out as the only nontrivial theory containing quadratic curvature corrections while being free from the Ostrogradsky instability to any order in the coupling parameter. We derive an approximate stationary and axisymmetric black hole solution of this gravitational theory in closed form, which is of fifth order in the black hole spin and of seventh order in the coupling parameter of the theory. This extends previous work that obtained the corrections to the metric only to second order in the spin and at the leading order in the coupling parameter, and allows us to consider values of the coupling parameter close to the maximum permitted by theoretical constraints. We compute some quantities which characterize this solution, such as the dilaton charge, the moment of inertia, and the quadrupole moment, and its geodesic structure, including the innermost stable circular orbit and the epicyclic frequencies for massive particles. The latter provides a valuable tool to test general relativity against strong-curvature corrections through observations of the electromagnetic spectrum of accreting black holes.
Extremal Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes in dilaton gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rad, Masoud Sepehri; Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Matsuno, Ken; Sheykhi, Ahmad
2015-12-01
Motivated by considerable interests of Myers-Perry black holes, we employ the perturbative method to obtain a family of extremal charged rotating black hole solutions in odd dimensional Einstein-Born-Infeld-dilaton gravity. We start with an extremal Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta, and then by adding the dilaton field and the nonlinear Born-Infeld electrodynamics, we find an extremal nonlinearly charged rotating black holes. The perturbative parameter is assumed to be the electric charge q and the perturbations are performed up to the third order. We then study the physical properties of these Born-Infeld-dilaton black holes. In particular, we show that the perturbative parameter, q, the dilaton coupling constant, α, and the Born-Infeld parameter, β, modify the Smarr formula and the values of the gyromagnetic ratio of the extremal charged rotating black holes.
Tunneling Radiation of Massive Vector Bosons from Dilaton Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ran; Zhao, Jun-Kun; Wu, Xing-Hua
2016-07-01
It is well known that Hawking radiation can be treated as a quantum tunneling process of particles from the event horizon of black hole. In this paper, we attempt to apply the massive vector bosons tunneling method to study the Hawking radiation from the non-rotating and rotating dilaton black holes. Starting with the Proca field equation that govern the dynamics of massive vector bosons, we derive the tunneling probabilities and radiation spectrums of the emitted vector bosons from the static spherical symmetric dilatonic black hole, the rotating Kaluza—Klein black hole, and the rotating Kerr—Sen black hole. Comparing the results with the blackbody spectrum, we satisfactorily reproduce the Hawking temperatures of these dilaton black holes, which are consistent with the previous results in the literature. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11205048
Hawking radiation of massive vector particles from the linear dilaton black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ran; Zhao, Junkun
2016-07-01
By using the tunneling formalism, we calculated the massive vector particles' Hawking radiation from the non-rotating and rotating linear dilaton black holes. By applying the WKB approximation to the Proca field equation that govern the dynamics of massive vector bosons, we derive the tunneling probabilities and radiation spectrums of the emitted vector particles from the linear dilaton black holes. The Hawking temperatures of the linear dilaton black holes have been recovered, which are consistent with the previous results in the literature. This means that the vector particles' tunneling method can also be used in studying the Hawking radiation of asymptotically non-flat and non-AdS black holes.
Charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Faizal, Mir; Panah, B. Eslam; Panahiyan, S.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we present charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow. We study the geometric and thermodynamic properties of black hole solutions. We also investigate the effects of rainbow functions on different thermodynamic quantities for these charged black holes in dilatonic gravity's rainbow. Then we demonstrate that the first law of thermodynamics is valid for these solutions. After that, we investigate thermal stability of the solutions using the canonical ensemble and analyze the effects of different rainbow functions on the thermal stability. In addition, we present some arguments regarding the bound and phase transition points in context of geometrical thermodynamics. We also study the phase transition in extended phase space in which the cosmological constant is treated as the thermodynamic pressure. Finally, we use another approach to calculate and demonstrate that the obtained critical points in extended phase space represent a second order phase transition for these black holes.
Hawking radiation from dilatonic black holes via anomalies
Jiang Qingquan; Cai Xu; Wu Shuangqing
2007-03-15
Recently, Hawking radiation from a Schwarzschild-type black hole via a gravitational anomaly at the horizon has been derived by Robinson and Wilczek. Their result shows that, in order to demand general coordinate covariance at the quantum level to hold in the effective theory, the flux of the energy-momentum tensor required to cancel the gravitational anomaly at the horizon of the black hole is exactly equal to that of (1+1)-dimensional blackbody radiation at the Hawking temperature. In this paper, we attempt to apply the analysis to derive Hawking radiation from the event horizons of static, spherically symmetric dilatonic black holes with arbitrary coupling constant {alpha}, and that from the rotating Kaluza-Klein ({alpha}={radical}(3)) as well as the Kerr-Sen ({alpha}=1) black holes via an anomalous point of view. Our results support Robinson and Wilczek's opinion. In addition, the properties of the obtained physical quantities near the extreme limit are qualitatively discussed.
Transmission Probability for Charged Dilatonic Black Holes in Various Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngampitipan, Tritos; Boonserm, Petarpa
A dilaton is a theoretical particle, which results from the Plank mass raised to a dynamical field. In this paper, the rigorous bounds on the transmission probabilities for charged black holes, coupled to a dilaton field in various dimensions, are calculated. The results show that in the absence of the cosmological constant, the black holes in (2 + 1) dimensions have only one event horizon. Moreover, the charges of the black holes can increase the transmission probabilities. However, for the black holes in (3 + 1) dimensions, the charges of the black holes can filter Hawking radiation.
Black Hole in a Model with Dilaton and Monopole Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyriakopoulos, E.
We present an exact black hole solution in a model having besides gravity a dilaton and a monopole field. The solution has three free parameters, which can be identified with the monopole charge, the ADM mass, and the dilaton charge. The metric is asymptotically flat and has two horizons and irremovable singularity only at r = 0. The dilaton field is singular only at r = 0. The dominant and the strong energy condition are satisfied outside and on the external horizon. According to a formulation of the no hair conjecture, the solution is "hairy." Also the well-known GHS-GM solution is obtained from our solution for certain values of its parameters.
Mass formulae of four-dimensional dilaton black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okai, Tadashi
1994-02-01
Integral and differential mass formulae of 4-dimensional stationary and axisymmetric Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton systems are derived. The total mass (energy) of these systems are expressed in terms of other physical quantities such as electric charge of the black hole suitably modified due to the existence of the dilaton field. It is shown that when we vary slightly the fields (metric of the spacetime $g_{\\mu\
Letter: Dilatonic Black Hole Entropy Without Brick Walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Zhao; Sheng-Li, Zhang
2004-09-01
The properties of the thermal radiation are discussed by using the new equation of state density motivated by the generalized uncertainty relation in the quantum gravity. There is no burst at the last stage of the emission of dilatonic black hole. When the new equation of state density is utilized to investigate the entropy of a bosonic field and fermionic field outside the horizon of a static dilatonic black hole, the divergence appearing in the brick wall model is removed, without any cutoff. It is derived from the contribution of the vicinity of the horizon that the entropy is proportional to the horizon area.
Critical behavior of Born-Infeld dilaton black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghani, M. H.; Sheykhi, A.; Dayyani, Z.
2016-01-01
We explore the critical behavior of (n +1 )-dimensional topological Born-Infeld-dilaton black holes in an extended phase space. We treat the cosmological constant and the Born-Infeld (BI) parameter as the thermodynamic pressure and BI vacuum polarization which can vary. We obtain thermodynamic quantities of the system such as pressure, temperature, Gibbs free energy, and investigate the behavior of these quantities. We also study the analogy of the van der Waals liquid-gas system with the Born-Infeld-dilaton black holes in canonical ensemble in which we can treat the black hole charge as a fixed external parameter. Moreover, we show that the critical values of pressure, temperature and volume are physical provided the coupling constant of dilaton gravity is less than 1 and the horizon is sphere. Finally, we calculate the critical exponents and show that although thermodynamic quantities depend on the dilaton coupling constant, BI parameter and the dimension of the spacetime, they are universal and are independent of metric parameters.
Observing the shadow of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion black hole
Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao E-mail: liuyx@lzu.edu.cn
2013-11-01
In this paper, the shadows cast by Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion black hole and naked singularity are studied. The shadow of a rotating black hole is found to be a dark zone covered by a deformed circle. For a fixed value of the spin a, the size of the shadow decreases with the dilaton parameter b. The distortion of the shadow monotonically increases with b and takes its maximal when the black hole approaches to the extremal case. Due to the optical properties, the area of the black hole shadow is supposed to equal to the high-energy absorption cross section. Based on this assumption, the energy emission rate is investigated. For a naked singularity, the shadow has a dark arc and a dark spot or straight, and the corresponding observables are obtained. These results show that there is a significant effect of the spin a and dilaton parameter b on these shadows. Moreover, we examine the observables of the shadow cast by the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, which is very useful for us to probe the nature of the black hole through the astronomical observations in the near future.
Dilatonic BTZ black holes with power-law field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.; Sheykhi, A.
2017-04-01
Motivated by low energy effective action of string theory and numerous applications of BTZ black holes, we will consider minimal coupling between dilaton and nonlinear electromagnetic fields in three dimensions. The main goal is studying thermodynamical structure of black holes in this set up. Temperature and heat capacity of these black holes are investigated and a picture regarding their phase transitions is given. In addition, the role and importance of studying the mass of black holes is highlighted. We will see how different parameters modify thermodynamical quantities, hence thermodynamical structure of these black holes. In addition, geometrical thermodynamics is used to investigate thermodynamical properties of these black holes. In this regard, the successful method is presented and the nature of interaction around bound and phase transition points is studied.
Topology, entropy, and Witten index of dilaton black holes
Gibbons, G.W.; Kallosh, R.E. )
1995-03-15
We have found that for extreme dilaton black holes an inner boundary must be introduced in addition to the outer boundary to give an integer value to the Euler number. The resulting manifolds have (if one identifies imaginary time) a topology [ital S][sup 1][times][ital R][times][ital S][sup 2] and Euler number [chi]=0 in contrast with the nonextreme case with [chi]=2. The entropy of extreme U(1) dilaton black holes is already known to be zero. We include a review of some recent ideas due to Hawking on the Reissner-Nordstroem case. By regarding all extreme black holes as having an inner boundary, we conclude that the entropy of [ital all] extreme black holes, including [U(1)][sup 2] black holes, vanishes. We discuss the relevance of this to the vanishing of quantum corrections and the idea that the functional integral for extreme holes gives a Witten index. We have studied also the topology of moduli space'' of multi-black-holes. The quantum mechanics on black hole moduli spaces is expected to be supersymmetric despite the fact that they are not hyper-Kaehler since the corresponding geometry has a torsion unlike the BPS monopole case. Finally, we describe the possibility of extreme black hole fission for states with an energy gap. The energy released, as a proportion of the initial rest mass, during the decay of an electromagnetic black hole is 300 times greater than that released by the fission of a [sup 235]U nucleus.
Hamiltonian thermodynamics of three-dimensional dilatonic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Gonçalo A. S.; Lemos, José P. S.
2008-08-01
The action for a class of three-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories with a negative cosmological constant can be recast in a Brans-Dicke type action, with its free ω parameter. These theories have static spherically symmetric black holes. Those with well formulated asymptotics are studied through a Hamiltonian formalism, and their thermodynamical properties are found out. The theories studied are general relativity (ω→∞), a dimensionally reduced cylindrical four-dimensional general relativity theory (ω=0), and a theory representing a class of theories (ω=-3). The Hamiltonian formalism is set up in three dimensions through foliations on the right region of the Carter-Penrose diagram, with the bifurcation 1-sphere as the left boundary, and anti de Sitter infinity as the right boundary. The metric functions on the foliated hypersurfaces are the canonical coordinates. The Hamiltonian action is written, the Hamiltonian being a sum of constraints. One finds a new action which yields an unconstrained theory with one pair of canonical coordinates {M,PM}, M being the mass parameter and PM its conjugate momenta The resulting Hamiltonian is a sum of boundary terms only. A quantization of the theory is performed. The Schrödinger evolution operator is constructed, the trace is taken, and the partition function of the canonical ensemble is obtained. The black hole entropies differ, in general, from the usual quarter of the horizon area due to the dilaton.
Hamiltonian thermodynamics of charged three-dimensional dilatonic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Gonçalo A. S.; Lemos, José P. S.
2008-10-01
The action for a class of three-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories, with an electromagnetic Maxwell field and a cosmological constant, can be recast in a Brans-Dicke-Maxwell type action, with its free ω parameter. For a negative cosmological constant, these theories have static, electrically charged, and spherically symmetric black hole solutions. Those theories with well formulated asymptotics are studied through a Hamiltonian formalism, and their thermodynamical properties are found out. The theories studied are general relativity (ω→±∞), a dimensionally reduced cylindrical four-dimensional general relativity theory (ω=0), and a theory representing a class of theories (ω=-3), all with a Maxwell term. The Hamiltonian formalism is set up in three dimensions through foliations on the right region of the Carter-Penrose diagram, with the bifurcation 1-sphere as the left boundary, and anti-de Sitter infinity as the right boundary. The metric functions on the foliated hypersurfaces and the radial component of the vector potential one-form are the canonical coordinates. The Hamiltonian action is written, the Hamiltonian being a sum of constraints. One finds a new action which yields an unconstrained theory with two pairs of canonical coordinates {M,PM;Q,PQ}, where M is the mass parameter, which for ω<-(3)/(2) and for ω=±∞ needs a careful renormalization, PM is the conjugate momenta of M, Q is the charge parameter, and PQ is its conjugate momentum. The resulting Hamiltonian is a sum of boundary terms only. A quantization of the theory is performed. The Schrödinger evolution operator is constructed, the trace is taken, and the partition function of the grand canonical ensemble is obtained, where the chemical potential is the scalar electric field ϕ¯. Like the uncharged cases studied previously, the charged black hole entropies differ, in general, from the usual quarter of the horizon area due to the dilaton.
Rotating black holes with non-Abelian hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco
2016-12-01
We here review asymptotically flat rotating black holes in the presence of non-Abelian gauge fields. Like their static counterparts these black holes are no longer uniquely determined by their global charges. In the case of pure SU(2) Yang-Mills fields, the rotation generically induces an electric charge, while the black holes do not carry a magnetic charge. When a Higgs field is coupled, rotating black holes with monopole hair arise in the case of a Higgs triplet, while in the presence of a complex Higgs doublet the black holes carry sphaleron hair. The inclusion of a dilaton allows for Smarr type mass formulae.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, A.; Naeimipour, F.; Zebarjad, S. M.
2015-06-01
Considering the Lagrangian of the logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics in the presence of a scalar dilaton field, we obtain a new class of topological black hole solutions of Einstein-dilaton gravity with two Liouville-type dilaton potentials. Black hole horizons and cosmological horizons, in these spacetimes, can be a two-dimensional positive, zero, or negative constant curvature surface. We find that the behavior of the electric field crucially depends on the dilaton coupling constant α . For small α , the electric field diverges near the origin, although its divergency is weaker than the linear Maxwell field. However, with increasing α , the behavior of the electric field, near the origin, approaches to that of the Maxwell field. We also study casual structure, asymptotic behavior, and physical properties of the solutions. We find that, depending on the model parameters, the topological dilaton black holes may have one or two horizons, and even in some cases we encounter a naked singularity without horizon. We compute the conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the spacetime and investigate that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also probe thermal stability in the canonical and grand canonical ensembles and disclose the effects of the dilaton field as well as nonlinear parameter on the thermal stability of the solutions. Finally, we investigate thermodynamical geometry of the obtained solutions by introducing a new metric and studying the phase transition points due to the divergency of the Ricci scalar. We find that the dilaton field affects the phase transition points of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, A.; Hajkhalili, S.
2015-11-01
We study topological dilaton black holes of Einstein gravity in the presence of exponential nonlinear electrodynamics. The event horizons of these black holes can be a two-dimensional positive, zero or negative constant curvature surface. We analyze thermodynamics of these solutions by calculating all conserved and thermodynamic quantities and showing that the first law holds on the black hole horizon. Then, we perform the stability analysis in both canonical and grand canonical ensemble and disclose the effects of the dilaton and nonlinear electrodynamics on the thermal stability of the solutions. Finally, we study the phase transition points of these black holes in the thermodynamic geometry approach.
Thermodynamics of black holes in (n+1)-dimensional Einstein-Born-Infeld-dilaton gravity
Sheykhi, A.; Riazi, N.
2007-01-15
We construct a new class of (n+1)-dimensional (n{>=}3) black hole solutions in Einstein-Born-Infeld-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential for the dilaton field and investigate their properties. These solutions are neither asymptotically flat nor (anti)-de Sitter. We find that these solutions can represent black holes, with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black hole, or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitably. We compute the thermodynamic quantities of the black hole solutions and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also perform a stability analysis and investigate the effect of dilaton on the stability of the solutions.
Modeling of non-rotating neutron stars in minimal dilatonic gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiziev, P.; Marinov, K.
2017-01-01
The model of minimal dilatonic gravity (MDG), called also the massive Branse-Dicke model with ω =0, is an alternative model of gravitation, which uses one Branse-Dicke gravitation-dilaton field Φ and offers a simultaneous explanation of the effects of dark energy (DE) and dark matter (DM). Here we present an extensive research of non-rotating neutron star models in MDG with four different realistic equations of state (EOS), which are in agreement with the latest observational data. The equations describing static spherically symmetric stars in MDG are solved numerically. The effects corresponding to DE and DM are clearly seen and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Kai; Yang, Shu-Zheng
2009-10-01
Fermions tunneling of the non-stationary Dilaton-Maxwell black hole is investigated with general tortoise coordinate transformation. The Dirac equation is simplified by semiclassical approximation so that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is generated. Finally the tunneling rate and the Hawking temperature is calculated.
Phase transition for black holes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khimphun, Sunly; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo
2016-11-01
We study the thermodynamic properties of a black hole and the Hawking-Page phase transition in the asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime in the dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravitation. We show how the higher-order curvature terms can influence both the thermodynamic properties and the phase transition. We evaluate both heat capacity and free energy difference to determine the local and global thermodynamic stabilities, respectively. We find that the phase transition occurs from the thermal anti-de Sitter to a small spherical black hole geometry and occurs to a hyperbolic black hole geometry in the (dilatonic) Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravitation unlike those in Einstein's theory of gravitation.
García-Diaz, Alberto A.
2014-01-14
Using the Schwarzschild coordinate frame for a static cyclic symmetric metric in 2+1 gravity coupled minimally to a dilaton logarithmically depending on the radial coordinate in the presence of an exponential potential, by solving first order linear Einstein equations, the general solution is derived and it is identified with the Chan–Mann dilaton solution. In these coordinates, a new stationary dilaton solution is obtained; it does not allow for a de Sitter–Anti-de Sitter limit at spatial infinity, where its structural functions increase indefinitely. On the other hand, it is horizonless and allows for a naked singularity at the origin of coordinates; moreover, one can identify at a large radial coordinate a (quasi-local) mass parameter and in the whole space a constant angular momentum. Via a general SL(2,R)–transformation, applied on the static cyclic symmetric metric, a family of stationary dilaton solutions has been generated. A particular SL(2,R)–transformation is identified, which gives rise to the rotating Chan–Mann dilaton solution. All the exhibited solutions have been characterized by their quasi-local energy, mass, and momentum through their series expansions at spatial infinity. The algebraic structure of the Ricci–energy-momentum, and Cotton tensors is given explicitly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David; Wills, Danielle
2013-06-01
A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is conical with respect to a local co-rotating frame, not with respect to the static frame at infinity.
Quasinormal Modes of Charged Dilaton Black Holes and Their Entropy Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakalli, I.
2013-08-01
In this study, we employ the scalar perturbations of the charged dilaton black hole (CDBH) found by Chan, Horne and Mann (CHM), and described with an action which emerges in the low-energy limit of the string theory. A CDBH is neither asymptotically flat (AF) nor non-asymptotically flat (NAF) spacetime. Depending on the value of its dilaton parameter a, it has both Schwarzschild and linear dilaton black hole (LDBH) limits. We compute the complex frequencies of the quasinormal modes (QNMs) of the CDBH by considering small perturbations around its horizon. By using the highly damped QNM in the process prescribed by Maggiore, we obtain the quantum entropy and area spectra of these black holes (BHs). Although the QNM frequencies are tuned by a, we show that the quantum spectra do not depend on a, and they are equally spaced. On the other hand, the obtained value of undetermined dimensionless constant ɛ is the double of Bekenstein's result. The possible reason of this discrepancy is also discussed.
Radiating black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory and cosmic censorship violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aniceto, Pedro; Pani, Paolo; Rocha, Jorge V.
2016-05-01
We construct exact, time-dependent, black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with arbitrary dilaton coupling, a. For a = 1 this theory arises as the four-dimensional low-energy effective description of heterotic string theory. These solutions represent electrically charged, spherically symmetric black holes emitting or absorbing charged null fluids and generalize the Vaidya and Bonnor-Vaidya solutions of general relativity and of Einstein-Maxwell theory, respectively. The a = 1 case stands out as special, in the sense that it is the only choice of the coupling that allows for a time-dependent dilaton field in this class of solutions. As a by-product, when a = 1 we show that an electrically charged black hole in this theory can be overcharged by bombarding it with a stream of electrically charged null fluid, resulting in the formation of a naked singularity. This provides an example of cosmic censorship violation in an exact dynamical solution to low-energy effective string theory and in a case in which the total stress-energy tensor satisfies all energy conditions. When a ≠ 1, our solutions necessarily have a time-independent scalar field and consequently cannot be overcharged.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, A.; Naeimipour, F.; Zebarjad, S. M.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we construct a new class of black hole solutions which is coupled to the logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics in the context of dilaton gravity. We consider an n -dimensional action in which gravity is coupled to the logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics field and a scalar dilaton field to obtain the equations of motion of the gravitational, dilaton and electromagnetic fields. This leads to finding a new class of n -dimensional static and spherically symmetric black hole solutions in the presence of two Liouville-type dilaton potentials. The asymptotic behavior of these solutions is neither flat nor (anti-)de Sitter [(A)dS], and in the limiting case where the nonlinear parameter β goes to infinity, our solutions reduce to the black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity in higher dimensions. Thermodynamic quantities such as mass, temperature, electric potential and entropy are also computed, and it is shown that they agree with the first law of thermodynamics. Furthermore, we find that for small values of the electric charge parameter q , and the dilaton coupling constant α , as well as small dimension n , the solutions are thermally stable. By increasing n , the region of stability stands for smaller values of α independent of q . Finally, we use the method of thermodynamical geometry and find the phase transition points by calculating the Ricci scalar of a thermodynamic metric.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Xiao-Gang
2013-05-01
By introducing a new tortoise coordinate transformation, we apply Damour-Ruffini-Sannan method to study the Hawking radiation of massive scalar particles in a dynamic Dilaton-Maxwell black hole. We find that Hawking radiation spectrum shows still the blackbody one, while the Hawking temperature is significantly changed. Additionally, by adopting the thin film method, we calculate the entropy of a dynamic Dilaton-Maxwell black hole. The result indicates that the entropy for such a black hole is still in proportional to the area of its event horizon.
Peculiar properties of a charged dilatonic black hole in AdS{sub 5}
Gubser, Steven S.; Rocha, Fabio D.
2010-02-15
We study a charged dilatonic black hole in AdS{sub 5}, derived from a Lagrangian involving a gauge field whose kinetic term is modified by the exponential of a neutral scalar. This black hole has two properties which one might reasonably demand of the dual of a Fermi liquid: Its entropy is proportional to temperature at low temperature, and its extremal limit supports normal modes of massless, charged bulk fermions. The black hole we study has a simple analytic form because it can be embedded in type IIB string theory as the near-horizon limit of D3-branes with equal spins in two of the three independent transverse planes. Two further properties can be deduced from this embedding: There is a thermodynamic instability, reminiscent of ferromagnetism, at low temperatures; and there is an AdS{sub 3} factor in the extremal near-horizon geometry which accounts for the linear dependence of entropy on temperature. Altogether, it is plausible that the dilatonic black hole we study, or a relative of it with similar behavior in the infrared, is the dual of a Fermi liquid; however, the particular embedding in string theory that we consider is unlikely to have such a dual description, unless through some unexpected boson-fermion equivalence at large N.
Thermodynamics of phantom black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, Manuel E.; Oporto, Zui A. A.
2012-05-01
A thermodynamic analysis of the black hole solutions coming from the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in 4D is done. By considering the canonical and grand-canonical ensemble, we apply standard method as well as a recent method known as geometrothermodynamics. We are particularly interested in the characteristics of the so called phantom black hole solutions. We will analyze the thermodynamics of these solutions, the points of phase transition and their extremal limit. The thermodynamic stability is also analyzed. We obtain a mismatch between the results of the geometrothermodynamics method when compared with the ones obtained by the specific heat, revealing a weakness of the method, as well as possible limitations of its applicability to very pathological thermodynamic systems. We also found that normal and phantom solutions are locally and globally unstable, except for certain values of the coupled constant of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton action. We also show that the anti-Reissner-Nordstrom solution does not possess extremal limit nor phase transition points, contrary to the Reissner-Nordstrom case.
On regular rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, R.; Fayos, F.
2017-01-01
Different proposals for regular rotating black hole spacetimes have appeared recently in the literature. However, a rigorous analysis and proof of the regularity of this kind of spacetimes is still lacking. In this note we analyze rotating Kerr-like black hole spacetimes and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the regularity of all their second order scalar invariants polynomial in the Riemann tensor. We also show that the regularity is linked to a violation of the weak energy conditions around the core of the rotating black hole.
Rotating regular black hole solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon
2016-07-01
Based on the Newman-Janis algorithm, the Ayón-Beato-García spacetime metric [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5056 (1998)] of the regular spherically symmetric, static, and charged black hole has been converted into rotational form. It is shown that the derived solution for rotating a regular black hole is regular and the critical value of the electric charge for which two horizons merge into one sufficiently decreases in the presence of the nonvanishing rotation parameter a of the black hole.
Black holes in models with dilaton field and electric or electric and magnetic charges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyriakopoulos, E.
2006-12-01
Exact static spherically symmetric charged black holes in four dimensions are presented. One of them has only electric charge and another electric and magnetic charges. In these solutions the metric is asymptotically flat, has two horizons, irremovable singularity only at r = 0, and the dilaton field is singular only at r = 0. The solution with electric charge only is characterized by three free parameters, the ADM mass, the electric charge and an additional free parameter. It can be considered as a modification of the GHS-GM solution obtained by changing the coupling between dilaton and electromagnetic field. The general dyonic solution is again characterized by three free parameters, the ADM mass, the magnetic charge and an additional free parameter, which is not the electric charge. According to a definition of the no-hair conjecture the solutions are 'hairy'. A very interesting special case of the dyonic solution is characterized by three free parameters, the ADM mass and the electric and magnetic charges. The solutions satisfy the dominant as well as the strong energy condition outside and on the external horizon.
Late-time evolution of a self-interacting scalar field in the spacetime of a dilaton black hole
Moderski, Rafal; Rogatko, Marek
2001-08-15
We investigate the late-time tails of self-interacting (massive) scalar fields in the spacetime of a dilaton black hole. Following the no hair theorem we examine the mechanism by which self-interacting scalar hair decays. We reveal that the intermediate asymptotic behavior of the considered field perturbations is dominated by an oscillatory inverse power-law decaying tail. The numerical simulations show that at very late time, massive self-interacting scalar hair decays slower than any power law.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Talezadeh, M. S.
2017-01-01
Regarding the wide applications of dilaton gravity in the presence of electrodynamics, we introduce a suitable Lagrangian for the coupling of dilaton with gauge field. There are various Lagrangians which show the coupling between scalar fields and electrodynamics with correct special situations. In this paper, taking into account conformal transformation of Brans-Dicke theory with an electrodynamics Lagrangian, we show that how scalar field should couple with electrodynamics in dilaton gravity. In other words, in order to introduce a correct Lagrangian of dilaton gravity, one should check at least two requirements: compatibility with Brans-Dicke theory and appropriate special situations. Finally, we apply the mentioned method to obtain analytical solutions of dilaton-Born-Infeld and Brans-Dicke-Born-Infeld theories with energy dependent spacetime.
Cosmological rotating black holes in five-dimensional fake supergravity
Nozawa, Masato; Maeda, Kei-ichi
2011-01-15
In recent series of papers, we found an arbitrary dimensional, time-evolving, and spatially inhomogeneous solution in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with particular couplings. Similar to the supersymmetric case, the solution can be arbitrarily superposed in spite of nontrivial time-dependence, since the metric is specified by a set of harmonic functions. When each harmonic has a single point source at the center, the solution describes a spherically symmetric black hole with regular Killing horizons and the spacetime approaches asymptotically to the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology. We discuss in this paper that in 5 dimensions, this equilibrium condition traces back to the first-order 'Killing spinor' equation in 'fake supergravity' coupled to arbitrary U(1) gauge fields and scalars. We present a five-dimensional, asymptotically FLRW, rotating black-hole solution admitting a nontrivial 'Killing spinor', which is a spinning generalization of our previous solution. We argue that the solution admits nondegenerate and rotating Killing horizons in contrast with the supersymmetric solutions. It is shown that the present pseudo-supersymmetric solution admits closed timelike curves around the central singularities. When only one harmonic is time-dependent, the solution oxidizes to 11 dimensions and realizes the dynamically intersecting M2/M2/M2-branes in a rotating Kasner universe. The Kaluza-Klein-type black holes are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis; Macedo, Caio F. B.; Cardoso, Vitor; Ferrari, Valeria; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Khoo, Fech Scen; Kunz, Jutta; Pani, Paolo
2016-11-01
Gravitational waves emitted by distorted black holes—such as those arising from the coalescence of two neutron stars or black holes—carry not only information about the corresponding spacetime but also about the underlying theory of gravity. Although general relativity remains the simplest, most elegant, and viable theory of gravitation, there are generic and robust arguments indicating that it is not the ultimate description of the gravitational universe. Here, we focus on a particularly appealing extension of general relativity, which corrects Einstein's theory through the addition of terms which are second order in curvature: the topological Gauss-Bonnet invariant coupled to a dilaton. We study gravitational-wave emission from black holes in this theory and (i) find strong evidence that black holes are linearly (mode) stable against both axial and polar perturbations, (ii) discuss how the quasinormal modes of black holes can be excited during collisions involving black holes, and finally (iii) show that future ringdown detections with a large signal-to-noise ratio would improve current constraints on the coupling parameter of the theory.
Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Chia-Jui; Wu, Xiaoning; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Pei-Hung
2016-10-01
In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maselli, Andrea; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Pani, Paolo; Stella, Luigi; Ferrari, Valeria
2015-03-01
Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in the X-ray flux emitted by accreting black holes are associated with phenomena occurring near the horizon. Future very large area X-ray instruments will be able to measure QPO frequencies with very high precision, thus probing this strong-field region. Using the relativistic precession model, we show the way in which QPO frequencies could be used to test general relativity (GR) against those alternative theories of gravity which predict deviations from the classical theory in the strong-field and high-curvature regimes. We consider one of the best-motivated high-curvature corrections to GR, namely, the Einstein-Dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet theory, and show that a detection of QPOs with the expected sensitivity of the proposed ESA M-class mission LOFT would set the most stringent constraints on the parameter space of this theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogatko, Marek
2014-02-01
Mass, angular momentum, and charge inequalities for axisymmetric maximal time-symmetric initial data invariant under an action of U(1) group, in Einstein-Maxwell-axion-dilaton gravity being the low-energy limit of the heterotic string theory, is established. We assume that a data set with two asymptotically flat regions is given on a smooth simply connected manifold. We also pay attention to the area momentum charge inequalities for a closed orientable two-dimensional spacelike surface embedded in the spacetime of the considered theory.
Renormalized vacuum polarization of rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, Hugo R. C.
2015-04-01
Quantum field theory on rotating black hole spacetimes is plagued with technical difficulties. Here, we describe a general method to renormalize and compute the vacuum polarization of a quantum field in the Hartle-Hawking state on rotating black holes. We exemplify the technique with a massive scalar field on the warped AdS3 black hole solution to topologically massive gravity, a deformation of (2 + 1)-dimensional Einstein gravity. We use a "quasi-Euclidean" technique, which generalizes the Euclidean techniques used for static spacetimes, and we subtract the divergences by matching to a sum over mode solutions on Minkowski spacetime. This allows us, for the first time, to have a general method to compute the renormalized vacuum polarization, for a given quantum state, on a rotating black hole, such as the physically relevant case of the Kerr black hole in four dimensions.
Shadow of rotating regular black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Amir, Muhammed; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Ghosh, Sushant G.
2016-05-01
We study the shadows cast by the different types of rotating regular black holes viz. Ayón-Beato-García (ABG), Hayward, and Bardeen. These black holes have in addition to the total mass (M ) and rotation parameter (a ), different parameters as electric charge (Q ), deviation parameter (g ), and magnetic charge (g*). Interestingly, the size of the shadow is affected by these parameters in addition to the rotation parameter. We found that the radius of the shadow in each case decreases monotonically, and the distortion parameter increases when the values of these parameters increase. A comparison with the standard Kerr case is also investigated. We have also studied the influence of the plasma environment around regular black holes to discuss its shadow. The presence of the plasma affects the apparent size of the regular black hole's shadow to be increased due to two effects: (i) gravitational redshift of the photons and (ii) radial dependence of plasma density.
Rotating black hole solutions with quintessential energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toshmatov, Bobir; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Ahmedov, Bobomurat
2017-02-01
Quintessential dark energy with density ρ and pressure p is governed by an equation of state of the form p=ωqρ with the quintessential parameter ω_qin (-1;-1/3). We derive the geometry of quintessential rotating black holes, generalizing thus the Kerr spacetimes. Then we study the quintessential rotating black hole spacetimes with the special value of ωq = -2/3 when the resulting formulae are simple and easily tractable. We show that such special spacetimes can exist for the dimensionless quintessential parameter c < 1/6 and determine the critical rotational parameter a0 separating the black hole and naked singularity spacetime in dependence on the quintessential parameter c . For the spacetimes with ωq = -2/3 we give all the black hole characteristics and demonstrate local thermodynamical stability. We present the integrated geodesic equations in separated form and study in details the circular geodetical orbits. We give radii and parameters of the photon circular orbits, marginally bound and marginally stable orbits. We stress that the outer boundary on the existence of circular geodesics, given by the so-called static radius where the gravitational attraction of the black hole is balanced by the cosmic repulsion, does not depend on the dimensionless spin of the rotating black hole, similarly to the case of the Kerr-de Sitter spacetimes with vacuum dark energy. We also give restrictions on the dimensionless parameters c and a of the spacetimes allowing for existence of stable circular geodesics. Finally, using numerical methods we generalize the discussion of the circular geodesics to the black holes with arbitrary quintessential parameter ωq.
Stringy stability of charged dilaton black holes with flat event horizon
Ong, Yen Chin; Chen, Pisin
2015-01-15
Electrically charged black holes with flat event horizon in anti-de Sitter space have received much attention due to various applications in Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, from modeling the behavior of quark-gluon plasma to superconductor. Critical to the physics on the dual field theory is the fact that when embedded in string theory, black holes in the bulk may become vulnerable to instability caused by brane pair-production. Since dilation arises naturally in the context of string theory, we study the effect of coupling dilation to Maxwell field on the stability of flat charged AdS black holes.
Rotating black holes on codimension 2 branes
Kiley, Derrick
2007-12-15
It has recently been demonstrated that certain types of nontensional stress-energy can live on tensional codimension-2 branes, including gravitational shockwaves and small Schwarzschild black holes. In this paper we generalize the earlier Schwarzschild results, and construct the exact gravitational fields of small rotating black holes on a codimension-2 brane. We focus on the phenomenologically interesting case of a three-brane embedded in a spacetime with two compactified extra dimensions. For a nonzero tension on the brane, we verify that these solutions also show the ''lightning rod'' effect found in the Schwarzschild solutions, the net effect of which is to rescale the fundamental Planck mass. This allows for larger black hole parameters, such as the event horizon, angular momentum, and lifetime than would be naively expected for a tensionless brane. It is also found that a black hole with angular momentum pointing purely along the brane directions has a smaller horizon angular velocity than the corresponding tensionless case, while a hole with bulk components of angular momentum has a larger angular velocity.
Black holes surrounded by uniformly rotating rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansorg, Marcus; Petroff, David
2005-07-01
Highly accurate numerical solutions to the problem of black holes surrounded by uniformly rotating rings in axially symmetric, stationary spacetimes are presented. The numerical methods developed to handle the problem are discussed in some detail. Related Newtonian problems are described and numerical results provided, which show that configurations can reach an inner mass-shedding limit as the mass of the central object increases. Exemplary results for the full relativistic problem for rings of constant density are given and the deformation of the event horizon due to the presence of the ring is demonstrated. Finally, we provide an example of a system for which the angular momentum of the central black hole divided by the square of its mass exceeds one (Jc/M2c>1).
Rotating black string with nonlinear source
Hendi, S. H.
2010-09-15
In this paper, we derive rotating black string solutions in the presence of two kinds of nonlinear electromagnetic fields, so-called Born-Infeld and power Maxwell invariant. Investigation of the solutions show that for the Born-Infeld black string the singularity is timelike and the asymptotic behavior of the solutions is anti-de Sitter, but for power Maxwell invariant solutions, depending on the values of nonlinearity parameter, the singularity may be timelike as well as spacelike and the solutions are not asymptotically anti-de Sitter for all values of the nonlinearity parameter. Next, we calculate the conserved quantities of the solutions by using the counterterm method, and find that these quantities do not depend on the nonlinearity parameter. We also compute the entropy, temperature, the angular velocity, the electric charge, and the electric potential of the solutions, in which the conserved and thermodynamics quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics.
No-hair conjecture in two-dimensional dilaton supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamboa, J.; Georgelin, Y.
1993-11-01
We study two-dimensional (2D) dilaton gravity and supergravity following Hamiltonian methods. First, we consider the structure of constraints of 2D dilaton gravity, and then the 2D dilaton supergravity theory is obtained taking the square root of the bosonic constraints. We integrate exactly the equations of motion in both cases, and we show that the solutions of the equation of motion of 2D dilaton supergravity differ from the solutions of 2D dilaton gravity only by boundary conditions on the fermionic variables; i.e., the black holes of 2D dilaton supergravity theory are exactly the same black holes of 2D bosonic dilaton gravity modulo supersymmetry transformations. This result is the two-dimensional analogue of the no-hair theorem for supergravity.
Horizon dynamics of distorted rotating black holes
Chu, Tony; Cohen, Michael I.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.
2011-05-15
We present numerical simulations of a rotating black hole distorted by a pulse of ingoing gravitational radiation. For strong pulses, we find up to five concentric marginally outer trapped surfaces. These trapped surfaces appear and disappear in pairs, so that the total number of such surfaces at any given time is odd. The world tubes traced out by the marginally outer trapped surfaces are found to be spacelike during the highly dynamical regime, approaching a null hypersurface at early and late times. We analyze the structure of these marginally trapped tubes in the context of the dynamical horizon formalism, computing the expansion of outgoing and incoming null geodesics, as well as evaluating the dynamical horizon flux law and the angular momentum flux law. Finally, we compute the event horizon. The event horizon is well-behaved and approaches the apparent horizon before and after the highly dynamical regime. No new generators enter the event horizon during the simulation.
Charged fermions tunneling from accelerating and rotating black holes
Rehman, Mudassar; Saifullah, K. E-mail: saifullah@qau.edu.pk
2011-03-01
We study Hawking radiation of charged fermions from accelerating and rotating black holes with electric and magnetic charges. We calculate the tunneling probabilities of incoming and outgoing fermionic particles and find the Hawking temperature of these black holes. We also provide an explicit expression of the classical action for the massive and massless particles in the background of these black holes.
Scalar emission in a rotating Goedel black hole
Chen Songbai; Wang Bin; Jing Jiliang
2008-09-15
We study the absorption probability and Hawking radiation of the scalar field in the rotating Goedel black hole in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity. We find that Goedel parameter j imprints in the greybody factor and Hawking radiation. It plays a different role from the angular momentum of the black hole in the Hawking radiation and super-radiance. This information can help us know more about rotating Goedel black holes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity.
Particle motion and Penrose processes around rotating regular black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon
2016-07-01
The neutral particle motion around rotating regular black hole that was derived from the Ayón-Beato-García (ABG) black hole solution by the Newman-Janis algorithm in the preceding paper (Toshmatov et al., Phys. Rev. D, 89:104017, 2014) has been studied. The dependencies of the ISCO (innermost stable circular orbits along geodesics) and unstable orbits on the value of the electric charge of the rotating regular black hole have been shown. Energy extraction from the rotating regular black hole through various processes has been examined. We have found expression of the center of mass energy for the colliding neutral particles coming from infinity, based on the BSW (Baňados-Silk-West) mechanism. The electric charge Q of rotating regular black hole decreases the potential of the gravitational field as compared to the Kerr black hole and the particles demonstrate less bound energy at the circular geodesics. This causes an increase of efficiency of the energy extraction through BSW process in the presence of the electric charge Q from rotating regular black hole. Furthermore, we have studied the particle emission due to the BSW effect assuming that two neutral particles collide near the horizon of the rotating regular extremal black hole and produce another two particles. We have shown that efficiency of the energy extraction is less than the value 146.6 % being valid for the Kerr black hole. It has been also demonstrated that the efficiency of the energy extraction from the rotating regular black hole via the Penrose process decreases with the increase of the electric charge Q and is smaller in comparison to 20.7 % which is the value for the extreme Kerr black hole with the specific angular momentum a= M.
Rotating black hole thermodynamics with a particle probe
Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon
2011-10-15
The thermodynamics of Myers-Perry black holes in general dimensions are studied using a particle probe. When undergoing particle absorption, the changes of the entropy and irreducible mass are shown to be dependent on the particle radial momentum. The black hole thermodynamic behaviors are dependent on dimensionality for specific rotations. For a 4-dimensional Kerr black hole, its black hole properties are maintained for any particle absorption. 5-dimensional black holes can avoid a naked ring singularity by absorbing a particle in specific momenta ranges. Black holes over 6 dimensions become ultraspinning black holes through a specific form of particle absorption. The microscopical changes are interpreted in limited cases of Myers-Perry black holes using Kerr/CFT correspondence. We systematically describe the black hole properties changed by particle absorption in all dimensions.
Cosmic censorship of rotating Anti-de Sitter black hole
Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon E-mail: bhl@sogang.ac.kr
2016-02-01
We test the validity of cosmic censorship in the rotating anti-de Sitter black hole. For this purpose, we investigate whether the extremal black hole can be overspun by the particle absorption. The particle absorption will change the mass and angular momentum of the black hole, which is analyzed using the Hamilton-Jacobi equations consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. We have found that the mass of the extremal black hole increases more than the angular momentum. Therefore, the outer horizon of the black hole still exists, and cosmic censorship is valid.
Eikonal particle scattering and dilaton gravity
Das, S.; Majumdar, P.
1997-02-01
Approximating light charged pointlike particles in terms of (nonextremal) dilatonic black holes is shown to lead to certain pathologies in Planckian scattering in the eikonal approximation, which are traced to the presence of a (naked) curvature singularity in the metric of these black holes. The existence of such pathologies is confirmed by analyzing the problem in an {open_quotes}external metric{close_quote}{close_quote} formulation where an ultrarelativistic point particle scatters off a dilatonic black hole geometry at large impact parameters. The maladies disappear almost trivially upon imposing the extremal limit. Attempts to derive an effective three-dimensional {open_quotes}boundary{close_quote}{close_quote} field theory in the eikonal limit are stymied by four-dimensional (bulk) terms proportional to the light-cone derivatives of the dilaton field, leading to nontrivial mixing of electromagnetic and gravitational effects, in contrast with the case of general relativity. An eikonal scattering amplitude, showing decoupling of these effects, is shown to be derivable by resummation of graviton, dilaton, and photon exchange ladder diagrams in a linearized version of the theory for an asymptotic value of the dilaton field which makes the string coupling constant nonperturbative. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Black hole physics from two-dimensional dilaton gravity based on the SL(2,[ital R])/U(1) coset model
Nojiri, S. ); Oda, I. Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ochanomizu University, 1-1, Otsuka 2, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112 )
1994-04-15
We analyze the quantum two-dimensional dilaton gravity model, which is described by the SL(2,[ital R])/U(1) gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten model deformed by a (1,1) operator. We show that the curvature singularity does not appear when the central charge [ital c][sub matter] of the matter fields is given by 22[lt][ital c][sub matter][lt]24. When 22[lt][ital c][sub matter][lt]24, the matter shock waves, whose energy-momentum tensors are given by [ital T][sub matter][proportional to][delta]([ital x][sup +][minus][ital x][sub 0][sup +]), create a kind of wormholes, i.e., causally disconnected regions. Most of the quantum information in past null infinity is lost in future null infinity but the lost information would be carried by the wormholes. We also discuss the problem of defining the mass of quantum black holes. On the basis of the argument by Regge and Teitelboim, we show that the ADM mass measured by the observer who lives in one of the asymptotically flat regions is finite and does not vanish in general. On the other hand, the Bondi mass is ill defined in this model. Instead of the Bondi mass, we consider the mass measured by observers who live in an asymptotically flat region at first. A class of observers finds the mass of the black hole created by a shock wave changes as the observers' proper time goes by, i.e., they observe Hawking radiation. The measured mass vanishes after the infinite proper time and the black hole evaporates completely. Therefore the total Hawking radiation is positive even when [ital N][lt]24.
Hawking temperature of rotating charged black strings from tunneling
Ahmed, Jamil; Saifullah, K. E-mail: saifullah@qau.edu.pk
2011-11-01
Thermal radiations from spherically symmetric black holes have been studied from the point of view of quantum tunneling. In this paper we extend this approach to study radiation of fermions from charged and rotating black strings. Using WKB approximation and Hamilton-Jacobi method we work out the tunneling probabilities of incoming and outgoing fermions and find the correct Hawking temperature for these objects. We show that in appropriate limits the results reduce to those for the uncharged and non-rotating black strings.
Dynamical Evolution of Rotating Globular Clusters with Embedded Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiestas, J.; Porth, O.; Spurzem, R.
2008-05-01
Evolution of self-gravitating rotating dense stellar systems (e.g. globular clusters) with embedded black holes is investigated. The interplay between velocity diffusion due to relaxation and black hole star accretion is followed together with cluster differential rotation using 2D+1 Fokker Planck numerical methods. The models can reproduce the Bahcall-Wolf f E1/4 ( r-7/4) cusp inside the zone of influence of the black hole. Angular momentum transport and star accretion processes support the development of central rotation in relaxation time scales, before re-expansion and cluster dissolution due to mass loss in the tidal field of a parent galaxy. Gravogyro and gravothermal instabilities conduce the system to a faster evolution leading to shorter collapse times with respect to models without black hole.
Interaction of higher-dimensional rotating black holes with branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Valeri P.; Fursaev, Dmitri V.; Stojkovic, Dejan
2004-07-01
We study interaction of rotating higher-dimensional black holes with a brane in spacetimes with large extra dimensions. We demonstrate that in a general case a rotating black hole attached to a brane can lose bulk components of its angular momenta. A stationary black hole can have only those components of the angular momenta which are connected with Killing vectors generating transformations preserving a position of the brane. In a final stationary state the null Killing vector generating the black hole horizon is tangent to the brane. We discuss first the interaction of a cosmic string and a domain wall with the 4D Kerr black hole. We then prove the general result for slowly rotating higher-dimensional black holes interacting with branes. The characteristic time when a rotating black hole with gravitational radius r0 reaches this final stationary state is T ~ rp-10/(Gσ), where G is the higher-dimensional gravitational coupling constant, σ is the brane tension and p is the number of extra dimensions.
Energy extraction from Kerr black holes by rigidly rotating strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kinoshita, Shunichiro; Igata, Takahisa; Tanabe, Kentaro
2016-12-01
In this paper, we show that a rigidly rotating string can extract the rotational energy from a rotating black hole. We consider Nambu-Goto strings stationary with respect to a corotating Killing vector with an uniform angular velocity ω in the Kerr spacetime. We show that a necessary condition of the energy-extraction process is that an effective horizon on the string world sheet, which corresponds to the inner light surface, is inside the ergosphere of the Kerr black hole and the angular velocity ω is less than that of the black hole Ωh . Furthermore, we discuss global configurations of such strings in both of a slow-rotation limit and the extremal Kerr case.
Charged rotating black holes on a 3-brane
Aliev, A.N.; Guemruekcueoglu, A.E.
2005-05-15
We study exact stationary and axisymmetric solutions describing charged rotating black holes localized on a 3-brane in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld. The charges of the black holes are considered to be of two types, the first being an induced tidal charge that appears as an imprint of nonlocal gravitational effects from the bulk space and the second is a usual electric charge arising due to a Maxwell field trapped on the brane. We assume a special ansatz for the metric on the brane taking it to be of the Kerr-Schild form and show that the Kerr-Newman solution of ordinary general relativity in which the electric charge is superseded by a tidal charge satisfies a closed system of the effective gravitational field equations on the brane. It turns out that the negative tidal charge may provide a mechanism for spinning up the black hole so that its rotation parameter exceeds its mass. This is not allowed in the framework of general relativity. We also find a new solution that represents a rotating black hole on the brane carrying both charges. We show that for a rapid enough rotation the combined influence of the rotational dynamics and the local bulk effects of the 'squared' energy-momentum tensor on the brane distort the horizon structure of the black hole in such a way that it can be thought of as composed of nonuniformly rotating null circles with growing radii from the equatorial plane to the poles. We finally study the geodesic motion of test particles in the equatorial plane of a rotating black hole with tidal charge. We show that the effects of negative tidal charge tend to increase the horizon radius, as well as the radii of the limiting photon orbit, the innermost bound and the innermost stable circular orbits for both direct and retrograde motions of the particles.
Rotating Hayward's regular black hole as particle accelerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amir, Muhammed; Ghosh, Sushant G.
2015-07-01
Recently, Bañados, Silk and West (BSW) demonstrated that the extremal Kerr black hole can act as a particle accelerator with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy ( E CM) when the collision takes place near the horizon. The rotating Hayward's regular black hole, apart from Mass ( M) and angular momentum ( a), has a new parameter g ( g > 0 is a constant) that provides a deviation from the Kerr black hole. We demonstrate that for each g, with M = 1, there exist critical a E and r {/H E }, which corresponds to a regular extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, and a E decreases whereas r {/H E } increases with increase in g. While a < a E describe a regular non-extremal black hole with outer and inner horizons. We apply the BSW process to the rotating Hayward's regular black hole, for different g, and demonstrate numerically that the E CM diverges in the vicinity of the horizon for the extremal cases thereby suggesting that a rotating regular black hole can also act as a particle accelerator and thus in turn provide a suitable framework for Plank-scale physics. For a non-extremal case, there always exist a finite upper bound for the E CM, which increases with the deviation parameter g.
Entropy product of rotating black holes in three-dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahdavian Yekta, Davood
2017-03-01
It has been shown that the product of the entropies of the inner Cauchy and outer event horizon of the charged axisymmetric and stationary black holes is a universal formula, which is independent of the black hole's mass. In this paper, we investigate this universality for the two kinds of rotating black holes in the three-dimensional gravity models. In fact, we study the spacelike warped anti-de Sitter black hole in the new massive gravity and the Bañados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli black hole in the minimal massive gravity. We show that this rule is held in the first theory. By contrast, in the latter case which includes a holographic gravitational anomalous term, we obtain that the universality does not work and the product depends on the mass. As a complement to the above verification, we also study the thermodynamic properties of these black holes.
Rotating black lens solution in five dimensions
Chen Yu; Teo, Edward
2008-09-15
It has recently been shown that a stationary, asymptotically flat vacuum black hole in five space-time dimensions with two commuting axial symmetries must have an event horizon with either a spherical, ring or lens-space topology. In this paper, we study the third possibility, a so-called black lens with L(n,1) horizon topology. Using the inverse scattering method, we construct a black-lens solution with the simplest possible rod structure, and possessing a single asymptotic angular momentum. Its properties are then analyzed; in particular, it is shown that there must either be a conical singularity or a naked curvature singularity present in the space-time.
Instabilities of Extremal Rotating Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hollands, Stefan; Ishibashi, Akihiro
2015-11-01
Recently, Durkee and Reall have conjectured a criterion for linear instability of rotating, extremal, asymptotically Minkowskian black holes in dimensions, such as the Myers-Perry black holes. They considered a certain elliptic operator, , acting on symmetric trace-free tensors intrinsic to the horizon. Based in part on numerical evidence, they suggested that if the lowest eigenvalue of this operator is less than the critical value -1/4 ( called "effective BF-bound"), then the black hole is linearly unstable. In this paper, we prove an extended version of their conjecture. Our proof uses a combination of methods such as (1) the "canonical energy method" of Hollands-Wald, (2) algebraically special properties of the near horizon geometries associated with the black hole, (3) the Corvino-Schoen technique, and (4) semiclassical analysis. Our method of proof is also applicable to rotating, extremal asymptotically Anti-deSitter black holes. In that case, we find additional instabilities for ultra-spinning black holes. Although we explicitly discuss in this paper only extremal black holes, we argue that our results can be generalized to near extremal black holes.
GUP assisted Hawking radiation of rotating acoustic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakalli, I.; Övgün, A.; Jusufi, K.
2016-10-01
Recent studies (Steinhauer in Nat. Phys. 10:864, 2014, Phys. Rev. D 92:024043, 2015) provide compelling evidences that Hawking radiation could be experimentally proven by using an analogue black hole. In this paper, taking this situation into account we study the quantum gravitational effects on the Hawking radiation of rotating acoustic black holes. For this purpose, we consider the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) in the phenomenon of quantum tunneling. We firstly take the modified commutation relations into account to compute the GUP modified Hawking temperature when the massive scalar particles tunnel from this black hole. Then, we find a remarkably instructive expression for the GUP entropy to derive the quantum gravity corrected Hawking temperature of the rotating acoustic black hole.
Dynamical evolution of rotating globular clusters with embedded black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiestas, José
2006-02-01
In this dissertation evolution of self-gravitating dense stellar systems (e.g. globular clusters, galactic nuclei) with embedded black holes is investigated, motivated by observational evidences of the existence of central dark objects in these systems. The interaction between the stellar and black hole component is followed in a way, different from most other investigations in this field, as flattening of the system due to differential rotation is allowed. The axisymmetric system is modelled using 2-dimensional, in energy and z-component of angular momentum, Fokker Planck numerical methods. The interplay between velocity diffusion due to relaxation and black hole star accretion is followed together with cluster rotation. The results show how angular momentum transport and star accretion support the development of central rotation in relaxation time scales. Gravogyro and gravothermal instabilities conduce the system to a faster evolution leading to shorter collapse times with respect to models without black hole, and a faster cluster dissolution in the galactic tidal field of a parent galaxy. As a further application, two-dimensional distribution (in the meridional plane) of kinematical and structural parameters (density, dispersions, rotation) are reproduced, covering a wide range of ages, rotation, concentrations and ellipticities, with the aim to enable the use of set of models for comparison with observational data.
Hawking radiation from rotating black holes and gravitational anomalies
Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro
2006-08-15
We study the Hawking radiation from Rotating black holes from the gravitational anomalies point of view. First, we show that the scalar field theory near the Kerr black hole horizon can be reduced to the 2-dimensional effective theory. Then, following Robinson and Wilczek, we derive the Hawking flux by requiring the cancellation of gravitational anomalies. We also apply this method to Hawking radiation from higher dimensional Myers-Perry black holes. In the appendix, we present the trace anomaly derivation of Hawking radiation to argue the validity of the boundary condition at the horizon.
Hawking radiation of a high-dimensional rotating black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Zhao; Lichun, Zhang; Huaifan, Li; Yueqin, Wu
2010-01-01
We extend the classical Damour-Ruffini method and discuss Hawking radiation spectrum of high-dimensional rotating black hole using Tortoise coordinate transformation defined by taking the reaction of the radiation to the spacetime into consideration. Under the condition that the energy and angular momentum are conservative, taking self-gravitation action into account, we derive Hawking radiation spectrums which satisfy unitary principle in quantum mechanics. It is shown that the process that the black hole radiates particles with energy ω is a continuous tunneling process. We provide a theoretical basis for further studying the physical mechanism of black-hole radiation.
Radiation spectrum of a high-dimensional rotating black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ren; Li, Huaifan; Zhang, Lichun; Wu, Yueqin
2010-03-01
This study extends the classical Damour-Ruffini method and discusses Hawking radiation in a ( n + 4)-dimensional rotating black hole. Under the condition that the total energy and angular momentum of spacetime are conservative, but angular momentum a = J/ M of unit mass of the black hole is variable, taking into consideration the reaction of the radiation of the particle to the spacetime, a new Tortoise coordinate transformation and discuss the black hole radiation spectrum is discussed. The radiation spectrum that satisfies the unitary principle in the general case is derived.
Thermodynamics of 5D dilaton-gravity
Megias, E.
2011-05-23
We calculate the free energy, spatial string tension and Polyakov loop of the gluon plasma using the dilaton potential of Ref. [1] in the dilaton-gravity theory of AdS/QCD. The free energy is computed from the Black Hole solutions of the Einstein equations in two ways: first, from the Bekenstein-Hawking proportionality of the entropy with the area of the horizon, and secondly from the Page-Hawking computation of the free energy. The finite temperature behaviour of the spatial string tension and Polyakov loop follow from the corresponding string theory in AdS{sub 5}. Comparison with lattice data is made.
On the simplest binary system of rotating black holes
Manko, V. S.; Rodchenko, E. D.; Sadovnikov, B. I.; Ruiz, E.
2009-05-01
Exact axisymmetric stationary solution of the Einstein equations describing a system of two counter-rotating identical Kerr black holes is worked out in a physical parametrization within the framework of the Ernst formalism and analytically extended double-Kerr solution. The derivation of the limiting case of extreme constituents is also discussed.
Analytic continuation of the rotating black hole state counting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Achour, Jibril Ben; Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro
2016-08-01
In loop quantum gravity, a spherical black hole can be described in terms of a Chern-Simons theory on a punctured 2-sphere. The sphere represents the horizon. The punctures are the edges of spin-networks in the bulk which cross the horizon and carry quanta of area. One can generalize this construction and model a rotating black hole by adding an extra puncture colored with the angular momentum J in the 2-sphere. We compute the entropy of rotating black holes in this model and study its semi-classical limit. After performing an analytic continuation which sends the Barbero-Immirzi parameter to γ = ± i,weshowthattheleadingorderterminthesemi-classicalexpansionoftheentropy reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking law independently of the value of J.
Extremal charged rotating black holes in odd dimensions
Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lerida, Francisco
2010-07-15
Employing higher order perturbation theory, we obtain charged rotating black holes in odd dimensions, where the Einstein-Maxwell Lagrangian may be supplemented with a Chern-Simons term. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta. For Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with arbitrary Chern-Simons coupling constant, we perform the perturbations up to 3rd order for any odd dimension. We discuss the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge. In particular, we show that the gyromagnetic ratio g of Einstein-Maxwell black holes differs from the lowest order perturbative value D-2, and that the first correction term to g/(D-2) is universal.
Anomalies, Hawking radiations, and regularity in rotating black holes
Iso, Satoshi; Umetsu, Hiroshi; Wilczek, Frank
2006-08-15
This is an extended version of our previous letter [S. Iso, H. Umetsu, and F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 151302 (2006).]. In this paper we consider rotating black holes and show that the flux of Hawking radiation can be determined by anomaly cancellation conditions and regularity requirement at the horizon. By using a dimensional reduction technique, each partial wave of quantum fields in a d=4 rotating black hole background can be interpreted as a (1+1)-dimensional charged field with a charge proportional to the azimuthal angular momentum m. From this and the analysis [S. P. Robinson and F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 011303 (2005), S. Iso, H. Umetsu, and F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 151302 (2006).] on Hawking radiation from charged black holes, we show that the total flux of Hawking radiation from rotating black holes can be universally determined in terms of the values of anomalies at the horizon by demanding gauge invariance and general coordinate covariance at the quantum level. We also clarify our choice of boundary conditions and show that our results are consistent with the effective action approach where regularity at the future horizon and vanishing of ingoing modes at r={infinity} are imposed (i.e. Unruh vacuum)
Rotating black holes in the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nashed, Gamal G. L.
2016-05-01
We derive set of solutions with flat transverse sections in the framework of a teleparallel equivalent of general relativity which describes rotating black holes. The singularities supported from the invariants of torsion and curvature are explained. We investigate that there appear more singularities in the torsion scalars than in the curvature ones. The conserved quantities are discussed using Einstein-Cartan geometry. The physics of the constants of integration is explained through the calculations of conserved quantities. These calculations show that there is a unique solution that may describe true physical black hole.
Rotating Charged Hairy Black Hole in (2+1) Dimensions and Particle Acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi, J.; Pourhassan, B.; Farahani, H.
2014-09-01
In this paper, we construct rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions for infinitesimal black hole charge and rotation parameters. Then we consider this black hole as particle accelerator and calculate the center-of-mass energy of two colliding test particles near the rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions. As we expected, the center-of-mass energy has infinite value.
Hidden Symmetries of Higher-Dimensional Rotating Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubiznak, David
2008-09-01
In this thesis we study higher-dimensional rotating black holes. Such black holes are widely discussed in string theory and brane-world models at present. We demonstrate that even the most general known Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetime, describing the general rotating higher-dimensional asymptotically (anti) de Sitter black hole with NUT parameters, is in many aspects similar to its four-dimensional counterpart. Namely, we show that it admits a fundamental hidden symmetry associated with the principal conformal Killing-Yano tensor. Such a tensor generates towers of hidden and explicit symmetries. The tower of Killing tensors is responsible for the existence of irreducible, quadratic in momenta, conserved integrals of geodesic motion. These integrals, together with the integrals corresponding to the tower of explicit symmetries, make geodesic equations in the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetime completely integrable. We further demonstrate that in this spacetime the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, and stationary string equations allow complete separation of variables and the problem of finding parallel-propagated frames reduces to the set of the first order ordinary differential equations. Moreover, we show that the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetime is the most general Einstein space which possesses all these properties. We also explicitly derive the most general (off-shell) canonical metric admitting the principal conformal Killing-Yano tensor and demonstrate that such a metric is necessarily of the special algebraic type D of the higher-dimensional algebraic classification. The results presented in this thesis describe the new and complete picture of the relationship of hidden symmetries and rotating black holes in higher dimensions.
Rotating black holes in an expanding Universe from fake supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chimento, Samuele; Klemm, Dietmar
2015-02-01
Using the recipe of Meessen and Palomo-Lozano (2009 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP05(2009)042), where all fake supersymmetric backgrounds of matter-coupled fake N = 2, d = 4 gauged supergravity were classified, we construct dynamical rotating black holes in an expanding FLRW Universe. This is done for two different prepotentials that are both truncations of the stu model and correspond to just one vector multiplet. In this scenario, the cosmic expansion is driven by two U(1) gauge fields and by a complex scalar that rolls down its potential. Generically, the solutions of Meessen and Palomo-Lozano are fibrations over a Gauduchon-Tod base space, and we make three different choices for this base, namely flat space, the three-sphere and the Berger sphere. In the first two cases, the black holes are determined by harmonic functions on the base, while in the last case they obey a deformed Laplace equation that contains the squashing parameter of the Berger sphere. This is the generalization to a cosmological context of the usual recipe in ungauged supergravity, where black holes are given in terms of harmonic functions on three-dimensional Euclidean space. The constructed solutions may be instrumental in addressing analytically certain aspects of black hole physics in a dynamical context.
Chaotic cold accretion on to black holes in rotating atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaspari, M.; Brighenti, F.; Temi, P.
2015-07-01
The fueling of black holes is one key problem in the evolution of baryons in the universe. Chaotic cold accretion (CCA) profoundly differs from classic accretion models, as Bondi and thin disc theories. Using 3D high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, we now probe the impact of rotation on the hot and cold accretion flow in a typical massive galaxy. In the hot mode, with or without turbulence, the pressure-dominated flow forms a geometrically thick rotational barrier, suppressing the black hole accretion rate to ~1/3 of the spherical case value. When radiative cooling is dominant, the gas loses pressure support and quickly circularizes in a cold thin disk; the accretion rate is decoupled from the cooling rate, although it is higher than that of the hot mode. In the more common state of a turbulent and heated atmosphere, CCA drives the dynamics if the gas velocity dispersion exceeds the rotational velocity, i.e., turbulent Taylor number Tat< 1. Extended multiphase filaments condense out of the hot phase via thermal instability (TI) and rain toward the black hole, boosting the accretion rate up to 100 times the Bondi rate (Ṁ• ~ Ṁcool). Initially, turbulence broadens the angular momentum distribution of the hot gas, allowing the cold phase to condense with prograde or retrograde motion. Subsequent chaotic collisions between the cold filaments, clouds, and a clumpy variable torus promote the cancellation of angular momentum, leading to high accretion rates. As turbulence weakens (Tat > 1), the broadening of the distribution and the efficiency of collisions diminish, damping the accretion rate ∝ Tat-1, until the cold disk drives the dynamics. This is exacerbated by the increased difficulty to grow TI in a rotating halo. The simulated sub-Eddington accretion rates cover the range inferred from AGN cavity observations. CCA predicts inner flat X-ray temperature and r-1 density profiles, as recently discovered in M 87 and NGC 3115. The synthetic Hα images
Scattering of circularly polarized light by a rotating black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Valeri P.; Shoom, Andrey A.
2012-07-01
We study scattering of polarized light by a rotating (Kerr) black hole of mass M and angular momentum J. In order to keep trace of the polarization dependence of photon trajectories one can use the following dimensionless parameter: ɛ=±(ωM)-1, where ω is the photon frequency and the sign + (-) corresponds to the right (left) circular polarization. We assume that |ɛ|≪1 and use the modified geometric optics approximation developed in [Phys. Rev. D 84, 044026 (2011)]; that is, we include the first order in ɛ polarization-dependent terms into the eikonal equation. These corrections modify late-time behavior of photons. We demonstrate that the photon moves along a null curve, which in the limit ɛ=0 becomes a null geodesic. We focus on the scattering problem for polarized light. Namely, we consider the following problems: (i) How does the photon’s bending angle depend on its polarization? (ii) How does the position of the image of a pointlike source depend on its polarization? (iii) How does the arrival time of photons depend on their polarization? We perform the numerical calculations that illustrate these effects for an extremely rotating black hole and discuss their possible applications.
Evolution of Binary Supermassive Black Holes in Rotating Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasskazov, Alexander; Merritt, David
2017-03-01
The interaction of a binary supermassive black hole with stars in a galactic nucleus can result in changes to all the elements of the binary’s orbit, including the angles that define its orientation. If the nucleus is rotating, the orientation changes can be large, causing large changes in the binary’s orbital eccentricity as well. We present a general treatment of this problem based on the Fokker–Planck equation for f, defined as the probability distribution for the binary’s orbital elements. First- and second-order diffusion coefficients are derived for the orbital elements of the binary using numerical scattering experiments, and analytic approximations are presented for some of these coefficients. Solutions of the Fokker–Planck equation are then derived under various assumptions about the initial rotational state of the nucleus and the binary hardening rate. We find that the evolution of the orbital elements can become qualitatively different when we introduce nuclear rotation: (1) the orientation of the binary’s orbit evolves toward alignment with the plane of rotation of the nucleus and (2) binary orbital eccentricity decreases for aligned binaries and increases for counteraligned ones. We find that the diffusive (random-walk) component of a binary’s evolution is small in nuclei with non-negligible rotation, and we derive the time-evolution equations for the semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination in that approximation. The aforementioned effects could influence gravitational wave production as well as the relative orientation of host galaxies and radio jets.
Bulk viscosity of accretion disks around non rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moeen Moghaddas, M.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we study the Keplerian, relativistic accretion disks around the non rotating black holes with the bulk viscosity. Many of authors studied the relativistic accretion disks around the black holes, but they ignored the bulk viscosity. We introduce a simple method to calculate the bulk in these disks. We use the simple form for the radial component of the four velocity in the Schwarzschild metric, then the other components of the four velocity and the components of the shear and the bulk tensor are calculated. Also all components of the bulk viscosity, the shear viscosity and stress tensor are calculated. It is seen that some components of the bulk tensor are comparable with the shear tensor. We calculate some of the thermodynamic quantities of the relativistic disks. Comparison of thermodynamic quantities shows that in some states influences of the bulk viscosity are important, especially in the inner radiuses. All calculations are done analytically and we do not use the boundary conditions. Finally, we find that in the relativistic disks around the black holes, the bulk viscosity is non-negligible in all the states.
Accelerating black diholes and static black dirings
Teo, Edward
2006-01-15
We show how a recently discovered black-ring solution with a rotating 2-sphere can be turned into two new solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The first is a four-dimensional solution describing a pair of oppositely charged, extremal black holes--known as a black dihole--undergoing uniform acceleration. The second is a five-dimensional solution describing a pair of concentric, static extremal black rings carrying opposite dipole charges--a so-called black diring. The properties of both solutions, which turn out to be formally very similar, are analyzed in detail. We also present, in an appendix, an accelerating version of the Zipoy-Voorhees solution in four-dimensional Einstein gravity.
Dirac particle tunneling from black rings
Jiang Qingquan
2008-08-15
Recent research shows that Hawking radiation can be treated as a quantum tunneling process, and Hawking temperatures of Dirac particles across the horizon of a black hole can be correctly recovered via the fermion tunneling method. In this paper, motivated by the fermion tunneling method, we attempt to apply the analysis to derive Hawking radiation of Dirac particles via tunneling from black ring solutions of 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity theory. Finally, it is interesting to find that, as in the black hole case, fermion tunneling can also result in correct Hawking temperatures for the rotating neutral, dipole, and charged black rings.
A rotating black hole solution for shape dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, Henrique; Herczeg, Gabriel
2014-09-01
Shape dynamics is a classical theory of gravity which agrees with general relativity in many important aspects, but which possesses different gauge symmetries and can present some fundamental global differences with respect to Einstein space-times. Here, we present a general procedure for (locally) mapping stationary, axisymmetric general relativity solutions onto their shape dynamic counterparts. We focus in particular on the rotating black hole solution for shape dynamics and show that many of the properties of the spherically symmetric solution are preserved in the extension to the axisymmetric case: it is also free of physical singularities, it does not form a space-time at the horizon, and it possesses an inversion symmetry about the horizon which leads to us to interpret the solution as a wormhole.
ROTATING ACCRETION FLOWS: FROM INFINITY TO THE BLACK HOLE
Li, Jason; Ostriker, Jeremiah; Sunyaev, Rashid
2013-04-20
Accretion onto a supermassive black hole of a rotating inflow is a particularly difficult problem to study because of the wide range of length scales involved. There have been broadly utilized analytic and numerical treatments of the global properties of accretion flows, but detailed numerical simulations are required to address certain critical aspects. We use the ZEUS code to run hydrodynamical simulations of rotating, axisymmetric accretion flows with Bremsstrahlung cooling, considering solutions for which the centrifugal balance radius significantly exceeds the Schwarzschild radius, with and without viscous angular momentum transport. Infalling gas is followed from well beyond the Bondi radius down to the vicinity of the black hole. We produce a continuum of solutions with respect to the single parameter M-dot{sub B}/ M-dot{sub Edd}, and there is a sharp transition between two general classes of solutions at an Eddington ratio of M-dot{sub B}/M-dot{sub Edd}{approx}few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}. Our high inflow solutions are very similar to the standard Shakura and Sunyaev results. But our low inflow results are to zeroth order the stationary Papaloizou and Pringle solution, which has no accretion. To next order in the small, assumed viscosity they show circulation, with disk and conical wind outflows almost balancing inflow. These solutions are characterized by hot, vertically extended disks, and net accretion proceeds at an extremely low rate, only of order {alpha} times the inflow rate. Our simulations have converged with respect to spatial resolution and temporal duration, and they do not depend strongly on our choice of boundary conditions.
Hawking radiation of scalar particles from accelerating and rotating black holes
Gillani, Usman A.; Rehman, Mudassar; Saifullah, K. E-mail: mudassar051@yahoo.com
2011-06-01
Hawking radiation of uncharged and charged scalar particles from accelerating and rotating black holes is studied. We calculate the tunneling probabilities of these particles from the rotation and acceleration horizons of these black holes. Using this method we recover the correct Hawking temperature as well.
Superradiance instability of small rotating AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delice, Ã.-zgür; Durǧut, Türküler
2015-07-01
We investigate the stability of D dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this paper we analytically prove that rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also shows superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and spacetime dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in the Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.
ENERGETIC GAMMA RADIATION FROM RAPIDLY ROTATING BLACK HOLES
Hirotani, Kouichi; Pu, Hung-Yi
2016-02-10
Supermassive black holes (BHs) are believed to be the central powerhouse of active galactic nuclei. Applying the pulsar outer-magnetospheric particle accelerator theory to BH magnetospheres, we demonstrate that an electric field is exerted along the magnetic field lines near the event horizon of a rotating BH. In this particle accelerator (or a gap), electrons and positrons are created by photon–photon collisions and accelerated in the opposite directions by this electric field, efficiently emitting gamma-rays via curvature and inverse-Compton processes. It is shown that a gap arises around the null-charge surface formed by the frame-dragging effect, provided that there is no current injection across the gap boundaries. The gap is dissipating a part of the hole’s rotational energy, and the resultant gamma-ray luminosity increases with decreasing plasma accretion from the surroundings. Considering an extremely rotating supermassive BH, we show that such a gap reproduces the significant very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray flux observed from the radio galaxy IC 310, provided that the accretion rate becomes much less than the Eddington rate particularly during its flare phase. It is found that the curvature process dominates the inverse-Compton process in the magnetosphere of IC 310, and that the observed power-law-like spectrum in VHE gamma-rays can be explained to some extent by a superposition of the curvature emissions with varying curvature radius. It is predicted that the VHE spectrum extends into higher energies with increasing VHE photon flux.
Three-dimensional dilatonic gravity's rainbow: Exact solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossein Hendi, Seyed; Eslam Panah, Behzad; Panahiyan, Shahram
2016-10-01
Deep relations of dark energy scenario and string theory results into dilaton gravity, on the one hand, and the connection between quantum gravity and gravity's rainbow, on the other hand, motivate us to consider three-dimensional dilatonic black hole solutions in gravity's rainbow. We obtain two classes of the solutions, which are polynomial and logarithmic forms. We also calculate conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and examine the first law of thermodynamics for both classes. In addition, we study thermal stability and show that one of the classes is thermally stable while the other one is unstable.
Powerful, Rotating Disk Winds from Stellar-mass Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Kaastra, J.; Kallman, T.; King, A. L.; Proga, D.; Raymond, J.; Reynolds, C. S.
2015-12-01
We present an analysis of ionized X-ray disk winds found in the Fe K band of four stellar-mass black holes observed with Chandra, including 4U 1630-47, GRO J1655-40, H 1743-322, and GRS 1915+105. High-resolution photoionization grids were generated in order to model the data. Third-order gratings spectra were used to resolve complex absorption profiles into atomic effects and multiple velocity components. The Fe xxv line is found to be shaped by contributions from the intercombination line (in absorption), and the Fe xxvi line is detected as a spin-orbit doublet. The data require 2-3 absorption zones, depending on the source. The fastest components have velocities approaching or exceeding 0.01c, increasing mass outflow rates and wind kinetic power by orders of magnitude over prior single-zone models. The first-order spectra require re-emission from the wind, broadened by a degree that is loosely consistent with Keplerian orbital velocities at the photoionization radius. This suggests that disk winds are rotating with the orbital velocity of the underlying disk, and provides a new means of estimating launching radii—crucial to understanding wind driving mechanisms. Some aspects of the wind velocities and radii correspond well to the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), suggesting a physical connection. We discuss these results in terms of prevalent models for disk wind production and disk accretion itself, and implications for massive black holes in AGNs.
Mirror effect induced by the dilaton field on the Hawking radiation
Maeda, Kengo; Okamura, Takashi
2006-11-03
A ''stringy particle'' action is naturally derived from Kaluza-Klein compactification of a test string action coupled to the dilaton field in a conformally invariant manner. According to the standard procedure, we perform the second quantization of the stringy particle. As an interesting application, we consider evaporation of a near-extremal dilatonic black hole by Hawking radiation via the stringy particles. We show that a mirror surface which reflects them is induced by the dilaton field outside the the horizon when the size of the black hole is comparable to the Planck scale. As a result, the energy flux does not propagate across the surface, and hence the evaporation of the dilatonic black hole stops just before the naked singularity at the extremal state appears even though the surface gravity is non-zero in the extremal limit.
Angular Momentum-Free of the Entropy Relations for Rotating Kaluza-Klein Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hang; Meng, Xin-he
2017-02-01
Based on a mathematical lemma related to the Vandermonde determinant and two theorems derived from the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we investigate the angular momentum independence of the entropy sum as well as the entropy product of general rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes in higher dimensions. We show that for both non-charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes and non-charged rotating Kaluza-Klein-AdS black holes, the angular momentum of the black holes will not be present in entropy sum relation in dimensions d≥4, while the independence of angular momentum of the entropy product holds provided that the black holes possess at least one zero rotation parameter a j = 0 in higher dimensions d≥5, which means that the cosmological constant does not affect the angular momentum-free property of entropy sum and entropy product under the circumstances that charge δ=0. For the reason that the entropy relations of charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes as well as the non-charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes in asymptotically flat spacetime act the same way, it is found that the charge has no effect in the angular momentum-independence of entropy sum and product in asymptotically flat spactime.
Angular Momentum-Free of the Entropy Relations for Rotating Kaluza-Klein Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hang; Meng, Xin-he
2016-11-01
Based on a mathematical lemma related to the Vandermonde determinant and two theorems derived from the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we investigate the angular momentum independence of the entropy sum as well as the entropy product of general rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes in higher dimensions. We show that for both non-charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes and non-charged rotating Kaluza-Klein-AdS black holes, the angular momentum of the black holes will not be present in entropy sum relation in dimensions d≥4, while the independence of angular momentum of the entropy product holds provided that the black holes possess at least one zero rotation parameter a j = 0 in higher dimensions d≥5, which means that the cosmological constant does not affect the angular momentum-free property of entropy sum and entropy product under the circumstances that charge δ=0. For the reason that the entropy relations of charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes as well as the non-charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes in asymptotically flat spacetime act the same way, it is found that the charge has no effect in the angular momentum-independence of entropy sum and product in asymptotically flat spactime.
Charged rotating AdS black holes with Chern-Simons coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mir, Mozhgan; Mann, Robert B.
2017-01-01
We obtain a perturbative solution for rotating charged black holes in five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with a negative cosmological constant. We start from a small undeformed Kerr-AdS solution and use the electric charge as a perturbative parameter to build up black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta up to fourth order. These black hole solutions are described by three parameters, the charge, horizon radius and horizon angular velocity. We determine the physical quantities of these black holes and study their dependence on the parameters of black holes and arbitrary Chern-Simons coefficient. In particular, for values of the CS coupling constant beyond its supergravity value, due to a rotational instability, counterrotating black holes arise. Also the rotating solutions appear to have vanishing angular momenta and are not manifest uniquely by their global charges.
BlackMax: A black-hole event generator with rotation, recoil, split branes, and brane tension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, De-Chang; Starkman, Glenn; Stojkovic, Dejan; Issever, Cigdem; Rizvi, Eram; Tseng, Jeff
2008-04-01
We present a comprehensive black-hole event generator, BlackMax, which simulates the experimental signatures of microscopic and Planckian black-hole production and evolution at the LHC in the context of brane world models with low-scale quantum gravity. The generator is based on phenomenologically realistic models free of serious problems that plague low-scale gravity, thus offering more realistic predictions for hadron-hadron colliders. The generator includes all of the black-hole gray-body factors known to date and incorporates the effects of black-hole rotation, splitting between the fermions, nonzero brane tension, and black-hole recoil due to Hawking radiation (although not all simultaneously). The generator can be interfaced with Herwig and Pythia. The main code can be downloaded from http://www-pnp.physics.ox.ac.uk/~issever/BlackMax/blackmax.html.
BlackMax: A black-hole event generator with rotation, recoil, split branes, and brane tension
Dai Dechang; Starkman, Glenn; Stojkovic, Dejan; Issever, Cigdem; Tseng, Jeff; Rizvi, Eram
2008-04-01
We present a comprehensive black-hole event generator, BlackMax, which simulates the experimental signatures of microscopic and Planckian black-hole production and evolution at the LHC in the context of brane world models with low-scale quantum gravity. The generator is based on phenomenologically realistic models free of serious problems that plague low-scale gravity, thus offering more realistic predictions for hadron-hadron colliders. The generator includes all of the black-hole gray-body factors known to date and incorporates the effects of black-hole rotation, splitting between the fermions, nonzero brane tension, and black-hole recoil due to Hawking radiation (although not all simultaneously). The generator can be interfaced with Herwig and Pythia. The main code can be downloaded from http://www-pnp.physics.ox.ac.uk/{approx}issever/BlackMax/blackmax.html.
General Nonextremal Rotating Black Holes in Minimal Five-Dimensional Gauged Supergravity
Chong, Z.-W.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.; Cvetic, M.
2005-10-14
We construct the general solution for nonextremal charged rotating black holes in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. They are characterized by four nontrivial parameters: namely, the mass, the charge, and the two independent rotation parameters. The metrics in general describe regular rotating black holes, providing the parameters lie in appropriate ranges so that naked singularities and closed timelike curves (CTCs) are avoided. We calculate the conserved energy, angular momenta, and charge for the solutions, and show how supersymmetric solutions arise in a Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield limit. These have naked CTCs in general, but for special choices of the parameters we obtain new regular supersymmetric black holes or smooth topological solitons.
5D Einstein-Maxwell solitons and concentric rotating dipole black rings
Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.
2008-09-15
We discuss the application of the solitonic techniques to the 5D Einstein-Maxwell gravity. As an illustration we construct a new exact solution describing two concentric rotating dipole black rings. The properties of the solution are investigated.
Floating and sinking: the imprint of massive scalars around rotating black holes.
Cardoso, Vitor; Chakrabarti, Sayan; Pani, Paolo; Berti, Emanuele; Gualtieri, Leonardo
2011-12-09
We study the coupling of massive scalar fields to matter in orbit around rotating black holes. It is generally expected that orbiting bodies will lose energy in gravitational waves, slowly inspiraling into the black hole. Instead, we show that the coupling of the field to matter leads to a surprising effect: because of superradiance, matter can hover into "floating orbits" for which the net gravitational energy loss at infinity is entirely provided by the black hole's rotational energy. Orbiting bodies remain floating until they extract sufficient angular momentum from the black hole, or until perturbations or nonlinear effects disrupt the orbit. For slowly rotating and nonrotating black holes floating orbits are unlikely to exist, but resonances at orbital frequencies corresponding to quasibound states of the scalar field can speed up the inspiral, so that the orbiting body sinks. These effects could be a smoking gun of deviations from general relativity.
Floating and Sinking: The Imprint of Massive Scalars around Rotating Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Chakrabarti, Sayan; Pani, Paolo; Berti, Emanuele; Gualtieri, Leonardo
2011-12-01
We study the coupling of massive scalar fields to matter in orbit around rotating black holes. It is generally expected that orbiting bodies will lose energy in gravitational waves, slowly inspiraling into the black hole. Instead, we show that the coupling of the field to matter leads to a surprising effect: because of superradiance, matter can hover into “floating orbits” for which the net gravitational energy loss at infinity is entirely provided by the black hole’s rotational energy. Orbiting bodies remain floating until they extract sufficient angular momentum from the black hole, or until perturbations or nonlinear effects disrupt the orbit. For slowly rotating and nonrotating black holes floating orbits are unlikely to exist, but resonances at orbital frequencies corresponding to quasibound states of the scalar field can speed up the inspiral, so that the orbiting body sinks. These effects could be a smoking gun of deviations from general relativity.
Hawking radiation of spin-1 particles from a three-dimensional rotating hairy black hole
Sakalli, I.; Ovgun, A.
2015-09-15
We study the Hawking radiation of spin-1 particles (so-called vector particles) from a three-dimensional rotating black hole with scalar hair using a Hamilton–Jacobi ansatz. Using the Proca equation in the WKB approximation, we obtain the tunneling spectrum of vector particles. We recover the standard Hawking temperature corresponding to the emission of these particles from a rotating black hole with scalar hair.
No-go theorem for slowly rotating black holes in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity.
Barausse, Enrico; Sotiriou, Thomas P
2012-11-02
We consider slowly rotating, stationary, axisymmetric black holes in the infrared limit of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. We show that such solutions do not exist, provided that they are regular everywhere apart from the central singularity. This has profound implications for the viability of the theory, considering the astrophysical evidence for the existence of black holes with nonzero spin.
Doukas, Jason; Cho, H. T.; Cornell, A. S.; Naylor, Wade
2009-08-15
In this article we present results for tensor graviton modes (in seven dimensions and greater, n{>=}3) for gray-body factors of Kerr-de Sitter black holes and for Hawking radiation from simply rotating (n+4)-dimensional Kerr black holes. Although there is some subtlety with defining the Hawking temperature of a Kerr-de Sitter black hole, we present some preliminary results for emissions assuming the standard Hawking normalization and a Bousso-Hawking-like normalization.
Hawking radiation in a rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons
Chen Songbai; Wang Bin; Su Rukeng
2008-01-15
We explore the signature of the extra dimension in the Hawking radiation in a rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons. Comparing with the spherical case, we find that the rotating parameter brings richer physics. We obtain the appropriate size of the extra dimension which can enhance the Hawking radiation and may open a window to detect the extra dimensions.
Causal extraction of black hole rotational energy by various kinds of electromagnetic fields
Koide, Shinji; Baba, Tamon
2014-09-10
Recent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations have suggested that relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been powered by the rotational energy of central black holes. Some mechanisms for extraction of black hole rotational energy have been proposed, like the Penrose process, Blandford-Znajek mechanism, MHD Penrose process, and superradiance. The Blandford-Znajek mechanism is the most promising mechanism for the engines of the relativistic jets from AGNs. However, an intuitive interpretation of this mechanism with causality is not yet clarified, while the Penrose process has a clear interpretation for causal energy extraction from a black hole with negative energy. In this paper, we present a formula to build physical intuition so that in the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, as well as in other electromagnetic processes, negative electromagnetic energy plays an important role in causal extraction of the rotational energy of black holes.
A scalar field condensation instability of rotating Anti-de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Óscar J. C.; Monteiro, Ricardo; Reall, Harvey S.; Santos, Jorge E.
2010-11-01
Near-extreme Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter black holes are unstable against the condensation of an uncharged scalar field with mass close to the Breitenlöhner-Freedman bound. It is shown that a similar instability afflicts near-extreme large rotating AdS black holes, and near-extreme hyperbolic Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. The resulting nonlinear hairy black hole solutions are determined numerically. Some stability results for (possibly charged) scalar fields in black hole backgrounds are proved. For most of the extreme black holes we consider, these demonstrate stability if the “effective mass” respects the near-horizon BF bound. Small spherical Reissner-Nordström-AdS black holes are an interesting exception to this result.
Energetics and optical properties of 6-dimensional rotating black hole in pure Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Atamurotov, Farruh; Dadhich, Naresh; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Stuchlík, Zdeněk
2015-08-01
We study physical processes around a rotating black hole in pure Gauss-Bonnet (GB) gravity. In pure GB gravity, the gravitational potential has a slower fall-off as compared to the corresponding Einstein potential in the same dimension. It is therefore expected that the energetics of a pure GB black hole would be weaker, and our analysis bears out that the efficiency of energy extraction by the Penroseprocess is increased to 25.8 % and the particle acceleration is increased to 55.28 %; the optical shadow of the black hole is decreased. These are in principle distinguishing observable features of a pure GB black hole.
Binary compact object mergers in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirschmann, Eric; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steve; Palenzuela, Carlos
2017-01-01
We present work on the dynamics and gravitational wae emission of binary black holes in a modified theory of gravity. Our particular model is inspired by low energy string theory and includes additional matter fields, such as a dilaton, not necessarily present in vacuum general relativity. We consider deviations from standard predictions for gravitational wave signatures and examine alternative scalar and electromagnetic channels for emission.
Horizon structure and shadow of rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atamurotov, Farruh
2016-07-01
We investigate the horizon structure of the rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld solution which goes over to the Einstein-Maxwell's Kerr-Newman solution as the Born-Infeld parameter goes to innity ( ! 1). We nd that for a given , mass M and charge Q, there exist critical spinning parameter aE and rEH, which corresponds to an extremal Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole with degenerate horizons, and aE decreases and rEH increases with increase in the Born-Infeld parameter . While a < aE describe a non-extremal Einstein-Born- Infeld black hole with outer and inner horizons. Similarly, the effect of on innite redshift surface and in turn on ergoregion is also included. It is well known that a black hole can cast a shadow as an optical appearance due to its strong gravitational eld. We also investigate the shadow cast by the rotating Einstein- Born-Infeld black hole and demonstrate that the null geodesic equations can be integrated that allows us to investigate the shadow cast by a black hole which is found to be a dark zone covered by a circle. Interestingly, the shadows of Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole is slightly smaller than for the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole which are concentric circles, for different values of the Born-Infeld parameter , whose radius decreases with increase in the value of parameter . The shadows for the rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld solution are also included.
Holographic conductivity for logarithmic charged dilaton-Lifshitz solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehyadegari, A.; Sheykhi, A.; Kord Zangeneh, M.
2016-07-01
We disclose the effects of the logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics on the holographic conductivity of Lifshitz dilaton black holes/branes. We analyze thermodynamics of these solutions as a necessary requirement for applying gauge/gravity duality, by calculating conserved and thermodynamic quantities such as the temperature, entropy, electric potential and mass of the black holes/branes. We calculate the holographic conductivity for a (2 + 1)-dimensional brane boundary and study its behavior in terms of the frequency per temperature. Interestingly enough, we find out that, in contrast to the Lifshitz-Maxwell-dilaton black branes which have conductivity for all z, here in the presence of nonlinear gauge field, the holographic conductivity does exist provided z ≤ 3 and vanishes for z > 3. It is shown that independent of the nonlinear parameter β, the real part of the conductivity is the same for a specific value of frequency per temperature in both AdS and Lifshitz cases. Besides, the behavior of real part of conductivity for large frequencies has a positive slope with respect to large frequencies for a system with Lifshitz symmetry whereas it tends to a constant for a system with AdS symmetry. This behavior may be interpreted as existence of an additional charge carrier rather than the AdS case, and is due to the presence of the scalar dilaton field in model. Similar behavior for optical conductivity of single-layer graphene induced by mild oxygen plasma exposure has been reported.
Entropy bound of horizons for accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski-Demianski black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debnath, Ujjal
2016-09-01
We first review the accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski-Demianski (PD) black hole, which includes the Kerr-Newman rotating black hole and the Taub-NUT spacetime. The main feature of this black hole is that it has 4 horizons like event horizon, Cauchy horizon and two accelerating horizons. In the non-extremal case, the surface area, entropy, surface gravity, temperature, angular velocity, Komar energy and irreducible mass on the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are presented for PD black hole. The entropy product, temperature product, Komar energy product and irreducible mass product have been found for event horizon and Cauchy horizon. Also their sums are found for both horizons. All these relations are dependent on the mass of the PD black hole and other parameters. So all the products are not universal for PD black hole. The entropy and area bounds for two horizons have been investigated. Also we found the Christodoulou-Ruffini mass for extremal PD black hole. Finally, using first law of thermodynamics, we also found the Smarr relation for PD black hole.
Energetics of a rotating charged black hole in 5-dimensional supergravity
Prabhu, Kartik; Dadhich, Naresh
2010-01-15
We investigate the properties of the event horizon and static limit for a charged rotating black hole solution of minimal supergravity theory in (1+4) dimension. Unlike the four-dimensional case, there are in general two rotations, and they couple to both mass and charge. This gives rise to much richer structure to ergosphere leading to energy extraction even for axial fall. Another interesting feature is that the metric in this case is sensitive to the sign of the Maxwell charge.
Particle acceleration and curvature TeV emission by rotating, supermassive black holes
Levinson
2000-07-31
It is shown that particles accelerating near the event horizon of a spinning supermassive black hole that is threaded by externally supported magnetic field lines suffer severe curvature losses that limit the maximum energy they can attain to values well below that imposed by the maximum voltage drop induced by the black hole dynamo. It is further shown that the dominant fraction of the rotational energy extracted from the black hole is radiated in the TeV band. The implications for vacuum breakdown and the observational consequences are discussed.
Supersymmetry in the spacetime of higher-dimensional rotating black holes
Ahmedov, Haji; Aliev, Alikram N.
2009-04-15
General higher-dimensional rotating black hole spacetimes of any dimensions admit the Killing and Killing-Yano tensors, which generate the hidden symmetries just as in four-dimensional Kerr spacetime. We study these properties of the black holes using the formalism of supersymmetric mechanics of pseudoclassical spinning point particles. We present two nontrivial supercharges, corresponding to the Killing-Yano and conformal Killing-Yano tensors of the second rank. We demonstrate that an unusual extended Poisson-Dirac algebra of these supercharges results in two independent Killing tensors in spacetime dimensions D{>=}6, giving explicit examples for the Myers-Perry black holes in D=6 dimensions.
Stealths on (1+1)-dimensional dilatonic gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez, Abigail; Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; Cruz, Miguel; Rojas, Efraín; Saavedra, Joel
2016-12-01
We study gravitational stealth configurations emerging on a charged dilatonic (1+1)-D black hole spacetime. We accomplish this by considering the coupling of a non-minimally scalar field φ and a self-interacting scalar field Ψ living in a (1+1)-D charged black hole background. In addition, the self-interacting potential for Ψ is obtained which exhibits transitions for some specific values of the non-minimal parameter. Atypically, we found that the solutions for these stealth scalar fields do not have a dependence on the temporal coordinate.
Matter-antimatter separation in the early universe by rotating black holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leahy, D. A.
1981-01-01
Consideration of the effect of rotating black holes evaporating early in the universe shows that they would have produced oppositely directed neutrino and antineutrino currents, which push matter and antimatter apart. This separation mechanism is, however, too feeble to account for a present baryon-to-photon ratio of 10 to the -9th, and has no significant observational consequences.
Quantum tunneling from the charged non-rotating BTZ black hole with GUP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi, Jafar; Reza Shajiee, Vahid
2017-03-01
In the present paper, the quantum corrections to the temperature, entropy and specific heat capacity of the charged non-rotating BTZ black hole are studied by the generalized uncertainty principle in the tunneling formalism. It is shown that quantum corrected entropy would be of the form of predicted entropy in quantum gravity theories like string theory and loop quantum gravity.
The critical phenomena of charged rotating de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xiongying; Li, Huaifan; Zhang, Lichun; Zhao, Ren
2016-07-01
In this paper, we investigate the effective thermodynamic quantities in Kerr-Newman-de Sitter spacetime by considering the relations between the black hole event horizon and the cosmological event horizon. We find the effect of the critical point of Kerr-Newman-de Sitter spacetime for the different state parameters. We study the critical phenomena of the system taking different state parameters. This result is consistent with the nature of a liquid-gas phase transition at the critical point, hence deepening the understanding of the analogy of charged de Sitter spacetime and liquid-gas systems.
Thermodynamics and Hawking radiation of five-dimensional rotating charged Goedel black holes
Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin
2011-02-15
We study the thermodynamics of Goedel-type rotating charged black holes in five-dimensional minimal supergravity. These black holes exhibit some peculiar features such as the presence of closed timelike curves and the absence of a globally spatial-like Cauchy surface. We explicitly compute their energies, angular momenta, and electric charges that are consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. Besides, we extend the covariant anomaly cancellation method, as well as the approach of the effective action, to derive their Hawking fluxes. Both the methods of the anomaly cancellation and the effective action give the same Hawking fluxes as those from the Planck distribution for blackbody radiation in the background of the charged rotating Goedel black holes. Our results further support that Hawking radiation is a quantum phenomenon arising at the event horizon.
Renormalized vacuum polarization on rotating warped AdS3 black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, Hugo R. C.; Louko, Jorma
2015-01-01
We compute the renormalized vacuum polarization of a massive scalar field in the Hartle-Hawking state on (2 +1 )-dimensional rotating, spacelike stretched black hole solutions to topologically massive gravity, surrounded by a Dirichlet mirror that makes the state well defined. The Feynman propagator is written as a mode sum on the complex Riemannian section of the spacetime, and a Hadamard renormalization procedure is implemented by matching to a mode sum on the complex Riemannian section of a rotating Minkowski spacetime. No analytic continuation in the angular momentum parameter is invoked. Selected numerical results are given, demonstrating the numerical efficacy of the method. We anticipate that this method can be extended to wider classes of rotating black hole spacetimes, in particular to the Kerr spacetime in four dimensions.
Gravitational radiation and angular momentum flux from a slowly rotating dynamical black hole
Wu, Yu-Huei; Wang, Chih-Hung
2011-04-15
A four-dimensional asymptotic expansion scheme is used to study the next-order effects of the nonlinearity near a spinning dynamical black hole. The angular-momentum flux and energy flux formula are then obtained by constructing the reference frame in terms of the compatible constant spinors and the compatibility of the coupling leading-order Newman-Penrose equations. By using the slow rotation and small-tide approximation for a spinning black hole, the horizon cross-section we chose is spherical symmetric. It turns out the flux formula is rather simple and can be compared with the known results. Directly from the energy flux formula of the slow-rotating dynamical horizon, we find that the physically reasonable condition on requiring the positivity of the gravitational energy flux yields that the shear will monotonically decrease with time. Thus a slow-rotating dynamical horizon will asymptotically approach an isolated horizon during late time.
Mass-loss from advective accretion disc around rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aktar, Ramiz; Das, Santabrata; Nandi, Anuj
2015-11-01
We examine the properties of the outflowing matter from an advective accretion disc around a spinning black hole. During accretion, rotating matter experiences centrifugal pressure-supported shock transition that effectively produces a virtual barrier around the black hole in the form of post-shock corona (hereafter PSC). Due to shock compression, PSC becomes hot and dense that eventually deflects a part of the inflowing matter as bipolar outflows because of the presence of extra thermal gradient force. In our approach, we study the outflow properties in terms of the inflow parameters, namely specific energy (E) and specific angular momentum (λ) considering the realistic outflow geometry around the rotating black holes. We find that spin of the black hole (ak) plays an important role in deciding the outflow rate R_{dot{m}} (ratio of mass flux of outflow to inflow); in particular, R_{dot{m}} is directly correlated with ak for the same set of inflow parameters. It is found that a large range of the inflow parameters allows global accretion-ejection solutions, and the effective area of the parameter space (E, λ) with and without outflow decreases with black hole spin (ak). We compute the maximum outflow rate (R^{max}_{dot{m}}) as a function of black hole spin (ak) and observe that R^{max}_{dot{m}} weakly depends on ak that lies in the range ˜10-18 per cent of the inflow rate for the adiabatic index (γ) with 1.5 ≥ γ ≥ 4/3. We present the observational implication of our approach while studying the steady/persistent jet activities based on the accretion states of black holes. We discuss that our formalism seems to have the potential to explain the observed jet kinetic power for several Galactic black hole sources and active galactic nuclei.
General relativistic x ray (UV) polarization rotations as a quantitative test for black holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stark, Richard F.
1989-01-01
It is now 11 years since a potentially easily observable and quantitative test for black holes using general relativistic polarization rotations was proposed (Stark and Connors 1977, and Connors and Stark 1977). General relativistic rotations of the x ray polarization plane of 10 to 100 degrees with x ray energy (between 1 and 100 keV) are predicted for black hole x ray binaries. (Classically, by symmetry, there is no rotation.) Unfortunately, x ray polarimetry has not been taken sufficiently seriously during this period, and this test has not yet been performed. A similar (though probably less clean) effect is expected in the UV for supermassive black holes in some quasars active galactic nuclei. Summarizing: (1) a quantitative test (proposed in 1977) for black holes exists; (2) x ray polarimetry of galactic x ray binaries sensitive to at least 1/2 percent between 1 keV and 100 keV is needed (polarimetry in the UV of quasars and AGN will also be of interest); and (3) proportional counters using timerise discrimination were shown in laboratory experiments able to perform x ray polarimetry and this and other methods need to be developed.
The Force-Free Magnetosphere of a Rotating Black Hole
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Papadopoulos, Demetrios B.
2013-01-01
We revisit the Blandford-Znajek process and solve the fundamental equation that governs the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole. The solution depends on the distributions of the magnetic field angular velocity and the poloidal electric current. These are not arbitrary. They are determined self-consistently by requiring that magnetic field lines cross smoothly the two singular surfaces of the problem: the inner "light surface" located inside the ergosphere and the outer "light surface" which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder.We find the solution for the simplest possible magnetic field configuration, the split monopole, through a numerical iterative relaxation method analogous to the one that yields the structure of the steady-state axisymmetric force-free pulsar magnetosphere. We obtain the rate of electromagnetic extraction of energy and confirm the results of Blandford and Znajek and of previous time-dependent simulations. Furthermore, we discuss the physical applicability of magnetic field configurations that do not cross both "light surfaces."
THE FORCE-FREE MAGNETOSPHERE OF A ROTATING BLACK HOLE
Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2013-03-10
We revisit the Blandford-Znajek process and solve the fundamental equation that governs the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole. The solution depends on the distributions of the magnetic field angular velocity {omega} and the poloidal electric current I. These are not arbitrary. They are determined self-consistently by requiring that magnetic field lines cross smoothly the two singular surfaces of the problem: the inner ''light surface'' located inside the ergosphere and the outer ''light surface'' which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. We find the solution for the simplest possible magnetic field configuration, the split monopole, through a numerical iterative relaxation method analogous to the one that yields the structure of the steady-state axisymmetric force-free pulsar magnetosphere. We obtain the rate of electromagnetic extraction of energy and confirm the results of Blandford and Znajek and of previous time-dependent simulations. Furthermore, we discuss the physical applicability of magnetic field configurations that do not cross both ''light surfaces''.
Integrability in conformally coupled gravity: Taub-NUT spacetimes and rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bardoux, Yannis; Caldarelli, Marco M.; Charmousis, Christos
2014-05-01
We consider four dimensional stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes for conformally coupled scalar-tensor theories. We show that, in analogy to the Lewis-Papapetrou problem in General Relativity (GR), the theory at hand can be recast in an analogous integrable form. We give the relevant rod formalism, introduced by Weyl for vacuum GR, explicitly giving the rod structure of the black hole of Bocharova et al. and Bekenstein (BBMB), in complete analogy to the Schwarzschild solution. The additional scalar field is shown to play the role of an extra Weyl potential. We then employ the Ernst method as a concrete solution generating example to obtain the Taub-NUT version of the BBMB hairy black hole. The solution is easily extended to include a cosmological constant. We show that the anti-de Sitter hyperbolic version of this solution is free of closed timelike curves that plague usual Taub-NUT metrics, and thus consists of a rotating, asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter black hole. This stationary solution has no curvature singularities whatsoever in the conformal frame, and the NUT charge is shown here to regularize the central curvature singularity of the corresponding static black hole. Given our findings we discuss the anti-de Sitter hyperbolic version of Taub-NUT in four dimensions, and show that the curvature singularity of the NUT-less solution is now replaced by a neighbouring chronological singularity screened by horizons. We argue that the properties of this rotating black hole are very similar to those of the rotating BTZ black hole in three dimensions.
Hawking Radiation via Damour-Ruffini Method in Squashed Charged Rotating Kaluza-Klein Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Ji-Wan; Wu, Jing-He; Liu, Xian-Ming
2016-12-01
Using the Damour-Ruffini method, Hawking radiation of charged particles from squashed charged rotating five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein black holes is investigated extensively. Under the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation, Hawking temperature of the black holes is calculated by using charged scalar particles and Dirac fermions respectively. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature for charged Dirac fermions is the same as for charged scalar particles. What's more, the spectrum of Hawking radiation contains the information of the size of the extra dimension, which could provide insight for further investigation of large extra dimensions in the future.
Surface terms of quasitopological gravity and thermodynamics of charged rotating black branes
Dehghani, M. H.; Vahidinia, M. H.
2011-10-15
We introduce the surface term for quasitopological gravity in order to make the variational principle of the action well defined. We also introduce the charged black branes of quasitopological gravity and calculate the finite action through the use of the counterterm method. Then we compute the thermodynamic quantities of the black brane solution by use of Gibbs free energy and investigate the first law of thermodynamics by introducing a Smarr-type formula. Finally, we generalize our solutions to the case of rotating charged solutions.
Hawking Radiation via Damour-Ruffini Method in Squashed Charged Rotating Kaluza-Klein Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Ji-Wan; Wu, Jing-He; Liu, Xian-Ming
2017-02-01
Using the Damour-Ruffini method, Hawking radiation of charged particles from squashed charged rotating five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein black holes is investigated extensively. Under the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation, Hawking temperature of the black holes is calculated by using charged scalar particles and Dirac fermions respectively. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature for charged Dirac fermions is the same as for charged scalar particles. What's more, the spectrum of Hawking radiation contains the information of the size of the extra dimension, which could provide insight for further investigation of large extra dimensions in the future.
A simple accretion model of a rotating gas sphere onto a Schwarzschild black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huerta, E. A.; Mendoza, S.
2007-04-01
We construct a simple accretion model of a rotating gas sphere onto a Schwarzschild black hole. We show how to build analytic solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. This construction represents a general relativistic generalisation of the Newtonian accretion model first proposed by Ulrich (1976). In exactly the same form as it occurs for the Newtonian case, the flow naturally predicts the existence of an equatorial rotating accretion disc about the hole. However, the radius of the disc increases monotonically without limit as the flow reaches its minimum allowed angular momentum for this particular model.
Perturbations of slowly rotating black holes: Massive vector fields in the Kerr metric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Berti, Emanuele; Ishibashi, Akihiro
2012-11-01
We discuss a general method to study linear perturbations of slowly rotating black holes which is valid for any perturbation field, and particularly advantageous when the field equations are not separable. As an illustration of the method we investigate massive vector (Proca) perturbations in the Kerr metric, which do not appear to be separable in the standard Teukolsky formalism. Working in a perturbative scheme, we discuss two important effects induced by rotation: a Zeeman-like shift of nonaxisymmetric quasinormal modes and bound states with different azimuthal number m, and the coupling between axial and polar modes with different multipolar index ℓ. We explicitly compute the perturbation equations up to second order in rotation, but in principle the method can be extended to any order. Working at first order in rotation we show that polar and axial Proca modes can be computed by solving two decoupled sets of equations, and we derive a single master equation describing axial perturbations of spin s=0 and s=±1. By extending the calculation to second order we can study the superradiant regime of Proca perturbations in a self-consistent way. For the first time we show that Proca fields around Kerr black holes exhibit a superradiant instability, which is significantly stronger than for massive scalar fields. Because of this instability, astrophysical observations of spinning black holes provide the tightest upper limit on the mass of the photon: mγ≲4×10-20eV under our most conservative assumptions. Spin measurements for the largest black holes could reduce this bound to mγ≲10-22eV or lower.
QPOs from Random X-ray Bursts around Rotating Black Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Stephenson, Gordon
2009-01-01
We continue our earlier studies of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the power spectra of accreting, rapidly-rotating black holes that originate from the geometric 'light echoes' of X-ray flares occurring within the black hole ergosphere. Our present work extends our previous treatment to three-dimensional photon emission and orbits to allow for arbitrary latitudes in the positions of the distant observers and the X-ray sources in place of the mainly equatorial positions and photon orbits of the earlier consideration. Following the trajectories of a large number of photons we calculate the response functions of a given geometry and use them to produce model light curves which we subsequently analyze to compute their power spectra and autocorrelation functions. In the case of an optically-thin environment, relevant to advection-dominated accretion flows, we consistently find QPOs at frequencies of order of approximately kHz for stellar-mass black hole candidates while order of approximately mHz for typical active galactic nuclei (approximately equal to 10(exp 7) solar mass) for a wide range of viewing angles (30 degrees to 80 degrees) from X-ray sources predominantly concentrated toward the equator within the ergosphere. As in out previous treatment, here too, the QPO signal is produced by the frame-dragging of the photons by the rapidly-rotating black hole, which results in photon 'bunches' separated by constant time-lags, the result of multiple photon orbits around the hole. Our model predicts for various source/observer configurations the robust presence of a new class of QPOs, which is inevitably generic to curved spacetime structure in rotating black hole systems.
Separable wave equations for gravitoelectromagnetic perturbations of rotating charged black strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miranda, Alex S.; Morgan, Jaqueline; Kandus, Alejandra; Zanchin, Vilson T.
2015-12-01
Rotating charged black strings are exact solutions of four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell equations with a negative cosmological constant and a non-trivial spacetime topology. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, these black strings are dual to rotating thermal states of a strongly interacting quantum field theory with nonzero chemical potential that lives in a cylinder. The dynamics of linear fluctuations in the dual field theory can be studied from the perturbation equations for classical fields in a black-string spacetime. With this motivation in mind, we develop here a completely gauge and tetrad invariant perturbation approach to deal with the gravitoelectromagnetic fluctuations of rotating charged black strings in the presence of sources. As usual, for any charged black hole, a perturbation in the background electromagnetic field induces a metric perturbation and vice versa. In spite of this coupling and the non-vanishing angular momentum, we show that linearization of equations of the Newman-Penrose formalism leads to four separated second-order complex equations for suitable combinations of the spin coefficients, the Weyl and the Maxwell scalars. Then, we generalize the Chandrasekhar transformation theory by the inclusion of sources and apply it to reduce the perturbation problem to four decoupled inhomogeneous wave equations—a pair for each sector of perturbations. The radial part of such wave equations can be put into Schrödinger-like forms after Fourier transforming them with respect to time. We find that the resulting effective potentials form two pairs of supersymmetric partner potentials and, as a consequence, the fundamental variables of one perturbation sector are related to the variables of the other sector. The relevance of such a symmetry in connection to the AdS/CFT correspondence is discussed, and future applications of the pertubation theory developed here are outlined.
A rotating hairy AdS3 black hole with the metric having only one Killing vector field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iizuka, Norihiro; Ishibashi, Akihiro; Maeda, Kengo
2015-08-01
We perturbatively construct a three-dimensional rotating AdS black hole with a real scalar hair. We choose the mass of a scalar field slightly above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound and impose a general boundary condition for the bulk scalar field at AdS infinity. We first show that rotating BTZ black holes are unstable against scalar field perturbations under our more general boundary condition. Next we construct a rotating hairy black hole perturbatively with respect to a small amplitude ɛ of the scalar field, up to O( ɛ 4). Our hairy black hole is stationary and exhibits no dissipation, but the lumps of the non-linearly perturbed geometry break axial symmetry, thus providing the first example of a rotating black hole whose metric admits only one Killing vector field. Furthermore, we numerically show that the entropy of our hairy black hole is larger than that of the BTZ black hole with the same energy and the angular momentum. We briefly discuss if our rotating hairy black hole in lumpy geometry could be the endpoint of the instability.
Koide, Shinji
2010-01-10
To study phenomena of plasmas around rotating black holes, we have derived a set of 3+1 formalism of generalized general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) equations. In particular, we investigated general relativistic phenomena with respect to the Ohm's law. We confirmed the electromotive force due to the gravitation, centrifugal force, and frame-dragging effect in plasmas near the black holes. These effects are significant only in the local small-scale phenomena compared to the scale of astrophysical objects. We discuss the possibility of magnetic reconnection, which is triggered by one of these effects in a small-scale region and influences the plasmas globally. We clarify the conditions of applicability of the generalized GRMHD, standard resistive GRMHD, and ideal GRMHD for plasmas in black hole magnetospheres.
Exact solutions for a system of two counter-rotating black holes
Manko, V. S.; Rodchenko, E. D.; Sadovnikov, B. I.; Ruiz, E.
2008-12-15
The full metric describing two counter-rotating identical Kerr black holes separated by a massless strut is derived in the explicit analytical form. It contains three arbitrary parameters which are the Komar mass M, Komar angular momentum per unit mass a of one of the black holes (the other has the same mass and equal but opposite angular momentum) and the coordinate distance R between the centers of the horizons. In the limit of extreme black holes, the metric becomes a special member of the Kinnersly-Chitre five-parameter family of vacuum solutions generalizing the Tomimatsu-Sato {delta}=2 spacetime, and we present the complete set of metrical fields defining this limit.
Hawking fluxes and anomalies in rotating regular black holes with a time-delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Shingo
2016-11-01
Based on the anomaly cancellation method we compute the Hawking fluxes (the Hawking thermal flux and the total flux of energy-momentum tensor) from a four-dimensional rotating regular black hole with a time-delay. To this purpose, in the three metrics proposed in [1], we try to perform the dimensional reduction in which the anomaly cancellation method is feasible at the near-horizon region in a general scalar field theory. As a result we can demonstrate that the dimensional reduction is possible in two of those metrics. Hence we perform the anomaly cancellation method and compute the Hawking fluxes in those two metrics. Our Hawking fluxes involve three effects: (1) quantum gravity effect regularizing the core of the black holes, (2) rotation of the black hole, (3) time-delay. Further in this paper toward the metric in which the dimensional could not be performed, we argue that it would be some problematic metric, and mention its cause. The Hawking fluxes we compute in this study could be considered to correspond to more realistic Hawking fluxes. Further what Hawking fluxes can be obtained from the anomaly cancellation method would be interesting in terms of the relation between a consistency of quantum field theories and black hole thermodynamics.
Secular evolution of very eccentric, inclined orbits around a supermassive rotating black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Will, Clifford; Maitra, Matthew
2017-01-01
We analyze the secular evolution of the highly eccentric, inclined orbit of a star or black hole in the field of a rotating massive Kerr black hole. Such orbits, with 1 - e ranging from 10-2 to 10-6 may be the end result of a process of stellar interactions in a dense nuclear star cluster surrounding the black hole, leading to extreme-mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs). The calculations are done in post-Newtonian (PN) theory, through 3PN order in the conservative sector, including spin-orbit, quadrupolar and (spin)2 terms from the Kerr geometry, and through 4.5PN order, including 4PN spin-orbit contributions, in the radiation reaction sector. We also incorporate an accurate criterion for capture of the body by the rotating black hole for arbitrary inclinations. For a range of initial values of the body's semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination, we determine the time and number of orbits until plunge and the final orbital eccentricity. We also estimate the gravitational-wave frequency and energy flux at the final plunge, as a function of the orbital inclination. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation PHY 13-06069 & PHY 16-00188.
Accretion model of a rotating gas sphere onto a Schwarzschild black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendoza, S.; Huerta, E. A.
2008-04-01
We construct a simple accretion model of a rotating pressureless gas sphere onto a Schwarzschild black hole. Far away from the hole, the flow is assumed to rotate as a rigid body. We show how to build analytic solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. This construction represents a general relativistic generalization of the Newtonian accretion model first proposed by Ulrich (1976). In exactly the same form as it occurs for the Newtonian case, the flow naturally predicts the existence of an equatorial rotating accretion disk about the hole. However, the radius of the disk increases monotonically without limit as the flow reaches the angular momentum corresponding to the maximum limit allowed by the model.
Hidden conformal symmetry of a rotating black hole with four charges
Shao Kainan; Zhang Zhibai
2011-05-15
Kerr/CFT correspondence exhibits many remarkable connections between the near-horizon Kerr black hole and a conformal field theory (CFT). Recently, Castro, Maloney, and Strominger showed that a hidden conformal symmetry exists in the solution space of a Kerr black hole. In this paper we investigate a rotating black hole with four independent U(1) charges derived from string theory which is known as the four-dimensional Cvetic-Youm solution, and we prove that the same hidden conformal symmetry also holds. We obtain the exact black hole entropy using the temperatures derived. The entropy and absorption cross section agree with the previous results [M. Cvetic and F. Larsen, Nucl. Phys. B506, 107 (1997).] and [M. Cvetic and F. Larsen, J. High Energy Phys. 09 (2009) 088.]. In addition, we clarify a previous explanation on the temperatures of the Cvetic-Youm solution's dual CFT. This work provides more robust derivation of the hidden conformal symmetry of Kerr-like black holes and as well as Kerr/CFT correspondence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Huan; Casals, Marc
2014-07-01
In this paper we study wave propagation and scattering near a black hole. In particular, we assume a coherent emission source near the black hole and investigate the wavefront distortion as seen by a distant observer. By ignoring the spin nature of the electromagnetic radiation we model it by a complex scalar field. Then, the propagating wave near the observer can be decomposed using the Laguerre-Gaussian mode basis and its wavefront distortion can be characterized by the decomposition coefficient. We find that this decomposition spectrum is symmetric with respect to the azimuthal quantum number in the case that the wave source is located near a nonrotating (Schwarzschild) black hole, whereas the spectrum is generically asymmetric if the host black hole is rotating (Kerr). The spectral asymmetry, or the net orbital angular momentum carried by the wave, is intimately related to the black-hole spin and mass, the wave frequency and the locations of the source and the observer. We present semianalytical expressions and numerical results for these parameter dependences. If the emitted radiation is temporally coherent, our results show that the secondary images (arising from the orbiting of the wavefront around the black hole) of the source can be almost as bright as its primary image. Separately, in the case of temporally incoherent radiation, we show that the nonfundamental spectrum components in the primary image could be resolved by spatially separated telescopes, although that would be degenerate with the telescope direction. Finally, our results suggest that the black-hole-induced spectral asymmetry is generally too weak to be observed in radio astronomy, even if the observer is located near an optical caustic.
Manko, V. S.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J.; Ruiz, E.
2009-05-01
In the present paper we enlarge the list of black dihole spacetimes by introducing the notion of asymmetric black diholes which describe configurations composed of two static charged black holes endowed with unequal masses and equal but opposite charges. The asymmetric dihole solutions are considered both in the Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories.
Mirza, Behrouz; Sherkatghanad, Zeinab
2011-05-15
We study the AdS rotating black hole solution for the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend massive gravity in three dimensions. The field equations of the asymptotically AdS black hole of the static metric can be expressed as the first law of thermodynamics, i.e. dE=TdS-PdV. The corrected Hawking-like temperature and entropy of the asymptotically AdS rotating black hole are calculated using the Cardy formula and the tunneling method. Comparison of these methods will help identify the unknown leading correction parameter {beta}{sub 1} in the tunneling method.
Ahmedov, Haji; Aliev, Alikram N.
2008-09-15
We examine the separability properties of the equation of motion for a stationary string near a rotating charged black hole with two independent angular momenta in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. It is known that the separability problem for the stationary string in a general stationary spacetime is reduced to that for the usual Hamilton-Jacobi equation for geodesics of its quotient space with one dimension fewer. Using this fact, we show that the 'effective metric' of the quotient space does not allow the complete separability for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, albeit such a separability occurs in the original spacetime of the black hole. We also show that only for two special cases of interest the Hamilton-Jacobi equation admits the complete separation of variables and therefore the integrability for the stationary string motion in the original background, namely, when the black hole has zero electric charge or it has an arbitrary electric charge but two equal angular momenta. We give the explicit expressions for the Killing tensors corresponding to these cases. However, for the general black hole spacetime the effective metric of the quotient space admits a conformal Killing tensor. We construct the explicit expression for this tensor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco; Radu, Eugen
2017-03-01
We consider rotating black hole solutions in five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with a negative cosmological constant and a generic value of the Chern-Simons coupling constant λ . Using both analytical and numerical techniques, we focus on cohomogeneity-1 configurations, with two equal-magnitude angular momenta, which approach at infinity a globally anti-de Sitter background. We find that the generic solutions share a number of basic properties with the known Cvetič, Lü, and Pope black holes which have λ =1 . New features occur as well; for example, when the Chern-Simons coupling constant exceeds a critical value, the solutions are no longer uniquely determined by their global charges. Moreover, the black holes possess radial excitations which can be labelled by the node number of the magnetic gauge potential function. Solutions with small values of λ possess other distinct features. For instance, the extremal black holes there form two disconnected branches, while not all near-horizon solutions are associated with global solutions.
Dehghani, M. H.; Pakravan, J.; Hendi, S. H.
2006-11-15
We construct a class of charged rotating solutions in (n+1)-dimensional Maxwell-Brans-Dicke theory with flat horizon in the presence of a quadratic potential and investigate their properties. These solutions are neither asymptotically flat nor (anti)-de Sitter. We find that these solutions can present black brane, with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black brane or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitably. We compute the finite Euclidean action through the use of counterterm method, and obtain the conserved and thermodynamic quantities by using the relation between the action and free energy in grand-canonical ensemble. We find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics, and the entropy does not follow the area law.
Time-symmetric initial data sets in four-dimensional dilaton gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortín, Tomás
1995-09-01
I study the time-symmetric initial-data problem in theories with a massless scalar field (dilaton), free or coupled to a Maxwell field in the stringy way, finding different initial-data sets describing an arbitrary number of black holes with arbitrary masses, charges, and asymptotic value of the dilaton. The presence of the scalar field gives rise to a number of interesting effects. The mass and charges of a single black hole are different in its two asymptotically flat regions across the Einstein-Rosen bridge. The same happens to the value of the dilaton at infinity. This forbids the identification of these asymptotic regions in order to build (Misner) wormholes in the most naive way. Using different techniques, I find regular initial data for stringy wormholes. The price paid is the existence singularities in the dilaton field. The presence of a single-valued scalar seems to constrain strongly the allowed topologies of the initial spacelike surface. Other kinds of scalar fields (taking values on a circle or being defined up to an additive constant) are also briefly considered.
Slowly Varying Dilaton Cosmologies and Their Field Theory Duals
Awad, Adel; Das, Sumit R.; Ghosh, Archisman; Oh, Jae-Hyuk; Trivedi, Sandip P.; /Tata Inst. /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC
2011-06-28
We consider a deformation of the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} solution of IIB supergravity obtained by taking the boundary value of the dilaton to be time dependent. The time dependence is taken to be slowly varying on the AdS scale thereby introducing a small parameter {epsilon}. The boundary dilaton has a profile which asymptotes to a constant in the far past and future and attains a minimum value at intermediate times. We construct the sugra solution to first non-trivial order in {epsilon}, and find that it is smooth, horizon free, and asymptotically AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} in the far future. When the intermediate values of the dilaton becomes small enough the curvature becomes of order the string scale and the sugra approximation breaks down. The resulting dynamics is analysed in the dual SU(N) gauge theory on S{sup 3} with a time dependent coupling constant which varies slowly. When N{epsilon} << 1, we find that a quantum adiabatic approximation is applicable, and use it to argue that at late times the geometry becomes smooth AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} again. When N{epsilon} >> 1, we formulate a classical adiabatic perturbation theory based on coherent states which arises in the large N limit. For large values of the tHooft coupling this reproduces the supergravity results. For small 'tHooft coupling the coherent state calculations become involved and we cannot reach a definite conclusion. We argue that the final state should have a dual description which is mostly smooth AdS5 space with the possible presence of a small black hole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasskazov, Alexander; Merritt, David
2017-01-01
The subject of our study is a binary supermassive black hole (BSBH) in the center of a galactic nucleus. We model the evolution of its orbit due to interactions with the stars of the galaxy by means of 3-body scattering experiments. Our model includes a new degree of freedom - the orientation of the BSBH’s orbital plane - which is allowed to change due to interaction with the stars in a rotating nucleus. The binary’s eccentricity also evolves in an orientation-dependent manner. We find that the dynamics are qualitatively different compared with non-rotating nuclei: 1) The BSBH's orbital plane evolves toward alignment with the plane of rotation of the nucleus; 2) The BSBH’s eccentricity decreases for aligned BSBHs and increases for counter-aligned ones.We then apply our model to calculate the effects of stellar environment on the gravitational wave background spectrum produced by BSBHs. Using the results of recent N-body/Monte-Carlo simulations we account for different rates of stellar interaction in spherical, axisymmetric and triaxial galaxies. We also consider the possibility that SBH masses are systematically lower than usually assumed. The net result of the new physical mechanisms included here is a spectrum for the stochastic gravitational wave background that has a significantly lower amplitude than in previous treatments, which could explain the discrepancy that currently exists between the models and the upper limits set by pulsar timing array observations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kazanas, Demosthenes; Fukumura, K.
2009-01-01
We present detailed computations of photon orbits emitted by flares at the ISCO of accretion disks around rotating black holes. We show that for sufficiently large spin parameter, i.e. $a > 0.94 M$, following a flare at ISCO, a sufficient number of photons arrive at an observer after multiple orbits around the black hole, to produce an "photon echo" of constant lag, i.e. independent of the relative phase between the black hole and the observer, of $\\Delta T \\simeq 14 M$. This constant time delay, then, leads to the presence of a QPO in the source power spectrum at a frequency $\
Harrison transformation and charged black objects in Kaluza-Klein theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen; Stelea, Cristian
2009-09-01
We generate charged black brane solutions in D-dimensions in a theory of gravity coupled to a dilaton and an antisymmetric form, by using a Harrison-type transformation. The seed vacuum solutions that we use correspond to uplifted Kaluza-Klein black strings and black holes in (D-p)-dimensions. A generalization of the Marolf-Mann quasilocal formalism to the Kaluza-Klein theory is also presented, the global charges of the black objects being computed in this way. We argue that the thermodynamics of the charged solutions can be derived from that of the vacuum configurations. Our results show that all charged Kaluza-Klein solutions constructed by means of Harrison transformations are thermodynamically unstable in a grand canonical ensemble. The general formalism is applied to the case of nonuniform black strings and caged black hole solutions in D = 5,6 Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity, whose geometrical properties and thermodynamics are discussed. We argue that the topology changing transition scenario, which was previously proposed in the vacuum case, also holds in this case. Spinning generalizations of the charged black strings are constructed in six dimensions in the slowly rotating limit. We find that the gyromagnetic ratio of these solutions possesses a nontrivial dependence on the nonuniformity parameter.
On extreme transient events from rotating black holes and their gravitational wave emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.; Della Valle, Massimo
2017-01-01
The super-luminous object ASASSN-15lh (SN2015L) is an extreme event with a total energy Erad ≃ 1.1 × 1052 erg in blackbody radiation on par with its kinetic energy Ek in ejecta and a late time plateau in the UV, which defies a nuclear origin. It likely presents a new explosion mechanism for hydrogen-deprived supernovae. With no radio emission and no H-rich environment, we propose to identify Erad with dissipation of a baryon-poor outflow in the optically thick remnant stellar envelope produced by a central engine. By negligible time-scales of light crossing and radiative cooling of the envelope, SN2015L's light curve closely tracks the evolution of this engine. We here model its light curve by the evolution of black hole spin during angular momentum loss in Alvén waves to matter at the Inner Most Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO). The duration is determined by σ = MT/M of the torus mass MT around the black hole of mass M: σ ˜ 10-7 and σ ˜ 10-2 for SN2015L and, respectively, a long GRB. The observed electromagnetic radiation herein represents a minor output of the rotational energy Erot of the black hole, while most is radiated unseen in gravitational radiation. This model explains the high-mass slow-spin binary progenitor of GWB150914, as the remnant of two CC-SNe in an intra-day binary of two massive stars. This model rigorously predicts a change in magnitude Δm ≃ 1.15 in the light curve post-peak, in agreement with the light curve of SN2015L with no fine-tuning.
Light dilaton in walking gauge theories
Appelquist, Thomas; Bai Yang
2010-10-01
We analyze the existence of a dilaton in gauge theories with approximate infrared conformal symmetry. To the extent that these theories are governed in the infrared by an approximate fixed point (walking), the explicit breaking of the conformal symmetry at these scales is vanishingly small. If confinement and spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking set in at some infrared scale, the resultant breaking of the approximate conformal symmetry can lead to the existence of a dilaton with mass parametrically small compared to the confinement scale, and potentially observable at the LHC.
First law of black Saturn thermodynamics
Rogatko, Marek
2007-06-15
The physical process version and equilibrium state version of the first law of thermodynamics for a black object consisting of n-dimensional charged stationary axisymmetric black hole surrounded by a black rings, the so-called black Saturn, was derived. The general setting for our derivations is n-dimensional dilaton gravity with p+1 strength form fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemos, José P. S.; Minamitsuji, Masato; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.
2017-02-01
In a (2 +1 )-dimensional spacetime with a negative cosmological constant, the thermodynamics and the entropy of an extremal rotating thin shell, i.e., an extremal rotating ring, are investigated. The outer and inner regions with respect to the shell are taken to be the Bañados-Teitelbom-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetime and the vacuum ground state anti-de Sitter spacetime, respectively. By applying the first law of thermodynamics to the extremal thin shell, one shows that the entropy of the shell is an arbitrary well-behaved function of the gravitational area A+ alone, S =S (A+). When the thin shell approaches its own gravitational radius r+ and turns into an extremal rotating BTZ black hole, it is found that the entropy of the spacetime remains such a function of A+, both when the local temperature of the shell at the gravitational radius is zero and nonzero. It is thus vindicated by this analysis that extremal black holes, here extremal BTZ black holes, have different properties from the corresponding nonextremal black holes, which have a definite entropy, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S (A+)=A/+4G , where G is the gravitational constant. It is argued that for extremal black holes, in particular for extremal BTZ black holes, one should set 0 ≤S (A+)≤A/+4G;i.e., the extremal black hole entropy has values in between zero and the maximum Bekenstein-Hawking entropy A/+4 G . Thus, rather than having just two entropies for extremal black holes, as previous results have debated, namely, 0 and A/+4 G , it is shown here that extremal black holes, in particular extremal BTZ black holes, may have a continuous range of entropies, limited by precisely those two entropies. Surely, the entropy that a particular extremal black hole picks must depend on past processes, notably on how it was formed. A remarkable relation between the third law of thermodynamics and the impossibility for a massive body to reach the velocity of light is also found. In addition, in the procedure, it
Thin-shell wormholes in dilaton gravity
Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio
2005-06-15
In this work we construct charged thin-shell Lorentzian wormholes in dilaton gravity. The exotic matter required for the construction is localized in the shell and the energy conditions are satisfied outside the shell. The total amount of exotic matter is calculated and its dependence with the parameters of the model is analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hang; Meng, Xin-he
2016-08-01
In this paper, we investigate the angular momentum independence of the entropy sum and product for AdS rotating black holes based on the first law of thermodynamics and a mathematical lemma related to Vandermonde determinant. The advantage of this method is that the explicit forms of the spacetime metric, black hole mass and charge are not needed but the Hawking temperature and entropy formula on the horizons are necessary for static black holes, while our calculations require the expressions of metric and angular velocity formula. We find that the entropy sum is always independent of angular momentum for all dimensions and the angular momentum-independence of entropy product only holds for the dimensions d > 4 with at least one rotation parameter ai = 0, while the mass-free of entropy sum and entropy product for rotating black holes only stand for higher dimensions (d > 4) and for all dimensions, respectively. On the other hand, we find that the introduction of a negative cosmological constant does not affect the angular momentum-free of entropy sum and product but the criterion for angular momentum-independence of entropy product will be affected.
Gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and a rotating mass ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sano, Yasumichi; Tagoshi, Hideyuki
2014-08-01
The linear perturbation of the Kerr black hole has been discussed by using the Newman-Penrose formalism, and the perturbed Weyl scalars, ψ0 and ψ4 can be obtained from the Teukolsky equation. In order to obtain the other Weyl scalars and the perturbed metric, a formalism was proposed by Chrzanowski and by Cohen and Kegeles to construct these quantities in a radiation gauge via the Hertz potential. As a simple example of the construction of the perturbed gravitational field with this formalism, we consider the gravitational field produced by a rotating circular ring around a Schwarzschild black hole. In the method by Chrzanowski, Cohen, and Kegeles, the metric is constructed in a radiation gauge via the Hertz potential, which is obtained from the solution of the Teukolsky equation. Since the solutions ψ0 and ψ4 of the Teukolsky equations are spin-2 quantities, the Hertz potential is determined up to its monopole and dipole modes. Without these lower modes, the constructed metric and Newman-Penrose Weyl scalars have unphysical jumps on the spherical surface at the radius of the ring. We find that the jumps of the imaginary parts of the Weyl scalars are cancelled when we add the angular momentum perturbation to the Hertz potential. Finally, by adding the mass perturbation and choosing the parameters which are related to the gauge freedom, we obtain the perturbed gravitational field which is smooth except on the equatorial plane outside the ring. We discuss the implication of these results to the problem of the computation of the gravitational self-force to the point particles in a radiation gauge.
Lifshitz hydrodynamics from Lifshitz black branes with linear momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartong, Jelle; Obers, Niels A.; Sanchioni, Marco
2016-10-01
We construct a new class of 4-dimensional z = 2 Lifshitz black branes that have a non-zero linear momentum. These are solutions of an Einstein-Proca-dilaton model that can be obtained by Scherk-Schwarz circle reduction of AdS5 gravity coupled to a free real scalar field. The boundary of a bulk Lifshitz space-time is a Newton-Cartan geometry. We show that the fluid dual to the moving Lifshitz black brane leads to a novel form of Lifshitz hydrodynamics on a Newton-Cartan space-time. Since the linear momentum of the black brane cannot be obtained by a boost transformation the velocity of the fluid or rather, by boundary rotational invariance, its magnitude plays the role of a chemical potential. The conjugate dual variable is mass density. The Lifshitz perfect fluid can be thought of as arising from a Schrödinger perfect fluid with broken particle number symmetry.
A Particle Probing Thermodynamics in Rotating AdS Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon
2016-07-01
We briefly review the thermodynamics of a probe particle absorption to a black hole in this proceeding. The particle energy has a relation to its momenta at the horizon of the black hole. Following this relation, the particle infinitesimally changes the black hole mass and momenta. Under these changes, the changes of properties of the black hole are consistent with the laws of thermodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantovani, D.; Veste, M.; Freese, D.
2012-04-01
The early successional tree species Robinia pseudoacacia L. demonstrates a high potential for biomass production in short rotation plantations and agroforestry systems. On marginal lands and recultivated areas, often characterized by poor edaphic conditions, black locust is already successfully cropped. In southern Brandenburg (East Germany), vast areas have been exploited for lignite open cast mining and the outcome is a drastic alteration of the top soil layer and subsurface geological structure, causing a radical change of the hydrologic cycle. Soil poor in nutrient and carbon, combined with low rainfall, limits the reclamation of these areas and their use for conventional agriculture. However, promising results have been obtained by the establishment of black locust for bioenergy production. For the evaluation of the black locust growth potential in southern Brandenburg with its sandy soils and low annual mean rainfall, detailed information about the link between growth, transpiration and soil water availability are needed. Therefore, we determined the biomass-transpiration relation and formulated the equation that describes the intertwined interaction between water use and biomass production. The equation will be integrated into mathematical tools. To reduce the numerous environmental variables involved in field experiments, we grew black locust under semi-controlled environmental conditions by using wick lysimeters. The lysimeters were filled with sandy loam soil and water was supplied solely by an automatic irrigation system in relation to the volumetric soil water content (7%, 10%, and 14%). Rainfall is excluded by a light transmissive roof. Water use efficiency (WUE) at whole plant level is evaluated by the ratio between the biomass produced during the vegetation period and the cumulative daily water use. The study encompasses ecophysiological investigations of the gas exchange (H2O and CO2) on single leaves, to evaluate the influence of the stomata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiacconi, Davide; Rossi, Elena M.
2017-01-01
Supermassive black holes are a key ingredient of galaxy evolution. However, their origin is still highly debated. In one of the leading formation scenarios, a black hole of ˜100 M⊙ results from the collapse of the inner core of a supermassive star (≳104-5 M⊙), created by the rapid accumulation (≳0.1 M⊙ yr-1) of pristine gas at the centre of newly formed galaxies at z ˜ 15. The subsequent evolution is still speculative: the remaining gas in the supermassive star can either directly plunge into the nascent black hole or part of it can form a central accretion disc, whose luminosity sustains a surrounding, massive, and nearly hydrostatic envelope (a system called a `quasi-star'). To address this point, we consider the effect of rotation on a quasi-star, as angular momentum is inevitably transported towards the galactic nucleus by the accumulating gas. Using a model for the internal redistribution of angular momentum that qualitatively matches results from simulations of rotating convective stellar envelopes, we show that quasi-stars with an envelope mass greater than a few 105 M_{⊙} × (black hole mass/100 M_{⊙})^{0.82} have highly sub-Keplerian gas motion in their core, preventing gas circularization outside the black hole's horizon. Less massive quasi-stars could form but last for only ≲104 yr before the accretion luminosity unbinds the envelope, suppressing the black hole growth. We speculate that this might eventually lead to a dual black hole seed population: (i) massive (>104 M⊙) seeds formed in the most massive (>108 M⊙) and rare haloes; (ii) lighter (˜102 M⊙) seeds to be found in less massive and therefore more common haloes.
Manko, V. S.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J.; Ruiz, E.
2009-04-15
In this paper we consider a magnetic analog of the double-Reissner-Nordstroem solution and construct the corresponding magnetic potential A{sub {phi}} in the explicit form. The behavior of the resulting solution under the Harrison transformation then naturally singles out the asymmetric black diholes--configurations composed of two nonextreme black holes possessing unequal masses, and charges equal in magnitude but opposite in sign - as its most general subclass for which equilibrium of the black-hole constituents can be achieved with the aid of the external magnetic (or electric) field. We also generalize the double-Reissner-Nordstroem solution to dilaton gravity with arbitrary dilaton coupling, yielding the four-dimensional double-Gibbons-Maeda spacetime. The study of some physical properties of the solutions obtained leads, in particular, to very simple formulas for the areas of the horizons and surface gravities.
Stettler, R.F.; Hinckley, T.M.; Heilman, P.E.; Bradshaw, H.D. Jr.
1993-04-30
This project was initiated in 1978 to serve three objectives: (1) develop genetically improved poplar cultivars offering increased productivity under short-rotation culture; (2) identify the major components of productivity in poplar and determine ways in which they can be manipulated, genetically and culturally; and (3) engage in technology transfer to regional industry and agencies so as to make poplar culture in the Pacific Northwest economically feasible. The project is aimed at capturing natural variation in the native black cottonwood. Populus trichocarpa T & G, and enhancing it through selective breeding. Major emphasis has been placed on hybridization of black cottonwood with P deltoides and P maximowiczii, more recently with p nigra. First-generation (F{sub 1}) hybrids have consistently outperformed black cottonwood by a factor of 1.5.-2. The high yields of woody biomass obtained from these clonally propagated hybrids, in rotations of 4-7 years, have fostered the establishment of large-scale plantations by the pulp and paper industry in the region. Physiological studies have helped to elucidate hybrid superiority and several of the underlying mechanisms.
D instanton on the linear-dilaton background
Gal'tsov, D. V. Orlov, D. G. Klevtsov, S. E.
2007-09-15
It is shown that, in addition to a standard asymptotically flat D instanton, IIB superstring theory contains an instanton-type excitation on the linear-dilaton background. The new solution is asymptotically flat, but the dilaton grows linearly at infinity. The total action of this configuration diverges, but the instanton action proper becomes finite upon subtracting an infinite background contribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veste, M.; Böhm, C.; Quinckenstein, A.; Freese, D.
2012-04-01
The importance of short rotation forests and agroforestry systems for woody biomass production for bioenergy will increase in Central Europe within the next decades. In this context, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) has a high growth potential especially at marginal, drought-susceptible sites such as occur in Brandenburg State (Eastern Germany). As a pioneer tree species black locust grows under a wide range of site conditions. The native range of black locust in Northern America is classified by a humid to sub-humid climate with a mean annual precipitation of 1020 to 1830 mm. In Central and Eastern Europe, this species is cultivated in a more continental climate with an annual precipitation often below 600 mm. Therefore, black locust is known to be relatively drought tolerant compared to other temperate, deciduous tree species. Because of its N2-fixation ability black locust plays generally an important role for the improvement of soil fertility. This effect is of particular interest at marginal sites in the post-mining landscapes. In order to estimate the N2-fixation potential of black locust at marginal sites leaf samples were taken from black locust trees in short rotation plantations planted between 1995 and 2007 in post-mining sites south of Cottbus (Brandenburg, NE Germany). The variation of the natural 15N abundance was measured to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation. The nitrogen derived from the atmosphere can be calculated using a two-pool model from the quotient of the natural 15N abundances of the N2-fixing plant and the plant available soil N. Because representatively determining the plant available soil N is difficult, a non-N2-fixing reference plant growing at the same site with a similar root system and temporal N uptake pattern to the N2-fixing plant is often used. In our case we used red oak (Quercus rubra) as a reference. The average nitrogen content in the leaves of black locust ranged from 3.1% (C/N 14.8) in 15 years old trees to 3
Cosmological constraints on Higgs-dilaton inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trashorras, Manuel; Nesseris, Savvas; García-Bellido, Juan
2016-09-01
We test the viability of the Higgs-dilaton model (HDM) compared to the evolving dark energy (w0waCDM ) model, in which the cosmological constant model Λ CDM is also nested, by using the latest cosmological data that include the cosmic microwave background temperature, polarization and lensing data from the Planck satellite (2015 data release), the BICEP and Keck Array experiments, the Type Ia supernovae from the JLA catalog, the baryon acoustic oscillations from CMASS, LOWZ and 6dF, the weak lensing data from the CFHTLenS survey, and the matter power spectrum measurements from the SDSS (data release 7). We find that the values of all cosmological parameters allowed by the Higgs-dilaton model inflation are well within the Planck satellite (2015 data release) constraints. In particular, we have that w0=-1.000 1-0.0074+0.0072 , wa=0.0 0-0.16+0.15, ns=0.969 3-0.0082+0.0083, αs=-0.00 1-0.014+0.013 and r0.05=0.002 5-0.0016+0.0017 (95.5% C.L.). We also place new stringent constraints on the couplings of the Higgs-dilaton model and we find that ξχ<0.00328 and ξh/√{λ }=5920 0-20000+30000 (95.5% C.L.). Furthermore, we report that the HDM is on slightly better footing than the w0waCDM model, as they both have practically the same chi-square, i.e. Δ χ2=χw0waCDM 2-χHDM2=0.18 , with the HDM model having two fewer parameters. Finally, Bayesian evidence favors equally the two models, with the HDM being preferred by the AIC and DIC information criteria.
Pu, Hung-Yi; Nakamura, Masanori; Hirotani, Kouichi; Asada, Keiichi; Wu, Kinwah
2015-03-01
General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) flows along magnetic fields threading a black hole can be divided into inflow and outflow parts, according to the result of the competition between the black hole gravity and magneto-centrifugal forces along the field line. Here we present the first self-consistent, semi-analytical solution for a cold, Poynting flux–dominated (PFD) GRMHD flow, which passes all four critical (inner and outer, Alfvén, and fast magnetosonic) points along a parabolic streamline. By assuming that the dominating (electromagnetic) component of the energy flux per flux tube is conserved at the surface where the inflow and outflow are separated, the outflow part of the solution can be constrained by the inflow part. The semi-analytical method can provide fiducial and complementary solutions for GRMHD simulations around the rotating black hole, given that the black hole spin, global streamline, and magnetizaion (i.e., a mass loading at the inflow/outflow separation) are prescribed. For reference, we demonstrate a self-consistent result with the work by McKinney in a quantitative level.
Techni-Dilaton Signatures at LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yamawaki, Koichi
2013-03-01
We explore LHC discovery signatures of techni-dilaton (TD) arising as a composite pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson (pNGB), associated with the spontaneous breaking of the approximate scale symmetry in the walking technicolor (WTC). We explicitly evaluate the TD 7 TeV LHC production cross sections times the branching ratios in terms of the TD mass MTD as an input parameter for the region 200 GeV < MTD < 1000 GeV in the typical WTC models. It turns out that the TD signatures are quite different from those of the standard model (SM) Higgs.
Giribet, Gaston; Oliva, Julio; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo
2009-12-15
Asymptotically anti-de Sitter rotating black holes for the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend massive gravity theory in three dimensions are considered. In the special case when the theory admits a unique maximally symmetric solution, apart from the mass and the angular momentum, the black hole is described by an independent 'gravitational hair' parameter, which provides a negative lower bound for the mass. This bound is saturated at the extremal case, and since the temperature and the semiclassical entropy vanish, it is naturally regarded as the ground state. The absence of a global charge associated with the gravitational hair parameter reflects itself through the first law of thermodynamics in the fact that the variation of this parameter can be consistently reabsorbed by a shift of the global charges, giving further support to consider the extremal case as the ground state. The rotating black hole fits within relaxed asymptotic conditions as compared with the ones of Brown and Henneaux, such that they are invariant under the standard asymptotic symmetries spanned by two copies of the Virasoro generators, and the algebra of the conserved charges acquires a central extension. Then it is shown that Strominger's holographic computation for general relativity can also be extended to the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend theory; i.e., assuming that the quantum theory could be consistently described by a dual conformal field theory at the boundary, the black hole entropy can be microscopically computed from the asymptotic growth of the number of states according to Cardy's formula, in exact agreement with the semiclassical result.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pani, Paolo; Berti, Emanuele; Gualtieri, Leonardo
2013-09-01
In Einstein-Maxwell theory, according to classic uniqueness theorems, the most general stationary black-hole solution is the axisymmetric Kerr-Newman metric, which is defined by three parameters: mass, spin and electric charge. The radial and angular dependence of gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations in the Kerr-Newman geometry do not seem to be separable. In this paper we circumvent this problem by studying scalar, electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations of Kerr-Newman black holes in the slow-rotation limit. We extend (and provide details of) the analysis presented in a recent Letter [P. Pani, E. Berti, and L. Gualtieri, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 241103 (2013)]. Working at linear order in the spin, we present the first detailed derivation of the axial and polar perturbation equations in the gravito-electromagnetic case, and we compute the corresponding quasinormal modes for any value of the electric charge. Our study is the first self-consistent stability analysis of the Kerr-Newman metric, and in principle it can be extended to any order in the small rotation parameter. We find numerical evidence that the axial and polar sectors are isospectral at first order in the spin and speculate on the possible implications of this result.
Light dilaton in the large N tricritical O (N ) model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omid, Hamid; Semenoff, Gordon W.; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.
2016-12-01
The leading order of the large N limit of the O (N ) symmetric phi-six theory in three dimensions has a phase which exhibits spontaneous breaking of scale symmetry accompanied by a massless dilaton which is a Goldstone boson. At the next-to-leading order in large N , the phi-six coupling has a beta function of order 1 /N and it is expected that the dilaton acquires a small mass, proportional to the beta function and the condensate. In this article, we show that this "light dilaton" is actually a tachyon. This indicates an instability of the phase of the theory with spontaneously broken approximate scale invariance.
Dilaton stabilization in three-generation heterotic string model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beye, Florian; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Kuwakino, Shogo
2016-09-01
We study dilaton stabilization in heterotic string models. By utilizing the asymmetric orbifold construction, we construct an explicit three-generation model whose matter content in the visible sector is the supersymmetric standard model with additional vectorlike matter. This model does not contain any geometric moduli fields except the dilaton field. Model building at a symmetry enhancement point in moduli space enlarges the rank of the hidden gauge group. By analyzing multiple hidden gauge sectors, the dilaton field is stabilized by the racetrack mechanism. We also discuss a supersymmetry breaking scenario and F-term uplifting.
General relativistic radiative transfer code in rotating black hole space-time: ARTIST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Rohta; Umemura, Masayuki
2017-02-01
We present a general relativistic radiative transfer code, ARTIST (Authentic Radiative Transfer In Space-Time), that is a perfectly causal scheme to pursue the propagation of radiation with absorption and scattering around a Kerr black hole. The code explicitly solves the invariant radiation intensity along null geodesics in the Kerr-Schild coordinates, and therefore properly includes light bending, Doppler boosting, frame dragging, and gravitational redshifts. The notable aspect of ARTIST is that it conserves the radiative energy with high accuracy, and is not subject to the numerical diffusion, since the transfer is solved on long characteristics along null geodesics. We first solve the wavefront propagation around a Kerr black hole that was originally explored by Hanni. This demonstrates repeated wavefront collisions, light bending, and causal propagation of radiation with the speed of light. We show that the decay rate of the total energy of wavefronts near a black hole is determined solely by the black hole spin in late phases, in agreement with analytic expectations. As a result, the ARTIST turns out to correctly solve the general relativistic radiation fields until late phases as t ˜ 90 M. We also explore the effects of absorption and scattering, and apply this code for a photon wall problem and an orbiting hotspot problem. All the simulations in this study are performed in the equatorial plane around a Kerr black hole. The ARTIST is the first step to realize the general relativistic radiation hydrodynamics.
Gravitational wave production by Hawking radiation from rotating primordial black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Ruifeng; Kinney, William H.; Stojkovic, Dejan
2016-10-01
In this paper we analyze in detail a rarely discussed question of gravity wave production from evaporating primordial black holes. These black holes emit gravitons which are, at classical level, registered as gravity waves. We use the latest constraints on their abundance, and calculate the power emitted in gravitons at the time of their evaporation. We then solve the coupled system of equations that gives us the evolution of the frequency and amplitude of gravity waves during the expansion of the universe. The spectrum of gravitational waves that can be detected today depends on multiple factors: fraction of the total energy density which was occupied by primordial black holes, the epoch in which they were formed, and quantities like their mass and angular momentum. We conclude that very small primordial black holes which evaporate before the big-bang nucleosynthesis emit gravitons whose spectral energy fraction today can be as large as 10-7.5. On the other hand, those which are massive enough so that they still exist now can yield a signal as high as 10-6.5. However, typical frequencies of the gravity waves from primordial black holes are still too high to be observed with the current and near future gravity wave observations.
Initial data for black hole-neutron star binaries, with rotating stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tacik, Nick; Foucart, Francois; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Muhlberger, Curran; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilágyi, Béla
2016-11-01
The coalescence of a neutron star with a black hole is a primary science target of ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Constraining or measuring the neutron star spin directly from gravitational wave observations requires knowledge of the dependence of the emission properties of these systems on the neutron star spin. This paper lays foundations for this task, by developing a numerical method to construct initial data for black hole-neutron star binaries with arbitrary spin on the neutron star. We demonstrate the robustness of the code by constructing initial-data sets in large regions of the parameter space. In addition to varying the neutron star spin-magnitude and spin-direction, we also explore neutron star compactness, mass-ratio, black hole spin, and black hole spin-direction. Specifically, we are able to construct initial data sets with neutron stars spinning near centrifugal break-up, and with black hole spins as large as {S}{BH}/{M}{BH}2=0.99.
Integrability of five-dimensional minimal supergravity and charged rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figueras, Pau; Jamsin, Ella; Rocha, Jorge V.; Virmani, Amitabh
2010-07-01
We explore the integrability of five-dimensional minimal supergravity in the presence of three commuting Killing vectors. We argue that to see the integrability structure of the theory one necessarily has to perform an Ehlers reduction to two dimensions. A direct dimensional reduction to two dimensions does not allow us to see the integrability of the theory in an easy way. This situation is in contrast with vacuum five-dimensional gravity. We derive the Belinski-Zakharov (BZ) Lax pair for minimal supergravity based on a symmetric 7 × 7 coset representative matrix for the coset G_{2(2)}/(SL(2, {\\mathbb {R}})\\times SL(2, {\\mathbb {R}})). We elucidate the relationship between our BZ Lax pair and the group theoretic Lax pair previously known in the literature. The BZ Lax pair allows us to generalize the well-known BZ dressing method to five-dimensional minimal supergravity. We show that the action of the three-dimensional hidden symmetry transformations on the BZ dressing method is simply the group action on the BZ vectors. As an illustration of our formalism, we obtain the doubly spinning five-dimensional Myers-Perry black hole by applying solitonic transformations on the Schwarzschild black hole. We also derive the Cveti\\checkc-Youm black hole by applying solitonic transformations on the Reissner-Nordström black hole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yo, Hwei-Jang; Cao, Zhoujian; Lin, Chun-Yu; Pan, Hsing-Po
2015-07-01
Different formulations of Einstein's equations used in numerical relativity can affect not only the stability but also the accuracy of numerical simulations. In the original Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formulation, the loss of the angular momentum, J , is non-negligible in highly spinning single black hole evolutions. This loss also appears, usually right after the merger, in highly spinning binary black hole simulations, The loss of J may be attributed to some unclear numerical dissipation. Reducing unphysical dissipation is expected to result in more stable and accurate evolutions. In the previous work [H.-J. Yo et al., Phys. Rev. D 86, 064027 (2012).] we proposed several modifications which are able to prevent black hole evolutions from the unphysical dissipation, and the resulting simulations are more stable than in the traditional BSSN formulation. Specifically, these three modifications (M1, M2, and M3) enhance the effects of stability, hyperbolicity, and dissipation of the formulation. We experiment further in this work with these modifications, and demonstrate that these modifications improve the accuracy and also effectively suppress the loss of J , particularly in the black hole simulations with an initially large ratio of J and a square of the ADM mass.
On the near horizon rotating black hole geometries with NUT charges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galajinsky, Anton; Orekhov, Kirill
2016-09-01
The near horizon geometries are usually constructed by implementing a specific limit to a given extreme black hole configuration. Their salient feature is that the isometry group includes the conformal subgroup SO(2, 1). In this work, we turn the logic around and use the conformal invariants for constructing Ricci-flat metrics in d=4 and d=5 where the vacuum Einstein equations reduce to a coupled set of ordinary differential equations. In four dimensions the analysis can be carried out in full generality and the resulting metric describes the d=4 near horizon Kerr-NUT black hole. In five dimensions we choose a specific ansatz whose structure is similar to the d=5 near horizon Myers-Perry black hole. A Ricci-flat metric involving five arbitrary parameters is constructed. A particular member of this family, which is characterized by three parameters, seems to be a natural candidate to describe the d=5 near horizon Myers-Perry black hole with a NUT charge.
Dilatonic non-linear sigma models and Ricci flow extensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carfora, M.; Marzuoli, A.
2016-09-01
We review our recent work describing, in terms of the Wasserstein geometry over the space of probability measures, the embedding of the Ricci flow in the renormalization group flow for dilatonic non-linear sigma models.
Proposal for a geophysical search for dilatonic waves
Shiomi, Sachie
2008-08-15
We propose a new method of searching for the composition-dependent dilatonic waves, predicted by unified theories of strings. In this method, Earth's surface-gravity changes due to translational motions of its inner core, excited by dilatonic waves, are searched for by using superconducting gravimeters. This method has its best sensitivity at the frequency of {approx}7x10{sup -5} Hz, which is lower than the sensitive frequencies of previous proposals using gravitational wave detectors: {approx}10 to 1000 Hz. Using available results of surface-gravity measurements with superconducting gravimeters and assuming a simple Earth model, we present preliminary upper limits on the energy density of a stochastic background of massless dilatons at the low frequency. Though the results are currently limited by the uncertainty in the Earth model, this method has a potential of detecting dilatonic waves in a new window.
Newtonian perturbations and the Einstein Yang Mills-dilaton equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliynyk, Todd A.
2005-06-01
In this paper, we show that the problem of proving the existence of a countable number of solutions to the static spherically symmetric SU(2) Einstein Yang Mills-dilaton (EYMd) equations can be reduced to proving the non-existence of solutions to the linearized Yang Mills-dilaton equations (lYMd) satisfying certain asymptotic conditions. The reduction from a nonlinear to a linear problem is achieved using a Newtonian perturbation-type argument.
Class of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion space-times
Matos, Tonatiuh; Miranda, Galaxia; Sanchez-Sanchez, Ruben; Wiederhold, Petra
2009-06-15
We use the harmonic maps ansatz to find exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion (EMDA) equations. The solutions are harmonic maps invariant to the symplectic real group in four dimensions Sp(4,R){approx}O(5). We find solutions of the EMDA field equations for the one- and two-dimensional subspaces of the symplectic group. Specially, for illustration of the method, we find space-times that generalize the Schwarzschild solution with dilaton, axion, and electromagnetic fields.
One-loop correction and the dilaton runaway problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiu, Rulin
1997-04-01
We examine the one-loop vacuum structure of an effective theory of gaugino condensation coupled to the dilaton for string models in which the gauge coupling constant does not receive string threshold corrections. The new ingredients in our treatment are that we take into account the one-loop correction to the dilaton Kähler potential and we use a formulation which includes a chiral field H corresponding to the gaugino bilinear. We find through explicit calculation that supersymmetry in the Yang-Mills sector is broken by gaugino condensation. The dilaton and H field have masses on the order of the gaugino condensation scale independently of the dilaton VEV. Although the calculation performed here is at best a model of the full gaugino condensation dynamics, the result shows that the one-loop correction to the dilaton Kähler potential as well as the detailed dynamics at the gaugino condensation scale may play an important role in solving the dilaton runaway problem.
Generalized geodesic deviation equations and an entanglement first law for rotating BTZ black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Avirup; Mishra, Rohit
2016-12-01
The change in holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) for small fluctuations about pure anti-de Sitter is given by a perturbative expansion of the area functional in terms of the change in the bulk metric and the embedded extremal surface. However, it is known that changes in the embedding appear at second order or higher. In this paper we show that these changes in the embedding can be systematically calculated in the (2 +1 )-dimensional case by accounting for the deviation of the spacelike geodesics between a spacetime and perturbations over it. Here we consider rotating BTZ as a perturbation over AdS3 and study deviations of spacelike geodesics in them. We argue that these deviations arise naturally as solutions of a "generalized geodesic deviation equation." Using this we perturbatively calculate the changes in HEE up to second order for rotating BTZ. This expression matches with the small system size expansion of the change in HEE obtained by the proposal of Hubeny, Rangamani, and Takayanagi for rotating BTZ. We also write an alternative form of the entanglement first law for rotating BTZ. To do this one needs to go beyond the leading order in the perturbation series discussed above. That is precisely the reason we consider finding a systematic way to calculate it. To put our result on a firm footing we further show that it is this alternative first law that approaches the thermal first law in the large subsystem size limit.
EXTREMAL ENERGY SHIFTS OF RADIATION FROM A RING NEAR A ROTATING BLACK HOLE
Karas, VladimIr; Sochora, Vjaceslav
2010-12-20
Radiation from a narrow circular ring shows a characteristic double-horn profile dominated by photons having energy around the maximum or minimum of the allowed range, i.e., near the extremal values of the energy shift. The energy span of a spectral line is a function of the ring radius, black hole spin, and observer's viewing angle. We describe a useful approach to calculate the extremal energy shifts in the regime of strong gravity. Then we consider an accretion disk consisting of a number of separate nested annuli in the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole, above the innermost stable circular orbit. We suggest that the radial structure of the disk emission could be reconstructed using the extremal energy shifts of the individual rings deduced from the broad wings of a relativistic spectral line.
Charged particle in higher dimensional weakly charged rotating black hole spacetime
Frolov, Valeri P.; Krtous, Pavel
2011-01-15
We study charged particle motion in weakly charged higher dimensional black holes. To describe the electromagnetic field we use a test field approximation and the higher dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metric as a background geometry. It is shown that for a special configuration of the electromagnetic field, the equations of motion of charged particles are completely integrable. The vector potential of such a field is proportional to one of the Killing vectors (called a primary Killing vector) from the 'Killing tower' of symmetry generating objects which exists in the background geometry. A free constant in the definition of the adopted electromagnetic potential is proportional to the electric charge of the higher dimensional black hole. The full set of independent conserved quantities in involution is found. We demonstrate that Hamilton-Jacobi equations are separable, as is the corresponding Klein-Gordon equation and its symmetry operators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernar, Rafael P.; Crispino, Luís C. B.; Higuchi, Atsushi
2017-03-01
We analyze the gravitational radiation emitted from a particle in circular motion around a Schwarzschild black hole using the framework of quantum field theory in curved spacetime at tree level. The gravitational perturbations are written in a gauge-invariant formalism for spherically symmetric spacetimes. We discuss the results, comparing them to the radiation emitted by a particle when it is assumed to be orbiting a massive object due to a Newtonian force in flat spacetime.
Quantum entropies in extreme dilaton black hole backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Yi-Huan; Wang, Yongcheng; Zhao, Zheng
2002-06-01
For spinor fields, the entropies from the spin-1/2- and spin-1/2+ components, Sq-ext and Sq+ext, are quite different, though the former is 7/8 times the scalar entropy and the latter contains an extra term. The brick wall model is applicable to both NEBH and EBH. For the EDBH with 0≺a2≺1, using the brick wall model with the cutoff ɛ being given by ɛ(1- a2)/(1+a2)=(1+a2)κm2/ (1+a2) and κ the surface gravity on the event horizon, at the Hawking temperature TH=κ/2π, the scalar and spinor entropies are Sqext=S0/(1- a2)(1+a2)2 with S0=1/135 and SqFext=7/2Sqext+[1/6(1- a2)], respectively. For the EGHSDBH, the spin-1/2- and spin-1/2+ fields contribute the entropies Sq- ext=7/8Sqext, Sq+ext=7/8Sqext+(πm/6β) ln(L/ɛ), respectively; at the Hawking temperature, the spinor entropy is SqFext=(7/2+30)Sqext with Sqext=1/360 ln(L/ɛ).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pani, Paolo; Berti, Emanuele; Gualtieri, Leonardo
2013-06-01
The most general stationary black-hole solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory in vacuum is the Kerr-Newman metric, specified by three parameters: mass M, spin J, and charge Q. Within classical general relativity, one of the most important and challenging open problems in black-hole perturbation theory is the study of gravitational and electromagnetic fields in the Kerr-Newman geometry, because of the indissoluble coupling of the perturbation functions. Here we circumvent this long-standing problem by working in the slow-rotation limit. We compute the quasinormal modes up to linear order in J for any value of Q and provide the first, fully consistent stability analysis of the Kerr-Newman metric. For scalar perturbations the quasinormal modes can be computed exactly, and we demonstrate that the method is accurate within 3% for spins J/Jmax≲0.5, where Jmax is the maximum allowed spin for any value of Q. Quite remarkably, we find numerical evidence that the axial and polar sectors of the gravitoelectromagnetic perturbations are isospectral to linear order in the spin. The extension of our results to nonasymptotically flat space-times could be useful in the context of gauge-gravity dualities and string theory.
Pani, Paolo; Berti, Emanuele; Gualtieri, Leonardo
2013-06-14
The most general stationary black-hole solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory in vacuum is the Kerr-Newman metric, specified by three parameters: mass M, spin J, and charge Q. Within classical general relativity, one of the most important and challenging open problems in black-hole perturbation theory is the study of gravitational and electromagnetic fields in the Kerr-Newman geometry, because of the indissoluble coupling of the perturbation functions. Here we circumvent this long-standing problem by working in the slow-rotation limit. We compute the quasinormal modes up to linear order in J for any value of Q and provide the first, fully consistent stability analysis of the Kerr-Newman metric. For scalar perturbations the quasinormal modes can be computed exactly, and we demonstrate that the method is accurate within 3% for spins J/J(max) ≲ 0.5, where J(max) is the maximum allowed spin for any value of Q. Quite remarkably, we find numerical evidence that the axial and polar sectors of the gravitoelectromagnetic perturbations are isospectral to linear order in the spin. The extension of our results to nonasymptotically flat space-times could be useful in the context of gauge-gravity dualities and string theory.
Kuo, C. Y.; Asada, K.; Rao, R.; Nakamura, M.; Algaba, J. C.; Liu, H. B.; Inoue, M.; Koch, P. M.; Ho, P. T. P.; Matsushita, S.; Pu, H.-Y.; Nishioka, H.; Pradel, N.; Akiyama, K.
2014-03-10
We present the first constraint on the Faraday rotation measure (RM) at submillimeter wavelengths for the nucleus of M87. By fitting the polarization position angles (χ) observed with the Submillimeter Array at four independent frequencies around ∼230 GHz and interpreting the change in χ as a result of external Faraday rotation associated with accretion flow, we determine the RM of the M87 core to be between –7.5 × 10{sup 5} and 3.4 × 10{sup 5} rad m{sup –2}. Assuming a density profile of the accretion flow that follows a power-law distribution and a magnetic field that is ordered, radial, and has equipartition strength, the limit on the RM constrains the mass accretion rate M-dot to be below 9.2 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at a distance of 21 Schwarzschild radii from the central black hole. This value is at least two orders of magnitude smaller than the Bondi accretion rate, suggesting significant suppression of the accretion rate in the inner region of the accretion flow. Consequently, our result disfavors the classical advection-dominated accretion flow and prefers the adiabatic inflow-outflow solution or convection-dominated accretion flow for the hot accretion flow in M87.
Charged black holes and black hole binaries in Multi-messenger Astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liebling, Steven
2017-01-01
The possibility of observing electromagnetic signals from gravitational wave events holds great promise for gravitational wave astronomy. I discuss studies of black holes and black hole binaries in both Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories, and their implications for LIGO detections and electromagnetic followups, such as Fermi's report of a coincident followup of GW150914.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, Fred C.; Graff, David S.; Mbonye, Manasse; Richstone, Douglas O.
2003-01-01
Motivated by the observed correlation between black hole masses M(sub BH) and the velocity dispersion sigma of host galaxies, we develop a theoretical model of black hole formation in galactic bulges (this paper generalizes an earlier ApJ Letter). The model assumes an initial state specified by a uniform rotation rate OMEGA and a density distribution of the form rho = a(sup 2)(sub eff)per2piGR(sup 2)(so that a(sub eff)is an effective transport speed). The black hole mass is determined when the centrifugal radius of the collapse flow exceeds the capture radius of the central black hole (for Schwarzschild geometry). This model reproduces the observed correlation between the estimated black hole masses and the velocity dispersions of galactic bulges, i.e., M(sub BH) approximately equal to 10(sup 8) solar mass(sigma per 200 kilometers per second)(sup 4) where sigma = the square root of 2a(sub eff). To obtain this normalization, the rotation rate OMEGA approximately equal to 2 x 10(exp -15) rad per second. The model also defines a bulge mass scale M(sub B). If we identify the scale M(sub B) with the bulge mass, the model determines the ratio mu(sub B) of black hole mass to the host mass: mu(sub B) approximately equal to 0.0024(sigma per 200 kilometer per second), again in reasonable agreement with observed values. In this scenario, supermassive black holes form quickly (in approximately 10(exp 5) yr) and are born rapidly rotating (with a per M approximately 0.9). This paper also shown how these results depend on the assumed initial conditions; the most important quantity is the initial distribution of specific angular momentum in the precollapse state.
Analytic rotating black-hole solutions in N-dimensional f( T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nashed, G. G. L.; El Hanafy, W.
2017-02-01
A non-diagonal vielbein ansatz is applied to the N-dimension field equations of f( T) gravity. An analytical vacuum solution is derived for the quadratic polynomial f(T)=T+ɛ T^2 and an inverse relation between the coupling constant ɛ and the cosmological constant Λ . Since the induced metric has off-diagonal components, it cannot be removed by a mere coordinate transformation, the solution has a rotating parameter. The curvature and torsion scalars invariants are calculated to study the singularities and horizons of the solution. In contrast to general relativity, the Cauchy horizon differs from the horizon which shows the effect of the higher order torsion. The general expression of the energy-momentum vector of f( T) gravity is used to calculate the energy of the system. Finally, we have shown that this kind of solution satisfies the first law of thermodynamics in the framework of f( T) gravitational theories.
Numerical simulations of optically thick accretion onto a black hole. II. Rotating flow
Fragile, P. Chris; Olejar, Ally; Anninos, Peter
2014-11-20
In this paper, we report on recent upgrades to our general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics code, Cosmos++, including the development of a new primitive inversion scheme and a hybrid implicit-explicit solver with a more general M {sub 1} closure relation for the radiation equations. The new hybrid solver helps stabilize the treatment of the radiation source terms, while the new closure allows for a much broader range of optical depths to be considered. These changes allow us to expand by orders of magnitude the range of temperatures, opacities, and mass accretion rates, and move a step closer toward our goal of performing global simulations of radiation-pressure-dominated black hole accretion disks. In this work, we test and validate the new method against an array of problems. We also demonstrate its ability to handle super-Eddington, quasi-spherical accretion. Even with just a single proof-of-principle simulation, we already see tantalizing hints of the interesting phenomenology associated with the coupling of radiation and gas in super-Eddington accretion flows.
Well-behaved harmonic time slices of a charged, rotating, boosted black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, Gregory B.; Scheel, Mark A.
1997-10-01
Harmonic time slicings are used in some hyperbolic formulations of Einstein's equations and are therefore of considerable interest to the field of numerical relativity. We construct an analytic coordinate representation of the Kerr-Newman geometry that is harmonic in both its spatial and temporal coordinates. The metric is independent of time and the spacelike, t= const slices extend from spatial infinity smoothly through the event horizon at r=r+ and end at the Cauchy horizon at r=r-. When the spatial harmonic coordinate condition is imposed, there is also a spatial coordinate singularity at r=M, but this fully harmonic metric can be trivially boosted to yield an analytic solution for a harmonically sliced translating, spinning black hole. We also examine the behavior of evolutions which obey the harmonic slicing condition but start from initial data that is not in the time-independent harmonic slicing foliation. We find that with a suitable choice of the spatial gauge, the evolving three-geometry is ``attracted'' to the time-independent three-geometry we present in this paper.
Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Koike, Tatsuhiko
2011-03-15
We discuss constants of motion of a particle under an external field in a curved spacetime, taking into account the Hamiltonian constraint, which arises from the reparametrization invariance of the particle orbit. As the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a constant of motion, we obtain a set of equations with a hierarchical structure, which is understood as a generalization of the Killing tensor equation. It is also a generalization of the conventional argument in that it includes the case when the conservation condition holds only on the constraint surface in the phase space. In that case, it is shown that the constant of motion is associated with a conformal Killing tensor. We apply the hierarchical equations and find constants of motion in the case of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field in black hole spacetimes. We also demonstrate that gravitational and electromagnetic fields exist in which a charged particle has a constant of motion associated with a conformal Killing tensor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donmez, Orhan
The shocked wave created on the accretion disk after different physical phenomena (accretion flows with pressure gradients, star-disk interaction etc.) may be responsible observed Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in X-ray binaries. We present the set of characteristics frequencies associated with accretion disk around the rotating and non-rotating black holes for one particle case. These persistent frequencies are results of the rotating pattern in an accretion disk. We compare the frequency's from two different numerical results for fluid flow around the non-rotating black hole with one particle case. The numerical results are taken from Refs. 1 and 2 using fully general relativistic hydrodynamical code with non-selfgravitating disk. While the first numerical result has a relativistic tori around the black hole, the second one includes one-armed spiral shock wave produced from star-disk interaction. Some physical modes presented in the QPOs can be excited in numerical simulation of relativistic tori and spiral waves on the accretion disk. The results of these different dynamical structures on the accretion disk responsible for QPOs are discussed in detail.
Bianchi type I cosmologies in arbitrary dimensional dilaton gravities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chiang-Mei; Harko, T.; Mak, M. K.
2000-12-01
We study the low energy string effective action with an exponential type dilaton potential and vanishing torsion in a Bianchi type I space-time geometry. In the Einstein and string frames the general solution of the gravitational field equations can be expressed in an exact parametric form. Depending on the values of the dilaton coupling constant and of the coefficient in the exponential, the obtained cosmological models can be generically divided into three classes, leading to both singular and non-singular behaviors. The effect of the potential on the time evolution of the mean anisotropy parameter is also considered in detail, and it is shown that a Bianchi type I universe isotropizes only in the presence of a dilaton field potential or a central deficit charge.
Canonical reduction for dilatonic gravity in 3 +1 dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scott, T. C.; Zhang, Xiangdong; Mann, R. B.; Fee, G. J.
2016-04-01
We generalize the 1 +1 -dimensional gravity formalism of Ohta and Mann to 3 +1 dimensions by developing the canonical reduction of a proposed formalism applied to a system coupled with a set of point particles. This is done via the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner method and by eliminating the resulting constraints and imposing coordinate conditions. The reduced Hamiltonian is completely determined in terms of the particles' canonical variables (coordinates, dilaton field and momenta). It is found that the equation governing the dilaton field under suitable gauge and coordinate conditions, including the absence of transverse-traceless metric components, is a logarithmic Schrödinger equation. Thus, although different, the 3 +1 formalism retains some essential features of the earlier 1 +1 formalism, in particular the means of obtaining a quantum theory for dilatonic gravity.
N=2 supersymmetry in two-dimensional dilaton gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, William M.; Park, Youngchul
1993-11-01
Actions for D=2, N=2 supergravity coupled to a scalar field are calculated, and it is shown that the most general power-counting renormalizable dilaton gravity action has an N=2 locally supersymmetric extension. The presence of chiral terms in the action leads one to hope that nonrenormalization theorems similar to those in global SUSY will apply; this would eliminate some of the renormalization ambiguities which plague ordinary bosonic (and N=1) dilaton gravity. To investigate this, the model is studied in the superconformal gauge, where it is found that one chiral term becomes nonchiral, so that only one term is safe from renormalization.
[ital N]=2 supersymmetry in two-dimensional dilaton gravity
Nelson, W.M.; Park, Y. )
1993-11-15
Actions for [ital D]=2, [ital N]=2 supergravity coupled to a scalar field are calculated, and it is shown that the most general power-counting renormalizable dilaton gravity action has an [ital N]=2 locally supersymmetric extension. The presence of chiral terms in the action leads one to hope that nonrenormalization theorems similar to those in global SUSY will apply; this would eliminate some of the renormalization ambiguities which plague ordinary bosonic (and [ital N]=1) dilaton gravity. To investigate this, the model is studied in the superconformal gauge, where it is found that one chiral term becomes nonchiral, so that only one term is safe from renormalization.
Power law of shear viscosity in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Yi; Xian, Zhuoyu; Zhou, Zhenhua
2017-02-01
We construct charged black hole solutions with hyperscaling violation in the infrared (IR) region in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion theory and investigate the temperature behavior of the ratio of holographic shear viscosity to the entropy density. When translational symmetry breaking is relevant in the IR, the power law of the ratio is verified numerically at low temperature T, namely, η/s ∼ T κ , where the values of exponent κ coincide with the analytical results. We also find that the exponent κ is not affected by irrelevant current, but is reduced by the relevant current. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275208, 11575195), Opening Project of Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors (14DZ2260700) and Jiangxi Young Scientists (JingGang Star) Program and 555 Talent Project of Jiangxi Province
Inflationary Dilatonic de Sitter Universe from { N} = 4 Super-Yang Mills Theory Perturbed by Scalars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurtado, John Quiroga
In this paper a quantum { N} = 4 super-Yang Mills theory perturbed by dilaton-coupled scalars, is considered. The induced effective action for such a theory is calculated on a dilaton-gravitational background using the conformal anomaly found via AdS/CFT correspondence. Considering such an effective action (using the large N method) as a quantum correction to the classical gravity action with cosmological constant we study the effect from dilaton to the scale factor (which corresponds to the inflationary universe without dilaton). It is shown that, depending on the initial conditions for the dilaton, the dilaton may slow down, or accelerate, the inflation process. At late times, the dilaton is decaying exponentially. At the end of this work, we consider the question how the perturbation of the solution for the scale factor affects the stability of the solution for the equations of motion and therefore the stability of the Inflationary Universe, which could be eternal.
Wormholes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory.
Kanti, Panagiota; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta
2011-12-30
We construct traversable wormholes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory in four spacetime dimensions, without needing any form of exotic matter. We determine their domain of existence, and show that these wormholes satisfy a generalized Smarr relation. We demonstrate linear stability with respect to radial perturbations for a subset of these wormholes.
Cosmological consequences of dilatons in the electroweak model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonald, J.
1992-01-01
We consider the cosmological evolution of an electroweak model with a Jordan-Brans-Dicke dilaton, as would result from spontaneously breaking scale-invariance in a complete theory. For the case where the Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric is introduced in the Einstein frame, it is shown that the phase transition is first-order, in agreement with previous treatments of this question. It is however argued that the treatment given here is more physically correct than previous treatments. It is also shown that at the electroweak phase transition, which occurs at the temperature of chiral symmetry breaking, most of the vacuum energy goes into oscillations of the dilaton field, with essentially no reheating or increase in entropy. As a result, the universe becomes effectively matter dominated before nucleosynthesis, ruling out the model. The only way to avoid this problem is to have scale-invariance broken at less than O(107) GeV. For the case where the FRW metric is introduced in the Jordan frame, the electroweak phase transition is of second-order as for the minimal standard model. The question of the energy density in dilatons is dependent upon the assumed form of the dilaton potential.
Collapse of charged scalar field in dilaton gravity
Borkowska, Anna; Rogatko, Marek; Moderski, Rafal
2011-04-15
We elaborated the gravitational collapse of a self-gravitating complex charged scalar field in the context of the low-energy limit of the string theory, the so-called dilaton gravity. We begin with the regular spacetime and follow the evolution through the formation of an apparent horizon and the final central singularity.
Primordial perturbations from dilaton-induced gauge fields
Choi, Kiwoon; Choi, Ki-Young; Kim, Hyungjin; Shin, Chang Sub E-mail: kiyoungchoi@kasi.re.kr E-mail: changsub@physics.rutgers.edu
2015-10-01
We study the primordial scalar and tensor perturbations in inflation scenario involving a spectator dilaton field. In our setup, the rolling spectator dilaton causes a tachyonic instability of gauge fields, leading to a copious production of gauge fields in the superhorizon regime, which generates additional scalar and tensor perturbations through gravitational interactions. Our prime concern is the possibility to enhance the tensor-to-scalar ratio r relative to the standard result, while satisfying the observational constraints. To this end, we allow the dilaton field to be stabilized before the end of inflation, but after the CMB scales exit the horizon. We show that for the inflaton slow roll parameter ε ∼> 10{sup −3}, the tensor-to-scalar ratio in our setup can be enhanced only by a factor of O(1) compared to the standard result. On the other hand, for smaller ε corresponding to a lower inflation energy scale, a much bigger enhancement can be achieved, so that our setup can give rise to an observably large r∼> 10{sup −2} even when ε|| 10{sup −3}. The tensor perturbation sourced by the spectator dilaton can have a strong scale dependence, and is generically red-tilted. We also discuss a specific model to realize our scenario, and identify the parameter region giving an observably large r for relatively low inflation energy scales.
Techni-Dilaton Signatures at LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuzaki, S.; Yamawaki, K.
2012-02-01
We explore discovery signatures of techni-dilaton (TD) at LHC. The TD was predicted long ago as a composite pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson (pNGB) associated with the spontaneous breaking of the approximate scale symmetry in the walking technicolor (WTC) (initially dubbed ``scale-invariant technicolor''). Being pNGB, whose mass arises from the explicit scale-symmetry breaking due to the spontaneous breaking itself (dynamical mass generation), the TD as a composite scalar should have a mass M_{TD} lighter than other techni-hadrons, say M_{TD} ≃ 600 GeV for the typical WTC model, which is well in the discovery range of the ongoing LHC experiment. We develop a spurion method of nonlinear realization to calculate the TD couplings to the standard model (SM) particles and explicitly evaluate the TD LHC production cross sections at √{s} = 7 TeV times the branching ratios in terms of M_{TD} as an input parameter for the region 200 GeV < M_{TD} < 1000 GeV in the typical WTC models. It turns out that the TD signatures are quite different from those of the SM Higgs: In the one-doublet model (1DM) all the cross sections including the WW/ZZ mode are suppressed compared to those of the SM Higgs due to the suppressed TD couplings, while in the one-family model (1FM) all those cross sections get highly enhanced because of the presence of extra colored fermion (techni-quark) contributions. We compare the {TD} → WW/ZZ signature with the recent ATLAS and CMS bounds and find that in the case of 1DM the signature is consistent over the whole mass range 200 GeV < M_{TD} < 1000 GeV due to the large suppression of TD couplings, and by the same token the signal is too tiny for the TD to be visible through this channel at LHC. As for the 1FMs, on the other hand, a severe constraint is given on the TD mass to exclude the TD with mass ≲ 600 GeV, which, however, would imply an emergence of somewhat dramatic excess as the TD signature at 600 GeV ≲ M_{TD} < 1000 GeV in the near future. We
Structures of general relativity in dilaton-Maxwell electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kechkin, O. V.; Mosharev, P. A.
2016-08-01
It is shown that electro (magneto) static sector of Maxwell’s electrodynamics coupled to the dilaton field in a string theory form possesses the symmetry group of the stationary General Relativity in vacuum. Performing the Ernst formalism, we develope a technique for generation of exact solutions in this modified electrodynamics on the base of the normalized Ehlers symmetry transformation. In the electrostatic case, we construct and study a general class of spherically symmetric solutions that describes a pointlike source of the Coulomb type. It is demonstrated that this source is characterized by finite and singularity-free interaction at short distances. Also it is established that the total electrostatic energy of this source is finite and inversely proportional to the dilaton-Maxwell coupling constant.
All extremal instantons in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha; Clément, Gérard; Gal'Tsov, Dmitri V.
2011-11-01
We construct explicitly all extremal instanton solutions to N=4, D=4 supergravity truncated to one vector field (Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion theory). These correspond to null geodesics of the target space of the sigma-model G/H=Sp(4,R)/GL(2,R) obtained by compactification of four-dimensional Euclidean Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion on a circle. They satisfy a no-force condition in terms of the asymptotic charges and part of them (corresponding to nilpotent orbits of the Sp(4,R) U-duality) are presumably supersymmetric. The space of finite action solutions is found to be unexpectedly large and includes, besides the Euclidean versions of known Lorentzian solutions, a number of new asymptotically locally flat instantons endowed with electric, magnetic, dilaton and axion charges. We also describe new classes of charged asymptotically locally Euclidean instantons as well as some exceptional solutions. Our classification scheme is based on the algebraic classification of matrix generators according to their rank, according to the nature of the charge vectors, and according to the number of independent harmonic functions with unequal charges. Besides the nilpotent orbits of G, we find solutions which satisfy the asymptotic no-force condition, but are not supersymmetric. The renormalized on-shell action for instantons is calculated using the method of matched background subtraction.
Chiral primordial gravitational waves from dilaton induced delayed chromonatural inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obata, Ippei; Soda, Jiro; CLEO Collaboration
2016-06-01
We study inflation driven by a dilaton and an axion, both of which are coupled to a SU(2) gauge field. We find that the inflation driven by the dilaton occurs in the early stage of inflation during which the gauge field grows due to the gauge-kinetic function. When the energy density of magnetic fields catches up with that of electric fields, chromonatural inflation takes over in the late stage of inflation, which we call delayed chromonatural inflation. Thus, the delayed chromonatural inflation driven by the axion and the gauge field is induced by the dilaton. The interesting outcome of the model is the generation of chiral primordial gravitational waves on small scales. Since the gauge field is inert in the early stage of inflation, it is viable in contrast to the conventional chromonatural inflation. We find the parameter region where chiral gravitational waves are generated in a frequency range higher than nHz, which are potentially detectable in future gravitational wave interferometers and pulsar-timing arrays such as DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO), evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), and Square Kilometer Array (SKA).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novikov, Igor
Astrophysics of Black Holes Introduction The Origin of Stellar Black Holes A Nonrotating Black Hole Introduction Schwarzschild Gravitational Field Motion of Photons Along the Radial Direction Radial Motion of Nonrelativistic Particles The Puzzle of the Gravitational Radius R and T Regions Two Types of T-Regions Gravitational Collapse and White Holes Eternal Black Hole? Black Hole Celestial Mechanics Circular Motion Around a Black Hole Gravitational Capture of Particles by a Black Hole Corrections for Gravitational Radiation A Rotating Black Hole Introduction Gravitational Field of a Rotating Black Hole Specific Reference Frames General Properties of the Spacetime of a Rotating Black Hole; - Spacetime Inside the Horizon Celestial Mechanics of a Rotating Black Hole Motion of Particle in the Equatorial Plane Motion of Particles off the Equatorial Plane Peculiarities of the Gravitational Capture of Bodies by a Rotating - Black Hole Electromagnetic Fields Near a Black Hole Introduction Maxwell's Equations in the Neighborhood of a Rotating Black Hole Stationary Electrodynamics Boundary Conditions at the Event Horizon Electromagnetic Fields in Vacuum Magnetosphere of a Black Hole Some Aspects of Physics of Black Holes, Wormholes, and Time Machines Observational Appearence of the Black Holes in the Universe Black Holes in the Interstellar Medium Disk Accretion Black Holes in Stellar Binary Systems Black Holes in Galactic Centers Dynamical Evidence for Black Holes in Galaxy Nuclei Primordial Black Holes Acknowledgements References
Semiclassical geometry of charged black holes
Frolov, Andrei V.; Kristjansson, Kristjan R.; Thorlacius, Larus
2005-07-15
At the classical level, two-dimensional dilaton gravity coupled to an abelian gauge field has charged black hole solutions, which have much in common with four-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, including multiple asymptotic regions, timelike curvature singularities, and Cauchy horizons. The black hole spacetime is, however, significantly modified by quantum effects, which can be systematically studied in this two-dimensional context. In particular, the back-reaction on the geometry due to pair-creation of charged fermions destabilizes the inner horizon and replaces it with a spacelike curvature singularity. The semiclassical geometry has the same global topology as an electrically neutral black hole.
Diamandis, G.A.; Georgalas, B.C.; Lahanas, A.B. )
1990-12-15
We calculate the {ital O}({alpha}{prime}{sup 3}) contributions to the renormalization-group {beta} functions in the {ital N}=1 supersymmetric {sigma} model with a dilaton. At this order both metric and dilaton {beta} functions are found to depend nontrivially on the dilaton field and vanish if the dilaton satisfies {del}{sub {mu}}{del}{sub {nu}}{phi}=0. By employing the Curci-Paffuti relation it is shown that such dilaton backgrounds in Ricci-flat spaces {ital R}{sub {mu}{nu}}=0 satisfy the conformal invariance conditions up to this order. The particular class of Ricci-flat, compact, and orientable manifolds naturally emerge as appropriate internal-space configurations consistent with local scale invariance. We further explore the cosmological consequences of these dilaton configurations. In a Robertson-Walker four-dimensional background we find all dilatons satisfying {del}{sub {mu}}{del}{sub {nu}}{phi}=0. Except for the constant and the time-dependent dilaton {phi}({ital t})={minus}2 ln{ital t}+{lambda} whose cosmological implications have been already discussed in the literature, additional solutions are found. These may be of relevance beyond leading order and for nonvanishing background values for the antisymmetric tensor {ital B}{sub {mu}{nu}}. For these solutions, also the cosmic scale factor is at most linear in time therefore giving rise to either a static or a linearly expanding (contracting) universe.
Conformal invariance beyond the leading order in the supersymmetric nonlinear σ model with dilaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diamandis, G. A.; Georgalas, B. C.; Lahanas, A. B.
1990-12-01
We calculate the O(α'3) contributions to the renormalization-group β functions in the N=1 supersymmetric σ model with a dilaton. At this order both metric and dilaton β functions are found to depend nontrivially on the dilaton field and vanish if the dilaton satisfies ∇μ∇νφ=0. By employing the Curci-Paffuti relation it is shown that such dilaton backgrounds in Ricci-flat spaces Rμν=0 satisfy the conformal invariance conditions up to this order. The particular class of Ricci-flat, compact, and orientable manifolds naturally emerge as appropriate internal-space configurations consistent with local scale invariance. We further explore the cosmological consequences of these dilaton configurations. In a Robertson-Walker four-dimensional background we find all dilatons satisfying ∇μ∇νφ=0. Except for the constant and the time-dependent dilaton φ(t)=-2 lnt+λ whose cosmological implications have been already discussed in the literature, additional solutions are found. These may be of relevance beyond leading order and for nonvanishing background values for the antisymmetric tensor Bμν. For these solutions, also the cosmic scale factor is at most linear in time therefore giving rise to either a static or a linearly expanding (contracting) universe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnerucci, A.; Marconi, A.; Capetti, A.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A.; Neumayer, N.
2011-12-01
We measure the black hole mass in the nearby active galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) using a new method based on spectroastrometry of a rotating gas disk. The spectroastrometric approach consists in measuring the photocenter position of emission lines for different velocity channels. In a previous paper we focused on the basic methodology and the advantages of the spectroastrometric approach with a detailed set of simulations demonstrating the possibilities for black hole mass measurements going below the conventional spatial resolution. In this paper we apply the spectroastrometric method to multiple longslit and integral field near infrared spectroscopic observations of Centaurus A. We find that the application of the spectroastrometric method provides results perfectly consistent with the more complex classical method based on rotation curves: the measured BH mass is nearly independent of the observational setup and spatial resolution and the spectroastrometric method allows the gas dynamics to be probed down to spatial scales of ~0.02″, i.e. 1/10 of the spatial resolution and ~1/50 of BH sphere of influence radius. The best estimate for the BH mass based on kinematics of the ionised gas is then log (MBH sin i2/M⊙) ≃ 7.5 ± 0.1 which corresponds to MBH= 9.6-1.8+2.5 × 107 M⊙ for an assumed disk inclination of i = 35°. The complementarity of this method with the classic rotation curve method will allow us to put constraints on the disk inclination which cannot be otherwise derived from spectroastrometry. With the application to Centaurus A, we have shown that spectroastrometry opens up the possibility of probing spatial scales smaller than the spatial resolution, extending the measured MBH range to new domains which are currently not accessible: smaller BHs in the local universe and similar BHs in more distant galaxies.
Constraining the Runaway Dilaton and Quintessential Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neupane, Ishwaree P.; Trowland, Holly
Dark energy is some of the weirdest and most mysterious stuff in the universe that tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe. Two commonly known forms of dark energy are the cosmological constant, a constant energy density filling space homogeneously, and scalar fields such as quintessence or moduli whose energy density can vary with time. We explore one particular model for dynamic dark energy: quintessence driven by a scalar dilaton field. We propose an ansatz for the form of the dilaton field, |ϕ(a)|mP ≡ α1 ln t + α2tn = α ln a + βa2ζ, where a is the scale factor and α and ζ are parameters of the model. This phenomenological ansatz for ϕ can be motivated by generic solutions of a scalar dilaton field in many effective string theory and string-inspired gravity models in four dimensions. Most of the earlier discussions in the literature correspond to the choice that ζ = 0 so that ϕ(t) ∝ ln t or ϕ(t) ∝ ln a(t). Using a compilation of current data including type Ia supernovae, we impose observational constraints on the slope parameters like α and ζ and then discuss the relation of our results to analytical constraints on various cosmological parameters, including the dark energy equation of state. Some useful constraints are imposed on model parameters like α and ζ as well as on the dark energy/dark matter couplings using results from structure formation. The constraints of this model are shown to encompass the cosmological constant limit within 1σ error bars.
Baryon asymmetry from hypermagnetic helicity in dilaton hypercharge electromagnetism
Bamba, Kazuharu
2006-12-15
The generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe from the hypermagnetic helicity, the physical interpretation of which is given in terms of hypermagnetic knots, is studied in inflationary cosmology, taking into account the breaking of the conformal invariance of hypercharge electromagnetic fields through both a coupling with the dilaton and with a pseudoscalar field. It is shown that, if the electroweak phase transition is strongly first order and the present amplitude of the generated magnetic fields on the horizon scale is sufficiently large, a baryon asymmetry with a sufficient magnitude to account for the observed baryon-to-entropy ratio can be generated.
Near-horizon conformal symmetry and black hole entropy.
Carlip, S
2002-06-17
Near an event horizon, the action of general relativity acquires a new asymptotic conformal symmetry. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, this symmetry results in a chiral Virasoro algebra, and Cardy's formula for the density of states reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. This lends support to the notion that black hole entropy is controlled universally by conformal symmetry near the horizon.
Charged black holes on a Kaluza-Klein bubble
Kunz, Jutta; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho
2009-01-15
We construct a solution of two black holes on a Kaluza-Klein bubble in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. We explore the consequences of the presence of charge for the properties of this solution, and obtain a generalized Smarr relation and first law.
Energy Associated with the Gibbons-Maeda Dilaton Spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aydogdu, Oktay; Salti, Mustafa; Korunur, Murat; Acikgoz, Irfan
2006-12-01
In order to obtain energy and momentum (due to matter and fields including gravitation) distributions of the Gibbons-Maeda dilaton spacetime, we use the Møller energy-momentum prescription both in Einstein's theory of general relativity and teleparallel gravity. We find the same energy distribution for a given metric in both of these different gravitation theories. Under two limits, we also calculate energy associated with two other models such as the Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger dilaton spacetime and the Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime. The energy obtained is also independent of the teleparallel dimensionless coupling constant, which means that it is valid in any teleparallel model. Our result also sustains (a) the importance of the energy-momentum definitions in the evaluation of the energy distribution for a given spacetime and (b) the viewpoint of Lessner that the Møller energy-momentum complex is a powerful concept of energy and momentum (c) the hypothesis of Vagenas that there is a connection between the coefficients of the energy-momentum expression of Einstein and those of Møller.
E-ELT constraints on runaway dilaton scenarios
Martinelli, M.; Calabrese, E.; Martins, C.J.A.P. E-mail: erminia.calabrese@physics.ox.ac.uk
2015-11-01
We use a combination of simulated cosmological probes and astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant α, as expected from the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), to constrain the class of string-inspired runaway dilaton models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We consider three different scenarios for the dark sector couplings in the model and discuss the observational differences between them. We improve previously existing analyses investigating in detail the degeneracies between the parameters ruling the coupling of the dilaton field to the other components of the universe, and studying how the constraints on these parameters change for different fiducial cosmologies. We find that if the couplings are small (e.g., α{sub b} = α{sub V} ∼ 0) these degeneracies strongly affect the constraining power of future data, while if they are sufficiently large (e.g., α{sub b} ∼> 10{sup −5}−α{sub V} ∼> 0.05, as in agreement with current constraints) the degeneracies can be partially broken. We show that E-ELT will be able to probe some of this additional parameter space.
All or nothing: On the small fluctuations of two-dimensional string theoretic black holes
Gilbert, Gerald; Raiten, Eric
1992-10-01
A comprehensive analysis of small fluctuations about two-dimensional string-theoretic and string-inspired black holes is presented. It is shown with specific examples that two-dimensional black holes behave in a radically different way from all known black holes in four dimensions. For both the SL(2,R)/U(1) black hole and the two-dimensional black hole coupled to a massive dilaton with constant field strength, it is shown that there are a {\\it continuous infinity} of solutions to the linearized equations of motion, which are such that it is impossible to ascertain the classical linear response. It is further shown that the two-dimensional black hole coupled to a massive, linear dilaton admits {\\it no small fluctuations at all}. We discuss possible implications of our results for the Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger black hole.
Could fermion masses play a role in the stabilization of the dilaton in cosmology?
Cabo, Alejandro; Brandenberger, Robert E-mail: rhb@hep.physics.mcgill.ca
2009-02-15
We study the possibility that the Dilaton is stabilized by the contribution of fermion masses to its effective potential. We consider the Dilaton gravity action in four dimensions to which we add a mass term for a Dirac fermion. Such an action describes the interaction of the Dilaton with the fermions in the Yang-Mills sector of the coupled supergravity/super-Yang-Mills action which emerges as the low energy effective action of superstring theory after the extra spatial dimensions have been fixed. The Dilaton couples to the Fermion mass term via the usual exponential factor of this field which multiplies the non-kinetic terms of the matter Lagrangian, if we work in the Einstein frame. In the kinetic part of the Fermion action in the Einstein frame the Dilaton does not enter. Such masses can be generated in several ways: they can arise as a consequence of flux about internal spatial dimensions, they may arise as thermal fermion masses in a quasi-static phase in the early universe, and they will arise after the breaking of supersymmetry at late times. The vacuum contribution to the potential for the Dilaton is evaluated up to two loops. The result shows a minimum which could stabilize the Dilaton for reasonable ranges of parameter values.
Could fermion masses play a role in the stabilization of the dilaton in cosmology?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabo, Alejandro; Brandenberger, Robert
2009-02-01
We study the possibility that the Dilaton is stabilized by the contribution of fermion masses to its effective potential. We consider the Dilaton gravity action in four dimensions to which we add a mass term for a Dirac fermion. Such an action describes the interaction of the Dilaton with the fermions in the Yang-Mills sector of the coupled supergravity/super-Yang-Mills action which emerges as the low energy effective action of superstring theory after the extra spatial dimensions have been fixed. The Dilaton couples to the Fermion mass term via the usual exponential factor of this field which multiplies the non-kinetic terms of the matter Lagrangian, if we work in the Einstein frame. In the kinetic part of the Fermion action in the Einstein frame the Dilaton does not enter. Such masses can be generated in several ways: they can arise as a consequence of flux about internal spatial dimensions, they may arise as thermal fermion masses in a quasi-static phase in the early universe, and they will arise after the breaking of supersymmetry at late times. The vacuum contribution to the potential for the Dilaton is evaluated up to two loops. The result shows a minimum which could stabilize the Dilaton for reasonable ranges of parameter values.
Holm, D.K. . Dept. of Geology); Geissman, J.W. . Dept. of Geology and Planetary Sciences); Wernicke, B. . Dept. of Geology and Planetary Sciences)
1993-04-01
Paleomagnetic data have been obtained from Miocene intrusions, Proterozoic Paleomagnetic data have been obtained from Miocene intrusions, Proterozoic crystalline rocks and cross-cutting mafic to felsic dikes to evaluate footwall deformation during extension and unroofing of the crystalline core of the Black Mountains, Death Valley, California. Synrift intrusions contain a well-defined and, at the site level, well-grouped magnetization, interpreted to be of dual polarity, whose in situ direction is discordant in declination and inclination with an expected late Cenozoic reference direction. In situ site mean directions of this magnetization are directed towards the west and west-northwest with moderate to shallow positive and negative inclinations. The variation in magnetization direction, particularly inclination, with site locality around the turtleback structures along the western flank of the Black Mountains suggests folding of the intrusion after remanence acquisition. Two populations of in situ site means are identified: one with southwest declination and negative inclination, the other with northward declination and positive inclination. A preferred interpretation for footwall deformation involves, from oldest to youngest: (1) northeast-side up tilting of 20--40[degree] and local folding of the crystalline rocks associated with early structures (the Death Valley turtlebacks) between 11.6 and 8.7 Ma, (2) progressive east to west footwall unroofing between 8.7 and [approximately]6.5 Ma, and (3) large-scale clockwise rotation (50--80[degree]) after the core detached from stable terrane to the west. The authors interpret late rotation as oroflexure related to right-lateral shear along the Death Valley fault zone.
Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity
Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica; Gregory, Ruth E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu
2014-08-01
Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.
Quinkenstein, A; Jochheim, H
2016-03-01
In the temperate zone short rotation coppice systems for the production of woody biomass (SRC) have gained great interest as they offer a pathway to both sustainable bioenergy production and the potential sequestration of CO2 within the biomass and the soil. This study used the carbon model SHORTCAR to assess the carbon cycle of a poplar (Populus suaveolens Fisch. x Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Gray cv. Androscoggin) and a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) SRC. The model was calibrated using data from established SRC plantations on reclaimed mine sites in northeast Germany and validated through the determination of uncertainty ranges of selected model parameters and a sensitivity analysis. In addition to a 'reference scenario', representing the actual site conditions, 7 hypothetical scenarios, which varied in climate conditions, rotation intervals, runtimes, and initial soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, were defined for each species. Estimates of carbon accumulation within the biomass, the litter layer, and the soil were compared to field data and previously published results. The model was sensitive to annual stem growth and initial soil organic carbon stocks. In the reference scenario net biome production for SRC on reclaimed sites in Lusatia, Germany amounted to 64.5 Mg C ha(-1) for R. pseudoacacia and 8.9 Mg C ha(-1) for poplar, over a period of 36 years. These results suggest a considerable potential of SRC for carbon sequestration at least on marginal sites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trova, A.; Karas, V.; Slaný, P.; Kovář, J.
2016-09-01
We present an analytical approach for the equilibrium of a self-gravitating charged fluid embedded in a spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields produced by a central mass. Our scheme is proposed, as a toy model, in the context of gaseous/dusty tori surrounding supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. While the central black hole dominates the gravitational field and remains electrically neutral, the surrounding material has a non-negligible self-gravitational effect on the torus structure. By charging mechanisms it also acquires non-zero electric charge density, so the two influences need to be taken into account to achieve a self-consistent picture. Using our approach we discuss the impact of self-gravity, represented by the term {d}{{t}} (ratio of the torus total mass to the mass of the central body), on the conditions for existence of the equilibrium and the morphology and typology of the tori. By comparison with a previous work without self-gravity, we show that the conditions can be different. Although the main aim of the present paper is to discuss a framework for the classification of electrically charged, magnetized, self-gravitating tori, we also mention potential astrophysical applications to vertically stratified fluid configurations.
Black hole entropy from conformal symmetry on the horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlip, Steven
2017-01-01
The idea that black hole entropy might be governed by a conformal symmetry is an old one, but until now most efforts have focused on either asymptotic symmetries or symmetries on a ``stretched horizon. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, I show the existence of a well-behaved conformal symmetry that is on the horizon, with a central charge that correctly determines the black hole entropy. Supported by Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-91ER40674.
More on critical collapse of axion-dilaton system in dimension four
Álvarez-Gaumé, Luis; Hatefi, Ehsan E-mail: ehsan.hatefi@cern.ch
2013-10-01
We complete our previous study of critical gravitational collapse in the axion-dilaton system by analysing the hyperbolic and parabolic ansaetze. As could be expected, the corresponding Choptuik exponents in four-dimensions differ from the elliptic case.
AdS2 holography is (non-)trivial for (non-)constant dilaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grumiller, Daniel; Salzer, Jakob; Vassilevich, Dmitri
2015-12-01
We study generic two-dimensional dilaton gravity with a Maxwell field and prove its triviality for constant dilaton boundary conditions, despite of the appearance of a Virasoro algebra with non-zero central charge. We do this by calculating the canonical boundary charges, which turn out to be trivial, and by calculating the quantum gravity partition function, which turns out to be unity. We show that none of the following modifications changes our conclusions: looser boundary conditions, non-linear interactions of the Maxwell field with the dilaton, inclusion of higher spin fields, inclusion of generic gauge fields. Finally, we consider specifically the charged Jackiw-Teitelboim model, whose holographic study was pioneered by Hartman and Strominger, and show that it is non-trivial for certain linear dilaton boundary conditions. We calculate the entropy from the Euclidean path integral, using Wald's method and exploiting the chiral Cardy formula. The macroscopic and microscopic results for entropy agree with each other.
Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton
Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.
2014-09-26
The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet fieldmore » $$\\sigma$$ which has a very large VEV $$f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $$\\zeta_i$$, where $$\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $$\\sigma$$ in the $$\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$$ limit. The singlet field $$\\sigma$$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.« less
Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton
Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.
2014-09-26
The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet field $\\sigma$ which has a very large VEV $f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $\\zeta_i$, where $\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $\\sigma$ in the $\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$ limit. The singlet field $\\sigma$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnerucci, A.; Marconi, A.; Capetti, A.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A.
2013-01-01
We present new CRIRES spectroscopic observations of the Brγ emission line in the nuclear region of the Circinus galaxy, obtained with the aim of measuring the black hole (BH) mass with the spectroastrometric technique. The Circinus galaxy is an ideal benchmark for the spectroastrometric technique given its proximity and secure BH measurement obtained with the observation of its nuclear H2O maser disk. The kinematical data have been analyzed both with the classical method based on the analysis of the rotation curves and with the new method developed by us that is based on spectroastrometry. The classical method indicates that the gas disk rotates in a gravitational potential resulting from an extended stellar mass distribution and a spatially unresolved dynamical mass of (1.7 ± 0.2) × 107 M⊙, concentrated within r < 7 pc, corresponding to the seeing-limited resolution of the observations. The new method is capable of probing the gas rotation at scales that are a factor ~3.5 smaller than those probed by the rotation curve analysis, highlighting the potential of spectroastrometry. The dynamical mass, which is spatially unresolved with the spectroastrometric method, is a factor ~2 smaller, 7.9+1.4-1.1 × 106M⊙, indicating that spectroastrometry has been able to spatially resolve the nuclear mass distribution down to 2 pc scales. This unresolved mass is still a factor ~4.5 larger than the BH mass measurement obtained with the H2O maser emission, indicating that even with spectroastrometry, it has not been possible to resolve the sphere of influence of the BH. Based on literature data, this spatially unresolved dynamical mass distribution is likely dominated by warm molecular gas and has been tentatively identified with the circum-nuclear torus that prevents a direct view of the central BH in Circinus. This mass distribution, with a size of ~2 pc, is similar in shape to that of the star cluster of the Milky Way, suggesting that a molecular torus, forming stars at
Black rings and the physical process version of the first law of thermodynamics
Rogatko, Marek
2005-10-01
We consider the problem of the physical process version of the first law of black ring thermodynamics in n-dimensional Einstein gravity with additional (p+1)-form field strength and dilaton fields. The first order variations of mass, angular momentum and local charge for black ring are derived. From them we prove the physical process version of the first law of thermodynamic for stationary black rings.
The Soliton-Soliton Interaction in the Chiral Dilaton Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantovani-Sarti, Valentina; Park, Byung-Yoon; Vento, Vicente
2013-10-01
We study the interaction between two B = 1 states in the Chiral Dilaton Model where baryons are described as nontopological solitons arising from the interaction of chiral mesons and quarks. By using the hedgehog solution for B = 1 states we construct, via a product ansatz, three possible B = 2 configurations to analyse the role of the relative orientation of the hedgehog quills in the dynamics of the soliton-soliton interaction and investigate the behavior of these solutions in the range of long/intermediate distance. One of the solutions is quite binding due to the dynamics of the π and σ fields at intermediate distance and should be used for nuclear matter studies. Since the product ansatz break down as the two solitons get close, we explore the short range distance regime with a model that describes the interaction via a six-quark bag ansatz. We calculate the interaction energy as a function of the inter-soliton distance and show that for small separations the six quarks bag, assuming a hedgehog structure, provides a stable bound state that at large separations connects with a special configuration coming from the product ansatz.
Weyl gauge-vector and complex dilaton scalar for conformal symmetry and its breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohanian, Hans C.
2016-03-01
Instead of the scalar "dilaton" field that is usually adopted to construct conformally invariant Lagrangians for gravitation, we here propose a hybrid construction, involving both a complex dilaton scalar and a Weyl gauge-vector, in accord with Weyl's original concept of a non-Riemannian conformal geometry with a transport law for length and time intervals, for which this gauge vector is required. Such a hybrid construction permits us to avoid the wrong sign of the dilaton kinetic term (the ghost problem) that afflicts the usual construction. The introduction of a Weyl gauge-vector and its interaction with the dilaton also has the collateral benefit of providing an explicit mechanism for spontaneous breaking of the conformal symmetry, whereby the dilaton and the Weyl gauge-vector acquire masses somewhat smaller than {m}_{P} by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. Conformal symmetry breaking is assumed to precede inflation, which occurs later by a separate GUT or electroweak symmetry breaking, as in inflationary models based on the Higgs boson.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wen-Juan; Qian, Lei; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Jiang, Ning; Lira, Paulina; Cai, Zheng; Wang, Feige; Yang, Jinyi; Xiao, Ting; Kim, Minjin
2017-03-01
We report the discovery of a 20 kpc sized {{H}}α emission in SDSS J083803.68+540642.0, a ringed dwarf galaxy ({M}V=-17.89 mag) hosting an accreting intermediate-mass black hole at z = 0.02957. Analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope images indicates that it is an early-type galaxy with a featureless low-surface brightness disk ({μ }0=20.39 mag arcsec‑2 in the V band) and a prominent, relatively red bulge (V ‑ I = 2.03, {R}{{e}}=0.28 {kpc} or 0.″48) that accounts for ≈81% of the total light in the I band. A circumgalactic ring of a diameter 16 kpc is also detected, with a disperse shape on its south side. The optical emission lines reveal the nucleus to be a broad-line LINER. Our MMT longslit observation indicates that the kinematics of the extended {{H}}α emission is consistent with a rotational gaseous disk, with a mean blueshifted velocity of 162 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and mean redshifted velocity of 86 {km} {{{s}}}-1. According to our photoionization calculations, the large-scale {{H}}α emission is unlikely to be powered by the central nucleus or by hot evolved (post-AGB) stars interspersed in the old stellar populations, but by in situ star formation; this is vindicated by the line-ratio diagnostic of the extended emission. We propose that both the ring and large-scale {{H}}α -emitting gas are created by the tidal accretion in a collision—and then merger—with a gas-rich galaxy of a comparable mass.
New class of exact solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghezelbash, A. M.
2017-03-01
We find new solutions to the five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with cosmological constant where the dilaton field couples to the electromagnetic field as well as to the cosmological term with two different coupling constants. The five-dimensional spacetime is nonstationary and is a conformally regular spacetime, everywhere. Both the dilaton field and the electromagnetic field depend on time and two spatial directions. The cosmological constant takes a positive, negative, or zero value, depending on the value of the coupling constant. We study the physical properties of the spacetime, and we show that the solutions are unique in five dimensions and that they cannot be uplifted to higher-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory or Einstein gravity in the presence of the cosmological constant. Moreover, we construct new solutions to the theory in which both coupling constants are equal.
RG flows in d dimensions, the dilaton effective action, and the a-theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elvang, Henriette; Olson, Timothy M.
2013-03-01
Motivated by the recent dilaton-based proof of the 4d a-theorem, we study the dilaton effective action for RG flows in d dimensions. When d is even, the action consists of a Wess-Zumino (WZ) term, whose Weyl-variation encodes the trace-anomaly, plus all Weyl-invariants. For d odd, the action consists of Weyl-invariants only. We present explicit results for the flat-space limit of the dilaton effective action in d-dimensions up to and including 8-derivative terms. GJMS-operators from conformal geometry motivate a form of the action that unifies the Weyl-invariants and anomaly-terms into a compact general- d structure. A new feature in 8d is the presence of an 8-derivative Weyl-invariant that pollutes the O( p 8)-contribution from the WZ action to the dilaton scattering amplitudes; this may challenge a dilaton-based proof of an a-theorem in 8d. We use the example of a free massive scalar for two purposes: 1) it allows us to confirm the structure of the d-dimensional dilaton effective action explicitly; we carry out this check for d = 3, 4, 5, . . . , 10; and 2) in 8d we demonstrate how the flow Δ a = a UV - a IR can be extracted systematically from the O( p 8)-amplitudes despite the contamination from the 8-derivative Weyl-invariant. This computation gives a value for the a-anomaly of the 8d free conformal scalar that is shown to match the value obtained from zeta-function regularization of the log-term in the free energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanabe, Kentaro
2016-02-01
We study the effective theory of slowly rotating black holes at the infinite limit of the spacetime dimension D. This large D effective theory is obtained by integrating the Einstein equation with respect to the radial direction. The effective theory gives equations for non-linear dynamical deformations of a slowly rotating black hole by effective equations. The effective equations contain the slowly rotating Myers-Perry black hole, slowly boosted black string, non-uniform black string and black ring as stationary solutions. We obtain the analytic solution of the black ring by solving effective equations. Furthermore, by perturbation analysis of effective equations, we find a quasinormal mode condition of the black ring in analytic way. As a result we confirm that thin black ring is unstable against non-axisymmetric perturbations. We also include 1 /D corrections to the effective equations and discuss the effects by 1 /D corrections.
Global solutions for higher-dimensional stretched small black holes
Chen, C.-M.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Ohta, Nobuyoshi; Orlov, Dmitry G.
2010-01-15
Small black holes in heterotic string theory have a vanishing horizon area at the supergravity level, but the horizon is stretched to the finite radius AdS{sub 2}xS{sup D-2} geometry once higher curvature corrections are turned on. This has been demonstrated to give good agreement with microscopic entropy counting. Previous considerations, however, were based on the classical local solutions valid only in the vicinity of the event horizon. Here we address the question of global existence of extremal black holes in the D-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory with the Gauss-Bonnet term introducing a variable dilaton coupling a as a parameter. We show that asymptotically flat black holes exist only in a bounded region of the dilaton couplings 0=}5 (but not for D=4) the allowed range of a includes the heterotic string values. For a>a{sub cr} numerical solutions meet weak naked singularities at finite radii r=r{sub cusp} (spherical cusps), where the scalar curvature diverges as |r-r{sub cusp}|{sup -1/2}. For D{>=}7 cusps are met in pairs, so that solutions can be formally extended to asymptotically flat infinity choosing a suitable integration variable. We show, however, that radial geodesics cannot be continued through the cusp singularities, so such a continuation is unphysical.
Dilaton dominance in the early universe dilutes dark matter relic abundances
Lahanas, A. B.
2011-05-15
The role of the dilaton field and its coupling to matter may result in a dilution of dark matter (DM) relic densities. This is to be contrasted with quintessence scenarios in which relic densities are augmented, due to modification of the expansion rate, since the Universe is not radiation dominated at DM decoupling. The dilaton field, besides this, affects relic densities through its coupling to dust which tends to decrease relic abundances. Thus two separate mechanisms compete with each other resulting, in general, in a decrease of the relic density. This feature may be welcomed and can help the situation if direct dark matter experiments point towards small neutralino-nucleon cross sections, implying small neutralino annihilation rates and hence large relic densities, at least in the popular supersymmetric scenarios. In the presence of a diluting mechanism, both experimental constraints can be met. The role of the dilaton for this mechanism has been studied in the context of the noncritical string theory but in this work we follow a rather general approach assuming that the dilaton dominates only at early eras long before big bang nucleosynthesis.
EFT for vortices with dilaton-dependent localized flux
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgess, C. P.; Diener, Ross; Williams, M.
2015-11-01
We study how codimension-two objects like vortices back-react gravitationally with their environment in theories (such as 4D or higher-dimensional supergravity) where the bulk is described by a dilaton-Maxwell-Einstein system. We do so both in the full theory, for which the vortex is an explicit classical `fat brane' solution, and in the effective theory of `point branes' appropriate when the vortices are much smaller than the scales of interest for their back-reaction (such as the transverse Kaluza-Klein scale). We extend the standard Nambu-Goto description to include the physics of flux-localization wherein the ambient flux of the external Maxwell field becomes partially localized to the vortex, generalizing the results of a companion paper [4] from N=2 supergravity as the end-point of a hierarchical limit in which the Planck mass first and then the supersymmetry breaking scale are sent to infinity. We define, in the parent supergravity model, a new symplectic frame in which, in the rigid limit, manifest symplectic invariance is preserved and the electric and magnetic Fayet-Iliopoulos terms are fully originated from the dyonic components of the embedding tensor. The supergravity origin of several features of the resulting rigid supersymmetric theory are then elucidated, such as the presence of a traceless SU(2)- Lie algebra term in the Ward identity and the existence of a central charge in the supersymmetry algebra which manifests itself as a harmless gauge transformation on the gauge vectors of the rigid theory; we show that this effect can be interpreted as a kind of "superspace non-locality" which does not affect the rigid theory on space-time. To set the stage of our analysis we take the opportunity in this paper to provide and prove the relevant identities of the most general dyonic gauging of Special-Kaehler and Quaternionic-Kaehler isometries in a generic N=2 model, which include the supersymmetry Ward identity, in a fully symplectic-covariant formalism.
Global geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes
Frolov, Andrei V.; Kristjansson, Kristjan R.; Thorlacius, Larus
2006-06-15
The semiclassical geometry of charged black holes is studied in the context of a two-dimensional dilaton gravity model where effects due to pair-creation of charged particles can be included in a systematic way. The classical mass-inflation instability of the Cauchy horizon is amplified and we find that gravitational collapse of charged matter results in a spacelike singularity that precludes any extension of the spacetime geometry. At the classical level, a static solution describing an eternal black hole has timelike singularities and multiple asymptotic regions. The corresponding semiclassical solution, on the other hand, has a spacelike singularity and a Penrose diagram like that of an electrically neutral black hole. Extremal black holes are destabilized by pair-creation of charged particles. There is a maximally charged solution for a given black hole mass but the corresponding geometry is not extremal. Our numerical data exhibits critical behavior at the threshold for black hole formation.
Wu Shuangqing
2009-10-15
We continue to investigate the separability of massive field equations for spin-0 and spin-1/2 charged particles in the general, nonextremal, rotating, charged, Chong-Cvetic-Lue-Pope black holes with two independent angular momenta and a nonzero cosmological constant in minimal D=5 gauged supergravity theory. We show that the complex Klein-Gordon equation and the modified Dirac equation with the inclusion of an extra counterterm can be separated by variables into purely radial and purely angular parts in this general Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons background spacetime. A second-order symmetry operator that commutes with the complex Laplacian operator is constructed from the separated solutions and expressed compactly in terms of a rank-2 Staeckel-Killing tensor which admits a simple diagonal form in the chosen pentad one-forms so that it can be understood as the square of a rank-3 totally antisymmetric tensor. A first-order symmetry operator that commutes with the modified Dirac operator is expressed in terms of a rank-3 generalized Killing-Yano tensor and its covariant derivative. The Hodge dual of this generalized Killing-Yano tensor is a generalized principal conformal Killing-Yano tensor of rank-2, which can generate a 'tower' of generalized (conformal) Killing-Yano and Staeckel-Killing tensors that are responsible for the whole hidden symmetries of this general, rotating, charged, Kerr-anti-de Sitter black hole geometry. In addition, the first laws of black hole thermodynamics have been generalized to the case that the cosmological constant can be viewed as a thermodynamical variable.
Differentiating the Higgs boson from the dilaton and radion at Hadron colliders.
Barger, Vernon; Ishida, Muneyuki; Keung, Wai-Yee
2012-03-09
A number of candidate theories beyond the standard model (SM) predict new scalar bosons below the TeV region. Among these, the radion, which is predicted in the Randall-Sundrum model, and the dilaton, which is predicted by the walking technicolor theory, have very similar couplings to those of the SM Higgs boson, and it is very difficult to differentiate these three spin-0 particles in the expected signals of the Higgs boson at the LHC and Tevatron. We demonstrate that the observation of the ratio σ(γγ)/σ(WW) gives a simple and decisive way to differentiate these, independent of the values of model parameters, the vacuum expectation values of the radion, and dilaton fields.
Bogomol'nyi equations and solutions for Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton-σ models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braden, H. W.; Varela, V.
1998-12-01
We derive Bogomol'nyi equations for an Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton-σ model on a static spacetime, showing that the Einstein equations are satisfied if and only if the associated (conformally scaled) three-metric is flat. These are precisely the static metrics for which super-covariantly constant spinors exist. We study some general properties of these equations and then consider the problem of obtaining axially symmetric solutions for the gauge group SU(2).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rador, Tonguç
2005-06-01
We show that, in the context of dilaton gravity, a recently proposed democratic principle for intersection possibilities of branes winding around extra dimensions yield stabilization, even with the inclusion of momentum modes of the wrapped branes on top of the winding modes. The constraints for stabilization massaged by string theory inputs forces the number of observed dimensions to be three. We also discuss consequences of adding ordinary matter living in the observed dimensions.
Electric hyperscaling violating solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with R2 corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Keeffe, Daniel K.; Peet, Amanda W.
2014-07-01
In the context of holography applied to condensed matter physics, we study Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with curvature squared corrections. This theory has three couplings ηi for the three R2 invariants and two theory functions: a dilaton potential V(ϕ) and a dilaton-dependent gauge coupling f(ϕ). We find hyperscaling violating (HSV) solutions of this theory, parametrized by dynamical critical exponent z and HSV parameter θ. We obtain restrictions on the form of the theory functions required to support HSV-type solutions using three physical inputs: the null energy condition, causality z≥1, and deff≡d-θ lying in the range 0
On the gravitational, dilatonic, and axionic radiative damping of cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buonanno, Alessandra; Damour, Thibault
1999-07-01
We study the radiation reaction on cosmic strings due to the emission of dilatonic, gravitational and axionic waves. After verifying the (on average) conservative nature of the time-symmetric self-interactions, we concentrate on the finite radiation damping force associated with the half-retarded minus half-advanced ``reactive'' fields. We reexamine a recent proposal of using a ``local back reaction approximation'' for the reactive fields. Using dimensional continuation as a convenient technical tool, we find, contrary to previous claims, that this proposal leads to antidamping in the case of the axionic field, and to zero (integrated) damping in the case of the gravitational field. One gets normal positive damping only in the case of the dilatonic field. We propose to use a suitably modified version of the local dilatonic radiation reaction as a substitute for the exact (nonlocal) gravitational radiation reaction. The incorporation of such a local approximation to gravitational radiation reaction should allow one to complete, in a computationally nonintensive way, string network simulations and to give better estimates of the amount and spectrum of gravitational radiation emitted by a cosmologically evolving network of massive strings.
Butterflies with rotation and charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.
2016-11-01
We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2 + 1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.
Corrected Entropy of BTZ Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farahani, Hoda; Sadeghi, Jafar; Saadat, Hassan
2012-12-01
In this paper, corrected entropy of a class of BTZ black holes, include charge and rotation, studied. We obtain corrected Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and find that effect of charge viewed at order A -2, and effect of rotation viewed at order A -6, therefore Q and J don't have contribution in corrected entropy lower than the second order. We also write the first law of black hole thermodynamics for the case of charged rotating BTZ black hole.
Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories with a Liouville potential
Charmousis, Christos; Gouteraux, Blaise; Soda, Jiro
2009-07-15
We find and analyze solutions of Einstein's equations in arbitrary dimensions and in the presence of a scalar field with a Liouville potential coupled to a Maxwell field. We consider spacetimes of cylindrical symmetry or again subspaces of dimension d-2 with constant curvature and analyze in detail the field equations and manifest their symmetries. The field equations of the full system are shown to reduce to a single or couple of ordinary differential equations, which can be used to solve analytically or numerically the theory for the symmetry at hand. Further solutions can also be generated by a solution-generating technique akin to the electromagnetic duality in the absence of a cosmological constant. We then find and analyze explicit solutions including black holes and gravitating solitons for the case of four-dimensional relativity and the higher-dimensional oxidized five-dimensional spacetime. The general solution is obtained for a certain relation between couplings in the case of cylindrical symmetry.
Uniformly accelerated black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.
2001-09-01
The static and stationary C metric are examined in a generic framework and their interpretations studied in some detail, especially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We find that (i) the spacetime of an accelerated static black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or a lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon, (ii) by using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have a higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature of the accelerated frame, and (iii) the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/27) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated rotating black holes with no significant changes.
Hawking radiation from black rings
Miyamoto, Umpei; Murata, Keiju
2008-01-15
We calculate the quantum radiation from the 5-dimensional charged rotating black rings by demanding the radiation eliminate the possible anomalies on the horizons. It is shown that the temperature, energy flux, and angular-momentum flux exactly coincide with those of the Hawking radiation. The black rings considered in this paper contain the Myers-Perry black hole as a limit, and the quantum radiation for this black hole, obtained in the literature, is recovered in the limit. The results support the picture that the Hawking radiation can be regarded as the anomaly eliminator on horizons and suggest its general applicability to the higher-dimensional black holes discovered recently.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, Shannon; Miller, Warner
2017-01-01
We present the first non-trivial illustration of Wang and Yau's quasilocal energy (WYQLE) for a maximally rotating Kerr spacetime. The surfaces for which we compute quasilocal energy (QLE) are axisymmetric closed space like 2-surfaces S with constant radii in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. There exists a critical radius r* for which these 2-surfaces are isometrically embeddable in R3 . For surfaces with r >=r* , the WYQLE trivially becomes the Brown and York QLE (BYQLE). To fully illustrate Wang and Yau's formulation, we compute the WYQLE for surfaces with r
String triality, black hole entropy, and Cayley's hyperdeterminant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duff, M. J.
2007-07-01
The four-dimensional N=2 STU model of string compactification is invariant under an SL(2,Z)S×SL(2,Z)T×SL(2,Z)U duality acting on the dilaton/axion S, complex Kahler form T, and the complex structure fields U, and also under a string/string/string triality S↔T↔U. The model admits an extremal black hole solution with four electric and four magnetic charges whose entropy must respect these symmetries. It is given by the square root of the hyperdeterminant introduced by Cayley in 1845. This also features three-qubit quantum entanglement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
During its 1979 flyby, Voyager 2 observed Io only from a distance. However, the volcanic activity discovered by Voyager 1 months earlier was readily visible. This sequence of nine color images was collected using the Blue, Green and Orange filters from about 1.2 million kilometers. A 2.5 hour period is covered during which Io rotates 7 degrees.
Rotating into view over the limb of Io are the plumes of the volcanoes Amirani (top) and Maui (lower). These plumes are very distinct against the black sky because they are being illuminated from behind. Notice that as Io rotates, the proportion of Io which is sunlit decreases greatly. This changing phase angle is because Io is moving between the spacecraft and the Sun.
This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1985.
Astronomers combined 146 exposures taken by NASA's Hubble SpaceTelescope to make this 73-frame movie of the asteroid Vesta's rotation.Vesta completes a rotation every 5.34 hours.âº Asteroid and...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ovgun, A.
2016-11-01
We construct a rotating thin-shell wormhole using a Myers-Perry black hole in five dimensions, using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions. The stability of the wormhole is analyzed under perturbations. We find that exotic matter is required at the throat of the wormhole to keep it stable. Our analysis shows that stability of the rotating thin-shell wormhole is possible if suitable parameter values are chosen.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandyopadhyay, Priyotosh; Corianò, Claudio; Costantini, Antonio; Rose, Luigi Delle
2016-09-01
We explore the potential for the discovery of a dilaton O(200-500) GeV in a classical scale/conformal invariant extension of the Standard Model by investigating the size of the corresponding breaking scale Λ at the LHC, extending a previous analysis. In particular, we address the recent bounds on Λ derived from Higgs boson searches. We investigate if such a dilaton can be produced via gluon-gluon fusion at the LHC, presenting rates for its decay either into a pair of Higgs bosons or into two heavy gauge bosons, which can give rise to multi-leptonic final states. A detailed analysis via PYTHIA-FastJet has been carried out of the dominant Standard Model backgrounds at the LHC, at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. We show that early data of ˜ 20 fb-1 can certainly probe the region of parameter space where such a dilaton is allowed. A conformal scale of 5 TeV is allowed by the current data, for almost all values of the dilaton mass investigated.
Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin E-mail: tdereli@ku.edu.tr
2013-02-01
We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirotani, Kouichi; Pu, Hung-Yi; Chun-Che Lin, Lupin; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Inoue, Makoto; Kong, Albert K. H.; Matsushita, Satoki; Tam, Pak-Hin T.
2016-12-01
We investigate the electrostatic acceleration of electrons and positrons in the vicinity of the event horizon, applying the pulsar outer-gap model to black hole (BH) magnetospheres. During a low accretion phase, the radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) cannot emit enough MeV photons that are needed to sustain the force-free magnetosphere via two-photon collisions. In such a charge-starved region (or a gap), an electric field arises along the magnetic field lines to accelerate electrons and positrons into ultra-relativistic energies. These relativistic leptons emit copious gamma rays via curvature and inverse-Compton (IC) processes. Some of such gamma rays collide with the submillimeter-IR photons emitted from the RIAF to materialize as pairs, which polarize to partially screen the original acceleration electric field. It is found that the gap gamma-ray luminosity increases with decreasing accretion rate. However, if the accretion rate decreases too much, the diminished RIAF soft photon field can no longer sustain a stationary pair production within the gap. As long as a stationary gap is formed, the magnetosphere becomes force-free outside the gap by the cascaded pairs, irrespective of the BH mass. If a nearby stellar-mass BH is in quiescence, or if a galactic intermediate-mass BH is in a very low accretion state, its curvature and IC emissions are found to be detectable with Fermi/LAT and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT). If a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus is located within about 30 Mpc, the IC emission from its supermassive BH is marginally detectable with IACT.
Furman, J M
2016-01-01
The natural stimulus for the semicircular canals is rotation of the head, which also might stimulate the otolith organs. Vestibular stimulation usually induces eye movements via the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The orientation of the subject with respect to the axis of rotation and the orientation of the axis of rotation with respect to gravity together determine which labyrinthine receptors are stimulated for particular motion trajectories. Rotational testing usually includes the measurement of eye movements via a video system but might use a subject's perception of motion. The most common types of rotational testing are whole-body computer-controlled sinusoidal or trapezoidal stimuli during earth-vertical axis rotation (EVAR), which stimulates primarily the horizontal semicircular canals bilaterally. Recently, manual impulsive rotations, known as head impulse testing (HIT), have been developed to assess individual horizontal semicircular canals. Most types of rotational stimuli are not used routinely in the clinical setting but may be used in selected research environments. This chapter will discuss clinically relevant rotational stimuli and several types of rotational testing that are used primarily in research settings.
Production of techni-dilaton associated with a top quark at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, You; Yue, Chong-Xing; Zeng, Qing-Guo; Yang, Shuo
2014-05-01
One kind of walking technicolor (WTC) theories predict the existence of a new scalar particle called techni-dilaton (TD) which can explain the current Higgs data at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We calculate the cross-sections for the production of the TD in association with single top quark (tϕj production) in the framework of the one-family model (1FM) at the LHC. Our numerical results show that their values are at the level of several tens fb over the mass range 100 GeV < Mϕ < 600 GeV with the center-of-mass (c.m.) energy √ {s} = 14 TeV. We further analyze the signal induced by the tϕj production and the relevant Standard Model (SM) backgrounds.
Dilatonic repulsons and confinement via the AdS/CFT correspondence
Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Hirano, Shinji; Ohta, Nobuyoshi
2004-10-15
We study a class of dilatonic deformations of asymptotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} geometry analytically and numerically. The spacetime is nonsupersymmetric and suffers from a naked singularity. We propose that the causality bound may serve as a criterion for such a geometry with a naked singularity to still make sense in the AdS/CFT correspondence. We show that the static string, the one corresponding to a large Wilson loop in the dual gauge theory, reveals confinement in a certain range of parameters of our solutions, where the singularity exhibits the repulsion that can well cloak the singularity from the static string probe. In particular, we find the exact expression for the tension of the QCD strings. We also discuss a possible interpretation of our solution in terms of unstable branes and their tachyon matter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
This graphic shows the computer simulation of a black hole from start to finish. Plasma is falling slowly toward the black hole in a (at the upper left). The plasma has a magnetic field, shown by the white lines. It picks up speed as it falls toward the hole in b (at the upper right), c (lower left) and d (lower right). However, the rotating black hole twists up space itself (and the magnetic field lines) and ejects electromagnetic power along the north and south poles above the black hole. The red and white color shows the immense electromagnetic power output, which eventually will pick up particles and form squirting jets. This simulation was conducted using supercomputers at Japan's National Institute for Fusion Science.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shuang-Qing; Wang, He
2015-05-01
In a previous paper [S. Q. Wu, Phys. Rev. D 83, 121502(R) (2011)], a new kind of metric ansatz was found to fairly describe all already-known black hole solutions in the ungauged Kaluza-Klein (KK) supergravity theories. That metric ansatz somewhat resembles the famous Kerr-Schild (KS) form, but it is different from the KS one in two distinct aspects. That is, apart from a global conformal factor, the metric ansatz can be written as a vacuum background spacetime plus a "perturbation" modification term, the latter of which is associated with a timelike geodesic vector field rather than a null geodesic congruence in the usual KS ansatz. Replacing the flat vacuum background metric by the (anti-)de Sitter [(A)dS] spacetime, the general rotating charged KK-(A)dS black hole solutions in all higher dimensions have been successfully constructed and put into a unified form. In this paper, we shall study this novel metric ansatz in detail, aiming at achieving some inspiration as to the construction of rotating charged AdS black holes with multiple charges in other gauged supergravity theories. We find that the traditional perturbation expansion method often successfully used in the KS form is no longer useful in our new ansatz, since here no good parameter can be chosen as a suitable perturbation indicator. In order to investigate the metric properties of the general KK-AdS solutions, in this paper we devise a new effective method, dubbed the background metric expansion method, which can be thought of as a generalization of the perturbation expansion method, to deal with the Lagrangian and all equations of motion. In addition to two previously known conditions, namely the timelike and geodesic properties of the vector, we get three additional constraints via contracting the Maxwell and Einstein equations once or twice with this timelike geodesic vector. In particular, we find that these are a simpler set of sufficient conditions to determine the vector and the dilaton scalar
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lekner, John
2008-01-01
Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-10-15
The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N{sub B}=e{Phi}{sub {infinity}}/({pi}c({h_bar}/2{pi})), where {Phi}{sub {infinity}}{approx_equal}2{pi}{sup 2}B{sub NS}R{sub NS}{sup 3}/(P{sub NS}c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
Varying fine structure 'constant' and charged black holes
Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Schiffer, Marcelo
2009-12-15
Speculation that the fine-structure constant {alpha} varies in spacetime has a long history. We derive, in 4-D general relativity and in isotropic coordinates, the solution for a charged spherical black hole according to the framework for dynamical {alpha} J. D. Bekenstein, Phys. Rev. D 25, 1527 (1982).. This solution coincides with a previously known one-parameter extension of the dilatonic black hole family. Among the notable properties of varying-{alpha} charged black holes are adherence to a 'no hair' principle, the absence of the inner (Cauchy) horizon of the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, the nonexistence of precisely extremal black holes, and the appearance of naked singularities in an analytic extension of the relevant metric. The exteriors of almost extremal electrically (magnetically) charged black holes have simple structures which makes their influence on applied magnetic (electric) fields transparent. We rederive the thermodynamic functions of the modified black holes; the otherwise difficult calculation of the electric potential is done by a shortcut. We confirm that variability of {alpha} in the wake of expansion of the universe does not threaten the generalized second law.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Vecchia, Paolo; Marotta, Raffaele; Mojaza, Matin
2016-12-01
We consider the tree-level scattering amplitudes in the NS-NS (Neveu-Schwarz) massless sector of closed superstrings in the case where one external state becomes soft. We compute the amplitudes generically for any number of dimensions and any number and kind of the massless closed states through the subsubleading order in the soft expansion. We show that, when the soft state is a graviton or a dilaton, the full result can be expressed as a soft theorem factorizing the amplitude in a soft and a hard part. This behavior is similar to what has previously been observed in field theory and in the bosonic string. Differently from the bosonic string, the supersymmetric soft theorem for the graviton has no string corrections at subsubleading order. The dilaton soft theorem, on the other hand, is found to be universally free of string corrections in any string theory.
Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
Horizon detection and higher dimensional black rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coley, A. A.; McNutt, D. D.
2017-02-01
In this paper we study the stationary horizons of the rotating black ring and the supersymmetric black ring spacetimes in five dimensions. In the case of the rotating black ring we use Weyl aligned null directions to algebraically classify the Weyl tensor, and utilize an adapted Cartan algorithm in order to produce Cartan invariants. For the supersymmetric black ring we employ the discriminant approach and repeat the adapted Cartan algorithm. For both of these metrics we are able to construct Cartan invariants that detect the horizon alone, and which are easier to compute and analyse than scalar polynomial curvature invariants.
Chiba, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
2007-02-15
Recent astrophysical observations indicate that the proton-electron mass ratio and the fine structure constant have gone through nontrivial time evolution. We discuss their time variation in the context of a dilaton runaway scenario with gauge coupling unification at the string scale M{sub s}. We show that the choice of adjustable parameters allows them to fit the same order magnitude of both variations and their (opposite) signs in such a scenario.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schou, Jesper; Beck, John G.
2001-01-01
Simple convection models estimate the depth of supergranulation at approximately 15,000 km which suggests that supergranules should rotate at the rate of the plasma in the outer 2% of the Sun by radius. Previous measurements (Snodgrass & Ulrich, 1990; Beck & Schou, 2000) found that supergranules rotate significantly faster than this, with a size-dependent rotation rate. We expand on previous work and show that the torsional oscillation signal seen in the supergranules tracks that obtained for normal modes. We also find that the amplitudes and lifetimes of the supergranulation are size dependent.
Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.
2001-01-01
Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801
Brügmann, B; Ghez, A M; Greiner, J
2001-09-11
Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hehl, Friedrich W.
2016-08-01
We take a quick look at the different possible universally coupled scalar fields in nature. Then, we discuss how the gauging of the group of scale transformations (dilations), together with the Poincaré group, leads to a Weyl-Cartan spacetime structure. There the dilaton field finds a natural surrounding. Moreover, we describe shortly the phenomenology of the hypothetical axion field. In the second part of our essay, we consider a spacetime, the structure of which is exclusively specified by the premetric Maxwell equations and a fourth rank electromagnetic response tensor density χijkl = -χjikl = -χijlk with 36 independent components. This tensor density incorporates the permittivities, permeabilities and the magneto-electric moduli of spacetime. No metric, no connection, no further property is prescribed. If we forbid birefringence (double-refraction) in this model of spacetime, we eventually end up with the fields of an axion, a dilaton and the 10 components of a metric tensor with Lorentz signature. If the dilaton becomes a constant (the vacuum admittance) and the axion field vanishes, we recover the Riemannian spacetime of general relativity theory. Thus, the metric is encapsulated in χijkl, it can be derived from it.
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Ferrera, Antonio E-mail: a.ferrera.pardo@gmail.com
2008-10-15
We construct a new brane-world model composed of a bulk with a dilatonic field, plus a brane with brane tension coupled to the dilaton, cold dark matter and an induced gravity term. It is possible to show that, depending on the nature of the coupling between the brane tension and the dilaton, this model can describe the late time acceleration of the brane expansion (for the normal branch) as it moves within the bulk. The acceleration is produced together with a mimicry of the crossing of the cosmological constant line (w = -1) on the brane, although this crossing of the phantom divide is obtained without invoking any phantom matter either on the brane or in the bulk. The role of dark energy is played by the brane tension, which reaches a maximum positive value along the cosmological expansion of the brane. It is precisely at that maximum that the crossing of the phantom divide takes place. We also show that these results remain valid when the induced gravity term on the brane is switched off.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lockett, Keith
1988-01-01
Demonstrates several objects rolling down a slope to explain the energy transition among potential energy, translational kinetic energy, and rotational kinetic energy. Contains a problem from Galileo's rolling ball experiment. (YP)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dziembowski, W.
Sunspot observations made by Johannes Hevelius in 1642 - 1644 are the first ones providing significant information about the solar differential rotation. In modern astronomy the determination of the rotation rate is done in a routine way by measuring positions of various structures on the solar surface as well as by studying the Doppler shifts of spectral lines. In recent years a progress in helioseismology enabled determination of the rotation rate in the layers inaccessible for direct observations. There are still uncertainties concerning, especially, the temporal variations of the rotation rate and its behaviour in the radiative interior. We are far from understanding the observations. Theoretical works have not yet resulted in a satisfactory model for the angular momentum transport in the convective zone.
Belgiorno, F.; Cattaneo, A.S. ); Fucito, F. ); Martellini, M. )
1993-09-15
In this paper we investigate a dilaton-gravity theory, which can be viewed as an SL(2) conformal affine Toda (CAT) theory. This new model is inspired by some previous work by Bilal, Callan, and de Alwis. The main results obtained in our approach are (i) a field redefinition of the CAT basis in terms of which it is possible to get the black hole solutions already known in the literature, and (ii) an investigation of the scattering matrix problem for the quantum black hole states. Given the validity of our assumptions, there is a range of values of the [ital N] free-falling shock matter fields forming the black hole solution, for which the end-point state of the black hole evaporation is a zero temperature regular remnant geometry. The quantum evolution to this final state seems to be nonunitary, in agreement with Hawking's scenario for black hole evaporation.
Black hole thermodynamics in MOdified Gravity (MOG)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mureika, Jonas R.; Moffat, John W.; Faizal, Mir
2016-06-01
We analyze the thermodynamical properties of black holes in a modified theory of gravity, which was initially proposed to obtain correct dynamics of galaxies and galaxy clusters without dark matter. The thermodynamics of non-rotating and rotating black hole solutions resembles similar solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with the electric charge being replaced by a new mass dependent gravitational charge Q =√{ αGN } M. This new mass dependent charge modifies the effective Newtonian constant from GN to G =GN (1 + α), and this in turn critically affects the thermodynamics of the black holes. We also investigate the thermodynamics of regular solutions, and explore the limiting case when no horizons forms. So, it is possible that the modified gravity can lead to the absence of black hole horizons in our universe. Finally, we analyze corrections to the thermodynamics of a non-rotating black hole and obtain the usual logarithmic correction term.
Phantom black holes and critical phenomena
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha; Marques, Glauber T.
2014-07-01
We consider the two classes cosh and sinh of normal and phantom black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The thermodynamics of these holes is characterized by heat capacities that may have both signs depending on the parameters of the theory. Leaving aside the normal Reissner-Nordström black hole, it is shown that only some phantom black holes of both classes exhibit critical phenomena. The two classes share a nonextremality, but special, critical point where the transition is continuous and the heat capacity, at constant charge, changes sign with an infinite discontinuity. This point yields a classification scheme for critical points. It is concluded that the two unstable and stable phases coexist on one side of the criticality state and disappear on the other side, that is, there is no configuration where only one phase exists. The sinh class has an extremality critical point where the entropy diverges. The transition from extremality to nonextremality with the charge held constant is accompanied by a loss of mass and an increase in the temperature. A special case of this transition is when the hole is isolated (microcanonical ensemble), it will evolve by emission of energy, which results in a decrease of its mass, to the final state of minimum mass and vanishing heat capacity. The Ehrenfest scheme of classification is inaccurate in this case but the generalized one due to Hilfer leads to conclude that the transition is of order less than unity. Fluctuations near criticality are also investigated.
Nathanail, Antonios; Contopoulos, Ioannis
2014-06-20
We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.
Discovering the 125 GeV techni-dilaton at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yamawaki, Koichi
2012-08-01
The techni-dilaton (TD) is predicted in walking technicolor (WTC) arising as a pseudo—Nambu-Goldstone boson associated with the approximate scale symmetry spontaneously broken by techni-fermion condensation. The TD mass is therefore smaller than those of other techni-hadrons on the order of several TeVs, small enough to be within reach of the current LHC search. We present a new method to derive the TD couplings directly from the Ward-Takahashi identities, which enables us to explicitly calculate the quantities relevant to the TD LHC signatures. To set definite benchmarks, we take one-doublet and one-family models of WTC and discuss the TD signatures at the LHC, in comparison with those of the standard model (SM) Higgs. It is shown that the TD in the one-doublet model is invisible at the LHC, while the TD signals in the one-family model can be found as a large excess relative to the SM Higgs at around 125 GeV only in the diphoton channel.
Particle creation phenomenology, Dirac sea and the induced Weyl and Einstein-dilaton gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezin, V. A.; Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.
2017-01-01
We constructed the conformally invariant model for scalar particle creation induced by strong gravitational fields. Starting from the "usual" hydrodynamical description of the particle motion written in the Eulerian coordinates we substituted the particle number conservation law (which enters the formalism) by "the particle creation law", proportional to the square of the Weyl tensor (following the famous result by Ya.B. Zel'dovich and A.A. Starobinsky). Then, demanding the conformal invariance of the whole dynamical system, we have got both the (Weyl)-conformal gravity and the Einstein-Hilbert gravity action integral with dilaton field. Thus, we obtained something like the induced gravity suggested first by A.D. Sakharov. It is shown that the resulting system is self-consistent. We considered also the vacuum equations. It is shown that, beside the "empty vacuum", there may exist the "dynamical vacuum", which is nothing more but the Dirac sea. The latter is described by the unexpectedly elegant equation which includes both the Bach and Einstein tensors and the cosmological terms.
Dilaton assisted two-field inflation from no-scale supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakravarty, Girish Kumar; Das, Suratna; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mohanty, Subhendra
2016-07-01
We present a two-field inflation model where the inflaton field has a noncanonical kinetic term due to the presence of a dilaton field. It is a two-parameter generalization of one-parameter Brans-Dicke gravity in the Einstein frame. We show that in such an inflation model the quartic and quadratic inflaton potentials, which are otherwise ruled out by the present Planck-Keck/BICEP2 data, yield the scalar spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio in accordance with the present data. Such a model yields a tensor-to-scalar ratio of the order of 10-2 which is within the reach of B -mode experiments like Keck/BICEP3, CMBPol and thus can be put to the test in the near future. This model yields negligible non-Gaussianity and no isocurvature perturbations up to slow-roll approximation. Finally, we show that such a model can be realized in the realm of no-scale supergravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickey, Jean O.
1995-01-01
The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes.
Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Garrett, Travis
2011-08-02
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes
Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W.; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Garrett, Travis
2011-01-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford–Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux. PMID:21768341
Effective Potential in Noncommutative BTZ Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi, Jafar; Shajiee, Vahid Reza
2016-02-01
In this paper, we investigated the noncommutative rotating BTZ black hole and showed that such a space-time is not maximally symmetric. We calculated effective potential for the massive and the massless test particle by geodesic equations, also we showed effect of non-commutativity on the minimum mass of BTZ black hole.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Harry
The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Reginald L., Ed.
The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…
Magnetic fields around black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garofalo, David A. G.
Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our
Formation of black hole and emission of gravitational waves.
Nakamura, Takashi
2006-12-01
Numerical simulations were performed for the formation process of rotating black holes. It is suggested that Kerr black holes are formed for wide ranges of initial parameters. The nature of gravitational waves from a test particle falling into a Kerr black hole as well as the development of 3D numerical relativity for the coalescing binary neutron stars are discussed.
Formation of black hole and emission of gravitational waves
Nakamura, Takashi
2006-01-01
Numerical simulations were performed for the formation process of rotating black holes. It is suggested that Kerr black holes are formed for wide ranges of initial parameters. The nature of gravitational waves from a test particle falling into a Kerr black hole as well as the development of 3D numerical relativity for the coalescing binary neutron stars are discussed. PMID:25792793
Dirac fermions in nontrivial topology black hole backgrounds
Gozdz, Marek; Nakonieczny, Lukasz; Rogatko, Marek
2010-05-15
We discuss the behavior of the Dirac fermions in a general spherically symmetric black hole background with a nontrivial topology of the event horizon. Both massive and massless cases are taken into account. We will conduct an analytical study of intermediate and late-time behavior of massive Dirac hair in the background of a black hole with a global monopole and dilaton black hole pierced by a cosmic string. In the case of a global monopole swallowed by a static black hole, the intermediate late-time behavior depends on the mass of the Dirac field, the multiple number of the wave mode, and the global monopole parameter. The late-time behavior is quite independent of these factors and has a decay rate proportional to t{sup -5/6}. As far as the black hole pierced by a cosmic string is concerned, the intermediate late-time behavior depends only on the hair mass and the multipole number of the wave mode, while the late-time behavior dependence is the same as in the previous case. The main modification stems from the topology of the S{sup 2} sphere pierced by a cosmic string. This factor modifies the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator acting on the transverse manifold.
Tear rotation in reinforced natural rubber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotta, Paul; Gabrielle, Brice; Vieyres, Arnaud; Vanel, Loic; Long, Didier; Sanseau, Olivier; Albouy, Pierre-Antoine
2012-02-01
We analyze the impact of tear rotation, that is, an abrupt instability in the direction of propagation of a notch, on the tensile strength of natural rubber elastomers reinforced with carbon black or precipitated silica, in single edge notched samples stretched at constant velocity. As a consequence of tear rotation, the energy at break increases by a factor of 6 to 8 in some cases. We show how the tensile strength of a test sample is related to the presence of tear rotations and analyze semi-quantitatively this increase in tensile strength, based on energetic arguments, without entering into a detailed description of the elastic strain field in the vicinity of the tear tip. The proposed interpretation is based on the idea that tear rotations creates a macroscopic tip radius, which relaxes the local strain (or stress) at the tear tip. Materials reinforced with carbon black or precipitated silica aggregates show similar behavior. The relation to strain-induced crystallization is discussed.
Self-tuning at large (distances): 4D description of runaway dilaton capture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgess, C. P.; Diener, Ross; Williams, M.
2015-10-01
We complete here a three-part study (see also arXiv:1506.08095 and arXiv:1508.00856) of how codimension-two objects back-react gravitationally with their environment, with particular interest in situations where the transverse `bulk' is stabilized by the interplay between gravity and flux-quantization in a dilaton-Maxwell-Einstein system such as commonly appears in higher-dimensional supergravity and is used in the Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLED) program. Such systems enjoy a classical flat direction that can be lifted by interactions with the branes, giving a mass to the would-be modulus that is smaller than the KK scale. We construct the effective low-energy 4D description appropriate below the KK scale once the transverse extra dimensions are integrated out, and show that it reproduces the predictions of the full UV theory for how the vacuum energy and modulus mass depend on the properties of the branes and stabilizing fluxes. In particular we show how this 4D theory learns the news of flux quantization through the existence of a space-filling four-form potential that descends from the higher-dimensional Maxwell field. We find a scalar potential consistent with general constraints, like the runaway dictated by Weinberg's theorem. We show how scale-breaking brane interactions can give this potential minima for which the extra-dimensional size, ℓ, is exponentially large relative to underlying physics scales, r B , with ℓ 2 = r B 2 e - φ where - φ ≫ 1 can be arranged with a small hierarchy between fundamental parameters. We identify circumstances where the potential at the minimum can (but need not) be parametrically suppressed relative to the tensions of the branes, provide a preliminary discussion of the robustness of these results to quantum corrections, and discuss the relation between what we find and earlier papers in the SLED program.
The Maximum Mass of Rotating Strange Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szkudlarek, M.; Gondek-Rosiń; ska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.
2012-12-01
Strange quark stars are considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars as compact objects (e.g. Weber 2003). A hot compact star (a proto-neutron star or a strange star) born in a supernova explosion or a remnant of neutron stars binary merger are expected to rotate differentially and be important sources of gravitational waves. We present results of the first relativistic calculations of differentially rotating strange quark stars for broad ranges of degree of differential rotation and maximum densities. Using a highly accurate, relativistic code we show that rotation may cause a significant increase of maximum allowed mass of strange stars, much larger than in the case of neutron stars with the same degree of differential rotation. Depending on the maximum allowed mass a massive neutron star (strange star) can be temporarily stabilized by differential rotation or collapse to a black hole.
Particle accelerators inside spinning black holes.
Lake, Kayll
2010-05-28
On the basis of the Kerr metric as a model for a spinning black hole accreting test particles from rest at infinity, I show that the center-of-mass energy for a pair of colliding particles is generically divergent at the inner horizon. This shows not only that classical black holes are internally unstable, but also that Planck-scale physics is a characteristic feature within black holes at scales much larger that the Planck length. The novel feature of the divergence discussed here is that the phenomenon is present only for black holes with rotation, and in this sense it is distinct from the well-known Cauchy horizon instability.
Nonlinear Zel'dovich Effect: Parametric Amplification from Medium Rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faccio, Daniele; Wright, Ewan M.
2017-03-01
The interaction of light with rotating media has attracted recent interest for both fundamental and applied studies including rotational Doppler shift measurements. It is also possible to obtain amplification through the scattering of light with orbital angular momentum from a rotating and absorbing cylinder, as proposed by Zel'dovich more than forty years ago. This amplification mechanism has never been observed experimentally yet has connections to other fields such as Penrose superradiance in rotating black holes. Here we propose a nonlinear optics system whereby incident light carrying orbital angular momentum drives parametric interaction in a rotating medium. The crystal rotation is shown to take the phase-mismatched parametric interaction with negligible energy exchange at zero rotation to amplification for sufficiently large rotation rates. The amplification is shown to result from breaking of anti-P T symmetry induced by the medium rotation.
Magnetically-charged black branes and viscosity/entropy ratios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hai-Shan; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.
2016-12-01
We consider asymptotically-AdS n-dimensional black brane solutions in a theory of gravity coupled to a set of N p-form field strengths, in which the field strengths carry magnetic charges. For appropriately chosen charges, the metrics are isotropic in the ( n - 2) transverse directions. However, in general the field strength configurations break the full Euclidean symmetry of the ( n - 2)-dimensional transverse space, and the shear viscosity tensor in the dual theory is no longer isotropic. We study the linearised equations for transverse traceless metric perturbations in these backgrounds, and by employing the Kubo formula we obtain expressions for the ratios η/S of the shear viscosity components divided by the entropy density. We find that the KSS bound on the ratios η/S is generally violated in these solutions. We also extend the discussion by including a dilatonic scalar field in the theory, leading to solutions that are asymptotically Lifshitz with hyperscaling violation.
Black hole in the expanding universe from intersecting branes
Maeda, Kei-ichi; Nozawa, Masato
2010-02-15
We study physical properties and global structures of a time-dependent, spherically symmetric solution obtained via the dimensional reduction of intersecting M-branes. We find that the spacetime describes a maximally charged black hole which asymptotically tends to the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe filled by a stiff matter. The metric solves the field equations of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton system, in which four Abelian gauge fields couple to the dilation with different coupling constants. The spacetime satisfies the dominant energy condition and is characterized by two parameters, Q and {tau}, related to the Maxwell charge and the relative ratio of black-hole horizon radii, respectively. In spite of the nontrivial time dependence of the metric, it turns out that the black-hole event horizon is a Killing horizon. This unexpected symmetry may be ascribed to the fact that the 11-dimensional brane configurations are supersymmetric in the static limit. Finally, combining with laws of the trapping horizon, we discuss the thermodynamic properties of the black hole. It is shown that the horizon possesses a nonvanishing temperature, contrary to the extremal Reissner-Nordstroem solution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.
1986-01-01
This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of…
Detecting Rotational Superradiance in Fluid Laboratories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Coutant, Antonin; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke
2016-12-01
Rotational superradiance was predicted theoretically decades ago, and is chiefly responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black-hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behavior of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. Two types of instabilities are studied: one sets in whenever superradiant modes are confined near the rotating cylinder and the other, which does not rely on confinement, corresponds to a local excitation of the cylinder. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and, hence, offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.
Detecting Rotational Superradiance in Fluid Laboratories.
Cardoso, Vitor; Coutant, Antonin; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke
2016-12-30
Rotational superradiance was predicted theoretically decades ago, and is chiefly responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black-hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behavior of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. Two types of instabilities are studied: one sets in whenever superradiant modes are confined near the rotating cylinder and the other, which does not rely on confinement, corresponds to a local excitation of the cylinder. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and, hence, offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1988-01-01
The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.
Rotation and mass in the Milky Way and spiral galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sofue, Yoshiaki
2017-02-01
Rotation curves are the basic tool for deriving the distribution of mass in spiral galaxies. In this review, we describe various methods to measure rotation curves in the Milky Way and spiral galaxies. We then describe two major methods to calculate the mass distribution using the rotation curve. By the direct method, the mass is calculated from rotation velocities without employing mass models. By the decomposition method, the rotation curve is deconvolved into multiple mass components by model fitting assuming a black hole, bulge, exponential disk, and dark halo. The decomposition is useful for statistical correlation analyses among the dynamical parameters of the mass components. We also review recent observations and derived results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holanda, R. F. L.; Colaço, L. R.; Gonçalves, R. S.; Alcaniz, J. S.
2017-04-01
In this paper, new bounds on possible variations of the fine structure constant, α, for a class of runaway dilaton models are performed. By considering a possible evolution with redshift, z, such as Δα/α = - γln (1 + z), where in γ are the physical properties of the model, we constrain this parameter by using a deformed cosmic distance duality relation jointly with gas mass fraction (GMF) measurements of galaxy clusters and luminosity distances of type Ia supernovae. The GMF's used in our analyses are from cluster mass data from 82 galaxy clusters in the redshift range 0.12 < z < 1.36, detected via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect at 148 GHz by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The type Ia supernovae are from the Union2.1 compilation. We also explore the dependence of the results from four models used to describe the galaxy clusters. As a result no evidence of variation was obtained.
Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos
2010-05-15
We study the internal structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole based on the Callan, Giddings, Harvey, and Strominger model. At the semiclassical level, a (weak) spacelike singularity was previously found to develop inside the black hole. We employ here a simplified quantum formulation of spacetime dynamics in the neighborhood of this singularity, using a minisuperspace-like approach. Quantum evolution is found to be regular and well defined at the semiclassical singularity. A well-localized initial wave packet propagating towards the singularity bounces off the latter and retains its well-localized form. Our simplified quantum treatment thus suggests that spacetime may extend semiclassically beyond the singularity, and also signifies the specific extension.
When Charged Black Holes Merge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-08-01
Most theoretical models assume that black holes arent charged. But a new study shows that mergers of charged black holes could explain a variety of astrophysical phenomena, from fast radio bursts to gamma-ray bursts.No HairThe black hole no hair theorem states that all black holes can be described by just three things: their mass, their spin, and their charge. Masses and spins have been observed and measured, but weve never measured the charge of a black hole and its widely believed that real black holes dont actually have any charge.That said, weve also never shown that black holes dont have charge, or set any upper limits on the charge that they might have. So lets suppose, for a moment, that its possible for a black hole to be charged. How might that affect what we know about the merger of two black holes? A recent theoretical study by Bing Zhang (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) examines this question.Intensity profile of a fast radio burst, a sudden burst of radio emission that lasts only a few milliseconds. [Swinburne Astronomy Productions]Driving TransientsZhangs work envisions a pair of black holes in a binary system. He argues that if just one of the black holes carries charge possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere then it may be possible for the system to produce an electromagnetic signal that could accompany gravitational waves, such as a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst!In Zhangs model, the inspiral of the two black holes generates a global magnetic dipole thats perpendicular to the plane of the binarys orbit. The magnetic flux increases rapidly as the separation between the black holes decreases, generating an increasingly powerful magnetic wind. This wind, in turn, can give rise to a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst, depending on the value of the black holes charge.Artists illustration of a short gamma-ray burst, thought to be caused by the merger of two compact objects. [ESO/A. Roquette]Zhang calculates lower limits on the charge
Stationary black holes: large D analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro
2015-09-01
We consider the effective theory of large D stationary black holes. By solving the Einstein equations with a cosmological constant using the 1 /D expansion in near zone of the black hole we obtain the effective equation for the stationary black hole. The effective equation describes the Myers-Perry black hole, bumpy black holes and, possibly, the black ring solution as its solutions. In this effective theory the black hole is represented as an embedded membrane in the background, e.g., Minkowski or Anti-de Sitter spacetime and its mean curvature is given by the surface gravity redshifted by the background gravitational field and the local Lorentz boost. The local Lorentz boost property of the effective equation is observed also in the metric itself. In fact we show that the leading order metric of the Einstein equation in the 1 /D expansion is generically regarded as a Lorentz boosted Schwarzschild black hole. We apply this Lorentz boost property of the stationary black hole solution to solve perturbation equations. As a result we obtain an analytic formula for quasinormal modes of the singly rotating Myers-Perry black hole in the 1 /D expansion.
Scattering of Cosmic Strings by Black Holes:. Loop Formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubath, Florian; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Viallet, Claude Michel
We study the deformation of a long cosmic string by a nearby rotating black hole. We examine whether the deformation of a cosmic string, induced by the gravitational field of a Kerr black hole, may lead to the formation of a string loop. The segment of the string which enters the ergo-sphere of a rotating black hole gets deformed and, if it is sufficiently twisted, it can self-intersect, chopping off a loop. We find that the formation of a loop, via such a mechanism, is a rare event. It will only arise in a small region of the collision phase space, which depends on the string velocity, the impact parameter and the black hole angular momentum. We conclude that, generically, a long cosmic string is simply scattered, or captured, by a nearby rotating black hole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Opatrný, Tomáš; Richterek, Lukáš; Bakala, Pavel
2017-01-01
Life is dependent on the income of energy with low entropy and the disposal of energy with high entropy. On Earth, the low-entropy energy is provided by solar radiation and the high-entropy energy is disposed of as infrared radiation emitted into cold space. Here, we turn the situation around and imagine the cosmic background radiation as the low-entropy source of energy for a planet orbiting a black hole into which the high-entropy energy is expelled. We estimate the power that can be produced by thermodynamic processes on such a planet, with a particular interest in planets orbiting a fast rotating Kerr black hole as in the science fiction movie Interstellar. We also briefly discuss a reverse Dyson sphere absorbing cosmic background radiation from the outside and dumping waste energy to a black hole inside.
Mostepanenko, V.M.; Sokolov, I.Y. )
1989-06-01
On the basis of an analysis of experimental data, restrictions are obtained on the parameters of hypothetical long-range Yukawa-type interactions which arise from the exchange of vector and pseudo-Goldstone particles. The masses of the spin-1 antigraviton and the dilaton are estimated to be greater than 6{times}10{sup {minus}5} and 4{times}10{sup {minus}5} eV, respectively.
Entropy Inequality Violations from Ultraspinning Black Holes.
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Kubizňák, David
2015-07-17
We construct a new class of rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions with noncompact event horizons of finite area in any dimension and study their thermodynamics. In four dimensions these black holes are solutions to gauged supergravity. We find that their entropy exceeds the maximum implied from the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality, which states that for a given thermodynamic volume, the black hole entropy is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS space. We use this result to suggest more stringent conditions under which this conjecture may hold.
Shadow shapes around the black hole in the galactic centre
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, A. F.; Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.
Recently Holz & Wheeler (2002) considered a very attracting possibility to detect retro-MACHOs, i.e. retro-images of the Sun by a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper we discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages. In some sense that is a manifestation of gravitational lens effect in the strong gravitational field near black hole horizon and a generalization of the retro-gravitational lens phenomenon. We analyze the case of a Kerr black hole rotating at arbitrary speed for some selected positions of a distant observer with respect to the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. We discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages. Some time ago Falcke, Melia & Agol (2000) suggested to search shadows at the Galactic Center. In this paper we present the boundaries for shadows calculated numerically. We also propose to use future radio interferometer RADIOASTRON facilities to measure shapes of mirages (glories) and to evaluate the black hole spin as a function of the position angle of a distant observer.
Quasinormal modes and classical wave propagation in analogue black holes
Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.
2004-12-15
Many properties of black holes can be studied using acoustic analogues in the laboratory through the propagation of sound waves. We investigate in detail sound wave propagation in a rotating acoustic (2+1)-dimensional black hole, which corresponds to the 'draining bathtub' fluid flow. We compute the quasinormal mode frequencies of this system and discuss late-time power-law tails. Because of the presence of an ergoregion, waves in a rotating acoustic black hole can be superradiantly amplified. We also compute superradiant reflection coefficients and instability time scales for the acoustic black hole bomb, the equivalent of the Press-Teukolsky black hole bomb. Finally we discuss quasinormal modes and late-time tails in a nonrotating canonical acoustic black hole, corresponding to an incompressible, spherically symmetric (3+1)-dimensional fluid flow.
Shadow of noncommutative geometry inspired black hole
Wei, Shao-Wen; Cheng, Peng; Zhong, Yi; Zhou, Xiang-Nan E-mail: pcheng14@lzu.edu.cn E-mail: zhouxn10@lzu.edu.cn
2015-08-01
In this paper, the shadow casted by the rotating black hole inspired by noncommutative geometry is investigated. In addition to the dimensionless spin parameter a/M{sub 0} with M{sub 0} black hole mass and inclination angle i, the dimensionless noncommutative parameter √θ/M{sub 0} is also found to affect the shape of the black hole shadow. The result shows that the size of the shadow slightly decreases with the parameter √θ/M{sub 0}, while the distortion increases with it. Compared to the Kerr black hole, the parameter √θ/M{sub 0} increases the deformation of the shadow. This may offer a way to distinguish noncommutative geometry inspired black hole from Kerr one via astronomical instruments in the near future.
Testing conformal gravity with astrophysical black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bambi, Cosimo; Cao, Zheng; Modesto, Leonardo
2017-03-01
Weyl conformal symmetry can solve the problem the spacetime singularities present in Einstein's gravity. In a recent paper, two of us have found a singularity-free rotating black hole solution in conformal gravity. In addition to the mass M and the spin angular momentum J of the black hole, the new solution has a new parameter, L , which here we consider to be proportional to the black hole mass. Since the solution is conformally equivalent to the Kerr metric, photon trajectories are unchanged, while the structure of an accretion disk around a black hole is affected by the value of the parameter L . In this paper, we show that x-ray data of astrophysical black holes require L /M <1.2 .
Thermodynamics in Black-Hole Correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju
2013-09-01
The area law of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black hole suggests that the black hole should have a lower-dimensional holographic description. It has been found recently that a large class of rotating and charged black holes could be holographically described a two-dimensional (2D) conformal field theory (CFT). We show that the universal information of the dual CFT, including the central charges and the temperatures, is fully encoded in the thermodynamics laws of both outer and inner horizons. These laws, characterizing how the black hole responds under the perturbation, allows us to read different dual pictures with respect to different kinds of perturbations. The remarkable effectiveness of this thermodynamics method suggest that the inner horizon could play a key role in the study of holographic description of the black hole.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vontress, Clemmont E.
1970-01-01
Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bailey, Charles-James N.
This paper, presented as part of a military lecture series given by the Division of Continuing Education and Community Service Speakers' Bureau of the University of Hawaii to military personnel at Schofield Barracks and Fort Shafter, investigates the origins and present status of Black English. A discussion of early studies in the Gullah dialect…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
San Francisco Unified School District, CA.
This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered by particular interest in the study of black Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within these subject areas: I. African…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corianò, Claudio; Costantini, Antonio; Rose, Luigi Delle; Serino, Mirko
2014-06-01
We discuss the signature of the anomalous breaking of the superconformal symmetry in = 1 super Yang Mills theory, mediated by the Ferrara-Zumino hypercurrent () with two vector () supercurrents () and its manifestation in the anomaly action, in the form of anomaly poles. This allows to investigate in a unified way both conformal and chiral anomalies. The analysis is performed in parallel to the Standard Model, for comparison. We investigate, in particular, massive deformations of the = 1 theory and the spectral densities of the anomaly form factors which are extracted from the components of this correlator. In this extended framework it is shown that all the anomaly form factors are characterized by spectral densities which flow with the mass deformation. In particular, the continuum contributions from the two-particle cuts of the intermediate states turn into poles in the zero mass limit, with a single sum rule satisfied by each component. Non anomalous form factors, instead, in the same anomalous correlators, are characterized by non-integrable spectral densities. These tend to uniform distributions as one moves towards the conformal point, with a clear dual behaviour. As in a previous analysis of the dilaton pole of the Standard Model, also in this case the poles can be interpreted as signaling the exchange of a composite dilaton/axion/dilatino (ADD) multiplet in the effective Lagrangian. The pole-like behaviour of the anomaly form factors is shown to be a global feature of the correlators, present at all energy scales, due to the sum rules. A similar behaviour is shown to be present in the Konishi current, which identifies additional composite states. We conclude that global anomalous currents characterized by a single flow in the perturbative picture always predict the existence of composite interpolating fields. In case of gauging of these currents, as in superconformal theories coupled to gravity, we show that the cancellation of the corresponding anomalies
Quantum singularities in (2+1) dimensional matter coupled black hole spacetimes
Unver, O.; Gurtug, O.
2010-10-15
Quantum singularities considered in the 3D Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetime by Pitelli and Letelier [Phys. Rev. D 77, 124030 (2008)] is extended to charged BTZ and 3D Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity spacetimes. The occurrence of naked singularities in the Einstein-Maxwell extension of the BTZ spacetime both in linear and nonlinear electrodynamics as well as in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity spacetimes are analyzed with the quantum test fields obeying the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. We show that with the inclusion of the matter fields, the conical geometry near r=0 is removed and restricted classes of solutions are admitted for the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. Hence, the classical central singularity at r=0 turns out to be quantum mechanically singular for quantum particles obeying the Klein-Gordon equation but nonsingular for fermions obeying the Dirac equation. Explicit calculations reveal that the occurrence of the timelike naked singularities in the considered spacetimes does not violate the cosmic censorship hypothesis as far as the Dirac fields are concerned. The role of horizons that clothes the singularity in the black hole cases is replaced by repulsive potential barrier against the propagation of Dirac fields.
Black Talk and Black Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abrahams, Roger D.
1969-01-01
Demonstrates the need for cultural relativity in avoiding stereotyped reactions to the language of the lower-class black child. Appears in "The Florida FL Reporter special anthology issue, "Linguistic-Cultural Differences and American Education. The central portion of this essay is part of the opening argument of the author's forthcoming book…
Constraints for transonic black hole accretion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abramowicz, Marek A.; Kato, Shoji
1989-01-01
Regularity conditions and global topological constraints leave some forbidden regions in the parameter space of the transonic isothermal, rotating matter onto black holes. Unstable flows occupy regions touching the boundaries of the forbidden regions. The astrophysical consequences of these results are discussed.
Black holes and high energy physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.
2016-01-01
Three mechanisms of getting high energies in particle collisions in the ergosphere of the rotating black holes are considered. The consequences of these mechanisms for observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays particles on the Earth as result of conversion of superheavy dark matter particles into ordinary particles are discussed.
Variations on Black Themes: English, Black Literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Randolph, Gloria D.
Variations on Black Themes, an introductory course in the study of black literature, permits students to make cursory examination of representative works of many black writers for the purpose of identifying major writers and recurring themes. The course content includes: introduction to some works of major Black American authors; identification of…
Critical Collapse of Rotating Radiation Fluids.
Baumgarte, Thomas W; Gundlach, Carsten
2016-06-03
We present results from the first fully relativistic simulations of the critical collapse of rotating radiation fluids. We observe critical scaling both in subcritical evolutions-in which case the fluid disperses to infinity and leaves behind flat space-and in supercritical evolutions, which lead to the formation of black holes. We measure the mass and angular momentum of these black holes, and find that both show critical scaling with critical exponents that are consistent with perturbative results. The critical exponents are universal: they are not affected by angular momentum, and are independent of the direction in which the critical curve, which separates subcritical from supercritical evolutions in our two-dimensional parameter space, is crossed. In particular, these findings suggest that the angular momentum decreases more rapidly than the square of the mass, so that, as criticality is approached, the collapse leads to the formation of a nonspinning black hole. We also demonstrate excellent agreement of our numerical data with new closed-form extensions of power-law scalings that describe the mass and angular momentum of rotating black holes formed close to criticality.
Twisted black hole is Taub-NUT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ong, Yen Chin
2017-01-01
Recently a purportedly novel solution of the vacuum Einstein field equations was discovered: it supposedly describes an asymptotically flat twisted black hole in 4-dimensions whose exterior spacetime rotates in a peculiar manner—the frame dragging in the northern hemisphere is opposite from that of the southern hemisphere, which results in a globally vanishing angular momentum. Furthermore it was shown that the spacetime has no curvature singularity. We show that the geometry of this black hole spacetime is nevertheless not free of pathological features. In particular, it harbors a rather drastic conical singularity along the axis of rotation. In addition, there exist closed timelike curves due to the fact that the constant r and constant t surfaces are not globally Riemannian. In fact, none of these are that surprising since the solution is just the Taub-NUT geometry. As such, despite the original claim that the twisted black hole might have observational consequences, it cannot be.
Modified gravity black holes and their observable shadows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moffat, J. W.
2015-03-01
The shadows cast by non-rotating and rotating modified gravity black holes are determined by the two parameters mass and angular momentum . The sizes of the shadows cast by the spherically symmetric static modified gravity-Schwarzschild and modified gravity-Kerr rotating black holes increase significantly as the free parameter is increased from zero. The Event Horizon Telescope shadow image measurements can determine whether Einstein's general relativity is correct or whether it should be modified in the presence of strong gravitational fields.
Static and rotating solutions for vector-Galileon theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cisterna, Adolfo; Hassaine, Mokhtar; Oliva, Julio; Rinaldi, Massimiliano
2016-11-01
We consider a particular truncation of the generalized Proca field theory in four dimensions for which we construct static and axisymmetric rotating black hole "stealth solutions," namely solutions with (anti) de Sitter or Kerr metric but nontrivial vector field. The static configuration is promoted to a backreacting black hole with asymptotic (anti) de Sitter behavior by turning on a nonlinear electrodynamic source given as a fixed power of the Maxwell invariant. Finally we extend our solutions to arbitrary dimensions.
Uniqueness theorem for black holes with Kaluza-Klein asymptotic in 5D Einstein-Maxwell gravity
Yazadjiev, Stoytcho
2010-07-15
In the present paper, we prove a uniqueness theorem for stationary multi-black hole configurations with Kaluza-Klein asymptotic in a certain sector of 5D Einstein-Maxwell gravity. As a part of the technical assumptions in the theorem, we assume that the Killing vector associated with the compact dimension is orthogonal to the other Killing vectors and that it is also hypersurface orthogonal. About the Maxwell field, we assume that it is invariant under the Killing symmetries and has a nonzero component only along the Killing vector associated with the compact dimension. We show that such multi-black hole configurations are uniquely specified by the interval structure, angular momenta of the horizons, magnetic charges, and the magnetic flux. A straightforward generalization of the uniqueness theorem for 5D Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity is also given.
Black Hole production in cosmic ray showers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco
2007-04-01
One way around the hierarchy problem of particle physics is to introduce large extra dimensions (LED). This suggests that gravity may become strong at the TeV and so production of scale black holes (BH's) would be possible by particle colliders and UHECR's. The interesting question is, what would be the BH signatures and whether we would detect them at the LHC or at the Auger Observatory. We also deal with the case of rotating BH's and how they may decay. Page [1976] showed that the power emitted from rotating four-dimensional BH's increases with angular momentum and so it is worth considering if this picture changes in higher dimensions. Also discussed is the case of excited string excitations from the decay of strings produced by neutrino-quark interactions. Ref: Page, D.N. (1976), Particle emission rates from a black hole. II. Massless particles from a rotating hole, Phys. Rev. D 14, 3260 - 3273
Asymptotically flat black holes in 2 +1 dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alkaç, Gökhan; Kilicarslan, Ercan; Tekin, Bayram
2016-04-01
Asymptotically flat black holes in 2 +1 dimensions are a rarity. We study the recently found black flower solutions (asymptotically flat black holes with deformed horizons), static black holes, rotating black holes and the dynamical black flowers (black holes with radiative gravitons) of the purely quadratic version of new massive gravity. We show how they appear in this theory and we also show that they are also solutions to the infinite order extended version of the new massive gravity, that is the Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity with an amputated Einsteinian piece. The same metrics also solve the topologically extended versions of these theories, with modified conserved charges and the thermodynamical quantities, such as the Wald entropy. Besides these we find new conformally flat radiating type solutions to these extended gravity models. We also show that these metrics do not arise in Einstein's gravity coupled to physical perfect fluids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doeff, E.; Misiurewicz, M.
1997-11-01
This paper presents results on rotation numbers for orientation-preserving torus homeomorphisms homotopic to a Dehn twist. Rotation numbers and the rotation set for such homeomorphisms have been defined and initially investigated by the first author in a previous paper. Here we prove that each rotation number 0951-7715/10/6/017/img5 in the interior of the rotation set is realized by some compact invariant set, and that there is an ergodic measure on that set with mean rotation number 0951-7715/10/6/017/img5. It is also proved that the function which assigns its rotation set to such a homeomorphism is continuous. Finally, a counterexample is presented that shows that rational extremal points of the shear rotation set do not necessarily correspond to any periodic orbits.
Power Harvesting from Rotation?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chicone, Carmen; Feng, Z. C.
2008-01-01
We show the impossibility of harvesting power from rotational motions by devices attached to the rotating object. The presentation is suitable for students who have studied Lagrangian mechanics. (Contains 2 figures.)
... to these tendons may result in: Rotator cuff tendinitis, which is irritation and swelling of these tendons ... Brien MJ, Leggin BG, Williams GR. Rotator cuff tendinopathies and tears: surgery and therapy. In: Skirven TM, ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Randall, Richard L.
1990-01-01
Signal-processing subsystem generates signal indicative of rotation of shaft from output of accelerometer mounted on housing of bearing supporting shaft. Output of subsystem binary signal at frequency of rotation of shaft. Part of assembly of electronic equipment measuring vibrations in rotating machinery. Accelerometer mounted in such way sensitive to vibrations of shaft perpendicular to axis. Output of accelerometer includes noise and components of vibration at frequencies higher than rotational frequency of shaft.
Smoking Cessation among Blacks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stotts, R. Craig; And Others
1991-01-01
Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Pearl
The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…
Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pina, E.
2011-01-01
The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohta, Nobuyoshi; Torii, Takashi
2013-09-01
We study charged black hole solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet theory with the dilaton field which is the low-energy effective theory of the heterotic string. The spacetime is D dimensional and assumed to be static and plane symmetric with the (D-2)-dimensional constant curvature space and asymptotically anti-de Sitter. By imposing the boundary conditions of the existence of the regular black hole horizon and proper behavior at infinity where the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound should be satisfied, we construct black hole solutions numerically. We give the relations among the physical quantities of the black holes such as the horizon radius, the mass, the temperature, and so on. The properties of the black holes do not depend on the dimensions qualitatively, which is different from the spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat case. There is nonzero lower limit for the radius of the event horizon below which no solution exists. The temperature of the black hole becomes smaller as the horizon radius is smaller but remains nonzero when the lower limit is attained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manolopoulou, M.; Plionis, M.
2017-03-01
We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing, and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exist, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude, and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z ≲ 0.1 with member galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10 spectroscopic data base. After excluding a number of substructured clusters, which could provide erroneous indications of rotation, and taking into account the expected fraction of misidentified coherent substructure velocities for rotation, provided by our Monte Carlo simulation analysis, we find that ∼23 per cent of our clusters are rotating under a set of strict criteria. Loosening the strictness of the criteria, on the expense of introducing spurious rotation indications, we find this fraction increasing to ∼28 per cent. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation within 1.5 h^{-1}_{70} Mpc that the significance of their rotation is related to the dynamically younger phases of cluster formation but after the initial anisotropic accretion and merging has been completed. Finally, finding rotational modes in galaxy clusters could lead to the necessity of correcting the dynamical cluster mass calculations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.
Gravitational lensing by black holes: The case of Sgr A*
Bozza, V.
2014-01-14
The strong gravitational fields created by black holes dramatically affect the propagation of photons by bending their trajectories. Gravitational lensing thus stands as the main source of information on the space-time structure in such extreme regimes. We will review the theory and phenomenology of gravitational lensing by black holes, with the generation of higher order images and giant caustics by rotating black holes. We will then focus on Sgr A*, the black hole at the center of the Milky Way, for which next-to-come technology will be able to reach resolutions of the order of the Schwarzschild radius and ultimately test the existence of an event horizon.
Spectral line broadening in magnetized black holes
Frolov, Valeri P.; Shoom, Andrey A.; Tzounis, Christos E-mail: ashoom@ualberta.ca
2014-07-01
We consider weakly magnetized non-rotating black holes. In the presence of a regular magnetic field the motion of charged particles in the vicinity of a black hole is modified. As a result, the position of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) becomes closer to the horizon. When the Lorentz force is repulsive (directed from the black hole) the ISCO radius can reach the gravitational radius. In the process of accretion charged particles (ions) of the accreting matter can be accumulated near their ISCO, while neutral particles fall down to the black hole after they reach 6M radius. The sharp spectral line Fe α, emitted by iron ions at such orbits, is broadened when the emission is registered by a distant observer. In this paper we study this broadening effect and discuss how one can extract information concerning the strength of the magnetic field from the observed spectrum.
CFT duals for accelerating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astorino, Marco
2016-09-01
The near horizon geometry of the rotating C-metric, describing accelerating Kerr-Newman black holes, is analysed. It is shown that, at extremality, even though it is not isomorphic to the extremal Kerr-Newman, it remains a warped and twisted product of AdS2 ×S2. Therefore the methods of the Kerr/CFT correspondence can successfully be applied to build a CFT dual model, whose entropy reproduces, through the Cardy formula, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the accelerating black hole. The mass of accelerating Kerr-Newman black hole, which fulfils the first law of thermodynamics, is presented. Further generalisation in presence of an external Melvin-like magnetic field, used to regularise the conical singularity characteristic of the C-metrics, shows that the Kerr/CFT correspondence can be applied also for the accelerating and magnetised extremal black holes.
Coffman, R.T.
1957-12-10
A seal is described for a rotatable shaft that must highly effective when the shaft is not rotating but may be less effective while the shaft is rotating. Weights distributed about a sealing disk secured to the shaft press the sealing disk against a tubular section into which the shiilt extends, and whem the shaft rotates, the centrifugal forces on the weights relieve the pressurc of the sealing disk against the tubular section. This action has the very desirible result of minimizing the wear of the rotating disk due to contact with the tubular section, while affording maximum sealing action when it is needed.
Visualizing molecular unidirectional rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Kang; Song, Qiying; Gong, Xiaochun; Ji, Qinying; Pan, Haifeng; Ding, Jingxin; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian
2015-07-01
We directly visualize the spatiotemporal evolution of a unidirectional rotating molecular rotational wave packet. Excited by two time-delayed polarization-skewed ultrashort laser pulses, the cigar- or disk-shaped rotational wave packet is impulsively kicked to unidirectionally rotate as a quantum rotor which afterwards disperses and exhibits field-free revivals. The rich dynamics can be coherently controlled by varying the timing or polarization of the excitation laser pulses. The numerical simulations very well reproduce the experimental observations and intuitively revivify the thoroughgoing evolution of the molecular rotational wave packet of unidirectional spin.
Atala-Gérard, Lea
2017-01-01
The Rotating Snakes Illusion employs patterns with repetitive asymmetric luminance steps forming a “snake wheel.” In the underlying luminance sequence {black, dark grey, white, light grey}, coded as {0, g1, 100, g2}, we varied g1 and g2 and measured illusion strength via nulling: Saccades were performed next to a “snake wheel” that rotated physically; observers adjusted rotation until a stationary percept obtained. Observers performed the perceptual nulling of the seeming rotation reliably. Typical settings for (g1, g2), measured from images by Kitaoka, are around (20%, 60%). Indeed, we found a marked illusion in the region (g1≈{0%–25%}, g2≈{20%–75%}) with a rotation speed of ≈1°/s. Surprisingly, we detected a second “island” around (70%, 95%) with opposite direction of the illusory rotation and weaker illusion. Our quantitative measurements of illusion strength confirmed the optimal luminance choices of the standard snake wheel and, unexpectedly, revealed an opposite rotation illusion. PMID:28228928
Atala-Gérard, Lea; Bach, Michael
2017-01-01
The Rotating Snakes Illusion employs patterns with repetitive asymmetric luminance steps forming a "snake wheel." In the underlying luminance sequence {black, dark grey, white, light grey}, coded as {0, g1, 100, g2}, we varied g1 and g2 and measured illusion strength via nulling: Saccades were performed next to a "snake wheel" that rotated physically; observers adjusted rotation until a stationary percept obtained. Observers performed the perceptual nulling of the seeming rotation reliably. Typical settings for (g1, g2), measured from images by Kitaoka, are around (20%, 60%). Indeed, we found a marked illusion in the region (g1≈{0%-25%}, g2≈{20%-75%}) with a rotation speed of ≈1°/s. Surprisingly, we detected a second "island" around (70%, 95%) with opposite direction of the illusory rotation and weaker illusion. Our quantitative measurements of illusion strength confirmed the optimal luminance choices of the standard snake wheel and, unexpectedly, revealed an opposite rotation illusion.
Stochl, Jan; Croudace, Tim
2013-01-01
Why some humans prefer to rotate clockwise rather than anticlockwise is not well understood. This study aims to identify the predictors of the preferred rotation direction in humans. The variables hypothesised to influence rotation preference include handedness, footedness, sex, brain hemisphere lateralisation, and the Coriolis effect (which results from geospatial location on the Earth). An online questionnaire allowed us to analyse data from 1526 respondents in 97 countries. Factor analysis showed that the direction of rotation should be studied separately for local and global movements. Handedness, footedness, and the item hypothesised to measure brain hemisphere lateralisation are predictors of rotation direction for both global and local movements. Sex is a predictor of the direction of global rotation movements but not local ones, and both sexes tend to rotate clockwise. Geospatial location does not predict the preferred direction of rotation. Our study confirms previous findings concerning the influence of handedness, footedness, and sex on human rotation; our study also provides new insight into the underlying structure of human rotation movements and excludes the Coriolis effect as a predictor of rotation.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002858.htm Black widow spider To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The black widow spider has a shiny black body with a red ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.
1981-01-01
The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)
Numerical simulations of black-hole spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Tony
This thesis covers various aspects of the numerical simulation of black-hole spacetimes according to Einstein's general theory of relativity, using the Spectral Einstein Code developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA collaboration. The first topic is improvement of binary-black-hole initial data. One such issue is the construction of binary-black-hole initial data with nearly extremal spins that remain nearly constant during the initial relaxation in an evolution. Another concern is the inclusion of physically realistic tidal deformations of the black holes to reduce the high-frequency components of the spurious gravitational radiation content, and represents a first step in incorporating post-Newtonian results in constraint-satisfying initial data. The next topic is the evolution of black-hole binaries and the gravitational waves they emit. The first spectral simulation of two inspiralling black holes through merger and ringdown is presented, in which the black holes are nonspinning and have equal masses. This work is extended to perform the first spectral simulations of two inspiralling black holes with moderate spins and equal masses, including the merger and ringdown. Two configurations are considered, in which both spins are either anti-aligned or aligned with the orbital angular momentum. Highly accurate gravitational waveforms are computed for all these cases, and are used to calibrate waveforms in the effective-one-body model. The final topic is the behavior of quasilocal black-hole horizons in highly dynamical situations. Simulations of a rotating black hole that is distort ed by a pulse of ingoing gravitational radiation are performed. Multiple marginally outer trapped surfaces are seen to appear and annihilate with each other during the evolution, and the world tubes th ey trace out are all dynamical horizons. The dynamical horizon and angular momentum flux laws are evaluated in this context, and the dynamical horizons are contrasted with the event horizon
Rapidly rotating spacetimes and collisional super-Penrose process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaslavskii, O. B.
2016-05-01
We consider generic axially symmetric rotating spacetimes and examine particle collisions in the ergoregion. The results are generic and agree with those obtained in the particular case of the rotating Teo wormhole in Tsukamoto and Bambi, Phys Rev D 91:104040, 2015. It is shown that for sufficiently rapid rotation, the energy of a particle escaping to infinity can become arbitrary large (so-called super-Penrose process). Moreover, this energy is typically much larger than the center-of mass energy of colliding particles. In this sense the situation differs radically from that for collisions near black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Huan
2014-03-01
In this work we study the wave propagation and scattering near a rotating black hole. In particular, we assume a coherent emission source near the black hole, and investigate the wavefront distortion as seen by a distant observer. Near the observer, the propagating wave can be decomposed using the Laguerre-Gaussian mode basis, and its wavefront distortion can be characterized by the decomposition coefficient. We find that this decomposition spectrum is symmetric for wave sources located near a Schwarzschild black hole, but is generically asymmetric if the host black hole is rotating. The spectrum asymmetry, or the net orbital angular momentum carried by the wave, is intimately related with the black hole spin, mass, the wave frequency, the source location as well as the observer's location. We present semi-analytical expressions and numerical results of these parameter-dependences, which suggest that the black-hole-induced spectrum asymmetry is generally too weak to be observed in radio astronomy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abel, T.
star. Within this wide range of possible initial masses the death of these star will lead very different remnants (Heger and Woosley 2001). In the case of stars with masses larger than 260 solar mass no metals may be released in black holes are the natural outcome. This may be an interesting possibility to form intermediate mass black holes which are attractive seeds to be nurtured to the super-massive black holes observed in the centers of nearby galaxies. However, no metals would be released and it would prove difficult to understand the transition to the formation of low mass metal enriched population II stars. Stars with masses below 140 solar masses would enrich the intergalactic medium as well as form massive black holes. The coincidence of the Kelvin Helmholtz time with our computed accretion times at about 120 solar masses may argue in favor of such smaller masses. These first black holes may well leave the halos in which they formed for even rather modest kick velocities >~ 10 km/s. Nevertheless, up to about one hundred thousand of these first black holes may remain in the Milky Way. The realization that structure formation began within one hundred million years after big bang makes it difficult to study observationally these first crucial steps. Future observatories have hence to focus on larger collecting areas and wavelengths for which the universe is transparent up to redshifts of 30. XEUS offers the chance to open a new window to these so far dark ages. The limiting masses quoted here rely on stellar models of primordial stars that do not include rotation, magnetic fields or mass loss and hence are somewhat uncertain.
Cylindrical rotating triboelectric nanogenerator.
Bai, Peng; Zhu, Guang; Liu, Ying; Chen, Jun; Jing, Qingshen; Yang, Weiqing; Ma, Jusheng; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Zhong Lin
2013-07-23
We demonstrate a cylindrical rotating triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on sliding electrification for harvesting mechanical energy from rotational motion. The rotating TENG is based on a core-shell structure that is made of distinctly different triboelectric materials with alternative strip structures on the surface. The charge transfer is strengthened with the formation of polymer nanoparticles on surfaces. During coaxial rotation, a contact-induced electrification and the relative sliding between the contact surfaces of the core and the shell result in an "in-plane" lateral polarization, which drives the flow of electrons in the external load. A power density of 36.9 W/m(2) (short-circuit current of 90 μA and open-circuit voltage of 410 V) has been achieved by a rotating TENG with 8 strip units at a linear rotational velocity of 1.33 m/s (a rotation rate of 1000 r/min). The output can be further enhanced by integrating more strip units and/or applying larger linear rotational velocity. This rotating TENG can be used as a direct power source to drive small electronics, such as LED bulbs. This study proves the possibility to harvest mechanical energy by TENGs from rotational motion, demonstrating its potential for harvesting the flow energy of air or water for applications such as self-powered environmental sensors and wildlife tracking devices.
Kerr black holes as retro-MACHOs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Paolis, F.; Geralico, A.; Ingrosso, G.; Nucita, A. A.; Qadir, A.
2004-02-01
Gravitational lensing is a well known phenomenon predicted by the General Theory of Relativity. It is now a well-developed observational technique in astronomy and is considered to be a fundamental tool for acquiring information about the nature and distribution of dark matter. In particular, gravitational lensing experiments may be used to search for black holes. It has been proposed that a Schwarzschild black hole may act as a retro-lens (Holz & Wheeler \\cite{hw}) which, if illuminated by a powerful light source (e.g. the Sun), deflects light ray paths to large bending angles so that the light may reach the observer. Here, by considering the strong field limit in the deflection angle and confining our analysis to the black hole equatorial plane, we extend the Holz-Wheeler results to slowly spinning Kerr black holes. By considering the Holz-Wheeler geometrical configuration for the lens, source and observer we find that the inclusion of rotation does not substantially change the brightness of the retro-lensing images with respect to the Schwarzschild case. We also discuss the possibility that the next generation space-based telescopes may detect such retro-images and eventually put limits on the rotational parameter of the black hole.
Synergic effects of 10°/s constant rotation and rotating background on visual cognitive processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Siyang; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Tan, Cheng; Niu, Dongbin
In previous studies we have found that constant low-speed rotation facilitated the auditory cognitive process and constant velocity rotation background sped up the perception, recognition and assessment process of visual stimuli. In the condition of constant low-speed rotation body is exposed into a new physical state. In this study the variations of human brain's cognitive process under the complex condition of constant low-speed rotation and visual rotation backgrounds with different speed were explored. 14 university students participated in the ex-periment. EEG signals were recorded when they were performing three different cognitive tasks with increasing mental load, that is no response task, selective switch responses task and selec-tive mental arithmetic task. Rotary chair was used to create constant low-speed10/srotation. Four kinds of background were used in this experiment, they were normal black background and constant 30o /s, 45o /s or 60o /s rotating simulated star background. The P1 and N1 compo-nents of brain event-related potentials (ERP) were analyzed to detect the early visual cognitive processing changes. It was found that compared with task performed under other backgrounds, the posterior P1 and N1 latencies were shortened under 45o /s rotating background in all kinds of cognitive tasks. In the no response task, compared with task performed under black back-ground, the posterior N1 latencies were delayed under 30o /s rotating background. In the selec-tive switch responses task and selective mental arithmetic task, compared with task performed under other background, the P1 latencies were lengthened under 60o /s rotating background, but the average amplitudes of the posterior P1 and N1 were increased. It was suggested that under constant 10/s rotation, the facilitated effect of rotating visual background were changed to an inhibited one in 30o /s rotating background. Under vestibular new environment, not all of the rotating backgrounds
Spinning BTZ black hole versus Kerr black hole: A closer look
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hongsu
1999-03-01
By applying Newman's algorithm, the AdS3 rotating black hole solution is ``derived'' from the nonrotating black hole solution of Bañados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ). The rotating BTZ solution derived in this fashion is given in ``Boyer-Lindquist-type'' coordinates whereas the form of the solution originally given by BTZ is given in kind of ``unfamiliar'' coordinates which are related to each other by a transformation of time coordinate alone. The relative physical meaning between these two time coordinates is carefully studied. Since the Kerr-type and Boyer-Lindquist-type coordinates for rotating BTZ solution are newly found via Newman's algorithm, the transformation to Kerr-Schild-type coordinates is looked for. Indeed, such a transformation is found to exist. In these Kerr-Schild-type coordinates, a truly maximal extension of its global structure by analytically continuing to an ``antigravity universe'' region is carried out.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kley, Wilhelm; Mathews, William G.
1995-01-01
We describe the evolution of the hot interstellar medium in a large, slowly rotating elliptical galaxy. Although the rotation assumed is a small fraction of the circular velocity, in accordance with recent observations, it is sufficient to have a profound influence on the X-ray emission and cooling geometry of the interstellar gas. The hot gas cools into a disk that extends out to approximately 10 kpc. The cool, dusty disks observed in the majority of elliptical galaxies may arise naturally from internal cooling rather than from mergers with gas-rich companions. As a result of angular momentum conservation in the cooling flow, the soft X-ray isophotes are quite noticeably flatter than those of the stellar image. The gas temperature is higer along the rotation axis. The rotational velocity of the gas several kiloparcsecs above the central disk far exceeds the local stellar rotation and approaches the local circular velocity as it flows toward the galactic core. The detailed appearance of the X-ray image and velocity field of the X-ray gas provide information about the global rotational properties of giant ellipticals at radii too distant for optical observations. The overall pattern of rotation in these galaxies retains information about the origin of ellipticals, particularly of their merging history. In ellipticals having radio jets, if the jets are aligned with the rotation axis of the inner cooling flow, rotation within the jet could be sustained by the rotating environment. Since most large ellipticals have modest rotation, the X-ray observations at low spatial resolution, when interpreted with spherical theoretical models, give the impression that hot gas undergoes localized cooling to very low temperatures many kiloparcsecs from the galactic core. We suggest that such apparent cooling can result in a natural way as gas cools onto a rotating disk.
Strings on AdS wormholes and nonsingular black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai
2015-01-01
Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole backgrounds which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dual field theory lives on the union of the disjoint boundaries. For the wormhole background, causal contact exists between the two boundaries and the structure of certain correlation functions is indicative of an interacting phase for which there is a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The nonsingular black hole describes an entangled state in two non-interacting identical conformal field theories. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the ‘quarks’ and ‘anti-quarks’ that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential.
Evolution of perturbations of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes: Escape from instability
Ishihara, Hideki; Kimura, Masashi; Konoplya, Roman A.; Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro; Zhidenko, Alexander
2008-04-15
The squashed Kaluza-Klien (KK) black holes differ from the Schwarzschild black holes with asymptotic flatness or the black strings even at energies for which the KK modes are not excited yet, so that squashed KK black holes open a window in higher dimensions. Another important feature is that the squashed KK black holes are apparently stable and, thereby, let us avoid the Gregory-Laflamme instability. In the present paper, the evolution of scalar and gravitational perturbations in time and frequency domains is considered for these squashed KK black holes. The scalar field perturbations are analyzed for general rotating squashed KK black holes. Gravitational perturbations for the so-called zero mode are shown to be decayed for nonrotating black holes, in concordance with the stability of the squashed KK black holes. The correlation of quasinormal frequencies with the size of extra dimension is discussed.
New conformally flat initial data for spinning black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dain, Sergio; Lousto, Carlos O.; Takahashi, Ryoji
2002-05-01
We obtain an explicit solution of the momentum constraint for conformally flat, maximal slicing, initial data which gives an alternative to the purely longitudinal extrinsic curvature of Bowen and York. The new solution is related, in a precise form, with the extrinsic curvature of a Kerr slice. We study these new initial data representing spinning black holes by numerically solving the Hamiltonian constraint. They have the following features: (i) they contain less radiation, for all allowed values of the rotation parameter, than the corresponding single spinning Bowen-York black hole; (ii) the maximum rotation parameter J/m2 reached by this solution is higher than that of the purely longitudinal solution, allowing us thus to describe holes closer to a maximally rotating Kerr one. We discuss the physical interpretation of these properties and their relation with the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. Finally, we generalize the data for multiple black holes using the ``puncture'' and isometric formulations.
Tonry, J.L.
1987-11-01
Observations are presented of the stellar rotation and velocity dispersion in M32. The projected rotation curve has an unresolved cusp at the center, with an amplitude of at least 60 km/s. The stellar velocity dispersion is constant at 56 + or - 5 km/s to a radius of 20 arcsec; a central bump in the observed dispersion is an artifact due to the rotation. The form of the rotation is such that isophotes have constant angular rotation velocity. The three-dimensional rotation field is modeled and the internal mean rotation of the stars around the center of M32 must reach at least 90 km/s at a radius of 2 pc. Hydrostatic equilibrium then requires 3-10 x 10 to the 6th solar masses of dark mass within the central parsec of M32. The possibility that M32 is undergoing core collapse and that this dark mass consists of dark stellar remnants is discussed, but ultimately rejected because the time scale for core collapse of M32 should be 2000 Hubble times. A more likely explanation of this dark mass, especially because of the presence of an X-ray point source at the center of M32, is a massive black hole. 37 references.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tonry, John L.
1987-01-01
Observations are presented of the stellar rotation and velocity dispersion in M32. The projected rotation curve has an unresolved cusp at the center, with an amplitude of at least 60 km/s. The stellar velocity dispersion is constant at 56 + or - 5 km/s to a radius of 20 arcsec; a central bump in the observed dispersion is an artifact due to the rotation. The form of the rotation is such that isophotes have constant angular rotation velocity. The three-dimensional rotation field is modeled and the internal mean rotation of the stars around the center of M32 must reach at least 90 km/s at a radius of 2 pc. Hydrostatic equilibrium then requires 3-10 x 10 to the 6th solar masses of dark mass within the central parsec of M32. The possibility that M32 is undergoing core collapse and that this dark mass consists of dark stellar remnants is discussed, but ultimately rejected because the time scale for core collapse of M32 should be 2000 Hubble times. A more likely explanation of this dark mass, especially because of the presence of an X-ray point source at the center of M32, is a massive black hole.
Maximum spin of black holes driving jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benson, Andrew J.; Babul, Arif
2009-08-01
Unbound outflows in the form of highly collimated jets and broad winds appear to be a ubiquitous feature of accreting black hole systems. The most powerful jets are thought to derive a significant fraction, if not the majority, of their power from the rotational energy of the black hole. Whatever the precise mechanism that causes them, these jets must, therefore, exert a braking torque on the black hole. Consequently, we expect jet production to play a significant role in limiting the maximum spin attainable by accreting black holes. We calculate the spin-up function - the rate of change of black hole spin normalized to the black hole mass and accretion rate - for an accreting black hole, accounting for this braking torque. We assume that the accretion flow on to a Kerr black hole is advection-dominated (ADAF) and construct easy-to-use analytic fits to describe the global structure of such flows based on the numerical solutions of Popham & Gammie. We find that the predicted black hole spin-up function depends only on the black hole spin and dimensionless parameters describing the accretion flow. Using recent relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) numerical simulation results to calibrate the efficiency of angular momentum transfer in the flow, we find that an ADAF flow will spin a black hole up (or down) to an equilibrium value of about 96 per cent of the maximal spin value in the absence of jets. Combining our ADAF system with a simple model for jet power, we demonstrate that an equilibrium is reached at approximately 93 per cent of the maximal spin value, as found in the numerical simulation studies of the spin-up of accreting black holes, at which point the spin-up of the hole by accreted material is balanced by the braking torque arising from jet production. The existence of equilibrium spin means that optically dim active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that have grown via accretion from an advection-dominated flow will not be maximally rotating. It also offers a
Rapidly rotating polytropes in general relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, Gregory B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Teukolsky, Saul A.
1994-01-01
We construct an extensive set of equilibrium sequences of rotating polytropes in general relativity. We determine a number of important physical parameters of such stars, including maximum mass and maximum spin rate. The stability of the configurations against quasi-radial perturbations is diagnosed. Two classes of evolutionary sequences of fixed rest mass and entropy are explored: normal sequences which behave very much like Newtonian evolutionary sequences, and supramassive sequences which exist solely because of relativistic effects. Dissipation leading to loss of angular momentum causes a star to evolve in a quasi-stationary fashion along an evolutionary sequence. Supramassive sequences evolve towards eventual catastrophic collapse to a black hole. Prior to collapse, the star must spin up as it loses angular momentum, an effect which may provide an observational precursor to gravitational collapse to a black hole.
Diamagnetism of rotating plasma
Young, W. C.; Hassam, A. B.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Ellis, R. F.; Teodorescu, C.
2011-11-15
Diamagnetism and magnetic measurements of a supersonically rotating plasma in a shaped magnetic field demonstrate confinement of plasma pressure along the magnetic field resulting from centrifugal force. The Grad-Shafranov equation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic force balance, including supersonic rotation, is solved to confirm that the predicted angular velocity is in agreement with spectroscopic measurements of the Doppler shifts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pochernyaev, V. N.
1993-06-01
Rotating junctions of coaxial-waveguide and waveguide type with a traveling wave coefficient exceeding 0.8 in a wide frequency range are considered. The design of these junctions is based on a method of the theory of electrodynamic circuits. Numerical results are obtained for rotating junctions of partially filled rectangular waveguide type and their particular cases.
The Weighted Oblimin Rotation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano
2000-01-01
Demonstrates that the weighting procedure proposed by E. Cureton and S. Mulaik (1975) can be applied to the Direct Oblimin approach of D. Clarkson and R. Jennrich (1988) to provide good results. The rotation method obtained is called Weighted Oblimin. Compared this method to other rotation methods with favorable results. (SLD)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Le Vine, David
2016-01-01
Faraday rotation is a change in the polarization as signal propagates through the ionosphere. At L-band it is necessary to correct for this change and measurements are made on the spacecraft of the rotation angle. These figures show that there is good agreement between the SMAP measurements (blue) and predictions based on models (red).
Rotatable shear plate interferometer
Duffus, Richard C.
1988-01-01
A rotatable shear plate interferometer comprises a transparent shear plate mounted obliquely in a tubular supporting member at 45.degree. with respect to its horizontal center axis. This tubular supporting member is supported rotatably around its center axis and a collimated laser beam is made incident on the shear plate along this center axis such that defocus in different directions can be easily measured.
WARPED DISK AROUND A BRIGHT BLACK HOLE (ARTWORK)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
This diagram shows the geometry of a warped disk of dust surrounding a suspected black hole in the active galaxy NGC 6251. The diagram is based on NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the disk which reveal that only one side reflects light emitted from a suspected black hole, hence the disk is warped. Such a warp could be due to gravitational perturbations in the galaxy's nucleus that keep the disk from being perfectly flat, or from precession of the rotation axis of the black hole relative to the rotation axis of the galaxy. Perpendicular to the disk is a jet of high-energy particles blasted into space along the black hole's spin axis. Illustration: James Gitlin (Space Telescope Science Institute)
Sevec, John B.
1978-01-01
A protective device to provide a warning if a piece of rotating machinery slows or stops comprises a pair of hinged weights disposed to rotate on a rotating shaft of the equipment. When the equipment is rotating, the weights remain in a plane essentially perpendicular to the shaft and constitute part of an electrical circuit that is open. When the shaft slows or stops, the weights are attracted to a pair of concentric electrically conducting disks disposed in a plane perpendicular to the shaft and parallel to the plane of the weights when rotating. A disk magnet attracts the weights to the electrically conducting plates and maintains the electrical contact at the plates to complete an electrical circuit that can then provide an alarm signal.
Quasar Lifetimes and Black Hole Spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafiee, Alireza; Hall, P. B.
2007-12-01
Wang et al. (2006) estimated a high average radiative efficiency of 30% to 35% for quasars (actively accreting black holes) at moderate redshift, strongly suggesting that all supermassive black holes are rotating very rapidly. Their method for determining radiative efficiencies has two advantages: it deals with changes in quantities rather than absolutes and it is independent of obscured sources. However, we have investigated the reliability of the assumptions made by Wang et al. and have found that their method is not independent of quasar lifetimes. Nonetheless, given constraints on quasar lifetimes, their method can be used to constrain quasar radiative efficiencies and black hole spins. Conversely, the range of radiative efficiencies possible for the full range of black hole spins can be used to constrain the average lifetimes of quasars (assuming that luminous quasars are not powered by radiatively inefficient accretion flows). We will present interrelated constraints on quasar lifetimes, Eddington ratios and radiative efficiencies (black hole spins) from a statistically complete sample of SDSS quasars with black hole mass estimates from Mg II. PBH and AR are supported in part by NSERC.
Fang, Yuting; Zhang, Limeng; Jiao, Yongge; Liao, Jingjing; Luo, Lifen; Ji, Sigui; Li, Jiangzhou; Dai, Kuai; Zhu, Shusheng; Yang, Min
2016-01-01
Black shank, caused by Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae, is a widespread and destructive disease of tobacco. Crop rotation is essential in controlling black shank. Here, we confirmed that rotating black shank-infested fields with rapeseed (Brassica napus) suppressed the incidence this disease. Further study demonstrated that rapeseed roots have a strong ability to attract zoospores and subsequently stop the swimming of zoospores into cystospores. Then, rapeseed roots secrete a series of antimicrobial compounds, including 2-butenoic acid, benzothiazole, 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole, 1-(4-ethylphenyl)-ethanone, and 4-methoxyindole, to inhibit the cystospore germination and mycelial growth of P. parasitica var. nicotianae. Thus, rapeseed rotated with tobacco suppresses tobacco black shank disease through the chemical weapons secreted by rapeseed roots. PMID:27379037
Black hole accretion discs and screened scalar hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Anne-Christine; Gregory, Ruth; Jha, Rahul
2016-10-01
We present a novel way to investigate scalar field profiles around black holes with an accretion disc for a range of models where the Compton wavelength of the scalar is large compared to other length scales. By analysing the problem in ``Weyl" coordinates, we are able to calculate the scalar profiles for accretion discs in the static Schwarzschild, as well as rotating Kerr, black holes. We comment on observational effects.
The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeffers, Trellie
1981-01-01
Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)
Black-hole bombs and photon-mass bounds.
Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Berti, Emanuele; Ishibashi, Akihiro
2012-09-28
Generic extensions of the standard model predict the existence of ultralight bosonic degrees of freedom. Several ongoing experiments are aimed at detecting these particles or constraining their mass range. Here we show that massive vector fields around rotating black holes can give rise to a strong superradiant instability, which extracts angular momentum from the hole. The observation of supermassive spinning black holes imposes limits on this mechanism. We show that current supermassive black-hole spin estimates provide the tightest upper limits on the mass of the photon (m(v) is < or approximately equal to 4×10(-20) eV according to our most conservative estimate), and that spin measurements for the largest known supermassive black holes could further lower this bound to m(v) < or approximately equal to 10(-22) eV. Our analysis relies on a novel framework to study perturbations of rotating Kerr black holes in the slow-rotation regime, that we developed up to second order in rotation, and that can be extended to other spacetime metrics and other theories.
Black-Hole Bombs and Photon-Mass Bounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Berti, Emanuele; Ishibashi, Akihiro
2012-09-01
Generic extensions of the standard model predict the existence of ultralight bosonic degrees of freedom. Several ongoing experiments are aimed at detecting these particles or constraining their mass range. Here we show that massive vector fields around rotating black holes can give rise to a strong superradiant instability, which extracts angular momentum from the hole. The observation of supermassive spinning black holes imposes limits on this mechanism. We show that current supermassive black-hole spin estimates provide the tightest upper limits on the mass of the photon (mv≲4×10-20eV according to our most conservative estimate), and that spin measurements for the largest known supermassive black holes could further lower this bound to mv≲10-22eV. Our analysis relies on a novel framework to study perturbations of rotating Kerr black holes in the slow-rotation regime, that we developed up to second order in rotation, and that can be extended to other spacetime metrics and other theories.
Black holes and particles with zero or negative energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.
2017-02-01
We study properties of particles with zero or negative energy and a nonzero orbital angular momentum in the ergosphere of a rotating black hole. We show that the sign of the particle energy is uniquely determined by the angular velocity of its rotation in the ergosphere. We give a simple proof of the fact that extreme black holes cannot exist. We investigate the question of the possibility of an unlimited energy increase in the center-of-mass system of two colliding particles, one or both of which have negative or zero energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge
2002-04-01
Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.
Masking, persistence, and transfer in rotating arcs.
Geremek, Adam; Stürzel, Frank; da Pos, Osvaldo; Spillmann, Lothar
2002-10-01
We demonstrate that the apparent length of a thin white arc on a black disk, rotating concentrically at 2.5 rps, varies with angular length and exposure duration. While short arcs (9-18 degrees ) gradually expand, long arcs (36-72 degrees ) first undergo a brief contraction, before they also expand. On average, perceived elongation asymptotes after 15 s equivalent to visual persistencies ranging from 68 to 170 ms. Using bi- and tri-colored arcs, we find that the apparent increase in length derives from the rear end of the rotating stimulus, while the initial shrinkage derives from contraction of the middle. After 15 s of adaptation, perceived length of the arc decays to actual stimulus length within an average of 6 s and, upon re-exposure of the arc, reaches its former value after only 5 s (priming). When the rotating arc is presented first to one eye and then to the other, apparent elongation transfers partially (46%), suggesting a contribution by the binocular cells in the visual cortex. A partial transfer (26%) also occurs from clockwise to counterclockwise rotation. When tested interocularly, the directional transfer is more pronounced (47%) and equals the interocular transfer under equidirectional conditions, suggesting that the directional transfer (cw versus ccw) might derive from non-directional cortical units. Whereas the initial contraction may be attributable to backward masking, the observed elongation likely reflects a cumulative build-up of after-discharge in cortical neurons over time.
Thermodynamics of regular accelerating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astorino, Marco
2017-03-01
Using the covariant phase space formalism, we compute the conserved charges for a solution, describing an accelerating and electrically charged Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. The metric is regular provided that the acceleration is driven by an external electric field, in spite of the usual string of the standard C-metric. The Smarr formula and the first law of black hole thermodynamics are fulfilled. The resulting mass has the same form of the Christodoulou-Ruffini irreducible mass. On the basis of these results, we can extrapolate the mass and thermodynamics of the rotating C-metric, which describes a Kerr-Newman-(A)dS black hole accelerated by a pulling string.
Killing spinors as a characterisation of rotating black hole spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, Michael J.; Valiente Kroon, Juan A.
2016-06-01
We investigate the implications of the existence of Killing spinors in a spacetime. In particular, we show that in vacuum and electrovacuum a Killing spinor, along with some assumptions on the associated Killing vector in an asymptotic region, guarantees that the spacetime is locally isometric to the Kerr or Kerr-Newman solutions. We show that the characterisation of these spacetimes in terms of Killing spinors is an alternative expression of characterisation results of Mars (Kerr) and Wong (Kerr-Newman) involving restrictions on the Weyl curvature and matter content.
Shadows (Mirages) Around Black Holes and Retro Gravitational Lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, A. F.; Nucita, A. A.; Depaolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.
Recently Holz & Wheeler [1] considered a very attracting possibility to detect retro-MACHOs, i.e. retro-images of the Sun by a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper we discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages (a detailed description of the problem is given in [2]). In some sense that is a manifestation of gravitational lens effect in the strong gravitational field near black hole horizon and a generalization of the retro-gravitational lens phenomenon. We analyze the case of a Kerr black hole rotating at arbitrary speed for some selected positions of a distant observer with respect to the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. Some time ago Falcke, Melia & Agol [3] suggested to search shadows at the Galactic Center. In this paper we present the boundaries for shadows calculated numerically. We also propose to use future radio interferometer RADIOASTRON facilities to measure shapes of mirages (glories) and to evaluate the black hole spin as a function of the position angle of a distant observer.
Rotatable seal assembly. [Patent application; rotating targets
Logan, C.M.; Garibaldi, J.L.
1980-11-12
An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, Glyn O.
1991-01-01
Undesired gravitational effects such as convection or sedimentation in a fluid can sometimes be avoided or decreased by the use of a closed chamber uniformly rotated about a horizontal axis. In a previous study, the spiral orbits of a heavy or buoyant particle in a uniformly rotating fluid were determined. The particles move in circles, and spiral in or out under the combined effects of the centrifugal force and centrifugal buoyancy. A optimization problem for the rotation rate of a cylindrical reactor rotated about its axis and containing distributed particles was formulated and solved. Related studies in several areas are addressed. A computer program based on the analysis was upgraded by correcting some minor errors, adding a sophisticated screen-and-printer graphics capability and other output options, and by improving the automation. The design, performance, and analysis of a series of experiments with monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres in water were supported to test the theory and its limitations. The theory was amply confirmed at high rotation rates. However, at low rotation rates (1 rpm or less) the assumption of uniform solid-body rotation of the fluid became invalid, and there were increasingly strong secondary motions driven by variations in the mean fluid density due to variations in the particle concentration. In these tests the increase in the mean fluid density due to the particles was of order 0.015 percent. To a first approximation, these flows are driven by the buoyancy in a thin crescent-shaped depleted layer on the descending side of the rotating reactor. This buoyancy distribution is balanced by viscosity near the walls, and by the Coriolis force in the interior. A full analysis is beyond the scope of this study. Secondary flows are likely to be stronger for buoyant particles, which spiral in towards the neutral point near the rotation axis under the influence of their centrifugal buoyancy. This is because the depleted layer is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha
2014-05-01
We derive a shortcut stationary metric formula for generating imperfect fluid rotating solutions, in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates, from spherically symmetric static ones. We explore the properties of the curvature scalar and stress-energy tensor for all types of rotating regular solutions we can generate without restricting ourselves to specific examples of regular solutions (regular black holes or wormholes). We show through examples how it is generally possible to generate an imperfect fluid regular rotating solution via radial coordinate transformations. We derive rotating wormholes that are modeled as imperfect fluids and discuss their physical properties. These are independent on the way the stress-energy tensor is interpreted. A solution modeling an imperfect fluid rotating loop black hole is briefly discussed. We then specialize to the recently discussed stable exotic dust Ellis wormhole as emerged in a source-free radial electric or magnetic field, and we generate its, conjecturally stable, rotating counterpart. This turns out to be an exotic imperfect fluid wormhole, and we determine the stress-energy tensor of both the imperfect fluid and the electric or magnetic field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Binzel, R. P.; Green, J. R.; Opal, C. B.
1986-01-01
Thomas et al. (1984) analyzed 14 Voyager 2 images of Saturn's satellite Hyperion and interpreted them to be consistent with a coherent (nonchaotic) rotation period of 13.1 days. This interpretation was criticized by Peale and Wisdom (1984), who argued that the low sampling frequency of Voyager data does not allow chaotic or nonchaotic rotation to be distinguished. New observations obtained with a higher sampling frequency are reported here which conclusively show that the 13.1 day period found by Thomas et al. was not due to coherent rotation.
1993-08-01
desirability of a rotation as a function of the set of planar angles. Criteria for the symmetry of the design (such as the same set of factor levels for...P is -1. Hence there is no theoretical problem in obtaining rotations of a design; there are only the practical questions Why rotate a design? And...star points, which can be represented in a shorthand notation by the permutations of (±1,0, "’" , 0), and (c) factorial points, which are a two- level
Global embeddings and hydrodynamic properties of Kerr black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Soon-Tae
2016-10-01
In the presence of a rotating Kerr black hole, we investigate hydrodynamics of the massive particles and massless photons to construct relations among number density, pressure and internal energy density of the massive particles and photons around the rotating Kerr black hole and to study an accretion onto the black hole. On equatorial plane of the Kerr black hole, we investigate the bound orbits of the massive particles and photons around the black hole to produce their radial, azimuthal and precession frequencies. With these frequencies, we study the black holes GRO J1655-40 and 4U 1543-47 to explicitly obtain the radial, azimuthal and precession frequencies of the massive particles in the flow of perfect fluid. We next consider the massive particles in the stable circular orbit of radius of 1.0 ly around the supernovas SN 1979C, SN 1987A and SN 2213-1745 in the Kerr curved spacetime, and around the potential supermassive Schwarzschild black holes M87, NGC 3115, NGC 4594, NGC 3377, NGC 4258, M31, M32 and Galatic center, to estimate their radial and azimuthal frequencies, which are shown to be the same results as those in no precession motion. The photon unstable orbit is also discussed in terms of the impact parameter of the photon trajectory. Finally, on the equatorial plane of the Kerr black hole, we construct the global flat embedding structures possessing (9 + 3) dimensionalities outside and inside the event horizon of the rotating Kerr black hole. Moreover, on the plane, we investigate the warp products of the Kerr spacetime.
Self stimulated particles generation by black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaina, Alex
2005-10-01
The Ideea of Black Holes Bomb was one of the most intriguing in the gravitational physics. Bohr was the first who quantized the levels of an atom. Subsequently his disciple J. A. Wheeler (1971) quantized the mass spin 0 and 1/2 levels near a black hole, described by a Schwarzschild metric. It is strange, but after this work the interest was drawn to Kerr black holes, due to discovery of particles generation by Ya. B. Zel'dovich and Ch. Misner in 1972. As a result, the ideea of a Black Holes bomb was announced by W.H. Press and S. Teukolsky in 1972. L.Ford (1975) observed, that test particles mass plays a role of a mirror, which could develope an instability. That ideea was independently discussed by Deruelle and Ruffini (1974) and Damour, Deruelle and Rufffini (1976), using WKB approach, while the analytic treatment of the bound levels problem in Kerr field for microscopically small black holes and mass particles was given by Ternov, Khalilov, Chizhov and Gaina (1978) and A. Vilenkin (1978) for a Kerr black hole inside a mirror. Once a particle could be localized on a bound level near a non-rotating (Schwarzschild ) black hole, due to stimulation, it will induces generation of another particles with the same quantum numbers (on the same level). This process will be a self-stimulated generation of particles, which was discussed in the literature by R. Wald and J. York, Jr. The accumulatiion of bosons on the bound levels, particularly on the s-bound level, will be exponentially fast for microscopically small black holes and will lead to a true instablity of Schwarzschild black holes. This is valid for bosons only, since the Fermi-Dirac statistics interdicts the accumulation of more than two particles with oposite spin. As a result the Black Holes mass will be limited M>= 8"pi"/5 x (M(pl))^2/m , where m is the scalar particles minimal rest mass, existing in nature, since the maximal growing rate for the instability is occuring for mM=8"pi"/5(M(pl))^2. If photon have a
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregory, T. J.
1977-01-01
Apparatus holds remotely piloted arm that accelerates until launching speed is reached. Then vehicle and counterweight at other end of arm are released simultaneously to avoid structural damage from unbalanced rotating forces.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1981-01-01
Discusses theory of the rotating mirror, its use in measuring the velocity of the electrical signal in wires, and the velocity of light. Concludes with a description of the manometric flame apparatus developed for analyzing sound waves. (SK)
... cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ... cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the ...
Miller RH III, Azar FM, Throckmorton TW. Shoulder and elbow injuries. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. ... Krishnan SG. Rotator cuff and impingement lesions. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ...
Rotator cuff repair - slideshow
... presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...
Gamma -bursts by primordial Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaina, Alex
Gamma-burts may arise as a result of quantum generation of photons (as well as neutrinos, gravitons, electrons) by Primordial Black Holes (PBH's) of mass 5-7 x 10^14 g (Hawking: Nature, Volume 248, Issue 5443, pp. 30-31, 1974,Communications in Mathematical Physics, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp.199-220; Page:Particle emission rates from a black hole: Massless particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole, Phys. Rev. D 13, 198, 1976,Physical Review D - Particles and Fields, 3rd Series, vol. 14, Dec. 15, 1976, p. 3260-327, Particle emission rates from a black hole. III. Charged leptons from a nonrotating hole Phys. Rev. D 16, 2402 Published 15 October 1977; Jane Mac Gibbon, Quark- and gluon-jet emission from primordial black holes. II. The emission over the black-hole lifetime Phys. Rev. D 44, 376 - Published 15 July 1991, J.H. MacGibbon & B.J. Carr,Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, vol. 371, April 20, 1991, p. 447-469 ). Another way of the Gamma-rays production by highly rotating PBH's results from the bomb-like accumulation of mass bosons on superradiative bound levels, which I have called Bose instability in Black Holes (Ternov et al.Soviet Physics Journal, Volume 21, Issue 9, pp.1200-1204 1978; Detweiler: Physical Review D (Particles and Fields), Volume 22, Issue 10, 15 November 1980, pp.2323-2326 1980; Gaina and Ternov: Soviet Astronomy Letters, vol. 12, Nov.-Dec. 1986, p. 394-396; Gaina: Soviet Astronomy Letters, Vol.15, NO.3/MAY,JUN, P. 243, 1989,Astronomical and Astrophysical Transactions, vol. 10, Issue 2, pp.111-112, 1996,Bulletin Astronomique de Belgrade, No. 153, p. 29 - 34 ). The only type of black Holes which is still undiscovered is just the primordial Black Holes type. Is this a technical problem related wuith the sensitivity of Gamma-detectors or this is rather a problem of unfinalized of the quantum mechanical treatment of the Black Holes evaporation? Is this a problem related with inexactitudes of measurements of the Hubble constant or the primordial black
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Jakob; Yeom, Dong-han
2014-10-01
We investigate gravitational collapses of charged black holes in string-inspired gravity models, including dilaton gravity and braneworld model, as well as f( R) gravity and the ghost limit. If we turn on gauge coupling, the causal structures and the responses of the Brans-Dicke field depend on the coupling between the charged matter and the BransDicke field. For Type IIA inspired models, a Cauchy horizon exists, while there is no Cauchy horizon for Type I or Heterotic inspired models. For Type IIA inspired models, the no-hair theorem is satisfied asymptotically, while it is biased to the weak coupling limit for Type I or Heterotic inspired models. Apart from string theory, we find that in the ghost limit, a gravitational collapse can induce inflation by itself and create one-way traversable wormholes without the need of other special initial conditions.
Crusher, R H
2000-07-01
Different types of rotator cuff injuries frequently present to Accident and Emergency departments and minor injury units but can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This brief case study describes the examination and diagnosis of related shoulder injuries, specifically rotator cuff tears/disruption and calcifying supraspinatus tendinitis. The relevant anatomy and current therapies for these injuries is also discussed to enable the emergency nurse practitioner to have a greater understanding of the theory surrounding their diagnosis and treatments.
Hunter, Steven L.
2002-01-01
A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.
Rotational spectrum of phenylglycinol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simão, Alcides; Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L.
2014-11-01
Solid samples of phenylglycinol were vaporized by laser ablation and investigated through rotational spectroscopy in a supersonic expansion using two different techniques: chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and narrow band molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. One conformer, bearing an O-H···N and an N-H···π intramolecular hydrogen bonds, could be successfully identified by comparison of the experimental rotational and 14N nuclear quadruple coupling constants with those predicted theoretically.
Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi
2003-05-27
A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.
Instability in Rotating Machinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1985-01-01
The proceedings contain 45 papers on a wide range of subjects including flow generated instabilities in fluid flow machines, cracked shaft detection, case histories of instability phenomena in compressors, turbines, and pumps, vibration control in turbomachinery (including antiswirl techniques), and the simulation and estimation of destabilizing forces in rotating machines. The symposium was held to serve as an update on the understanding and control of rotating machinery instability problems.
Electromagnetic rotational actuation.
Hogan, Alexander Lee
2010-08-01
There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.
Modification of the phase structure of black D6 branes in a canonical ensemble and its origin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, J. X.; Ouyang, Jun; Roy, Shibaji
2014-09-01
It is well known that charged black Dp branes of type II string theory share a universal phase structure of van der Waals-Maxwell liquid-gas type except D5 and D6 branes. Interestingly, the phase structure of D5 and D6 branes can be changed to the universal form with the inclusion of particular delocalized charged lower-dimensional branes. For D5 branes, one needs to introduce delocalized D1 branes, and for D6 branes, one needs to introduce delocalized D0 branes to obtain the universal structure. In a previous paper [J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2013) 100], Lu with Wei study the phase structure of black D6 branes with the introduction of delocalized D0 branes in a special case when their charges are equal and the dilaton charge vanishes. In this paper, we look at the phase structure of the black D6/D0 system with the generic values of the parameters, which makes the analysis more involved but the structure more rich. We also provide reasons why the respective modifications of the phase structures to the universal form for the black D5 and D6 branes occur when specific delocalized lower-dimensional branes are introduced.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, A. R. Hight; Suenram, R. D.; Samuels, Alan; Jensen, James; Ellzy, Michael W.; Lochner, J. Michael; Zeroka, Daniel
2001-05-01
As part of an effort to examine the possibility of using molecular-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy to unambiguously detect and monitor chemical warfare agents, we report the first observation and assignment of the rotational spectrum of the nerve agent Sarin (GB) (Methylphosphonofluoridic acid 1-methyl-ethyl ester, CAS #107-44-8) at frequencies between 10 and 22 GHz. Only one of the two low-energy conformers of this organophosphorus compound (C4H10FO2P) was observed in the rotationally cold (Trot<2 K) molecular beam. The experimental asymmetric-rotor ground-state rotational constants of this conformer are A=2874.0710(9) MHz, B=1168.5776(4) MHz, C=1056.3363(4) MHz (Type A standard uncertainties are given, i.e., 1σ), as obtained from a least-squares analysis of 74 a-, b-, and c-type rotational transitions. Several of the transitions are split into doublets due to the internal rotation of the methyl group attached to the phosphorus. The three-fold-symmetry barrier to internal rotation estimated from these splittings is 677.0(4) cm-1. Ab initio electronic structure calculations using Hartree-Fock, density functional, and Moller-Plesset perturbation theories have also been made. The structure of the lowest-energy conformer determined from a structural optimization at the MP2/6-311G** level of theory is consistent with our experimental findings.
In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke
2009-07-01
Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.
... when someone eats pieces of the black nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... Found Poisons are found in the black nightshade plant, especially in the unripened fruit and leaves. Symptoms ...
Smooth Horizonless Geometries Deep Inside the Black-Hole Regime.
Bena, Iosif; Giusto, Stefano; Martinec, Emil J; Russo, Rodolfo; Shigemori, Masaki; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P
2016-11-11
We construct the first family of horizonless supergravity solutions that have the same mass, charges, and angular momenta as general supersymmetric rotating D1-D5-P black holes in five dimensions. This family includes solutions with arbitrarily small angular momenta, deep within the regime of quantum numbers and couplings for which a large classical black hole exists. These geometries are well approximated by the black-hole solution, and in particular exhibit the same near-horizon throat. Deep in this throat, the black-hole singularity is resolved into a smooth cap. We also identify the holographically dual states in the N=(4,4) D1-D5 orbifold conformal field theory (CFT). Our solutions are among the states counted by the CFT elliptic genus, and provide examples of smooth microstate geometries within the ensemble of supersymmetric black-hole microstates.
Analytic treatment of the black-hole bomb
Hod, Shahar; Hod, Oded
2010-03-15
A bosonic field impinging on a rotating black hole can be amplified as it scatters off the hole, a phenomenon known as superradiant scattering. If in addition the field has a nonzero rest mass {mu}, the mass term effectively works as a mirror, reflecting the scattered wave back towards the black hole. In this physical system, known as a black-hole bomb, the wave may bounce back and forth between the black hole and some turning point, amplifying itself each time. Consequently, the field grows exponentially over time and is unstable. In this paper we study analytically for the first time the phenomenon of superradiant instability (the black-hole bomb mechanism) in the regime M{mu}=O(1) of greatest instability. We find a maximal instability growth rate of {tau}{sup -1}=1.7x10{sup -3}M{sup -1}. This instability is 4 orders of magnitude stronger than has been previously estimated.
Black hole microstates in anti-de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaghoulian, Edgar
2016-11-01
We extend a recently derived higher-dimensional Cardy formula to include angular momenta, which we use to obtain the Bekensten-Hawking entropy of anti-de Sitter black branes, compactified rotating branes, and large Schwarzschild/Kerr black holes. This is the natural generalization of Strominger's microscopic derivation of the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole entropy to higher dimensions. We propose an extension to include U (1 ) charge, which agrees with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of large Reissner-Nordstrom/Kerr-Newman black holes at high temperature. We extend the results to an arbitrary hyperscaling-violation exponent (this captures the case of black D p -branes as a subclass) and reproduce logarithmic corrections.
Smooth Horizonless Geometries Deep Inside the Black-Hole Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bena, Iosif; Giusto, Stefano; Martinec, Emil J.; Russo, Rodolfo; Shigemori, Masaki; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.
2016-11-01
We construct the first family of horizonless supergravity solutions that have the same mass, charges, and angular momenta as general supersymmetric rotating D 1 -D 5 -P black holes in five dimensions. This family includes solutions with arbitrarily small angular momenta, deep within the regime of quantum numbers and couplings for which a large classical black hole exists. These geometries are well approximated by the black-hole solution, and in particular exhibit the same near-horizon throat. Deep in this throat, the black-hole singularity is resolved into a smooth cap. We also identify the holographically dual states in the N =(4 ,4 ) D 1 -D 5 orbifold conformal field theory (CFT). Our solutions are among the states counted by the CFT elliptic genus, and provide examples of smooth microstate geometries within the ensemble of supersymmetric black-hole microstates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Israel, Werner
This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fendrich, James; Pearson, Michael
1970-01-01
This is a survey study of black veterans' attitudes toward white authorities, the "law and order controversy, racial separatism, violence, and black identification. Results of the survey are held to suggest that alienation will move a substantial proportion of these veterans into the black radical movement. (KG)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adams, Russell L.
1977-01-01
Discusses the proposition that the black studies movement is but a continuing aspect of our general battle for survival and liberation in a fluctuatingly hostile environment, and that a part of what is seen today in the black studies movement is but a fluctuation in a fight and an expression of black collective awareness dating back to the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Browne, Juanita M.
The Black woman has been the transmitter of culture in the black community. Two of the important roles of African women were perpetuated during slavery and continue until today. They are her role in economic endeavor and her close bond with her children. The woman in African society was additionally politically significant. The black woman has…
Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines
Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.
1978-01-01
This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.
Deformations of anti-de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Detournay, Stephane
2006-11-01
This PhD thesis mainly deals with deformations of locally anti-de Sitter black holes, focusing in particular on BTZ black holes. We first study the generic rotating and (extended) non-rotating BTZ black holes within a pseudo-Riemannian symmetric spaces framework, emphasize on the role played by solvable subgroups of SL(2,R) in the black hole structure and derive their global geometry in a group-theoretical way. We analyse how these observations are transposed in the case of higher-dimensional locally AdS black holes. We then show that there exists, in SL(2,R), a family of twisted conjugacy classes which give rise to winding symmetric WZW D1-branes in a BTZ black hole background. The term "deformation" is then considered in two distinct ways. On the one hand, we deform the algebra of functions on the branes in the sense of (strict) deformation quantization, giving rise to a "noncommutative black hole". In the same context, we investigate the question of invariant deformations of the hyperbolic plane and present explicit formulae. On the other hand, we explore the moduli space of the (orbifolded) SL(2,R) WZW model by studying its marginal deformations, yielding namely a new class of exact black string solutions in string theory. These deformations also allow us to relate the D1-branes in BTZ black holes to D0-branes in the 2D black hole. A fair proportion of this thesis consists of (hopefully) pedagogical short introductions to various subjects: deformation quantization, string theory, WZW models, symmetric spaces, symplectic and Poisson geometry.
N = 8 BPS black holes preserving 1/8 supersymmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertolini, M.; Frè, P.; Trigiante, M.
1999-05-01
In the context of N = 8 supergravity we consider BPS black holes that preserve 1/8 supersymmetry. It was shown in a previous paper that, modulo U-duality transformations of E7(7), the most general solution of this type can be reduced to a black hole of the STU model. In this paper we analyse this solution in detail, considering in particular its embedding in one of the possible special Kähler manifolds compatible with the consistent truncations to N = 2 supergravity, this manifold being the moduli space of the T6/icons/Journals/Common/BbbZ" ALT="BbbZ" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/>3 orbifold, that is SU(3,3)/SU(3) × U(3). This construction requires a crucial use of the solvable Lie algebra formalism. Once the group-theoretical analysis is done, starting from a static, spherically symmetric ansatz, we find an exact solution for all the scalars (both dilaton- and axion-like) and for gauge fields, together with their already known charge-dependent fixed values, which yield a U-duality-invariant entropy. We also give a complete translation dictionary between the solvable Lie algebra and the special Kähler formalisms in order to allow a more immediate comparison with other papers on similar issues. Although the explicit solution is given in a simplified case where the equations turn out to be more manageable, it encodes all the features of the more general one, namely it has non-vanishing entropy and the scalar fields have a non-trivial radial dependence.
Hamiltonian formalism for Perturbed Black Hole Spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mihaylov, Deyan; Gair, Jonathan
2017-01-01
Present and future gravitational wave observations provide a new mechanism to probe the predictions of general relativity. Observations of extreme mass ratio inspirals with millihertz gravitational wave detectors such as LISA will provide exquisite constraints on the spacetime structure outside astrophysical black holes, enabling tests of the no-hair property that all general relativistic black holes are described by the Kerr metric. Previous work to understand what constraints LISA observations will be able to place has focussed on specific alternative theories of gravity, or generic deviations that preserve geodesic separability. We describe an alternative approach to this problem--a technique that employs canonical perturbations of the Hamiltonian function describing motion in the Kerr metric. We derive this new approach and demonstrate its application to the cases of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole which is viewed as a perturbation of a Schwarzschild black hole, of coupled perturbations of black holes in the second-order Chern-Simons modified gravity theory, and several more indicative scenarios. Deyan Mihaylov is funded by STFC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel
2016-03-01
Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.
Fiske, Susan T.; Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Russell, Ann Marie; Williams, Lyle
2013-01-01
Images of Black Americans are becoming remarkably diverse, enabling Barack Obama to defy simple-minded stereotypes and succeed. Understood through the Stereotype Content Model’s demonstrably fundamental trait dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, images of Black Americans show three relevant patterns. Stereotyping by omission allows non-Blacks to accentuate the positive, excluding any lingering negativity but implying it by its absence; specifically, describing Black Americans as gregarious and passionate suggests warmth but ignores competence and implies its lack. Obama’s credentials prevented him from being cast as incompetent, though the experience debate continued. His legendary calm and passionate charisma saved him on the warmth dimension. Social class subtypes for Black Americans differentiate dramatically between low-income Blacks and Black professionals, among both non-Black and Black samples. Obama clearly fit the moderately warm, highly competent Black-professional subtype. Finally, the campaign’s events (and nonevents) allowed voter habituation to overcome non-Blacks’ automatic emotional vigilance to Black Americans. PMID:24235974
Space telescope searches for black holes in galactic nuclei
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harms, Richard J.
1989-01-01
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will allow astronomers to obtain luminosity profiles, rotation curves, and velocity dispersions at angular scales that are an order of magnitude superior to those obtained previously. This enhanced spatial resolution will greatly improve the sensitivity for detecting centrally condensed matter in nearby galactic nuclei including, possibly, black holes.
Magnetic Field Roles in Black-Holes Accretion Disk's Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbassi, S.; Samadi, M.
2016-09-01
We study several factors which play remarkable roles in vertical structure and dynamics of hot accretion flows around black holes. These factors are large-scale magnetic field, thermal conduction, outflow and self-gravity. We consider an axisymmetric, rotating, steady viscous-resistive hot accretion flows.
STRUCTURE OF UNIFORMLY ROTATING STARS
Deupree, Robert G.
2011-07-10
Zero-age main-sequence models of uniformly rotating stars have been computed for 10 masses between 1.625 and 8 M{sub sun} and for 21 rotation rates from zero to nearly critical rotation. The surface shape is used to distinguish rotation rather than the surface equatorial velocity or the rotation rate. Using the surface shape is close, but not quite equivalent, to using the ratio of the rotation rate to the critical rotation rate. Using constant shape as the rotation variable means that it and the mass are separable, something that is not true for either the rotation rate or surface equatorial velocity. Thus, a number of properties, including the ratio of the effective temperature anywhere on the surface to the equatorial temperature, are nearly independent of the mass of the model, as long as the rotation rate changes in such a way as to keep the surface shape constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
The following topics were dealt with: general relativity, statistical mechanics, quantum fields in accelerated frames, exact radiative spacetimes, 2+1 dimensional black holes, numerical relativity, dilatonic cosmic string models, the null condition and asymptotic expansions for Einstein's equations, strings and black holes, cosmological constant, cosmic microwave background anisotropies, quantum gravity, asymptotic quantity calculation, gravitational waves, gravitational fields of rotating disks and black holes, rotational bodies as boundary value problems, gravitational wave astronomy, rotating perfect fluid models, binary black-hole dynamics, giant arc statistics.
A mystery of black-hole gravitational resonances
Hod, Shahar
2016-08-30
More than three decades ago, Detweiler provided an analytical formula for the gravitational resonant frequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes. In the present work we shall discuss an important discrepancy between the famous analytical prediction of Detweiler and the recent numerical results of Zimmerman et al. In addition, we shall refute the claim that recently appeared in the physics literature that the Detweiler-Teukolsky-Press resonance equation for the characteristic gravitational eigenfrequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes is not valid in the regime of damped quasinormal resonances with ℑω/T{sub BH}≫1 (here ω and T{sub BH} are respectively the characteristic quasinormal resonant frequency of the Kerr black hole and its Bekenstein-Hawking temperature). The main goal of the present paper is to highlight and expose this important black-hole quasinormal mystery (that is, the intriguing discrepancy between the analytical and numerical results regarding the gravitational quasinormal resonance spectra of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes).
A mystery of black-hole gravitational resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hod, Shahar
2016-08-01
More than three decades ago, Detweiler provided an analytical formula for the gravitational resonant frequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes. In the present work we shall discuss an important discrepancy between the famous analytical prediction of Detweiler and the recent numerical results of Zimmerman et al. In addition, we shall refute the claim that recently appeared in the physics literature that the Detweiler-Teukolsky-Press resonance equation for the characteristic gravitational eigenfrequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes is not valid in the regime of damped quasinormal resonances with Im ω/TBH gg 1 (here ω and TBH are respectively the characteristic quasinormal resonant frequency of the Kerr black hole and its Bekenstein-Hawking temperature). The main goal of the present paper is to highlight and expose this important black-hole quasinormal mystery (that is, the intriguing discrepancy between the analytical and numerical results regarding the gravitational quasinormal resonance spectra of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes).
Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.
2005-01-18
A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.
Chiral rotational spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cameron, Robert P.; Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.
2016-09-01
We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy, a technique that enables the determination of the orientated optical activity pseudotensor components BX X, BY Y, and BZ Z of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample and provides an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral solely by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centers. A basic design for a chiral rotational spectrometer together with a model of its functionality is given. Our proposed technique offers the more familiar polarizability components αX X, αY Y, and αZ Z as by-products, which could see it find use even for achiral molecules.
"Iron-Clad" Evidence For Spinning Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2003-09-01
competing explanations that do not require extreme gravitational effects, and provide the best look yet at the geometry of the space-time around a stellar black hole created by the death of a massive star." The orbit of a particle near a black hole depends on the curvature of space around the black hole, which also depends on how fast the black hole is spinning. A spinning black hole drags space around with it and allows atoms to orbit closer to the black hole than is possible for a non-spinning black hole. The latest Chandra data from Cygnus X-1, the first stellar-size black hole discovered, show that the gravitational effects on the signal from the iron atoms can only be due to relativistic effects, and that some of the atoms are no closer than 100 miles to the black hole. There was no evidence that the Cygnus X-1 black hole is spinning. The XMM-Newton data from the black hole, XTE J1650-500, show a very similar distribution of iron atom X-rays with one important exception. More low energy X-rays from iron atoms are observed, an indication that some X-rays are coming from deep in the gravitational well around the black hole, as close as 20 miles to the black hole event horizon. This black hole must be spinning rapidly. Chandra observations of a third stellar black hole, GX 339-4, have revealed that it is also spinning rapidly, and clouds of warm absorbing gas appear to be flowing away from the black hole at speeds of about three hundred thousand miles per hour. Such warm gas flows have been observed in the vicinity of supermassive black holes. Previous observations of some supermassive black holes by Japan's ASCA satellite, XMM-Newton and Chandra have indicated that they may also be rotating rapidly. The latest results presented by Miller indicate that the peculiar geometry of space around spinning stellar-mass black holes and supermassive black holes is remarkably similar. Stellar and supermassive black holes may be similar in other ways. Powerful jets of high
On uniqueness of charged Kerr AdS black holes in five dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madden, Owen; Ross, Simon F.
2005-02-01
We show that the solutions describing charged rotating black holes in five-dimensional-gauged supergravities found recently by Cvetic, Lü and Pope (2004 Charged Kerr de Sitter black holes in five dimensions Phys. Lett. B 598 273, 2004 Charged rotating black holes in five dimensional U(1)3 gauged N = 2 supergravity Phys. Rev. D 70 081502) are completely specified by the mass, charges and angular momentum. The additional parameter appearing in these solutions is removed by a coordinate transformation and redefinition of parameters. Thus, the apparent hair in these solutions is unphysical.
Lattice QCD in rotating frames.
Yamamoto, Arata; Hirono, Yuji
2013-08-23
We formulate lattice QCD in rotating frames to study the physics of QCD matter under rotation. We construct the lattice QCD action with the rotational metric and apply it to the Monte Carlo simulation. As the first application, we calculate the angular momenta of gluons and quarks in the rotating QCD vacuum. This new framework is useful to analyze various rotation-related phenomena in QCD.
GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE
Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood
2015-09-10
Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.
Rotating bubble membrane radiator
Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.
1988-12-06
A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.
Pepper, W.B.
1984-05-09
A rotating parachute for decelerating objects travelling through atmosphere at subsonic or supersonic deployment speeds includes a circular canopy having a plurality of circumferentially arranged flexible panels projecting radially from a solid central disk. A slot extends radially between adjacent panels to the outer periphery of the canopy. Upon deployment, the solid disk diverts air radially to rapidly inflate the panels into a position of maximum diameter. Air impinging on the panels adjacent the panel slots rotates the parachute during its descent. Centrifugal force flattens the canopy into a constant maximum diameter during terminal descent for maximum drag and deceleration.
Three-hair relations for rotating stars: Nonrelativistic limit
Stein, Leo C.; Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás
2014-06-10
The gravitational field outside of astrophysical black holes is completely described by their mass and spin frequency, as expressed by the no-hair theorems. These theorems assume vacuum spacetimes, and thus they apply only to black holes and not to stars. Despite this, we analytically find that the gravitational potential of arbitrarily rapid, rigidly rotating stars can still be described completely by only their mass, spin angular momentum, and quadrupole moment. Although these results are obtained in the nonrelativistic limit (to leading order in a weak-field expansion of general relativity, GR), they are also consistent with fully relativistic numerical calculations of rotating neutron stars. This description of the gravitational potential outside the source in terms of just three quantities is approximately universal (independent of equation of state). Such universality may be used to break degeneracies in pulsar and future gravitational wave observations to extract more physics and test GR in the strong-field regime.
Where do Accretion Disks Around Black Holes End?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asmus, D.; Duschl, W. J.
2010-10-01
Accretion disks around (supermassive) black holes act as "machines" which extract gravitational energy. In fact, the observed radiation allows to sample the physical conditions very close to the event horizon. For a test particle, the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) is located at 3 rS for a non-rotating hole (Schwarzschild metrics; at smaller radii for a rotating black hole). This ISCO is usually identified with the inner edge of the accretion disk. For a given black hole mass, it allows, in principle, to determine the Kerr parameter. In "real life," however, we deal not with test particles but with a viscous flow, which introduces additional forces. We have calculated the location of the inner edge in a more realistic environment. The results show that the true inner edge of the disk is no longer located at the ISCO, when radial advection of energy is taken into account with a careful treatment of the transonic nature of the flow.
Codimension-2 Brane Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamorano, Nelson; Arias, Cesar; Ordenes, Ariel; Guzman, Francisco
2012-03-01
We analyze the geometry associated to a six dimensional solution of the Einstein's equations. It describes a Schwarzschild de-Sitter black hole on a 3-brane, surrounded by a two dimensional compact bulk. A four dimensional effective cosmological constant and a Planck mass are matched to their six dimensional counterpart. Deviation from Newton's law are computed in both of the solutions found. To learn about the geometry of the bulk, we study the geodesics in this sector. At least, in our opinion, there are some features of these solutions that makes worth to pursue this analysis. The singularity associated to the warped bulk is controlled by the mass M of the black hole. It vanishes if we set M=0. In the same context, it makes an interesting problem to study the Gregory-Laflamme instability in this context [1]. Another feature is the rugby ball type of geometry exhibited by these solutions [2]. They end up in two conical singularities at its respective poles. The branes are located precisely at the poles. Besides, a Wick's rotation generates a connection between different solutions. [4pt] [1] R. Gregory and R. Laflamme, Phys. Rev Lett., 70,2837 (1993)[0pt] [2] S. M. Carroll and M. M. Guica, arXiv:hep-th/0302067
Kerr-Newman-AdS black hole in quintessential dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zhaoyi; Wang, Jiancheng
2017-03-01
Quintessential dark energy with pressure p and density ρ is related by equation of state p =ω ρ with the state parameter -1 <ω <-1 /3 . The cosmological dark energy influence on black hole spacetime is interesting and important. In this paper, we study the Kerr-Newman-AdS solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equation in quintessence field around a black hole by Newman-Janis algorithm and complex computations. From the horizon structure equation, we obtain the expression between quintessence parameter α and cosmological constant Λ if the black hole exists two cosmological horizon rq and rc when ω =-2 /3 , the result is different from rotational black hole in quintessence matter situation. Through analysis we find that the black hole charge cannot change the value of α . But the black hole spin and cosmological constant are opposite. The black hole spin and cosmological constant make the maximum value of α small. The existence of four horizon leads seven types of extremal black holes to constrain the parameter α . With the state parameter ω ranging from -1 to -1 /3 , the maximum value of α changes from Λ to 1. When ω →-1 , the quintessential dark energy likes cosmological constant. The singularity of the black holes is the same with that of Kerr black hole. We also discuss the rotation velocity of the black holes on the equatorial plane for ω =-2 /3 , -1 /2 and -1 /3 . For small value of α , the rotation velocity on the equatorial plane is asymptotically flat and it can explain the rotation curves in spiral galaxies.
Effect of rotation on a rotating hot-wire sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, C.; Lakshminarayana, B.
1978-01-01
An investigation was conducted to discern the effects of centrifugal and Coriolis forces on a rotating hot-wire. The probe was calibrated in a wind tunnel as well as in a rotating mode. The effect of rotation was found to be negligibly small. A small change in cold resistance (1.5%) was observed in the rotating wire. The rotation seems to have a negligible effect on the fluid mechanics, heat transfer and material characteristics of the wire. This is a significant conclusion in view of the potential application of the hot-wire probe in a rotating passage (such as turbomachinery).
Compact rotating cup anemometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wellman, J. B.
1968-01-01
Compact, collapsible rotating cup anemometer is used in remote locations where portability and durability are factors in the choice of equipment. This lightweight instrument has a low wind-velocity threshold, is capable of withstanding large mechanical shocks while in its stowed configuration, and has fast response to wind fluctuations.
Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.
1991-01-01
Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hogg, Loretta A.
1980-01-01
Described is a science classroom program with centralized materials, and assistance and workshops for teachers. Classroom materials on one of five topics rotate every six weeks among five schools. Teachers plan specific units to match the arrival of the materials in their schools. (Author/DS)
Rotational Dynamics with Tracker
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eadkhong, T.; Rajsadorn, R.; Jannual, P.; Danworaphong, S.
2012-01-01
We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia ("I") of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction ("b") for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive…
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Crop rotations have been a part of civilization since the Middle Ages. With colonization of what would become the United States came new crops of tobacco, cotton, and corn, the first two of which would play significant roles in both the economic beginnings and social fabric of the new country, how ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Povall, Timothy; McBride, Andrew; Govender, Indresan
2015-11-01
An anisotropic relationship between the stress and the strain rate has been observed in two-dimensional simulations of rotating drums. The objective of this work is to investigate the structure of the constitutive relation using three-dimensional discrete-element-method simulations of a rotating drum containing identical rigid spheres for a range of rotational speeds. Anisotropy is quantified from the alignment of the stress and strain rate tensors, with the strain rate computed using a least-squares fit. It is shown that in certain regions there is a strong anisotropic relationship, regardless of the speed of rotation. The effective friction coefficient is examined in order to determine the phase space in which the μ (I) rheology is valid. Lastly, a depth-averaged approach through the flowing layer is employed to determine the relationship between the velocity tangential to the equilibrium surface and the height of the flowing layer. A power-law relationship that approaches linear at high speeds is observed. Supported by NRF/DST Scarce Skills (South Africa).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rueckner, Wolfgang; And Others
1995-01-01
Describes a demonstration in which a ball is placed in an unstable position on a saddle shape. The ball becomes stable when it is rotated above some threshold angular velocity. The demonstration is a mechanical analog of confining a particle in a "Paul Trap". (DDR)
Deveney, Joseph E.; Sanderson, Stephen N.
1984-01-01
A valve stem and lock include a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.
Deveney, J.E.; Sanderson, S.N.
1981-10-27
A valve stem and lock is disclosed which includes a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connors, G. Patrick
Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pravec, Petr; Harris, A. W.; Warner, B. D.
2007-05-01
Of nearly 3900 near-Earth asteroids known in June 2006, 325 have got estimated rotation periods. NEAs with sizes down to 10 meters have been sampled. Observed spin distribution shows a major changing point around D=200 m. Larger NEAs show a barrier against spin rates >11 d-1 (period P~2.2 h) that shifts to slower rates with increasing equatorial elongation. The spin barrier is interpreted as a critical spin rate for bodies held together by self-gravitation only, suggesting that NEAs larger than 200 m are mostly strenghtless bodies (i.e., with zero tensile strength), so called `rubble piles'. The barrier disappears at D<200 m where most objects rotate too fast to be held together by self-gravitation only, so a non-zero cohesion is implied in the smaller NEAs. The distribution of NEA spin rates in the `rubble pile' range (D>0.2 km) is non-Maxwellian, suggesting that other mechanisms than just collisions worked there. There is a pile up in front of the barrier (P of 2-3 h). It may be related to a spin up mechanism crowding asteroids to the barrier. An excess of slow rotators is seen at P>30 h. The spin-down mechanism has no clear lower limit on spin rate; periods as long as tens of days occur. Most NEAs appear to be in basic spin states with rotation around the principal axis. Excited rotations are present among and actually dominate in slow rotators with damping timescales >4.5 byr. A few tumblers observed among fast rotating coherent objects consistently appear to be more rigid or younger than the larger, rubble-pile tumblers. An abundant population of binary systems among NEAs has been found. The fraction of binaries among NEAs larger than 0.3 km has been estimated to be 15 +/-4%. Primaries of the binary systems concentrate at fast spin rates (periods 2-3 h) and low amplitudes, i.e., they lie just below the spin barrier. The total angular momentum content in the binary systems suggests that they formed at the critical spin rate, and that little or no angular
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zangeneh, M. Kord; Dehyadegari, A.; Sheykhi, A.; Dehghani, M. H.
2016-03-01
In this paper, we construct a new class of topological black hole Lifshitz solutions in the presence of nonlinear exponential electrodynamics for Einstein-dilaton gravity. We show that the reality of Lifshitz supporting Maxwell matter fields exclude the negative horizon curvature solutions except for the asymptotic AdS case. Calculating the conserved and thermodynamical quantities, we obtain a Smarr type formula for the mass and confirm that thermodynamics first law is satisfied on the black hole horizon. Afterward, we study the thermal stability of our solutions and figure out the effects of different parameters on the stability of solutions under thermal perturbations. Next, we apply the gauge/gravity duality in order to calculate the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy for a three-dimensional hydrodynamic system by using the pole method. Furthermore, we study the behavior of holographic conductivity for two-dimensional systems such as graphene. We consider linear Maxwell and nonlinear exponential electrodynamics separately and disclose the effect of nonlinearity on holographic conductivity. We indicate that holographic conductivity vanishes for z > 3 in the case of nonlinear electrodynamics while it does not in the linear Maxwell case. Finally, we solve perturbative additional field equations numerically and plot the behaviors of real and imaginary parts of conductivity for asymptotic AdS and Lifshitz cases. We present experimental results match with our numerical ones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loeb, Abraham
2007-04-01
Recent data indicates that almost all galaxies possess a supermassive black hole at their center. When gas accretes onto the black hole it heats-up and shines, resulting in the appearance of a bright quasar. The earliest quasars are found to exist only a billion years after the big-bang. I will describe recent observations of both the nearest and the most distant supermassive black holes in the universe. The formation and evolution of the black hole population can be described in the context of popular models for galaxy formation. I will describe the key questions that drive current research on supermassive black holes and present theoretical work on the radiative and hydrodynamic effects that quasars have on their cosmic habitat. Within the coming decade it would be possible to test general relativity by monitoring over time, and possibly even imaging, the polarized emission from hot spots around the black hole in the center of our Galaxy (SgrA*).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Garcia, M.
2003-01-01
The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies. This program facilitates this study by funding related travel, computer equipment, and partial salary for a post-doc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia, M.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)
2004-01-01
The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies. This program facilitate this study by funding related travel, computer equipment, and partial salary for a post-doc.
Making Supermassive Black Holes Spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-12-01
Where does the angular momentum come from that causes supermassive black holes (SMBHs) to spin on their axes and launch powerful jets? A new study of nearby SMBHs may help to answer this question.High-mass SMBHs are thought to form when two galaxies collide and the SMBHs at their centers merge. [NASA/Hubble Heritage Team (STScI)]High- vs. Low-Mass MonstersObservational evidence suggests a dichotomy between low-mass SMBHs (those with 106-7 M) and high-mass ones (those with 108-10 M). High-mass SMBHs are thought to form via the merger of two smaller black holes, and the final black hole is likely spun up by the rotational dynamics of the merger. But what spins up low-mass SMBHs, which are thought to build up very gradually via accretion?A team of scientists led by Jing Wang (National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences) have attempted to address this puzzle by examining the properties of the galaxies hosting low-mass SMBHs.A Sample of Neighboring SMBHsWang and collaborators began by constructing a sample of radio-selected nearby Seyfert 2 galaxies: those galaxies in which the stellar population and morphology of the host galaxy are visible to us, instead of being overwhelmed by continuum emission from the galaxys active nucleus.An example of a galaxy with a concentrated, classical bulge (M87; top) and a one with a disk-like pseudo bulge (Triangulum Galaxy; bottom). The authors find that for galaxies hosting low-mass SMBHs, those with more disk-like bulges appear to have more powerful radio jets. [Top: NASA/Hubble Heritage Team (STScI), Bottom: Hewholooks]From this sample, the authors then selected 31 galaxies that have low-mass SMBHs at their centers, as measured using the surrounding stellar dynamics. Wang and collaborators cataloged radio information revealing properties of the powerful jets launched by the SMBHs, and they analyzed the host galaxies properties by modeling their brightness profiles.Spin-Up From Accreting GasBy examining this
What Black Educators are Saying.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wright, Nathan, Jr., Ed.
Contents of this book are comprised of five groups of articles: Part I. The Black Educator: "Education for black humanism; a way of approaching it," Preston Wilcox; "The new black dimension in our society," Olivia Pearl Stokes; "The black teacher and black Power," Leslie Campbell; and, "The difference," Leslie Campbell. Part II. The White…
Thermodynamics of topological black holes in Brans-Dicke gravity with a power-law Maxwell field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zangeneh, M. Kord; Dehghani, M. H.; Sheykhi, A.
2015-11-01
In this paper, we present a new class of higher-dimensional exact topological black hole solutions of the Brans-Dicke theory in the presence of a power-law Maxwell field as the matter source. For this aim, we introduce a conformal transformation which transforms the Einstein-dilaton-power-law Maxwell gravity Lagrangian to the Brans-Dicke-power-law Maxwell theory one. Then, by using this conformal transformation, we obtain the desired solutions. Next, we study the properties of the solutions and conditions under which we have black holes. Interestingly enough, we show that there is a cosmological horizon in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. Finally, we calculate the temperature and charge and then by calculating the Euclidean action, we obtain the mass, the entropy and the electromagnetic potential energy. We find that the entropy does not respect the area law, and also the conserved and thermodynamic quantities are invariant under conformal transformation. Using these thermodynamic and conserved quantities, we show that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is satisfied on the horizon.
Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors
A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch
2010-02-15
Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Pei-Ming
2017-04-01
Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.
Begelman, Mitchell C
2003-06-20
Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity.
Optimized dynamic rotation with wedges.
Rosen, I I; Morrill, S M; Lane, R G
1992-01-01
Dynamic rotation is a computer-controlled therapy technique utilizing an automated multileaf collimator in which the radiation beam shape changes dynamically as the treatment machine rotates about the patient so that at each instant the beam shape matches the projected shape of the target volume. In simple dynamic rotation, the dose rate remains constant during rotation. For optimized dynamic rotation, the dose rate is varied as a function of gantry angle. Optimum dose rate at each gantry angle is computed by linear programming. Wedges can be included in the optimized dynamic rotation therapy by using additional rotations. Simple and optimized dynamic rotation treatment plans, with and without wedges, for a pancreatic tumor have been compared using optimization cost function values, normal tissue complication probabilities, and positive difference statistic values. For planning purposes, a continuous rotation is approximated by static beams at a number of gantry angles equally spaced about the patient. In theory, the quality of optimized treatment planning solutions should improve as the number of static beams increases. The addition of wedges should further improve dose distributions. For the case studied, no significant improvements were seen for more than 36 beam angles. Open and wedged optimized dynamic rotations were better than simple dynamic rotation, but wedged optimized dynamic rotation showed no definitive improvement over open beam optimized dynamic rotation.
Integrability of particle system around a ring source as the Newtonian limit of a black ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Yoshino, Hirotaka
2015-04-01
The geodesic equation in the five-dimensional singly rotating black ring is nonintegrable, unlike the case of the Myers-Perry black hole. In the Newtonian limit of the black ring, its geodesic equation agrees with the equation of motion of a particle in the Newtonian potential due to a homogeneous ring gravitational source. In this paper, we show that the Newtonian equation of motion allows the separation of variables in the spheroidal coordinates, providing a nontrivial constant of motion quadratic in momenta. This shows that the Newtonian limit of a black ring recovers the symmetry of its geodesic system, and the geodesic chaos is caused by relativistic effects.
Thermodynamic geometry and phase transitions of AdS braneworld black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam
2017-02-01
The thermodynamics and phase transitions of charged RN-AdS and rotating Kerr-AdS black holes in a generalized Randall-Sundrum braneworld are investigated in the framework of thermodynamic geometry. A detailed analysis of the thermodynamics, stability and phase structures in the canonical and the grand canonical ensembles for these AdS braneworld black holes are described. The thermodynamic curvatures for both these AdS braneworld black holes are computed and studied as a function of the thermodynamic variables. Through this analysis we illustrate an interesting dependence of the phase structures on the braneworld parameter for these black holes.
The upper bound of radiation energy in the Myers-Perry black hole collision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon
2016-07-01
We have investigated the upper bound of the radiation energy in the head-on collision of two Myers-Perry black holes. Initially, the two black holes are far away from each other, and they become one black hole after the collision. We have obtained the upper bound of the radiation energy thermodynamically allowed in the process. The upper bound of the radiation energy is obtained in general dimensions. The radiation bound depends on the alignments of rotating axes for a given initial condition due to spin-spin interaction. We have found that the collision may not be occurred for a initially ultra-spinning black hole.
Holography of 3D asymptotically flat black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fareghbal, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Morteza
2015-04-01
We study the asymptotically flat rotating hairy black hole solution of a three-dimensional gravity theory which is given by taking the flat-space limit (zero cosmological constant limit) of new massive gravity. We propose that the dual field theory of the flat-space limit of new massive gravity can be described by a contracted conformal field theory which is invariant under the action of the BMS3 group. Using the flat/contracted conformal field theory correspondence, we construct a stress tensor which yields the conserved charges of the asymptotically flat black hole solution. We check that our expressions of the mass and angular momentum fit with the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Furthermore, by taking the appropriate limit of the Cardy formula in the parent conformal field theory, we find a Cardy-like formula which reproduces the Wald's entropy of the 3D asymptotically flat black hole.
High Frequency QPOs due to Black Hole Spin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kazanas, Demos; Fukumura, K.
2009-01-01
We present detailed computations of photon orbits emitted by flares at the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) of accretion disks around rotating black holes. We show that for sufficiently large spin parameter, i.e. a > 0.94 M, flare a sufficient number of photons arrive at an observer after multiple orbits around the black hole, to produce an "photon echo" of constant lag, i.e. independent of the relative phase between the black hole and the observer, of T approximates 14 M. This constant time delay, then, leads to a power spectrum with a QPO at a frequency nu approximates 1/14M, even for a totally random ensemble of such flares. Observation of such a QPO will provide incontrovertible evidence for the high spin of the black hole and a very accurate, independent, measurement of its mass.
Thermodynamic geometry of black holes in f( R) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soroushfar, Saheb; Saffari, Reza; Kamvar, Negin
2016-09-01
In this paper, we consider three types (static, static charged, and rotating charged) of black holes in f( R) gravity. We study the thermodynamical behavior, stability conditions, and phase transition of these black holes. It is shown that the number and type of phase transition points are related to different parameters, which shows the dependency of the stability conditions to these parameters. Also, we extend our study to different thermodynamic geometry methods (Ruppeiner, Weinhold, and GTD). Next, we investigate the compatibility of curvature scalar of geothermodynamic methods with phase transition points of the above black holes. In addition, we point out the effect of different values of the spacetime parameters on the stability conditions of mentioned black holes.
A New Way to See Inside Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilcomb, Kielan; Overduin, James; Conn Henry, Richard
2016-06-01
Black holes exert great fascination on the public, and are also widely misunderstood in many ways. Some of these misunderstandings result from the coordinate systems that are usually used to illustrate the internal structure of black holes. Any choice of coordinates necessarily produces a distorted view, just as the choice of projection distorts a map of the Earth. The truest way to depict the properties of a black hole is through quantities that are coordinate-invariant. We have computed and plotted the independent curvature invariants of rotating, charged black holes for the first time, revealing a deep interior “landscape” that is much more beautiful and complex than usually thought. The resulting images are useful for public outreach, especially in the centennial year of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity.
Gravity, black holes, and the universe
Nicolson, I.
1981-01-01
The book treats current understandings of the nature and properties of gravity, with particular emphasis on its role in the physics of black holes and the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. The development of modern ideas on force, motion and gravity is traced from the systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy through the work of Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler to Newton's law of universal gravitation and Einstein's general theory of relativity. Particular attention is then given to the role of gravity in stellar motions and to the phenomena determined by the immense gravitational forces associated with bodies of such great density, including relativistic effects, tidal forces, space-time effects, event horizons, rotation, mass and electrical charge, the existence of naked singularities and white holes, and black-hole thermodynamics. The existence of actual black holes in the universe is considered, and various black-hole candidates in the Galaxy, quasars and galactic nuclei are indicated. The role of gravity in cosmology is then examined, with attention given to the implications of general relativity, the Hubble law, the age of the universe, the density of the universe and its eventual fate. Possible alternative to general relativity as a theory of gravitation are considered, including theories of variable gravitational constant, grand unified theories, and quantum gravity.
Electromagnetic jets from stars and black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gralla, Samuel E.; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Rodriguez, Maria J.
2016-02-01
We present analytic force-free solutions modeling rotating stars and black holes immersed in the magnetic field of a thin disk that terminates at an inner radius. The solutions are exact in flat spacetime and approximate in Kerr spacetime. The compact object produces a conical jet whose properties carry information about its nature. For example, the jet from a star is surrounded by a current sheet, while that of a black hole is smooth. We compute an effective resistance in each case and compare to the canonical values used in circuit models of energy extraction. These solutions illustrate all of the basic features of the Blandford-Znajek process for energy extraction and jet formation in a clean setting.
Black hole portal into hidden valleys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubovsky, Sergei; Gorbenko, Victor
2011-05-01
Superradiant instability turns rotating astrophysical black holes into unique probes of light axions. We consider what happens when a light axion is coupled to a strongly coupled hidden gauge sector. In this case superradiance results in an adiabatic increase of a hidden sector CP-violating θ parameter in a near horizon region. This may trigger a first order phase transition in the gauge sector. As a result a significant fraction of a black hole mass is released as a cloud of hidden mesons and can be later converted into electromagnetic radiation. This results in a violent electromagnetic burst. The characteristic frequency of such bursts may range from ˜100eV to ˜100MeV.
A Translational Polarization Rotator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ackiss, Sheridan; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ng, Ming wah
2012-01-01
We explore a free-space polarization modulator in which a variable phase introduction between right- and left-handed circular polarization components is used to rotate the linear polarization of the outgoing beam relative to that of the incoming beam. In this device, the polarization states are separated by a circular polarizer that consists of a quarter-wave plate in combination with a wire grid. A movable mirror is positioned behind and parallel to the circular polarizer. As the polarizer-mirror distance is separated, an incident liear polarization will be rotated through an angle that is proportional to the introduced phase delay. We demonstrate a prototype device that modulates Stokes Q and U over a 20% bandwidth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mountain, Gregory
“Needed: highly motivated geoscientists willing to slow the pace of their research for 1-2 years while managing federal government support of their discipline. Assured: change of perspective; no change in pay. Contact your National Science Foundation Program Director for details.—No, this isn't an NSF job announcement; this is an open letter to members of the Earth science community from a recently “retired” NSF rotator concerned by the small number of researchers interested in a Washington tour. I learned firsthand the extent to which an individual in this position is entrusted with decision-making powers, and as a result, I believe that each of us in the research community should feel responsible for ensuring that highly qualified people serve as rotators.