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Sample records for rotating wave approximation

  1. Quantum optimal control within the rotating-wave approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keck, Maximilian; Müller, Matthias M.; Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone

    2015-09-01

    We study the interplay between rotating-wave approximation and optimal control. In particular, we show that for a wide class of optimal control problems one can choose the control field such that the Hamiltonian becomes time independent under the rotating-wave approximation. Thus, we show how to recast the functional minimization defined by the optimal control problem into a simpler multivariable function minimization. We provide the analytic solution to the state-to-state transfer of the paradigmatic two-level system and to the more general star configuration of an N -level system. We demonstrate numerically the usefulness of this approach in the more general class of connected acyclic N -level systems with random spectra. Finally, we use it to design a protocol to entangle Rydberg via constant laser pulse atoms in an experimentally relevant range of parameters.

  2. Quantum speed limits in open systems: Non-Markovian dynamics without rotating-wave approximation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhe; Liu, Jing; Ma, Jian; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    We derive an easily computable quantum speed limit (QSL) time bound for open systems whose initial states can be chosen as either pure or mixed states. Moreover, this QSL time is applicable to either Markovian or non-Markovian dynamics. By using of a hierarchy equation method, we numerically study the QSL time bound in a qubit system interacting with a single broadened cavity mode without rotating-wave, Born and Markovian approximation. By comparing with rotating-wave approximation (RWA) results, we show that the counter-rotating terms are helpful to increase evolution speed. The problem of non-Markovianity is also considered. We find that for non-RWA cases, increasing system-bath coupling can not always enhance the non-Markovianity, which is qualitatively different from the results with RWA. When considering the relation between QSL and non-Markovianity, we find that for small broadening widths of the cavity mode, non-Markovianity can increase the evolution speed in either RWA or non-RWA cases, while, for larger broadening widths, it is not true for non-RWA cases. PMID:25676589

  3. Cavity losses for the dissipative Jaynes Cummings Hamiltonian beyond rotating wave approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, M.; Militello, B.; Messina, A.; Maniscalco, S.; Piilo, J.; Suominen, K.-A.

    2007-11-01

    A microscopic derivation of the master equation for the Jaynes-Cummings model with cavity losses is given, taking into account the terms in the dissipator which vary with frequencies of the order of the vacuum Rabi frequency. Our approach allows us to single out physical contexts wherein the usual phenomenological dissipator turns out to be fully justified and constitutes an extension of our previous analysis (Scala et al 2007 Phys. Rev. A 75 013811), where a microscopic derivation was given in the framework of the rotating wave approximation.

  4. Damping of a harmonic oscillator in a squeezed vacuum without rotating-wave approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, S. S.; Joshi, A.; Frege, O. M.; Emam, W.

    2007-09-01

    A single harmonic oscillator interacting with a broadband squeezed reservoir is analyzed within the framework of master equation without invoking the rotating-wave approximation. The dynamical evolution and photon statistics of the system are investigated by studying mean photon number and second order intensity-intensity correlation function, respectively, under resonance condition which show transient oscillations at twice the harmonic oscillator frequency. The transient fluorescent spectrum reveals asymmetric features. Inclusion of vacuum and field-dependent frequency shifts affects the thermal equilibrium value of the average photon number of the harmonic oscillator.

  5. Optomechanical dual-beam backaction-evading measurement beyond the rotating-wave approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malz, Daniel; Nunnenkamp, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    We present the exact analytical solution of the explicitly time-periodic quantum Langevin equation describing the dual-beam backaction-evading measurement of a single mechanical oscillator quadrature due to V. B. Braginsky, Y. I. Vorontsov, and K. S. Thorne [Science 209, 547 (1980), 10.1126/science.209.4456.547] beyond the commonly used rotating-wave approximation. We show that counterrotating terms lead to extra sidebands in the optical and mechanical spectra and to a modification of the main peak. Physically, the backaction of the measurement is due to periodic coupling of the mechanical resonator to a light-field quadrature that only contains cavity-filtered shot noise. Since this fact is independent of other degrees of freedom the resonator might be coupled to, our solution can be generalized, including to dissipatively or parametrically squeezed oscillators, as well as recent two-mode backaction-evading measurements.

  6. Absence of vacuum induced Berry phases without the rotating wave approximation in cavity QED.

    PubMed

    Larson, Jonas

    2012-01-20

    We revisit earlier studies on Berry phases suggested to appear in certain cavity QED settings. It has been especially argued that a nontrivial geometric phase is achievable even in the situation of no cavity photons. We, however, show that such results hinge on imposing the rotating wave approximation (RWA), while without the RWA no Berry phases occur in these schemes. A geometrical interpretation of our results is obtained by introducing semiclassical energy surfaces which in a simple way brings out the phase-space dynamics. With the RWA, a conical intersection between the surfaces emerges and encircling it gives rise to the Berry phase. Without the RWA, the conical intersection is absent and therefore the Berry phase vanishes. It is believed that this is a first example showing how the application of the RWA in the Jaynes-Cummings model may lead to false conclusions, regardless of the mutual strengths between the system parameters.

  7. Phase-conjugated mirror-induced oscillations outside the rotating-wave approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, S. S.; Frege, O.

    2002-06-01

    Dynamical behaviour of a single harmonic oscillator (HO) and of a single and two cooperative atoms in front of a phase-conjugated mirror is investigated without using the rotating-wave approximation. The mean photon number of the HO shows transient oscillation of frequency (2ω0) and O(γ/ω0), the ratio of the free-space decay rate to the oscillation frequency, and the fluorescent spectrum becomes asymmetric due to additional resonant and non-resonant dispersive terms. In the single-two-level-atom case, the mean atomic inversion and the fluorescent intensity show steady oscillation O(γ0/ω0), the ratio of the A-coefficient to the atomic transition frequency. The amplitude of this steady oscillation at frequency (2ω0) is larger in the case of two cooperative atoms.

  8. Measurement-Induced State Transitions in a Superconducting Qubit: Beyond the Rotating Wave Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sank, Daniel; Chen, Zijun; Khezri, Mostafa; Kelly, J.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Y.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Lucero, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Vainsencher, A.; White, T.; Wenner, J.; Korotkov, Alexander N.; Martinis, John M.

    2016-11-01

    Many superconducting qubit systems use the dispersive interaction between the qubit and a coupled harmonic resonator to perform quantum state measurement. Previous works have found that such measurements can induce state transitions in the qubit if the number of photons in the resonator is too high. We investigate these transitions and find that they can push the qubit out of the two-level subspace, and that they show resonant behavior as a function of photon number. We develop a theory for these observations based on level crossings within the Jaynes-Cummings ladder, with transitions mediated by terms in the Hamiltonian that are typically ignored by the rotating wave approximation. We find that the most important of these terms comes from an unexpected broken symmetry in the qubit potential. We confirm the theory by measuring the photon occupation of the resonator when transitions occur while varying the detuning between the qubit and resonator.

  9. Breaking the rotating wave approximation for a strongly driven dressed single-electron spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laucht, Arne; Simmons, Stephanie; Kalra, Rachpon; Tosi, Guilherme; Dehollain, Juan P.; Muhonen, Juha T.; Freer, Solomon; Hudson, Fay E.; Itoh, Kohei M.; Jamieson, David N.; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Morello, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a strongly driven microwave-dressed donor-bound electron spin qubit in silicon. A resonant oscillating magnetic field B1 is used to dress the electron spin and create a new quantum system with a level splitting proportional to B1. The dressed two-level system can then be driven by modulating the detuning Δ ν between the microwave source frequency νMW and the electron spin transition frequency νe at the frequency of the level splitting. The resulting dressed qubit Rabi frequency ΩR ρ is defined by the modulation amplitude, which can be made comparable to the level splitting using frequency modulation on the microwave source. This allows us to investigate the regime where the rotating wave approximation breaks down without requiring microwave power levels that would be incompatible with a cryogenic environment. We observe clear deviations from normal Rabi oscillations and can numerically simulate the time evolution of the states in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Interaction of a two-level atom with single-mode optical field beyond the rotating wave approximation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-11-17

    One of the simplest models involving the atom-field interaction is the coupling of a single two-level atom with single-mode optical field. Under the rotating wave approximation, this problem is reduced to a form that can be solved exactly. But the approximation is only valid when the two levels are resonant or nearly resonant with the applied electromagnetic radiation. Here we present an analytical solution without the rotating wave approximation and applicable to general atom-field interaction far away from the resonance. We find that there exists remarkable influence of the initial phase of optical field on the Rabi oscillations and Rabi splitting, and this issue cannot be explored in the context of the rotating wave approximation. Due to the retention of the counter-rotating terms, higher-order harmonic appears during the Rabi splitting. The analytical solution suggests a way to regulate and control the quantum dynamics of a two-level atom and allows for exploring more essential features of the atom-field interaction.

  11. Generalized squeezing rotating-wave approximation to the isotropic and anisotropic Rabi model in the ultrastrong-coupling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Generalized squeezing rotating-wave approximation (GSRWA) is proposed by employing both the displacement and the squeezing transformations. A solvable Hamiltonian is reformulated in the same form as the ordinary RWA ones. For a qubit coupled to oscillators experiment, a well-defined Schrödinger-cat-like entangled state is given by the displaced-squeezed oscillator state instead of the original displaced state. For the isotropic Rabi case, the mean photon number and the ground-state energy are expressed analytically with additional squeezing terms, exhibiting a substantial improvement of the GSRWA. And the ground-state energy in the anisotropic Rabi model confirms the effectiveness of the GSRWA. Due to the squeezing effect, the GSRWA improves the previous methods only with the displacement transformation in a wide range of coupling strengths even for large atom frequency.

  12. Analytical approximations for spiral waves

    SciTech Connect

    Löber, Jakob Engel, Harald

    2013-12-15

    We propose a non-perturbative attempt to solve the kinematic equations for spiral waves in excitable media. From the eikonal equation for the wave front we derive an implicit analytical relation between rotation frequency Ω and core radius R{sub 0}. For free, rigidly rotating spiral waves our analytical prediction is in good agreement with numerical solutions of the linear eikonal equation not only for very large but also for intermediate and small values of the core radius. An equivalent Ω(R{sub +}) dependence improves the result by Keener and Tyson for spiral waves pinned to a circular defect of radius R{sub +} with Neumann boundaries at the periphery. Simultaneously, analytical approximations for the shape of free and pinned spirals are given. We discuss the reasons why the ansatz fails to correctly describe the dependence of the rotation frequency on the excitability of the medium.

  13. Analytical approximations for spiral waves.

    PubMed

    Löber, Jakob; Engel, Harald

    2013-12-01

    We propose a non-perturbative attempt to solve the kinematic equations for spiral waves in excitable media. From the eikonal equation for the wave front we derive an implicit analytical relation between rotation frequency Ω and core radius R(0). For free, rigidly rotating spiral waves our analytical prediction is in good agreement with numerical solutions of the linear eikonal equation not only for very large but also for intermediate and small values of the core radius. An equivalent Ω(R(+)) dependence improves the result by Keener and Tyson for spiral waves pinned to a circular defect of radius R(+) with Neumann boundaries at the periphery. Simultaneously, analytical approximations for the shape of free and pinned spirals are given. We discuss the reasons why the ansatz fails to correctly describe the dependence of the rotation frequency on the excitability of the medium.

  14. (p,q) deformations and (p,q)-vector coherent states of the Jaynes-Cummings model in the rotating wave approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Geloun, Joseph; Govaerts, Jan; Hounkonnou, M. Norbert

    2007-03-15

    Classes of (p,q) deformations of the Jaynes-Cummings model in the rotating wave approximation are considered. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian is performed exactly, leading to useful spectral decompositions of a series of relevant operators. The latter include ladder operators acting between adjacent energy eigenstates within two separate infinite discrete towers, except for a singleton state. These ladder operators allow for the construction of (p,q)-deformed vector coherent states. Using (p,q) arithmetics, explicit and exact solutions to the associated moment problem are displayed, providing new classes of coherent states for such models. Finally, in the limit of decoupled spin sectors, our analysis translates into (p,q) deformations of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator, such that the two supersymmetric sectors get intertwined through the action of the ladder operators as well as in the associated coherent states.

  15. Interaction of a Λ-type three-level atom with a single-mode field without rotating wave approximation: perturbation theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegarzadeh, M.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2015-02-01

    In this article, by using the perturbation theory, we analytically solve the eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian describing the interaction of a Λ-type three-level atom with a single-mode radiation field without the rotating wave approximation (RWA). For this purpose, the atom-field interaction Hamiltonian, which contains the counter-rotating terms (CRTs), is transformed to an analytically solvable Hamiltonian by applying three successive unitary transformations. According to our calculations, the contribution of CRTs within the transformed Hamiltonian is in fact replaced by transforming the ‘constant detuning’ with the ‘intensity-dependent detuning’ in the first order, and the ‘constant atom-field coupling’ with the intensity-dependent coupling in the second order of the perturbation parameters. Then, by solving the eigenvalue problem for the transformed Hamiltonian, the eigenvector of the considered atom-field Hamiltonian is obtained analytically. Finally, after achieving the state vector of the atom-field system at an arbitrary time, a few nonclassical properties of the system state are investigated numerically. Meanwhile, we compare our results with the presence of RWA, from which the role of CRTs will be established.

  16. Evolution of a hybrid micro-macro entangled state of the qubit-oscillator system via the generalized rotating wave approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, R.; Yogesh, V.

    2016-04-01

    We study the evolution of the hybrid entangled states in a bipartite (ultra) strongly coupled qubit-oscillator system. Using the generalized rotating wave approximation the reduced density matrices of the qubit and the oscillator are obtained. The reduced density matrix of the oscillator yields the phase space quasi probability distributions such as the diagonal P-representation, the Wigner W-distribution and the Husimi Q-function. In the strong coupling regime the Q-function evolves to uniformly separated macroscopically distinct Gaussian peaks representing ‘kitten’ states at certain specified times that depend on multiple time scales present in the interacting system. The ultrastrong coupling strength of the interaction triggers appearance of a large number of modes that quickly develop a randomization of their phase relationships. A stochastic averaging of the dynamical quantities sets in, and leads to the decoherence of the system. The delocalization in the phase space of the oscillator is studied by using the Wehrl entropy. The negativity of the W-distribution reflects the departure of the oscillator from the classical states, and allows us to study the underlying differences between various information-theoretic measures such as the Wehrl entropy and the Wigner entropy. Other features of nonclassicality such as the existence of the squeezed states and appearance of negative values of the Mandel parameter are realized during the course of evolution of the bipartite system. In the parametric regime studied here these properties do not survive in the time-averaged limit.

  17. Finite-time Landau-Zener processes and counterdiabatic driving in open systems: Beyond Born, Markov, and rotating-wave approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhe; Zhou, Longwen; Xiao, Gaoyang; Poletti, Dario; Gong, Jiangbin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate Landau-Zener processes modeled by a two-level quantum system, with its finite bias energy varied in time and in the presence of a single broadened cavity mode at zero temperature. By applying the hierarchy equation method to the Landau-Zener problem, we computationally study the survival fidelity of adiabatic states without Born, Markov, rotating-wave, or other perturbative approximations. With this treatment it also becomes possible to investigate cases with very strong system-bath coupling. Different from a previous study of infinite-time Landau-Zener processes, the fidelity of the time-evolving state as compared with instantaneous adiabatic states shows nonmonotonic dependence on the system-bath coupling and on the sweep rate of the bias. We then consider the effect of applying a counterdiabatic driving field, which is found to be useful in improving the fidelity only for sufficiently short Landau-Zener processes. Numerically exact results show that different counterdiabatic driving fields can have very different robustness against environment effects. Lastly, using a case study, we discuss the possibility of introducing a dynamical decoupling field in order to eliminate the decoherence effect of the environment and, at the same time, to retain the positive role of a counterdiabatic field. Our work indicates that finite-time Landau-Zener processes with counterdiabatic driving offer a fruitful testbed to understand controlled adiabatic processes in open systems.

  18. Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15

    Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.

  19. Planetary waves in rotating ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Khantadze, A. G.; Jandieri, V. G.; Jandieri, G. V.

    2008-06-15

    The problem of propagation of ultralong planetary waves in the Earth's upper atmosphere is considered. A new exact solution to the MHD equations for the ionosphere is obtained in spherical coordinates with allowance for the geomagnetic field and Earth's rotation. A general dispersion relation is derived for planetary waves in the ionospheric E and F regions, and the characteristic features of their propagation in a weakly ionized ionospheric plasma are discussed.

  20. Slowly rotating scalar field wormholes: The second order approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Kashargin, P. E.; Sushkov, S. V.

    2008-09-15

    We discuss rotating wormholes in general relativity with a scalar field with negative kinetic energy. To solve the problem, we use the assumption about slow rotation. The role of a small dimensionless parameter plays the ratio of the linear velocity of rotation of the wormhole's throat and the velocity of light. We construct the rotating wormhole solution in the second-order approximation with respect to the small parameter. The analysis shows that the asymptotical mass of the rotating wormhole is greater than that of the nonrotating one, and the null energy condition violation in the rotating wormhole spacetime is weaker than that in the nonrotating one.

  1. Regularity of rotational travelling water waves.

    PubMed

    Escher, Joachim

    2012-04-13

    Several recent results on the regularity of streamlines beneath a rotational travelling wave, along with the wave profile itself, will be discussed. The survey includes the classical water wave problem in both finite and infinite depth, capillary waves and solitary waves as well. A common assumption in all models to be discussed is the absence of stagnation points.

  2. Period spacing of gravity modes strongly affected by rotation. Going beyond the traditional approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, V.; Mathis, S.; Lignières, F.; Ballot, J.; Culpin, P.-M.

    2017-02-01

    Context. As of today, asteroseismology mainly allows us to probe the internal rotation of stars when modes are only weakly affected by rotation using perturbative methods. Such methods cannot be applied to rapidly rotating stars, which exhibit complex oscillation spectra. In this context, the so-called traditional approximation, which neglects the terms associated with the latitudinal component of the rotation vector, describes modes that are strongly affected by rotation. This approximation is sometimes used for interpreting asteroseismic data, however, its domain of validity is not established yet. Aims: We aim at deriving analytical prescriptions for period spacings of low-frequency gravity modes strongly affected by rotation through the full Coriolis acceleration (i.e. without neglecting any component of the rotation vector), which can be used to probe stellar internal structure and rotation. Methods: We approximated the asymptotic theory of gravito-inertial waves in uniformly rotating stars using ray theory described in a previous paper in the low-frequency regime, where waves are trapped near the equatorial plane. We put the equations of ray dynamics into a separable form and used the Einstein-Brillouin-Keller (EBK) quantisation method to compute modes frequencies from rays. Results: Two spectral patterns that depend on stratification and rotation are predicted within this new approximation: one for axisymmetric modes and one for non-axisymmetric modes. Conclusions: The detection of the predicted patterns in observed oscillation spectra would give constraints on internal rotation and chemical stratification of rapidly rotating stars exhibiting gravity modes, such as γ Doradus, SPB, or Be stars. The obtained results have a mathematical form that is similar to that of the traditional approximation, but the new approximation takes the full Coriolis, which allows for propagation near the centre, and centrifugal accelerations into account.

  3. Wave-Driven Rotation In Centrifugal Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-03-28

    Centrifugal mirrors use supersonic rotation to provide axial confinement and enhanced stability. Usually the rotation is produced using electrodes, but these electrodes have limited the rotation to the Alfven critical ionization velocity, which is too slow to be useful for fusion. Instead, the rotation could be produced using radio frequency waves. A fixed azimuthal ripple is a simple and efficient wave that could produce rotation by harnessing alpha particle energy. This is an extension of the alpha channeling effect. The alpha particle power and efficiency in a simulated devices is sufficient to produce rotation without external energy input. By eliminating the need for electrodes, this opens new opportunities for centrifugal traps.

  4. Bifurcations of rotating waves in rotating spherical shell convection.

    PubMed

    Feudel, F; Tuckerman, L S; Gellert, M; Seehafer, N

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics and bifurcations of convective waves in rotating and buoyancy-driven spherical Rayleigh-Bénard convection are investigated numerically. The solution branches that arise as rotating waves (RWs) are traced by means of path-following methods, by varying the Rayleigh number as a control parameter for different rotation rates. The dependence of the azimuthal drift frequency of the RWs on the Ekman and Rayleigh numbers is determined and discussed. The influence of the rotation rate on the generation and stability of secondary branches is demonstrated. Multistability is typical in the parameter range considered.

  5. Molecular collisions. 11: Semiclassical approximation to atom-symmetric top rotational excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D.; Curtiss, C. F.

    1973-01-01

    In a paper of this series a distorted wave approximation to the T matrix for atom-symmetric top scattering was developed which is correct to first order in the part of the interaction potential responsible for transitions in the component of rotational angular momentum along the symmetry axis of the top. A semiclassical expression for this T matrix is derived by assuming large values of orbital and rotational angular momentum quantum numbers.

  6. Generalized stationary phase approximations for mountain waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, H.; Broutman, D.; Eckermann, S. D.

    2016-04-01

    Large altitude asymptotic approximations are derived for vertical displacements due to mountain waves generated by hydrostatic wind flow over arbitrary topography. This leads to new asymptotic analytic expressions for wave-induced vertical displacement for mountains with an elliptical Gaussian shape and with the major axis oriented at any angle relative to the background wind. The motivation is to understand local maxima in vertical displacement amplitude at a given height for elliptical mountains aligned at oblique angles to the wind direction, as identified in Eckermann et al. ["Effects of horizontal geometrical spreading on the parameterization of orographic gravity-wave drag. Part 1: Numerical transform solutions," J. Atmos. Sci. 72, 2330-2347 (2015)]. The standard stationary phase method reproduces one type of local amplitude maximum that migrates downwind with increasing altitude. Another type of local amplitude maximum stays close to the vertical axis over the center of the mountain, and a new generalized stationary phase method is developed to describe this other type of local amplitude maximum and the horizontal variation of wave-induced vertical displacement near the vertical axis of the mountain in the large altitude limit. The new generalized stationary phase method describes the asymptotic behavior of integrals where the asymptotic parameter is raised to two different powers (1/2 and 1) rather than just one power as in the standard stationary phase method. The vertical displacement formulas are initially derived assuming a uniform background wind but are extended to accommodate both vertical shear with a fixed wind direction and vertical variations in the buoyancy frequency.

  7. Gravitational wave background from rotating neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, Pablo A.

    2012-11-01

    produce a stronger emission of gravitational radiation. Considering the most optimistic (in terms of the detection of gravitational waves) of these models, an upper limit for the background produced by magnetars is obtained; it could be detected by ET, but not by BBO or DECIGO. Simple approximate formulas to characterize both the total and the unresolvable backgrounds are given for the ensemble of rotating neutron stars, and, for completion, also for the ensemble of binary star systems.

  8. Tkachenko waves in rotating superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Andereck, C.D.; Chalupa, J.; Glaberson, W.I.

    1980-01-07

    The resonant response of a stack of disks driven into torsional oscillation within a container of rotating superfluid helium has been observed. It is shown that the oscillation modes excited are related to Tkachenko waves, that is, vortex displacement waves in the vortex array propagating in a direction transverse to the vortex lines. In particular, the resonances occur at peaks in the vortex wave density of states.

  9. Magnetized stratified rotating shear waves.

    PubMed

    Salhi, A; Lehner, T; Godeferd, F; Cambon, C

    2012-02-01

    We present a spectral linear analysis in terms of advected Fourier modes to describe the behavior of a fluid submitted to four constraints: shear (with rate S), rotation (with angular velocity Ω), stratification, and magnetic field within the linear spectral theory or the shearing box model in astrophysics. As a consequence of the fact that the base flow must be a solution of the Euler-Boussinesq equations, only radial and/or vertical density gradients can be taken into account. Ertel's theorem no longer is valid to show the conservation of potential vorticity, in the presence of the Lorentz force, but a similar theorem can be applied to a potential magnetic induction: The scalar product of the density gradient by the magnetic field is a Lagrangian invariant for an inviscid and nondiffusive fluid. The linear system with a minimal number of solenoidal components, two for both velocity and magnetic disturbance fields, is eventually expressed as a four-component inhomogeneous linear differential system in which the buoyancy scalar is a combination of solenoidal components (variables) and the (constant) potential magnetic induction. We study the stability of such a system for both an infinite streamwise wavelength (k(1) = 0, axisymmetric disturbances) and a finite one (k(1) ≠ 0, nonaxisymmetric disturbances). In the former case (k(1) = 0), we recover and extend previous results characterizing the magnetorotational instability (MRI) for combined effects of radial and vertical magnetic fields and combined effects of radial and vertical density gradients. We derive an expression for the MRI growth rate in terms of the stratification strength, which indicates that purely radial stratification can inhibit the MRI instability, while purely vertical stratification cannot completely suppress the MRI instability. In the case of nonaxisymmetric disturbances (k(1) ≠ 0), we only consider the effect of vertical stratification, and we use Levinson's theorem to demonstrate the

  10. Wave-particle Interactions In Rotating Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-01-11

    Wave-particle interactions in E×B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.

  11. Exact Steady Azimuthal Edge Waves in Rotating Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu-Kruse, Delia

    2016-09-01

    The full problem of water waves travelling along a constant sloping beach with the shoreline parallel to the Equator, written in a moving frame with the origin at a point on the rotating Earth is introduced. An exact steady solution of this problem moving only in the azimuthal direction, with no variations in this direction, is obtained. The solution is discussed in turn in spherical coordinates, in cylindrical coordinates and in the tangent-plan approximations.

  12. Surface acoustic wave micromotor with arbitrary axis rotational capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjeung, Ricky T.; Hughes, Mark S.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2011-11-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) actuated rotary motor is reported here, consisting of a millimeter-sized spherical metal rotor placed on the surface of a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric substrate upon which the SAW is made to propagate. At the design frequency of 3.2 MHz and with a fixed preload of 41.1 μN, the maximum rotational speed and torque achieved were approximately 1900 rpm and 5.37 μN-mm, respectively, producing a maximum output power of 1.19 μW. The surface vibrations were visualized using laser Doppler vibrometry and indicate that the rotational motion arises due to retrograde elliptical motions of the piezoelectric surface elements. Rotation about orthogonal axes in the plane of the substrate has been obtained by using orthogonally placed interdigital electrodes on the substrate to generate SAW impinging on the rotor, offering a means to generate rotation about an arbitrary axis in the plane of the substrate.

  13. Spectral Modulation by Rotational Wave Packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baertschy, Mark; Hartinger, Klaus

    2005-05-01

    Periodic rephasing of molecular rotational wave packets can create rapid fluctuations in the optical properties of a molecular gas which can be used to manipulate the temporal phase and spectral content of ultrashort light pulses. We have demonstrated spectral control of a time-delayed ultrafast probe pulse propagating through the rotational wave packet prepared by a pump laser pulse. The spectrum of the probe pulse can be either broadened or compressed, depending on the relative sign of the temporal phase modulation and the initial chirp of the probe pulse. Adjustment of the spectral phase at the output of the interaction region allows controlled temporal pulse streching^1 and compression^2. The degree to which the spectrum of an ultrafast pulse can be modified depends on the strength and shape of the rotational wavepacket. We are studying the optimization of the rotational wave packet excitation with complex, shaped pump laser pulses for the purpose of optimizing probe pulse spectra modulation. ^1 Klaus Hartinger and Randy A. Bartels, Opt. Lett., submitted (2005). ^2 R.A. Bartels, T.C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, Chris H. Greene, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn , Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, 013903 (2002). This work was supported by the NSF.

  14. Millimetre Wave with Rotational Orbital Angular Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Ma, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been widely studied in fibre and short-range communications. The implementation of millimetre waves with OAM is expected to increase the communication capacity. Most experiments demonstrate the distinction of OAM modes by receiving all of the energy in the surface vertical to the radiation axis in space. However, the reception of OAM is difficult in free space due to the non-zero beam angle and divergence of energy. The reception of OAM in the space domain in a manner similar to that in optical fibres (i.e., receiving all of the energy rings vertical to the radiation axis) is impractical, especially for long-distance transmission. Here, we fabricate a prototype of the antenna and demonstrate that rather than in the space domain, the OAM can be well received in the time domain via a single antenna by rotating the OAM wave at the transmitter, i.e., the radio wave with rotational OAM. The phase and frequency measured in the experiment reveal that for different OAM modes, the received signals act as a commonly used orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in the time domain. This phase rotation has promising prospects for use in the practical reception of different OAMs of millimetre waves in long-distance transmission. PMID:27596746

  15. Millimetre Wave with Rotational Orbital Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Ma, Lu

    2016-09-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been widely studied in fibre and short-range communications. The implementation of millimetre waves with OAM is expected to increase the communication capacity. Most experiments demonstrate the distinction of OAM modes by receiving all of the energy in the surface vertical to the radiation axis in space. However, the reception of OAM is difficult in free space due to the non-zero beam angle and divergence of energy. The reception of OAM in the space domain in a manner similar to that in optical fibres (i.e., receiving all of the energy rings vertical to the radiation axis) is impractical, especially for long-distance transmission. Here, we fabricate a prototype of the antenna and demonstrate that rather than in the space domain, the OAM can be well received in the time domain via a single antenna by rotating the OAM wave at the transmitter, i.e., the radio wave with rotational OAM. The phase and frequency measured in the experiment reveal that for different OAM modes, the received signals act as a commonly used orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in the time domain. This phase rotation has promising prospects for use in the practical reception of different OAMs of millimetre waves in long-distance transmission.

  16. A consistent collinear triad approximation for operational wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, J. E.; Smit, P. B.; Janssen, T. T.; Holthuijsen, L. H.

    2016-08-01

    In shallow water, the spectral evolution associated with energy transfers due to three-wave (or triad) interactions is important for the prediction of nearshore wave propagation and wave-driven dynamics. The numerical evaluation of these nonlinear interactions involves the evaluation of a weighted convolution integral in both frequency and directional space for each frequency-direction component in the wave field. For reasons of efficiency, operational wave models often rely on a so-called collinear approximation that assumes that energy is only exchanged between wave components travelling in the same direction (collinear propagation) to eliminate the directional convolution. In this work, we show that the collinear approximation as presently implemented in operational models is inconsistent. This causes energy transfers to become unbounded in the limit of unidirectional waves (narrow aperture), and results in the underestimation of energy transfers in short-crested wave conditions. We propose a modification to the collinear approximation to remove this inconsistency and to make it physically more realistic. Through comparison with laboratory observations and results from Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed modified collinear model is consistent, remains bounded, smoothly converges to the unidirectional limit, and is numerically more robust. Our results show that the modifications proposed here result in a consistent collinear approximation, which remains bounded and can provide an efficient approximation to model nonlinear triad effects in operational wave models.

  17. Wave Modes Trapped in Rotating Nonlinear Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongyao; Pang, Wei; Malomed, Boris A.

    We study modes trapped in a rotating ring with the local strength of the nonlinearity modulated as \\cos (2θ ) , where θ is the azimuthal angle. This modulation pattern may be of three different types: self-focusing (SF), self-defocusing (SDF), and alternating SF-SDF. The model, based on the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with periodic boundary conditions, applies to the light propagation in a twisted pipe waveguide, and to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) loaded into a toroidal trap, under the action of the rotating nonlinear pseudopotential induced by means of the Feshbach resonance in an inhomogeneous external field. This is the difference from the recently considered similar setting with the rotating linear potential. In the SF, SDF, and alternating regimes, four, three, and five different types of stable trapped modes are identified, respectively: even, odd, second-harmonic (2H), symmetry-breaking, and 2H-breaking ones. The shapes and stability of these modes, together with transitions between them, are investigated in the first rotational Brillouin zone. Ground-state modes are identified in each regime. Boundaries between symmetric and asymmetric modes are also found in an analytical form, by means of a two-mode approximation.

  18. Approximate formulas for rotational effects in earthquake engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falamarz-Sheikhabadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghafory-Ashtiany, Mohsen

    2012-10-01

    The paper addresses the issue of researching into the engineering characteristics of rotational strong ground motion components and rotational effects in structural response. In this regard, at first, the acceleration response spectra of rotational components are estimated in terms of translational ones. Next, new methods in order to consider the effects of rotational components in seismic design codes are presented by determining the effective structural parameters in the rotational loading of structures due only to the earthquake rotational components. Numerical results show that according to the frequency content of rotational components, the contribution of the rocking components to the seismic excitation of short period structures can never be ignored. During strong earthquakes, these rotational motions may lead to the unexpected overturning or local structural damages for the low-rise multi-story buildings located on soft soil. The arrangement of lateral-load resisting system in the plan, period, and aspect ratio of the system can severely change the seismic loading of wide symmetric buildings under the earthquake torsional component.

  19. Two Timescale Approximation Applied to Gravitational Waves from Eccentric EMRIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxon, Jordan; Flanagan, Eanna; Hinderer, Tanja; Pound, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Gravitational-wave driven inspirals of compact objects into massive black holes (Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals - EMRIs) form an interesting, long-lived signal for future space-based gravitational wave detectors. Accurate signal predictions will be necessary to take full advantage of matched filtering techniques, motivating the development of a calculational technique for deriving the gravitational wave signal to good approximation throughout the inspiral. We report on recent work on developing the two-timescale technique with the goal of predicting waveforms from eccentric equatorial systems to subleading (post-adiabatic) order in the phase, building on recent work by Pound in the scalar case. The computation requires us to understand the dissipative component of the second-order self force. It also demands careful consideration of how the two timescale (near-zone) approximation should match with the post-Minkowski approximation of the gravitational waves at great distances.

  20. Gravitational wave asteroseismology with fast rotating neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertig, Erich; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2011-03-15

    We investigate damping and growth times of the quadrupolar f mode for rapidly rotating stars and a variety of different polytropic equations of state in the Cowling approximation. This is the first study of the damping/growth time of these types of oscillations for fast-rotating neutron stars in a relativistic treatment where the spacetime degrees of freedom of the perturbations are neglected. We use these frequencies and damping/growth times to create robust empirical formulae which can be used for gravitational-wave asteroseismology. The estimation of the damping/growth time is based on the quadrupole formula and our results agree very well with Newtonian ones in the appropriate limit.

  1. Generation of whistler waves by a rotating magnetic field source

    SciTech Connect

    Karavaev, A. V.; Gumerov, N. A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, Xi; Sharma, A. S.; Gekelman, W.; Gigliotti, A.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.

    2010-01-15

    The paper discusses the generation of polarized whistler waves radiated from a rotating magnetic field source created via a novel phased orthogonal two loop antenna. The results of linear three-dimensional electron magnetohydrodynamics simulations along with experiments on the generation whistler waves by the rotating magnetic field source performed in the large plasma device are presented. Comparison of the experimental results with the simulations and linear wave properties shows good agreement. The whistler wave dispersion relation with nonzero transverse wave number and the wave structure generated by the rotating magnetic field source are also discussed. The phase velocity of the whistler waves was found to be in good agreement with the theoretical dispersion relation. The exponential decay rate of the whistler wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field is determined by Coulomb collisions. In collisionless case the rotating magnetic field source was found to be a very efficient radiation source for transferring energy along the ambient magnetic field lines.

  2. Nuclear Rotations and the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-10-27

    We deal here with the application of the Nuclear Born Oppenheimer (NBO) method to the description of nuclear rotations. As an edifying illustration, we apply the NBO formalism to study the rotational motion of nuclei which are axially-symmetric and even, but whose shells are not closed. We focus, in particular, on the derivation of expressions for the rotational energy and for the moment of inertia. Additionally, we examine the connection between the NBO method and the self-consistent cranking (SCC) model. Finally, we compare the moment of inertia generated by the NBO method with the Thouless-Valantin formula and hence establish a connection between the NBO method and the large body of experimental data.

  3. Submillimeter-Wave Rotational Spectra of DNC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, T.

    2011-06-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of DNC have been less extensive than those for HNC. See Brünken et al. and Bechtel et al. for relevant references. In the present investigation, rotational transitions of DNC have been observed in the submillimeter-wave region in an extended negative glow discharge in a gas mixture of CD_4 and N_2. The dissociative recombination reaction of DCND^+ with electrons is thought to be a dominant channel to produce DNC in highly excited vibrational states; the rotational lines in levels up to (008) are observed. The rotational and centrifugal distortion constants are determined for these states along with those for the (100) state. The measurement accuracy is high enough to determine some higher order vibration-rotation interaction constants. The least-squares fits were straightforward except for (004), (006), and (008), where very small but significant perturbations were found. A striking isotope effect was observed on the vibrational temperature in this investigation. The vibrational temperature for the ν_3 mode for DNC is as high as 4000 K and the rotational transitions are observable in states up to (008), while the corresponding temperature is about 1500 K for HNC. The vibrational temperature for the ν_1 mode is about 1000 K for DNC and about 1300 K for HNC. The bending vibrational mode is not excited, and the vibrational temperature for the ν_2 mode is only about 400 K. The origin of this conspicuous excitation of the ν_3 mode of DNC is not obvious. However, it should be closely related to mechanism of the dissociation of HCNH and DCND. Apparently the difference in the masses of the departing H/D is a factor causing this difference, but the vibrational temperature for ν_3 of DCN is not particularly high, about 1000 K. When the D atom departs from the D-C side, apparently the C-N vibration is highly excited. On the other hand, when the D-N bond is broken, not much excitation of the C-N vibration occurs. S. Brünken, H. S. P. M

  4. Atmospheric planetary waves induced by solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivolutsky, A. A.

    1989-01-01

    It is known that there are variations in the atmospheric processes with a period close to that of the rotation of the Sun (27 days). The variations are discovered in tropospheric processes, rainfalls, geopotential and in stratosphere. The main theoretical problem is the identification of the physical process by which these heterogeneous solar and meteorological phenomena are connected. Ivanovsky and Krivolutsky proposed that the periodic heating of the ozone layer by the short wave radiation would be the reason of excitation the 27-day oscillations. It was also assumed that excitement takes place in condition of resonance with an excited mode corresponding to the conditions present in the stratospheric circulations. The possibility is discussed of the resonant excitation and presentation is made of the data analysis results which support this idea.

  5. Higher order parabolic approximations of the reduced wave equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaninch, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Asymptotic solutions of order k to the nth are developed for the reduced wave equation. Here k is a dimensionless wave number and n is the arbitrary order of the approximation. These approximations are an extension of geometric acoustics theory, and provide corrections to that theory in the form of multiplicative functions which satisfy parabolic partial differential equations. These corrections account for the diffraction effects caused by variation of the field normal to the ray path and the interaction of these transverse variations with the variation of the field along the ray. The theory is applied to the example of radiation from a piston, and it is demonstrated that the higher order approximations are more accurate for decreasing values of k.

  6. Helicity-rotation-gravity coupling for gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Jairzinho; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2006-04-15

    The consequences of spin-rotation-gravity coupling are worked out for linear gravitational waves. The coupling of helicity of the wave with the rotation of a gravitational-wave antenna is investigated and the resulting modifications in the Doppler effect and aberration are pointed out for incident high-frequency gravitational radiation. Extending these results to the case of a gravitomagnetic field via the gravitational Larmor theorem, the rotation of linear polarization of gravitational radiation propagating in the field of a rotating mass is studied. It is shown that in this case the linear polarization state rotates by twice the Skrotskii angle as a consequence of the spin-2 character of linear gravitational waves.

  7. Freely-tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ru-Wen; Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhou, Yu; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    It is known that commercially-available terahertz (THz) emitters usually generate linearly polarized waves only along certain directions, but in practice, a polarization rotator that is capable of rotating the polarization of THz waves to any direction is particularly desirable and it will have various important applications. In this work, we demonstrate a freely tunable polarization rotator for broadband THz waves using a three-rotating-layer metallic grating structure, which can conveniently rotate the polarization of a linearly polarized THz wave to any desired direction with nearly perfect conversion efficiency. The device performance has been experimentally demonstrated by both THz transmission spectra and direct imaging. The polarization rotation originates from multi wave interference in the three-layer grating structure based on the scattering-matrix analysis. We can expect that this active broadband polarization rotator has wide applications in analytical chemistry, biology, communication technology, imaging, etc.. Reference: R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and Mu Wang, Advanced Materials 27,1201(2015). Freely-tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves.

  8. Properties of rotational bands at the spin limit in A {approximately} 50, A {approximately} 65 and A {approximately} 110 nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Janzen, V.P.; Andrews, H.R.; Ball, G.C.

    1996-12-31

    There is now widespread evidence for the smooth termination of rotational bands in A {approx_equal} 110 nuclei at spins of 40-to-50{Dirac_h}s. The characteristics of these bands are compared to those of bands recently observed to high spin in {sup 64}Zn and {sup 48}Cr, studied with the 8{pi} {gamma}-ray spectrometer coupled to the Chalk River miniball charged-particle-detector array.

  9. Frozen Gaussian approximation for 3-D seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lihui; Tong, Ping; Yang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic introduction on applying frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) to compute synthetic seismograms in 3-D earth models. In this method, seismic wavefield is decomposed into frozen (fixed-width) Gaussian functions, which propagate along ray paths. Rather than the coherent state solution to the wave equation, this method is rigorously derived by asymptotic expansion on phase plane, with analysis of its accuracy determined by the ratio of short wavelength over large domain size. Similar to other ray-based beam methods (e.g. Gaussian beam methods), one can use relatively small number of Gaussians to get accurate approximations of high-frequency wavefield. The algorithm is embarrassingly parallel, which can drastically speed up the computation with a multicore-processor computer station. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method by comparing it to the spectral element method for a 3-D seismic wave propagation in homogeneous media, where one has the analytical solution as a benchmark. As another proof of methodology, simulations of high-frequency seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous media are performed for 3-D waveguide model and smoothed Marmousi model, respectively. The second contribution of this paper is that, we incorporate the Snell's law into the FGA formulation, and asymptotically derive reflection, transmission and free surface conditions for FGA to compute high-frequency seismic wave propagation in high contrast media. We numerically test these conditions by computing traveltime kernels of different phases in the 3-D crust-over-mantle model.

  10. Frozen Gaussian approximation for three-dimensional seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lihui; Tong, Ping; Yang, Xu

    2016-09-01

    We present a systematic introduction on applying frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) to compute synthetic seismograms in three-dimensional earth models. In this method, seismic wavefield is decomposed into frozen (fixed-width) Gaussian functions, which propagate along ray paths. Rather than the coherent state solution to the wave equation, this method is rigorously derived by asymptotic expansion on phase plane, with analysis of its accuracy determined by the ratio of short wavelength over large domain size. Similar to other ray-based beam methods (e.g. Gaussian beam methods), one can use relatively small number of Gaussians to get accurate approximations of high-frequency wavefield. The algorithm is embarrassingly parallel, which can drastically speed up the computation with a multicore-processor computer station. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method by comparing it to the spectral element method for a three-dimensional (3D) seismic wave propagation in homogeneous media, where one has the analytical solution as a benchmark. As another proof of methodology, simulations of high-frequency seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous media are performed for 3D waveguide model and smoothed Marmousi model respectively. The second contribution of this paper is that, we incorporate the Snell's law into the FGA formulation, and asymptotically derive reflection, transmission and free surface conditions for FGA to compute high-frequency seismic wave propagation in high contrast media. We numerically test these conditions by computing traveltime kernels of different phases in the 3D crust-over-mantle model.

  11. Gravity Wave Emission by Spontaneous Imbalance of Baroclinic Waves in the Continuously Stratified Rotating Annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, Sebastian; Achatz, Ulrich; Rieper, Felix; Fruman, Mark

    2013-04-01

    We use a numerical model of the classic differentially heated rotating annulus experiment to study the spontaneous emission of gravity waves (GWs) from jet stream imbalances, which is a major source of these waves in the atmosphere for which no satisfactory parameterization exists. Atmospheric observations are the main tool for the testing and verification of theoretical concepts but have their limitations. Given their specific potential for yielding reproducible data and for studying process dependence on external system parameters, laboratory experiments are an invaluable complementary tool. Experiments with a rotating annulus exhibiting a jet modulated by large-scale waves due to baroclinic instability have already been used to study GWs: Williams et al (2008) observed spontaneously emitted interfacial GWs in a two-layer flow, and Jacoby et al (2011) detected GWs emitted from boundary-layer instabilities in a differentially heated rotating annulus. Employing a finite-volume code for the numerical simulation of a continuously stratified liquid in a differentially heated rotating annulus, we here investigate the GWs in a wide and shallow annulus with relatively large temperature difference between inner and outer cylinder walls. In this atmosphere-like regime where the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is larger than the inertial frequency, various analyses suggest a distinct gravity wave activity. To identify regions of GW emission we decompose the flow into the geostrophic and ageostrophic part through the inversion of the quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (e.g. Verkley, 2009). The analysis of the geostrophic sources of the ageostrophic flow indicates that, in addition to boundary layer instabilities, spontaneous imbalance in the jet region acts as an important source mechanism. Jacoby, T. N. L., Read, P. L., Williams, P. D. and Young, R. M. B., 2011: Generation of inertia-gravity waves in the rotating thermal annulus by a localised boundary layer instability. Geophys

  12. Circularly polarized few-cycle optical rogue waves: Rotating reduced Maxwell-Bloch equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuwei; Porsezian, K.; He, Jingsong; Cheng, Yi

    2013-12-01

    The rotating reduced Maxwell-Bloch (RMB) equations, which describe the propagation of few-cycle optical pulses in a transparent media with two isotropic polarized electronic field components, are derived from a system of complete Maxwell-Bloch equations without using the slowly varying envelope approximations. Two hierarchies of the obtained rational solutions, including rogue waves, which are also called few-cycle optical rogue waves, of the rotating RMB equations are constructed explicitly through degenerate Darboux transformation. In addition to the above, the dynamical evolution of the first-, second-, and third-order few-cycle optical rogue waves are constructed with different patterns. For an electric field E in the three lower-order rogue waves, we find that rogue waves correspond to localized large amplitude oscillations of the polarized electric fields. Further a complementary relationship of two electric field components of rogue waves is discussed in terms of analytical formulas as well as numerical figures.

  13. An approximate solution for the free vibrations of rotating uniform cantilever beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    Approximate solutions are obtained for the uncoupled frequencies and modes of rotating uniform cantilever beams. The frequency approximations for flab bending, lead-lag bending, and torsion are simple expressions having errors of less than a few percent over the entire frequency range. These expressions provide a simple way of determining the relations between mass and stiffness parameters and the resultant frequencies and mode shapes of rotating uniform beams.

  14. The Submillimeter-wave Rotational Spectra of Interstellar Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, Eric; DeLucia, Frank C.; Butler, R. A. H.; Winnewisser, M.; Winnewisser, G.; Fuchs, U.; Groner, P.; Sastry, K. V. L. N.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss past and recent progress in our long-term laboratory program concerning the submillimeter-wave rotational spectroscopy of known and likely interstellar molecules, especially those associated with regions of high-mass star formation. Our program on the use of spectroscopy to study rotationally inelastic collisions of interstellar interest is also briefly mentioned.

  15. Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves

    SciTech Connect

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15

    An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high nθ can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.

  16. Curvilinear parabolic approximation for surface wave transformation with wave-current interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Fengyan . E-mail: fyshi@coastal.udel.edu; Kirby, James T.

    2005-04-10

    The direct coordinate transformation method, which only transforms independent variables and retains Cartesian dependent variables, may not be an appropriate method for the purpose of simplifying the curvilinear parabolic approximation of the vector form of the wave-current equation given by Kirby [Higher-order approximations in the parabolic equation method for water waves, J. Geophys. Res. 91 (1986) 933-952]. In this paper, the covariant-contravariant tensor method is used for the curvilinear parabolic approximation. We use the covariant components of the wave number vector and contravariant components of the current velocity vector so that the derivation of the curvilinear equation closely follows the higher-order approximation in rectangular Cartesian coordinates in Kirby [Higher-order approximations in the parabolic equation method for water waves, J. Geophys. Res. 91 (1986) 933-952]. The resulting curvilinear equation can be easily implemented using the existing model structure and numerical schemes adopted in the Cartesian parabolic wave model [J.T. Kirby, R.A. Dalrymple, F. Shi, Combined Refraction/Diffraction Model REF/DIF 1, Version 2.6. Documentation and User's Manual, Research Report, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, 2004]. Several examples of wave simulations in curvilinear coordinate systems, including a case with wave-current interaction, are shown with comparisons to theoretical solutions or measurement data.

  17. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Wave Functions for Rotating Molecule: Plot of Spherical Harmonics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Teramae, Hiroyuki; Nagashima, Umpei

    2013-01-01

    At an early stage of learning quantum chemistry, undergraduate students usually encounter the concepts of the particle in a box, the harmonic oscillator, and then the particle on a sphere. Rotational levels of a diatomic molecule can be well approximated by the energy levels of the particle on a sphere. Wave functions for the particle in a…

  18. Approximations in seismic interferometry and their effects on surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimman, W. P.; Trampert, J.

    2010-07-01

    We investigate common approximations and assumptions in seismic interferometry. The interferometric equation, valid for the full elastic wavefield, gives the Green's function between two arbitrary points by cross-correlating signals recorded at each point. The relation is exact, even for complicated lossless media, provided the signals are generated on a closed surface surrounding the two points and are from both unidirectional point-forces and deformation-rate-tensor sources. A necessary approximation to the exact interferometric equation is the use of signals from point-force sources only. Even in simple layered media, the Green's function retrieval can then be imperfect, especially for waves other than fundamental mode surface waves. We show that this is due to cross terms between different modes that occur even if a full source boundary is present. When sources are located at the free surface only, a realistic scenario for ambient noise, the cross terms can overwhelm the higher mode surface waves. Sources then need to be very far away, or organized in a band rather than a surrounding surface to overcome this cross-term problem. If sources are correlated, convergence of higher modes is very hard to achieve. In our examples of simultaneously acting sources, the phase of the higher modes only converges correctly towards the true solution if sources are acting in the stationary phase regions. This offers an explanation for some recent body wave observations, where only interstation paths in-line with the prevailing source direction were considered. The phase error resulting from incomplete distributions around the stationary phase region generally leads to an error smaller than 1 per cent for realistic applications.

  19. Generation of limited-diffraction wave by approximating theoretical X-wave with simple driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaqin; Ding, MingYue; Hua, Shaoyan; Ming, Yuchi

    2012-03-01

    X-wave is a particular case of limited diffracting waves which has great potential applications in the enlargement of the field depth in acoustic imaging systems. In practice, the generation of real time X-wave ultrasonic fields is a complex technology which involves precise and specific voltage for the excitations for each distinct array element. In order to simplify the X-wave generating process, L. Castellanos proposed an approach to approximate the X-wave excitations with rectangular pulses. The results suggested the possibility of achieving limited-diffraction waves with relatively simple driving waveforms, which could be implemented with a moderate cost in analogical electronics. In this work, we attempt to improve L. Castellanos's method by calculating the approximation driving pulse not only from rectangular but also triangular driving pulse. The differences between theoretical X-wave signals and driving pulses, related to their excitation effects, are minimized by L2 curve criterion. The driving pulses with the minimal optimization result we chosen. A tradeoff is obtained between the cost of implementation of classical 0-order X-wave and the precision of approximation with the simple pulsed electrical driving. The good agreement of the driving pulse and the result resulting field distributions, with those obtained from the classical X-wave excitations can be justified by the filtering effects induced by the transducer elements in frequency domain. From the simulation results, we can see that the new approach improve the precise of the approximation, the difference between theoretical X-wave and the new approach is lower 10 percent than the difference between theoretical X-wave and rectangular as the driving pulse in simulation.

  20. Rotation-induced nonlinear wavepackets in internal waves

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, A. J. Johnson, E. R.

    2014-05-15

    The long time effect of weak rotation on an internal solitary wave is the decay into inertia-gravity waves and the eventual formation of a localised wavepacket. Here this initial value problem is considered within the context of the Ostrovsky, or the rotation-modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), equation and a numerical method for obtaining accurate wavepacket solutions is presented. The flow evolutions are described in the regimes of relatively-strong and relatively-weak rotational effects. When rotational effects are relatively strong a second-order soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation accurately predicts the shape, and phase and group velocities of the numerically determined wavepackets. It is suggested that these solitons may form from a local Benjamin-Feir instability in the inertia-gravity wave-train radiated when a KdV solitary wave rapidly adjusts to the presence of strong rotation. When rotational effects are relatively weak the initial KdV solitary wave remains coherent longer, decaying only slowly due to weak radiation and modulational instability is no longer relevant. Wavepacket solutions in this regime appear to consist of a modulated KdV soliton wavetrain propagating on a slowly varying background of finite extent.

  1. Rotation-induced nonlinear wavepackets in internal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, A. J.; Johnson, E. R.

    2014-05-01

    The long time effect of weak rotation on an internal solitary wave is the decay into inertia-gravity waves and the eventual formation of a localised wavepacket. Here this initial value problem is considered within the context of the Ostrovsky, or the rotation-modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), equation and a numerical method for obtaining accurate wavepacket solutions is presented. The flow evolutions are described in the regimes of relatively-strong and relatively-weak rotational effects. When rotational effects are relatively strong a second-order soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation accurately predicts the shape, and phase and group velocities of the numerically determined wavepackets. It is suggested that these solitons may form from a local Benjamin-Feir instability in the inertia-gravity wave-train radiated when a KdV solitary wave rapidly adjusts to the presence of strong rotation. When rotational effects are relatively weak the initial KdV solitary wave remains coherent longer, decaying only slowly due to weak radiation and modulational instability is no longer relevant. Wavepacket solutions in this regime appear to consist of a modulated KdV soliton wavetrain propagating on a slowly varying background of finite extent.

  2. Extreme-ultraviolet observations of global coronal wave rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Attrill, G. D. R.; Long, D. M.; Green, L. M.; Harra, L. K.; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.

    2014-11-20

    We present evidence of global coronal wave rotation in EUV data from SOHO/EIT, STEREO/EUVI, and SDO/AIA. The sense of rotation is found to be consistent with the helicity of the source region (clockwise for positive helicity, anticlockwise for negative helicity), with the source regions hosting sigmoidal structures. We also study two coronal wave events observed by SDO/AIA where no clear rotation (or sigmoid) is observed. The selected events show supporting evidence that they all originate with flux rope eruptions. We make comparisons across this set of observations (both with and without clear sigmoidal structures). On examining the magnetic configuration of the source regions, we find that the nonrotation events possess a quadrupolar magnetic configuration. The coronal waves that do show a rotation originate from bipolar source regions.

  3. Rotating solitary wave at the wall of a cylindrical container.

    PubMed

    Amaouche, Mustapha; Abderrahmane, Hamid Ait; Vatistas, Georgios H

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical modeling of a rotating solitary surface wave that was observed during water drainage from a cylindrical reservoir, when shallow water conditions were reached. It represents an improvement of our previous study, where the radial flow perturbation was neglected. This assumption led to the classical planar Korteweg-de Vries equation for the wall wave profile, which did not account for the rotational character of the base flow. The present formulation is based on a less restricting condition and consequently corrects the last shortcoming. Now the influence of the background flow appears in the wave characteristics. The theory provides a better physical depiction of the unique experiment by predicting fairly well the wave profile at least in the first half of its lifetime and estimating the speed of the observed wave with good accuracy.

  4. Millimetre wave rotational spectrum of glycolic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczółkowski, Lech; Białkowska-Jaworska, Ewa; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-03-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of glycolic acid, CH2OHCOOH, was studied in the region 115-318 GHz. For the most stable SSC conformer, transitions in all vibrational states up to 400 cm-1 have been measured and their analysis is reported. The data sets for the ground state, v21 = 1 , and v21 = 2 have been considerably extended. Immediately higher in vibrational energy are two triads of interacting vibrational states and their rotational transitions have been assigned and successfully fitted with coupled Hamiltonians accounting for Fermi and Coriolis resonances. The derived energy level spacings establish that the vibrational frequency of the ν21 mode is close to 100 cm-1. The existence of the less stable AAT conformer in the near 50 °C sample used in our experiment was also confirmed and additional transitions have been measured.

  5. Millimetre Wave Rotational Spectrum of Glycolic Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczolkowski, Lech; Bialkowska-Jaworska, Ewa; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of glycolic acid, CH2OHCOOH, was studied in the region 115-318 GHz. For the most stable SSC conformer, transitions in all vibrational states up to 400 cm(exp -1) have been measured and their analysis is reported. The data sets for the ground state, v21 = 1, and v21 = 2 have been considerably extended. Immediately higher in vibrational energy are two triads of interacting vibrational states and their rotational transitions have been assigned and successfully fitted with coupled Hamiltonians accounting for Fermi and Coriolis resonances. The derived energy level spacings establish that the vibrational frequency of the v21 mode is close to 100 cm(exp -1). The existence of the less stable AAT conformer in the near 50 C sample used in our experiment was also confirmed and additional transitions have been measured.

  6. Airy pattern approximation of a phased microphone array response to a rotating point source.

    PubMed

    Debrouwere, Maarten; Angland, David

    2017-02-01

    Deconvolution of phased microphone array source maps is a commonly applied technique in order to improve the dynamic range and resolution of beamforming. Most deconvolution algorithms require a point spread function (PSF). In this work, it is shown that the conventional definition of the PSF, based on steering vectors, is changed when the source is rotating. The effect of rotation results in an increase in the resolution and aperture of the array. The concept of virtual array positions created by source rotation is used to derive an approximation of the PSF based on an Airy pattern. The Airy pattern approximation is suitable for use in deconvolution of rotating source maps as it is more accurate and computationally less expensive than the conventional PSF definition. The proposed Airy pattern approximation was tested with both CLEAN and DAMAS deconvolution algorithms. On the same hardware, it was significantly faster when compared to the conventional definition. The limitations of the Airy pattern approximation are shown in a synthesized broadband test case with a high dynamic range. However, in most practical beamforming applications, the proposed Airy pattern approximated PSF for deconvolution is a suitable option considering its accuracy and speed.

  7. Efficiency of wave-driven rigid body rotation toroidal confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rax, J. M.; Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J.

    2017-03-01

    The compensation of vertical drifts in toroidal magnetic fields through a wave-driven poloidal rotation is compared with compensation through the wave driven toroidal current generation to support the classical magnetic rotational transform. The advantages and drawbacks associated with the sustainment of a radial electric field are compared with those associated with the sustainment of a poloidal magnetic field both in terms of energy content and power dissipation. The energy content of a radial electric field is found to be smaller than the energy content of a poloidal magnetic field for a similar set of orbits. The wave driven radial electric field generation efficiency is similarly shown, at least in the limit of large aspect ratio, to be larger than the efficiency of wave-driven toroidal current generation.

  8. The effect of lower hybrid waves on JET plasma rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, M. F. F.; Kirov, K.; Bernardo, J.; Brix, M.; Ferreira, J.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N.; Hellsten, T.; Jonsson, T.; Mailloux, J.; Ongena, J.; Parra, F.; Contributors, JET

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports on observations of rotation in JET plasmas with lower hybrid current drive. Lower hybrid (LH) has a clear impact on rotation. The changes in core rotation can be either in the co- or counter-current directions. Experimental features that could determine the direction of rotation were investigated. Changes from co- to counter-rotation as the q-profile evolves from above unity to below unity suggests that magnetic shear could be important. However, LH can drive either co- or counter-rotation in discharges with similar magnetic shear and at the same plasma current. It is not clear if a slightly lower density is significant. A power scan at fixed density, shows a lower hybrid power threshold around 3 MW. For smaller LH powers, counter rotation increases with power, while for larger powers a trend towards co-rotation is found. The estimated counter-torque from the LH waves, would not explain the observed angular frequencies, neither would it explain the observation of co-rotation.

  9. Inertial wave beams and inertial wave modes in a rotating cylinder with time-modulated rotation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borcia, Ion D.; Ghasemi V., Abouzar; Harlander, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Inertial gravity waves play an crucial role in atmospheres, oceans, and the fluid inside of planets and moons. In the atmosphere, the effect of rotation is neglected for small wavelength and the waves bear the character of internal gravity waves. For long waves, the hydrostatic assumption is made which in turn makes the atmosphere inelastic with respect to inertial motion. In contrast, in the Earth's interior, pure inertial waves are considered as an important fundamental part of the motion. Moreover, as the deep ocean is nearly homogeneous, there the inertial gravity waves bear the character of inertial waves. Excited at the oceans surface mainly due to weather systems the waves can propagate downward and influence the deep oceans motion. In the light of the aforesaid it is important to understand better fundamental inertial wave dynamics. We investigate inertial wave modes by experimental and numerical methods. Inertial modes are excited in a fluid filled rotating annulus by modulating the rotation rate of the outer cylinder and the upper and lower lids. This forcing leads to inertial wave beams emitted from the corner regions of the annulus due to periodic motions in the boundary layers (Klein et al., 2013). When the forcing frequency matches with the eigenfrequency of the rotating annulus the beam pattern amplitude is increasing, the beams broaden and mode structures can be observed (Borcia et al., 2013a). The eigenmodes are compared with analytical solutions of the corresponding inviscid problem (Borcia et al, 2013b). In particular for the pressure field a good agreement can be found. However, shear layers related to the excited wave beams are present for all frequencies. This becomes obvious in particular in the experimental visualizations that are done by using Kalliroscope particles, highlighting relative motion in the fluid. Comparing the eigenfrequencies we find that relative to the analytical frequencies, the experimental and numerical ones show a small

  10. Waves and linear stability of magnetoconvection in a rotating cylindrical annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, K.; Takehiro, S.; Shimizu, H.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in a rapidly rotating planetary core can cause the magnetic secular variation. To strengthen our understanding of the physical basis, we revisit the linear stability analyses of thermal convection in a quasi-geostrophic rotating cylindrical annulus with an applied toroidal magnetic field, and we extend the investigation of the oscillatory modes to a broader range of the parameters. Particular attention is paid to influence of thermal boundary conditions, either fixed temperature or heat-flux conditions. While the non-dissipative approximation yields a slow wave propagating retrograde, termed as a Magnetic-Coriolis (MC) Rossby wave, dissipative effects produce a variety of waves. When magnetic diffusion is stronger than thermal diffusion, this can cause a very slow wave propagating prograde. Retrograde-traveling slow waves appear when magnetic diffusion is weaker. Emergence of the slow modes allows convection to occur at lower critical Rayleigh numbers than in the nonmagnetic case. When magnetic diffusion is strong, the onset of the convection occurs with the prograde-propagating slow wave, whereas when it is weak, a slow MC-Rossby mode yields the critical convection. Fixed heat-flux boundary conditions have profound effects on the marginal curves, which monotonically increase with the azimuthal wavenumber, and favor larger length scales at the onset of the convection, provided there is sufficient field strength that the Coriolis force is balanced with the Lorentz force. The effect, however, becomes less clear as magnetic diffusion is weakened and various MHD waves emerge.

  11. Comparisons of characteristic timescales and approximate models for Brownian magnetic nanoparticle rotations

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Daniel B. Weaver, John B.

    2015-06-21

    Magnetic nanoparticles are promising tools for a host of therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications. The dynamics of rotating magnetic nanoparticles in applied magnetic fields depend strongly on the type and strength of the field applied. There are two possible rotation mechanisms and the decision for the dominant mechanism is often made by comparing the equilibrium relaxation times. This is a problem when particles are driven with high-amplitude fields because they are not necessarily at equilibrium at all. Instead, it is more appropriate to consider the “characteristic timescales” that arise in various applied fields. Approximate forms for the characteristic time of Brownian particle rotations do exist and we show agreement between several analytical and phenomenological-fit models to simulated data from a stochastic Langevin equation approach. We also compare several approximate models with solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation to determine their range of validity for general fields and relaxation times. The effective field model is an excellent approximation, while the linear response solution is only useful for very low fields and frequencies for realistic Brownian particle rotations.

  12. Comparisons of characteristic timescales and approximate models for Brownian magnetic nanoparticle rotations

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Daniel B.; Weaver, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are promising tools for a host of therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications. The dynamics of rotating magnetic nanoparticles in applied magnetic fields depend strongly on the type and strength of the field applied. There are two possible rotation mechanisms and the decision for the dominant mechanism is often made by comparing the equilibrium relaxation times. This is a problem when particles are driven with high-amplitude fields because they are not necessarily at equilibrium at all. Instead, it is more appropriate to consider the “characteristic timescales” that arise in various applied fields. Approximate forms for the characteristic time of Brownian particle rotations do exist and we show agreement between several analytical and phenomenological-fit models to simulated data from a stochastic Langevin equation approach. We also compare several approximate models with solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation to determine their range of validity for general fields and relaxation times. The effective field model is an excellent approximation, while the linear response solution is only useful for very low fields and frequencies for realistic Brownian particle rotations. PMID:26130846

  13. Linear Vlasov theory in the shearing sheet approximation with application to the magneto-rotational instability

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, Tobias; Quataert, Eliot E-mail: eliot@berkeley.edu

    2014-09-01

    We derive the conductivity tensor for axisymmetric perturbations of a hot, collisionless, and charge-neutral plasma in the shearing sheet approximation. Our results generalize the well-known linear Vlasov theory for uniform plasmas to differentially rotating plasmas and can be used for wide range of kinetic stability calculations. We apply these results to the linear theory of the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) in collisionless plasmas. We show analytically and numerically how the general kinetic theory results derived here reduce in appropriate limits to previous results in the literature, including the low-frequency guiding center (or 'kinetic MHD') approximation, Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and the gyro-viscous approximation. We revisit the cold plasma model of the MRI and show that, contrary to previous results, an initially unmagnetized collisionless plasma is linearly stable to axisymmetric perturbations in the cold plasma approximation. In addition to their application to astrophysical plasmas, our results provide a useful framework for assessing the linear stability of differentially rotating plasmas in laboratory experiments.

  14. A Generalized Multiple Discrete Interaction Approximation for resonant four-wave interactions in wind wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolman, Hendrik L.

    2013-10-01

    For several decades, the Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA) for nonlinear resonant four-wave interactions has been the engine of third-generation wind-wave models. The present study presents a Generalized Multiple DIA (GMD) which expands upon the DIA by (i) expanding the definition of the representative quadruplet, (ii) formulating the DIA for arbitrary water depths, (iii) providing complimentary deep and shallow water scaling terms and (iv) allowing for multiple representative quadruplets. The GMD is rigorously derived to be an extension of the DIA, and is backward compatible with it. The free parameters of the GMD are optimized holistically, by optimizing full model behavior in the WAVEWATCH III® wave model as reported in a companion paper. Here, a cascade of GMD configurations with increasing complexity, accuracy and cost is presented. First, the performance of these configurations is discussed using idealized test cases used to optimize the GMD. It is shown that in deep water, GMD configurations can be found which remove most of the errors of the DIA. The GMD is also capable of representing four-wave interactions in extremely shallow water, although some remaining spurious behavior makes applications of this part of the GMD less suitable for operational wave models. Finally, several GMD configurations are applied to an idealized hurricane case, showing that results from idealized test cases indeed are representative for real-world applications, and confirming that such GMD configurations are economically feasible in operational wind wave models. Finally, the DIA results in surprisingly large model errors in hurricane conditions.

  15. Analysis of unsteady wave processes in a rotating channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosiliere, Louis M.; Mawid, M.

    1993-01-01

    The impact of passage rotation on the gas dynamic wave processes is analyzed through a numerical simulation of ideal shock-tube flow in a closed rotating-channel. Initial conditions are prescribed by assuming homentropic solid-body rotation. Relevant parameters of the problem such as wheel Mach number, hub-to-tip radius ratio, length-to-tip radius ratio, diaphragm temperature ratio, and diaphragm pressure ratio are varied. The results suggest possible criteria for assessing the consequences of passage rotation on the wave processes, and they may therefore be applicable to pressure-exchange wave rotors. It is shown that for a fixed geometry and initial conditions, the contact interface acquires a distorted three-dimensional time-dependent orientation at non-zero wheel Mach numbers. At a fixed wheel Mach number, the level of distortion depends primarily on the density ratio across the interface as well as the hub-to-tip radius ratio. Rarefaction fronts, shocks, and contact interfaces are observed to propagate faster with increasing wheel Mach number.

  16. Gravitational wave extraction in simulations of rotating stellar core collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Reisswig, C.; Ott, C. D.; Sperhake, U.; Schnetter, E.

    2011-03-15

    We perform simulations of general relativistic rotating stellar core collapse and compute the gravitational waves (GWs) emitted in the core-bounce phase of three representative models via multiple techniques. The simplest technique, the quadrupole formula (QF), estimates the GW content in the spacetime from the mass-quadrupole tensor only. It is strictly valid only in the weak-field and slow-motion approximation. For the first time, we apply GW extraction methods in core collapse that are fully curvature based and valid for strongly radiating and highly relativistic sources. These techniques are not restricted to weak-field and slow-motion assumptions. We employ three extraction methods computing (i) the Newman-Penrose (NP) scalar {Psi}{sub 4}, (ii) Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-Moncrief master functions, and (iii) Cauchy-characteristic extraction (CCE) allowing for the extraction of GWs at future null infinity, where the spacetime is asymptotically flat and the GW content is unambiguously defined. The latter technique is the only one not suffering from residual gauge and finite-radius effects. All curvature-based methods suffer from strong nonlinear drifts. We employ the fixed-frequency integration technique as a high-pass waveform filter. Using the CCE results as a benchmark, we find that finite-radius NP extraction yields results that agree nearly perfectly in phase, but differ in amplitude by {approx}1%-7% at core bounce, depending on the model. Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-Moncrief waveforms, while, in general, agreeing in phase, contain spurious high-frequency noise of comparable amplitudes to those of the relatively weak GWs emitted in core collapse. We also find remarkably good agreement of the waveforms obtained from the QF with those obtained from CCE. The results from QF agree very well in phase and systematically underpredict peak amplitudes by {approx}5%-11%, which is comparable to the NP results and is certainly within the uncertainties associated with core collapse

  17. Arc-Polarized, Nonlinear Alfven Waves and Rotational Discontinuities: Directions of Propogation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Ho, C. M.; Sakurai, R.; Arballo, J. K.; Riley, P.; Balogh, A.

    1996-01-01

    Large amplitude, noncompressive Alfven waves and rotational discontinuities are shown to be arc-polarized. The slowly rotating Alfven wave portion plus the fast rotating discontinuity comprise 360(deg) in phase rotation. The magnetic field vector perturbation lies in a plane. There are two (or more) possible interpretations to the observations.

  18. Neural rotational speed control for wave energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundarain, M.; Alberdi, M.; Garrido, A. J.; Garrido, I.

    2011-02-01

    Among the benefits arising from an increasing use of renewable energy are: enhanced security of energy supply, stimulation of economic growth, job creation and protection of the environment. In this context, this study analyses the performance of an oscillating water column device for wave energy conversion in function of the stalling behaviour in Wells turbines, one of the most widely used turbines in wave energy plants. For this purpose, a model of neural rotational speed control system is presented, simulated and implemented. This scheme is employed to appropriately adapt the speed of the doubly-fed induction generator coupled to the turbine according to the pressure drop entry, so as to avoid the undesired stalling behaviour. It is demonstrated that the proposed neural rotational speed control design adequately matches the desired relationship between the slip of the doubly-fed induction generator and the pressure drop input, improving the power generated by the turbine generator module.

  19. Interaction of solitons with long waves in a rotating fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovsky, L. A.; Stepanyants, Y. A.

    2016-10-01

    Interaction of a soliton with long background waves is studied within the framework of rotation modified Korteweg-de Vries (rKdV) equation. Using the asymptotic method for solitons propagating in the field of a long background wave we derive a set of ODEs describing soliton amplitude and phase with respect to the background wave. The shape of the background wave may range from a sinusoid to the limiting profile representing a periodic sequence of parabolic arcs. We analyse energy exchange between a soliton and the long wave taking radiation losses into account. It is shown that the losses can be compensated by energy pumping from the long wave and, as the result, a stationary soliton can exist, unlike the case when there is no variable background. A more complex case when a free long wave attenuates due to the energy consumption by a soliton is also considered. Some of the analytical results are compared with the results of direct numerical calculations within the framework of the rKdV equation.

  20. Comparison of techniques for approximating ocean bottom topography in a wave-refraction computer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the effects of using different methods for approximating bottom topography in a wave-refraction computer model was conducted. Approximation techniques involving quadratic least squares, cubic least squares, and constrained bicubic polynomial interpolation were compared for computed wave patterns and parameters in the region of Saco Bay, Maine. Although substantial local differences can be attributed to use of the different approximation techniques, results indicated that overall computed wave patterns and parameter distributions were quite similar.

  1. Infinite order sudden approximation for rotational energy transfer in gaseous mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldflam, R.; Kouri, D. J.; Green, S.

    1977-01-01

    Rotational energy transfer in gaseous mixtures is analyzed within the framework of the infinite order sudden (IOS) approximation, and a new derivation of the IOS from the coupled states Lippman-Schwinger equation is presented. This approach shows the relation between the IOS and coupled state T matrices. The general IOS effective cross section can be factored into a finite sum of 'spectroscopic coefficients' and 'dynamical coefficients'. The evaluation of these coefficients is considered. Pressure broadening for the systems HD-He, HCl-He, CO-He, HCl-Ar, and CO2-Ar is calculated, and results based on the IOS approximation are compared with coupled state results. The IOS approximation is found to be very accurate whenever the rotor spacings are small compared to the kinetic energy, provided closed channels do not play too great a role.

  2. An Approximate Method for Analysis of Solitary Waves in Nonlinear Elastic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushchitsky, J. J.; Yurchuk, V. N.

    2016-05-01

    Two types of solitary elastic waves are considered: a longitudinal plane displacement wave (longitudinal displacements along the abscissa axis of a Cartesian coordinate system) and a radial cylindrical displacement wave (displacements in the radial direction of a cylindrical coordinate system). The basic innovation is the use of nonlinear wave equations similar in form to describe these waves and the use of the same approximate method to analyze these equations. The distortion of the wave profile described by Whittaker (plane wave) or Macdonald (cylindrical wave) functions is described theoretically

  3. Relativistic r-Modes in Slowly Rotating Neutron Stars: Numerical Analysis in the Cowling Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shijun; Lee, Umin

    2002-03-01

    We investigate the properties of relativistic r-modes of slowly rotating neutron stars by using a relativistic version of the Cowling approximation. In our formalism, we take into account the influence of the Coriolis-like force on the stellar oscillations but ignore the effects of the centrifugal-like force. For three neutron star models, we calculate the fundamental r-modes with l'=m=2 and 3. We find that the oscillation frequency σ of the fundamental r-mode is given in a good approximation by σ~κ0Ω, where σ is defined in the corotating frame at spatial infinity and Ω is the angular frequency of rotation of the star. The proportional coefficient κ0 is only weakly dependent on Ω, but it strongly depends on the relativistic parameter GM/c2R, where M and R are the mass and the radius of the star. All the fundamental r-modes with l'=m computed in this study are discrete modes with distinct regular eigenfunctions, and they all fall in the continuous part of the frequency spectrum associated with Kojima's equation. These relativistic r-modes are obtained by including the effects of rotation higher than the first order of Ω so that the buoyant force plays a role, the situation of which is quite similar to that for Newtonian r-modes.

  4. Analytical approximation of transit time scattering due to magnetosonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Ni, B.; Li, J.

    2015-03-01

    Recent test particle simulations have shown that energetic electrons traveling through fast magnetosonic (MS) wave packets can experience an effect which is specifically associated with the tight equatorial confinement of these waves, known as transit time scattering. However, such test particle simulations can be computationally cumbersome and offer limited insight into the dominant physical processes controlling the wave-particle interactions, that is, in determining the effects of the various wave parameters and equatorial confinement on the particle scattering. In this paper, we show that such nonresonant effects can be effectively captured with a straightforward analytical treatment that is made possible with a set of reasonable, simplifying assumptions. It is shown that the effect of the wave confinement, which is not captured by the standard quasi-linear theory approach, acts in such a way as to broaden the range of particle energies and pitch angles that can effectively resonate with the wave. The resulting diffusion coefficients can be readily incorporated into global diffusion models in order to test the effects of transit time scattering on the dynamical evolution of radiation belt fluxes.

  5. Scattering of wave packets on atoms in the Born approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlovets, D. V.; Kotkin, G. L.; Serbo, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    It has recently been demonstrated experimentally that 200 -300 keV electrons with the unusual spatial profiles can be produced and even focused to a subnanometer scale—namely, electrons carrying nonzero orbital angular momentum and also the so-called Airy beams. Since the wave functions of such electrons do not represent plane waves, the standard Born formula for scattering of them off a potential field is no longer applicable and, hence, needs modification. In the present paper, we address the generic problem of elastic scattering of a wave packet of a fast nonrelativistic particle off a potential field. We obtain simple and convenient formulas for a number of events and an effective cross section in such a scattering, which represent generalization of the Born formula for a case when finite sizes and spatial inhomogeneity of the initial packet should be taken into account. As a benchmark, we consider two simple models corresponding to scattering of a Gaussian wave packet on a Gaussian potential and on a hydrogen atom, and perform a detailed analysis of the effects brought about by the limited sizes of the incident beam and by the finite impact parameter between the potential center and the packet's axis.

  6. Wave packet dynamics in the optimal superadiabatic approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, V.; Goddard, B. D.; Manthe, U.

    2016-06-01

    We explain the concept of superadiabatic representations and show how in the context of electronically non-adiabatic transitions they lead to an explicit formula that can be used to predict transitions at avoided crossings. Based on this formula, we present a simple method for computing wave packet dynamics across avoided crossings. Only knowledge of the adiabatic potential energy surfaces near the avoided crossing is required for the computation. In particular, this means that no diabatization procedure is necessary, the adiabatic electronic energies can be computed on the fly, and they only need to be computed to higher accuracy when an avoided crossing is detected. We test the quality of our method on the paradigmatic example of photo-dissociation of NaI, finding very good agreement with results of exact wave packet calculations.

  7. Density wave formation in differentially rotating disk galaxies: Hydrodynamic simulation of the linear regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griv, Evgeny; Wang, Hsiang-Hsu

    2014-07-01

    Most rapidly and differentially rotating disk galaxies, in which the sound speed (thermal velocity dispersion) is smaller than the orbital velocity, display graceful spiral patterns. Yet, over almost 240 yr after their discovery in M51 by Charles Messier, we still do not fully understand how they originate. In this first paper of a series, the dynamical behavior of a rotating galactic disk is examined numerically by a high-order Godunov hydrodynamic code. The code is implemented to simulate a two-dimensional flow driven by an internal Jeans gravitational instability in a nonresonant wave-“fluid” interaction in an infinitesimally thin disk composed of stars or gas clouds. A goal of this work is to explore the local and linear regimes of density wave formation, employed by Lin, Shu, Yuan and many others in connection with the problem of spiral pattern of rotationally supported galaxies, by means of computer-generated models and to compare those numerical results with the generalized fluid-dynamical wave theory. The focus is on a statistical analysis of time-evolution of density wave structures seen in the simulations. The leading role of collective processes in the formation of both the circular and spiral density waves (“heavy sound”) is emphasized. The main new result is that the disk evolution in the initial, quasilinear stage of the instability in our global simulations is fairly well described using the local approximation of the generalized wave theory. Certain applications of the simulation to actual gas-rich spiral galaxies are also explored.

  8. Translation of waves along quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature two-dimensional local induction approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2015-09-15

    In a recent paper, we give a study of the purely rotational motion of general stationary states in the two-dimensional local induction approximation (2D-LIA) governing superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit [B. Svistunov, “Superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3647 (1995)]. Such results demonstrated that variety of stationary configurations are possible from vortex filaments exhibiting purely rotational motion in addition to commonly discussed configurations such as helical or planar states. However, the filaments (or, more properly, waves along these filaments) can also exhibit translational motion along the axis of orientation. In contrast to the study on vortex configurations for purely rotational stationary states, the present paper considers non-stationary states which exhibit a combination of rotation and translational motions. These solutions can essentially be described as waves or disturbances which ride along straight vortex filament lines. As expected from our previous work, there are a number of types of structures that can be obtained under the 2D-LIA. We focus on non-stationary states, as stationary states exhibiting translation will essentially take the form of solutions studied in [R. A. Van Gorder, “General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation,” Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)], with the difference being translation along the reference axis, so that qualitative appearance of the solution geometry will be the same (even if there are quantitative differences). We discuss a wide variety of general properties of these non-stationary solutions and derive cases in which they reduce to known stationary states. We obtain various routes to Kelvin waves along vortex filaments and demonstrate that if the phase and amplitude of a disturbance both propagate with the same wave speed, then Kelvin waves will result. We also consider the self

  9. A diffusion approximation for ocean wave scatterings by randomly distributed ice floes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Shen, Hayley

    2016-11-01

    This study presents a continuum approach using a diffusion approximation method to solve the scattering of ocean waves by randomly distributed ice floes. In order to model both strong and weak scattering, the proposed method decomposes the wave action density function into two parts: the transmitted part and the scattered part. For a given wave direction, the transmitted part of the wave action density is defined as the part of wave action density in the same direction before the scattering; and the scattered part is a first order Fourier series approximation for the directional spreading caused by scattering. An additional approximation is also adopted for simplification, in which the net directional redistribution of wave action by a single scatterer is assumed to be the reflected wave action of a normally incident wave into a semi-infinite ice cover. Other required input includes the mean shear modulus, diameter and thickness of ice floes, and the ice concentration. The directional spreading of wave energy from the diffusion approximation is found to be in reasonable agreement with the previous solution using the Boltzmann equation. The diffusion model provides an alternative method to implement wave scattering into an operational wave model.

  10. Approximation of the Garrett-Munk internal wave spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibragimov, Ranis N.; Vatchev, Vesselin

    2011-12-01

    The spectral models of Garrett and Munk (1972, 1975) continue to be a useful description of the oceanic energy spectrum. However, there are several ambiguities (many of them are summarized, for example, in Levine, 2002) that make it difficult to use e.g., in a dissipation modeling (e.g., Hibiya et al., 1996, and Winters and D'Asaro, 1997). An approximate spectral formulation is presented in this work by means of the modified Running Median Methods.

  11. Electron Ionization Cross Sections in the Distorted-Wave Approximation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-18

    solution T(rl, r2 ) of the Schr ~ dinger equation is not known. Moreover, it is difficult to satisfy condition (9) for effective charges Z and Z’ as... computing time . It is therefore suitable for a production of large number of data needed in the analysis and interpretation of hot plasmas in laboratory...goal was to develop an approximation based on the quantum-mechanical approach to the collision problem, simple enough so that it would be suitable

  12. Experiments on conical beam waves in a rotating stratified fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidman, P.; Peacock, T.

    2003-11-01

    Though the theory of linear disturbances in a rotating stratified fluid is well known (Waves in the Ocean, Le Blond and Mysak), direct experimental verification of the cut-off frequencies and inclination angles of these gyroscopic/internal gravity wave conical beams seems not to have been performed. A large cylindrical tank riding on an air-bearing platform is linearly stratified with salt-water using the double-bucket method. Density profiles are measured in situ with a conductivity probe. Visualization of a section of the upward and downward propagating conical beams generated from a sphere vertically oscillating about its central position along the cylinder axis is performed using the ``synthetic schlieren" technique for axisymmetric density fields. Preliminary data for the beam angles θ from horizontal at three nominal Brunt-Väisälä freqencies N = 0.55, 1.05, 1.60 show good quantative agreement with theory at three nominal rotation rates 2 Ω/N = 0, 1/3, 2/3.

  13. Lower Hybrid Wave Induced Rotation on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Ron; Podpaly, Yuri; Rice, John; Schmidt, Andrea

    2009-11-01

    Injection of RF power in the vicinity of the lower hybrid frequency has been observed to cause strong counter current rotation in Alcator C-Mod plasmas [1,2]. The spin-up rate is consistent with the rate at which momentum is injected by the LH waves, and also the rate at which fast electron momentum is transferred to the ions. A momentum diffusivity of ˜ 0.1 m^2/s is sufficient to account for the observed steady-state rotation. This value is also comparable with that derived from an analysis of rotation induced by RF mode conversion [3]. Radial force balance requires a radial electric field, suggesting a buildup of negative charge in the plasma core. This may be the result of an inward pinch of the LH produced fast electrons, as would be expected for resonant trapped particles. Analysis of the fast-electron-produced bremsstrahlung during LH power modulation experiments yields an inward pinch velocity of ˜ 1 m/s, consistent with the estimated trapped particle pinch velocity. [4pt] [1] A. Ince-Cushman, et.al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 102, 035002 (2009)[0pt] [2] J. E. Rice, et. al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 025004 (2009)[0pt] [3] Y. Lin, et.al., this meeting

  14. Millimeter Wave Tunneling-Rotational Spectrum of Phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikova, L.; Daly, A. M.; Alonso, J. L.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.

    2013-06-01

    The millimeter wave spectra of phenol in the vibrational ground state and the first excited states of the bending and torsion vibrational modes have been studied in the frequency regions of 140 - 170 GHz and 280 - 360 GHz. The internal rotation of the hydroxyl group is responsible for the observed tunneling splitting into two substates (v_{t}, v_{b})^{+} and (v_{t}, v_{b})^{-} and more than 3500 distinct tunneling-rotational ^{b}R- and ^{b}Q-type transitions between them were measured and analyzed. Furthermore, accidental near degeneracies of the (+) and (-) energy levels were observed in case of the ground state and the v_{b} = 1 excited state and the analysis using a two-state effective Hamiltonian including tunneling-rotational Coriolis terms was performed. The spectroscopic constants for the first excited states of the bending and the torsion vibrational modes have been determined for the first time. The analysis of the microwave data provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants necessary for the astrophysical search of phenol. We report a tentative detection for this molecule in the IRAM 30m line survey of Orion KL.

  15. The millimeter wave tunneling-rotational spectrum of phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesniková, L.; Daly, A. M.; Alonso, J. L.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.

    2013-07-01

    The millimeter wave spectra of phenol in the vibrational ground state and the first excited states of the bending and torsion vibrational modes have been studied in the frequency regions of 140-170 GHz and 280-360 GHz. The internal rotation of the hydroxyl group is responsible for the observed tunneling splitting into two substates (vt, vb)+ and (vt, vb)- and more than 3500 distinct tunneling-rotational bR- and bQ-type transitions between them were measured and analyzed. Furthermore, accidental near degeneracies of the (±) and (-) energy levels were observed in case of the ground state and the vb = 1 excited state and the analysis using a two-state effective Hamiltonian including tunneling-rotational Coriolis-like terms was performed. The analysis of the microwave data provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants necessary for the astrophysical search of phenol. We report a tentative detection for this molecule in the IRAM 30m line survey of Orion KL.

  16. Converter of rotating-transformer signals to code of successive-approximation angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domrachev, V. G.; Podolyan, V. A.

    1986-01-01

    A cyclic converter of signals from a rotating sine-cosine resolver transformer to a binary code of the angle through successive approximation was designed with large to small scale circuit integration. Its two channels yield informative outputs of 12-bit word length. The conversion process is conventional, with mismatch signals being formed in accordance with the algorithms and then reduced to zero digit by digit by the method of successive approximations. Variable input signals are converted into constant ones with the aid of a sampler-storage device. Other converter components are a read-only memory with synchronous pulse energizing and synchronous code recording, a digital to analog converter, four sign-inverting analog switches, a comparator with summation of products at the input and a trigger transmitting the somparator output signal to a successive approximations register, as well as analog switches for channel commutation and function commutation, operational amplifier, and resistor banks. Functions are recorded in the memory without deficiency, owing to addition of a modified memory which records codes with excess.

  17. Exhaust Gas Emissions from a Rotating Detonation-wave Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. Progress towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model including NOx chemistry is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release. Work sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  18. Gravity Wave Emission by Spontaneous Imbalance of Baroclinic Waves in the Continuously Stratified Rotating Annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, S.; Achatz, U.; Rieper, F.; Fruman, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    We use a numerical model of the classic differentially heated rotating annulus experiment to study the spontaneous emission of gravity waves (GWs) from jet stream imbalances, which is a major source of these waves in the atmosphere for which no satisfactory parameterization exists. Atmospheric observations are the main tool for the testing and verification of theoretical concepts but have their limitations. Given their specific potential for yielding reproducible data and for studying process dependence on external system parameters, laboratory experiments are an invaluable complementary tool. Experiments with a rotating annulus exhibiting a jet modulated by large-scale waves due to baroclinic instability have already been used to study GWs: Williams et al (2008) observed spontaneously emitted interfacial GWs in a two-layer flow, and Jacoby et al (2011) detected GWs emitted from boundary-layer instabilities in a differentially heated rotating annulus. Employing a new finite-volume code for the numerical simulation of a continuously stratified liquid in a differentially heated rotating annulus, we here investigate whether such an experiment might be useful for studies of spontaneous imbalance. A major problem was the identification of experimental parameters yielding an atmosphere-like regime where the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is larger than the inertial frequency, so that energy transport by the lowest-frequency waves is predominantly horizontal while high-frequency GWs transport energy vertically. We show that this is indeed the case for a wide and shallow annulus with relatively large temperature difference between the inner and outer cylinder walls. We also show that this set-up yields a conspicuous signal in the horizontal divergence field close to the meandering jet. Various analyses support the notion that this signal is predominantly due to GWs superposed on a geostrophic flow. Jacoby, T. N. L., Read, P. L., Williams, P. D. and Young, R. M. B., 2011

  19. Accuracy of the water column approximation in numerically simulating propagation of teleseismic PP waves and Rayleigh waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Ni, Sidao; Chu, Risheng; Yao, Huajian

    2016-08-01

    Numerical solvers of wave equations have been widely used to simulate global seismic waves including PP waves for modelling 410/660 km discontinuity and Rayleigh waves for imaging crustal structure. In order to avoid extra computation cost due to ocean water effects, these numerical solvers usually adopt water column approximation, whose accuracy depends on frequency and needs to be investigated quantitatively. In this paper, we describe a unified representation of accurate and approximate forms of the equivalent water column boundary condition as well as the free boundary condition. Then we derive an analytical form of the PP-wave reflection coefficient with the unified boundary condition, and quantify the effects of water column approximation on amplitude and phase shift of the PP waves. We also study the effects of water column approximation on phase velocity dispersion of the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave with a propagation matrix method. We find that with the water column approximation: (1) The error of PP amplitude and phase shift is less than 5 per cent and 9° at periods greater than 25 s for most oceanic regions. But at periods of 15 s or less, PP is inaccurate up to 10 per cent in amplitude and a few seconds in time shift for deep oceans. (2) The error in Rayleigh wave phase velocity is less than 1 per cent at periods greater than 30 s in most oceanic regions, but the error is up to 2 per cent for deep oceans at periods of 20 s or less. This study confirms that the water column approximation is only accurate at long periods and it needs to be improved at shorter periods.

  20. Dynamics of zonal flows: failure of wave-kinetic theory, and new geometrical optics approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey B.

    2016-12-01

    The self-organisation of turbulence into regular zonal flows can be fruitfully investigated with quasi-linear methods and statistical descriptions. A wave-kinetic equation that assumes asymptotically large-scale zonal flows leads to ultraviolet divergence. From an exact description of quasi-linear dynamics emerges two better geometrical optics approximations. These involve not only the mean flow shear but also the second and third derivative of the mean flow. One approximation takes the form of a new wave-kinetic equation, but is only valid when the zonal flow is quasi-static and wave action is conserved.

  1. Dust Rotation Effects on DIA Surface Waves in a Semi-bounded Lorentzian Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Jae

    2008-09-07

    The dispersion relation for a dust ion-acoustic (DIA) surface wave is kinetically derived for the semi-bounded Lorentzian plasma containing elongated and rotating charged dust particles. The DIA surface wave frequency is found to be decreased as the dust rotational frequency increases.

  2. ANALYTIC APPROXIMATE SEISMOLOGY OF PROPAGATING MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, M.; Soler, R.; Arregui, I.

    2012-12-01

    Observations show that propagating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere. The technique of MHD seismology uses the wave observations combined with MHD wave theory to indirectly infer physical parameters of the solar atmospheric plasma and magnetic field. Here, we present an analytical seismological inversion scheme for propagating MHD waves. This scheme uses the observational information on wavelengths and damping lengths in a consistent manner, along with observed values of periods or phase velocities, and is based on approximate asymptotic expressions for the theoretical values of wavelengths and damping lengths. The applicability of the inversion scheme is discussed and an example is given.

  3. Exploiting the weak temperature gradient approximation for climate theory on slowly rotating, tidally locked planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S. M.; Abbot, D. S.; Pierrehumbert, R.

    2011-12-01

    Tidally locked planets are subject to extreme temperature variations due to the stellar flux directly warming only one side of the planet. This is important because planets in the habitable zone around M dwarf stars are likely to be tidally locked. Such planets are unlikely to be habitable if their antistellar temperatures are low enough that CO2 will condense. This problem has previously been investigated using GCMs, which explicitly solve for atmospheric dynamics. In order to gain a greater understanding of the effect of different mechanisms on the temperature profile, we use a lower-order energy balance model here. We consider tidally locked planets that rotate slowly enough that we can neglect the Coriolis force, which allows us to assume that atmospheric temperature at any given height is independent of horizontal position (weak temperature gradient approximation). This allows us to easily isolate and contrast the effects of different physical mechanisms, such as greenhouse gas level and surface turbulent exchange, on the resulting temperature profile. We find that the effect of turbulent exchange on climate saturates at fairly low values (very smooth planets), whereas CO2 has a consistently strong effect on climate.

  4. A simple approximation for wave refraction - Application to the assessment of the nearshore wave directionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Ruiz, Alejandro; Solari, Sebastián; Ortega-Sánchez, Miguel; Losada, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    This work presents a simple and relatively quick methodology to obtain the nearshore wave angle. The method is especially valuable for curvilinear coasts where Snell's law may provide excessively inaccurate results. We defined a correction factor, K, that depends on the geometry of the coast and on the wave climate. The values of this coefficient were obtained minimizing the differences with a sophisticated numerical model. The limitations and performance of the methodology are further discussed. The procedure was applied to a beach in Southern Spain to analyze the influence of shoreline geometry on nearshore wave directionality. Offshore and nearshore distributions of wave period and directions were analyzed, and the results showed that the geometry of the coast played a crucial role in the directionality of the nearshore waves, which also plays an important role in hydrodynamics. The methodology presented here is able to analyze and quantify the importance of this directionality without a noticeable computational cost, even when a long time series of wave data are considered. Hence, this methodology constitutes a useful and efficient tool for practical applications in Coastal and Ocean Engineering, such as sedimentary, wave energy, and wave climate studies.

  5. AN EFFICIENT APPROXIMATION TO THE LIKELIHOOD FOR GRAVITATIONAL WAVE STOCHASTIC BACKGROUND DETECTION USING PULSAR TIMING DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Van Haasteren, R.

    2013-05-20

    Direct detection of gravitational waves by pulsar timing arrays will become feasible over the next few years. In the low frequency regime (10{sup -7} Hz-10{sup -9} Hz), we expect that a superposition of gravitational waves from many sources will manifest itself as an isotropic stochastic gravitational wave background. Currently, a number of techniques exist to detect such a signal; however, many detection methods are computationally challenging. Here we introduce an approximation to the full likelihood function for a pulsar timing array that results in computational savings proportional to the square of the number of pulsars in the array. Through a series of simulations we show that the approximate likelihood function reproduces results obtained from the full likelihood function. We further show, both analytically and through simulations, that, on average, this approximate likelihood function gives unbiased parameter estimates for astrophysically realistic stochastic background amplitudes.

  6. Calculating Rotating Hydrodynamic and Magnetohydrodynamic Waves to Understand Magnetic Effects on Dynamical Tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xing

    2016-09-01

    To understand magnetic effects on dynamical tides, we study the rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow driven by harmonic forcing. The linear responses are analytically derived in a periodic box under the local WKB approximation. Both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are calculated, and the various parameters are investigated. Although magnetic pressure may be negligible compared to thermal pressure, the magnetic field can be important for the first-order perturbation, e.g., dynamical tides. It is found that the magnetic field splits the resonant frequency, namely the rotating hydrodynamic flow has only one resonant frequency, but the rotating MHD flow has two, one positive and the other negative. In the weak field regime the dissipations are asymmetric around the two resonant frequencies and this asymmetry is more striking with a weaker magnetic field. It is also found that both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are inversely proportional to the Ekman number and the square of the wavenumber. The dissipation at the resonant frequency on small scales is almost equal to the dissipation at the non-resonant frequencies, namely the resonance takes its effect on the dissipation at intermediate length scales. Moreover, the waves with phase propagation that is perpendicular to the magnetic field are much more damped. It is also interesting to find that the frequency-averaged dissipation is constant. This result suggests that in compact objects, magnetic effects on tidal dissipation should be considered.

  7. Self-consistent internal structure of a rotating gaseous planet and its comparison with an approximation by oblate spheroidal equidensity surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    In an important paper, Roberts (1963b) studied the hydrostatic equilibrium of an isolated, self-gravitating, rapidly rotating polytropic gaseous body based on a controversial assumption/approximation that all (outer and internal) equidensity surfaces are in the shape of oblate spheroids whose eccentricities are a function of the equatorial radius and whose axes of symmetry are parallel to the rotation axis. We compute the three-dimensional, finite-element, fully self-consistent, continuous solution for a rapidly rotating polytropic gaseous body with Jupiter-like parameters without making any prior assumptions about its outer shape and internal structure. Upon partially relaxing the Roberts' approximation by assuming that only the outer equidensity surface is in the shape of an oblate spheroid, we also compute a finite-element solution with the same parameters without making any prior assumptions about its internal structure. It is found that all equidensity surfaces of the fully self-consistent solution differ only slightly from the oblate spheroidal shape. It is also found that the characteristic difference between the fully self-consistent solution and the outer-spheroidal-shape solution is insignificantly small. Our results suggest that the Roberts' assumption of spheroidal equidensity surfaces represents a reasonably accurate approximation for rotating polytropic gaseous bodies with Jupiter-like parameters. The numerical accuracy of our finite-element solution is checked by an exact analytic solution based on the Green's function using the spheroidal wave function. The three different solutions in non-spherical geometries - the fully self-consistent numerical solution, the numerical solution with the outer spheroidal shape and the exact analytical solution - can also serve as a useful benchmark for other solutions based on different numerical methods.

  8. An approximation to the reflection coefficient of plane longitudinal waves based on the diffusive-viscous wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haixia; Gao, Jinghuai; Peng, Jigen

    2017-01-01

    The frequency-dependent seismic anomalies related to hydrocarbon reservoirs have lately attracted wide interest. The diffusive-viscous model was proposed to explain these anomalies. When an incident diffusive-viscous wave strikes a boundary between two different media, it is reflected and transmitted. The equation for the reflection coefficient is quite complex and laborious, so it does not provide an intuitive understanding of how different amplitude relates to the parameters of the media and how variation of a particular parameter affects the reflection coefficient. In this paper, we firstly derive a two-term (intercept-gradient) and three-term (intercept-gradient-curvature) approximation to the reflection coefficient of the plane diffusive-viscous wave without any assumptions. Then, we study the limitations of the obtained approximations by comparing the approximate value of the reflection coefficient with its exact value. Our results show that the two approximations match well with the exact solutions within the incident angle of 35°. Finally, we analyze the effects of diffusive and viscous attenuation parameters, velocity and density in the diffusive-viscous wave equation on the intercept, gradient and curvature terms in the approximations. The results show that the diffusive attenuation parameter has a big impact on them, while the viscous attenuation parameter is insensitive to them; the velocity and density have a significant influence on the normal reflections and they distinctly affect the intercept, gradient and curvature term at lower acoustic impedance.

  9. The Detectability of Millimeter-wave Molecular Rotational Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liszt, Harvey S.; Pety, Jerome

    2016-06-01

    Elaborating on a formalism that was first expressed some 40 years ago, we consider the brightness of low-lying millimeter-wave rotational lines of strongly polar molecules at the threshold of detectability. We derive a simple expression relating the brightness to the line-of-sight integral of the product of the total gas and molecular number densities and a suitably defined temperature-dependent excitation rate into the upper level of the transition. Detectability of a line is contingent only on the ability of a molecule to channel enough of the ambient thermal energy into the line, and the excitation can be computed in bulk by summing over rates without solving the multi-level rate equations, or computing optical depths and excitation temperatures. Results for {{HCO}}+, HNC, and CS are compared with escape-probability solutions of the rate equations using closed-form expressions for the expected range of validity of our ansatz, with the result that gas number densities as high as {10}4 {{{cm}}}-3 or optical depths as high as 100 can be accommodated in some cases. For densities below a well-defined upper bound, the range of validity of the discussion can be cast as an upper bound on the line brightness which is 0.3 K for the J = 1-0 lines and 0.8-1.7 K for the J = 2-1 lines of these species. The discussion casts new light on the interpretation of line brightnesses under conditions of weak excitation, simplifies derivation of physical parameters, and eliminates the need to construct grids of numerical solutions of the rate equations.

  10. Projection operators for the Rossby and Poincare waves in a beta-plane approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedkina, Anastasia; Ivan, Karpov; Sergej, Leble

    2013-04-01

    . The idea to use the polarization relations for the classification of waves originated in radio physics in the works of A. A. Novikov. In the theory of the electromagnetic field polarization relations is traditionally included in the analysis of wave phenomena. In the theory of acoustic-gravity waves, projection operators were introduced in a works of S. B. Leble. The object of study is a four-dimentional vector (components of the velocity, pressure and temperature). Based on these assumptions, we can construct the projection operators for superposition state on the linear basis, corresponding to the well-known type of waves. In this paper we consider procedure for construction of a projection operators for planetary Rossby and Poincare waves in the Earth's atmosphere in the approximation of the "beta-plane". In a result of work we constructed projection operators in this approximation for Poincare and Rossby waves. The tests for operators shown, that separation of the contribution of corresponding waves from source of the wave field is possible. Estimation accuracy of the operators and results of applying operators to the data TEC presented.

  11. Gravity jitter effected slosh waves and the stability of a rotating bubble under microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The instability of liquid and gas interface can be induced by the pressure of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, vehicle vibration, and rotational fields of spacecraft in a microgravity environment. Characteristics of slosh waves excited by the restoring force field of gravity jitters have been investigated. Results show that lower frequency gravity jitters excite slosh wave with higher ratio of maximum amplitude to wave length than that of the slosh waves generated by the higher frequency gravity jitters.

  12. One-way approximation for the simulation of weak shock wave propagation in atmospheric flows.

    PubMed

    Gallin, Louis-Jonardan; Rénier, Mathieu; Gaudard, Eric; Farges, Thomas; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François

    2014-05-01

    A numerical scheme is developed to simulate the propagation of weak acoustic shock waves in the atmosphere with no absorption. It generalizes the method previously developed for a heterogeneous medium [Dagrau, Rénier, Marchiano, and Coulouvrat, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 20-32 (2011)] to the case of a moving medium. It is based on an approximate scalar wave equation for potential, rewritten in a moving time frame, and separated into three parts: (i) the linear wave equation in a homogeneous and quiescent medium, (ii) the effects of atmospheric winds and of density and speed of sound heterogeneities, and (iii) nonlinearities. Each effect is then solved separately by an adapted method: angular spectrum for the wave equation, finite differences for the flow and heterogeneity corrections, and analytical method in time domain for nonlinearities. To keep a one-way formulation, only forward propagating waves are kept in the angular spectrum part, while a wide-angle parabolic approximation is performed on the correction terms. The numerical process is validated in the case of guided modal propagation with a shear flow. It is then applied to the case of blast wave propagation within a boundary layer flow over a flat and rigid ground.

  13. Effective medium approximation for effective propagation constant calculation in a dense random medium. [electromagnetic wave scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, P. Y.; Fung, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    The effective medium approximation (EMA) formalism developed for scalar wave calculations in solid state physics is generalized to electromagnetic wave scattering in a dense random medium. Results are applied to compute the effective propagation constant in a dense medium involving discrete spherical scatterers. When compared with a common quasicrystalline approximation (QCA), it is found that EMA accounts for backward scattering and the effect of correlation among three scatterers which are not available in QCA. It is also found that there is not much difference in the calculated normalized phase velocity between the use of these two approximations. However, there is a significant difference in the computed effective loss tangent in a nonabsorptive random medium. The computed effective loss tangent using EMA and measurements from a snow medium are compared, showing good agreement.

  14. Equation of State Dependence of Gravitational Waves from Rapidly Rotating Core-Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richers, Sherwood; Ott, Christian D.; Abdikamalov, Ernazar

    2016-03-01

    We carry out axisymmetric simulations of rotating core-collapse, exploring over 92 precollapse rotational configurations and 18 different finite-temperature microphysical equations of state (EOS) using the general-relativistic hydrodynamical code CoCoNuT. Our focus is on gravitational wave (GW) emission. We find that the GW wave signature depends systematically on the rotation rate of the inner core at bounce and the compactness of the protoneutron star (PNS), set by the EOS and rotation. The GW signal from core bounce is almost independent of the EOS. However, the frequency of the post-bounce ring down signal from the fundamental quadrupole oscillation mode of the PNS is dependent on both rotation and the EOS, increasing with rotation rate and compactness. We will discuss the origin of the EOS-dependent f-mode frequency variation and its potential observability with Advanced LIGO.

  15. Geometric Phase Of The Faraday Rotation Of Electromagnetic Waves In Magnetized Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Liu and Hong Qin

    2011-11-07

    The geometric phase of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves in nonuniform magnetized plasmas is studied theoretically. The variation of the propagation direction of circularly polarized waves results in a geometric phase, which also contributes to the Faraday rotation, in addition to the standard dynamical phase. The origin and properties of the geometric phase is investigated. The in uence of the geometric phase to plasma diagnostics using Faraday rotation is also discussed as an application of the theory.

  16. Comparison of methods for calculating Franck-Condon factors beyond the harmonic approximation: how important are Duschinsky rotations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Patrick; Rauhut, Guntram

    2015-12-01

    Three different approaches for calculating Franck-Condon factors beyond the harmonic approximation are compared and discussed in detail. Duschinsky effects are accounted for either by a rotation of the initial or final wavefunctions - which are obtained from state-specific configuration-selective vibrational configuration interaction calculations - or by a rotation of the underlying multi-dimensional potential energy surfaces being determined from explicitly correlated coupled-cluster approaches. An analysis of the Duschinsky effects in dependence on the rotational angles and the anisotropy of the wavefunction is provided. Benchmark calculations for the photoelectron spectra of ClO2, HS-2 and ZnOH- are presented. An application of the favoured approach for calculating Franck-Condon factors to the oxidation of Zn(H2O)+ and Zn2(H2O)+ demonstrates its applicability to systems with more than three atoms.

  17. Rotational manipulation of single cells and organisms using acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Daniel; Ozcelik, Adem; Bojanala, Nagagireesh; Nama, Nitesh; Upadhyay, Awani; Chen, Yuchao; Hanna-Rose, Wendy; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-01-01

    The precise rotational manipulation of single cells or organisms is invaluable to many applications in biology, chemistry, physics and medicine. In this article, we describe an acoustic-based, on-chip manipulation method that can rotate single microparticles, cells and organisms. To achieve this, we trapped microbubbles within predefined sidewall microcavities inside a microchannel. In an acoustic field, trapped microbubbles were driven into oscillatory motion generating steady microvortices which were utilized to precisely rotate colloids, cells and entire organisms (that is, C. elegans). We have tested the capabilities of our method by analysing reproductive system pathologies and nervous system morphology in C. elegans. Using our device, we revealed the underlying abnormal cell fusion causing defective vulval morphology in mutant worms. Our acoustofluidic rotational manipulation (ARM) technique is an easy-to-use, compact, and biocompatible method, permitting rotation regardless of optical, magnetic or electrical properties of the sample under investigation. PMID:27004764

  18. Effect on plasma rotation of lower hybrid (LH) waves in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. P.; Barnes, M.; Parker, R. R.; Rice, J. E.; Parra, F. I.; Bonoli, P. T.; Reinke, M. L.

    2014-02-12

    The injection of LH waves for current drive into a tokamak changes the ion toroidal rotation. In Alcator C-Mod, the direction of the steady state rotation change due to LH waves depends on the plasma current and the density. The change in rotation can be estimated by balancing the external torque of lower hybrid waves with the turbulent radial transport of the momentum. For high plasma current, the turbulent pinch and diffusion of the injected counter-current momentum are sufficient to explain the rotation change. However, for low plasma current, the change in the the intrinsic momentum transport (residual stress) for a non-rotating state is required to explain the co-current rotation change. Accordingly, we investigate the intrinsic momentum transport for the non-rotating state when diamagnetic flow and ExB flow cancel each other. The change in the intrinsic momentum transport due to lower hybrid waves is significant when the plasma current is low, which may explain the rotation reversal for low plasma current. The effect of changed q (safety factor) profile by lower hybrid on the intrinsic momentum transport is estimated by gyrokinetics.

  19. The breakdown of the anelastic approximation in rotating compressible convection: implications for astrophysical systems

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Michael A.; Julien, Keith; Marti, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The linear theory for rotating compressible convection in a plane layer geometry is presented for the astrophysically relevant case of low Prandtl number gases. When the rotation rate of the system is large, the flow remains geostrophically balanced for all stratification levels investigated and the classical (i.e. incompressible) asymptotic scaling laws for the critical parameters are recovered. For sufficiently small Prandtl numbers, increasing stratification tends to further destabilize the fluid layer, decrease the critical wavenumber and increase the oscillation frequency of the convective instability. In combination, these effects increase the relative magnitude of the time derivative of the density perturbation contained in the conservation of mass equation to non-negligible levels; the resulting convective instabilities occur in the form of compressional quasi-geostrophic oscillations. We find that the anelastic equations, which neglect this term, cannot capture these instabilities and possess spuriously growing eigenmodes in the rapidly rotating, low Prandtl number regime. It is shown that the Mach number for rapidly rotating compressible convection is intrinsically small for all background states, regardless of the departure from adiabaticity. PMID:25792951

  20. Approximate entropy analysis of short-term HFECG based on wave mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xinbao; Xu, Yinlin; Wang, Jun; Ma, Xiaofei

    2005-02-01

    An improved approximate entropy (ApEn) algorithm based on wave mode is proposed by analyzing and modifying ApEn, so that the irregular analysis can be applied to analyze the short-term series, which contain a great deal of detailed information and fluctuate slowly but in a wide range, such as high-frequency electrocardiogram (HFECG). By analyzing the complexity of HFECG, a conclusion can be drawn that ApEn algorithm based on wave mode can obviously distinguish heart diseases from the healthy group. Therefore, it is of significance for diagnosing myocardial infarction in time.

  1. Tidal waves in 102Pd: a rotating condensate of multiple d bosons.

    PubMed

    Ayangeakaa, A D; Garg, U; Caprio, M A; Carpenter, M P; Ghugre, S S; Janssens, R V F; Kondev, F G; Matta, J T; Mukhopadhyay, S; Patel, D; Seweryniak, D; Sun, J; Zhu, S; Frauendorf, S

    2013-03-08

    Low-lying collective excitations in even-even vibrational and transitional nuclei may be described semiclassically as quadrupole running waves on the surface of the nucleus ("tidal waves"), and the observed vibrational-rotational behavior can be thought of as resulting from a rotating condensate of interacting d bosons. These concepts have been investigated by measuring lifetimes of the levels in the yrast band of the (102)Pd nucleus with the Doppler shift attenuation method. The extracted B(E2) reduced transition probabilities for the yrast band display a monotonic increase with spin, in agreement with the interpretation based on rotation-induced condensation of aligned d bosons.

  2. Generation of shear Alfven waves by a rotating magnetic field source: Three-dimensional simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Karavaev, A. V.; Gumerov, N. A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, Xi; Sharma, A. S.; Gekelman, W.; Wang, Y.; Van Compernolle, B.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.

    2011-03-15

    The paper discusses the generation of polarized shear Alfven waves radiated from a rotating magnetic field source created via a phased orthogonal two-loop antenna. A semianalytical three-dimensional cold two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics model was developed and compared with recent experiments in the University of California, Los Angeles large plasma device. Comparison of the simulation results with the experimental measurements and the linear shear Alfven wave properties, namely, spatiotemporal wave structure, a dispersion relation with nonzero transverse wave number, the magnitude of the wave dependences on the wave frequency, show good agreement. From the simulations it was found that the energy of the Alfven wave generated by the rotating magnetic field source is distributed between the kinetic energy of ions and electrons and the electromagnetic energy of the wave as: {approx}1/2 is the energy of the electromagnetic field, {approx}1/2 is the kinetic energy of the ion fluid, and {approx}2.5% is the kinetic energy of electron fluid for the experiment. The wave magnetic field power calculated from the experimental data and using a fluid model differ by {approx}1% and is {approx}250 W for the experimental parameters. In both the experiment and the three-dimensional two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics simulations the rotating magnetic field source was found to be very efficient for generating shear Alfven waves.

  3. Observation of Co and Counter Rotation Produced by Lower Hybrid Waves in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, R. R.; Podpaly, Y.; Lee, J.; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J. E.; Bonoli, P. T.; Meneghini, O.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; Wilson, J. R.

    2011-12-23

    Lower hybrid waves launched uni-directionally into tokamak plasmas impart momentum to the electrons. This momentum can be transferred to the ions, leading to substantial counter current rotation. Observations of LH-induced counter rotation have been previously reported [1], and the initial rate of increase has been found to be consistent with the calculated rate of wave momentum injection [2]. However, in recent experiments in Alcator C-Mod it has been found that application of LH waves to relatively low current (I{sub p}{approx}0.4-0.6 MA) plasmas can result in a co-current change of rotation, which implies a different mechanism than that described above. This appears to be linked to the so-called intrinsic rotation commonly observed in Alcator C-Mod and other tokamaks [3]. In addition to the change in direction at low current, some dependence on the magnetic configuration (USL vs. LSN) has been observed.

  4. At what spatio-temporal scales can inertial waves be found in rotating turbulence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Campagne, Antoine; Gallet, Basile; Moisy, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    We present a spatio-temporal analysis of a statistically stationary rotating turbulence experiments aiming to extract a statistical signature of inertial waves and to determine at what scales and frequencies these waves can be detected. This analysis is performed from two-point correlations of temporal Fourier transform of the velocity fields time series obtained from stereoscopic PIV measurements in the rotating frame. From this data, it is possible to quantify the degree of anisotropy of turbulence due to global rotation both as a function of angular frequency ω and spatial scale normal to the rotation axis r⊥. This frequency and scale dependent anisotropy is found compatible with the dispersion relation of inertial waves, provided that a weak non-linearity condition is satisfied in terms of a properly defined Rossby number dependant on the spatio-temporal scale (ω,r⊥).

  5. Long-wave approximation for hybridization modeling of local surface plasmonic resonance in nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ben Q; Liu, Changhong

    2011-01-15

    A hybridization model for the localized surface plasmon resonance of a nanoshell is developed within the framework of long-wave approximation. Compared with the existing hybridization model derived from the hydrodynamic simulation of free electron gas, this approach is much simpler and gives identical results for a concentric nanoshell. Also, with this approach, the limitations associated with the original hybridization model are succinctly stated. Extension of this approach to hybridization modeling of more complicated structures such as multiplayered nanoshells is straightforward.

  6. An Approximate Analytical Model of Shock Waves from Underground Nuclear Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Technical Information Service (NTIS). Qualified requestors may obtain additional copies from the Defense Technical Information Center. All others should...apply to the National Technical Information Service. If your address has changed, or .if you wish to be removed from the mailing list, or if the addressee...NUMBERS An Approximate Analvtlial Model of Shock Waves from Contract Underground Nuclear Explosions F19628-88-K-0040

  7. Approximation to cutoffs of higher modes of Rayleigh waves for a layered earth model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    A cutoff defines the long-period termination of a Rayleigh-wave higher mode and, therefore is a key characteristic of higher mode energy relationship to several material properties of the subsurface. Cutoffs have been used to estimate the shear-wave velocity of an underlying half space of a layered earth model. In this study, we describe a method that replaces the multilayer earth model with a single surface layer overlying the half-space model, accomplished by harmonic averaging of velocities and arithmetic averaging of densities. Using numerical comparisons with theoretical models validates the single-layer approximation. Accuracy of this single-layer approximation is best defined by values of the calculated error in the frequency and phase velocity estimate at a cutoff. Our proposed method is intuitively explained using ray theory. Numerical results indicate that a cutoffs frequency is controlled by the averaged elastic properties within the passing depth of Rayleigh waves and the shear-wave velocity of the underlying half space. ?? Birkh??user Verlag, Basel 2009.

  8. Approximate optimal tracking control for near-surface AUVs with wave disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qing; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-10-01

    This paper considers the optimal trajectory tracking control problem for near-surface autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) in the presence of wave disturbances. An approximate optimal tracking control (AOTC) approach is proposed. Firstly, a six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF) AUV model with its body-fixed coordinate system is decoupled and simplified and then a nonlinear control model of AUVs in the vertical plane is given. Also, an exosystem model of wave disturbances is constructed based on Hirom approximation formula. Secondly, the time-parameterized desired trajectory which is tracked by the AUV's system is represented by the exosystem. Then, the coupled two-point boundary value (TPBV) problem of optimal tracking control for AUVs is derived from the theory of quadratic optimal control. By using a recently developed successive approximation approach to construct sequences, the coupled TPBV problem is transformed into a problem of solving two decoupled linear differential sequences of state vectors and adjoint vectors. By iteratively solving the two equation sequences, the AOTC law is obtained, which consists of a nonlinear optimal feedback item, an expected output tracking item, a feedforward disturbances rejection item, and a nonlinear compensatory term. Furthermore, a wave disturbances observer model is designed in order to solve the physically realizable problem. Simulation is carried out by using the Remote Environmental Unit (REMUS) AUV model to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Extension of the Temkin-Poet model to L>0 partial waves: The generalized exchange approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temkin, A.; Shertzer, J.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1998-02-01

    The Temkin-Poet (TP) model of electron-hydrogen scattering is here generalized to L>0 partial waves in such a way as to be a clear generalization of the exchange approximation (EA). This generalized exchange approximation (GEA) leads to a pair of coupled partial differential equations (PDE's). Boundary conditions are formulated, and the PDE's are solved by a finite element method program adapted from a previous partial wave calculation of the full problem [Shertzer and Botero, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3673 (1994)]. Calculations are carried out for 1,3P and 1,3D partial waves in the elastic region. Phase shifts are bounded from below, as is rigorously required, by exchange approximate phase shifts. But the GEA can yield resonances: in the elastic region, in addition to the 1S resonance of the TP model, there is a 3P resonance whose position and width are in close proximity to the lowest 3P resonance of the full theory. The GEA distinguishes between singlet and triplet scattering for all L, and it contains inelastic and ionization channels in the appropriate energy regions. It is expected that the GEA will have its greatest utility in the ionization domain, as a nontrivial test of the many recent methods being developed.

  10. The generation and propagation of internal gravity waves in a rotating fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxworthy, T.; Chabert Dhieres, G.; Didelle, H.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with an extension of a study conducted bu Maxworthy (1979) on internal wave generation by barotropic tidal flow over bottom topography. A short series of experiments was carried out during a limited time period on a large (14-m diameter) rotating table. It was attempted to obtain, in particular, information regarding the plan form of the waves, the exact character of the flow over the obstacle, and the evolution of the waves. The main basin was a dammed section of a long free surface water tunnel. The obstacle was towed back and forth by a wire harness connected to an electronically controlled hydraulic piston, the stroke and period of which could be independently varied. Attention is given to the evolution of the wave crests, the formation of solitary wave groups the evolution of the three-dimensional wave field wave shapes, the wave amplitudes, and particle motion.

  11. Explicit approximations to estimate the perturbative diffusivity in the presence of convectivity and damping. III. Cylindrical approximations for heat waves traveling inwards

    SciTech Connect

    Berkel, M. van; Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Zwart, H. J.; Inagaki, S.; Baar, M. R. de

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, a number of new explicit approximations are introduced to estimate the perturbative diffusivity (χ), convectivity (V), and damping (τ) in cylindrical geometry. For this purpose, the harmonic components of heat waves induced by localized deposition of modulated power are used. The approximations are based on the heat equation in cylindrical geometry using the symmetry (Neumann) boundary condition at the plasma center. This means that the approximations derived here should be used only to estimate transport coefficients between the plasma center and the off-axis perturbative source. If the effect of cylindrical geometry is small, it is also possible to use semi-infinite domain approximations presented in Part I and Part II of this series. A number of new approximations are derived in this part, Part III, based upon continued fractions of the modified Bessel function of the first kind and the confluent hypergeometric function of the first kind. These approximations together with the approximations based on semi-infinite domains are compared for heat waves traveling towards the center. The relative error for the different derived approximations is presented for different values of the frequency, transport coefficients, and dimensionless radius. Moreover, it is shown how combinations of different explicit formulas can be used to estimate the transport coefficients over a large parameter range for cases without convection and damping, cases with damping only, and cases with convection and damping. The relative error between the approximation and its underlying model is below 2% for the case, where only diffusivity and damping are considered. If also convectivity is considered, the diffusivity can be estimated well in a large region, but there is also a large region in which no suitable approximation is found. This paper is the third part (Part III) of a series of three papers. In Part I, the semi-infinite slab approximations have been treated. In Part II

  12. The effect of nonlinear traveling waves on rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui-Correa, Juan Carlos

    2013-08-01

    The effect of the housing stiffness on nonlinear traveling waves is presented in this work. It was found that the housing controls the synchronization of nonlinear elements and it allows nonlinear waves to travel through the structure. This phenomenon was observed in a gearbox with a soft housing, and the phenomenon was reproduced with a lump-mass dynamic model. The model included a pair of gears, the rolling bearings and the housing. The model considered all the nonlinear effects. Numerical and experimental results were analyzed with a time-frequency method using the Morlet wavelet function. A compound effect was observed when the nonlinear waves travel between the gears and the bearings: the waves increased the dynamic load amplitude and add another periodic load.

  13. Study of Rotating-Wave Electromagnetic Modes for Applications in Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazco, J. E.

    2016-08-01

    Rotating waves are circularly polarized electromagnetic wave fields that behave like traveling waves but have discrete resonant frequencies of standing waves. In JPL's Communications Ground Systems Section (333), we are making use of this peculiar type of electromagnetic modes to develop a new generation of devices and instruments for direct applications in space exploration. In this article, we present a straightforward analysis about the phase velocity of these wave modes. A derivation is presented for the azimuthal phase velocity of transverse magnetic rotating modes inside cylindrical cavity resonators. Computer simulations and experimental measurements are also presented that corroborate the theory developed. It is shown that the phase velocity of rotating waves inside cavity resonators increases with radial position within the cavity and decreases when employing higher-order operating modes. The exotic features of rotating modes, once better understood, have the potential to enable the implementation of a plethora of new devices that range from amplifiers and frequency multipliers to electron accelerators and ion thrusters.

  14. On plasma rotation induced by waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaoyin; Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.; Qin, Hong; Liu, Jian

    2013-10-15

    The momentum conservation for resonant wave-particle interactions, now proven rigorously and for general settings, is applied to explain in simple terms how tokamak plasma is spun up by the wave momentum perpendicular to the dc magnetic field. The perpendicular momentum is passed through resonant particles to the dc field and, giving rise to the radial electric field, is accumulated as a Poynting flux; the bulk plasma is then accelerated up to the electric drift velocity proportional to that flux, independently of collisions. The presence of this collisionless acceleration mechanism permits varying the ratio of the average kinetic momentum absorbed by the resonant-particle and bulk distributions depending on the orientation of the wave vector. Both toroidal and poloidal forces are calculated, and a fluid model is presented that yields the plasma velocity at equilibrium.

  15. Pilot-wave hydrodynamics in a rotating frame: Exotic orbits

    SciTech Connect

    Oza, Anand U.; Harris, Daniel M.; Rosales, Rodolfo R.; Bush, John W. M.; Wind-Willassen, Øistein

    2014-08-15

    We present the results of a numerical investigation of droplets walking on a rotating vibrating fluid bath. The drop's trajectory is described by an integro-differential equation, which is simulated numerically in various parameter regimes. As the forcing acceleration is progressively increased, stable circular orbits give way to wobbling orbits, which are succeeded in turn by instabilities of the orbital center characterized by steady drifting then discrete leaping. In the limit of large vibrational forcing, the walker's trajectory becomes chaotic, but its statistical behavior reflects the influence of the unstable orbital solutions. The study results in a complete regime diagram that summarizes the dependence of the walker's behavior on the system parameters. Our predictions compare favorably to the experimental observations of Harris and Bush [“Droplets walking in a rotating frame: from quantized orbits to multimodal statistics,” J. Fluid Mech. 739, 444–464 (2014)].

  16. Proposal for determining the energy content of gravitational waves by using approximate symmetries of differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Ibrar; Qadir, Asghar; Mahomed, F. M.

    2009-06-15

    Since gravitational wave spacetimes are time-varying vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations, there is no unambiguous means to define their energy content. However, Weber and Wheeler had demonstrated that they do impart energy to test particles. There have been various proposals to define the energy content, but they have not met with great success. Here we propose a definition using 'slightly broken' Noether symmetries. We check whether this definition is physically acceptable. The procedure adopted is to appeal to 'approximate symmetries' as defined in Lie analysis and use them in the limit of the exact symmetry holding. A problem is noted with the use of the proposal for plane-fronted gravitational waves. To attain a better understanding of the implications of this proposal we also use an artificially constructed time-varying nonvacuum metric and evaluate its Weyl and stress-energy tensors so as to obtain the gravitational and matter components separately and compare them with the energy content obtained by our proposal. The procedure is also used for cylindrical gravitational wave solutions. The usefulness of the definition is demonstrated by the fact that it leads to a result on whether gravitational waves suffer self-damping.

  17. Wave-number-based assessment of the doubly asymptotic approximation. I. Frequency domain wet surface impedance

    PubMed

    Ginsberg

    2000-04-01

    The doubly asymptotic approximation (DAA) is a canonical relationship for the interaction between surface normal velocity and pressure. Its validity for a slender hemicapped cylinder is examined by formulating a frequency domain version of DAA using the global basis functions employed in the wave-number-based formulation of the surface variational principle [K. Wu and J. H. Ginsberg, ASME J. Vib. Acoust. 120, 392-400 (1998)]. The wet surface impedance matrix, which relates the spectral representation of normal velocity to a corresponding representation of pressure, is obtained according to a second-order version of DAA and according to the surface variational principle. Comparison and interpretation of the results reveals that DAA fails to account for highlights associated with transition from supersonic to subsonic surface waves as the surface wavelength decreases with frequency held constant.

  18. The "JK-only" approximation in density matrix functional and wave function theory.

    PubMed

    Kollmar, Christian

    2004-12-15

    Various energy functionals applying the "JK-only" approximation which leads to two-index two-electron integrals instead of four-index two-electron integrals in the electron-electron interaction term of the electronic energy are presented. Numerical results of multiconfiguration self-consistent field calculations for the best possible "JK-only" wave function are compared to those obtained from the pair excitation multiconfiguration self-consistent (PEMCSCF) method and two versions of density matrix functional theory. One of these is derived making explicit use of some necessary conditions for N representability of the second-order density matrix. It is shown that this method models the energy functional based on the best possible "JK-only" wave function with good accuracy. The calculations also indicate that only a minor fraction of the total correlation energy is incorporated by "JK-only" approaches for larger molecules.

  19. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from two-dimensional rough surfaces with an impedance approximation.

    PubMed

    Soriano, G; Saillard, M

    2001-01-01

    The sparse-matrix-flat-surface iterative approach has been implemented for perfectly conducting surfaces and modified to enhance convergence stability and speed for very rough surfaces. Monte Carlo simulations of backscattering enhancement using a beam decomposition technique are compared with millimeter-wave laboratory experimental data. Strong but finite conductivity for metals or thin skin depth for dielectrics is simulated by an impedance approximation. This gives rise to a nonhypersingular integral equation derived from the magnetic field integral equation. The effect of finite conductivity for a metal at visible wavelengths is shown.

  20. An approximate waves-bordering algorithm for adaptive finite elements analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morandi Cecchi, M.; Marcuzzi, F.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper an Approximate Waves-Bordering algorithm (AWB) is presented. It computes the finite elements linear system solution-update after a refinement/unrefinement step. This is done taking into consideration only the equations that correspond to the nodes whose solution is modified above a certain tolerance and it appears to be very efficient. The algorithm considers an increasing set of equations that updates recursively and stops when the norm of the residual has gone under a user-defined threshold.

  1. The transverse and rotational motions of magnetohydrodynamic kink waves in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, M.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.; Verth, G.

    2014-06-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves have now been observed to be ubiquitous throughout the solar atmosphere. With modern instruments, they have now been detected in the chromosphere, interface region, and corona. The key purpose of this paper is to show that kink waves do not only involve purely transverse motions of solar magnetic flux tubes, but the velocity field is a spatially and temporally varying sum of both transverse and rotational motion. Taking this fact into account is particularly important for the accurate interpretation of varying Doppler velocity profiles across oscillating structures such as spicules. It has now been shown that, as well as bulk transverse motions, spicules have omnipresent rotational motions. Here we emphasize that caution should be used before interpreting the particular MHD wave mode/s responsible for these rotational motions. The rotational motions are not necessarily signatures of the classic axisymmetric torsional Alfvén wave alone, because kink motion itself can also contribute substantially to varying Doppler velocity profiles observed across these structures. In this paper, the displacement field of the kink wave is demonstrated to be a sum of its transverse and rotational components, both for a flux tube with a discontinuous density profile at its boundary, and one with a more realistic density continuum between the internal and external plasma. Furthermore, the Doppler velocity profile of the kink wave is forward modeled to demonstrate that, depending on the line of sight, it can either be quite distinct or very similar to that expected from a torsional Alfvén wave.

  2. Hamiltonian discontinuous Galerkin FEM for linear, rotating incompressible Euler equations: Inertial waves

    SciTech Connect

    Nurijanyan, S.; Vegt, J.J.W. van der; Bokhove, O.

    2013-05-15

    A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DGFEM) has been developed and tested for the linear, three-dimensional, rotating incompressible Euler equations. These equations admit complicated wave solutions, which poses numerical challenges. These challenges concern: (i) discretisation of a divergence-free velocity field; (ii) discretisation of geostrophic boundary conditions combined with no-normal flow at solid walls; (iii) discretisation of the conserved, Hamiltonian dynamics of the inertial-waves; and, (iv) large-scale computational demands owing to the three-dimensional nature of inertial-wave dynamics and possibly its narrow zones of chaotic attraction. These issues have been resolved, for example: (i) by employing Dirac’s method of constrained Hamiltonian dynamics to our DGFEM for linear, compressible flows, thus enforcing the incompressibility constraints; (ii) by enforcing no-normal flow at solid walls in a weak form and geostrophic tangential flow along the wall; and, (iii) by applying a symplectic time discretisation. We compared our simulations with exact solutions of three-dimensional incompressible flows, in (non) rotating periodic and partly periodic cuboids (Poincaré waves). Additional verifications concerned semi-analytical eigenmode solutions in rotating cuboids with solid walls. Finally, a simulation in a tilted rotating tank, yielding more complicated wave dynamics, demonstrates the potential of our new method.

  3. Liberation of a pinned spiral wave by a rotating electric pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiang-Xing; Peng, Liang; Ma, Jun; Ying, He-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Spiral waves may be pinned to anatomical heterogeneities in the cardiac tissue, which leads to monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. Wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by electric pulses in one direction (EP) is a promising method for liberating such waves by using heterogeneities as internal virtual pacing sites. Here, based on the WEH effect, a new mechanism of liberation by means of a rotating electric pulse (REP) is proposed in a generic model of excitable media. Compared with the EP, the REP has the advantage of opening wider time window to liberate pinned spiral. The influences of rotating direction and frequency of the REP, and the radius of the obstacles on this new mechanism are studied. We believe this strategy may improve manipulations with pinned spiral waves in heart experiments.

  4. Plane waves at or near grazing incidence in the parabolic approximation. [acoustic equations of motion for sound fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaninch, G. L.; Myers, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    The parabolic approximation for the acoustic equations of motion is applied to the study of the sound field generated by a plane wave at or near grazing incidence to a finite impedance boundary. It is shown how this approximation accounts for effects neglected in the usual plane wave reflection analysis which, at grazing incidence, erroneously predicts complete cancellation of the incident field by the reflected field. Examples are presented which illustrate that the solution obtained by the parabolic approximation contains several of the physical phenomena known to occur in wave propagation near an absorbing boundary.

  5. Anomalous incident-angle and elliptical-polarization rotation of an elastically refracted P-wave.

    PubMed

    Fa, Lin; Fa, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yandong; Ding, Pengfei; Gong, Jiamin; Li, Guohui; Li, Lijun; Tang, Shaojie; Zhao, Meishan

    2015-08-05

    We report a newly discovered anomalous incident-angle of an elastically refracted P-wave, arising from a P-wave impinging on an interface between two VTI media with strong anisotropy. This anomalous incident-angle is found to be located in the post-critical incident-angle region corresponding to a refracted P-wave. Invoking Snell's law for a refracted P-wave provides two distinctive solutions before and after the anomalous incident-angle. For an inhomogeneously refracted and elliptically polarized P-wave at the anomalous incident-angle, its rotational direction experiences an acute variation, from left-hand elliptical to right-hand elliptical polarization. The new findings provide us an enhanced understanding of acoustical-wave scattering and lead potentially to widespread and novel applications.

  6. Anomalous incident-angle and elliptical-polarization rotation of an elastically refracted P-wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fa, Lin; Fa, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yandong; Ding, Pengfei; Gong, Jiamin; Li, Guohui; Li, Lijun; Tang, Shaojie; Zhao, Meishan

    2015-08-01

    We report a newly discovered anomalous incident-angle of an elastically refracted P-wave, arising from a P-wave impinging on an interface between two VTI media with strong anisotropy. This anomalous incident-angle is found to be located in the post-critical incident-angle region corresponding to a refracted P-wave. Invoking Snell’s law for a refracted P-wave provides two distinctive solutions before and after the anomalous incident-angle. For an inhomogeneously refracted and elliptically polarized P-wave at the anomalous incident-angle, its rotational direction experiences an acute variation, from left-hand elliptical to right-hand elliptical polarization. The new findings provide us an enhanced understanding of acoustical-wave scattering and lead potentially to widespread and novel applications.

  7. Quantum metrology with rotating matter waves in different geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Dunningham, J. A.; Cooper, J. J.; Hallwood, D. W.

    2012-09-01

    A promising practical application of entanglement is metrology, where quantum states can be used to make measurements beyond the shot noise limit. Here we consider how metrology schemes could be realised using atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in different potentials. In particular, we show that if a trapped BEC is rotated at just the right frequency, it can undergo a quantum phase transition characterised by large-scale entanglement spreading across the system. This simple process of stirring can generate interesting quantum states such as macroscopic superpositions of all the atoms flowing in opposite directions around a ring-shaped potential. We consider different trapping potentials and show how this leads to different entangled states. In particular, we find that by reducing the dimensionality of the system to one or two dimensions, it is possible to generate entangled states that are remarkably robust to the loss of atoms and so are ideally suited to precision measurement schemes.

  8. Computational resources to filter gravitational wave data with P-approximant templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Edward K.

    2002-08-01

    The prior knowledge of the gravitational waveform from compact binary systems makes matched filtering an attractive detection strategy. This detection method involves the filtering of the detector output with a set of theoretical waveforms or templates. One of the most important factors in this strategy is knowing how many templates are needed in order to reduce the loss of possible signals. In this study, we calculate the number of templates and computational power needed for a one-step search for gravitational waves from inspiralling binary systems. We build on previous works by first expanding the post-Newtonian waveforms to 2.5-PN order and second, for the first time, calculating the number of templates needed when using P-approximant waveforms. The analysis is carried out for the four main first-generation interferometers, LIGO, GEO600, VIRGO and TAMA. As well as template number, we also calculate the computational cost of generating banks of templates for filtering GW data. We carry out the calculations for two initial conditions. In the first case we assume a minimum individual mass of 1 Msolar and in the second, we assume a minimum individual mass of 5 Msolar. We find that, in general, we need more P-approximant templates to carry out a search than if we use standard PN templates. This increase varies according to the order of PN-approximation, but can be as high as a factor of 3 and is explained by the smaller span of the P-approximant templates as we go to higher masses. The promising outcome is that for 2-PN templates, the increase is small and is outweighed by the known robustness of the 2-PN P-approximant templates.

  9. Rotational study of the NH3-CO complex: Millimeter-wave measurements and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surin, L. A.; Potapov, A.; Dolgov, A. A.; Tarabukin, I. V.; Panfilov, V. A.; Schlemmer, S.; Kalugina, Y. N.; Faure, A.; van der Avoird, A.

    2015-03-01

    The rotational spectrum of the van der Waals complex NH3-CO has been measured with the intracavity OROTRON jet spectrometer in the frequency range of 112-139 GHz. Newly observed and assigned transitions belong to the K = 0-0, K = 1-1, K = 1-0, and K = 2-1 subbands correlating with the rotationless (jk)NH3 = 00 ground state of free ortho-NH3 and the K = 0-1 and K = 2-1 subbands correlating with the (jk)NH3 = 11 ground state of free para-NH3. The (approximate) quantum number K is the projection of the total angular momentum J on the intermolecular axis. Some of these transitions are continuations to higher J values of transition series observed previously [C. Xia et al., Mol. Phys. 99, 643 (2001)], the other transitions constitute newly detected subbands. The new data were analyzed together with the known millimeter-wave and microwave transitions in order to determine the molecular parameters of the ortho-NH3-CO and para-NH3-CO complexes. Accompanying ab initio calculations of the intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of NH3-CO has been carried out at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations and an augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta basis set. The global minimum of the five-dimensional PES corresponds to an approximately T-shaped structure with the N atom closest to the CO subunit and binding energy De = 359.21 cm-1. The bound rovibrational levels of the NH3-CO complex were calculated for total angular momentum J = 0-6 on this intermolecular potential surface and compared with the experimental results. The calculated dissociation energies D0 are 210.43 and 218.66 cm-1 for ortho-NH3-CO and para-NH3-CO, respectively.

  10. Rotational study of the CH4-CO complex: Millimeter-wave measurements and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Surin, L A; Tarabukin, I V; Panfilov, V A; Schlemmer, S; Kalugina, Y N; Faure, A; Rist, C; van der Avoird, A

    2015-10-21

    The rotational spectrum of the van der Waals complex CH4-CO has been measured with the intracavity OROTRON jet spectrometer in the frequency range of 110-145 GHz. Newly observed and assigned transitions belong to the K = 2-1 subband correlating with the rotationless jCH4 = 0 ground state and the K = 2-1 and K = 0-1 subbands correlating with the jCH4 = 2 excited state of free methane. The (approximate) quantum number K is the projection of the total angular momentum J on the intermolecular axis. The new data were analyzed together with the known millimeter-wave and microwave transitions in order to determine the molecular parameters of the CH4-CO complex. Accompanying ab initio calculations of the intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of CH4-CO have been carried out at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12a] and an augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta (aVTZ) basis set. The global minimum of the five-dimensional PES corresponds to an approximately T-shaped structure with the CH4 face closest to the CO subunit and binding energy De = 177.82 cm(-1). The bound rovibrational levels of the CH4-CO complex were calculated for total angular momentum J = 0-6 on this intermolecular potential surface and compared with the experimental results. The calculated dissociation energies D0 are 91.32, 94.46, and 104.21 cm(-1) for A (jCH4 = 0), F (jCH4 = 1), and E (jCH4 = 2) nuclear spin modifications of CH4-CO, respectively.

  11. Rotational study of the CH4-CO complex: Millimeter-wave measurements and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surin, L. A.; Tarabukin, I. V.; Panfilov, V. A.; Schlemmer, S.; Kalugina, Y. N.; Faure, A.; Rist, C.; van der Avoird, A.

    2015-10-01

    The rotational spectrum of the van der Waals complex CH4-CO has been measured with the intracavity OROTRON jet spectrometer in the frequency range of 110-145 GHz. Newly observed and assigned transitions belong to the K = 2-1 subband correlating with the rotationless jCH4 = 0 ground state and the K = 2-1 and K = 0-1 subbands correlating with the jCH4 = 2 excited state of free methane. The (approximate) quantum number K is the projection of the total angular momentum J on the intermolecular axis. The new data were analyzed together with the known millimeter-wave and microwave transitions in order to determine the molecular parameters of the CH4-CO complex. Accompanying ab initio calculations of the intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of CH4-CO have been carried out at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12a] and an augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta (aVTZ) basis set. The global minimum of the five-dimensional PES corresponds to an approximately T-shaped structure with the CH4 face closest to the CO subunit and binding energy De = 177.82 cm-1. The bound rovibrational levels of the CH4-CO complex were calculated for total angular momentum J = 0-6 on this intermolecular potential surface and compared with the experimental results. The calculated dissociation energies D0 are 91.32, 94.46, and 104.21 cm-1 for A (jCH4 = 0), F (jCH4 = 1), and E (jCH4 = 2) nuclear spin modifications of CH4-CO, respectively.

  12. Rotational study of the NH3-CO complex: millimeter-wave measurements and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Surin, L A; Potapov, A; Dolgov, A A; Tarabukin, I V; Panfilov, V A; Schlemmer, S; Kalugina, Y N; Faure, A; van der Avoird, A

    2015-03-21

    The rotational spectrum of the van der Waals complex NH3-CO has been measured with the intracavity OROTRON jet spectrometer in the frequency range of 112-139 GHz. Newly observed and assigned transitions belong to the K = 0-0, K = 1-1, K = 1-0, and K = 2-1 subbands correlating with the rotationless (jk)NH3 = 00 ground state of free ortho-NH3 and the K = 0-1 and K = 2-1 subbands correlating with the (jk)NH3 = 11 ground state of free para-NH3. The (approximate) quantum number K is the projection of the total angular momentum J on the intermolecular axis. Some of these transitions are continuations to higher J values of transition series observed previously [C. Xia et al., Mol. Phys. 99, 643 (2001)], the other transitions constitute newly detected subbands. The new data were analyzed together with the known millimeter-wave and microwave transitions in order to determine the molecular parameters of the ortho-NH3-CO and para-NH3-CO complexes. Accompanying ab initio calculations of the intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of NH3-CO has been carried out at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations and an augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta basis set. The global minimum of the five-dimensional PES corresponds to an approximately T-shaped structure with the N atom closest to the CO subunit and binding energy De = 359.21 cm(-1). The bound rovibrational levels of the NH3-CO complex were calculated for total angular momentum J = 0-6 on this intermolecular potential surface and compared with the experimental results. The calculated dissociation energies D0 are 210.43 and 218.66 cm(-1) for ortho-NH3-CO and para-NH3-CO, respectively.

  13. Frequency characteristic of a uniformly rotating laser gyroscope with differently amplified counterpropagating waves

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, Evgenii A

    2002-02-28

    It is shown that the frequency characteristic of a uniformly rotating laser gyroscope with differently amplified counterpropagating waves is described by the expression containing components that are commuting or noncommuting with respect to the angular velocity. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. Condensates of p-Wave Pairs Are Exact Solutions for Rotating Two-Component Bose Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Papenbrock, T; Kavoulakis, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    We derive exact analytical results for the wave functions and energies of harmonically trapped two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with weakly repulsive interactions under rotation. The isospin symmetric wave functions are universal and do not depend on the matrix elements of the two-body interaction. The comparison with the results from numerical diagonalization shows that the ground state and low-lying excitations consist of condensates of p-wave pairs for repulsive contact interactions, Coulomb interactions, and the repulsive interactions between aligned dipoles.

  15. Condensates of p-wave pairs are exact solutions for rotating two-component Bose gases.

    PubMed

    Papenbrock, T; Reimann, S M; Kavoulakis, G M

    2012-02-17

    We derive exact analytical results for the wave functions and energies of harmonically trapped two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with weakly repulsive interactions under rotation. The isospin symmetric wave functions are universal and do not depend on the matrix elements of the two-body interaction. The comparison with the results from numerical diagonalization shows that the ground state and low-lying excitations consist of condensates of p-wave pairs for repulsive contact interactions, Coulomb interactions, and the repulsive interactions between aligned dipoles.

  16. Evidence of differential rotation inside Saturn from waves of its rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Moutamid, Maryame; Hedman, Matthew M.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Burns, Joseph A.

    2016-10-01

    Saturn's average interior rotation rate has been estimated based on various analyses of its shape (Anderson and Schubert, 2007; Read et al., 2009; Helled et al., 2015), but we still have no clear information on its exact value and the degree of differential rotation versus depth.However, Hedman et al., (2009), Hedman and Nicholson (2014) and El Moutamid et al., (2016) have identified several structures in the main rings of Saturn which appear to be related to the planet's rotation rate.These structures (waves and perturbed edges) appear to be generated by so-called Tesseral Resonances, which are associated with gravity anomalies that rotate with Saturn's interior, rather than being driven by a satellite. Their locations are given by the usual formula for inner or outer Lindblad resonances.We have searched for additional wave-like signatures in stellar occultation data for the main rings which are related to the rotation period of Saturn and have identified several signatures consistent with other differential rotation in Saturn's interior. Our study of the behavior of the A, B and C rings uses images and occultation data obtained by the Cassini spacecraft over a period of 10 years from 2006 to 2015.

  17. General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2014-06-15

    In his study of superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit, Svistunov [“Superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3647 (1995)] derived a Hamiltonian equation for the self-induced motion of a vortex filament. Under the local induction approximation (LIA), the Svistunov formulation is equivalent to a nonlinear dispersive partial differential equation. In this paper, we consider a family of rotating vortex filament solutions for the LIA reduction of the Svistunov formulation, which we refer to as the 2D LIA (since it permits a potential formulation in terms of two of the three Cartesian coordinates). This class of solutions holds the well-known Hasimoto-type planar vortex filament [H. Hasimoto, “Motion of a vortex filament and its relation to elastica,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 31, 293 (1971)] as one reduction and helical solutions as another. More generally, we obtain solutions which are periodic in the space variable. A systematic analytical study of the behavior of such solutions is carried out. In the case where vortex filaments have small deviations from the axis of rotation, closed analytical forms of the filament solutions are given. A variety of numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the wide range of rotating filament behaviors possible. Doing so, we are able to determine a number of vortex filament structures not previously studied. We find that the solution structure progresses from planar to helical, and then to more intricate and complex filament structures, possibly indicating the onset of superfluid turbulence.

  18. Baroclinic waves and gravity waves in a finite-volume model of the differentially heated rotating annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, Sebastian; Achatz, Ulrich; Fruman, Mark D.; Harlander, Uwe; Vincze, Miklos

    2014-05-01

    The differentially heated rotating annulus is a classical experiment for the investigation of baroclinic flows and can be regarded as a strongly simplified laboratory model of the atmosphere in mid-latitudes. Data measured at the BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg (Harlander et al, 2011) are used to validate a new numerical finite-volume model (cylFloit). The model employs the Adaptive Local Deconvolution Method (ALDM) (Hickel et al, 2006) to parameterize unresolved subgrid-scale turbulence. The validation compares the azimuthal mode numbers of the dominant baroclinic waves and does a principal component analysis of time series of the temperature field observed in the experiment and the model simulation. One part of the laboratory procedure that is commonly neglected in simulations is the annulus spin-up, during which the annulus is accelerated from a state of rest to a desired angular velocity. We investigate whether including the spin-up phase in the simulation improves the agreement with the experiment. In addition we use the model to investigate gravity waves (GWs) in the rotating annulus. These waves play an important role in atmospheric dynamics by transporting momentum over large distances, affecting daily weather as well as the climate. Our focus is on GWs spontaneously emitted by the baroclinic waves. By simulating a wide and shallow annulus with relatively large temperature difference between inner and outer cylinder walls, we are able to explore a more atmosphere-like regime where the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is larger than the inertial frequency. Various analyses suggest there is distinct GW activity in these simulations, as well as indications of spontaneous GW emission. Harlander, U., von Larcher, T., Wang, Y., Egbers, C., 2011: PIV- and LDV- measurements of baroclinic wave interactions in a thermally driven rotating annulus. Exp. Fluids, 51(1), 37-49. Hickel, S., Adams, N. A., Domaradzki, J. A., 2006: An adaptive local deconvolution method for implicit LES. J

  19. On strongly interacting internal waves in a rotating ocean and coupled Ostrovsky equations.

    PubMed

    Alias, A; Grimshaw, R H J; Khusnutdinova, K R

    2013-06-01

    In the weakly nonlinear limit, oceanic internal solitary waves for a single linear long wave mode are described by the KdV equation, extended to the Ostrovsky equation in the presence of background rotation. In this paper we consider the scenario when two different linear long wave modes have nearly coincident phase speeds and show that the appropriate model is a system of two coupled Ostrovsky equations. These are systematically derived for a density-stratified ocean. Some preliminary numerical simulations are reported which show that, in the generic case, initial solitary-like waves are destroyed and replaced by two coupled nonlinear wave packets, being the counterpart of the same phenomenon in the single Ostrovsky equation.

  20. Numerical calculation of the operation wavelength range of a polarization controller based on rotatable wave plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hee Su; Sharma, Aditya

    2016-12-01

    We calculate the operation wavelength range of polarization controllers based on rotating wave plates such as paddle-type optical fiber devices. The coverages over arbitrary polarization conversion or arbitrary birefringence compensation are numerically estimated. The results present the acceptable phase retardation range of polarization controllers composed of two quarter-wave plates or a quarter-half-quarter-wave plate combination, and thereby determines the operation wavelength range of a given design. We further prove that a quarter-quarter-half-wave-plate combination is also an arbitrary birefringence compensator as well as a conventional quarter-half-quarter-wave-plate combination, and show that the two configurations have the identical range of acceptable phase retardance within the uncertainty of our numerical method.

  1. Square-wave self-modulation in diode lasers with polarization-rotated optical feedback.

    PubMed

    Gavrielides, Athanasios; Erneux, Thomas; Sukow, David W; Burner, Guinevere; McLachlan, Taylor; Miller, John; Amonette, Jake

    2006-07-01

    The square-wave response of edge-emitting diode lasers subject to a delayed polarization-rotated optical feedback is studied in detail. Specifically, the polarization state of the feedback is rotated such that the natural laser mode is coupled into the orthogonal, unsupported mode. Square-wave self-modulated polarization intensities oscillating in antiphase are observed experimentally. We find numerically that these oscillations naturally appear for a broad range of values of parameters, provided that the feedback is sufficiently strong and the differential losses in the normally unsupported polarization mode are small. We then investigate the laser equations analytically and find that the square-wave oscillations are the result of a bifurcation phenomenon.

  2. Square-wave self-modulation in diode lasers with polarization-rotated optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrielides, Athanasios; Erneux, Thomas; Sukow, David W.; Burner, Guinevere; McLachlan, Taylor; Miller, John; Amonette, Jake

    2006-07-01

    The square-wave response of edge-emitting diode lasers subject to a delayed polarization-rotated optical feedback is studied in detail. Specifically, the polarization state of the feedback is rotated such that the natural laser mode is coupled into the orthogonal, unsupported mode. Square-wave self-modulated polarization intensities oscillating in antiphase are observed experimentally. We find numerically that these oscillations naturally appear for a broad range of values of parameters, provided that the feedback is sufficiently strong and the differential losses in the normally unsupported polarization mode are small. We then investigate the laser equations analytically and find that the square-wave oscillations are the result of a bifurcation phenomenon.

  3. Circular Polarizations of Gravitational Waves from Core-Collapse Supernovae: A Clear Indication of Rapid Rotation.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Nakamura, Ko; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-04-15

    We propose to employ the circular polarization of gravitational waves emitted by core-collapse supernovae as an unequivocal indication of rapid rotation deep in their cores just prior to collapse. It has been demonstrated by three dimensional simulations that nonaxisymmetric accretion flows may develop spontaneously via hydrodynamical instabilities in the postbounce cores. It is not surprising, then, that the gravitational waves emitted by such fluid motions are circularly polarized. We show, in this Letter, that a network of the second generation detectors of gravitational waves worldwide may be able to detect such polarizations up to the opposite side of the Galaxy as long as the rotation period of the core is shorter than a few seconds prior to collapse.

  4. The influence of crustal scattering on translational and rotational motions in regional and teleseismic coda waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaebler, Peter J.; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Korn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Monte Carlo solutions to the radiative transfer equations are used to model translational and rotational motion seismogram envelopes in random elastic media with deterministic background structure assuming multiple anisotropic scattering. Observation and modelling of the three additional components of rotational motions can provide independent information about wave propagation in the Earth's structure. Rotational motions around the vertical axis observed in the P-wave coda are of particular interest as they can only be excited by horizontally polarized shear waves and therefore indicate the conversion from P to SH energy by multiple scattering at 3-D heterogeneities. To investigate crustal scattering and attenuation parameters in south-east Germany beneath the Gräfenberg array multicomponent seismogram envelopes of rotational and translational motions are synthesized and compared to seismic data from regional swarm-earthquakes and of deep teleseismic events. In the regional case a nonlinear genetic inversion is used to estimate scattering and attenuation parameters at high frequencies (4-8 Hz). Our preferred model of crustal heterogeneity consists of a medium with random velocity and density fluctuations described by an exponential autocorrelation function with a correlation length of a few hundred metres and fluctuations in the range of 3 per cent. The quality factor for elastic S-waves attenuation Q_i^S is around 700. In a second, step simulations of teleseismic P-wave arrivals using this estimated set of scattering and attenuation parameters are compared to observed seismogram envelopes from deep events. Simulations of teleseismic events with the parameters found from the regional inversion show good agreement with the measured seismogram envelopes. This includes ringlaser observations of vertical rotations in the teleseismic P-wave coda that naturally result from the proposed model of wave scattering. The model also predicts, that the elastic energy recorded

  5. Modeling the Slow-Tail of Atmospheric Waves to Approximate the Distance of Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Cocq, C.; Fraser-Smith, A. C.

    2007-12-01

    A lightning strike emits an electromagnetic wave known as an atmospheric or sferic, which propagates through the earth-ionosphere waveguide. Sferics can be recorded by extremely low and very low frequency, ELF and VLF, receiver systems. The recorded signal is composed of two segments, a pulse containing VLF frequencies, followed by a slow-tail, containing the ELF components. The slow-tail is essentially a single cycle wave, which is delayed with respect to the rest of the sferic due to the dispersive nature of the ionosphere. The recorded time- domain slow-tail varies with the lightning strike's current moment, and the waveguide's media characteristics. It is possible to approximate the location of the lightning source with measurements of the sferic. Many methods require measurements from multiple stations, however the goal of this work is to approximate the distance a sferic propagated with a single station. J.R. Wait developed a mode theory where propagating ELF radio are characterized by the first mode. The research reported here uses the first mode equations to model a slow-tail that propagated a certain distance. We include a comparison to measurements on slow-tails observed at widely variable distances from their causative lightning, and analyze the accuracy of our model. Using the inverse of this method along with sferics from known locations, we approximate the form of the current moment at the source and use an average of this waveform to improve our slow-tail model. With an accurate computed slow-tail we can approximate the distance of propagation by fitting the computed waveform to the observed slow-tail. An analysis is given of the effectiveness of this method. As expected, since this method uses data from only one station, the estimation error from this method are larger than those of the traditional multiple station estimation method. However, in most instances our method was accurate to within hundreds of kilometers. With such accuracy, this method

  6. Validity of the Spin-Wave Approximation for the Free Energy of the Heisenberg Ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correggi, Michele; Giuliani, Alessandro; Seiringer, Robert

    2015-10-01

    We consider the quantum ferromagnetic Heisenberg model in three dimensions, for all spins S ≥ 1/2. We rigorously prove the validity of the spin-wave approximation for the excitation spectrum, at the level of the first non-trivial contribution to the free energy at low temperatures. Our proof comes with explicit, constructive upper and lower bounds on the error term. It uses in an essential way the bosonic formulation of the model in terms of the Holstein-Primakoff representation. In this language, the model describes interacting bosons with a hard-core on-site repulsion and a nearest-neighbor attraction. This attractive interaction makes the lower bound on the free energy particularly tricky: the key idea there is to prove a differential inequality for the two-particle density, which is thereby shown to be smaller than the probability density of a suitably weighted two-particle random process on the lattice.

  7. Evidence of iridescence in TiO2 nanostructures: An approximation in plane wave expansion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroz, Heiddy P.; Barrera-Patiño, C. P.; Rey-González, R. R.; Dussan, A.

    2016-11-01

    Titanium dioxide nanotubes, TiO2 NTs, can be obtained by electrochemical anodization of Titanium sheets. After nanotubes are removed by mechanical stress, residual structures or traces on the surface of titanium sheets can be observed. These traces show iridescent effects. In this paper we carry out both experimental and theoretical study of those interesting and novel optical properties. For the experimental analysis we use angle resolved UV-vis spectroscopy while in the theoretical study is evaluated the photonic spectra using numerical simulations into the frequency-domain and the framework of the wave plane approximation. The iridescent effect is a strong property and independent of the sample. This behavior can be important to design new materials or compounds for several applications such as, cosmetic industry, optoelectronic devices, photocatalysis, sensors, among others.

  8. Computer algebra and nonlinear iterations for the development of the Periodic Wave Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Napoleon; Price, Richard; Bromley, Benjamin; Beetle, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    The periodic wave approximation, explored in the past few years by different people around the world, has a promising future modeling the gravitational waves obtained by a helical symmetric problem in General Relativity. The existence of a helical Killing vector allows the reduction in the number of degrees of freedom in the problem from 4 to 3. This situation promises to model adequately the slow inspiraling process of two black holes. The numerical solution of this problem involves the implementation of the eigenspectral method developed by Price et al., The motivation on the present is to show the set of computational tools that had been implemented in Maple as an aid in the development of the solution for the full GR problem. To illustrate the utility of such tools, partial results will be shown, involving the solution of one component of the perturbation tensor in a second order post-Minkowski expansion. The results will include a comparison between the solutions obtained through a) a perturbative approach and b) a numerical solver approach (using Newton Raphson). Finally, a review of future work will be given, including future goals and extensions of the present work.

  9. Scattering of twisted electron wave packets by atoms in the Born approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlovets, D. V.; Kotkin, G. L.; Serbo, V. G.; Surzhykov, A.

    2017-03-01

    The potential scattering of electrons carrying nonzero quanta of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) is studied in a framework of the generalized Born approximation, developed in our recent paper [D. V. Karlovets, G. L. Kotkin, and V. G. Serbo, Phys. Rev. A 92, 052703 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.052703]. We treat these so-called twisted electrons as spatially localized wave packets. The simple and convenient expressions are derived for a number of scattering events in collision of such a vortex electron with a single potential, located at a given impact parameter with respect to the wave packet's axis. The more realistic scenarios are also considered with either localized (mesoscopic) targets or infinitely wide (macroscopic) ones that consist of randomly distributed atoms. Dependence of the electron-scattering pattern on the size and on the relative position of the target is studied in detail for all three scenarios of the single-potential, mesoscopic, and macroscopic targets made of hydrogen in the ground 1 s state. The results demonstrate that the angular distribution of the outgoing electrons can be very sensitive to the OAM and to kinematic parameters of the focused twisted beams, as well as to composition of the target. Scattering of vortex electrons by atoms can, therefore, serve as a valuable tool for diagnostics of such beams.

  10. A new model for algebraic Rossby solitary waves in rotation fluid and its solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao-Deng; Yang, Hong-Wei; Gao, Yu-Fang; Yin, Bao-Shu; Feng, Xing-Ru

    2015-09-01

    A generalized Boussinesq equation that includes the dissipation effect is derived to describe a kind of algebraic Rossby solitary waves in a rotating fluid by employing perturbation expansions and stretching transformations of time and space. Using this equation, the conservation laws of algebraic Rossby solitary waves are discussed. It is found that the mass, the momentum, the energy, and the velocity of center of gravity of the algebraic solitary waves are conserved in the propagation process. Finally, the analytical solution of the equation is generated. Based on the analytical solution, the properties of the algebraic solitary waves and the dissipation effect are discussed. The results point out that, similar to classic solitary waves, the dissipation can cause the amplitude and the speed of solitary waves to decrease; however, unlike classic solitary waves, the algebraic solitary waves can split during propagation and the decrease of the detuning parameter can accelerate the occurrence of the solitary waves fission phenomenon. Project supported by the Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environment and Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Project, China (Grant No. 2012010), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41205082 and 41476019), the Special Funds for Theoretical Physics of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11447205), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), China.

  11. An approximate global solution of Einstein's equation for a rotating compact source with linear equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuchí, J. E.; Gil-Rivero, A.; Molina, A.; Ruiz, E.

    2013-07-01

    We use analytic perturbation theory to present a new approximate metric for a rigidly rotating perfect fluid source with equation of state (EOS) ɛ +(1-n)p=ɛ _0. This EOS includes the interesting cases of strange matter, constant density and the fluid of the Wahlquist metric. It is fully matched to its approximate asymptotically flat exterior using Lichnerowicz junction conditions and it is shown to be a totally general matching using Darmois-Israel conditions and properties of the harmonic coordinates. Then we analyse the Petrov type of the interior metric and show first that, in accordance with previous results, in the case corresponding to Wahlquist's metric it can not be matched to the asymptotically flat exterior. Next, that this kind of interior can only be of Petrov types I, D or (in the static case) O and also that the non-static constant density case can only be of type I. Finally, we check that it can not be a source of Kerr's metric.

  12. Static configurations and nonlinear waves in rotating nonuniform self-gravitating fluids.

    PubMed

    Nekrasov, A K

    2006-02-01

    The equilibrium states and low-frequency waves in rotating nonuniform self-gravitating fluids are studied. The effect of a central object is included. Two-dimensional static configurations accounting for self-gravity, external gravity, and nonuniform rotation are considered for three models connecting the pressure with the mass density: thermodynamic equilibrium, polytropic pressure, and constant mass density. Explicit analytical solutions for equilibrium have been found in some cases. The low-frequency waves arising due to the vertical and horizontal fluid inhomogeneities are considered in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The relationship between the background pressure and mass density is supposed to be arbitrary in the wave analysis. It is shown that the waves considered can be unstable in the cases of polytropic pressure and constant mass density. The additional nonlinear term proportional to the product of the pressure and mass density perturbations, which is usually omitted, is kept in our nonlinear equations. There have been found conditions for this term to be important. Stationary nonlinear wave equations having solutions in the form of coherent vortex structures are obtained in a general form. The importance of involving real static configurations in the consideration of wave perturbations is emphasized.

  13. Wave-front propagation of rinsing flows on rotating semiconductor wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frostad, John M.; Ylitalo, Andy; Walls, Daniel J.; Mui, David S. L.; Fuller, Gerald G.

    2016-11-01

    The semiconductor manufacturing industry is migrating to a cleaning technology that involves dispersing cleaning solutions onto a rotating wafer, similar to spin-coating. Advantages include a more continuous overall fabrication process, lower particle level, no cross contamination from the back side of a wafer, and less usage of harsh chemicals for a lower environmental impact. Rapid rotation of the wafer during rinsing can be more effective, but centrifugal forces can pull spiral-like ribbons of liquid radially outward from the advancing wave-front where particles can build up, causing higher instances of device failure at these locations. A better understanding of the rinsing flow is essential for reducing yield losses while taking advantage of the benefits of rotation. In the present work, high-speed video and image processing are used to study the dynamics of the advancing wave-front from an impinging jet on a rotating substrate. The flow-rate and rotation-speed are varied for substrates coated with a thin layer of a second liquid that has a different surface tension than the jet liquid. The difference in surface tension of the two fluids gives rise to Marangoni stresses at the interface that have a significant impact on the rinsing process, despite the extremely short time-scales involved.

  14. Rotational Doppler shift for electromagnetic waves carrying orbital angular momentum based on spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Gang

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the rotational Doppler effect for the electromagnetic wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) with a method based on spectrum analysis, which is appropriate for both optics and free-space radio cases. We find that the frequency spectrum received is the convolution of emission spectrum and a discrete spectrum about OAM states, and verify it in the numerical simulations as well. This discovery makes it possible to distinguish the linear and rotational Doppler shift, and is helpful to developments of remote sensing and velocimetry in radar.

  15. Internal wave breather propagation under the influence of the Earth rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talipova, Tatiana; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Kurkina, Oxana

    2015-04-01

    The internal wave breather propagation under the influence of the Earth rotation is studied in the frames of the asymptotic model based on the Gardner equation as well as the fully nonlinear Euler equations. It is obtained that the amplitude and shape of short breathers depend on the Earth rotation very weakly but the wide breathers change the amplitude and shape sufficiently. This effect is studied in the model situation adapted to the Baltic Sea hydrological conditions. The rate of the breather amplitude damping upon the even bottom is shown.

  16. Square-wave oscillations in edge-emitting diode lasers with polarization-rotated optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrielides, A.; Erneux, T.; Sukow, D. W.; Burner, G.; McLachlan, T.; Miller, J.; Amonette, J.

    2006-04-01

    The square-wave response of edge-emitting diode lasers subject to a delayed polarization-rotated optical feedback is studied experimentally and theoretically. Square-wave self-modulated polarization intensities of a period close to twice the delay τ of the feedback gradually appear through a sequence of bifurcations starting with a Hopf bifurcation (Gavrielides et al, Proc. SPIE 6115, to appear, 2006). In Gavrielides et al (submitted, 2006), squarewave solutions were determined analytically from the laser equations in the limit of large τ. A condition on the laser parameters was derived explaining why square-wave oscillations are preferentially observed for suffciently large feedback strength. In this paper, we concentrate on the relaxation oscillations that always appear at each intensity jump between the plateaus of the square-wave. We show analytically that if the feedback strength is progressively decreased, a bifurcation to sustained relaxation oscillations is possible for one of the two plateaus.

  17. Annihilation and creation of rotating waves by a local light pulse in a protoplasmic droplet of the Physarum plasmodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Seiji; Ueda, Tetsuo

    2010-06-01

    Pattern dynamics plays a fundamental role in biological functions from cell to organ in living systems, and the appearance of rotating waves can lead to pathological situations. Basic dynamics of rotating waves of contraction-relaxation activity under local perturbation is studied in a newly developed protoplasmic droplet of the Physarum plasmodium. A light pulse is applied by irradiating circularly a quarter of the droplet showing a single rotating wave. The oscillation pattern changes abruptly only when the irradiation is applied at a part of the droplet near the maximal contraction. The abrupt changes are as follows: the rotating wave disappears or is displaced when the irradiation area is very close to the center of the rotating wave, while new rotating waves are created when the irradiation area is far from the center of the rotating wave. These results support the hypothesis that the phase response curve has a discontinuous change (type 0 resetting) from delay to advance around the maximal contraction. The significance of the results is discussed in relation to “vulnerability” in excitable media and biological systems in general.

  18. Uniform asymptotic approximations for transient waves due to an initial disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Per A.; Schäffer, Hemming A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Toledo, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we first present a semianalytical method for the evolution of linear fully dispersive transient waves generated by an initial surface displacement and propagating over a constant depth. The procedure starts from Fourier and Hankel transforms and involves a combination of the method of stationary phase, the method of uniform asymptotic approximations and various Airy integral formulations. Second, we develop efficient convolution techniques expressed as single and double summations over the source area. These formulations are flexible, extremely fast, and highly accurate even for the dispersive tail of the transient waves. To verify the accuracy of the embedded dispersion properties, we consider test cases with sharp-edged disturbances in 1-D and 2-D. Furthermore, we consider the case of a relatively blunt Gaussian disturbance in 2-D. In all cases, the agreement between the convolution results and simulations with a high-order Boussinesq model is outstanding. Finally, we make an attempt to extend the convolution methods to geophysical tsunami problems taking into account, e.g., uneven bottom effects. Unfortunately, refraction/diffraction effects cannot easily be incorporated, so instead we focus on the incorporation of linear shoaling and its effect on travel time and temporal evolution of the surface elevation. The procedure is tested on data from the 2011 Japan tsunami. Convolution results are likewise compared to model simulations based on the nonlinear shallow water equations and both are compared with field observations from 10 deep water DART buoys. The near-field results are generally satisfactory, while the far-field results leave much to be desired.

  19. Rotating matter-wave beam splitters and consequences for atom gyrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, Charles

    2007-09-15

    The effect of a rotation on a matter-wave-laser beam splitter is studied and modeled. This modeling is shown to give important nontrivial corrections to the Sagnac phase shift of matter-wave gyrometers when the duration of the laser action cannot be neglected with respect to the propagation time between beam splitters. This result is illustrated on a Mach-Zehnder atom gyrometer (rate gyroscope) with running laser beam splitters. A quasiclassical description of the interferometer arms inside the beam splitters is proposed to interpret the corrected Sagnac phase shift in terms of an effective interferometer area.

  20. Rotative polarization system of millimetric wave for detecting fiber orientation in CFRP

    SciTech Connect

    Urabe, K. )

    1992-02-01

    A new system for nondestructive and contact-free detection of fiber orientation in fiber reinforced composites such as CFRP was devised using 35 GHz millimetric wave. In this system, by rotating the polarization of the wave and compensating it after passing through the sample, changes of anisotropy caused by changes in fiber orientation of unidirectional CFRP or carbon fiber prepreg can be easily and efficiently checked. Scanning detection of fiber direction and of fiber misorientation are also possible with high sensitivity. Results of measurements with successful sensitivity are shown for several kinds of unidirectional samples with artificial fiber misorientations. 5 refs.

  1. A Novel Rotating-Wave X-Ray Source for Analysis of the Martian Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazco, J. E.; Taylor, M.; Liu, Y.; Hodyss, R.; Allwood, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we present analysis and computer simulations for a new accelerator concept that we are proposing for exploration of various planetary surfaces, including the Martian landscape. The rotating-wave accelerator (RWA) uses rotating-wave fields and an external magnetic field to produce acceleration of a low-energy electron beam to high velocities. X-rays are produced by the electrons upon impinging on a suitable target. A linear analysis of the accelerating process is presented as well as computer simulations. These studies show that the RWA can successfully achieve 200-keV X-rays; energy that is ideally suited for X-ray analysis on Mars and other planetary missions. The RWA development will enable a new generation of very compact, power-efficient imaging and analytical instruments capable of producing high-energy X-rays for standoff planetary surface X-ray analysis such as fluorescence and tomography.

  2. Nonlocal strain gradient based wave dispersion behavior of smart rotating magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Dabbagh, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Main object of the present research is an exact investigation of wave propagation responses of smart rotating magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) graded nanoscale plates. In addition, effective material properties of functionally graded (FG) nanoplate are presumed to be calculated using the power-law formulations. Also, it has been tried to cover both softening and stiffness-hardening behaviors of nanostructures by the means of employing nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT). Due to increasing the accuracy of the presented model in predicting shear deformation effects, a refined higher-order plate theory is introduced. In order to cover the most enormous circumstances, maximum amount of load generated by plate’s rotation is considered. Furthermore, utilizing a developed form of Hamilton’s principle, containing magneto-electric effects, the nonlocal governing equations of MEE-FG rotating nanoplates are derived. An analytical solution is obtained to solve the governing equations and validity of the solution method is proven by comparing results from present method with those of former attempts. At last, outcomes are plotted in the framework of some figures to show the influences of various parameters such as wave number, nonlocality, length scale parameter, magnetic potential, electric voltage, gradient index and angular velocity on wave frequency, phase velocity and escape frequency of the examined nanoplate.

  3. Bayesian reconstruction of gravitational wave burst signals from simulations of rotating stellar core collapse and bounce

    SciTech Connect

    Roever, Christian; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Christensen, Nelson; Dimmelmeier, Harald; Heng, Ik Siong; Meyer, Renate

    2009-11-15

    Presented in this paper is a technique that we propose for extracting the physical parameters of a rotating stellar core collapse from the observation of the associated gravitational wave signal from the collapse and core bounce. Data from interferometric gravitational wave detectors can be used to provide information on the mass of the progenitor model, precollapse rotation, and the nuclear equation of state. We use waveform libraries provided by the latest numerical simulations of rotating stellar core collapse models in general relativity, and from them create an orthogonal set of eigenvectors using principal component analysis. Bayesian inference techniques are then used to reconstruct the associated gravitational wave signal that is assumed to be detected by an interferometric detector. Posterior probability distribution functions are derived for the amplitudes of the principal component analysis eigenvectors, and the pulse arrival time. We show how the reconstructed signal and the principal component analysis eigenvector amplitude estimates may provide information on the physical parameters associated with the core collapse event.

  4. Distorted-wave born approximation calculations for turbulence scattering in an upward-refracting atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Kenneth E.; Di, Xiao; Wang, Lintao

    1990-01-01

    Weiner and Keast observed that in an upward-refracting atmosphere, the relative sound pressure level versus range follows a characteristic 'step' function. The observed step function has recently been predicted qualitatively and quantitatively by including the effects of small-scale turbulence in a parabolic equation (PE) calculation. (Gilbert et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87, 2428-2437 (1990)). The PE results to single-scattering calculations based on the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) are compared. The purpose is to obtain a better understanding of the physical mechanisms that produce the step-function. The PE calculations and DWBA calculations are compared to each other and to the data of Weiner and Keast for upwind propagation (strong upward refraction) and crosswind propagation (weak upward refraction) at frequencies of 424 Hz and 848 Hz. The DWBA calculations, which include only single scattering from turbulence, agree with the PE calculations and with the data in all cases except for upwind propagation at 848 Hz. Consequently, it appears that in all cases except one, the observed step function can be understood in terms of single scattering from an upward-refracted 'skywave' into the refractive shadow zone. For upwind propagation at 848 Hz, the DWBA calculation gives levels in the shadow zone that are much below both the PE and the data.

  5. Rotating machine fault diagnosis through enhanced stochastic resonance by full-wave signal construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Siliang; He, Qingbo; Zhang, Haibin; Kong, Fanrang

    2017-02-01

    This study proposes a full-wave signal construction (FSC) strategy for enhancing rotating machine fault diagnosis by exploiting stochastic resonance (SR). The FSC strategy is utilized to transform a half-wave signal (e.g., an envelope signal) into a full-wave one by conducting a Mirror-Cycle-Add (MCA) operation. The constructed full-wave signal evenly modulates the bistable potential and makes the potential tilt back and forth smoothly. This effect provides the equivalent transition probabilities of particle bounce between the two potential wells. A stable SR output signal with better periodicity, which is beneficial to periodic signal detection, can be obtained. In addition, the MCA operation can improve the input signal-to-noise ratio by enhancing the periodic component while attenuating the noise components. These two advantages make the proposed FSCSR method surpass the traditional SR method in fault signal processing. Performance evaluation is conducted by numerical analysis and experimental verification. The proposed MCA-based FSC strategy has the potential to be a universal signal pre-processing technique. Moreover, the proposed FSCSR method can be used in rotating machine fault diagnosis and other areas related to weak signal detection.

  6. Generation of plasma rotation in a tokamak by ion-cyclotron absorption of fast Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    F.W. Perkins; R.B. White; P. Bonoli

    2000-06-13

    Control of rotation in tokamak plasmas provides a method for suppressing fine-scale turbulent transport by velocity shear and for stabilizing large-scale magnetohydrodynamic instabilities via a close-fitting conducting shell. The experimental discovery of rotation in a plasma heated by the fast-wave minority ion cyclotron process is important both as a potential control method for a fusion reactor and as a fundamental issue, because rotation arises even though this heating process introduces negligible angular momentum. This paper proposes and evaluates a mechanism which resolves this apparent conflict. First, it is assumed that angular momentum transport in a tokamak is governed by a diffusion equation with a no-slip boundary condition at the plasma surface and with a torque-density source that is a function of radius. When the torque density source consists of two separated regions of positive and negative torque density, a non-zero central rotation velocity results, even when the total angular momentum input vanishes. Secondly, the authors show that localized ion-cyclotron heating can generate regions of positive and negative torque density and consequently central plasma rotation.

  7. Educing the emission mechanism of internal gravity waves in the differentially heat rotating annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Joran; Hien, Steffen; Achatz, Ulrich; Borchert, Sebastian; Fruman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the lifecycle of gravity waves is fundamental to a good comprehension of the dynamics of the atmosphere. In this lifecycle, the emission mechanisms may be the most elusive. Indeed, while the emission of gravity waves by orography or convection is well understood, the so-called spontaneous emission is still a quite open topic of investigation [1]. This type of emission usually occur very near jet-front systems in the troposphere. In this abstract, we announce our numerical study of the question. Model systems of the atmosphere which can be easily simulated or built in a laboratory have always been an important part of the study of atmospheric dynamics, alongside global simulations, in situ measurements and theory. In the case of the study of the spontaneous emission of gravity waves near jet-front systems, the differentially heated rotating annulus set up has been proposed and extensively used. It comprises of an annular tank containing water: the inner cylinder is kept at a cold temperature while the outer cylinder is kept at a warm temperature. The whole system is rotating. Provided the values of the control parameters (temperature, rotation rate, gap between the cylinders, height of water) are well chosen, the resulting flow mimics the troposphere at midlatitudes: it has a jet stream, and a baroclinic lifecycle develops on top of it. A very reasonable ratio of Brunt-Väisälä frequency over rotation rate of the system can be obtained, so as to be as close to the atmosphere as possible. Recent experiments as well as earlier numerical simulations in our research group have shown that gravity waves are indeed emitted in this set up, in particular near the jet front system of the baroclinic wave [2]. After a first experimental stage of characterising the emitted wavepacket, we focused our work on testing hypotheses on the gravity wave emission mechanism: we have tested and validated the hypothesis of spontaneous imbalance generated by the flow in

  8. Wave generation by fracture initiation and propagation in geomaterials with internal rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esin, Maxim; Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Xu, Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Crack or fracture initiation and propagation in geomaterials are sources of waves and is important in both stability and fracture (e.g. hydraulic fracture) monitoring. Many geomaterials consist of particles or other constituents capable of rotating with respect to each other, either due to the absence of the binder phase (fragmented materials) or due to extensive damage of the cement between the constituents inflicted by previous loading. In investigating the wave generated in fracturing it is important to distinguish between the cases when the fracture is instantaneously initiated to its full length or propagates from a smaller initial crack. We show by direct physical experiments and discrete element modelling of 2D arrangements of unbonded disks that under compressive load fractures are initiated instantaneously as a result of the material instability and localisation. Such fractures generate waves as a single impulse impact. When the fractures propagate, they produce a sequence of impulses associated with the propagation steps. This manifests itself as acoustic (microseismic) emission whose temporal pattern contains the information of the fracture geometry, such as fractal dimension of the fracture. The description of this process requires formulating criteria of crack growth capable of taking into account the internal rotations. We developed an analytical solution based on the Cosserat continuum where each point of body has three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom. When the Cosserat characteristic lengths are comparable with the grain sizes, the simplified equations of small-scale Cosserat continuum can be used. We established that the order of singularity of the main asymptotic term for moment stress is higher than the order of singularity for conventional stress. Therefore, the mutual rotation of particles and related bending and/or twisting of the bonds between the particles represent an unconventional mechanism of crack propagation.

  9. Correction of the near threshold behavior of electron collisional excitation cross-sections in the plane-wave Born approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilcrease, D. P.; Brookes, S.

    2013-12-01

    The modeling of NLTE plasmas requires the solution of population rate equations to determine the populations of the various atomic levels relevant to a particular problem. The equations require many cross sections for excitation, de-excitation, ionization and recombination. A simple and computational fast way to calculate electron collisional excitation cross-sections for ions is by using the plane-wave Born approximation. This is essentially a high-energy approximation and the cross section suffers from the unphysical problem of going to zero near threshold. Various remedies for this problem have been employed with varying degrees of success. We present a correction procedure for the Born cross-sections that employs the Elwert-Sommerfeld factor to correct for the use of plane waves instead of Coulomb waves in an attempt to produce a cross-section similar to that from using the more time consuming Coulomb Born approximation. We compare this new approximation with other, often employed correction procedures. We also look at some further modifications to our Born Elwert procedure and its combination with Y.K. Kim's correction of the Coulomb Born approximation for singly charged ions that more accurately approximate convergent close coupling calculations.

  10. Correction of the near threshold behavior of electron collisional excitation cross-sections in the plane-wave Born approximation

    DOE PAGES

    Kilcrease, D. P.; Brookes, S.

    2013-08-19

    The modeling of NLTE plasmas requires the solution of population rate equations to determine the populations of the various atomic levels relevant to a particular problem. The equations require many cross sections for excitation, de-excitation, ionization and recombination. Additionally, a simple and computational fast way to calculate electron collisional excitation cross-sections for ions is by using the plane-wave Born approximation. This is essentially a high-energy approximation and the cross section suffers from the unphysical problem of going to zero near threshold. Various remedies for this problem have been employed with varying degrees of success. We present a correction procedure formore » the Born cross-sections that employs the Elwert–Sommerfeld factor to correct for the use of plane waves instead of Coulomb waves in an attempt to produce a cross-section similar to that from using the more time consuming Coulomb Born approximation. We compare this new approximation with other, often employed correction procedures. Furthermore, we also look at some further modifications to our Born Elwert procedure and its combination with Y.K. Kim's correction of the Coulomb Born approximation for singly charged ions that more accurately approximate convergent close coupling calculations.« less

  11. Direct observation of nonlinear coupling in wave turbulence at the surface of water and relevance of approximate resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubourg, Quentin; Mordant, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    energy cascade is clearly observed consistently with previous measurements. A large amount of data permits us to use higher order statistical tools to investigate directly the resonant interactions. We observe a strong presence of triadic interactions in our system, confirming the foundations of the weak wave turbulence theory. A significant part of these interactions are non-local and enable coupling between capillary and gravity waves. We also emphasize the role of approximate resonances that are made possible by the nonlinear spectral widening. The quasi-resonances increase significantly the number of wave interactions and in particular open the possibility of observing 3-wave coupling among gravity waves although 3-wave exact resonances are prohibited. These effects are being currently investigated in a larger size experiment using a 13m in diameter wave flume. Our observation raise the question of the importance of these approximate resonances of gravity waves in energy transfers both in the theory and in the ocean.

  12. Multivariate statistical data analysis methods for detecting baroclinic wave interactions in the thermally driven rotating annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Larcher, Thomas; Harlander, Uwe; Alexandrov, Kiril; Wang, Yongtai

    2010-05-01

    Experiments on baroclinic wave instabilities in a rotating cylindrical gap have been long performed, e.g., to unhide regular waves of different zonal wave number, to better understand the transition to the quasi-chaotic regime, and to reveal the underlying dynamical processes of complex wave flows. We present the application of appropriate multivariate data analysis methods on time series data sets acquired by the use of non-intrusive measurement techniques of a quite different nature. While the high accurate Laser-Doppler-Velocimetry (LDV ) is used for measurements of the radial velocity component at equidistant azimuthal positions, a high sensitive thermographic camera measures the surface temperature field. The measurements are performed at particular parameter points, where our former studies show that kinds of complex wave patterns occur [1, 2]. Obviously, the temperature data set has much more information content as the velocity data set due to the particular measurement techniques. Both sets of time series data are analyzed by using multivariate statistical techniques. While the LDV data sets are studied by applying the Multi-Channel Singular Spectrum Analysis (M - SSA), the temperature data sets are analyzed by applying the Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF ). Our goal is (a) to verify the results yielded with the analysis of the velocity data and (b) to compare the data analysis methods. Therefor, the temperature data are processed in a way to become comparable to the LDV data, i.e. reducing the size of the data set in such a manner that the temperature measurements would imaginary be performed at equidistant azimuthal positions only. This approach initially results in a great loss of information. But applying the M - SSA to the reduced temperature data sets enable us to compare the methods. [1] Th. von Larcher and C. Egbers, Experiments on transitions of baroclinic waves in a differentially heated rotating annulus, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics

  13. Stability of steady rotational water-waves of finite amplitude on arbitrary shear currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seez, William; Abid, Malek; Kharif, Christian

    2016-04-01

    A versatile solver for the two-dimensional Euler equations with an unknown free-surface has been developed. This code offers the possibility to calculate two-dimensional, steady rotational water-waves of finite amplitude on an arbitrary shear current. Written in PYTHON the code incorporates both pseudo-spectral and finite-difference methods in the discretisation of the equations and thus allows the user to capture waves with large steepnesses. As such it has been possible to establish that, in a counter-flowing situation, the existence of wave solutions is not guaranteed and depends on a pair of parameters representing mass flux and vorticity. This result was predicted, for linear solutions, by Constantin. Furthermore, experimental comparisons, both with and without vorticity, have proven the precision of this code. Finally, waves propagating on top of highly realistic shear currents (exponential profiles under the surface) have been calculated following current profiles such as those used by Nwogu. In addition, a stability analysis routine has been developed to study the stability regimes of base waves calculated with the two-dimensional code. This linear stability analysis is based on three dimensional perturbations of the steady situation which lead to a generalised eigenvalue problem. Common instabilities of the first and second class have been detected, while a third class of wave-instability appears due to the presence of strong vorticity. {1} Adrian Constantin and Walter Strauss. {Exact steady periodic water waves with vorticity}. Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, 57(4):481-527, April 2004. Okey G. Nwogu. {Interaction of finite-amplitude waves with vertically sheared current fields}. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 627:179, May 2009.

  14. Multiple scattering effects in quasifree scattering from halo nuclei: A test of the distorted-wave impulse approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo, R.; Deltuva, A.; Cravo, E.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Fonseca, A. C.

    2008-02-15

    Full Faddeev-type calculations are performed for {sup 11}Be breakup on a proton target at 38.4, 100, and 200 MeV/u incident energies. The convergence of the multiple scattering expansion is investigated. The results are compared with those of other frameworks like distorted-wave impulse approximation that are based on an incomplete and truncated multiple scattering expansion.

  15. Evolution of massive black hole binaries in rotating galactic nuclei: implications for gravitational wave detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasskazov, Alexander; Merritt, David

    2017-01-01

    The subject of our study is a binary supermassive black hole (BSBH) in the center of a galactic nucleus. We model the evolution of its orbit due to interactions with the stars of the galaxy by means of 3-body scattering experiments. Our model includes a new degree of freedom - the orientation of the BSBH’s orbital plane - which is allowed to change due to interaction with the stars in a rotating nucleus. The binary’s eccentricity also evolves in an orientation-dependent manner. We find that the dynamics are qualitatively different compared with non-rotating nuclei: 1) The BSBH's orbital plane evolves toward alignment with the plane of rotation of the nucleus; 2) The BSBH’s eccentricity decreases for aligned BSBHs and increases for counter-aligned ones.We then apply our model to calculate the effects of stellar environment on the gravitational wave background spectrum produced by BSBHs. Using the results of recent N-body/Monte-Carlo simulations we account for different rates of stellar interaction in spherical, axisymmetric and triaxial galaxies. We also consider the possibility that SBH masses are systematically lower than usually assumed. The net result of the new physical mechanisms included here is a spectrum for the stochastic gravitational wave background that has a significantly lower amplitude than in previous treatments, which could explain the discrepancy that currently exists between the models and the upper limits set by pulsar timing array observations.

  16. Monitoring Rotational Components of Seismic Waves with a Ring Laser Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gakundi, Jackson; Dunn, Robert

    2015-04-01

    It has been known for decades that seismic waves can introduce rotation in the surface of the Earth. There are historic records of tombstones in Japan being rotated after large earthquakes. Until fairly recently, the primary way to detect ground rotation from earthquakes was with an array of several seismographs. The development of large ring laser interferometers has provided a way for a single instrument to make extremely sensitive measurements of ground motion. In this poster, a diagram of a large ring laser will be presented. For comparison, seismograms recorded with a ring laser and a collocated standard seismograph will be presented. A major thrust of this research is the detection and analysis of seismic responses from directional drilling sites in Arkansas and Oklahoma. There are suggestions that the injection of pressurized water used to fracture gas bearing shale may cause small earthquakes. The Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission ordered the closing of certain waste water disposal wells in North Central Arkansas. Apparently, these wells injected waste water into a previously unknown fault causing it to slip. An attempt is being made to determine if the seismic wave patterns from earthquakes generated near directional drilling sites differ from those generated miles away.

  17. Forced generation of solitary waves in a rotating fluid and their stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Wooyoung

    The primary objective of this graduate research is to study forced generation of solitary waves in a rotating fluid and their stability properties. For axisymmetric flow of a non-uniformly rotating fluid within a long cylindrical tube, an analysis is presented to predict the periodic generation of upstream-advancing vortex solitons by axisymmetric disturbance steadily moving with a transcritical velocity as a forcing agent. The phenomenon is simulated using the forced Korteweg-de Vries (fKdV) equation to model the amplitude function of the Stokes stream function for describing this family of rotating flows of an inviscid and incompressible fluid. The numerical results for the weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive wave motion show that a sequence of well-defined axisymmetrical recirculating eddies is periodically produced and emitted to radiate upstream of the disturbance, soon becoming permanent in the form as a procession of vortex solitons, which we call vortons. Two primary flows, the Rankine vortex and the Burgers vortex, are adopted to exhibit in detail the process of producing the upstream vortons by the critical motion of a slender body moving along the central axis, with the Burgers vortex being found the more effective of the two in the generation of vortons. To investigate the evolution of free or forced waves within a tube of non-uniform radius, a new forced KdV equation is derived which models the variable geometry with variable coefficients. A set of section-mean conservation laws is derived specially for this class of rotational tube flows of an inviscid and incompressible fluid, in both differential and integral forms. A new aspect of stability theory is analyzed for possible instabilities of the axisymmetric solitary waves subject to non-axisymmetric disturbances. The present linear analysis based on the model equation involving the bending mode shows that the axisymmetric solitary wave is neutrally stable with respect to small bending mode

  18. Three-dimensional structures of equatorial waves and the resulting super-rotation in the atmosphere of a tidally locked hot Jupiter

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Shang-Min; Gu, Pin-Gao; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2014-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) equatorial trapped waves excited by stellar isolation and the resulting equatorial super-rotating jet in a vertical stratified atmosphere of a tidally locked hot Jupiter are investigated. Taking the hot Jupiter HD 189733b as a fiducial example, we analytically solve linear equations subject to stationary stellar heating with a uniform zonal-mean flow included. We also extract wave information in the final equilibrium state of the atmosphere from our radiative hydrodynamical simulation for HD 189733b. Our analytic wave solutions are able to qualitatively explain the 3D simulation results. Apart from previous wave studies, investigating the vertical structure of waves allows us to explore new wave features such as the wavefronts tilts related to the Rossby-wave resonance as well as dispersive equatorial waves. We also attempt to apply our linear wave analysis to explain some numerical features associated with the equatorial jet development seen in the general circulation model by Showman and Polvani. During the spin-up phase of the equatorial jet, the acceleration of the jet can be in principle boosted by the Rossby-wave resonance. However, we also find that as the jet speed increases, the Rossby-wave structure shifts eastward, while the Kelvin-wave structure remains approximately stationary, leading to the decline of the acceleration rate. Our analytic model of jet evolution implies that there exists only one stable equilibrium state of the atmosphere, possibly implying that the final state of the atmosphere is independent of initial conditions in the linear regime. Limitations of our linear model and future improvements are also discussed.

  19. Generation of polarized shear Alfven waves by a rotating magnetic field source

    SciTech Connect

    Gigliotti, A.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.; Karavaev, A.; Shao, X.; Sharma, A. Surjalal; Papadopoulos, D.

    2009-09-15

    Experiments are performed in the Large Plasma Device at the University of California, Los Angeles to study the propagation of field-aligned, polarized kinetic shear Alfven waves radiated from a rotating magnetic field source created via a novel phased orthogonal loop antenna. Both right and left hand circular polarizations are generated at a wide range of frequencies from 0.21{<=}{omega}/{omega}{sub ci}<0.93. Propagation parallel to the background magnetic field near the Alfven velocity is observed along with a small parallel wave magnetic field component implying a shear mode. The peak-to-peak magnitude of the wave magnetic field, 33 cm away from the antenna, is on the order of 0.8% of the background field and drops off in the far field. The full width at half maximum of the wave energy changes little over a distance of 2.5 parallel wavelengths while the exponential decrease in wave energy as a function of distance can be attributed to collisional damping. Evidence of electron heating and ionization is observed during the pulse.

  20. Galactic rotation curve and spiral density wave parameters from 73 masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, V. V.; Bajkova, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    Based on kinematic data on masers with known trigonometric parallaxes and measurements of the velocities of HI clouds at tangential points in the inner Galaxy, we have refined the parameters of the Allen-Santillan model Galactic potential and constructed the Galactic rotation curve in a wide range of Galactocentric distances, from 0 to 20 kpc. The circular rotation velocity of the Sun for the adopted Galactocentric distance R 0 = 8 kpc is V 0 = 239 ± 16 km s-1. We have obtained the series of residual tangential, Δ V θ , and radial, V R , velocities for 73 masers. Based on these series, we have determined the parameters of the Galactic spiral density wave satisfying the linear Lin-Shu model using the method of periodogram analysis that we proposed previously. The tangential and radial perturbation amplitudes are f θ = 7.0±1.2 km s-1 and f R = 7.8±0.7 km s-1, respectively, the perturbation wave length is λ = 2.3±0.4 kpc, and the pitch angle of the spiral pattern in a two-armed model is i = -5.2° ±0.7°. The phase of the Sun ζ ⊙ in the spiral density wave is -50° ± 15° and -160° ± 15° from the residual tangential and radial velocities, respectively.

  1. A high-order time-parallel scheme for solving wave propagation problems via the direct construction of an approximate time-evolution operator

    SciTech Connect

    Haut, T. S.; Babb, T.; Martinsson, P. G.; Wingate, B. A.

    2015-06-16

    Our manuscript demonstrates a technique for efficiently solving the classical wave equation, the shallow water equations, and, more generally, equations of the form ∂u/∂t=Lu∂u/∂t=Lu, where LL is a skew-Hermitian differential operator. The idea is to explicitly construct an approximation to the time-evolution operator exp(τL)exp(τL) for a relatively large time-step ττ. Recently developed techniques for approximating oscillatory scalar functions by rational functions, and accelerated algorithms for computing functions of discretized differential operators are exploited. Principal advantages of the proposed method include: stability even for large time-steps, the possibility to parallelize in time over many characteristic wavelengths and large speed-ups over existing methods in situations where simulation over long times are required. Numerical examples involving the 2D rotating shallow water equations and the 2D wave equation in an inhomogenous medium are presented, and the method is compared to the 4th order Runge–Kutta (RK4) method and to the use of Chebyshev polynomials. The new method achieved high accuracy over long-time intervals, and with speeds that are orders of magnitude faster than both RK4 and the use of Chebyshev polynomials.

  2. A high-order time-parallel scheme for solving wave propagation problems via the direct construction of an approximate time-evolution operator

    DOE PAGES

    Haut, T. S.; Babb, T.; Martinsson, P. G.; ...

    2015-06-16

    Our manuscript demonstrates a technique for efficiently solving the classical wave equation, the shallow water equations, and, more generally, equations of the form ∂u/∂t=Lu∂u/∂t=Lu, where LL is a skew-Hermitian differential operator. The idea is to explicitly construct an approximation to the time-evolution operator exp(τL)exp(τL) for a relatively large time-step ττ. Recently developed techniques for approximating oscillatory scalar functions by rational functions, and accelerated algorithms for computing functions of discretized differential operators are exploited. Principal advantages of the proposed method include: stability even for large time-steps, the possibility to parallelize in time over many characteristic wavelengths and large speed-ups over existingmore » methods in situations where simulation over long times are required. Numerical examples involving the 2D rotating shallow water equations and the 2D wave equation in an inhomogenous medium are presented, and the method is compared to the 4th order Runge–Kutta (RK4) method and to the use of Chebyshev polynomials. The new method achieved high accuracy over long-time intervals, and with speeds that are orders of magnitude faster than both RK4 and the use of Chebyshev polynomials.« less

  3. Survey of Coherent Approximately 1 Hz Waves in Mercury's Inner Magnetosphere from MESSENGER Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boardsen, Scott A.; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    We summarize observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft of highly coherent waves at frequencies between 0.4 and 5 Hz in Mercury's inner magnetosphere. This survey covers the time period from 24 March to 25 September 2011, or 2.1 Mercury years. These waves typically exhibit banded harmonic structure that drifts in frequency as the spacecraft traverses the magnetic equator. The waves are seen at all magnetic local times, but their observed rate of occurrence is much less on the dayside, at least in part the result of MESSENGER's orbit. On the nightside, on average, wave power is maximum near the equator and decreases with increasing magnetic latitude, consistent with an equatorial source. When the spacecraft traverses the plasma sheet during its equatorial crossings, wave power is a factor of 2 larger than for equatorial crossings that do not cross the plasma sheet. The waves are highly transverse at large magnetic latitudes but are more compressional near the equator. However, at the equator the transverse component of these waves increases relative to the compressional component as the degree of polarization decreases. Also, there is a substantial minority of events that are transverse at all magnetic latitudes, including the equator. A few of these latter events could be interpreted as ion cyclotron waves. In general, the waves tend to be strongly linear and characterized by values of the ellipticity less than 0.3 and wave-normal angles peaked near 90 deg. Their maxima in wave power at the equator coupled with their narrow-band character suggests that these waves might be generated locally in loss cone plasma characterized by high values of the ratio beta of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure. Presumably both electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and electromagnetic ion Bernstein waves can be generated by ion loss cone distributions. If proton beta decreases with increasing magnetic latitude along a field line, then electromagnetic ion Bernstein waves are predicted

  4. An Exact Solution for Geophysical Edge Waves in the {β}-Plane Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu-Kruse, Delia

    2015-12-01

    By taking into account the {β}-plane effects, we provide an exact nonlinear solution to the geophysical edge-wave problem within the Lagrangian framework. This solution describes trapped waves propagating eastward or westward along a sloping beach with the shoreline parallel to the Equator.

  5. TSA - A Two Scale Approximation for Wind-Generated Ocean Surface Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    The coastal zone involves significant potential future economic development, e.g., residences, recreation, fisheries, aquaculture , coastal...Quality of Life Development of the coastal zone involves residences, recreation, fisheries, aquaculture , coastal transportation. Ocean waves are...11p. [published] 2. Perrie, W., Guo, L ., Long, Z. and Toulany, B., 2011: Impacts of Climate Change on Autumn North Atlantic Wave Climate. 12th

  6. Turbulence, waves, and jets in a differentially heated rotating annulus experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wordsworth, R. D.; Read, P. L.; Yamazaki, Y. H.

    2008-12-01

    We report an analog laboratory study of planetary-scale turbulence and jet formation. A rotating annulus was cooled and heated at its inner and outer walls, respectively, causing baroclinic instability to develop in the fluid inside. At high rotation rates and low temperature differences, the flow became chaotic and ultimately fully turbulent. The inclusion of sloping top and bottom boundaries caused turbulent eddies to behave like planetary waves at large scales, and eddy interaction with the zonal flow then led to the formation of several alternating jets at mid-depth. The jets did not scale with the Rhines length, and spectral analysis of the flow indicated a distinct separation between jets and eddies in wavenumber space, with direct energy transfer occurring nonlocally between them. Our results suggest that the traditional ``turbulent cascade'' picture of zonal jet formation may be an inappropriate one in the geophysically important case of large-scale flows forced by differential solar heating.

  7. Contributions to the theory of magnetorotational instability and waves in a rotating plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailovskii, A. B. Lominadze, J. G. Churikov, A. P.; Tsypin, V. S.; Erokhin, N. N.; Erokhin, N. S.; Konovalov, S. V.; Pashitskii, E. A.; Stepanov, A. V.; Vladimirov, S. V.; Galvao, R. M. O.

    2008-01-15

    The one-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory of magnetorotational instability (MRI) in an ideal plasma is presented. The theory predicts the possibility of MRI for arbitrary {beta}, where {beta} is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure. The kinetic theory of MRI in a collisionless plasma is developed. It is demonstrated that as in the ideal MHD, MRI can occur in such a plasma for arbitrary {beta}. The mechanism of MRI is discussed; it is shown that the instability appears because of a perturbed parallel electric field. The electrodynamic description of MRI is formulated under the assumption that the dispersion relation is expressed in terms of the permittivity tensor; general properties of this tensor are analyzed. It is shown to be separated into the nonrotational and rotational parts. With this in mind, the first step for incorporation of MRI into the general theory of plasma instabilities is taken. The rotation effects on Alfven waves are considered.

  8. Systematics of an ambient-temperature, rapidly-rotating half-wave plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essinger-Hileman, T.; Kusaka, A.; Appel, J. W.; Gallardo, P.; Irwin, K. D.; Jarosik, N.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L. A.; Parker, L. P.; Raghunathan, S.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Visnjic, K.

    2016-07-01

    In these proceedings, we summarize our in-field evaluation of temperature-to-polarization leakage associated with the use of a continuously-rotating, ambient-temperature half-wave plate (HWP) on the Atacama B-Mode Search (ABS) experiment. Using two seasons of data, we demonstrate scalar leakage of ˜ 0.01%. This is consistent with model expectations and an order of magnitude better than any previously-reported leakage. We constrain higher-order dipole and quadrupole leakage terms to be < 0.06% (95% confidence). Without any mitigation from scan cross-linking or boresight rotation, this corresponds to an upper limit on systematic errors in the tensor-to-scalar ratio r ;S 0.01. The HWP significantly reduces temperature-to-polarization leakage systematic errors for ABS and shows the promise of fast polarization modulation with HWPs for future experiments. Full details can be found in Ref. 1.

  9. Magnetic field effect on waves in a centrifuged layer of a rotating conducting viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueva, N. V.; Sandalov, V. M.; Tkach, M. E.; Soldatov, I. N.

    2015-05-01

    This paper considers wave processes in a centrifuged layer of an incompressible viscous conducting fluid in an axial magnetic field in the cavity of a rapidly rotating infinite cylinder with insulating walls. Inertial modes (solutions of the linearized boundary-value problem of magnetohydrodynamics) are represented as a superposition of helical fields. Expressions for the vorticity parameters of the helical flows forming the inertial mode at a small Stewart number are given. Dispersion curves of inertial waves are constructed, and the influence of the magnetic field on the flow field is analyzed. The critical frequencies at which the lowest (surface) mode arises are determined. The spatial and temporal stability of the modes are investigated.

  10. Anomalous waves in gas-liquid mixtures near gas critical point in Gardner equation approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasenko, V. G.

    2016-10-01

    The waves in a bubbled incompressible liquid with Van der Waals gas in a bubbles being near critical points is considered in a frame of Gardner equation. It is shown that both coefficients on quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms in Gardner equation change the sign near gas critical point and it results the anomalous waves: negative and limited solitons, kinks, antikinks and breathers. The dynamics and interactions of these waves was studied numerically by high accuracy Fourier methods with periodically boundary conditions. In particular it is revealed that limited solitons always arise from initial distribution with a few identical soliton's pair and stand stable in their form after numerous interactions.

  11. On the linear approximation of gravity wave saturation in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, W. C.; Schoeberl, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Lindzen's model of gravity wave breaking is shown to be inconsistent with the process of convective adjustment and associated turbulent outbreak. The K-theory turbulent diffusion model used by Lindzen implies a spatially uniform turbulent field which is not in agreement with the fact that gravity wave saturation and the associated convection produce turbulence only in restricted zones. The Lindzen model may be corrected to some extent by taking the turbulent Prandtl number for a diffusion acting on the wave itself to be very large. The eddy diffusion coefficients computed by Lindzen then become a factor of 2 larger and eddy transports of heat and constituents by wave fields vanish to first order.

  12. Effect of background rotation on the evolution of 3D internal gravity wave beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Boyu; Akylas, T. R.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of background rotation on the 3D propagation of internal gravity wave beams (IGWB) is studied, assuming that variations in the along-beam and transverse directions are of long length scale relative to the beam width. The present study generalizes the asymptotic model of KA (Kataoka & Akylas 2015) who considered the analogous problem in the absence of rotation. It is shown that the role of mean vertical vorticity in the earlier analysis is now taken by the flow mean potential vorticity (MPV). Specifically, 3D variations enable resonant transfer of energy to the flow MPV, resulting in strong nonlinear coupling between a 3D IGWB and its induced mean flow. This coupling mechanism is governed by a system of two nonlinear equations of the same form as those derived in KA. Accordingly, the induced mean flow features a purely inviscid modulational component, as well as a viscous one akin to acoustic streaming; the latter grows linearly with time for a quasi-steady IGWB. On the other hand, owing to background rotation, the induced mean flow in the vicinity of the IGWB is no longer purely horizontal and develops an asymmetric behavior. Supported by NSF.

  13. Gravitational waves and mass ejecta from binary neutron star mergers: Effect of the stars' rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Tim; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Ujevic, Maximiliano; Tichy, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    We present new (3 +1 )-dimensional numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star (BNS) mergers that take into account the NS spins. We consider different spin configurations, aligned or antialigned to the orbital angular momentum, for equal- and unequal-mass BNSs and for two equations of state. All the simulations employ quasiequilibrium circular initial data in the constant rotational velocity approach, i.e. they are consistent with the Einstein equations and in hydrodynamical equilibrium. We study the NS rotation effect on the energetics, the gravitational waves (GWs) and on the possible electromagnetic (EM) emission associated to dynamical mass ejecta. For dimensionless spin magnitudes of χ ˜0.1 we find that both spin-orbit interactions and spin-induced quadrupole deformations affect the late-inspiral merger dynamics. The latter is, however, dominated by finite-size effects. Spin (tidal) effects contribute to GW phase differences up to ˜5 (20) radians accumulated during the last eight orbits to merger. Similarly, after merger the collapse time of the remnant and the GW spectrogram are affected by the NSs rotation. Spin effects in dynamical ejecta are clearly observed in unequal-mass systems in which mass ejection originates from the tidal tail of the companion. Consequently kilonovae and other EM counterparts are affected by spins. We find that spin aligned to the orbital angular momentum leads to brighter EM counterparts than antialigned spin with luminosities up to a factor of 2 higher.

  14. Systematic effects from an ambient-temperature, continuously rotating half-wave plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essinger-Hileman, T.; Kusaka, A.; Appel, J. W.; Choi, S. K.; Crowley, K.; Ho, S. P.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L. A.; Parker, L. P.; Raghunathan, S.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Visnjic, K.

    2016-09-01

    We present an evaluation of systematic effects associated with a continuously rotating, ambient-temperature half-wave plate (HWP) based on two seasons of data from the Atacama B-Mode Search (ABS) experiment located in the Atacama Desert of Chile. The ABS experiment is a microwave telescope sensitive at 145 GHz. Here we present our in-field evaluation of celestial (Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) plus galactic foreground) temperature-to-polarization leakage. We decompose the leakage into scalar, dipole, and quadrupole leakage terms. We report a scalar leakage of ˜0.01%, consistent with model expectations and an order of magnitude smaller than other CMB experiments have been reported. No significant dipole or quadrupole terms are detected; we constrain each to be <0.07% (95% confidence), limited by statistical uncertainty in our measurement. Dipole and quadrupole leakage at this level lead to systematic error on r ≲ 0.01 before any mitigation due to scan cross-linking or boresight rotation. The measured scalar leakage and the theoretical level of dipole and quadrupole leakage produce systematic error of r < 0.001 for the ABS survey and focal-plane layout before any data correction such as so-called deprojection. This demonstrates that ABS achieves significant beam systematic error mitigation from its HWP and shows the promise of continuously rotating HWPs for future experiments.

  15. Systematic effects from an ambient-temperature, continuously rotating half-wave plate.

    PubMed

    Essinger-Hileman, T; Kusaka, A; Appel, J W; Choi, S K; Crowley, K; Ho, S P; Jarosik, N; Page, L A; Parker, L P; Raghunathan, S; Simon, S M; Staggs, S T; Visnjic, K

    2016-09-01

    We present an evaluation of systematic effects associated with a continuously rotating, ambient-temperature half-wave plate (HWP) based on two seasons of data from the Atacama B-Mode Search (ABS) experiment located in the Atacama Desert of Chile. The ABS experiment is a microwave telescope sensitive at 145 GHz. Here we present our in-field evaluation of celestial (Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) plus galactic foreground) temperature-to-polarization leakage. We decompose the leakage into scalar, dipole, and quadrupole leakage terms. We report a scalar leakage of ∼0.01%, consistent with model expectations and an order of magnitude smaller than other CMB experiments have been reported. No significant dipole or quadrupole terms are detected; we constrain each to be <0.07% (95% confidence), limited by statistical uncertainty in our measurement. Dipole and quadrupole leakage at this level lead to systematic error on r ≲ 0.01 before any mitigation due to scan cross-linking or boresight rotation. The measured scalar leakage and the theoretical level of dipole and quadrupole leakage produce systematic error of r < 0.001 for the ABS survey and focal-plane layout before any data correction such as so-called deprojection. This demonstrates that ABS achieves significant beam systematic error mitigation from its HWP and shows the promise of continuously rotating HWPs for future experiments.

  16. Thomas-Fermi Approximation for Coexisting Two Component Bose-Einstein Condensates and Nonexistence of Vortices for Small Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftalion, Amandine; Noris, Benedetta; Sourdis, Christos

    2015-06-01

    We study minimizers of a Gross-Pitaevskii energy describing a two- component Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a radially symmetric harmonic trap and set into rotation. We consider the case of coexistence of the components in the Thomas-Fermi regime, where a small parameter conveys a singular perturbation. The minimizer of the energy without rotation is determined as the positive solution of a system of coupled PDEs, for which we show uniqueness. The limiting problem for has degenerate and irregular behavior at specific radii, where the gradient blows up. By means of a perturbation argument, we obtain precise estimates for the convergence of the minimizer to this limiting profile, as tends to 0. For low rotation, based on these estimates, we can show that the ground states remain real valued and do not have vortices, even in the region of small density.

  17. Separable wave equations for gravitoelectromagnetic perturbations of rotating charged black strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Alex S.; Morgan, Jaqueline; Kandus, Alejandra; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2015-12-01

    Rotating charged black strings are exact solutions of four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell equations with a negative cosmological constant and a non-trivial spacetime topology. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, these black strings are dual to rotating thermal states of a strongly interacting quantum field theory with nonzero chemical potential that lives in a cylinder. The dynamics of linear fluctuations in the dual field theory can be studied from the perturbation equations for classical fields in a black-string spacetime. With this motivation in mind, we develop here a completely gauge and tetrad invariant perturbation approach to deal with the gravitoelectromagnetic fluctuations of rotating charged black strings in the presence of sources. As usual, for any charged black hole, a perturbation in the background electromagnetic field induces a metric perturbation and vice versa. In spite of this coupling and the non-vanishing angular momentum, we show that linearization of equations of the Newman-Penrose formalism leads to four separated second-order complex equations for suitable combinations of the spin coefficients, the Weyl and the Maxwell scalars. Then, we generalize the Chandrasekhar transformation theory by the inclusion of sources and apply it to reduce the perturbation problem to four decoupled inhomogeneous wave equations—a pair for each sector of perturbations. The radial part of such wave equations can be put into Schrödinger-like forms after Fourier transforming them with respect to time. We find that the resulting effective potentials form two pairs of supersymmetric partner potentials and, as a consequence, the fundamental variables of one perturbation sector are related to the variables of the other sector. The relevance of such a symmetry in connection to the AdS/CFT correspondence is discussed, and future applications of the pertubation theory developed here are outlined.

  18. Effective three-wave-mixing picture and first Born approximation for femtosecond supercontinua from microstructured fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesik, M.; Moloney, J. V.; Tartara, L.

    2010-10-15

    The theory of supercontinuum generation in microstructured fibers is based on notions of soliton fission and subsequent dispersive wave radiation. In bulk media, in contrast, the paradigm of effective three-wave mixing (ETWM) proves useful for understanding the supercontinuum spectral properties and revealing the dynamics within the high-intensity core of the collapsing filament. Previously, it has been shown that the bulk theory applies accurately even to so-called glass-membrane fibers in which the guided light is free to diffract in one dimension. In the same spirit, this work extends that result and brings the fiber and bulk supercontinuum approaches closer together. Specifically, we demonstrate that the ETWM paradigm can be modified for fibers, where it provides an accurate analytic description of the supercontinuum component due to dispersive waves.

  19. Quantitative assessment of rotator cuff muscle elasticity: Reliability and feasibility of shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Taku; Giambini, Hugo; Uehara, Kosuke; Okamoto, Seiji; Chen, Shigao; Sperling, John W; Itoi, Eiji; An, Kai-Nan

    2015-11-05

    Ultrasound imaging has been used to evaluate various shoulder pathologies, whereas, quantification of the rotator cuff muscle stiffness using shear wave elastography (SWE) has not been verified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and feasibility of SWE measurements for the quantification of supraspinatus (SSP) muscle elasticity. Thirty cadaveric shoulders (18 intact and 12 with torn rotator cuff) were used. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was evaluated on an established SWE technique for measuring the SSP muscle elasticity. To assess the effect of overlying soft tissues above the SSP muscle, SWE values were measured with the transducer placed on the skin, on the subcutaneous fat after removing the skin, on the trapezius muscle after removing the subcutaneous fat, and directly on the SSP muscle. In addition, SWE measurements on 4 shoulder positions (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° abduction) were compared in those with/without rotator cuff tears. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of SWE measurements were excellent for all regions in SSP muscle. Also, removing the overlying soft tissue showed no significant difference on SWE values measured in the SSP muscle. The SSP muscle with 0° abduction showed large SWE values, whereas, shoulders with large-massive tear showed smaller variation throughout the adduction-abduction positions. SWE is a reliable and feasible tool for quantitatively assessing the SSP muscle elasticity. This study also presented SWE measurements on the SSP muscle under various shoulder abduction positions which might help characterize patterns in accordance to the size of rotator cuff tears.

  20. Chemical Kinetics in the expansion flow field of a rotating detonation-wave engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. A key step towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release.

  1. Hard magnetic ferrite with a gigantic coercivity and high frequency millimetre wave rotation

    PubMed Central

    Namai, Asuka; Yoshikiyo, Marie; Yamada, Kana; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Goto, Takashi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Tatsuro; Nakajima, Makoto; Suemoto, Tohru; Tokoro, Hiroko; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic ferrites such as Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 are extensively used in a range of applications because they are inexpensive and chemically stable. Here we show that rhodium-substituted ε-Fe2O3, ε-RhxFe2−xO3 nanomagnets prepared by a nanoscale chemical synthesis using mesoporous silica as a template, exhibit a huge coercive field (Hc) of 27 kOe at room temperature. Furthermore, a crystallographically oriented sample recorded an Hc value of 31 kOe, which is the largest value among metal-oxide-based magnets and is comparable to those of rare-earth magnets. In addition, ε-RhxFe2−xO3 shows high frequency millimetre wave absorption up to 209 GHz. ε-Rh0.14Fe1.86O3 exhibits a rotation of the polarization plane of the propagated millimetre wave at 220 GHz, which is one of the promising carrier frequencies (the window of air) for millimetre wave wireless communications. PMID:22948817

  2. Rotational spectroscopy and three-wave mixing of 4-carvomenthenol: A technical guide to measuring chirality in the microwave regime

    SciTech Connect

    Shubert, V. Alvin; Schmitz, David; Medcraft, Chris; Krin, Anna; Patterson, David; Doyle, John M.; Schnell, Melanie

    2015-06-07

    We apply chirality sensitive microwave three-wave mixing to 4-carvomenthenol, a molecule previously uncharacterized with rotational spectroscopy. We measure its rotational spectrum in the 2-8.5 GHz range and observe three molecular conformers. We describe our method in detail, from the initial step of spectral acquisition and assignment to the final step of determining absolute configuration and enantiomeric excess. Combining fitted rotational constants with dipole moment components derived from quantum chemical calculations, we identify candidate three-wave mixing cycles which were further tested using a double resonance method. Initial optimization of the three-wave mixing signal is done by varying the duration of the second excitation pulse. With known transition dipole matrix elements, absolute configuration can be directly determined from a single measurement.

  3. Accurate spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic compounds: from the rotational spectrum of fluoren-9-one in the millimeter wave region to its infrared spectrum.

    PubMed

    Maris, Assimo; Calabrese, Camilla; Melandri, Sonia; Blanco, Susana

    2015-01-14

    The rotational spectrum of fluoren-9-one, a small oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, has been recorded and assigned in the 52-74.4 GHz region. The determined small negative value of the inertia defect (-0.3 u Å(2)) has been explained in terms of vibrational-rotational coupling constants calculated at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Vibrational anharmonic analysis together with second-order vibrational perturbation theory approximation was applied both to fluorenone and its reduced form, fluorene, to predict the mid- and near-infrared spectra. The data presented here give precise indication on the fluorenone ground state structure, allow for an accurate spectral characterization in the millimeter wave and infrared regions, and hopefully will facilitate extensive radio astronomical searches with large radio telescopes.

  4. Separable-spherical-wave approximation: Application to x-ray-absorption fine-structure multiple scattering in ReO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, B.; Ingalls, R.; Rehr, J. J.

    1992-04-01

    Rehr and Albers have shown that the exact x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) propagator may be expanded in a separable matrix form, and that the lowest-order term in the expansion yields XAFS formulas that contain spherical-wave corrections, yet retain the simplicity of the plane-wave approximation. This separable-spherical-wave approximation was used to model the multiple-scattering contributions to the XAFS spectrum of rhenium trioxide. We report a modest improvement over the plane-wave approximation.

  5. Sixteen-moment approximation for a collisionless space plasma: Waves and instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, V. D.; Dzhalilov, N. S.

    2009-11-15

    A study is carried out of waves and instabilities in an anisotropic collisionless plasma. In a strongly magnetized plasma, the velocity distributions along and across the magnetic field lines are different, which results in anisotropy of the total pressure and gives rise to an anisotropic heat flux. The fluid description of the plasma is based on the 16-moment integral transport equations, which are integral equations obtained from the Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation. For small incompressible perturbations in a homogeneous plasma, the general dispersion relation implies that there are not only firehose modes, but also three additional modes, and that all four wave modes interact with each other if a heat flux is present. Heat fluxes do not change the properties of conventional firehose modes. The conditions for the onset of instabilities are investigated as functions of the parameters of the problems. Qualitative estimates for conditions typical of the solar corona are presented.

  6. Parallel iterative procedures for approximate solutions of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.

    1994-12-31

    Parallel iterative procedures based on domain decomposition techniques are defined and analyzed for the numerical solution of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods. For finite element methods, in a Lagrangian framework, an efficient way for choosing the algorithm parameter as well as the algorithm convergence are indicated. Some heuristic arguments for finding the algorithm parameter for finite difference schemes are addressed. Numerical results are presented to indicate the effectiveness of the methods.

  7. TSA - a Two Scale Approximation for Wind-generated Ocean Surface Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    aquaculture , coastal transportation. Better forecasts, with longer lead-time, and better accuracy can help reduce potential risk to these economic...developments, due to ocean waves. Quality of Life Development of the coastal zone involves residences, recreation, fisheries, aquaculture , coastal...Babanin, J. F. Filipot, R. Magne, A. Roland, A. van der Westhuysen, P. Queffeulou, J. M. Lefevre, L . Aouf, and F. Collard (2010), Semiempirical

  8. Inertial waves and mean velocity profiles in a rotating pipe and a circular annulus with axial flow.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yantao; Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Wu, Jiezhi; Orlandi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we solve the inviscid inertial wave solutions in a circular pipe or annulus rotating constantly about its axis with moderate angular speed. The solutions are constructed by the so-called helical wave functions. We reveal that the mean velocity profiles must satisfy certain conditions to accommodate the inertial waves at the bulk region away from boundary. These conditions require the axial and azimuthal components of the mean velocity to take the shapes of the zeroth and first order Bessel functions of the first kind, respectively. The theory is then verified by data obtained from direct numerical simulations for both rotating pipe and circular annulus, and excellent agreement is found between theory and numerical results. Large scale vortex clusters are found in the bulk region where the mean velocity profiles match the theoretical predictions. The success of the theory in rotating pipe, circular annulus, and streamwise rotating channel suggests that such inertial waves are quite common in wall bounded flow with background rotation.

  9. Modification of Current Profile, Toroidal Rotation and Pedestal by Lower Hybrid Waves in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, R.; Bonoli, P. T.; Meneghini, O.; Porkolab, M.; Schmidt, A. E.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Ko, J.-S.; McDermott, R. M.; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J. E.; Wilson, J. R.; Scott, S.

    2009-11-26

    Recent results from the lower hybrid current drive experiments on Alcator C-Mod are presented. These include i) MSE measurements of broadened LHCD current profiles; ii) development of counter rotation comparable to the rate of injected wave momentum; iii) modification of pedestals and rotation in H-mode; and iv) development of a new FEM-based code that models LH wave propagation from the RF source to absorption in the plasma. An improved antenna concept that will be used in the upcoming C-Mod campaigns is also briefly described.

  10. Spectroscopic mode identification of γ Doradus stars: frequencies, modes, rotation and wave leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Karen R.; Brunsden, E.; Davie, M.; Greenwood, A.; Cottrell, P. L.

    The gravity modes present in γ Doradus stars probe the deep stellar interiors and are thus of particular interest in asteroseismology. The MUSICIAN programme at the University of Canterbury has been successfully identifying frequencies and pulsation modes in many γ Doradus stars using hundreds of precise, high resolution spectroscopic observations obtained with the 1.0 m telescope and HERCULES spectrograph at the Mt John Observatory in New Zealand. In this paper we present a summary of our spectroscopic frequency and mode identifications. Of particular interest from our spectroscopic analyses are: the prevalence of (l, m) = 1, 1 modes in many γ Dor stars; the importance of stellar rotation in the interpretation of the frequency and mode identification; and finally, possible evidence of wave leakage in one of these stars.

  11. Fat2 acts through the WAVE regulatory complex to drive collective cell migration during tissue rotation

    PubMed Central

    Squarr, Anna Julia; Brinkmann, Klaus; Chen, Baoyu; Steinbacher, Tim; Ebnet, Klaus; Rosen, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Directional cell movements during morphogenesis require the coordinated interplay between membrane receptors and the actin cytoskeleton. The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) is a conserved actin regulator. Here, we found that the atypical cadherin Fat2 recruits the WRC to basal membranes of tricellular contacts where a new type of planar-polarized whip-like actin protrusion is formed. Loss of either Fat2 function or its interaction with the WRC disrupts tricellular protrusions and results in the formation of nonpolarized filopodia. We provide further evidence for a molecular network in which the receptor tyrosine phosphatase Dlar interacts with the WRC to couple the extracellular matrix, the membrane, and the actin cytoskeleton during egg elongation. Our data uncover a mechanism by which polarity information can be transduced from a membrane receptor to a key actin regulator to control collective follicle cell migration during egg elongation. 4D-live imaging of rotating MCF10A mammary acini further suggests an evolutionary conserved mechanism driving rotational motions in epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:26903538

  12. 3-D Inverse Teleseismic Scattered Wave Imaging using the Kirchhoff Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Levander, A.

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a 3-D teleseismic imaging technique for scattered elastic wavefields using the Kirchhoff approximation. Kirchhoff migration/inversion have been well developed in exploration seismology within the inverse scattering framework (e.g. Miller et al., 1987; Beylkin and Burridge, 1990) to image subsurface structure that generates secondary wavefields caused by localized heterogeneities. Application of this method in global seismology has been largely limited to 2-D images made with 1-D reference models due to high computational cost and the lack of adequately dense receiver arrays (Bostock, 2002, Poppeliers and Pavlis, 2003; Frederiksen and Revenaugh, 2004; Cao et al., 2010). The deployment of the USArray Transportable and Flexible arrays in the United States and dense array recordings in other countries motivate developing teleseismic scattered wavefield imaging with the Kirchhoff approximation for 3-D velocity models for both scalar and vector wavefields to improve upper mantle imaging. Following Bostock's development of the 2-D problem (2002), we derive the 3-D P-to-S scattering inversion formula by phrasing the inverse problem in terms of the generalized Radon transform (GRT) and singular functions of discontinuity surfaces. In the forward scattering modeling, we extend the method to utilize a 3-D migration velocity model by calculating 3-D finite-difference traveltimes, backprojected from the receivers using an eikonal solver. To demonstrate the relative accuracy of the inversion, we examine several synthetic cases with a variety of discontinuity surfaces (sinuous, dipping, dome- and crater-shaped discontinuity interfaces, point scatterers, etc.). The Kirchhoff GRT imaging can successfully recover the shapes of these structures very well. We compare our Kirchhoff approximation imaging with the Born-approximate results, as well as the common-conversion point (CCP) stacked receiver function imaging for the various synthetic cases, and show a field

  13. Comments on "optimal approximation of uniformly rotated images: relationship between Karhumen-Loeve expansion and discrete cosine transform".

    PubMed

    Park, Rae-Hong

    2002-01-01

    This paper points out the incorrect expressions of Uenohara and Kanade (see ibid., vol.7, p.116-19, 1998), in the context of the representation of the eigenvectors based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT). With the repeated eigenvalues, the eigenvector matrix of the P x P real symmetric circulant matrix can be constructed using the singular value decomposition (SVD), where P denotes the number of uniformly rotated images. Or equivalently it can be formulated in terms of the discrete Hartley transform (DHT). An example with P=4 is presented to show the correctness of our analysis.

  14. Solitons and nonlinear waves along quantum vortex filaments under the low-temperature two-dimensional local induction approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    Very recent experimental work has demonstrated the existence of Kelvin waves along quantized vortex filaments in superfluid helium. The possible configurations and motions of such filaments is of great physical interest, and Svistunov previously obtained a Hamiltonian formulation for the dynamics of quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature limit under the assumption that the vortex filament is essentially aligned along one axis, resulting in a two-dimensional (2D) problem. It is standard to approximate the dynamics of thin filaments by employing the local induction approximation (LIA), and we show that by putting the two-dimensional LIA into correspondence with the first equation in the integrable Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa-Schimizu (WKIS) hierarchy, we immediately obtain solutions to the two-dimensional LIA, such as helix, planar, and self-similar solutions. These solutions are obtained in a rather direct manner from the WKIS equation and then mapped into the 2D-LIA framework. Furthermore, the approach can be coupled to existing inverse scattering transform results from the literature in order to obtain solitary wave solutions including the analog of the Hasimoto one-soliton for the 2D-LIA. One large benefit of the approach is that the correspondence between the 2D-LIA and the WKIS allows us to systematically obtain vortex filament solutions directly in the Cartesian coordinate frame without the need to solve back from curvature and torsion. Implications of the results for the physics of experimentally studied solitary waves, Kelvin waves, and postvortex reconnection events are mentioned.

  15. The Half Wave Plate Rotator for the BLAST-TNG Balloon-Borne Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Hananiel; Ashton, Peter; Novak, Giles; Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Galitzki, Nicholas; Ade, Peter; Doyle, Simon; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Tucker, Carole E.

    2016-01-01

    The Next Generation Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST-TNG) is an experiment designed to map magnetic fields in molecular clouds in order to study their role in the star formation process. The telescope will be launched aboard a high-altitude balloon in December 2016 for a 4-week flight from McMurdo station in Antarctica. BLAST-TNG will measure the polarization of submillimeter thermal emission from magnetically aligned interstellar dust grains, using large format arrays of kinetic inductance detectors operating in three bands centered at 250, 350, and 500 microns, with sub-arcminute angular resolution. The optical system includes an achromatic Half Wave Plate (HWP), mounted in a Half Wave Plate rotator (HWPr). The HWP and HWPr will operate at 4 K temperature to reduce thermal noise in our measurements, so it was crucial to account for the effects of thermal contraction at low temperature in the HWPr design. It was also equally important for the design to meet torque requirements while minimizing the power from friction and conduction dissipated at the 4 K stage. We also discuss our plan for cold testing the HWPr using a repurposed cryostat with a Silicon Diode thermometer read out by an EDAS-CE Ethernet data acquisition system.

  16. The propagation of the shock wave from a strong explosion in a plane-parallel stratified medium: the Kompaneets approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C. A.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Using certain simplifications, Kompaneets derived a partial differential equation that states the local geometrical and kinematical conditions that each surface element of a shock wave, created by a point blast in a stratified gaseous medium, must satisfy. Kompaneets could solve his equation analytically for the case of a wave propagating in an exponentially stratified medium, obtaining the form of the shock front at progressive evolutionary stages. Complete analytical solutions of the Kompaneets equation for shock wave motion in further plane-parallel stratified media were not found, except for radially stratified media. Aims: We aim to analytically solve the Kompaneets equation for the motion of a shock wave in different plane-parallel stratified media that can reflect a wide variety of astrophysical contexts. We were particularly interested in solving the Kompaneets equation for a strong explosion in the interstellar medium of the Galactic disk, in which, due to intense winds and explosions of stars, gigantic gaseous structures known as superbubbles and supershells are formed. Methods: Using the Kompaneets approximation, we derived a pair of equations that we call adapted Kompaneets equations, that govern the propagation of a shock wave in a stratified medium and that permit us to obtain solutions in parametric form. The solutions provided by the system of adapted Kompaneets equations are equivalent to those of the Kompaneets equation. We solved the adapted Kompaneets equations for shock wave propagation in a generic stratified medium by means of a power-series method. Results: Using the series solution for a shock wave in a generic medium, we obtained the series solutions for four specific media whose respective density distributions in the direction perpendicular to the stratification plane are of an exponential, power-law type (one with exponent k=-1 and the other with k =-2) and a quadratic hyperbolic-secant. From these series solutions, we deduced

  17. Propagation of exponential shock wave in an axisymmetric rotating non-ideal dusty gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, G.

    2016-09-01

    One-dimensional unsteady isothermal and adiabatic flow behind a strong exponential shock wave propagating in a rotational axisymmetric mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles, which has variable azimuthal and axial fluid velocities, is analyzed. The shock wave is driven out by a piston moving with time according to exponential law. The azimuthal and axial components of the fluid velocity in the ambient medium are assumed to be varying and obeying exponential laws. In the present work, small solid particles are considered as pseudo-fluid with the assumption that the equilibrium flow-conditions are maintained in the flow-field, and the viscous-stress and heat conduction of the mixture are negligible. Solutions are obtained in both the cases, when the flow between the shock and the piston is isothermal or adiabatic by taking into account the components of vorticity vector and compressibility. It is found that the assumption of zero temperature gradient brings a profound change in the density, axial component of vorticity vector and compressibility distributions as compared to that of the adiabatic case. To investigate the behavior of the flow variables and the influence on the shock wave propagation by the parameter of non-idealness of the gas overline{b} in the mixture as well as by the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture Kp and by the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas G1 are worked out in detail. It is interesting to note that the shock strength increases with an increase in G1 ; whereas it decreases with an increase in overline{b} . Also, a comparison between the solutions in the cases of isothermal and adiabatic flows is made.

  18. Expectation values of r{sup q} between Dirac and quasirelativistic wave functions in the quantum-defect approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Owono Owono, L.C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.; Oumarou, B.

    2002-11-01

    A search is conducted for the determination of expectation values of r{sup q} between Dirac and quasirelativistic radial wave functions in the quantum-defect approximation. The phenomenological and supersymmetry-inspired quantum-defect models, which have proven so far to yield accurate results, are used. The recursive structure of formulas derived on the basis of the hypervirial theorem enables us to develop explicit relations for arbitrary values of q. Detailed numerical calculations concerning alkali-metal-like ions of the Li, Na, and Cu isoelectronic sequences confirm the superiority of supersymmetry-based quantum-defect theory over quantum-defect orbital and exact orbital quantum number approximations. It is also shown that relativistic rather than quasirelativistic treatment may be used for consistent inclusion of relativistic effects.

  19. Rotational study of the CH{sub 4}–CO complex: Millimeter-wave measurements and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Surin, L. A.; Tarabukin, I. V.; Panfilov, V. A.; Schlemmer, S.; Kalugina, Y. N.; Faure, A.; Rist, C.; Avoird, A. van der

    2015-10-21

    The rotational spectrum of the van der Waals complex CH{sub 4}–CO has been measured with the intracavity OROTRON jet spectrometer in the frequency range of 110–145 GHz. Newly observed and assigned transitions belong to the K = 2–1 subband correlating with the rotationless j{sub CH4} = 0 ground state and the K = 2–1 and K = 0–1 subbands correlating with the j{sub CH4} = 2 excited state of free methane. The (approximate) quantum number K is the projection of the total angular momentum J on the intermolecular axis. The new data were analyzed together with the known millimeter-wave and microwave transitions in order to determine the molecular parameters of the CH{sub 4}–CO complex. Accompanying ab initio calculations of the intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of CH{sub 4}–CO have been carried out at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12a] and an augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta (aVTZ) basis set. The global minimum of the five-dimensional PES corresponds to an approximately T-shaped structure with the CH{sub 4} face closest to the CO subunit and binding energy D{sub e} = 177.82 cm{sup −1}. The bound rovibrational levels of the CH{sub 4}–CO complex were calculated for total angular momentum J = 0–6 on this intermolecular potential surface and compared with the experimental results. The calculated dissociation energies D{sub 0} are 91.32, 94.46, and 104.21 cm{sup −1} for A (j{sub CH4} = 0), F (j{sub CH4} = 1), and E (j{sub CH4} = 2) nuclear spin modifications of CH{sub 4}–CO, respectively.

  20. Magnetogasdynamic shock wave generated by a moving piston in a rotational axisymmetric isothermal flow of perfect gas with variable density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, G.

    2011-05-01

    The propagation of a strong cylindrical shock wave in an ideal gas with azimuthal magnetic field, and with or without axisymmetric rotational effects, is investigated. The shock wave is driven out by a piston moving with time according to power law. The ambient medium is assumed to have radial, axial and azimuthal component of fluid velocities. The fluid velocities, the initial density and the initial magnetic field of the ambient medium are assumed to be varying and obey power laws. Solutions are obtained, when the flow between the shock and the piston is isothermal. The gas is assumed to have infinite electrical conductivity and the angular velocity of the ambient medium is assumed to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. It is expected that such an angular velocity may occur in the atmospheres of rotating planets and stars. The shock wave moves with variable velocity and the total energy of the wave is non-constant. The effects of variation of the initial density and the Alfven-Mach number on the flow-field are obtained. A comparison is also made between rotating and non-rotating cases.

  1. Spin annihilations of and spin sifters for transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves in co- and counter-rotations

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Jinsik

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study is motivated in part to better understand multiplexing in wireless communications, which employs photons carrying varying angular momenta. In particular, we examine both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) waves in either co-rotations or counter-rotations. To this goal, we analyze both Poynting-vector flows and orbital and spin parts of the energy flow density for the combined fields. Consequently, we find not only enhancements but also cancellations between the two modes. To our surprise, the photon spins in the azimuthal direction exhibit a complete annihilation for the counter-rotational case even if the intensities of the colliding waves are of different magnitudes. In contrast, the orbital flow density disappears only if the two intensities satisfy a certain ratio. In addition, the concepts of spin sifters and enantiomer sorting are illustrated. PMID:25383300

  2. Plane wave propagation in a rotating anisotropic medium with voids under the action of a uniform magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Narottam; Barik, S. P.; Chaudhuri, P. K.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, plane wave propagation in a rotating anisotropic material of general nature under the action of a magnetic field of constant magnitude has been investigated. The material is supposed to be porous in nature and contains voids. Following the concept of [Cowin S. C. and Nunziato, J. W. [1983] “Linear elastic materials with voids,” J. Elasticity 13, 125-147.] the governing equations of motion have been written in tensor notation taking account of rotation, magnetic field effect and presence of voids in the medium and the possibility of plane wave propagation has been examined. A number of particular cases have been derived from our general results to match with previously obtained results in this area. Effects of various parameters on the velocity of wave propagation have been presented graphically.

  3. Estimation of the ion toroidal rotation source due to momentum transfer from Lower Hybrid waves in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. P.; Wright, J. C.; Bonoli, P. T.; Parker, R. R.; Catto, P. J.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M. L.

    2011-12-23

    Significant ion toroidal rotation (50km/s) has been measured by X-Ray spectroscopy for impurities in Alcator C-Mod during lower hybrid (LH) RF power injection. We investigate the relation between the computed toroidal momentum input from LH waves and the measured INITIAL change of ion toroidal rotation when the LH power is turned on. The relation may depend on the plasma current and magnetic configuration. Because of the fast build up time of the electron quasilinear plateau (<1 millisecond), the electron distribution function rapidly reaches steady state in which the electrons transfer momentum to the ions. The LH wave momentum input is computed from the self consistent steady state electron distribution function and a bounce-averaged quasilinear diffusion coefficient that are obtained by iterating a full wave code (TORLH) with a Fokker Plank code (CQL3D)

  4. Submillimeter-wave rotational spectra of DNC in highly excited vibrational states observed in an extended negative glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, T.

    2011-05-01

    Rotational transitions of DNC have been observed in the submillimeter-wave region in an extended negative glow discharge in a gas mixture of CD 4 and N 2. The dissociative recombination reaction of DCND + with electrons is thought to be a dominant channel to produce DNC in highly excited vibrational states. The vibrational temperature for the ν3 vibrational mode is found to be about 4000 K, and the rotational lines in levels up to (0 0 8) are observed. The rotational and centrifugal distortion constants are determined for these states along with those for the (1 0 0) state. The measurement accuracy is high enough to determine some higher order vibration-rotation interaction constants.

  5. Quantum Hasimoto transformation and nonlinear waves on a superfluid vortex filament under the quantum local induction approximation.

    PubMed

    Van Gorder, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    The Hasimoto transformation between the classical LIA (local induction approximation, a model approximating the motion of a thin vortex filament) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) has proven very useful in the past, since it allows one to construct new solutions to the LIA once a solution to the NLS is known. In the present paper, the quantum form of the LIA (which includes mutual friction effects) is put into correspondence with a type of complex nonlinear dispersive partial differential equation (PDE) with cubic nonlinearity (similar in form to a Ginsburg-Landau equation, with additional nonlinear terms). Transforming the quantum LIA in such a way enables one to obtain quantum vortex filament solutions once solutions to this dispersive PDE are known. From our quantum Hasimoto transformation, we determine the form and behavior of Stokes waves, a standing one-soliton, traveling waves, and similarity solutions under normal and binormal friction effects. The quantum Hasimoto transformation is useful when normal fluid velocity is relatively weak, so for the case where the normal fluid velocity is dominant we resort to other approaches. We exhibit a number of solutions that exist only in the presence of the normal fluid velocity and mutual friction terms (which would therefore not exist in the limit taken to obtain the classical LIA, decaying into line filaments under such a limit), examples of which include normal fluid driven helices, stationary and propagating topological solitons, and a vortex ring whose radius varies inversely with the normal fluid magnitude. We show that, while chaos may not be impossible under the quantum LIA, it should not be expected to arise from traveling waves along quantum vortex filaments under the quantum LIA formulation.

  6. Effects of reagent rotational excitation on the H + CHD₃ → H₂ + CD₃ reaction: a seven dimensional time-dependent wave packet study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Dong H

    2014-10-14

    Seven-dimensional time-dependent wave packet calculations have been carried out for the title reaction to obtain reaction probabilities and cross sections for CHD3 in J0 = 1, 2 rotationally excited initial states with k0 = 0 - J0 (the projection of CHD3 rotational angular momentum on its C3 axis). Under the centrifugal sudden (CS) approximation, the initial states with the projection of the total angular momentum on the body fixed axis (K0) equal to k0 are found to be much more reactive, indicating strong dependence of reactivity on the orientation of the reagent CHD3 with respect to the relative velocity between the reagents H and CHD3. However, at the coupled-channel (CC) level this dependence becomes much weak although in general the K0 specified cross sections for the K0 = k0 initial states remain primary to the overall cross sections, implying the Coriolis coupling is important to the dynamics of the reaction. The calculated CS and CC integral cross sections obtained after K0 averaging for the J0 = 1, 2 initial states with all different k0 are essentially identical to the corresponding CS and CC results for the J0 = 0 initial state, meaning that the initial rotational excitation of CHD3 up to J0 = 2, regardless of its initial k0, does not have any effect on the total cross sections for the title reaction, and the errors introduced by the CS approximation on integral cross sections for the rotationally excited J0 = 1, 2 initial states are the same as those for the J0 = 0 initial state.

  7. Influence of plume-induced internal gravity waves on the rotation profile of low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinçon, C.; Belkacem, K.; Goupil, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    High-quality seismic data due to the space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler provide precious information on the core rotation of thousands of stars from the subgiant to the red giant stages. We know today that current stellar evolution codes need for an additional physical mechanism to extract angular momentum from the core to the envelope of evolved low-mass stars and explain the low observed internal rotation. In this framework, internal gravity waves generated by penetrative convection at the top of the radiative region may play a role. In this work, we investigate whether the transport of angular momentum by plume-induced gravity waves may counteract the accelereration due the the strong contraction of the innermost layers. On the red giant branch, we find that the strong radiative damping near the H-burning shell prevents these waves from slowing down the core, so that another process should operate in these stars. Nevertheless, we show that plume-induced gravity waves are a good candidate to regulate the amplitude of the differential rotation in subgiant stars.

  8. A Rotating Knife-beam Altimeter for Wide-swath Remote Sensing of Ocean: Wind and Waves

    PubMed Central

    Karaev, V. Yu.; Kanevsky, M. B.; Balandina, G. N.; Meshkov, E. M.; Challenor, P.; Srokosz, Meric; Gommenginger, C.

    2006-01-01

    The use of a nadir altimeter radar with a rotating knife-beam antenna pattern is considered for improved measurements of the sea surface wind and wave parameters over a wide swath. Theoretical calculations suggest the antenna beam rotating about the vertical axis is able to provide wide swath of order 250-350 km. Processing of the signals using time or Doppler sampling techniques results in the division of the antenna footprint into elementary scattering cells of the order of 14×14 km. The theoretical algorithms developed here indicate that the system may be used to retrieve the variance of large-scale slopes, the direction of wave propagation and the wind speed in each cell. The possibility of measuring significant wave height is also analyzed. The combination of linear motion of the radar and the rotation of the knife-beam antenna can be exploited to build up a two-dimensional map of the surface, which enables better understanding of wave processes and to study their structure and temporal dynamics using repeated observations.

  9. Wave refraction diagrams for the Baltimore Canyon region of the mid-Atlantic continental shelf computed by using three bottom topography approximation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Langley Research Center and Virginia Institute of Marine Science wave refraction computer model was applied to the Baltimore Canyon region of the mid-Atlantic continental shelf. Wave refraction diagrams for a wide range of normally expected wave periods and directions were computed by using three bottom topography approximation techniques: quadratic least squares, cubic least squares, and constrained bicubic interpolation. Mathematical or physical interpretation of certain features appearing in the computed diagrams is discussed.

  10. Gravitational waves from rotating neutron stars and evaluation of fast chirp transform techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2002-04-01

    X-ray observations suggest that neutron stars in low mass x-ray binaries (LMXB) are rotating with frequencies in the range 300-600 Hz. These spin rates are significantly less than the break-up rates for essentially all realistic neutron star equations of state, suggesting that some process may limit the spin frequencies of accreting neutron stars to this range. If the accretion-induced spin up torque is in equilibrium with gravitational radiation losses, these objects could be interesting sources of gravitational waves. I present a brief summary of current measurements of neutron star spins in LMXBs based on the observations of high-Q oscillations during thermonuclear bursts (so-called 'burst oscillations'). Further measurements of neutron star spins will be important in exploring the gravitational radiation hypothesis in more detail. To this end, I also present a study of fast chirp transform (FCT) techniques as described by Jenet and Prince (Prince T A and Jenet F A 2000 Phys. Rev. D 62 122001) in the context of searching for the chirping signals observed during x-ray bursts.

  11. Radial extracorporeal shock-wave therapy in rotator cuff calcific tendinosis

    PubMed Central

    Mangone, Giuseppe; Veliaj, Altin; Postiglione, Marco; Viliani, Tamara; Pasquetti, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Radial Extracorporeal Shock-wave Therapy (RESWT) compared with High Power LASER Therapy (HPLT) for the treatment of patients with Rotator Cuff Calcific Tendinosis (RCCT). RCCT is widely diffused, it is painful and invalidating. It is an important public health problem with social and economic implications. The most common therapeutic approach is a physiotherapic one. Both HPLT and RESWT give positive results. There is a debate on which is to be preferred. Therefore there is need to obtain scientific evidence to support either case. An observational study was carried out in the period between October 2008 and September 2009 in our outpatient clinic with 62 patients, divided into 3 groups: group A 36 patients treated only with RESWT, group B 26 patients treated only with HPLT and group C 16 patients with only short term improvement with HPLT retreated with RESWT. Patients were evaluated with Constant-Murley scale before and after treatment (immediately, 1 month and 3 months) for mean constant score, pain and range of movement. Data were examined statistically with SPSS. Criteria for inclusion and exclusion were defined. Patients treated with HPLT have shown good clinical results but have returned to original syndrome 1 month after treatment. RESWT has given improvement after treatment extended in time (3 months) in terms of pain and recover of functionality with a limited number of applications. The evidence collected indicates that RESWT is the method of choice. PMID:22460011

  12. Gravitational Waves from Rotating Neutron Stars and Evaluation of fast Chirp Transform Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    X-ray observations suggest that neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) are rotating with frequencies from 300 - 600 Hz. These spin rates are significantly less than the break-up rates for essentially all realistic neutron star equations of state, suggesting that some process may limit the spin frequencies of accreting neutron stars to this range. If the accretion induced spin up torque is in equilibrium with gravitational radiation losses, these objects could be interesting sources of gravitational waves. I present a brief summary of current measurements of neutron star spins in LMXBs based on the observations of high-Q oscillations during thermonuclear bursts (so called 'burst oscillations'). Further measurements of neutron star spins will be important in exploring the gravitational radiation hypothesis in more detail. To this end I also present a study of fast chirp transform (FCT) techniques as described by Jenet and Prince in the context of searching for the chirping signals observed during X-ray bursts.

  13. Three-dimensional Kirchhoff-approximate generalized Radon transform imaging using teleseismic P-to-S scattered waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kaijian; Levander, Alan

    2013-03-01

    Teleseismic imaging techniques utilizing mode converted/scattered waves are gaining importance due to the deployment of increasingly dense broad-band seismograph arrays. Although common-conversion point (CCP) stacking is widely used to determine structure from Ps or Sp scattered wavefields isolated by receiver function (RF) processing, this method is limited due to its assumption of a layered medium: Dipping events and diffractions are not treated correctly. As an extension of previous 2-D generalized Radon transform (GRT) imaging methods, we present a 3-D Kirchhoff-approximate imaging technique to migrate scattered waves in 3-D. We first derive the 3-D migration formula for P-to-S conversions using the GRT solution to the linear inverse elastic wave scattering problem. Then we illustrate the Kirchhoff method using finite-difference synthetic seismograms from several 3-D models. Next, we apply the method to two portable broad-band array data sets in the western United States to image the Mendocino Triple Junction and the High Lava Plains (HLP) crust and uppermost mantle structures. From the HLP data, we construct the Ps transmission coefficient images with three-component Green's functions. The 1.0 and 0.5 Hz images show a continuous undulating Moho, as well as three negative upper-mantle events at 50-80 km depth. Compared to the CCP images, the Moho is more clearly imaged, particularly near 117.5°W-117.8°W at the western edge of the Owyhee Plateau. The three negative events in the upper mantle correlate well with the top of three low-Vs zones (-3 per cent contour) in the Rayleigh wave tomography model. The migrated Ps RF data from Mendocino clearly image the rapid decrease in depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary from ˜65 km beneath the subducting Gorda Plate to 30-50 km beneath the Coast Ranges slab window. The final image is consistent with, but has higher resolution than the Vs structure determined from joint receiver function/Rayleigh wave

  14. Approximate method for predicting the permanent set in a beam in vacuo and in water subject to a shock wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiehl, A. L.; Haberman, R. C.; Cowles, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    An approximate method to compute the maximum deformation and permanent set of a beam subjected to shock wave laoding in vacuo and in water was investigated. The method equates the maximum kinetic energy of the beam (and water) to the elastic plastic work done by a static uniform load applied to a beam. Results for the water case indicate that the plastic deformation is controlled by the kinetic energy of the water. The simplified approach can result in significant savings in computer time or it can expediently be used as a check of results from a more rigorous approach. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated by various examples of beams with simple support and clamped support boundary conditions.

  15. Millimeter wave measurements of the rotational spectra of ClF, BrF, BrCl, ICl, and IBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Robert E.; Clark, William W.

    1980-05-01

    The rotational spectra of all twelve stable isotopic species of ClF, BrF, BrCl, ICl, and IBr were observed and measured in the millimeter wave region by means of a sensitive microwave spectrometer. Transitions were detected over a wide range of frequencies for molecules in both the ground vibrational state and several excited states. The rotational spectrum of each molecule was split by the nuclear quadrupole interaction. Altogether, 250 new lines were measured. These correspond to 136 pure rotational transitions. Values of the Dunham coefficients Y01, Y11, Y21, Y31, Y02, Y12, and Y03 were obtained from a computer analysis of the measured frequencies. From these coefficients a number of equilibrium constants were derived to significantly greater accuracy than in previous work. In particular, the equilibrium distance, re, was found to two or three more significant figures.

  16. On the interaction of stationary crossflow vortices and Tollmien-Schlichting waves in the boundary layer on a rotating disc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassom, Andrew P.; Hall, Philip

    1989-01-01

    There are many fluid flows where the onset of transition can be caused by different instability mechanisms which compete among themselves. The interaction is considered of two types of instability mode (at an asymptotically large Reynolds number) which can occur in the flow above a rotating disc. In particular, the interaction is examined between lower branch Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves and the upper branch, stationary, inviscid crossflow vortex whose asymptotic structure has been described by Hall (1986). This problem is studied in the context of investigating the effect of the vortex on the stability characteristics of a small TS wave. Essentially, it is found that the primary effect is felt through the modification to the mean flow induced by the presence of the vortex. Initially, the TS wave is taken to be linear in character and it is shown (for the cases of both a linear and a nonlinear stationary vortex) that the vortex can exhibit both stabilizing and destabilizing effects on the TS wave and the nature of this influence is wholly dependent upon the orientation of this latter instability. Further, the problem is examined with a larger TS wave, whose size is chosen so as to ensure that this mode is nonlinear in its own right. An amplitude equation for the evolution of the TS wave is derived which admits solutions corresponding to finite amplitude, stable, traveling waves.

  17. Inertia gravity waves in a rotating, differentially heated annulus with an upper free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randriamampianina, Anthony; Harlander, Uwe; Vincze, Miklos; von Larcher, Thomas; Viazzo, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    Inertia gravity waves (IGWs) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and oceans, and are known to play a fundamental role in a wide variety of processes, among others the induction and modulation of turbulence. Observations and simulations have revealed their spontaneous occurrence simultaneously with the onset of baroclinic instability, recognized to be one of the dominant energetic processes in the large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulations. In spite of intensive research activities these last decades, the generation mechanism and the propagation of IGWs, as well as their interaction with large-scale structures triggering locally chaotic motions, remain poorly understood. A better understanding of these phenomena is therefore mandatory for the development of IGW's parameterization schemes actually required for numerical global weather prediction. A combined laboratory experiment and direct numerical simulations study is proposed for the detailed investigations of instabilities arising within a differentially heated rotating annulus, the baroclinic cavity. The configuration corresponds to an experimental setup used at BTU, Cottbus Senftenberg, Germany [1], characterized by an open upper surface and filled with water (Pr = 7). Infrared thermography and simultaneous kalliroscope visualization in horizontal planes, illuminated by a laser sheet, have been applied to detect the surface signatures of IGWs. These findings confirmed the computations carried out by three different numerical approaches, using either spectral methods, high order compact finite difference scheme (M2P2, Marseille), or the EULAG code (Freie Universitaet Berlin). These small-scale features have been observed in addition to those developing along the inner cold cylinder, previously identified by simulations in a closed cavity, filled with a liquid defined by Pr = 16 [2]. These new IGWs show characteristics similar to the ones obtained by [3] at the exit of the meandering jet between the cyclonic

  18. The pure rotational spectrum of VS (X4Σ-): A combined Fourier transform microwave and millimeter-wave study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adande, G. R.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2013-08-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of the vanadium sulfide radical, VS (X4Σ-), has been measured in the frequency range 5-310 GHz using a combination of millimeter-wave direct absorption and Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) techniques. In the millimeter-wave region, the radical was produced in an AC discharge from the reaction of VCl4, the vanadium donor, and CS2. In the FTMW instrument, the molecule was created in a supersonic jet, coupled with a laser ablation/DC discharge source (DALAS), from a mixture of metal vapor and H2S, heavily diluted in argon. A total of 8 rotational transitions were measured for VS, in which both the quartet fine structure and vanadium hyperfine splittings were resolved. The spectra were analyzed with a Hund’s case (b) Hamiltonian, and rotational, spin-rotation, spin-spin, and hyperfine parameters were determined. The precision of the constants from previous optical studies was refined and, for the first time, the vanadium quadrupole constant, eQq = -7.6 (4.0) MHz, and the third order Fermi contact correction, bS = -0.293 (94) MHz, were established. From the fine structure parameters, the nearby 4Π and 2Σ+ states were estimated to lie ∼6560 cm-1 and ∼7170 cm-1 above the ground state. The hyperfine constants suggest that the bonding in VS is partly ionic, with a significant degree of covalent character.

  19. Rotating Bose-Einstein condensates with a finite number of atoms confined in a ring potential: Spontaneous symmetry breaking beyond the mean-field approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussou, A.; Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Kavoulakis, G. M.

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on Bose-Einstein condensed atoms which rotate in annular and/or toroidal traps, we study the effect of the finiteness of the atom number N on the states of lowest energy for a fixed expectation value of the angular momentum, under periodic boundary conditions. To attack this problem, we develop a general strategy, considering a linear superposition of the eigenstates of the many-body Hamiltonian, with amplitudes that we extract from the mean-field approximation. This many-body state breaks the symmetry of the Hamiltonian; it has the same energy to leading order in N as the mean-field state and the corresponding eigenstate of the Hamiltonian, however, it has a lower energy to subleading order in N and thus it is energetically favorable.

  20. On extreme transient events from rotating black holes and their gravitational wave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.; Della Valle, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The super-luminous object ASASSN-15lh (SN2015L) is an extreme event with a total energy Erad ≃ 1.1 × 1052 erg in blackbody radiation on par with its kinetic energy Ek in ejecta and a late time plateau in the UV, which defies a nuclear origin. It likely presents a new explosion mechanism for hydrogen-deprived supernovae. With no radio emission and no H-rich environment, we propose to identify Erad with dissipation of a baryon-poor outflow in the optically thick remnant stellar envelope produced by a central engine. By negligible time-scales of light crossing and radiative cooling of the envelope, SN2015L's light curve closely tracks the evolution of this engine. We here model its light curve by the evolution of black hole spin during angular momentum loss in Alvén waves to matter at the Inner Most Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO). The duration is determined by σ = MT/M of the torus mass MT around the black hole of mass M: σ ˜ 10-7 and σ ˜ 10-2 for SN2015L and, respectively, a long GRB. The observed electromagnetic radiation herein represents a minor output of the rotational energy Erot of the black hole, while most is radiated unseen in gravitational radiation. This model explains the high-mass slow-spin binary progenitor of GWB150914, as the remnant of two CC-SNe in an intra-day binary of two massive stars. This model rigorously predicts a change in magnitude Δm ≃ 1.15 in the light curve post-peak, in agreement with the light curve of SN2015L with no fine-tuning.

  1. Rotational study of the NH{sub 3}–CO complex: Millimeter-wave measurements and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Surin, L. A.; Potapov, A.; Schlemmer, S.; Dolgov, A. A.; Tarabukin, I. V.; Panfilov, V. A.; Kalugina, Y. N.; Faure, A.; Avoird, A. van der

    2015-03-21

    The rotational spectrum of the van der Waals complex NH{sub 3}–CO has been measured with the intracavity OROTRON jet spectrometer in the frequency range of 112–139 GHz. Newly observed and assigned transitions belong to the K = 0–0, K = 1–1, K = 1–0, and K = 2–1 subbands correlating with the rotationless (j{sub k}){sub NH3} = 0{sub 0} ground state of free ortho-NH{sub 3} and the K = 0–1 and K = 2–1 subbands correlating with the (j{sub k}){sub NH3} = 1{sub 1} ground state of free para-NH{sub 3}. The (approximate) quantum number K is the projection of the total angular momentum J on the intermolecular axis. Some of these transitions are continuations to higher J values of transition series observed previously [C. Xia et al., Mol. Phys. 99, 643 (2001)], the other transitions constitute newly detected subbands. The new data were analyzed together with the known millimeter-wave and microwave transitions in order to determine the molecular parameters of the ortho-NH{sub 3}–CO and para-NH{sub 3}–CO complexes. Accompanying ab initio calculations of the intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of NH{sub 3}–CO has been carried out at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations and an augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta basis set. The global minimum of the five-dimensional PES corresponds to an approximately T-shaped structure with the N atom closest to the CO subunit and binding energy D{sub e} = 359.21 cm{sup −1}. The bound rovibrational levels of the NH{sub 3}–CO complex were calculated for total angular momentum J = 0–6 on this intermolecular potential surface and compared with the experimental results. The calculated dissociation energies D{sub 0} are 210.43 and 218.66 cm{sup −1} for ortho-NH{sub 3}–CO and para-NH{sub 3}–CO, respectively.

  2. Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices in the f-plane shallow water system

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, Norihiko

    2015-12-15

    Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices is investigated numerically in a rotating shallow water system in order to focus on cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry at different values of the Rossby number (Ro). A numerical study is conducted on a model using a spectral method in an unbounded domain to estimate the gravity wave flux with high accuracy. Continuous gravity wave radiation is observed in three stages of vortical flows: co-rotating of the vortices, merging of the vortices, and unsteady motion of the merged vortex. A cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry appears at all stages at smaller Ro (≤20). Gravity waves from anticyclones are always larger than those from cyclones and have a local maximum at smaller Ro (∼2) compared with that for an idealized case of a co-rotating vortex pair with a constant rotation rate. The source originating in the Coriolis acceleration has a key role in cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry in gravity waves. An additional important factor is that at later stages, the merged axisymmetric anticyclone rotates faster than the elliptical cyclone due to the effect of the Rossby deformation radius, since a rotation rate higher than the inertial cutoff frequency is required to radiate gravity waves.

  3. Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices in the f-plane shallow water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko

    2015-12-01

    Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices is investigated numerically in a rotating shallow water system in order to focus on cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry at different values of the Rossby number (Ro). A numerical study is conducted on a model using a spectral method in an unbounded domain to estimate the gravity wave flux with high accuracy. Continuous gravity wave radiation is observed in three stages of vortical flows: co-rotating of the vortices, merging of the vortices, and unsteady motion of the merged vortex. A cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry appears at all stages at smaller Ro (≤20). Gravity waves from anticyclones are always larger than those from cyclones and have a local maximum at smaller Ro (˜2) compared with that for an idealized case of a co-rotating vortex pair with a constant rotation rate. The source originating in the Coriolis acceleration has a key role in cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry in gravity waves. An additional important factor is that at later stages, the merged axisymmetric anticyclone rotates faster than the elliptical cyclone due to the effect of the Rossby deformation radius, since a rotation rate higher than the inertial cutoff frequency is required to radiate gravity waves.

  4. Approximate solution of two-term fractional-order diffusion, wave-diffusion, and telegraph models arising in mathematical physics using optimal homotopy asymptotic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwar, S.; Rashidi, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the analytical approximate solutions for two-term fractional-order diffusion, wave-diffusion, and telegraph equations. The fractional derivatives are defined in the Caputo sense, whose orders belong to the intervals [0,1], (1,2), and [1,2], respectively. In this paper, we extended optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) for two-term fractional-order wave-diffusion equations. Highly approximate solution is obtained in series form using this extended method. Approximate solution obtained by OHAM is compared with the exact solution. It is observed that OHAM is a prevailing and convergent method for the solutions of nonlinear-fractional-order time-dependent partial differential problems. The numerical results rendering that the applied method is explicit, effective, and easy to use, for handling more general fractional-order wave diffusion, diffusion, and telegraph problems.

  5. Magnetopause surface waves triggered by a rotating IMF with the global MHD SWMF/BAT-S-RUS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriyas, T.; Spencer, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The solar wind driving of magnetopause surface waves is only partly understood. In particular we do not have a picture of the magnetopause surface wave properties and behavior when a magnetic cloud event, which sometimes involves a rotating IMF, impinges on the magnetosphere. Here we investigate the effect of a twisting or rotational IMF under moderate solar wind velocity (about 500 km/s) upon the magnetosphere with the Global MHD BATS-R-US code. Synthetic solar wind data is constructed to simulate the most important features of a magnetic cloud event, but without including shock features. A sinusoidally varying By component accompanied by a cosinusoidally varying Bz component of the IMF is input into the model with magnitude 10-20 nT. The synthetic data is representative of the magnetic cloud event that occurred on October 3-7 2000. We use the results of the simulation to infer the modes, properties, and particularly the phase speed and wavelength of the surface wave structures.

  6. Optical Ramsey spectroscopy in a rotating frame: Sagnac effect in a matter-wave interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Riehle, F.; Kisters, T.; Witte, A.; Helmcke, J. ); Borde, C.J. Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Universite Paris, Villetaneuse, France )

    1991-07-08

    A calcium atomic beam excited in an optical Ramsey geometry was rotated about an axis perpendicular to the plane defined by the laser beams and the atomic beam. A frequency shift of the Ramsey fringes of several kHz has been measured which is proportional to the rotation frequency of the apparatus and to the distance between the laser beams. The results can be interpreted in three equivalent ways as the Sagnac effect in a calcium-atomic-beam interferometer: in the rotating frame of the laser beams either along straight paths or along the curved trajectories of the atoms, or in the inertial atomic frame.

  7. PROBING THE ROTATION OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA WITH A CONCURRENT ANALYSIS OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND NEUTRINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Yokozawa, Takaaki; Asano, Mitsuhiro; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Kayano, Tsubasa; Koshio, Yusuke; Suwa, Yudai; Vagins, Mark R.

    2015-10-01

    The next time a core-collapse supernova (SN) explodes in our galaxy, various detectors will be ready and waiting to detect its emissions of gravitational waves (GWs) and neutrinos. Current numerical simulations have successfully introduced multi-dimensional effects to produce exploding SN models, but thus far the explosion mechanism is not well understood. In this paper, we focus on an investigation of progenitor core rotation via comparison of the start time of GW emission and that of the neutronization burst. The GW and neutrino detectors are assumed to be, respectively, the KAGRA detector and a co-located gadolinium-loaded water Cherenkov detector, either EGADS or GADZOOKS!. Our detection simulation studies show that for a nearby SN (0.2 kpc) we can confirm the lack of core rotation close to 100% of the time, and the presence of core rotation about 90% of the time. Using this approach there is also the potential to confirm rotation for considerably more distant Milky Way SN explosions.

  8. Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft attitude control based on the dynamics of slosh wave-induced fluid stress distribution on rotating dewar container of cryogenic propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of fluids, in particular the effect of surface tension on partially-filled rotating fluids, in a full-scale Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft propellant dewar tank imposed by various frequencies of gravity jitters have been investigated. Results show that fluid stress distribution exerted on the outer and inner walls of rotating dewar are closely related to the characteristics of slosh waves excited on the liquid-vapor interface in the rotating dewar tank. This can provide a set of tool for the spacecraft dynamic control leading toward the control of spacecraft unbalance caused by the uneven fluid stress distribution due to slosh wave excitations.

  9. A cryogenic rotation stage with a large clear aperture for the half-wave plates in the Spider instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Sean; Ade, Peter; Amiri, Mandana; Benton, Steven; Bihary, Richard; Bock, James; Bond, J. Richard; Chiang, H. Cynthia; Contaldi, Carlo; Crill, Brendan; Dore, Olivier; Elder, Benjamin; Filippini, Jeffrey; Fraisse, Aurelien; Gambrel, Anne; Gandilo, Natalie; Gudmundsson, Jon; Hasselfield, Matthew; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Holmes, Warren; Hristov, Viktor; Irwin, Kent; Jones, William; Kermish, Zigmund; Lawrie, Craig; MacTavish, Carrie; Mason, Peter; Megerian, Krikor; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Montroy, Thomas; Morford, Tracy; Nagy, Johanna; Netterfield, C. Barth; Padilla, Ivan; Rahlin, Alexandra S.; Reintsema, Carl; Riley, Daniel C.; Ruhl, John; Runyan, Marcus; Saliwanchik, Benjamin; Shariff, Jamil; Soler, Juan; Trangsrud, Amy; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Rebecca; Turner, Anthony; Wen, Shyang; Wiebe, Donald; Young, Edward

    2016-01-01

    We describe the cryogenic half-wave plate rotation mechanisms built for and used in Spider, a polarization-sensitive balloon-borne telescope array that observed the cosmic microwave background at 95 GHz and 150 GHz during a stratospheric balloon flight from Antarctica in January 2015. The mechanisms operate at liquid helium temperature in flight. A three-point contact design keeps the mechanical bearings relatively small but allows for a large (305 mm) diameter clear aperture. A worm gear driven by a cryogenic stepper motor allows for precise positioning and prevents undesired rotation when the motors are depowered. A custom-built optical encoder system monitors the bearing angle to an absolute accuracy of ±0.1∘. The system performed well in Spider during its successful 16 day flight.

  10. A cryogenic rotation stage with a large clear aperture for the half-wave plates in the Spider instrument.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Sean; Ade, Peter; Amiri, Mandana; Benton, Steven; Bihary, Richard; Bock, James; Bond, J Richard; Chiang, H Cynthia; Contaldi, Carlo; Crill, Brendan; Dore, Olivier; Elder, Benjamin; Filippini, Jeffrey; Fraisse, Aurelien; Gambrel, Anne; Gandilo, Natalie; Gudmundsson, Jon; Hasselfield, Matthew; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Holmes, Warren; Hristov, Viktor; Irwin, Kent; Jones, William; Kermish, Zigmund; Lawrie, Craig; MacTavish, Carrie; Mason, Peter; Megerian, Krikor; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Montroy, Thomas; Morford, Tracy; Nagy, Johanna; Netterfield, C Barth; Padilla, Ivan; Rahlin, Alexandra S; Reintsema, Carl; Riley, Daniel C; Ruhl, John; Runyan, Marcus; Saliwanchik, Benjamin; Shariff, Jamil; Soler, Juan; Trangsrud, Amy; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Rebecca; Turner, Anthony; Wen, Shyang; Wiebe, Donald; Young, Edward

    2016-01-01

    We describe the cryogenic half-wave plate rotation mechanisms built for and used in Spider, a polarization-sensitive balloon-borne telescope array that observed the cosmic microwave background at 95 GHz and 150 GHz during a stratospheric balloon flight from Antarctica in January 2015. The mechanisms operate at liquid helium temperature in flight. A three-point contact design keeps the mechanical bearings relatively small but allows for a large (305 mm) diameter clear aperture. A worm gear driven by a cryogenic stepper motor allows for precise positioning and prevents undesired rotation when the motors are depowered. A custom-built optical encoder system monitors the bearing angle to an absolute accuracy of ±0.1(∘). The system performed well in Spider during its successful 16 day flight.

  11. Simple and complex square waves in an edge-emitting diode laser with polarization-rotated optical feedback.

    PubMed

    Gavrielides, Athanasios; Sukow, David W; Burner, Guinevere; McLachlan, Taylor; Miller, John; Amonette, Jake

    2010-05-01

    Numerical and experimental results are presented for an edge-emitting diode laser with delayed optical feedback, where the polarization state of the feedback is rotated such that the natural laser mode is coupled into the orthogonal, unsupported mode. We examine the bifurcation structure and dynamics that give rise to a class of periodic, polarization-modulated solutions, the simplest of which is a square wave solution with a period related to but longer than twice the external cavity roundtrip time. Such solutions typically emerge when the feedback is strong and the differential losses in the normally unsupported polarization mode are small. We also observe more complex waveforms that maintain the same periodicity.

  12. Simple and complex square waves in an edge-emitting diode laser with polarization-rotated optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrielides, Athanasios; Sukow, David W.; Burner, Guinevere; McLachlan, Taylor; Miller, John; Amonette, Jake

    2010-05-01

    Numerical and experimental results are presented for an edge-emitting diode laser with delayed optical feedback, where the polarization state of the feedback is rotated such that the natural laser mode is coupled into the orthogonal, unsupported mode. We examine the bifurcation structure and dynamics that give rise to a class of periodic, polarization-modulated solutions, the simplest of which is a square wave solution with a period related to but longer than twice the external cavity roundtrip time. Such solutions typically emerge when the feedback is strong and the differential losses in the normally unsupported polarization mode are small. We also observe more complex waveforms that maintain the same periodicity.

  13. A search for evidence of the evolution of rotational discontinuities in the solar wind from nonlinear Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M.; Buti, B.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of a study designed to confirm the suspected relation between Alfven solitons (steepened Afven waves) and rotational discontinuities (RDs) in the solar wind. The ISEE 3 data were used to search for the predicted correlations between the beta value of plasma, the sense of polarization of the discontinuity, and changes of the magnetic field strength and plasma density across the discontinuity. No statistically significant evidence was found for the evolution of RDs from Alfven solitons. A possibility is suggested that the observations made could have been far from the regions in which the RDs were formed.

  14. Nonsimilar Solution for Shock Waves in a Rotational Axisymmetric Perfect Gas with a Magnetic Field and Exponentially Varying Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, G.; Sinha, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in an ideal gas in the presence of a constant azimuthal magnetic field with consideration for the axisymmetric rotational effects is investigated. The ambient medium is assumed to have the radial, axial, and azimuthal velocity components. The fluid velocities and density of the ambient medium are assumed to vary according to an exponential law. Nonsimilar solutions are obtained by taking into account the vorticity vector and its components. The dependences of the characteristics of the problem on the Alfven-Mach number and time are obtained. It is shown that the presence of a magnetic field has a decaying effect on the shock wave. The pressure and density are shown to vanish at the inner surface (piston), and hence a vacuum forms at the line of symmetry.

  15. Cell movement and shape are non-random and determined by intracellular, oscillatory rotating waves in Dictyostelium amoebae.

    PubMed

    Killich, T; Plath, P J; Hass, E C; Xiang, W; Bultmann, H; Rensing, L; Vicker, M G

    1994-01-01

    We present evidence for a mechanism of eukaryotic cell movement. The pseudopodial dynamics and shape of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae were investigated using computer-supported video microscopy. An examination of the cell periphery by the novel method of serial circular maps revealed explicit, classical wave patterns, which indicate the existence of intrinsic intracellular oscillations. The patterns are generated by the transit of self-organized, super-positioned, harmonic modes of rotating oscillatory waves (ROWS). These waves are probably associated with the dynamics of intracellular actin polymerisation and depolymerisation. A Karhunen-Loève expansion was conducted on one cell during 10 min of locomotion using points each 10 degrees around the cell's boundary. The results show that only 2-3 modes are necessary to describe the most essential features of cell movement and shape. Based on this analysis, a wave model was developed, which accurately simulates the dynamics of cell movement and shape during this time. The model was tested by reconstructing the cell's dynamical form by means of the Karhunen-Loève transform. No difference was detected between this reconstruction and the actual cell outline. Although cell movement and shape have hitherto been viewed as random, our results demonstrate that ROWS determine the spatio-temporal expression of pseudopodia, and consequently govern cell shape and movement, non-randomly.

  16. The Millimeter-Wave Spectrum of Methacrolein. Torsion-Rotation Effects in the Excited States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenko, Olena; Motiyenko, R. A.; Aviles Moreno, Juan-Ramon; Huet, T. R.

    2015-06-01

    Last year we reported the analysis of the rotational spectrum of s-trans conformer of methacrolein CH2=C(CH3)CHO in the ground vibrational state. In this talk we report the study of its low lying excited vibrational states. The study is based on room-temperature absorption spectra of methacrolein recorded in the frequency range 150 - 465 GHz using the spectrometer in Lille. The new results include assignment of the first excited torsional state (131 cm-1), and the joint analysis of the vt = 0 and vt = 1 states, that allowed us to improve the model in the frame of Rho-Axis-Method (RAM) Hamiltonian and to remove some strong correlations between parameters. Also we assigned the first excited vibrational state of the skeletal torsion mode (170 cm-1). The inverse sequence of A and E tunneling substates as well as anomalous A-E splittings observed for the rotational lines of vsk = 1 state clearly indicate a coupling between methyl torsion and skeletal torsion. However we were able to fit within experimental accuracy the rotational lines of vsk = 1 state using the RAM Hamiltonian. Because of the inversion of the A and E tunneling substates the rotational lines of the vsk = 1 states were assumed to belong to a virtual first excited torsional state. Finally, we assigned several low-Ka rotational transitions of the excited vibrational states above 200 cm-1 but their analysis is complicated by different rotation-vibration interactions. In particular there is an evidence of the Fermi-type resonance between the second excited torsional state and the first excited state of the in-plane skeletal bending mode (265 cm-1). Support from the French Laboratoire d'Excellence CaPPA (Chemical and Physical Properties of the Atmosphere) through contract ANR-10-LABX-0005 of the Programme d'Investissements d'Avenir is acknowledged. Zakharenko O. et al., 69th ISMS, 2014, TI01

  17. Diffusion approximation with polarization and resonance effects for the modelling of seismic waves in strongly scattering small-scale media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margerin, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the multiple scattering of seismic waves by a collection of randomly distributed point scatterers. The theory assumes that the energy envelopes are smooth, but does not require perturbations to be small, thereby allowing the modelling of strong, resonant scattering. The correlation tensor of seismic coda waves recorded at a three-component sensor is decomposed into a sum of eigenmodes of the elastodynamic multiple scattering (Bethe-Salpeter) equation. For a general moment tensor excitation, a total number of four modes is necessary to describe the transport of seismic waves polarization. Their spatio-temporal dependence is given in closed analytical form. Two additional modes transporting exclusively shear polarizations may be excited by antisymmetric moment tensor sources only. The general solution converges towards an equipartition mixture of diffusing P and S waves which allows the retrieval of the local Green's function from coda waves. The equipartition time is obtained analytically and the impact of absorption on Green's function reconstruction is discussed. The process of depolarization of multiply scattered waves and the resulting loss of information is illustrated for various seismic sources. It is shown that coda waves may be used to characterize the source mechanism up to lapse times of the order of a few mean free times only. In the case of resonant scatterers, a formula for the diffusivity of seismic waves incorporating the effect of energy entrapment inside the scatterers is obtained. Application of the theory to high-contrast media demonstrates that coda waves are more sensitive to slow rather than fast velocity anomalies by several orders of magnitude. Resonant scattering appears as an attractive physical phenomenon to explain the small values of the diffusion constant of seismic waves reported in volcanic areas.

  18. Gravitational wave production by Hawking radiation from rotating primordial black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruifeng; Kinney, William H.; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we analyze in detail a rarely discussed question of gravity wave production from evaporating primordial black holes. These black holes emit gravitons which are, at classical level, registered as gravity waves. We use the latest constraints on their abundance, and calculate the power emitted in gravitons at the time of their evaporation. We then solve the coupled system of equations that gives us the evolution of the frequency and amplitude of gravity waves during the expansion of the universe. The spectrum of gravitational waves that can be detected today depends on multiple factors: fraction of the total energy density which was occupied by primordial black holes, the epoch in which they were formed, and quantities like their mass and angular momentum. We conclude that very small primordial black holes which evaporate before the big-bang nucleosynthesis emit gravitons whose spectral energy fraction today can be as large as 10-7.5. On the other hand, those which are massive enough so that they still exist now can yield a signal as high as 10-6.5. However, typical frequencies of the gravity waves from primordial black holes are still too high to be observed with the current and near future gravity wave observations.

  19. Differential cross sections and product rotational polarization in A + BC reactions using wave packet methods: H+ + D2 and Li + HF examples.

    PubMed

    Zanchet, A; Roncero, O; González-Lezana, T; Rodríguez-López, A; Aguado, A; Sanz-Sanz, C; Gómez-Carrasco, S

    2009-12-31

    The state-to-state differential cross sections for some atom + diatom reactions have been calculated using a new wave packet code, MAD-WAVE3, which is described in some detail and uses either reactant or product Jacobi coordinates along the propagation. In order to show the accuracy and efficiency of the coordinate transformation required when using reactant Jacobi coordinates, as recently proposed [ J. Chem. Phys. 2006 , 125 , 054102 ], the method is first applied to the H + D(2) reaction as a benchmark, for which exact time-independent calculations are also performed. It is found that the use of reactant coordinates yields accurate results, with a computational effort slightly lower than that when using product coordinates. The H(+) + D(2) reaction, with the same masses but a much deeper insertion well, is also studied and exhibits a completely different mechanism, a complex-forming one which can be treated by statistical methods. Due to the longer range of the potential, product Jacobi coordinates are more efficient in this case. Differential cross sections for individual final rotational states of the products are obtained based on exact dynamical calculations for some selected total angular momenta, combined with the random phase approximation to save the high computational time required to calculate all partial waves with very long propagations. The results obtained are in excellent agreement with available exact time-independent calculations. Finally, the method is applied to the Li + HF system for which reactant coordinates are very well suited, and quantum differential cross sections are not available. The results are compared with recent quasiclassical simulations and experimental results [J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 122, 244304]. Furthermore, the polarization of the product angular momenta is also analyzed as a function of the scattering angle.

  20. Hall effects on the Walén relation in rotational discontinuities and Alfvén waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B. H.; Lee, L. C.

    2000-08-01

    For Alfvénic fluctuations in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) the perturbed transverse velocity Vt and magnetic field Bt can be related by the Walén relation, Vt = ±Bt/(μ0ρ)1/2 ≡;±VAt, where ρ is the plasma density, VAt is the transverse Alfvén velocity, and the plus (minus) sign is for antiparallel (parallel) propagation. However, observations of Vt and Bt for Alfvén waves and rotational discontinuities in the solar wind and at the magnetopause showed an obvious deviation from the relation. In this paper, modifications of the Walén relation for linear and nonlinear Alfvén waves and rotational discontinuities (RDs) are examined in the Hall-MHD formulation. Let Vit (≈ Vt) be the transverse ion velocity and Vet be the transverse electron velocity. It is found that Vit = ±Bt(z)/(μ0ρ1)1/2 = ±(ρ(z)/ρ1)1/2 VAt(z) and Vet = ±(ρ1/μ0)1/2Bt(z)/ρ(z) = ±(ρ1/ρ(z))1/2 VAt(z)for RDs in Hall-MHD, where ρ1 is the upstream plasma density. The ion and electron Walén ratios are defined as Ai = Vit/VAt and Ae = Vet/VAt, respectively. It is found in Hall-MHD that ?, AiAe = 1 and Ai < 1 (Ai > 1) for Alfvén waves and RDs with right-hand (left-hand) polarization. The Hall dispersive effect may modify the ion Walén ratio by ΔAi≈±0.14 for the magnetopause RDs and by ΔAi≈±0.07 for the interplanetary RDs.

  1. Unpinning of rotating spiral waves in cardiac tissues by circularly polarized electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Pan, De-Bei; Li, Bing-Wei; Zhang, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Spiral waves anchored to obstacles in cardiac tissues may cause lethal arrhythmia. To unpin these anchored spirals, comparing to high-voltage side-effect traditional therapies, wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by the uniform electric field (UEF) has provided a low-voltage alternative. Here we provide a new approach using WEH induced by the circularly polarized electric field (CPEF), which has higher success rate and larger application scope than UEF, even with a lower voltage. And we also study the distribution of the membrane potential near an obstacle induced by CPEF to analyze its mechanism of unpinning. We hope this promising approach may provide a better alternative to terminate arrhythmia.

  2. Three-component Gross-Pitaevskii equations in the spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate: Spin-rotation symmetry, matter-wave solutions, and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zichao; Yan, Zhenya

    2017-03-01

    We report new matter-wave solutions of the one-dimensional spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate system by combining global spin-rotation states and similarity transformation. Dynamical behaviors of non-stationary global spin-rotation states derived from the SU(2) spin-rotation symmetry are discussed, which exhibit temporal periodicity. We derive generalized bright-dark mixed solitons and new rogue wave solutions and reveal the relations between Euler angles in spin-rotation symmetry and parameters in ferromagnetic and polar solitons. In the modulated spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate system, new solutions are derived and graphically illustrated for different types of modulations. Moreover, numerical simulations are performed to investigate the stability of some obtained solutions for chosen parameters.

  3. Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of ARM spectral short-wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.

    1994-07-01

    Our ARM goal is to help improve both longwave and shortwave models used in GCM's by providing improved radiometric shortwave data. The inference of cloud cover and optical properties of clouds is another goal of this research effort. At the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) in Albany, New York, we are acquiring downwelling shortwave, including direct and diffuse irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling longwave, upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave, and aerosol optical depth that we combine with National Weather Service surface and upper air data as a model test data set for ARM researchers. The major objective of our program has been to develop two spectral versions of the rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR). The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) contains six filtered, narrow-passband detectors, and one unfiltered silicon detector that serves as a surrogate total shortwave sensor. The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) contains a 256-channel diode array that spans the wavelengths 350-1050 nm with resolution varying between 0.6 nm and 8 nm. With some of the instrument development complete we are devoting more effort to analysis of the MFRSR data. Progress was made on several fronts this year, resulting in conference papers and submissions to refereed journals. Data from the ASRC roof has been used to develop corrections of the MFRSR shortwave sensor. SGP data has been used to develop and validate a retrieval technique for total column water vapor. Total column ozone has been estimated using MFRSR data, but validation at the SGP was not possible for lack of a suitable ozone column standard. Some progress has been made on cloud cover detection, but it is not yet implemented as a routine classification and reporting procedure.

  4. Review of rigorous coupled-wave analysis and of homogeneous effective medium approximations for high spatial-frequency surface-relief gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glytsis, Elias N.; Brundrett, David L.; Gaylord, Thomas K.

    1993-01-01

    A review of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis as applied to the diffraction of electro-magnetic waves by gratings is presented. The analysis is valid for any polarization, angle of incidence, and conical diffraction. Cascaded and/or multiplexed gratings as well as material anisotropy can be incorporated under the same formalism. Small period rectangular groove gratings can also be modeled using approximately equivalent uniaxial homogeneous layers (effective media). The ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of these layers depend on the gratings filling factor, the refractive indices of the substrate and superstrate, and the ratio of the freespace wavelength to grating period. Comparisons of the homogeneous effective medium approximations with the rigorous coupled-wave analysis are presented. Antireflection designs (single-layer or multilayer) using the effective medium models are presented and compared. These ultra-short period antireflection gratings can also be used to produce soft x-rays. Comparisons of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis with experimental results on soft x-ray generation by gratings are also included.

  5. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Microwave and Millimeter Wave Radiation from Hollow, Rotating, Electron Beams.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    detection bands (X, Ku, K (a) produced by a rotating electron beam in a cylindrical drif t tube. 9- 600 (a a)400- ~200. 28 32 36 f (GHz) 600 (b) ~400...are plotted in an radii Rj,Ro, as shown in Fig. 2. o- k , diagram. At the interaction points indicated ( k -f ,a-) The stability of the system is examined...by linearizingw-kqs diaram Atd t5h. i ercto porbit indicaton ( k -naw -) and ( k ,’ ,w), we have "resopant interaction". If these are Eqs. (4) and (5

  6. Monostatic radar cross-section spectra of a rotating-fan array, with tilted plate metal blades, in the PO/PTD approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.-L.; Bor, S.-S.

    1992-12-01

    The monostatic radar cross-section spectra of a rotating-fan array, with tilted blades, are investigated. The high-frequency theoretical treatment of a slowly rotating and electrically large scatterer is based on the quasi-stationary method with the physical optics/physical theory of diffraction (PO/PTD) technique. Only the theta-theta polarization case is considered here, although the psi-psi polarization case can be treated in the same way. The solution is applicable to any observation angles, and, except for the condition of the same rotational velocity, each fan need not have the same number of blades and dimensions or the same spacing. An example, a linear array with two synchronously rotating fans, each with three identical tilted blades, is presented. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental results is acceptable.

  7. Polarization rotation of light propagating through a medium with efficient four-wave mixing and cross-phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sushree S.; Bhowmick, Arup; Mohapatra, Ashok K.

    2017-03-01

    We have studied the rotation of an elliptically polarized light propagating through thermal rubidium vapor with efficient four-wave mixing (FWM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM). These nonlinear processes are enhanced by Zeeman coherence within the degenerate sub-levels of the two-level atomic system. The elliptically polarized light with small ellipticity is considered as the superposition of a strong-linearly-polarized pump beam and a weak-orthogonal-polarized probe beam. The interference of the probe and the newly generated light field due to degenerate FWM and their gain in the medium due to a large XPM induced by the pump beam leads to the rotation of the elliptical polarized light. A theoretical analysis of the probe propagation through the nonlinear medium was used to explain the experimental observation and the fitting of the experimental data gives the estimates of the third-order non-linear susceptibilities associated with FWM and XPM. Our study can provide useful parameters for the generation of efficient squeezed vacuum states and squeezed polarization states of light. Furthermore our study finds application in controlling the diffraction of a linearly-polarized light beam traversing the medium.

  8. Method for extracting forward acoustic wave components from rotating microphone measurements in the inlets of turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicon, D. E.; Sofrin, T. G.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a procedure for enhancing the use of the basic rotating microphone system so as to determine the forward propagating mode components of the acoustic field in the inlet duct at the microphone plane in order to predict more accurate far-field radiation patterns. In addition, a modification was developed to obtain, from the same microphone readings, the forward acoustic modes generated at the fan face, which is generally some distance downstream of the microphone plane. Both these procedures employ computer-simulated calibrations of sound propagation in the inlet duct, based upon the current radiation code. These enhancement procedures were applied to previously obtained rotating microphone data for the 17-inch ADP fan. The forward mode components at the microphone plane were obtained and were used to compute corresponding far-field directivities. The second main task of the program involved finding the forward wave modes generated at the fan face in terms of the same total radial mode structure measured at the microphone plane. To obtain satisfactory results with the ADP geometry it was necessary to limit consideration to the propagating modes. Sensitivity studies were also conducted to establish guidelines for use in other fan configurations.

  9. A model for the selective amplification of spatially coherent waves in a centrifugal compressor on the verge of rotating stall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, Patrick B.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    A simple model for the stability zones of a low speed centrifugal compressor is developed, with the goal of understanding the driving mechanism for the changes in stalling behavior predicted for, and observed in, the Purdue Low Speed Centrifugal Research Compressor Facility. To this end, earlier analyses of rotating stall suppression in centrifugal compressors are presented in a reduced form that preserves the essential parameters of the model that affect the stalling behavior of the compressor. The model is then used to illuminate the relationship between compressor geometry, expected mode shape, and regions of amplification for weak waves which are indicative of the susceptibility of the system to rotating stall. The results demonstrate that increasing the stagger angle of the diffuser vanes, and consequently the diffusion path length, results in the compressor moving towards a condition where higher-order spatial modes are excited during stall initiation. Similarly, flow acceleration in the diffuser section caused by an increase in the number of diffuser vanes also results in the excitation of higher modes.

  10. Internal transport barrier triggered by non-linear lower hybrid wave deposition under condition of beam-driven toroidal rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Q. D.; Budny, R. V.

    2015-03-01

    By using gyro-Landau fluid transport model (GLF23), time-dependent integrated modeling is carried out using TRANSP to explore the dynamic process of internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in the neutral beam heating discharges. When the current profile is controlled by LHCD (lower hybrid current drive), with appropriate neutral beam injection, the nonlinear interplay between the transport determined gradients in the plasma temperature (Ti,e) and toroidal velocity (Vϕ) and the E×B flow shear (including q-profile) produces transport bifurcations, generating spontaneously a stepwise growing ITB. In the discharge, the constraints imposed by the wave propagation condition causes interplay of the LH driven current distribution with the plasma configuration modification, which constitutes non-linearity in the LH wave deposition. The non-linear effects cause bifurcation in LHCD, generating two distinct quasi-stationary reversed magnetic shear configurations. The change of current profile during the transition period between the two quasi-stationary states results in increase of the E×B shearing flow arising from toroidal rotation. The turbulence transport suppression by sheared E×B flow during the ITB development is analysed, and the temporal evolution of some parameters characterized the plasma confinement is examined. Ample evidence shows that onset of the ITB development is correlated with the enhancement of E×B shearing rate caused by the bifurcation in LHCD. It is suggested that the ITB triggering is associated with the non-linear effects of the LH power deposition.

  11. Mean Trajectory Gaussian Wave Packet Approach to Rotationally Inelastic Molecule-Surface Diffraction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    the wave function (11.3) in the time dependent Schrodinger equation and operate from the left with 8 2Tr IT Jd6b ! de sine Y(,o.This leads to 0 0 c...8217 orientation, and agress well with recent close coupling calculations. A connection is also made with the recent semiclassical trajectory work of DD I FORMN...orientation, and agress well with recent close coupling calculations. A connection is also made with the recent semiclassical trajectory work of DePristo. The

  12. Rotation Rate Sensing via Magnetostatic Surface Wave Propagation on a Thick Yig Ring.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-03

    Magnetostatic Waves Along Curved Ferrite Surfaces."I IEES Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2674:252-256 (Ari 16, Von Aulock, W.*H * Handbook of... Microwave Ferrite Materi- als. Academic Pre;ssInc.,New York, 𔃻-9-5- - P4 I ADSGO 372 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AF9 OH SCHOO--e F/G 20.3...tunable microwave oscilla- tors (Ref 8) and variable delay lines (Ref 1) operating within the microwave frequency spectrum. A further ex- tension of this

  13. Modified method of simplest equation: Powerful tool for obtaining exact and approximate traveling-wave solutions of nonlinear PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanov, Nikolay K.

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the class of equations ∑i,j=0mAij(u){∂iu}/{∂ti}∂+∑k,l=0nBkl(u){∂ku}/{∂xk}∂=C(u) where Aij( u), Bkl( u) and C( u) are functions of u( x, t) as follows: (i) Aij, Bkl and C are polynomials of u; or (ii) Aij, Bkl and C can be reduced to polynomials of u by means of Taylor series for small values of u. For these two cases the above-mentioned class of equations consists of nonlinear PDEs with polynomial nonlinearities. We show that the modified method of simplest equation is powerful tool for obtaining exact traveling-wave solution of this class of equations. The balance equations for the sub-class of traveling-wave solutions of the investigated class of equations are obtained. We illustrate the method by obtaining exact traveling-wave solutions (i) of the Swift-Hohenberg equation and (ii) of the generalized Rayleigh equation for the cases when the extended tanh-equation or the equations of Bernoulli and Riccati are used as simplest equations.

  14. Radar Cross-Sectional Spectra of Rotating Multiple Skew-Plated Metal Fan Blades by Physical Optics/Physical Theory of Diffraction, Equivalent Currents Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bor, Sheau-Shong; Yang, Tai-Lin; Yang, Shui-Yuan

    1992-05-01

    The monostatic radar cross-sectional spectra of rotating multiple skew-plated metal fan blades are investigated. The theoretical treatment of such a slowly rotating and electrically large scatterer is based on the quasi-stationary method together with physical optics/physical theory of diffraction (PO/PTD) equivalent current techniques. Only the θθ polarization case is considered here, but the \\psi\\psi polarization case can be treated in the same way. This solution is applicable to any observation angle, and is represented by such a general form as one which enables us to treat a similar scatterer with multiple blades and with different skew angles. Three rotating skew-plated blades are taken as an example, and the agreements between the theoretical and experimental results are satisfactory.

  15. A Lagrangian approach to the weakly nonlinear interaction of Kelvin waves and a symmetry-breaking bifurcation of a rotating flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide; Mie, Youichi

    2015-02-01

    We develop a general framework of using the Lagrangian variables for calculating the energy of waves on a steady Euler flow and the mean flow induced by their nonlinear interaction. With the mean flow at hand we can determine, without ambiguity, all the coefficients of the amplitude equations to third order in amplitude for a rotating flow subject to a steady perturbation breaking the circular symmetry of the streamlines. Moreover, a resonant triad of waves is identified which brings in the secondary instability of the Moore-Saffman-Tsai-Widnall instability, and with the aid of the energetic viewpoint, resonant amplification of the waves without bound is numerically confirmed.

  16. Millimeter-wave rotational spectrum and molecular constants of diatomic gallium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, K. P. R.; Schütze-Pahlmann, H.-U.; Hoeft, J.

    1980-03-01

    The gas-phase molecular spectrum of Gal has been detected in the millimeter wavelength region. The molecules are produced by vapourising a mixture of gallium and lead iodide into an evaculated cell. Analysis of the observed rotational transitions yields the following molecular parameters for 69Ga 127I: Y01 = 1706.89645(83) MHz, Y11 = -5.68714(53) MHz, Y21 = 6.329(43) kHz, Y02 = -0.472713(60) kHz, Y12 = 0.472(38) Hz, ω e = 216.38 cm -1, ω exe= 0.471 cm -1, and for 71Ga 127I: y 01 = 1675.72004(71) MHz, Y11 = -5.53277(57) MHz, Y21 = 5.995(34) kHz, Y02 = -0.455700(51) kHz, y12 = 0.522(40) Hz, ω e = 214.37 cm -1, and ω exe = 0.458 cm -1. The equilibrium internuclear distance obtained for Gal is re = 2.574667(12) Å.

  17. Optimal staggered-grid finite-difference schemes by combining Taylor-series expansion and sampling approximation for wave equation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hongyong; Yang, Lei; Li, Xiang-Yang

    2016-12-01

    High-order staggered-grid finite-difference (SFD) schemes have been universally used to improve the accuracy of wave equation modeling. However, the high-order SFD coefficients on spatial derivatives are usually determined by the Taylor-series expansion (TE) method, which just leads to great accuracy at small wavenumbers for wave equation modeling. Some conventional optimization methods can achieve high accuracy at large wavenumbers, but they hardly guarantee the small numerical dispersion error at small wavenumbers. In this paper, we develop new optimal explicit SFD (ESFD) and implicit SFD (ISFD) schemes for wave equation modeling. We first derive the optimal ESFD and ISFD coefficients for the first-order spatial derivatives by applying the combination of the TE and the sampling approximation to the dispersion relation, and then analyze their numerical accuracy. Finally, we perform elastic wave modeling with the ESFD and ISFD schemes based on the TE method and the optimal method, respectively. When the appropriate number and interval for the sampling points are chosen, these optimal schemes have extremely high accuracy at small wavenumbers, and can also guarantee small numerical dispersion error at large wavenumbers. Numerical accuracy analyses and modeling results demonstrate the optimal ESFD and ISFD schemes can efficiently suppress the numerical dispersion and significantly improve the modeling accuracy compared to the TE-based ESFD and ISFD schemes.

  18. ENERGY CONSERVATION AND GRAVITY WAVES IN SOUND-PROOF TREATMENTS OF STELLAR INTERIORS. PART I. ANELASTIC APPROXIMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Benjamin P.; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Vasil, Geoffrey M.

    2012-09-10

    Typical flows in stellar interiors are much slower than the speed of sound. To follow the slow evolution of subsonic motions, various sound-proof equations are in wide use, particularly in stellar astrophysical fluid dynamics. These low-Mach number equations include the anelastic equations. Generally, these equations are valid in nearly adiabatically stratified regions like stellar convection zones, but may not be valid in the sub-adiabatic, stably stratified stellar radiative interiors. Understanding the coupling between the convection zone and the radiative interior is a problem of crucial interest and may have strong implications for solar and stellar dynamo theories as the interface between the two, called the tachocline in the Sun, plays a crucial role in many solar dynamo theories. Here, we study the properties of gravity waves in stably stratified atmospheres. In particular, we explore how gravity waves are handled in various sound-proof equations. We find that some anelastic treatments fail to conserve energy in stably stratified atmospheres, instead conserving pseudo-energies that depend on the stratification, and we demonstrate this numerically. One anelastic equation set does conserve energy in all atmospheres and we provide recommendations for converting low-Mach number anelastic codes to this set of equations.

  19. Millimeter wave radar system on a rotating platform for combined search and track functionality with SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulenbacher, Uwe; Rech, Klaus; Sedlmeier, Johannes; Pratisto, Hans; Wellig, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Ground based millimeter wave radar sensors offer the potential for a weather-independent automatic ground surveillance at day and night, e.g. for camp protection applications. The basic principle and the experimental verification of a radar system concept is described, which by means of an extreme off-axis positioning of the antenna(s) combines azimuthal mechanical beam steering with the formation of a circular-arc shaped synthetic aperture (SA). In automatic ground surveillance the function of search and detection of moving ground targets is performed by means of the conventional mechanical scan mode. The rotated antenna structure designed as a small array with two or more RX antenna elements with simultaneous receiver chains allows to instantaneous track multiple moving targets (monopulse principle). The simultaneously operated SAR mode yields areal images of the distribution of stationary scatterers. For ground surveillance application this SAR mode is best suited for identifying possible threats by means of change detection. The feasibility of this concept was tested by means of an experimental radar system comprising of a 94 GHz (W band) FM-CW module with 1 GHz bandwidth and two RX antennas with parallel receiver channels, placed off-axis at a rotating platform. SAR mode and search/track mode were tested during an outdoor measurement campaign. The scenery of two persons walking along a road and partially through forest served as test for the capability to track multiple moving targets. For SAR mode verification an image of the area composed of roads, grassland, woodland and several man-made objects was reconstructed from the measured data.

  20. Applications of finite element and wave envelope element approximations to turbofan engine noise radiation including flight effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrett, A. V.; Eversman, W.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of acoustic radiation from turbofan engine inlets in flow has not lent itself fully to analysis by numerical means because of the large domains and high frequencies involved. The current work has extended the use of finite elements and wave envelope elements, elements which simulate decay and wavelike behaviour in their interpolation functions, from the no-flow case in which they have been proven, to cases incorporating mean flow. By employing an irrotational mean flow assumption, the acoustics problem has been posed in an axisymmetric formulation in terms of acoustic velocity potential, thus minimizing computer solution storage requirements. The results obtained from the numerical procedures agree well with known analytical solutions, static experimental jet engines inflow data, and also with flight test results.

  1. Heuristic approximations for sound fields produced by spherical waves incident on locally and non-locally reacting planar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Ming; Tao, Hongdan

    2014-01-01

    The classic Weyl-van der Pol (WVDP) formula is a well-known asymptotic solution for accurately predicting sound fields above a locally reacting ground surface. However, the form of the WVDP formula is inadequate for predicting sound fields in the vicinity of non-locally reacting surfaces; a correction term is often required in the formula to provide accurate numerical solutions. Even with this correction, there is a singularity in the diffraction wave term when the source is located directly above or below the receiver. This paper explores a heuristic method to remove this singularity and suggests an analytical form comparable to the WVDP formula. This improved formula offers a physically interpretable solution and allows for accurate predictions of the total sound field above locally and non-locally reacting surfaces for all geometrical configurations.

  2. On the arbitrary l-wave solutions of the deformed hyperbolic manning-rosen potential including an improved approximation to the orbital centrifugal term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chun-Long; Zhang, Min-Cang

    2017-01-01

    The arbitrary l-wave solutions to the Schrödinger equation for the deformed hyperbolic Manning-Rosen potential is investigated analytically by using the Nikiforov-Uvarov method, the centrifugal term is treated with an improved Greene and Aldrich's approximation scheme. The wavefunctions depend on the deformation parameter q, which is expressed in terms of the Jocobi polynomial or the hypergeometric function. The bound state energy is obtained, and the discrete spectrum is shown to be independent of the deformation parameter q.

  3. Wave spectra of a strongly coupled magnetized one-component plasma: quasilocalized charge approximation versus harmonic lattice theory and molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ott, T; Baiko, D A; Kählert, H; Bonitz, M

    2013-04-01

    Two different approaches to the calculation of the wave spectra of magnetized strongly coupled liquid one-component plasmas are analzyed: the semianalytical quasilocalized charge approximation (QLCA) and the angle-averaged harmonic lattice (AAHL) theory. Both theories are benchmarked against the numerical evidence obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that not too far from the melting transition (Γ≳100), the AAHL theory is superior to the QLCA, while further away from the transition, the QLCA performs comparably to or better than the AAHL theory.

  4. Internal transport barrier triggered by non-linear lower hybrid wave deposition under condition of beam-driven toroidal rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Q. D.; Budny, R. V.

    2015-03-15

    By using gyro-Landau fluid transport model (GLF23), time-dependent integrated modeling is carried out using TRANSP to explore the dynamic process of internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in the neutral beam heating discharges. When the current profile is controlled by LHCD (lower hybrid current drive), with appropriate neutral beam injection, the nonlinear interplay between the transport determined gradients in the plasma temperature (T{sub i,e}) and toroidal velocity (V{sub ϕ}) and the E×B flow shear (including q-profile) produces transport bifurcations, generating spontaneously a stepwise growing ITB. In the discharge, the constraints imposed by the wave propagation condition causes interplay of the LH driven current distribution with the plasma configuration modification, which constitutes non-linearity in the LH wave deposition. The non-linear effects cause bifurcation in LHCD, generating two distinct quasi-stationary reversed magnetic shear configurations. The change of current profile during the transition period between the two quasi-stationary states results in increase of the E×B shearing flow arising from toroidal rotation. The turbulence transport suppression by sheared E×B flow during the ITB development is analysed, and the temporal evolution of some parameters characterized the plasma confinement is examined. Ample evidence shows that onset of the ITB development is correlated with the enhancement of E×B shearing rate caused by the bifurcation in LHCD. It is suggested that the ITB triggering is associated with the non-linear effects of the LH power deposition.

  5. Effects of reagent rotational excitation on the H + CHD{sub 3} → H{sub 2} + CD{sub 3} reaction: A seven dimensional time-dependent wave packet study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Dong H.

    2014-10-14

    Seven-dimensional time-dependent wave packet calculations have been carried out for the title reaction to obtain reaction probabilities and cross sections for CHD{sub 3} in J{sub 0} = 1, 2 rotationally excited initial states with k{sub 0} = 0 − J{sub 0} (the projection of CHD{sub 3} rotational angular momentum on its C{sub 3} axis). Under the centrifugal sudden (CS) approximation, the initial states with the projection of the total angular momentum on the body fixed axis (K{sub 0}) equal to k{sub 0} are found to be much more reactive, indicating strong dependence of reactivity on the orientation of the reagent CHD{sub 3} with respect to the relative velocity between the reagents H and CHD{sub 3}. However, at the coupled-channel (CC) level this dependence becomes much weak although in general the K{sub 0} specified cross sections for the K{sub 0} = k{sub 0} initial states remain primary to the overall cross sections, implying the Coriolis coupling is important to the dynamics of the reaction. The calculated CS and CC integral cross sections obtained after K{sub 0} averaging for the J{sub 0} = 1, 2 initial states with all different k{sub 0} are essentially identical to the corresponding CS and CC results for the J{sub 0} = 0 initial state, meaning that the initial rotational excitation of CHD{sub 3} up to J{sub 0} = 2, regardless of its initial k{sub 0}, does not have any effect on the total cross sections for the title reaction, and the errors introduced by the CS approximation on integral cross sections for the rotationally excited J{sub 0} = 1, 2 initial states are the same as those for the J{sub 0} = 0 initial state.

  6. Similarity solution for a cylindrical shock wave in a rotational axisymmetric dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, J. P.; Nath, G.

    2012-01-01

    The propagation of shock waves in a rotational axisymmetric dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux, which has a variable azimuthally fluid velocity together with a variable axial fluid velocity, is investigated. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-condition is maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston (or inner expanding surface). The fluid velocities in the ambient medium are assume to be vary and obey power laws. The density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant, the heat conduction is express in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. In order to obtain the similarity solutions the angular velocity of the ambient medium is assume to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. The effects of the variation of the heat transfer parameter and non-idealness of the gas in the mixture are investigated. The effects of an increase in (i) the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and (ii) the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas on the flow variables are also investigated.

  7. Propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a rotating dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, J. P.; Nath, G.

    2010-04-01

    A self-similar solution for the propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux, which is rotating about the axis of symmetry, is investigated. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a piston (an inner expanding surface) and the dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles. The density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and radiation is considered to be of diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. Similarity solutions are obtained, and the effects of variation of the parameter of non-idealness of the gas in the mixture, the mass concentration of solid particles and the ratio of density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas are investigated.

  8. Analytical and numerical studies of approximate phase velocity matching based nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves for the detection of evenly distributed microstructural changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, X.; Tse, P. W.; Xu, G. H.; Tao, T. F.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-04-01

    Most previous studies on nonlinear Lamb waves are conducted using mode pairs that satisfying strict phase velocity matching and non-zero power flux criteria. However, there are some limitations in existence. First, strict phase velocity matching is not existed in the whole frequency bandwidth; Second, excited center frequency is not always exactly equal to the true phase-velocity-matching frequency; Third, mode pairs are isolated and quite limited in number; Fourth, exciting a single desired primary mode is extremely difficult in practice and the received signal is quite difficult to process and interpret. And few attention has been paid to solving these shortcomings. In this paper, nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves at low-frequency range satisfying approximate phase velocity matching is proposed for the purpose of overcoming these limitations. In analytical studies, the secondary amplitudes with the propagation distance considering the fundamental frequency, the maximum cumulative propagation distance (MCPD) with the fundamental frequency and the maximum linear cumulative propagation distance (MLCPD) using linear regression analysis are investigated. Based on analytical results, approximate phase velocity matching is quantitatively characterized as the relative phase velocity deviation less than a threshold value of 1%. Numerical studies are also conducted using tone burst as the excitation signal. The influences of center frequency and frequency bandwidth on the secondary amplitudes and MCPD are investigated. S1-S2 mode with the fundamental frequency at 1.8 MHz, the primary S0 mode at the center frequencies of 100 and 200 kHz are used respectively to calculate the ratios of nonlinear parameter of Al 6061-T6 to Al 7075-T651. The close agreement of the computed ratios to the actual value verifies the effectiveness of nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves satisfying approximate phase velocity matching for characterizing the material nonlinearity. Moreover, the ratios derived from

  9. Black hole triple dynamics: a breakdown of the orbit average approximation and implications for gravitational wave detections

    SciTech Connect

    Antonini, Fabio; Murray, Norman; Mikkola, Seppo

    2014-01-20

    Coalescing black hole (BH) binaries forming in the dense core of globular clusters (GCs) are expected to be one of the brightest sources of gravitational wave (GW) radiation for the next generation of ground-based laser interferometers. Favorable conditions for a merger are initiated by the Kozai resonance in which the gravitational interaction with a third distant object, typically another BH, induces quasi-periodic variations of the inner BH binary eccentricity. In this article we perform high precision three-body simulations of the long-term evolution of hierarchical BH triples and investigate the conditions that lead to the merging of the BH binary and the way it might become an observable source of GW radiation. We find that the secular orbit average treatment, which was adopted in previous works, does not reliably describe the dynamics of these systems if the binary is orbited by the outer BH on a highly inclined orbit at a moderate distance. We show that 50% of coalescing BH binaries driven by the Kozai mechanism in GCs will have eccentricities larger than 0.1, with 10% of them being extremely eccentric, (1 – e) ≲ 10{sup –4}, when they first chirp in the frequency band of ground-based laser interferometers. This implies that a large fraction of such GW sources could be missed if conventional quasi-circular templates are used for analysis of GW detector data. The efficient detection of all coalescing BH binaries in GCs will therefore require template banks of eccentric inspiral waveforms for matched-filtering and dedicated search strategies.

  10. Visualizing molecular unidirectional rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kang; Song, Qiying; Gong, Xiaochun; Ji, Qinying; Pan, Haifeng; Ding, Jingxin; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian

    2015-07-01

    We directly visualize the spatiotemporal evolution of a unidirectional rotating molecular rotational wave packet. Excited by two time-delayed polarization-skewed ultrashort laser pulses, the cigar- or disk-shaped rotational wave packet is impulsively kicked to unidirectionally rotate as a quantum rotor which afterwards disperses and exhibits field-free revivals. The rich dynamics can be coherently controlled by varying the timing or polarization of the excitation laser pulses. The numerical simulations very well reproduce the experimental observations and intuitively revivify the thoroughgoing evolution of the molecular rotational wave packet of unidirectional spin.

  11. Identification of the direction and value of the wave length of each mode for a rotating tire using the phase difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongsuh; Wang, Semyung; Kindt, Peter; Pluymers, Bert; Desmet, Wim

    2016-02-01

    Natural frequencies, mode shapes and modal damping values are the most important parameters to describe the noise and vibration behavior of a mechanical system. For rotating machinery, however, the directivity of the propagation wave and the wave length of each mode should also be taken into account. Generally, the information on directivity and wave length is obtained on the basis of the mode shape result, which is estimated from several measurements measured at different locations. In this research, the accurate directivity and wave length results will be observed by calculating the phase difference at two different locations. The limitation of the proposed method, which arises from the difference between the assumed ring model and the real tire, will be explained, and a method to address the limitation is introduced. The proposed method is verified by applying it to experimental measurements, and a brief explanation of the obtained results is provided.

  12. Supergranulation rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, Jesper; Beck, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Simple convection models estimate the depth of supergranulation at approximately 15,000 km which suggests that supergranules should rotate at the rate of the plasma in the outer 2% of the Sun by radius. Previous measurements (Snodgrass & Ulrich, 1990; Beck & Schou, 2000) found that supergranules rotate significantly faster than this, with a size-dependent rotation rate. We expand on previous work and show that the torsional oscillation signal seen in the supergranules tracks that obtained for normal modes. We also find that the amplitudes and lifetimes of the supergranulation are size dependent.

  13. Design and development of an ambient-temperature continuously-rotating achromatic half-wave plate for CMB polarization modulation on the POLARBEAR-2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Charles A.; Beckman, Shawn; Chinone, Yuji; Goeckner-Wald, Neil; Hazumi, Masashi; Keating, Brian; Kusaka, Akito; Lee, Adrian T.; Matsuda, Frederick; Plambeck, Richard; Suzuki, Aritoki; Takakura, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    We describe the development of an ambient-temperature continuously-rotating half-wave plate (HWP) for study of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization by the POLARBEAR-2 (PB2) experiment. Rapid polarization modulation suppresses 1/f noise due to unpolarized atmospheric turbulence and improves sensitivity to degree-angular-scale CMB fluctuations where the inflationary gravitational wave signal is thought to exist. A HWP modulator rotates the input polarization signal and therefore allows a single polarimeter to measure both linear polarization states, eliminating systematic errors associated with differencing of orthogonal detectors. PB2 projects a 365-mm-diameter focal plane of 7,588 dichroic, 95/150 GHz transition-edge-sensor bolometers onto a 4-degree field of view that scans the sky at 1 degree per second. We find that a 500-mm-diameter ambient-temperature sapphire achromatic HWP rotating at 2 Hz is a suitable polarization modulator for PB2. We present the design considerations for the PB2 HWP, the construction of the HWP optical stack and rotation mechanism, and the performance of the fully-assembled HWP instrument. We conclude with a discussion of HWP polarization modulation for future Simons Array receivers.

  14. Oscillations of rapidly rotating relativistic stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertig, Erich; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2008-09-15

    Nonaxisymmetric oscillations of rapidly rotating relativistic stars are studied using the Cowling approximation. The oscillation spectra have been estimated by Fourier transforming the evolution equations describing the perturbations. This is the first study of its kind and provides information on the effect of fast rotation on the oscillation spectra while it offers the possibility of studying the complete problem by including space-time perturbations. Our study includes both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations and provides limits for the onset of the secular bar mode rotational instability. We also present approximate formulas for the dependence of the oscillation spectrum from rotation. The results suggest that it is possible to extract the relativistic star's parameters from the observed gravitational wave spectrum.

  15. Detection and Interpretation of Collisional Transfer and Rotational Anisotropy Fingerprints in Resonant Four-Wave Mixing Spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzov, A.; Radi, P.; Maksyutenko, P.; Kozlov, D.

    2013-06-01

    Coherent responses produced by resonant four-wave mixing (RFWM) in a weakly absorbing medium carry valuable information on the intrinsic properties and dynamics of the quantum states involved. Here, two aspects of RFWM applications are highlighted. First, the Two-Color (TC) version of RFWM was found to be a unique spectroscopic tool to directly trace collisional state-to-state transfer in isotropic gaseous media, both in the frequency% and time domains. Second, the RFWM techniques appeared to be very useful for studies of the rotational anisotropy. Here we report new experimental one-color RFWM spectra of the OH radicals produced by laser photolysis of H_{2}O_{2} at 266 nm. Polarization dependence and Doppler line structure of the spectra show clear evidence of the pronounced anisotropy of angular momentum (j) and velocity (% v) distributions as well as on the j-v correlation. The obtained results directly point to the pronounced OH helicity (i.e. j% ∥ v) which yet remained beyound the reach of purely optical means. For all mentioned cases, the line-shape theory is an optimal tool to derive compact expressions for the RFWM signals. The work was supported by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the Swiss National Science Foundation (200020_124542/1), and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grants 11-02-01296 and 11-03-00448. P. P. Radi, H.-M. Frey, B. Mischler, A. P. Tzannis, P. Beaud, and T. Gerber, Chem. Phys. Lett. 265, 271 (1997). X. Chen and T. B. Settersten, Appl. Opt. 46, 3911 (2007). T. A. W. Wasserman, P. H. Vaccaro, and B. R. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 6314 (1997). A.P. Kouzov and P.P. Radi, Phys. Rev. A 63, 010701 (2000).

  16. Triggering collapse of the presolar dense cloud core and injecting short-lived radioisotopes with a shock wave. III. Rotating three-dimensional cloud cores

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

    2014-06-10

    A key test of the supernova triggering and injection hypothesis for the origin of the solar system's short-lived radioisotopes is to reproduce the inferred initial abundances of these isotopes. We present here the most detailed models to date of the shock wave triggering and injection process, where shock waves with varied properties strike fully three-dimensional, rotating, dense cloud cores. The models are calculated with the FLASH adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Three different outcomes can result: triggered collapse leading to fragmentation into a multiple protostar system; triggered collapse leading to a single protostar embedded in a protostellar disk; or failure to undergo dynamic collapse. Shock wave material is injected into the collapsing clouds through Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, resulting in initially inhomogeneous distributions in the protostars and protostellar disks. Cloud rotation about an axis aligned with the shock propagation direction does not increase the injection efficiency appreciably, as the shock parameters were chosen to be optimal for injection even in the absence of rotation. For a shock wave from a core-collapse supernova, the dilution factors for supernova material are in the range of ∼10{sup –4} to ∼3 × 10{sup –4}, in agreement with recent laboratory estimates of the required amount of dilution for {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al. We conclude that a type II supernova remains as a promising candidate for synthesizing the solar system's short-lived radioisotopes shortly before their injection into the presolar cloud core by the supernova's remnant shock wave.

  17. Self-similar solution of cylindrical shock wave propagation in a rotational axisymmetric mixture of a non-ideal gas and small solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Gorakh

    Similarity solutions are obtained for one-dimensional isothermal and adiabatic unsteady flow behind a strong cylindrical shock wave propagating in a rotational axisymmetric dusty gas, which has a variable azimuthal fluid velocity together with a variable axial fluid velocity. The experimental studies and astrophysical observations show that the outer atmosphere of the planets rotates due to rotation of the planets. Macroscopic motion with supersonic speed occurs in an interplanetary atmosphere and shock waves are generated. Thus rotation of planets or stars significantly affect the process taking place in their outer layers, therefore question connected with the explosions in rotating gas atmospheres are of definite astrophysical interest. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a moving piston and the dusty gas to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-condition is maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston. The shock Mach number is not infinite, but has a finite value. The azimuthal and axial component of the fluid velocity in the ambient medium are assume to be vary and obey power laws, and the density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant. In order to obtain the similarity solutions the angular velocity of the ambient medium is assume to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. Effects of the variation of the parameter of non-idealness of the gas in the mixture, the mass concentration of solid particles and the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas are investigated.

  18. Self-similar Solution of a Cylindrical Shock Wave under the Action of Monochromatic Radiation in a Rotational Axisymmetric Dusty Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, G.; Sahu, P. K.

    2017-03-01

    A self-similar flow behind a cylindrical shock wave is studied under the action of monochromatic radiation in a rotational axisymmetric dusty gas. The dusty gas is taken to be a mixture of small solid particles and perfect gas, and solid particles are continuously distributed in the mixture. The similarity solutions are obtained and the effects of the variation of the radiation parameter, the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas, the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and the index for the time dependent energy law are investigated. It is observed that an increase in the radiation parameter has decaying effect on the shock waves; whereas the shock strength increases with an increase in the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas or the index for the time dependent energy law. Also, it is found that an increase in the radiation parameter has effect to decrease the flow variables except the density and the azimuthal component of fluid velocity. A comparison is also made between rotating and non-rotating cases.

  19. Triplet pair amplitude in a trapped s -wave superfluid Fermi gas with broken spin rotation symmetry. II. Three-dimensional continuum case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inotani, Daisuke; Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji

    2016-10-01

    We extend our recent work [Y. Endo et al., Phys. Rev. A 92, 023610 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.023610 for a parity-mixing effect in a model of two-dimensional lattice fermions to a realistic three-dimensional ultracold Fermi gas. Including effects of broken local spatial inversion symmetry by a trap potential within the framework of the real-space Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory at T =0 , we point out that an odd-parity p -wave Cooper-pair amplitude is expected to have already been realized in previous experiments on an (even-parity) s -wave superfluid Fermi gas with spin imbalance. This indicates that when one suddenly changes the s -wave pairing interaction to an appropriate p -wave one by using a Feshbach technique in this case, a nonvanishing p -wave superfluid order parameter is immediately obtained, which is given by the product of the p -wave interaction and the p -wave pair amplitude that has already been induced in the spin-imbalanced s -wave superfluid Fermi gas. Thus, by definition, the system is in the p -wave superfluid state, at least just after this manipulation. Since the achievement of a p -wave superfluid state is one of the most exciting challenges in cold Fermi gas physics, our results may provide an alternative approach to this unconventional pairing state. In addition, since the parity-mixing effect cannot be explained as far as one deals with a trap potential in the local density approximation (LDA), it is considered as a crucial example which requires us to go beyond the LDA.

  20. Millimeter Wave Spectra of the Internal Rotation Excited States of (o)H_2-H_2O and (o)H_2-D_2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, K.; Iwasaki, Y.; Giesen, T.; Tanaka, K.

    2013-06-01

    H_2-H_2O is a weakly bound complex and it has a various states according to the internal rotation for both H_2 and H_2O moieties. In our previous study, we have reported the pure rotational transitions of the (o)H_2 complex in the ground H_2O rotational state, 0_{00}(Σ), for both H_2-H_2O and H_2-D_2O, where (o)H_2 (j_{ H2} =1) is rotating perpendicular to the intermolecular axis to give the projection of j_{ H2} to the axis k_{ H2} to be zero (i.e. Σ state). In the present study, we have observed the rotational transitions for the 0_{00} (Π) states in the millimeter-wave region up to 220 GHz, where the (o)H_2 is rotating around the intermolecular axis to give the projection k_{ H2} to be one (i.e. Π state). The center of mass bond lengths derived from the observed rotational constants for 0_{00} (Π) are longer by 5 % than those for 0_{00} (Σ), while force constants for the intermolecular stretching for 0_{00} (Π) derived from centrifugal distortion constants are smaller by 23 % than those for 0_{00} (Σ), suggesting the Π and Σ substates have quite different structures. The recent theoretical calculation indicates that for 0_{00}(Σ), (o)H_2 is bound to the oxygen site of H_2O, while for the 0_{00} (Π) state, (o)H_2 to the hydrogen site of H_2O, and the 0_{00}(Σ) state is by 14 cm^{-1} more stable than the 0_{00} (Π) state. Observed molecular constants for 0_{00}(Σ) and (Π) are consistent with the structures given by the theoretical calculation. We also observed the rotational spectrum in the 1_{01} (Σ) and (Π) states, where Σ and Π correspond to the rotation of H_2O perpendicular and parallel to the intermolecular axis and (o)H_2 is calculated to be bound to the oxygen site of H_2O. The energy difference between the 1_{01} (Σ) and (Π) states will be discussed due to the Criolis interaction between these substates. C. J. Whitham, K. Tanaka, and K. Harada, The 56th OSU Symposium, RD08 (2001). Ad. van der Avoid and D. J. Nesbit, J. Chem. Phys

  1. Vibrational and rotational transitions in low-energy electron-diatomic-molecule collisions. I - Close-coupling theory in the moving body-fixed frame. II - Hybrid theory and close-coupling theory: An /l subscript z-prime/-conserving close-coupling approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, B. H.; Poe, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed vibrational-rotational (V-R) close-coupling formulation of electron-diatomic-molecule scattering is developed in which the target molecular axis is chosen to be the z-axis and the resulting coupled differential equation is solved in the moving body-fixed frame throughout the entire interaction region. The coupled differential equation and asymptotic boundary conditions in the body-fixed frame are given for each parity, and procedures are outlined for evaluating V-R transition cross sections on the basis of the body-fixed transition and reactance matrix elements. Conditions are discussed for obtaining identical results from the space-fixed and body-fixed formulations in the case where a finite truncated basis set is used. The hybrid theory of Chandra and Temkin (1976) is then reformulated, relevant expressions and formulas for the simultaneous V-R transitions of the hybrid theory are obtained in the same forms as those of the V-R close-coupling theory, and distorted-wave Born-approximation expressions for the cross sections of the hybrid theory are presented. A close-coupling approximation that conserves the internuclear axis component of the incident electronic angular momentum (l subscript z-prime) is derived from the V-R close-coupling formulation in the moving body-fixed frame.

  2. Square-wave switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with polarization-rotated optical feedback: Experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukow, David W.; Gilfillan, Taylor; Pope, Brenton; Torre, Maria S.; Gavrielides, Athanasios; Masoller, Cristina

    2012-09-01

    We study experimentally the dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with polarization-rotated (PR) optical feedback, such that the natural lasing polarization of a VCSEL is rotated by 90 deg and then is reinjected into the laser. We observe noisy, square-wave-like polarization switchings with periodicity slightly longer than twice the delay time, which degrade to (or alternate with) bursts of irregular oscillations. We present results of simulations that are in good agreement with the observations. The simulations demonstrate that close to threshold the regular switching is very sensitive to noise, while well above threshold is less affected by the noise strength. The frequency splitting between the two polarizations plays a key role in the switching regularity, and we identify wide parameter regions where deterministic and robust switching can be observed.

  3. An investigation of a wave-amplitude vacillation using a light-speckle velocity measuring technique. [in thermally driven rotating annular flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    A novel form of streak photography based on a light-speckle technique has been used to investigate wave-amplitude vacillation in a thermally driven rotating cylindrical annulus of fluid. The technique is evaluated and found to be an excellent way to measure a 2-dimensional field of velocity without introducing probes into the fluid. The results are compared with previous work with the exception that the kinetic energy is significantly higher. The relation between eddy and mean motion, momentum transport, and period of the vacillation cycle appear similar in the two studies.

  4. Generation of FCC-compliant and background-free millimeter-wave ultrawideband signal based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly nonlinear fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Wen Ting; Sun, Wen Hui; Liu, Jian Guo; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-05-05

    We propose a novel approach to generating millimeter-wave (MMW) ultrawideband (UWB) signal based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). The MMW UWB signal is background-free by eliminating the baseband frequency components using an optical filter. The proposed scheme is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. The generated MMW UWB signal centered at 25.5 GHz has a 10-dB bandwidth of 7 GHz from 22 to 29 GHz, which fully satisfies the spectral mask regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).

  5. Communication: Creation of molecular vibrational motions via the rotation-vibration coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Henriksen, Niels E.

    2015-06-14

    Building on recent advances in the rotational excitation of molecules, we show how the effect of rotation-vibration coupling can be switched on in a controlled manner and how this coupling unfolds in real time after a pure rotational excitation. We present the first examination of the vibrational motions which can be induced via the rotation-vibration coupling after a pulsed rotational excitation. A time-dependent quantum wave packet calculation for the HF molecule shows how a slow (compared to the vibrational period) rotational excitation leads to a smooth increase in the average bond length whereas a fast rotational excitation leads to a non-stationary vibrational motion. As a result, under field-free postpulse conditions, either a stretched stationary bond or a vibrating bond can be created due to the coupling between the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom. The latter corresponds to a laser-induced breakdown of the adiabatic approximation for rotation-vibration coupling.

  6. Alterations of the Danger Zone after Preparation of Curved Root Canals Using WaveOne with Reverse Rotation or Reciprocation Movements

    PubMed Central

    Shantiaee, Yazdan; Dianat, Omid; Paymanpour, Payam; Nahvi, Golnaz; Ketabi, Mohammad Ali; Kolahi Ahari, Golbarg

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the changes that occur in the danger zone (DZ) after preparation of curved mesiobuccal (MB) canals of mandibular first molars with WaveOne instruments in two different movements [reciprocation (RCP) and counter-clockwise rotation (CCWR)] by means of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: MB canals of 30 mandibular molars were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=15); WaveOne/RCP and WaveOne/CCWR. Pre- and post-instrumentation CBCT images were assessed for changes in the dentin thickness in DZ (2 and 4 mm below the highest point of the root furcation) in both groups. Data was analyzed using the repeated measures ANOVA test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between two experimental groups in terms of remaining dentin thickness at 2 and 4 mm levels below the highest point of the furcation (P>0.05). Conclusion: The efficacy of WaveOne instrument on changes of the dentin thickness in the DZ was not affected by different file movements. PMID:26213536

  7. Finite elements modelling of scattering problems for flexural waves in thin plates: Application to elliptic invisibility cloaks, rotators and the mirage effect

    SciTech Connect

    Farhat, M.; Guenneau, S.; Enoch, S.

    2011-03-20

    We propose a finite elements algorithm to solve a fourth order partial differential equation governing the propagation of time-harmonic bending waves in thin elastic plates. Specially designed perfectly matched layers are implemented to deal with the infinite extent of the plates. These are deduced from a geometric transform in the biharmonic equation. To numerically illustrate the power of elastodynamic transformations, we analyze the elastic response of an elliptic invisibility cloak surrounding a clamped obstacle in the presence of a cylindrical excitation i.e. a concentrated point force. Elliptic cloaking for flexural waves involves a density and an orthotropic Young's modulus which depend on the radial and azimuthal positions, as deduced from a coordinates transformation for circular cloaks in the spirit of Pendry et al. [Science 312, 1780 (2006)], but with a further stretch of a coordinate axis. We find that a wave radiated by a concentrated point force located a couple of wavelengths away from the cloak is almost unperturbed in magnitude and in phase. However, when the point force lies within the coating, it seems to radiate from a shifted location. Finally, we emphasize the versatility of transformation elastodynamics with the design of an elliptic cloak which rotates the wavevector of a flexural wave within its core.

  8. The discrete dipole approximation with surface interaction for evanescent wave-based characterization of nanostructures on a surface with validation against experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Mitchell R.

    Nanotechnology has become so widely used it can be found in every aspect of life, from cell-phones and computers, to cars, and even athletic socks. As it permeates so many markets, the need for supplemental technologies has also increased. One such needed technology is in the area of nanoscale characterization. Current imaging methods are advanced; however, they do not have the capabilities to characterize the size, shape, composition, and arrangement of nanostructures and nanoparticles in a real-time, unobtrusive manner. The Polarized-Surface-Wave-Scattering system (PSWSS) is a method being researched at the University of Utah that can provide such characterization, although in order for the PSWSS to function accurately through inversion techniques, a predictive forward model must be developed and validated. This work explores the discrete dipole approximation with surface interaction (DDA-SI), an open source MATLAB toolbox, as a predictive model to calculate electromagnetic scattering by objects on a surface illuminated by an evanescent wave generated by total internal reflection (TIR). Far-field scattering predictions via DDA-SI are validated against scaled microwave experimental results for two objects on a surface: a sphere with a diameter of lambda/1.92 and a cube with a side length of lambda/1.785, where lambda refers to the wavelength. A good agreement between experiments and simulations is observed, especially when modified Fresnel reflection coefficients are employed by DDA-SI. Programs to calculate the amplitude scattering matrix and Mueller matrix elements have been also been created. Additionally, the sensitivity of four Mueller matrix elements (M11, M12, M21, and M22) to the particle size, material (gold and silver), shape (sphere and cube), and interparticle spacing, is analyzed. It is found that these four elements are sensitive to changes in shape and interparticle spacing, whereas prove insufficient to difference in material and sizes smaller than

  9. Development and Applications of Magnetooptical Measurement System Equipped with a Rotational Resonant Cavity in the Millimeter-Wave Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimata, Motoi; Koyama, Keiichi; Ohta, Hitoshi; Oshima, Yugo; Motokawa, Mitsuhiro; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kouichi; Ikemoto, Isao

    2005-07-01

    A rotational resonant cavity equipped with a millimeter vector network analyzer (MVNA) and a 14 T solenoid type superconducting magnet has been developed. The available frequency range is about 50-100 GHz. The temperature can decrease to 1.5 K. The cavity can rotate within the precision of one degree. As an example of the application of the new resonant cavity, we have performed detailed magnetooptical measurements of an organic conductor to estimate the Fermi surface topology. The Fermi surface of the quasi-one-dimensional conductor (DMET)2I3 is discussed.

  10. Exact Steady Azimuthal Internal Waves in the f-Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Chu

    2017-03-01

    We present an explicit exact solution of the nonlinear governing equations with Coriolis and centripetal terms in the f-plane approximation for internal geophysical trapped waves with a uniform current near the equator. This solution describes in the Lagrangian framework azimuthal equatorial internal waves propagating westward in a stratified rotational fluid.

  11. Excitation of the surface flute waves in electron cyclotron frequency range by internal rotating electron beam in a coaxial waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blednov, O.; Girka, I.; Girka, V.; Pavlenko, I.; Sydora, R.

    2014-12-01

    The initial stage of interaction between a gyrating beam of electrons, which move along Larmor orbits in a narrow gap between a cylindrical plasma layer and an internal screen of a metal coaxial waveguide and electromagnetic eigen waves, is studied theoretically. These waves are extraordinary polarized ones; they propagate along the azimuthal angle across an axial external steady magnetic field in the electron cyclotron frequency range. The numerical analysis shows that the excitation process is stable enough in respect to changing plasma waveguide parameters. The wider the plasma layer, the broader the range of plasma waveguide parameters within which effective wave excitation takes place. The main influence on the excitation of these modes is performed by the applied axial magnetic field, namely: its increase leads to an increase of growth rate and a broadening of the range of the waveguide parameters within which wave excitation is effective.

  12. Fast and local non-linear evolution of steep wave-groups on deep water: A comparison of approximate models to fully non-linear simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Adcock, T. A. A.; Taylor, P. H.

    2016-01-15

    The non-linear Schrödinger equation and its higher order extensions are routinely used for analysis of extreme ocean waves. This paper compares the evolution of individual wave-packets modelled using non-linear Schrödinger type equations with packets modelled using fully non-linear potential flow models. The modified non-linear Schrödinger Equation accurately models the relatively large scale non-linear changes to the shape of wave-groups, with a dramatic contraction of the group along the mean propagation direction and a corresponding extension of the width of the wave-crests. In addition, as extreme wave form, there is a local non-linear contraction of the wave-group around the crest which leads to a localised broadening of the wave spectrum which the bandwidth limited non-linear Schrödinger Equations struggle to capture. This limitation occurs for waves of moderate steepness and a narrow underlying spectrum.

  13. The Rotating Mirror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses theory of the rotating mirror, its use in measuring the velocity of the electrical signal in wires, and the velocity of light. Concludes with a description of the manometric flame apparatus developed for analyzing sound waves. (SK)

  14. Wideband rotating junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochernyaev, V. N.

    1993-06-01

    Rotating junctions of coaxial-waveguide and waveguide type with a traveling wave coefficient exceeding 0.8 in a wide frequency range are considered. The design of these junctions is based on a method of the theory of electrodynamic circuits. Numerical results are obtained for rotating junctions of partially filled rectangular waveguide type and their particular cases.

  15. Wave Journal Bearing. Part 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimofte, Florin

    1995-01-01

    A wave journal bearing concept features a waved inner bearing diameter of the non-rotating bearing side and it is an alternative to the plain journal bearing. The wave journal bearing has a significantly increased load capacity in comparison to the plain journal bearing operating at the same eccentricity. It also offers greater stability than the plain circular bearing under all operating conditions. The wave bearing's design is relatively simple and allows the shaft to rotate in either direction. Three wave bearings are sensitive to the direction of an applied stationary side load. Increasing the number of waves reduces the wave bearing's sensitivity to the direction of the applied load relative to the wave. However, the range in which the bearing performance can be varied decreases as the number of waves increases. Therefore, both the number and the amplitude of the waves must be properly selected to optimize the wave bearing design for a specific application. It is concluded that the stiffness of an air journal bearing, due to hydrodynamic effect, could be doubled and made to run stably by using a six or eight wave geometry with a wave amplitude approximately half of the bearing radial clearance.

  16. Magnetogasdynamics shock waves in a rotational axisymmetric non-ideal gas with increasing energy and conductive and radiative heat-fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Gorakh

    2016-07-01

    Self-similar solutions are obtained for one-dimensional adiabatic flow behind a magnetogasdynamics cylindrical shock wave propagating in a rotational axisymmetric non ideal gas with increasing energy and conductive and radiative heat fluxes in presence of an azimuthal magnetic field. The fluid velocities and the azimuthal magnetic field in the ambient medium are assume to be varying and obeying power laws. In order to find the similarity solutions the angular velocity of the ambient medium is taken to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The effects of the presence of radiation and conduction, the non-idealness of the gas and the magnetic field on the shock propagation and the flow behind the shock are investigated.

  17. Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy for Analytical Chemistry: Thermal Evolution of Low Volatility Impurities and Detection with a Fourier Transform Molecular Rotational Resonance Spectrometer (tev Ft-Mrr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Brent; Fields, Shelby S.; Neill, Justin L.; Pulliam, Robin; Muckle, Matt; Pate, Brooks

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in Fourier transform millimeter-wave spectroscopy techniques have renewed the application reach of molecular rotational spectroscopy for analytical chemistry. We present a sampling method for sub ppm analysis of low volatility impurities by thermal evolution from solid powders using a millimeter-wave Fourier transform molecular rotational resonance (FT-MRR) spectrometer for detection. This application of FT-MRR is relevant to the manufacturing of safe oral pharmaceuticals. Low volatility impurities can be challenging to detect at 1 ppm levels with chromatographic techniques. One such example of a potentially mutagenic impurity is acetamide (v.p. 1 Torr at 40 C, m.p. 80 C). We measured the pure reference spectrum of acetamide by flowing the sublimated vapor pressure of acetamide crystals through the FT-MRR spectrometer. The spectrometer lower detection level (LDL) for a broadband (> 20 GHz, 10 min.) spectrum is 300 nTorr, 30 pmol, or 2 ng. For a 50 mg powder, perfect sample transfer efficiency can yield a w/w % detection limit of 35 ppb. We extended the sampling method for the acetamide reference measurement to an acetaminophen sample spiked with 5000 ppm acetamide in order to test the sample transfer efficiency when liberated from an pharmaceutical powder. A spectral reference matching algorithm detected the presence of several impurities including acetaldehyde, acetic acid, and acetonitrile that evolved at the melting point of acetaminophen, demonstrating the capability of FT-MRR for identification without a routine chemical standard. The method detection limit (MDL) without further development is less than 10 ppm w/w %. Resolved FT-MRR mixture spectra will be presented with a description of sampling methods.

  18. Radial extracorporeal shock-wave therapy in patients with chronic rotator cuff tendinitis: a prospective randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Kolk, A; Yang, K G Auw; Tamminga, R; van der Hoeven, H

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of radial extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (rESWT) on patients with chronic tendinitis of the rotator cuff. This was a randomised controlled trial in which 82 patients (mean age 47 years (24 to 67)) with chronic tendinitis diagnosed clinically were randomly allocated to a treatment group who received low-dose rESWT (three sessions at an interval 10 to 14 days, 2000 pulses, 0.11 mJ/mm(2), 8 Hz) or to a placebo group, with a follow-up of six months. The patients and the treating orthopaedic surgeon, who were both blinded to the treatment, evaluated the results. A total of 44 patients were allocated to the rESWT group and 38 patients to the placebo group. A visual analogue scale (VAS) score for pain, a Constant-Murley (CMS) score and a simple shoulder test (SST) score significantly improved in both groups at three and six months compared with baseline (all p ≤ 0.012). The mean VAS was similar in both groups at three (p = 0.43) and six months (p = 0.262). Also, the mean CMS and SST scores were similar in both groups at six months (p = 0.815 and p = 0.834, respectively). It would thus seem that low-dose rESWT does not reduce pain or improve function in patients chronic rotator cuff tendinitis compared with placebo treatment.

  19. Determination of mercury in hair by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry at a rotating gold disk electrode after microwave digestion.

    PubMed

    East, Gaston A; Marinho, Epitácio P

    2005-03-01

    A simple and reliable method for the determination of mercury in hair on a rotating gold disk electrode using subtractive anodic stripping voltammetry without removal of oxygen is reported. Voltammetric and microwave parameters were optimized to obtain the best analytical results. Parameters such as supporting electrolyte concentration, influence of chloride in the Hg peak, deposition potential, scan rate, accumulation time, rotation rate, square-wave amplitude, and electrode conditioning were studied. Pressurized microwave-assisted digestion of hair, suitable for the accurate voltammetric determination of Hg, was evaluated using six acid mixtures and several time-power programs. Under the optimized conditions, no interference by copper, cadmium, lead, nickel, manganese, iron, or zinc was found at concentrations corresponding to their occurrence in normal hair. A calibration plot between 6,67 and 46,69 microg/L was linear, with r(2) better than 0.999. The detection limit for a deposition time of 60 s at 254 g was calculated as 1.92 nM (3omega). Validation of the method was demonstrated with the use of a certified reference sample of hair. Eight real samples of hair (four unexposed children and four exposed persons) were also analyzed.

  20. Far-infrared rotational emission by carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, C. F.; Storey, J. W. V.; Watson, D. M.; Green, S.

    1981-01-01

    Accurate theoretical collisional excitation rates are used to determine the emissivities of CO rotational lines 10 to the 4th power/cu cm n(H2), 100 K T 2000 K, and J 50. An approximate analytic expression for the emissitivities which is valid over most of this region is obtained. Population inversions in the lower rotational levels occur for densities n(H2) approximately 10 (to the 3rd to 5th power)/cu cm and temperatures T approximately 50 K. Interstellar shocks observed edge on are a potential source of millimeter wave CO maser emission. The CO rotational cooling function suggested by Hollenbach and McKee (1979) is verified, and accurate numerical values given. Application of these results to other linear molecules should be straightforward.

  1. Approximation algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Andreas S.; Shmoys, David B.; Williamson, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing global competition, rapidly changing markets, and greater consumer awareness have altered the way in which corporations do business. To become more efficient, many industries have sought to model some operational aspects by gigantic optimization problems. It is not atypical to encounter models that capture 106 separate “yes” or “no” decisions to be made. Although one could, in principle, try all 2106 possible solutions to find the optimal one, such a method would be impractically slow. Unfortunately, for most of these models, no algorithms are known that find optimal solutions with reasonable computation times. Typically, industry must rely on solutions of unguaranteed quality that are constructed in an ad hoc manner. Fortunately, for some of these models there are good approximation algorithms: algorithms that produce solutions quickly that are provably close to optimal. Over the past 6 years, there has been a sequence of major breakthroughs in our understanding of the design of approximation algorithms and of limits to obtaining such performance guarantees; this area has been one of the most flourishing areas of discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science. PMID:9370525

  2. Rotating waves during human sleep spindles organize global patterns of activity that repeat precisely through the night.

    PubMed

    Muller, Lyle; Piantoni, Giovanni; Koller, Dominik; Cash, Sydney S; Halgren, Eric; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2016-11-15

    During sleep, the thalamus generates a characteristic pattern of transient, 11-15 Hz sleep spindle oscillations, which synchronize the cortex through large-scale thalamocortical loops. Spindles have been increasingly demonstrated to be critical for sleep-dependent consolidation of memory, but the specific neural mechanism for this process remains unclear. We show here that cortical spindles are spatiotemporally organized into circular wave-like patterns, organizing neuronal activity over tens of milliseconds, within the timescale for storing memories in large-scale networks across the cortex via spike-time dependent plasticity. These circular patterns repeat over hours of sleep with millisecond temporal precision, allowing reinforcement of the activity patterns through hundreds of reverberations. These results provide a novel mechanistic account for how global sleep oscillations and synaptic plasticity could strengthen networks distributed across the cortex to store coherent and integrated memories.

  3. Rotating waves during human sleep spindles organize global patterns of activity that repeat precisely through the night

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Lyle; Piantoni, Giovanni; Koller, Dominik; Cash, Sydney S; Halgren, Eric; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2016-01-01

    During sleep, the thalamus generates a characteristic pattern of transient, 11-15 Hz sleep spindle oscillations, which synchronize the cortex through large-scale thalamocortical loops. Spindles have been increasingly demonstrated to be critical for sleep-dependent consolidation of memory, but the specific neural mechanism for this process remains unclear. We show here that cortical spindles are spatiotemporally organized into circular wave-like patterns, organizing neuronal activity over tens of milliseconds, within the timescale for storing memories in large-scale networks across the cortex via spike-time dependent plasticity. These circular patterns repeat over hours of sleep with millisecond temporal precision, allowing reinforcement of the activity patterns through hundreds of reverberations. These results provide a novel mechanistic account for how global sleep oscillations and synaptic plasticity could strengthen networks distributed across the cortex to store coherent and integrated memories. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17267.001 PMID:27855061

  4. Rotating Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scase, M. M.; Baldwin, K. A.; Hill, R. J. A.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of rotation upon the classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated. We consider a two-layer system with an axis of rotation that is perpendicular to the interface between the layers. In general, we find that a wave mode's growth rate may be reduced by rotation. We further show that in some cases, unstable axisymmetric wave modes may be stabilized by rotating the system above a critical rotation rate associated with the mode's wavelength, the Atwood number, and the flow's aspect ratio.

  5. R-mode frequencies of rapidly and differentially rotating relativistic neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirenti, Cecilia; Jasiulek, Michael

    2017-01-01

    R-modes are a promising source of gravitational waves for ground based detectors. If the precise frequency is known, guided gravitational wave searches with higher detectability are possible. Many authors have calculated the r-mode frequency because of its physical importance. For the dominant mode its value is 4/3 times the angular velocity of the star, subject to various corrections, of which the most important are relativistic and rotational corrections. Here we extend the results from previous works and investigate the effect of rapid rotation and differential rotation on the r-mode frequency. We evolve the perturbation equations in Cowling approximation in time using finite differencing methods to compute the r-mode frequency for sequences of rotating neutron stars with polytropic equations of state. The results presented here are relevant to the design of gravitational wave and electromagnetic r-mode searches.

  6. A novel neural network based image reconstruction model with scale and rotation invariance for target identification and classification for Active millimetre wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Smriti; Bisht, Amit Singh; Singh, Dharmendra; Pathak, Nagendra Prasad

    2014-12-01

    Millimetre wave imaging (MMW) is gaining tremendous interest among researchers, which has potential applications for security check, standoff personal screening, automotive collision-avoidance, and lot more. Current state-of-art imaging techniques viz. microwave and X-ray imaging suffers from lower resolution and harmful ionizing radiation, respectively. In contrast, MMW imaging operates at lower power and is non-ionizing, hence, medically safe. Despite these favourable attributes, MMW imaging encounters various challenges as; still it is very less explored area and lacks suitable imaging methodology for extracting complete target information. Keeping in view of these challenges, a MMW active imaging radar system at 60 GHz was designed for standoff imaging application. A C-scan (horizontal and vertical scanning) methodology was developed that provides cross-range resolution of 8.59 mm. The paper further details a suitable target identification and classification methodology. For identification of regular shape targets: mean-standard deviation based segmentation technique was formulated and further validated using a different target shape. For classification: probability density function based target material discrimination methodology was proposed and further validated on different dataset. Lastly, a novel artificial neural network based scale and rotation invariant, image reconstruction methodology has been proposed to counter the distortions in the image caused due to noise, rotation or scale variations. The designed neural network once trained with sample images, automatically takes care of these deformations and successfully reconstructs the corrected image for the test targets. Techniques developed in this paper are tested and validated using four different regular shapes viz. rectangle, square, triangle and circle.

  7. Extended application of Kohn-Sham first-principles molecular dynamics method with plane wave approximation at high energy—From cold materials to hot dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shen; Wang, Hongwei; Kang, Wei; Zhang, Ping; He, X. T.

    2016-04-01

    An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.

  8. Torsional wave propagation in solar tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Ghanbari, E.; Ghaffari, G.; Safari, H.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We investigate the propagation of torsional waves in coronal structures together with their collimation effects in the context of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The interplay of the equilibrium twist and rotation of the structure, e.g. jet or tornado, together with the density contrast of its internal and external media is studied to shed light on the nature of torsional waves. Methods: We consider a rotating magnetic cylinder embedded in a plasma with a straight magnetic field. This resembles a solar tornado. In order to express the dispersion relations and phase speeds of the axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic waves, the second-order thin flux tube approximation is implemented for the internal medium and the ideal MHD equations are implemented for the external medium. Results: The explicit expressions for the phase speed of the torsional wave show the modification of the torsional wave speed due to the equilibrium twist, rotation, and density contrast of the tornado. The speeds could be either sub-Alfvénic or ultra-Alfvénic depending on whether the equilibrium twist or rotation is dominant. The equilibrium twist increases the phase speed while the equilibrium rotation decreases it. The good agreement between the explicit versions for the phase speed and that obtained numerically proves adequate for the robustness of the model and method. The density ratio of the internal and external media also play a significant role in the speed and dispersion. Conclusions: The dispersion of the torsional wave is an indication of the compressibility of the oscillations. When the cylinder is rotating or twisted, in contrast to when it only possesses a straight magnetic field, the torsional wave is a collective mode. In this case its phase speed is determined by the Alfvén waves inside and outside the tornado.

  9. Evidence for effectiveness of Extracorporal Shock-Wave Therapy (ESWT) to treat calcific and non-calcific rotator cuff tendinosis--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Huisstede, Bionka M A; Gebremariam, Lukas; van der Sande, Renske; Hay, Elaine M; Koes, Bart W

    2011-10-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) is suggested as a treatment alternative for calcific and non-calcific rotator cuff tendinosis (RC-tendinosis), which may decrease the need for surgery. In this study we assessed the evidence for effectiveness of ESWT for these disorders. The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Pedro, and Cinahl were searched for relevant systematic reviews and RCTs. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. Seventeen RCTs (11 calcific, 6 non-calcific) were included. For calcific RC-tendinosis, strong evidence was found for effectiveness in favour of high-ESWT versus low-ESWT in short-term. Moderate evidence was found in favour of high-ESWT versus placebo in short-, mid- and long-term and versus low-ESWT in mid- and long-term. Moreover, high-ESWT was more effective (moderate evidence) with focus on calcific deposit versus focus on tuberculum major in short- and long-term. RSWT was more effective (moderate evidence) than placebo in mid-term. For non-calcific RC-tendinosis, no strong or moderate evidence was found in favour of low-, mid- or high-ESWT versus placebo, each other, or other treatments. This review shows that only high-ESWT is effective for treating calcific RC-tendinosis. No evidence was found for the effectiveness of ESWT to treat non-calcific RC-tendinosis.

  10. Self-similar flow of a rotating dusty gas behind the shock wave with increasing energy, conduction and radiation heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, G.

    2012-01-01

    A self-similar solution is obtained for one dimensional adiabatic flow behind a cylindrical shock wave propagating in a rotating dusty gas in presence of heat conduction and radiation heat flux with increasing energy. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-condition is maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston (or inner expanding surface). The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature only. In order to obtain the similarity solutions the initial density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant and the angular velocity of the ambient medium is assumed to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. The effects of the variation of the heat transfer parameters and non-idealness of the gas in the mixture are investigated. The effects of an increase in (i) the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and (ii) the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas on the flow variables are also investigated.

  11. Tunneling effects in electromagnetic wave scattering by nonspherical particles: A comparison of the Debye series and physical-geometric optics approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    The accuracy of the physical-geometric optics (PG-O) approximation is examined for the simulation of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical dielectric particles. This study seeks a better understanding of the tunneling effect on the phase matrix by employing the invariant imbedding method to rigorously compute the zeroth-order Debye series, from which the tunneling efficiency and the phase matrix corresponding to the diffraction and external reflection are obtained. The tunneling efficiency is shown to be a factor quantifying the relative importance of the tunneling effect over the Fraunhofer diffraction near the forward scattering direction. Due to the tunneling effect, different geometries with the same projected cross section might have different diffraction patterns, which are traditionally assumed to be identical according to the Babinet principle. For particles with a fixed orientation, the PG-O approximation yields the external reflection pattern with reasonable accuracy, but ordinarily fails to predict the locations of peaks and minima in the diffraction pattern. The larger the tunneling efficiency, the worse the PG-O accuracy is at scattering angles less than 90°. If the particles are assumed to be randomly oriented, the PG-O approximation yields the phase matrix close to the rigorous counterpart, primarily due to error cancellations in the orientation-average process. Furthermore, the PG-O approximation based on an electric field volume-integral equation is shown to usually be much more accurate than the Kirchhoff surface integral equation at side-scattering angles, particularly when the modulus of the complex refractive index is close to unity. Finally, tunneling efficiencies are tabulated for representative faceted particles.

  12. Nonlinear upper hybrid drift waves for a longitudinal electric field perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field in the Vlasov-Maxwell approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham-Shrauner, B.

    1986-01-01

    Upper hybrid drift waves are found as a special solution to a Vlasov-Maxwell plasma which has a longitudinal electric field and a perpendicular uniform magnetic field. A single-species plasma with a constant-density mobile neutralizing background supports spatially varying disturbances that oscillate at the upper hybrid frequency. The general functional dependences of the electric field, the plasma number density, and the one-particle distribution function for the special case are found from more general Vlasov-Maxwell equations invariant under a Lie group point transformation. The one-particle distribution function for the plasma is a function of the Liouville invariant, which is the energy in the generalized Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) reference frame, and the momentum in the drift direction.

  13. An approximate Riemann solver for magnetohydrodynamics (that works in more than one dimension)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Kenneth G.

    1994-01-01

    An approximate Riemann solver is developed for the governing equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The Riemann solver has an eight-wave structure, where seven of the waves are those used in previous work on upwind schemes for MHD, and the eighth wave is related to the divergence of the magnetic field. The structure of the eighth wave is not immediately obvious from the governing equations as they are usually written, but arises from a modification of the equations that is presented in this paper. The addition of the eighth wave allows multidimensional MHD problems to be solved without the use of staggered grids or a projection scheme, one or the other of which was necessary in previous work on upwind schemes for MHD. A test problem made up of a shock tube with rotated initial conditions is solved to show that the two-dimensional code yields answers consistent with the one-dimensional methods developed previously.

  14. Stationary spiral waves in film flow over a spinning disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisoev, G. M.; Goldgof, D. B.; Korzhova, V. N.

    2010-05-01

    Stationary spiral waves in liquid film flowing over a spinning disk have been observed in earlier experiments [H. Espig and R. Hoyle, "Waves in a thin liquid layer on a rotating disk," J. Fluid Mech. 22, 671 (1965); A. F. Charwat et al., "The flow and stability of thin liquid films on a rotating disk," J. Fluid Mech. 53, 227 (1972); G. Leneweit et al., "Surface instabilities of thin liquid film flow on a rotating disk," Exp. Fluids 26, 75 (1999)]. In the framework of a mathematical model derived by the integral method, it is shown that the waves develop due to nonaxisymmetric liquid feeding onto the spinning disk, and the wave shapes are approximated by the Archimedean spirals, whose coefficients depend on the Eckman number. The dependence has been confirmed by experimental data from recorded videos.

  15. Cyclotron waves in a non-neutral plasma column

    SciTech Connect

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2013-04-15

    A kinetic theory of linear electrostatic plasma waves with frequencies near the cyclotron frequency {Omega}{sub c{sub s}} of a given plasma species s is developed for a multispecies non-neutral plasma column with general radial density and electric field profiles. Terms in the perturbed distribution function up to O(1/{Omega}{sub c{sub s}{sup 2}}) are kept, as are the effects of finite cyclotron radius r{sub c} up to O(r{sub c}{sup 2}). At this order, the equilibrium distribution is not Maxwellian if the plasma temperature or rotation frequency is not uniform. For r{sub c}{yields}0, the theory reproduces cold-fluid theory and predicts surface cyclotron waves propagating azimuthally. For finite r{sub c}, the wave equation predicts that the surface wave couples to radially and azimuthally propagating Bernstein waves, at locations where the wave frequency equals the local upper hybrid frequency. The equation also predicts a second set of Bernstein waves that do not couple to the surface wave, and therefore have no effect on the external potential. The wave equation is solved both numerically and analytically in the WKB approximation, and analytic dispersion relations for the waves are obtained. The theory predicts that both types of Bernstein wave are damped at resonances, which are locations where the Doppler-shifted wave frequency matches the local cyclotron frequency as seen in the rotating frame.

  16. Rotating cooloing flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kley, Wilhelm; Mathews, William G.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the evolution of the hot interstellar medium in a large, slowly rotating elliptical galaxy. Although the rotation assumed is a small fraction of the circular velocity, in accordance with recent observations, it is sufficient to have a profound influence on the X-ray emission and cooling geometry of the interstellar gas. The hot gas cools into a disk that extends out to approximately 10 kpc. The cool, dusty disks observed in the majority of elliptical galaxies may arise naturally from internal cooling rather than from mergers with gas-rich companions. As a result of angular momentum conservation in the cooling flow, the soft X-ray isophotes are quite noticeably flatter than those of the stellar image. The gas temperature is higer along the rotation axis. The rotational velocity of the gas several kiloparcsecs above the central disk far exceeds the local stellar rotation and approaches the local circular velocity as it flows toward the galactic core. The detailed appearance of the X-ray image and velocity field of the X-ray gas provide information about the global rotational properties of giant ellipticals at radii too distant for optical observations. The overall pattern of rotation in these galaxies retains information about the origin of ellipticals, particularly of their merging history. In ellipticals having radio jets, if the jets are aligned with the rotation axis of the inner cooling flow, rotation within the jet could be sustained by the rotating environment. Since most large ellipticals have modest rotation, the X-ray observations at low spatial resolution, when interpreted with spherical theoretical models, give the impression that hot gas undergoes localized cooling to very low temperatures many kiloparcsecs from the galactic core. We suggest that such apparent cooling can result in a natural way as gas cools onto a rotating disk.

  17. Contained Modes In Mirrors With Sheared Rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2010-10-08

    In mirrors with E × B rotation, a fixed azimuthal perturbation in the lab frame can appear as a wave in the rotating frame. If the rotation frequency varies with radius, the plasma-frame wave frequency will also vary radially due to the Doppler shift. A wave that propagates in the high rotation plasma region might therefore be evanescent at the plasma edge. This can lead to radially localized Alfven eigenmodes with high azimuthal mode numbers. Contained Alfven modes are found both for peaked and non-peaked rotation profiles. These modes might be useful for alpha channeling or ion heating, as the high azimuthal wave number allows the plasma wave frequency in the rotating frame to exceed the ion cyclotron frequency. __________________________________________________

  18. Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Observations of the OMC-2/3 Region. I. Dispersing and Rotating Core around the Intermediate-Mass Protostar MMS 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Saito, Masao; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2006-11-01

    We report the results of H13CO+ (1-0), CO (1-0), and 3.3 mm dust continuum observations toward MMS 7, one of the strongest millimeter-wave sources in OMC-3, with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA) and the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. With the NMA, we detected centrally condensed 3.3 mm dust continuum emission, which coincides with the mid-infrared (MIR) source and the free-free jet. Our H13CO+ observations revealed a disklike envelope around MMS 7, whose size and mass are 0.15×0.11 pc and 5.1 Msolar, respectively. The outer portion of the disklike envelope has a fan-shaped structure, which delineates the rim of the observed CO outflow. The position-velocity diagrams in the H13CO+ (1-0) emission show that the velocity field in the disklike envelope is composed of a dispersing gas motion and a possible rigid-like rotation. The mass-dispersing rate is estimated to be 3.4×10-5 Msolar yr-1, which implies that MMS 7 has an ability to disperse ~10 Msolar during the protostellar evolutional time. The specific angular momentum in the disklike envelope is nearly 2 orders of magnitude larger than that in low-mass cores. The turnover point of the power law of the angular momentum distribution in the disklike envelope (<=0.007 pc), which is likely to be related to the outer radius of the central mass accretion, is similar in size to the 3.3 mm dust condensation. We propose that MMS 7 is in the last stage of the main accretion phase and that a substantial portion of the outer gas has already been dispersed, while mass accretion may still be ongoing at the innermost region, traced by the dusty condensation. Based on the observations made at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory, which is a branch of the National Astronomical Observatory, an interuniversity research institute operated by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

  19. Rotating Vesta

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronomers combined 146 exposures taken by NASA's Hubble SpaceTelescope to make this 73-frame movie of the asteroid Vesta's rotation.Vesta completes a rotation every 5.34 hours.› Asteroid and...

  20. Approximate values for force constant and wave number associated with a low-frequency concerted motion in proteins can be evaluated by a comparison of X-ray structures.

    PubMed

    Merlino, Antonello; Sica, Filomena; Mazzarella, Lelio

    2007-05-17

    Low-frequency internal motions in protein molecules play a key role in biological functions. A direct relationship between low-frequency motions and enzymatic activity has been suggested for bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A). The flexibility-function relationship in this enzyme has been attributed to a subtle and concerted breathing motion of the beta-sheet regions occurring upon substrate binding and release. Here, we calculate an approximate value for the force constant and the wave number of the low-frequency beta-sheet breathing motion of RNase A, by using the Boltzmann hypothesis on a set of data derived from a simple conventional structural superimposition of an unusual large number of X-ray structures available for the protein. The results agree with previous observations and with theoretical predictions on the basis of normal-mode analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example in which the wave number and the force constant of a low-frequency concerted motion in a protein are directly derived from X-ray structures.

  1. Seismic shear waves as Foucault pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snieder, Roel; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Ruigrok, Elmer; Shiomi, Katsuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Earth's rotation causes splitting of normal modes. Wave fronts and rays are, however, not affected by Earth's rotation, as we show theoretically and with observations made with USArray. We derive that the Coriolis force causes a small transverse component for P waves and a small longitudinal component for S waves. More importantly, Earth's rotation leads to a slow rotation of the transverse polarization of S waves; during the propagation of S waves the particle motion behaves just like a Foucault pendulum. The polarization plane of shear waves counteracts Earth's rotation and rotates clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. The rotation rate is independent of the wave frequency and is purely geometric, like the Berry phase. Using the polarization of ScS and ScS2 waves, we show that the Foucault-like rotation of the S wave polarization can be observed. This can affect the determination of source mechanisms and the interpretation of observed SKS splitting.

  2. Nonaxisymmetric oscillations of differentially rotating relativistic stars

    SciTech Connect

    Passamonti, Andrea; Stavridis, Adamantios; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2008-01-15

    Nonaxisymmetric oscillations of differentially rotating stars are studied using both slow rotation and Cowling approximation. The equilibrium stellar models are relativistic polytropes where differential rotation is described by the relativistic j-constant rotation law. The oscillation spectrum is studied versus three main parameters: the stellar compactness M/R, the degree of differential rotation A, and the number of maximum couplings l{sub max}. It is shown that the rotational splitting of the nonaxisymmetric modes are strongly enhanced by increasing the compactness of the star and the degree of differential rotation. Finally, we investigate the relation between the fundamental quadrupole mode and the corotation band of differentially rotating stars.

  3. Optimized dynamic rotation with wedges.

    PubMed

    Rosen, I I; Morrill, S M; Lane, R G

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic rotation is a computer-controlled therapy technique utilizing an automated multileaf collimator in which the radiation beam shape changes dynamically as the treatment machine rotates about the patient so that at each instant the beam shape matches the projected shape of the target volume. In simple dynamic rotation, the dose rate remains constant during rotation. For optimized dynamic rotation, the dose rate is varied as a function of gantry angle. Optimum dose rate at each gantry angle is computed by linear programming. Wedges can be included in the optimized dynamic rotation therapy by using additional rotations. Simple and optimized dynamic rotation treatment plans, with and without wedges, for a pancreatic tumor have been compared using optimization cost function values, normal tissue complication probabilities, and positive difference statistic values. For planning purposes, a continuous rotation is approximated by static beams at a number of gantry angles equally spaced about the patient. In theory, the quality of optimized treatment planning solutions should improve as the number of static beams increases. The addition of wedges should further improve dose distributions. For the case studied, no significant improvements were seen for more than 36 beam angles. Open and wedged optimized dynamic rotations were better than simple dynamic rotation, but wedged optimized dynamic rotation showed no definitive improvement over open beam optimized dynamic rotation.

  4. Rotational testing.

    PubMed

    Furman, J M

    2016-01-01

    The natural stimulus for the semicircular canals is rotation of the head, which also might stimulate the otolith organs. Vestibular stimulation usually induces eye movements via the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The orientation of the subject with respect to the axis of rotation and the orientation of the axis of rotation with respect to gravity together determine which labyrinthine receptors are stimulated for particular motion trajectories. Rotational testing usually includes the measurement of eye movements via a video system but might use a subject's perception of motion. The most common types of rotational testing are whole-body computer-controlled sinusoidal or trapezoidal stimuli during earth-vertical axis rotation (EVAR), which stimulates primarily the horizontal semicircular canals bilaterally. Recently, manual impulsive rotations, known as head impulse testing (HIT), have been developed to assess individual horizontal semicircular canals. Most types of rotational stimuli are not used routinely in the clinical setting but may be used in selected research environments. This chapter will discuss clinically relevant rotational stimuli and several types of rotational testing that are used primarily in research settings.

  5. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.

  6. Decay of helical Kelvin waves on a quantum vortex filament

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2014-07-15

    We study the dynamics of helical Kelvin waves moving along a quantum vortex filament driven by a normal fluid flow. We employ the vector form of the quantum local induction approximation (LIA) due to Schwarz. For an isolated filament, this is an adequate approximation to the full Hall-Vinen-Bekarevich-Khalatnikov dynamics. The motion of such Kelvin waves is both translational (along the quantum vortex filament) and rotational (in the plane orthogonal to the reference axis). We first present an exact closed form solution for the motion of these Kelvin waves in the case of a constant amplitude helix. Such solutions exist for a critical wave number and correspond exactly to the Donnelly-Glaberson instability, so perturbations of such solutions either decay to line filaments or blow-up. This leads us to consider helical Kelvin waves which decay to line filaments. Unlike in the case of constant amplitude helical solutions, the dynamics are much more complicated for the decaying helical waves, owing to the fact that the rate of decay of the helical perturbations along the vortex filament is not constant in time. We give an analytical and numerical description of the motion of decaying helical Kelvin waves, from which we are able to ascertain the influence of the physical parameters on the decay, translational motion along the filament, and rotational motion, of these waves (all of which depend nonlinearly on time). One interesting finding is that the helical Kelvin waves do not decay uniformly. Rather, such waves decay slowly for small time scales, and more rapidly for large time scales. The rotational and translational velocity of the Kelvin waves depend strongly on this rate of decay, and we find that the speed of propagation of a helical Kelvin wave along a quantum filament is large for small time while the wave asymptotically slows as it decays. The rotational velocity of such Kelvin waves along the filament will increase over time, asymptotically reaching a finite

  7. General-relativistic rotation laws in rotating fluid bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, Patryk; Malec, Edward

    2015-06-01

    We formulate new general-relativistic extensions of Newtonian rotation laws for self-gravitating stationary fluids. They have been used to rederive, in the first post-Newtonian approximation, the well-known geometric dragging of frames. We derive two other general-relativistic weak-field effects within rotating tori: the recently discovered dynamic antidragging and a new effect that measures the deviation from the Keplerian motion and/or the contribution of the fluids self-gravity. One can use the rotation laws to study the uniqueness and the convergence of the post-Newtonian approximations as well as the existence of the post-Newtonian limits.

  8. Rotating reactor studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Glyn O.

    1991-01-01

    Undesired gravitational effects such as convection or sedimentation in a fluid can sometimes be avoided or decreased by the use of a closed chamber uniformly rotated about a horizontal axis. In a previous study, the spiral orbits of a heavy or buoyant particle in a uniformly rotating fluid were determined. The particles move in circles, and spiral in or out under the combined effects of the centrifugal force and centrifugal buoyancy. A optimization problem for the rotation rate of a cylindrical reactor rotated about its axis and containing distributed particles was formulated and solved. Related studies in several areas are addressed. A computer program based on the analysis was upgraded by correcting some minor errors, adding a sophisticated screen-and-printer graphics capability and other output options, and by improving the automation. The design, performance, and analysis of a series of experiments with monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres in water were supported to test the theory and its limitations. The theory was amply confirmed at high rotation rates. However, at low rotation rates (1 rpm or less) the assumption of uniform solid-body rotation of the fluid became invalid, and there were increasingly strong secondary motions driven by variations in the mean fluid density due to variations in the particle concentration. In these tests the increase in the mean fluid density due to the particles was of order 0.015 percent. To a first approximation, these flows are driven by the buoyancy in a thin crescent-shaped depleted layer on the descending side of the rotating reactor. This buoyancy distribution is balanced by viscosity near the walls, and by the Coriolis force in the interior. A full analysis is beyond the scope of this study. Secondary flows are likely to be stronger for buoyant particles, which spiral in towards the neutral point near the rotation axis under the influence of their centrifugal buoyancy. This is because the depleted layer is

  9. Nonlinear Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    following surprising situation. Namely associated with the integrable nonlinear Schrodinger equations are standard numerical schemes which exhibit at...36. An Initial Boundary Value Problem for the Nonlinear Schrodinger Equations , A.S. Fokas, Physica D March 1989. 37. Evolution Theory, Periodic... gravity waves and wave excitation phenomena related to moving pressure distributions; numerical approximation and computation; nonlinear optics; and

  10. Rotating Wavepackets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  11. New approach to description of (d,xn) spectra at energies below 50 MeV in Monte Carlo simulation by intra-nuclear cascade code with Distorted Wave Born Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, S.; Iwamoto, Y.; Sato, T.; Niita, K.; Boudard, A.; Cugnon, J.; David, J.-C.; Leray, S.; Mancusi, D.

    2014-08-01

    A new approach to describing neutron spectra of deuteron-induced reactions in the Monte Carlo simulation for particle transport has been developed by combining the Intra-Nuclear Cascade of Liège (INCL) and the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) calculation. We incorporated this combined method into the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and applied it to estimate (d,xn) spectra on natLi, 9Be, and natC targets at incident energies ranging from 10 to 40 MeV. Double differential cross sections obtained by INCL and DWBA successfully reproduced broad peaks and discrete peaks, respectively, at the same energies as those observed in experimental data. Furthermore, an excellent agreement was observed between experimental data and PHITS-derived results using the combined method in thick target neutron yields over a wide range of neutron emission angles in the reactions. We also applied the new method to estimate (d,xp) spectra in the reactions, and discussed the validity for the proton emission spectra.

  12. Interpolation and Approximation Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaijser, Sten

    1991-01-01

    Introduced are the basic ideas of interpolation and approximation theory through a combination of theory and exercises written for extramural education at the university level. Topics treated are spline methods, Lagrange interpolation, trigonometric approximation, Fourier series, and polynomial approximation. (MDH)

  13. Small-scale waves on Jupiter: A reanalysis of New Horizons, Voyager, and Galileo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A. A.; Li, L.; Reuter, D. C.

    2015-04-01

    Jupiter's equator-encircling mesoscale waves were a distinguishing feature observed during the New Horizons Jupiter flyby. Measured velocities indicated eastward propagation, inconsistent with standing wave models developed after the Voyager encounters. We present revised New Horizons mesoscale wave velocities of 164 to 176 m/s, approximately 90 m/s higher than the tropospheric zonal winds on that date, while Voyager and Galileo mesoscale waves do not show any apparent motion. This is consistent with an eastward propagating inertia-gravity or Kelvin wave, or a wave propagating with the wind at certain altitudes, given proper vertical wind shears. New Horizons high solar phase angle methane band observations show wave crest shadows or aerosol clearing, implying altitudes above the cloud deck for the observed features. New Horizons and Voyager data also indicate that wave trains have lifetimes exceeding two Jovian rotations.

  14. The properties of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes in a rotated Y-cut quartz plate with a functionally graded material top layer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Qian, Zhenghua; Li, Nian; Sarraf, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    We propose the use of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes of an AT-cut quartz crystal plate resonator for measurement of material parameters, such as stiffness, density and material gradient, of a functionally graded material (FGM) layer on its surface, whose material property varies exponentially in thickness direction. A theoretical analysis of dispersion relations for TT waves is presented using Mindlin's plate theory, with displacement mode shapes plotted, and the existence of face-shear (FS) wave modes discussed. Through numerical examples, the effects of material parameters (stiffness, density and material gradient) on dispersion curves, cutoff frequencies and mode shapes are thoroughly examined, which can act as a theoretical reference for measurements of unknown properties of FGM layer.

  15. Spacelab experiments on convection in a rotating spherical shell with radial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomre, Juri; Hart, John E.; Glatzmaier, Gary A.

    1987-01-01

    Data from the geophysical fluid flow cell experiment on Spacelab 3 revealed the diverse forms of fluid motion that can occur in geometrically simple models of global convection with rotation and radial gravity. The following types of convection were observed: midlatitude waves interacting with the low-latitude columnar convection rolls or 'banana cells', spiral waves' near the poles when latitudinal heating gradients are present on the bounding surfaces, and 'triangular waves' coupling midlatitude and equatorial disturbances under similar differential heating. It is believed that concepts based on the Taylor-Proudman theorem have a central role in many flows realized in the rapidly rotating experiments when H is approximately 0; however, the resulting banana cells are subject to secondary instabilities that produce intricate time dependence and eventually turbulent flows in which only hints of the simpler patterns are recognizable.

  16. Explorations into quantum state diffusion beyond the Markov approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, Curtis J.; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Eberly, Joseph H.

    2011-05-01

    The non-Markovian quantum state diffusion equation is rapidly becoming a powerful tool for both theoretical and numerical investigations into non-trivial problems in quantum optical QED. It has been used to rederive the exact master equation for quantum Brownian motion, as well as an optical cavity or a two-level atom which is either damped or dephased under the rotating wave approximation. The exact quantum state diffusion equations for the spin-1 system have also been found, and general theorems have now been derived for solving the N-cavity, N-qubit, and N-level systems. Here, we build upon the results of Ref. to explore other problems from quantum optical QED using the non-Markovian quantum state diffusion equation.

  17. MHD-model for low-frequency waves in a tokamak with toroidal plasma rotation and problem of existence of global geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lakhin, V. P.; Sorokina, E. A. E-mail: vilkiae@gmail.com; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Konovaltseva, L. V.

    2015-12-15

    A set of reduced linear equations for the description of low-frequency perturbations in toroidally rotating plasma in axisymmetric tokamak is derived in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The model suitable for the study of global geodesic acoustic modes (GGAMs) is designed. An example of the use of the developed model for derivation of the integral conditions for GGAM existence and of the corresponding dispersion relation is presented. The paper is dedicated to the memory of academician V.D. Shafranov.

  18. Effects of parallel sound wave damping and drift kinetic damping on the resistive wall mode stability with various plasma rotation profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Liu, Yue

    2015-10-01

    > The effect of a parallel viscous force induced damping and the magnetic precessional drift resonance induced damping on the stability of the resistive wall mode (RWM) is numerically investigated for one of the advanced steady-state scenarios in international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). The key element of the investigation is to study how different plasma rotation profiles affect the stability prediction. The single-fluid, toroidal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code MARS-F (Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 7, 2000, p. 3681) and the MHD-kinetic hybrid code MARS-K (Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 15, 2008, 112503) are used for this purpose. Three extreme rotation profiles are considered: (a) a uniform profile with no shear, (b) a profile with negative flow shear at the rational surface ( is the equilibrium safety factor), and (c) a profile with positive shear at . The parallel viscous force is found to be effective for the mode stabilization at high plasma flow speed (about a few percent of the Alfven speed) for the no shear flow profile and the negative shear flow profile, but the stable domain does not appear with the positive shear flow profile. The predicted eigenmode structure is different with different rotation profiles. With a self-consistent inclusion of the magnetic precession drift resonance of thermal particles in MARS-K computations, a lower critical flow speed, i.e. the minimum speed needed for full suppression of the mode, is obtained. Likewise the eigenmode structure is also modified by different rotation profiles in the kinetic results.

  19. Rotational Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Demonstrates several objects rolling down a slope to explain the energy transition among potential energy, translational kinetic energy, and rotational kinetic energy. Contains a problem from Galileo's rolling ball experiment. (YP)

  20. Solar rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziembowski, W.

    Sunspot observations made by Johannes Hevelius in 1642 - 1644 are the first ones providing significant information about the solar differential rotation. In modern astronomy the determination of the rotation rate is done in a routine way by measuring positions of various structures on the solar surface as well as by studying the Doppler shifts of spectral lines. In recent years a progress in helioseismology enabled determination of the rotation rate in the layers inaccessible for direct observations. There are still uncertainties concerning, especially, the temporal variations of the rotation rate and its behaviour in the radiative interior. We are far from understanding the observations. Theoretical works have not yet resulted in a satisfactory model for the angular momentum transport in the convective zone.

  1. Reproducing an Early-20th-Century Wave Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2016-09-01

    Physics students often have problems understanding waves. Over the years numerous mechanical devices have been devised to show the propagation of both transverse and longitudinal waves (Ref. 1). In this article an updated version of an early-20th-century transverse wave machine is discussed. The original, Fig. 1, is at Creighton University in Omaha, NE. The new version, by the authors, is shown in Fig. 2. It was designed in such a way that it can be built relatively easily. Sliders that rest on a rotating helical rail move up and down in approximate simple harmonic motion. When the helix is at rest, the tops of the sliders form a good approximation to a sine wave. In the original, the sliders are double-ended knitting needles, and the handle was taken from an earlier piece of apparatus.

  2. Butterflies with rotation and charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.

    2016-11-01

    We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2 + 1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.

  3. Alpha Channeling in a Rotating Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2008-09-23

    The wave-particle α-channeling effect is generalized to include rotating plasma. Specifically, radio frequency waves can resonate with α particles in a mirror machine with E × B rotation to diffuse the α particles along constrained paths in phase space. Of major interest is that the α-particle energy, in addition to amplifying the RF waves, can directly enhance the rotation energy which in turn provides additional plasma confinement in centrifugal fusion reactors. An ancillary benefit is the rapid removal of alpha particles, which increases the fusion reactivity.

  4. Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Robert; Laughlin, Darren; Brune, Robert

    2016-10-19

    Rotational motion is increasingly understood to be a significant part of seismic wave motion. Rotations can be important in earthquake strong motion and in Induced Seismicity Monitoring. Rotational seismic data can also enable shear selectivity and improve wavefield sampling for vertical geophones in 3D surveys, among other applications. However, sensor technology has been a limiting factor to date. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding a multi-year project that is now entering Phase 2 to develop and deploy a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. Initial focus is on induced seismicity monitoring, particularly for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with fracturing. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, improved noise floors, robustness, and repeatability. This paper presents a summary of Phase 1 results and Phase 2 status.

  5. Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of ARM spectral short-wave data. Technical progress report, November 1, 1993--October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.

    1994-07-18

    Our ARM goal is to help improve both longwave and shortwave models used in GCMs by providing improved radiometric shortwave data. The inference of cloud cover and optical properties of clouds is another goal of this research effort. At the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) in Albany, New York, we are acquiring downwelling shortwave, including direct and diffuse irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling longwave, upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave, and aerosol optical depth that we combine with National Weather Service surface and upper air data as a model test data set for ARM researchers. The major objective of our program has been to develop two spectral versions of the rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR). The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) contains six filtered, narrow-passband detectors, and one unfiltered silicon detector that serves as a surrogate total shortwave sensor. The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) contains a 256-channel diode array that spans the wavelengths 350-1050 nm with resolution varying between 0.6 nm and 8 nm. With some of the instrument development complete we are devoting more effort to analysis of the MFRSR data. Progress was made on several fronts this year, resulting in conference papers and submissions to refereed journals. Data from the ASRC roof has been used to develop corrections of the MFRSR shortwave sensor. SGP data has been used to develop and validate a retrieval technique for total column water vapor. Total column ozone has been estimated using MFRSR data, but validation at the SGP was not possible for lack of a suitable ozone column standard. Some progress has been made on cloud cover detection, but it is not yet implemented as a routine classification and reporting procedure.

  6. Waves and Instabilities for Model Tropical Convective Parameterizations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majda, Andrew J.; Shefter, Michael G.

    2001-04-01

    Models of the tropical atmosphere with crude vertical resolution are important as intermediate models for understanding convectively coupled wave hierarchies and also as simplified models for studying various strategies for parameterizing convection and convectively coupled waves. Simplified models are utilized in a detailed analytical study of the waves and instabilities for model convective parameterizations. Three convection schemes are analyzed: a strict quasi-equilibrium (QE) scheme and two schemes that attempt to model the departures from quasi equilibrium by including the shorter timescale effects of penetrative convection, the Lagrangian parcel adjustment (LPA) scheme and a new instantaneous convective available potential energy (CAPE) adjustment (ICAPE) scheme. Unlike the QE parameterization scheme, both the LPA and ICAPE schemes have scale-selective finite bands of unstable wavelengths centered around typical cluster and supercluster scales with virtually identical growth rates and wave structure. However, the LPA scheme has, in addition, two nonphysical superfast parasitic waves that are artifacts of this parameterization while such waves are completely absent in the new ICAPE parameterization.Another topic studied here is the fashion in which an imposed barotropic mean wind triggers a transition to instability in the Tropics through suitable convectively coupled waves; this is the simplest analytical problem for studying the influence of midlatitudes on convectively coupled waves. For an easterly barotropic mean flow with the effect of rotation included, both supercluster-scale moist Kelvin waves and cluster-scale moist mixed Rossby-gravity waves participate in the transition to instability. The wave and stability properties of the ICAPE parameterization with rotation are studied through a novel procedure involving complete zonal resolution but low-order meridional truncation. Besides moist Kelvin, mixed Rossby-gravity, and equatorial Rossby waves, this

  7. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  8. Approximate flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  9. Three-hair relations for rotating stars: Nonrelativistic limit

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Leo C.; Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2014-06-10

    The gravitational field outside of astrophysical black holes is completely described by their mass and spin frequency, as expressed by the no-hair theorems. These theorems assume vacuum spacetimes, and thus they apply only to black holes and not to stars. Despite this, we analytically find that the gravitational potential of arbitrarily rapid, rigidly rotating stars can still be described completely by only their mass, spin angular momentum, and quadrupole moment. Although these results are obtained in the nonrelativistic limit (to leading order in a weak-field expansion of general relativity, GR), they are also consistent with fully relativistic numerical calculations of rotating neutron stars. This description of the gravitational potential outside the source in terms of just three quantities is approximately universal (independent of equation of state). Such universality may be used to break degeneracies in pulsar and future gravitational wave observations to extract more physics and test GR in the strong-field regime.

  10. System for controlled acoustic rotation of objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A system is described for use with acoustically levitated objects, which enables close control of rotation of the object. One system includes transducers that propagate acoustic waves along the three dimensions (X, Y, Z) of a chamber of rectangular cross section. Each transducers generates one wave which is resonant to a corresponding chamber dimension to acoustically levitate an object, and additional higher frequency resonant wavelengths for controlling rotation of the object. The three chamber dimensions and the corresponding three levitation modes (resonant wavelengths) are all different, to avoid degeneracy, or interference, of waves with one another, that could have an effect on object rotation. Only the higher frequencies, with pairs of them having the same wavelength, are utilized to control rotation, so that rotation is controlled independently of levitation and about any arbitrarily chosen axis.

  11. A Translational Polarization Rotator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ackiss, Sheridan; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ng, Ming wah

    2012-01-01

    We explore a free-space polarization modulator in which a variable phase introduction between right- and left-handed circular polarization components is used to rotate the linear polarization of the outgoing beam relative to that of the incoming beam. In this device, the polarization states are separated by a circular polarizer that consists of a quarter-wave plate in combination with a wire grid. A movable mirror is positioned behind and parallel to the circular polarizer. As the polarizer-mirror distance is separated, an incident liear polarization will be rotated through an angle that is proportional to the introduced phase delay. We demonstrate a prototype device that modulates Stokes Q and U over a 20% bandwidth.

  12. Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of ARM spectral short-wave data. Technical progress report, November 1, 1994--October 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.

    1995-04-26

    The authors goal in the ARM program is the improvement of radiation models used in GCMs, especially in the shortwave, (1) by providing improved shortwave radiometric measurements for the testing of models and (2) by developing methods for retrieving climatologically sensitive parameters that serve as input to shortwave and longwave models. They are acquiring downwelling direct and diffuse spectral irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling broadband longwave, and upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave irradiances that they combined with surface and upper air data from the Albany airport as a test data set for ARM modelers. They have also developed algorithms to improve shortwave measurements made at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site by standard thermopile instruments and by the multifolter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR). However, the major objective of the program has been the development of two spectral versions of the rotating shadowband radiometer. The MFRSR, has become a workhose at the CART site in Oklahoma and Kansas, and it is widely deployed in other climate programs. They have spent most of their effort this year developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, they have had success in calculating shortwave surface albedo and aerosol optical depth from the ratio of direct to diffuse spectral irradiance. Using the surface albedo and the global irradiance, they have calculated cloud optical depths. From cloud optical depth and liquid water measured with the microwave radiometer, they have calculated effective liquid cloud particle radii. In each case the authors have attempted to validate the approach using independent measurements or retrievals of the parameters under investigation. With the exception of the ozone intercomparison, the corroborative measurements have been made at the SGP CART site. This report highlights these results.

  13. Wave-driven Countercurrent Plasma Centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2009-03-20

    A method for driving rotation and a countercurrent flow in a fully ionized plasma centrifuge is described. The rotation is produced by radiofrequency waves near the cyclotron resonance. The wave energy is transferred into potential energy in a manner similar to the α channeling effect. The countercurrent flow may also be driven by radiofrequency waves. By driving both the rotation and the flow pattern using waves instead of electrodes, physical and engineering issues may be avoided.

  14. Approximation of Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).

  15. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  16. The weak field approximation and the strong field approximation for a quantum mechanical two-state system with an applied time-dependent force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ropiak, Cynthia Ann

    A semi-classical treatment of the two-state atom subjected to a time-dependent applied force leads to a set of two coupled, complex, first-order ordinary differential equations governing the time evolution of the system's state vector that are to date, not solvable in closed form. Contained in this paper is a demonstration of how the system is parameterized by a single variable Θ, which in turn reduces the problem to one real, nonlinear, second-order ordinary differential equation. Utilizing a non-standard perturbation expansion in the variable `A' (the Field Strength Parameter) on this reduction subsequently allows for both a first-order Weak Field Approximation and a first-order Strong Field Approximation. In addition, a technique is outlined for obtaining the full power series solution in the Weak Field Limit (|A|<< l). However, a detailed discussion of the power series solution as well as its consequences is deferred due to the fact that it is presently a collaborative work in progress between Dr. Robert L. Anderson and myself. When applied to the specific case of both resonant and near-resonant linearly polarized light incident on an atom, both the Weak Field Approximation and the Strong Field Approximation are shown to be in good agreement with numerically generated solutions for the probability amplitudes of the state vector. Furthermore, this new Weak Field Approximation reveals the defect in the ansatz of discarding the `rapidly oscillating' term in the traditional Rotating Wave Approximation. Finally, the resonance case of the first-order Weak Field Approximation is found to contain large-time behavior. This large-time behavior is extracted and the new approximation is referred to as the Long-Time Weak Field Approximation. The resonance power series solution is demonstrated to contain large-time behavior, which is found to reduce to the first-order Long-Time Weak Field Approximation, but again a detailed analysis of the power series is deferred.

  17. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. I. ACOUSTIC AND INERTIA-GRAVITY WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.

  18. Uniformly Rotating Single Substance Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Charles Michael Leo

    This dissertation explicitly and in detail solves the extended rotator problem in the uncharged relativistic classical cases of most physical interest. It shows that no plausible relativistic solutions exist in the literature of the extended rotator and that the point rotator solutions sometimes ballyhooed are not to be taken seriously. Explicit energy speedratio functions, angular momentum speedratio functions, Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and other important characteristic functions of the state of uniform rotation of the extended body are detailed. This dissertation does not retreat to an 'analysis' of just the point rotator --which so many others have done and done incorrectly, or at best misleadingly, by hiding implausible assumptions in manifestly covariant formats. Assumptions in the model are not hidden but are brought out and analyzed as to their relevance for highlighting the core of the uniform rotation physics. Neither does the author hide any ignorance of the internal holding field for the rotator. Formulae for the characteristic Minimum Holding Field are explicitly given and their relativistic relevance is shown. The demonstration that such fields can be ignored in the energy and angular momentum expressions is completely detailed. The explicit Stress-Energy Tensor for the entire closed rotator system is given with all that entails as to the inescapability of the results from out of that mathematics. The generality of the finiteness of the extreme relativistic rotational limit is detailed and explained with its stark essential contrast to the infinite limit in the case of extreme relativistic translation of a body. The rotator is shown to possess a rich mathematical structure. Many elegant interconnection formulae are found as well as new Hamiltonian formulae --sometimes of considerable complexity. Exact rotator formulae as well as graphs, tables, and even interesting approximations are provided. New nonlinear differential equations are discovered and

  19. Simultaneous Evaluation of Multiple Rotationally Excited States of Floppy Molecules Using Diffusion Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Anne B.; Ford, Jason E.; Marlett, Melanie L.; Petit, Andrew S.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, an extension to diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) is proposed, allowing for the simultaneous calculation of the energy and wave function of multiple rotationally excited states of floppy molecules. The total wave function is expanded into a set of Dirac δ-functions called walkers, while the rotational portion of the wave function is expanded in a symmetric top basis set. Each walker is given a rotational state vector containing coefficients for all states of interest. The positions of the atoms and the coefficients in the state vector evolve according to the split operator approximation of the quantum propagator. The method was benchmarked by comparing calculated rotation-vibration energies for H_3^+, H_2D^+, and H_3O^+ to experimental values. For low to moderate values of J, the resulting energies are within the statistical uncertainty of the calculation. Rotation-vibration coupling is captured through flexibility introduced in the form of the vibrational wave function. This coupling is found to increase with increasing J-values. Based on the success achieved through these systems, the method was applied to CH_5^+ and its deuterated isotopologues for v = 0, J ≥ 10. Based on these calculations, the energy level structure of CH_5^+ is found to resemble that for a of a spherical top, and excitations up to J = 10 displayed insignificant rotation-vibration coupling. Extensions of this approach that explicitly account for vibrations will also be discussed. ` A. S. Petit, J. E. Ford and A. B. McCoy, J. Phys. Chem. A, in press, K. D. Jordan Festschrift, DOI: 10.1021/jp408821a

  20. Impact of plasma poloidal rotation on resistive wall mode instability in toroidally rotating plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Aiba, N.; Shiraishi, J.; Tokuda, S.

    2011-02-15

    Stability of resistive wall mode (RWM) is investigated in a cylindrical plasma and an axisymmetric toroidal plasma by taking into account not only toroidal rotation but also poloidal rotation. Since the Doppler shifted frequency is responsible for the RWM stability, the modification of this Doppler shifted frequency by poloidal rotation affects the rotation effect on RWM. When a poloidal rotation frequency is not so large, the effect of poloidal rotation on the RWM stability can be approximately treated with the modified toroidal rotation frequency. In a toroidal plasma, this modified frequency is determined by subtracting a toroidal component of the rotation parallel to the magnetic field from the toroidal rotation frequency. The poloidal rotation that counteracts the effect of the Doppler shift strongly reduces the stabilizing effect of toroidal rotation, but by changing the rotational direction, the poloidal rotation enhances this stabilizing effect. This trend is confirmed in not only a cylindrical plasma but also a toroidal plasma. This result indicates that poloidal rotation produces the dependence of the critical toroidal rotation frequency for stabilizing RWM on the rotational direction of toroidal rotation in the same magnetic configuration.

  1. A slowly rotating impeller in a rapidly rotating fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machicoane, Nathanael; Moisy, Frederic; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Instability, waves; turbulence Team

    2016-11-01

    We characterize the two-dimensionalization process in the turbulent flow produced by an impeller rotating at a rate ω in a fluid rotating at a rate Ω around the same axis for Rossby number Ro = ω / Ω down to 0.01. The flow can be described as the superposition of a large-scale vertically invariant global rotation and small-scale shear layers detached from the impeller blades. As Ro decreases, the large-scale flow is subjected to azimuthal modulations. In this regime, the shear layers can be described in terms of wakes of inertial waves traveling with the blades, originating from the velocity difference between the non-axisymmetric large-scale flow and the blade rotation. The wakes are well defined and stable at low Rossby number, but they become disordered and interact nonlinearly at Ro of order of 1.

  2. The study of coronal plasma structures and fluctuations with Faraday rotation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Spangler, Steven R.

    1994-10-01

    We report dual-frequency, polarimetric measurements of Faraday rotation of extragalactic radio sources viewed through the solar corona. The observations were made at the Very Large Array in 1990 during solar maximum. Of the nine observed, an excess rotation measure of -12.6 rad/sq m was detected for one source (0010+005), which was observed at an elongation of about 9 solar radii. This measurement is in fair agreement with an a priori model rotation measure of -8.6 rad/sq m estimated from coronal potential field models and the electron density model of Paetzold et al. (1992). Our measurement provides a value for the coronal magnetic field strength at 9 solar radii given a knowledge of the magnetic field sector structure, of 12.5 +/- 2.3 mG. Rotation measurements of 0010+005 were made approximately once per hour over an 11 hr period. During this interval, a slow change of about 1 rad/sq m/hr in rotation measure was detected. Although we are not absolutely certain that this drift is not unremoved ionospheric Faraday rotation, extensive analysis of data from the other sources suggests that this is not the case (Sakurai & Spangler 1994). The very long timescale for this variation argues against the agency of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) waves, and we suggest occultation of 0010+005 by relatively static plasma structures in the corona. We filtered our rotation measure time series to search for variations on an hourly timescale, such as those reported by Hollweg et al. (1992), which could be attributed to coronal MHD waves. We were unable to detect such fluctuations and can report only an upper limit to the rms variation of 1.6 rad/sq m. This upper limit is of the same order, but slightly larger than the values typically reported by Hollweg et al. (1982). This upper limit to the rotation measure fluctuations limits the dimensionless wave amplitude (delta B)/B in the corona to be less than 0.7. Using the number, we estimate the MHD wave flux at the coronal base to be less

  3. The study of coronal plasma structures and fluctuations with Faraday rotation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Sprangler, Steven R.

    1994-01-01

    We report dual-frequency, polarimetric measurements of Faraday rotation of extragalactic radio sources viewed through the solar corona. The observations were made at the Very Large Array in 1990 during solar maximum. Of the nine observed, an excess rotation measure of -12.6 rad/sq m was detected for one source (0010+005), which was observed at an elongation of about 9 solar radii. This measurement is in fair agreement with an a priori model rotation measure of -8.6 rad/sq m estimated from coronal potential field models and the electron density model of Paetzold et al. (1992). Our measurement provides a value for the coronal magnetic field strength at 9 solar radii given a knowledge of the magnetic field sector structure, of 12.5 +/- 2.3 mG. Rotation measurements of 0010+005 were made approximately once per hour over an 11 hr period. During this interval, a slow change of about 1 rad/sq m/hr in rotation measure was detected. Although we are not absolutely certain that this drift is not unremoved ionospheric Faraday rotation, extensive analysis of data from the other sources suggests that this is not the case (Sakurai & Spangler 1994). The very long timescale for this variation argues against the agency of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) waves, and we suggest occultation of 0010+005 by relatively static plasma structures in the corona. We filtered our rotation measure time series to search for variations on an hourly timescale, such as those reported by Hollweg et al. (1992), which could be attributed to coronal MHD waves. We were unable to detect such fluctuations and can report only an upper limit to the rms variation of 1.6 rad/sq m. This upper limit is of the same order, but slightly larger than the values typically reported by Hollweg et al. (1982). This upper limit to the rotation measure fluctuations limits the dimensionless wave amplitude (delta B)/B in the corona to be less than 0.7. Using the number, we estimate the MHD wave flux at the coronal base to be less

  4. Evolution of Binary Supermassive Black Holes in Rotating Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasskazov, Alexander; Merritt, David

    2017-03-01

    The interaction of a binary supermassive black hole with stars in a galactic nucleus can result in changes to all the elements of the binary’s orbit, including the angles that define its orientation. If the nucleus is rotating, the orientation changes can be large, causing large changes in the binary’s orbital eccentricity as well. We present a general treatment of this problem based on the Fokker–Planck equation for f, defined as the probability distribution for the binary’s orbital elements. First- and second-order diffusion coefficients are derived for the orbital elements of the binary using numerical scattering experiments, and analytic approximations are presented for some of these coefficients. Solutions of the Fokker–Planck equation are then derived under various assumptions about the initial rotational state of the nucleus and the binary hardening rate. We find that the evolution of the orbital elements can become qualitatively different when we introduce nuclear rotation: (1) the orientation of the binary’s orbit evolves toward alignment with the plane of rotation of the nucleus and (2) binary orbital eccentricity decreases for aligned binaries and increases for counteraligned ones. We find that the diffusive (random-walk) component of a binary’s evolution is small in nuclei with non-negligible rotation, and we derive the time-evolution equations for the semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination in that approximation. The aforementioned effects could influence gravitational wave production as well as the relative orientation of host galaxies and radio jets.

  5. Nonlinear Compton scattering in a strong rotating electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicher, Erez; Eliezer, Shalom; Zigler, Arie

    2016-12-01

    The nonlinear Compton scattering rate in a rotating electric field is explicitly calculated. For this purpose, an approximate solution to the Klein-Gordon equation in the presence of a rotating electric field is applied. An analytical expression for the emission rate is obtained, as well as a simplified approximation adequate for implementation in kinetic codes. The spectrum is numerically calculated for present-day optical and x-ray laser parameters. The results are compared to the standard Volkov-Ritus rate for a particle in a plane wave, which is commonly assumed to be valid for a rotating electric field under certain conditions. Substantial deviations between the two models, in both the radiated power and the spectral shape, are demonstrated. First, the typical number of photons participating in the scattering process is much smaller compared to the Volkov-Ritus rate, resulting in up to an order of magnitude lower emitted power. Furthermore, our model predicts a discrete harmonic spectrum for electrons with low asymptotic momentum compared to the field amplitude. This discrete structure is a clear imprint of the electric field frequency, as opposed to the Volkov-Ritus rate, which reduces to the constant crossed field rate for the physical conditions under consideration. Our model predictions can be tested with present-day laser facilities.

  6. Rotational Energy Transfer in N2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.

    1994-01-01

    Using the N2-N2 intermolecular potential of van der Avoird et al. rotational energy transfer cross sections have been calculated using both the coupled state (CS) and infinite order sudden (IOS) approximations. The rotational energy transfer rate constants at 300 K, calculated in the CS approximation, are in reasonable agreement with the measurements of Sitz and Farrow. The IOS approximation qualitatively reproduces the dependence of the rate constants on the rotational quantum numbers, but consistently overestimates their magnitudes. The treatment of exchange symmetry will be discussed.

  7. Approximate spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumitra

    1988-01-01

    A model for approximate spatial reasoning using fuzzy logic to represent the uncertainty in the environment is presented. Algorithms are developed which can be used to reason about spatial information expressed in the form of approximate linguistic descriptions similar to the kind of spatial information processed by humans. Particular attention is given to static spatial reasoning.

  8. A FORTRAN program for calculating three dimensional, inviscid and rotational flows with shock waves in axial compressor blade rows: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompkins, W. T., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN-IV computer program was developed for the calculation of the inviscid transonic/supersonic flow field in a fully three dimensional blade passage of an axial compressor rotor or stator. Rotors may have dampers (part span shrouds). MacCormack's explicit time marching method is used to solve the unsteady Euler equations on a finite difference mesh. This technique captures shocks and smears them over several grid points. Input quantities are blade row geometry, operating conditions and thermodynamic quanities. Output quantities are three velocity components, density and internal energy at each mesh point. Other flow quanities are calculated from these variables. A short graphics package is included with the code, and may be used to display the finite difference grid, blade geometry and static pressure contour plots on blade to blade calculation surfaces or blade suction and pressure surfaces. The flow in a low aspect ratio transonic compressor was analyzed and compared with high response total pressure probe measurements and gas fluorescence static density measurements made in the MIT blowdown wind tunnel. These comparisons show that the computed flow fields accurately model the measured shock wave locations and overall aerodynamic performance.

  9. Green Ampt approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, D. A.; Parlange, J.-Y.; Li, L.; Jeng, D.-S.; Crapper, M.

    2005-10-01

    The solution to the Green and Ampt infiltration equation is expressible in terms of the Lambert W-1 function. Approximations for Green and Ampt infiltration are thus derivable from approximations for the W-1 function and vice versa. An infinite family of asymptotic expansions to W-1 is presented. Although these expansions do not converge near the branch point of the W function (corresponds to Green-Ampt infiltration with immediate ponding), a method is presented for approximating W-1 that is exact at the branch point and asymptotically, with interpolation between these limits. Some existing and several new simple and compact yet robust approximations applicable to Green-Ampt infiltration and flux are presented, the most accurate of which has a maximum relative error of 5 × 10 -5%. This error is orders of magnitude lower than any existing analytical approximations.

  10. Motion of a helical vortex filament in superfluid 4He under the extrinsic form of the local induction approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2013-08-01

    Very recently, Shivamoggi ["Vortex motion in superfluid 4He: Reformulation in the extrinsic vortex-filament coordinate space," Phys. Rev. B 84, 012506 (2011)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.012506 studied the extrinsic form of the local induction approximation (LIA) for the motion of a Kelvin wave on a vortex filament in superfluid 4He, and obtained some results in a cubic approximation. Presently, we study the motion of helical vortex filaments in superfluid 4He under the exact fully nonlinear LIA considered in potential form by Van Gorder ["Fully nonlinear local induction equation describing the motion of a vortex filament in superfluid 4He," J. Fluid Mech. 707, 585 (2012)], 10.1017/jfm.2012.308 and obtained from the Biot-Savart law through the equations of Hall and Vinen ["The rotation of liquid helium II. I. Experiments on the propagation of second sound in uniformly rotating helium II," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 238, 204 (1956)], 10.1098/rspa.1956.0214 including superfluid friction terms. Nonlinear dispersion relations governing the helical Kelvin wave on such a vortex filament are derived in exact form, from which we may exactly calculate the phase and group velocity of the Kelvin wave. With this, we classify the motion of a helical Kelvin wave on a vortex filament under the LIA. The dispersion relations and results, which follow are exact in nature, in contrast to most results in the literature, which are usually numerical approximations. As such, our results accurately capture the qualitative behavior of the Kelvin waves under the LIA. Extensions to other frameworks are discussed.

  11. Unstable interaction of gravity-inertial waves with Rossby waves with application to solar system atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. F.; Doyle, T. B.

    2010-01-01

    This letter reports on the important features of an analysis of the combined theory of gravity - inertial - Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. In particular, it is shown that the coupling between higher frequency gravity - inertial waves and lower frequency Rossby waves, arising from the accumulated influences of the β effect, stratification characterized by the Väisäla - Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f, and the component of vertical propagation wave number kz , may lead to an unstable coupling between buoyancy - inertial modes with westward propagating Rossby waves. “Supersonic” fast rotators (such as Jupiter) are predicted to be unstable in a fairly narrow band of latitudes around their equators. The Earth is moderately supersonic and exhibits instability within about 34° of its equator. Slow “subsonic” rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus, and the Sun's corona) are unstable at all latitudes except those very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes.

  12. Calculation of the total electron excitation cross section in the Born approximation using Slater wave functions for the Li (2s yields 2p), Li (2s yields 3p), Na (3s yields 4p), Mg (3p yields 4s), Ca (4s yields 4p) and K (4s yields 4p) excitations. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simsic, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    Excitation of neutral atoms by inelastic scattering of incident electrons in gaseous nebulae were investigated using Slater Wave functions to describe the initial and final states of the atom. Total cross sections using the Born Approximation are calculated for: Li(2s yields 2p), Na(3s yields 4p), k(4s yields 4p). The intensity of emitted radiation from gaseous nebulae is also calculated, and Maxwell distribution is employed to average the kinetic energy of electrons.

  13. Convergence of a cylindrical liquid shell and the formation of a bore in a rotating fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedrinskii, V. K.; Nikulin, V. V.

    1999-12-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies of a collapsing cylindrical cavity (the convergence of a liquid shell) in a rotating fluid as well as the formation and propagation of a jump (bore) at the interface. The basic parameters of the liquid shell dynamics for a pulsed one-dimensional load are estimated using the equation of cylindrical cavity pulsation in an unbounded fluid. The theoretical model of a rotationally symmetric hydraulic jump moving along the free surface of a hollow vortex is constructed. The jump is simulated by a discontinuous solution of the equations in the long-wave approximation for tornado-like and hollow vortices. For comparison with the experimental data, basic theoretical results are obtained for flows in a hollow vortex with constant circulation and axial velocity varying along the radius of the rotating liquid shell.

  14. Rapidly rotating neutron star progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postnov, K. A.; Kuranov, A. G.; Kolesnikov, D. A.; Popov, S. B.; Porayko, N. K.

    2016-12-01

    Rotating proto-neutron stars can be important sources of gravitational waves to be searched for by present-day and future interferometric detectors. It was demonstrated by Imshennik that in extreme cases the rapid rotation of a collapsing stellar core may lead to fission and formation of a binary proto-neutron star which subsequently merges due to gravitational wave emission. In this paper, we show that such dynamically unstable collapsing stellar cores may be the product of a former merger process of two stellar cores in a common envelope. We applied population synthesis calculations to assess the expected fraction of such rapidly rotating stellar cores which may lead to fission and formation of a pair of proto-neutron stars. We have used the BSE (Binary Star Evolution) population synthesis code supplemented with a new treatment of stellar core rotation during the evolution via effective core-envelope coupling, characterized by the coupling time, τc. The validity of this approach is checked by direct MESA calculations of the evolution of a rotating 15 M⊙ star. From comparison of the calculated spin distribution of young neutron stars with the observed one, reported by Popov and Turolla, we infer the value τc ≃ 5 × 105 yr. We show that merging of stellar cores in common envelopes can lead to collapses with dynamically unstable proto-neutron stars, with their formation rate being ˜0.1-1 per cent of the total core collapses, depending on the common envelope efficiency.

  15. Rotating Rayleigh-Bénard Convection in Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Álvarez, J. J.; Serre, E.; Del Arco, E. Crespo; Busse, F. H.

    This article presents a numerical study of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) in a fluid with Prandtl number 5.3 confined in cylindrical enclosures. Using three-dimensional numerical solutions of the basic equations in the Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation, we have explored the transition from an initially conductive state to a nonlinear aperiodic regime. The patterns have been investigated in two cylindrical cavities with a circular and annular cross section, respectively. Different aspect ratios have been considered; in the case of the cylindrical box of height d and radius R the aspect ratio, defined as Γ (= R/d) = 5 has been considered while in the case of annular channels with radial extent ΔR = R1 - R0 (where R0 and R1 are the inner and outer radii, respectively); values L(= ΔR/d) ≤ 5 and Γ1(= R1/d) = 12 : 5 have been considered. The pseudo-spectral numerical method allows the computation of three dimensional unsteady flows without any restriction on the patterns. Visualizations of the flow reproduce some experimentally observed patterns and agree with the results of linear stability analysis. The primary transition from the conductive state of no motion occurs in the form of precessing convection modes. The secondary transitions show interesting dynamical processes, which vary with different boundary conditions. When the cylindrical sidewall is thermally insulating the primary travelling wave coexists with travelling wave convection in the bulk as the Rayleigh number is increased. In the case of a perfect thermally conducting sidewall the primary wave coexist with chaotic convection characterized by breaking rolls. In annular channels, two counter-rotating sidewall travelling waves are observed as predicted by theory. In narrower channels, these sidewall travelling waves interact and lead to a quasi-periodic time behaviour.

  16. Solitary Wave Generation Dynamics at Luzon Strait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-27

    rotational ef- fects. In both cases 1 and 2, using high and low tidal forcing, the sech2 shape of the analytical KDV solution fits the simulated waves...quite well, suggesting that the weakly-nonlinear KdV analytical sech2 solution is a fair approximation for this particular physical situation. 50 100...analytical KdV solution fit (green curve), to the rh ¼ 25:05 isopycnal at 74 h in case 1 (blue curve). (For interpretation of references in color in

  17. Magnetization of the canted antiferromagnetic CoCO 3 in Abragam-Pryce approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshcheryakov, V. F.

    2006-05-01

    Weiss molecular field theory was used to calculate the magnetization of the canted antiferromagnetic CoCO 3 ( T=18.1 K). Wave functions of magnetic doublets near Co 2+ ground state in Abragam-Pryce approximation were determined. One of the crystal field variables, free Co 2+ ion isotropic exchange interaction inside, and between magnetic sublatticies, and rotation angle ϕ, characterizing nonequivalence ion Co 2+ positions, were used as parameters. From comparison with the experimental data exchange interaction anisotropy and g-factors g, g were obtained. At low temperatures T<40 K the coincidence of calculated and experimental results are good and g-factor values are almost the same as have been obtained from EPR data in Co(1%)+CdCO single crystals. At high temperatures in the paramagnetic region, experimental data differs from calculated ones by more than two times. It is shown that this discrepancy cannot be described within the frames of used approximations.

  18. Detecting Rotational Superradiance in Fluid Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Coutant, Antonin; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2016-12-01

    Rotational superradiance was predicted theoretically decades ago, and is chiefly responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black-hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behavior of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. Two types of instabilities are studied: one sets in whenever superradiant modes are confined near the rotating cylinder and the other, which does not rely on confinement, corresponds to a local excitation of the cylinder. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and, hence, offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.

  19. Detecting Rotational Superradiance in Fluid Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Vitor; Coutant, Antonin; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2016-12-30

    Rotational superradiance was predicted theoretically decades ago, and is chiefly responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black-hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behavior of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. Two types of instabilities are studied: one sets in whenever superradiant modes are confined near the rotating cylinder and the other, which does not rely on confinement, corresponds to a local excitation of the cylinder. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and, hence, offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.

  20. Intrinsic Nilpotent Approximation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    RD-A1II58 265 INTRINSIC NILPOTENT APPROXIMATION(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST 1/2 OF TECH CAMBRIDGE LAB FOR INFORMATION AND, DECISION UMCLRSSI SYSTEMS C...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Intrinsic Nilpotent Approximation Technical Report 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER LIDS-R-1482 7. AUTHOR(.) S...certain infinite-dimensional filtered Lie algebras L by (finite-dimensional) graded nilpotent Lie algebras or g . where x E M, (x,,Z) E T*M/O. It

  1. Anomalous diffraction approximation limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videen, Gorden; Chýlek, Petr

    It has been reported in a recent article [Liu, C., Jonas, P.R., Saunders, C.P.R., 1996. Accuracy of the anomalous diffraction approximation to light scattering by column-like ice crystals. Atmos. Res., 41, pp. 63-69] that the anomalous diffraction approximation (ADA) accuracy does not depend on particle refractive index, but instead is dependent on the particle size parameter. Since this is at odds with previous research, we thought these results warranted further discussion.

  2. Approximate spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumitra

    1988-01-01

    Much of human reasoning is approximate in nature. Formal models of reasoning traditionally try to be precise and reject the fuzziness of concepts in natural use and replace them with non-fuzzy scientific explicata by a process of precisiation. As an alternate to this approach, it has been suggested that rather than regard human reasoning processes as themselves approximating to some more refined and exact logical process that can be carried out with mathematical precision, the essence and power of human reasoning is in its capability to grasp and use inexact concepts directly. This view is supported by the widespread fuzziness of simple everyday terms (e.g., near tall) and the complexity of ordinary tasks (e.g., cleaning a room). Spatial reasoning is an area where humans consistently reason approximately with demonstrably good results. Consider the case of crossing a traffic intersection. We have only an approximate idea of the locations and speeds of various obstacles (e.g., persons and vehicles), but we nevertheless manage to cross such traffic intersections without any harm. The details of our mental processes which enable us to carry out such intricate tasks in such apparently simple manner are not well understood. However, it is that we try to incorporate such approximate reasoning techniques in our computer systems. Approximate spatial reasoning is very important for intelligent mobile agents (e.g., robots), specially for those operating in uncertain or unknown or dynamic domains.

  3. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches.

  4. Oscillatory patterns in a rotating aqueous suspension.

    PubMed

    Breu, A P J; Kruelle, C A; Rehberg, I

    2004-02-01

    Suspensions of granular material in glycerin-water mixtures agitated in horizontally aligned rotating tubes show a whole variety of patterns. The stationary pattern of a homogeneous distribution and a chain of rings have been investigated before. Here we report on two types of oscillatory states in the same system. For a certain range of the rotation frequency and sufficiently high viscosity traveling waves propagate with constant velocity back and forth along the tube in an almost homogeneous distribution of sedimenting particles. The transition from a stationary to the traveling-wave state is found to be an imperfect supercritical bifurcation. The dependence of the wave length and speed on the tube's rotation frequency and the dynamic viscosity of the fluid are determined. Experiments with low viscosities show no traveling waves but low-frequency oscillations, when the previously known chain of rings undergoes a secondary instability.

  5. Approximated solutions to Born-Infeld dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Nigro, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    The Born-Infeld equation in the plane is usefully captured in complex language. The general exact solution can be written as a combination of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. However, this solution only expresses the potential in an implicit way. We rework the formulation to obtain the complex potential in an explicit way, by means of a perturbative procedure. We take care of the secular behavior common to this kind of approach, by resorting to a symmetry the equation has at the considered order of approximation. We apply the method to build approximated solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We solve for BI electromagnetic waves traveling in opposite directions. We study the propagation at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible to experimental detection. In particular, we show that a reflected wave is produced when a wave is incident on a semi-space containing a magnetostatic field.

  6. Approximating metal-insulator transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danieli, Carlo; Rayanov, Kristian; Pavlov, Boris; Martin, Gaven; Flach, Sergej

    2015-12-01

    We consider quantum wave propagation in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattices. We propose an iterative construction of quasiperiodic potentials from sequences of potentials with increasing spatial period. At each finite iteration step, the eigenstates reflect the properties of the limiting quasiperiodic potential properties up to a controlled maximum system size. We then observe approximate Metal-Insulator Transitions (MIT) at the finite iteration steps. We also report evidence on mobility edges, which are at variance to the celebrated Aubry-André model. The dynamics near the MIT shows a critical slowing down of the ballistic group velocity in the metallic phase, similar to the divergence of the localization length in the insulating phase.

  7. Oscillation of boson star in Newtonian approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarwal, Bharti; Singh, S. Somorendro

    2017-03-01

    Boson star (BS) rotation is studied under Newtonian approximation. A Coulombian potential term is added as perturbation to the radial potential of the system without disturbing the angular momentum. The results of the stationary states of these ground state, first and second excited state are analyzed with the correction of Coulombian potential. It is found that the results with correction increased in the amplitude of oscillation of BS in comparison to potential without perturbation correction.

  8. Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. Role of the continuum in reactions with weakly bound systems: A comparative study between the time evolution of a break-up wave function and its coupled-channel approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Dasso, C. H.; Vitturi, A.

    2009-06-15

    We exploit a model describing the breakup of weakly bound nuclei that can be used as a laboratory for testing different prescriptions that have been advanced in the literature to take into account the nearby presence of continuum states. In the model, we follow the evolution of a single-particle wave function in one dimension, initially bound by a Woods-Saxon type potential and then perturbed by a time- and position-dependent external field. Proper choices of this potential can simulate the effect of the interaction between reaction partners in a nuclear collision. These processes generate inelastic excitation probabilities that--distributed over the bound and continuum states of the system--lead to either a partial or a total fragmentation of the final wave function.

  10. Wave action power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, L.V.

    1982-03-16

    A wave action power plant powered by the action of water waves has a drive shaft rotated by a plurality of drive units, each having a lever pivotally mounted on and extending from said shaft and carrying a weight, in the form of a float, which floats on the waves and rocks the lever up and down on the shaft. A ratchet mechanism causes said shaft to be rotated in one direction by the weight of said float after it has been raised by wave and the wave has passed, leaving said float free to move downwardly by gravity and apply its full weight to pull down on the lever and rotate the drive shaft. There being a large number of said drive units so that there are always some of the weights pulling down on their respective levers while other weights are being lifted by waves and thereby causing continuous rotation of the drive shaft in one direction. The said levers are so mounted that they may be easily raised to bring the weights into a position wherein they are readily accessible for cleaning the bottoms thereof to remove any accumulation of barnacles, mollusks and the like. There is also provided means for preventing the weights from colliding with each other as they independently move up and down on the waves.

  11. Gravitational radiation from rotating monopole-string systems

    SciTech Connect

    Babichev, E.; Dokuchaev, V.; Kachelriess, M.

    2005-02-15

    We study the gravitational radiation from a rotating monopole-antimonopole pair connected by a string. While at not too high frequencies the emitted gravitational spectrum is described asymptotically by P{sub n}{proportional_to}n{sup -1}, the spectrum is exponentially suppressed in the high-frequency limit, P{sub n}{proportional_to}exp(-n/n{sub cr}). Below n{sub cr}, the emitted spectrum of gravitational waves is very similar to the case of an oscillating monopole pair connected by a string, and we argue, therefore, that the spectrum found holds approximately for any moving monopole-string system. As an application, we discuss the stochastic gravitational wave background generated by monopole-antimonopole pairs connected by strings in the early Universe and gravitational wave bursts emitted at present by monopole-string networks. We confirm that advanced gravitational wave detectors have the potential to detect a signal for string tensions as small as G{mu}{approx}10{sup -13}.

  12. High-resolution submillimeter-wave radiometry of supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dionne, G. F.; Weiss, J. A.; Fitzgerald, J. F.; Fetterman, H. R.; Litvak, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    The recent development of a high-resolution submillimeter-wave heterodyne radiometer has made possible the first measurements of H2O molecule rotational line excitation temperatures and detailed profiles in supersonic flow. Absorption signals were measured across the flow for the 2/11/ from 2//02/ (752 GHz) para-H2O rotational transition against a hot background. These signals decrease downstream owing to the volume expansion of the gas away from the sonic nozle exit in the high-vacuum chamber. Radiative transfer calculations based on the large-velocity-gradient approximation and multilevel statistical equilibrium agree with these results and with the measured spectral line shapes. The data reveal nearly isentropic gas expansion and cooling. These studies have shown that submillimeter-wave heterodyne radiometry can be useful for remote sensing of supersonic flow with low mass flux, provided the signal transmission is through a dry or thin atmosphere.

  13. The effect of rotations on Michelson interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraner, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    In the contest of the special theory of relativity, it is shown that uniform rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. The effect is second order in the ratio of the interferometer's speed to the speed of light, further suppressed by the ratio of the interferometer's arms length to the radius of rotation and depends on the interferometer's position in the co-rotating frame. The magnitude of the phase shift is just beyond the sensitivity of turntable rotated optical resonators used in present tests of Lorentz invariance. It grows significantly large in Earth's rotated kilometer-scale Fabry-Perot enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors where it appears as a constant bias. The effect can provide the means of sensing center and radius of rotations.

  14. The Maximum Mass of Rotating Strange Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkudlarek, M.; Gondek-Rosiń; ska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.

    2012-12-01

    Strange quark stars are considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars as compact objects (e.g. Weber 2003). A hot compact star (a proto-neutron star or a strange star) born in a supernova explosion or a remnant of neutron stars binary merger are expected to rotate differentially and be important sources of gravitational waves. We present results of the first relativistic calculations of differentially rotating strange quark stars for broad ranges of degree of differential rotation and maximum densities. Using a highly accurate, relativistic code we show that rotation may cause a significant increase of maximum allowed mass of strange stars, much larger than in the case of neutron stars with the same degree of differential rotation. Depending on the maximum allowed mass a massive neutron star (strange star) can be temporarily stabilized by differential rotation or collapse to a black hole.

  15. Multicriteria approximation through decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, C.; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E.

    1998-06-01

    The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of their technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. Their method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) the authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing; (2) they also show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.

  16. Multicriteria approximation through decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, C. |; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E. |

    1997-12-01

    The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of the technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. The method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) The authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing. (2) They show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.

  17. On Stochastic Approximation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Hans

    This paper deals with a stochastic process for the approximation of the root of a regression equation. This process was first suggested by Robbins and Monro. The main result here is a necessary and sufficient condition on the iteration coefficients for convergence of the process (convergence with probability one and convergence in the quadratic…

  18. Approximating Integrals Using Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.; Caudle, Kyle A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a discussion on Monte Carlo methods, which outlines how to use probability expectations to approximate the value of a definite integral. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on this technique and then to show several examples using visual basic as a programming tool. It is an interesting method because it combines two branches of…

  19. Energy Transfer in Rotating Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambon, Claude; Mansour, Nagi N.; Godeferd, Fabien S.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The influence or rotation on the spectral energy transfer of homogeneous turbulence is investigated in this paper. Given the fact that linear dynamics, e.g. the inertial waves regime tackled in an RDT (Rapid Distortion Theory) fashion, cannot Affect st homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, the study of nonlinear dynamics is of prime importance in the case of rotating flows. Previous theoretical (including both weakly nonlinear and EDQNM theories), experimental and DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) results are gathered here and compared in order to give a self-consistent picture of the nonlinear effects of rotation on tile turbulence. The inhibition of the energy cascade, which is linked to a reduction of the dissipation rate, is shown to be related to a damping due to rotation of the energy transfer. A model for this effect is quantified by a model equation for the derivative-skewness factor, which only involves a micro-Rossby number Ro(sup omega) = omega'/(2(OMEGA))-ratio of rms vorticity and background vorticity as the relevant rotation parameter, in accordance with DNS and EDQNM results fit addition, anisotropy is shown also to develop through nonlinear interactions modified by rotation, in an intermediate range of Rossby numbers (Ro(omega) = (omega)' and Ro(omega)w greater than 1), which is characterized by a marco-Rossby number Ro(sup L) less than 1 and Ro(omega) greater than 1 which is characterized by a macro-Rossby number based on an integral lengthscale L and the micro-Rossby number previously defined. This anisotropy is mainly an angular drain of spectral energy which tends to concentrate energy in tile wave-plane normal to the rotation axis, which is exactly both the slow and the two-dimensional manifold. In Addition, a polarization of the energy distribution in this slow 2D manifold enhances horizontal (normal to the rotation axis) velocity components, and underlies the anisotropic structure of the integral lengthscales. Finally is demonstrated the

  20. Optimizing the Zeldovich approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Pellman, Todd F.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1994-01-01

    We have recently learned that the Zeldovich approximation can be successfully used for a far wider range of gravitational instability scenarios than formerly proposed; we study here how to extend this range. In previous work (Coles, Melott and Shandarin 1993, hereafter CMS) we studied the accuracy of several analytic approximations to gravitational clustering in the mildly nonlinear regime. We found that what we called the 'truncated Zeldovich approximation' (TZA) was better than any other (except in one case the ordinary Zeldovich approximation) over a wide range from linear to mildly nonlinear (sigma approximately 3) regimes. TZA was specified by setting Fourier amplitudes equal to zero for all wavenumbers greater than k(sub nl), where k(sub nl) marks the transition to the nonlinear regime. Here, we study the cross correlation of generalized TZA with a group of n-body simulations for three shapes of window function: sharp k-truncation (as in CMS), a tophat in coordinate space, or a Gaussian. We also study the variation in the crosscorrelation as a function of initial truncation scale within each type. We find that k-truncation, which was so much better than other things tried in CMS, is the worst of these three window shapes. We find that a Gaussian window e(exp(-k(exp 2)/2k(exp 2, sub G))) applied to the initial Fourier amplitudes is the best choice. It produces a greatly improved crosscorrelation in those cases which most needed improvement, e.g. those with more small-scale power in the initial conditions. The optimum choice of kG for the Gaussian window is (a somewhat spectrum-dependent) 1 to 1.5 times k(sub nl). Although all three windows produce similar power spectra and density distribution functions after application of the Zeldovich approximation, the agreement of the phases of the Fourier components with the n-body simulation is better for the Gaussian window. We therefore ascribe the success of the best-choice Gaussian window to its superior treatment

  1. Inequivalent electron densities derived from an approximate correlated ground-state wave function using the Hiller-Sucher-Feinberg identity: Comparisons with quantum Monte Carlo densities for He and Ne atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amovilli, Claudio; March, Norman H.

    The Hiller-Sucher-Feinberg (HSF) identity is combined with the three-parameter correlated wave function of Chandrasekhar in order to generate an alternative electron density ρ(r) for the He atom. This and the conventional "local" operator form of ρ(r) are then compared with a diffusion quantum Monte Carlo density. An exact limiting relation is also presented, via HSF identity, between the one-particle density matrix and the pair density in a many-electron atom, which transcends its Hartree-Fock counterpart and has no N-representability difficulties. For the Ne atom, the accuracy of the semiempirical correlated electron density recently obtained by Cordero et al. (Phys. Rev. A 2007, 75, 052502) using fine-tuning of Hartree-Fock theory was assessed by appealing to the ground-state density from diffusion quantum Monte Carlo. The high accuracy of the Cordero et al. density was thereby confirmed. A HSF calculation on neon, with a correlated many-body wave function as starting point, is a worthwhile future aim.

  2. Applied Routh approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    The Routh approximation technique for reducing the complexity of system models was applied in the frequency domain to a 16th order, state variable model of the F100 engine and to a 43d order, transfer function model of a launch vehicle boost pump pressure regulator. The results motivate extending the frequency domain formulation of the Routh method to the time domain in order to handle the state variable formulation directly. The time domain formulation was derived and a characterization that specifies all possible Routh similarity transformations was given. The characterization was computed by solving two eigenvalue-eigenvector problems. The application of the time domain Routh technique to the state variable engine model is described, and some results are given. Additional computational problems are discussed, including an optimization procedure that can improve the approximation accuracy by taking advantage of the transformation characterization.

  3. Topics in Metric Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeb, William Edward

    This thesis develops effective approximations of certain metrics that occur frequently in pure and applied mathematics. We show that distances that often arise in applications, such as the Earth Mover's Distance between two probability measures, can be approximated by easily computed formulas for a wide variety of ground distances. We develop simple and easily computed characterizations both of norms measuring a function's regularity -- such as the Lipschitz norm -- and of their duals. We are particularly concerned with the tensor product of metric spaces, where the natural notion of regularity is not the Lipschitz condition but the mixed Lipschitz condition. A theme that runs throughout this thesis is that snowflake metrics (metrics raised to a power less than 1) are often better-behaved than ordinary metrics. For example, we show that snowflake metrics on finite spaces can be approximated by the average of tree metrics with a distortion bounded by intrinsic geometric characteristics of the space and not the number of points. Many of the metrics for which we characterize the Lipschitz space and its dual are snowflake metrics. We also present applications of the characterization of certain regularity norms to the problem of recovering a matrix that has been corrupted by noise. We are able to achieve an optimal rate of recovery for certain families of matrices by exploiting the relationship between mixed-variable regularity conditions and the decay of a function's coefficients in a certain orthonormal basis.

  4. Effects of reactant rotational excitations on H{sub 2} + NH{sub 2} → H + NH{sub 3} reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hongwei; Guo, Hua

    2014-12-28

    Rotational mode specificity of the title reaction is examined using an initial state selected time-dependent wave packet method on an accurate ab initio based global potential energy surface. This penta-atomic reaction presents an ideal system to test several dynamical approximations, which might be useful for future quantum dynamics studies of polyatomic reactions, particularly with rotationally excited reactants. The first approximation involves a seven-dimensional (7D) model in which the two non-reactive N–H bonds are fixed at their equilibrium geometry. The second is the centrifugal sudden (CS) approximation within the 7D model. Finally, the J-shifting (JS) model is tested, again with the fixed N–H bonds. The spectator-bond approximation works very well in the energy range studied, while the centrifugal sudden and J-shifting integral cross sections (ICSs) agree satisfactorily with the coupled-channel counterparts in the low collision energy range, but deviate at the high energies. The calculated integral cross sections indicate that the rotational excitation of H{sub 2} somewhat inhibits the reaction while the rotational excitations of NH{sub 2} have little effect. These findings are compared with the predictions of the sudden vector projection model. Finally, a simple model is proposed to predict rotational mode specificity using K-averaged reaction probabilities.

  5. Micro-Doppler frequency comb generation by rotating wire scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V.; Filonov, D.; Yankelevich, Y.; Ginzburg, P.

    2017-03-01

    Electromagnetic scattering in accelerating reference frames inspires a variety of phenomena, requiring employment of general relativity for their description. While the 'quasi-stationary field' analysis could be applied to slowly-accelerating bodies as a first-order approximation, the scattering problem remains fundamentally nonlinear in boundary conditions, giving rise to multiple frequency generation (micro-Doppler shifts). Here a frequency comb, generated by an axially rotating subwavelength (cm-range) wires is analyzed theoretically and observed experimentally by illuminating the system with a 2 GHz carrier wave. Highly accurate 'lock in' detection scheme enables factorization of the carrier and observation of multiple peaks in a comb. The Hallen integral equation is employed for deriving the currents induced on the scatterer and a set of coordinate transformations, connecting laboratory and rotating frames, is applied in order to make analytical predictions of the spectral positions and amplitudes of the frequency comb peaks. Numeric simulations of the theoretic framework reveal the dependence of the micro-Doppler peaks on the wire's length and its axis of rotation. Unique spectral signature of micro-Doppler shifts could enable resolving internal structures of scatterers and mapping their accelerations in space, which is valuable for a variety of applications spanning from targets identification to stellar radiometry.

  6. Stabilization of ballooning modes with sheared toroidal rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Waelbroeck, F.L.; Hassam, A.B.; Waltz, R.E.

    1995-10-01

    Stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic ballooning modes by sheared toroidal rotation is demonstrated using a shifted circle equilibrium model. A generalized ballooning mode representation is used to eliminate the fast Alfven wave, and an initial value code solves the resulting equations. The {ital s}{minus}{alpha} diagram (magnetic shear versus pressure gradient) of ballooning mode theory is extended to include rotational shear. In the ballooning representation, the modes shift periodically along the field line to the next point of unfavorable curvature. The shift frequency ({ital d}{Omega}/{ital dq}, where {Omega} is the angular toroidal velocity and {ital q} is the safety factor) is proportional to the rotation shear and inversely proportional to the magnetic shear. Stability improves with increasing shift frequency and direct stable access to the second stability regime occurs when this frequency is approximately one-quarter to one-half the Alfven frequency, {omega}{sub A}={ital V}{sub A}/{ital qR}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  7. Approximation methods in gravitational-radiation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, C. M.

    1986-02-01

    The observation of gravitational-radiation damping in the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16 and the ongoing experimental search for gravitational waves of extraterrestrial origin have made the theory of gravitational radiation an active branch of classical general relativity. In calculations of gravitational radiation, approximation methods play a crucial role. The author summarizes recent developments in two areas in which approximations are important: (1) the quadrupole approximation, which determines the energy flux and the radiation reaction forces in weak-field, slow-motion, source-within-the-near-zone systems such as the binary pulsar; and (2) the normal modes of oscillation of black holes, where the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation gives accurate estimates of the complex frequencies of the modes.

  8. Large scale motions of Neptune's bow shock: Evidence for control of the shock position by the rotation phase of Neptune's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Smith, Charles W.; Kurth, William S.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Moses, Stewart L.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager 2 spacecraft observed high levels of Langmuir waves before the inbound crossing of Neptune's bow shock, thereby signifying magnetic connection of the bow shock. The Langmuir waves occurred in multiple bursts throughout two distinct periods separated by an 85 minute absence of wave activity. The times of onsets, peaks, and disappearances of the waves were used together with the magnetic field directions and spacecraft position, to perform a 'remote-sensing' analysis of the shape and location of Neptune's bow shock prior to the inbound bow shock crossing. The bow shock is assumed to have a parabolidal shape with a nose location and flaring parameter determined independently for each wave event. The remote-sensing analysis give a shock position consistent with the time of the inbound shock crossing. The flaring parameter of the shock remains approximately constant throughout each period of wave activity but differs by a factor of 10 between the two periods. The absence of waves between two periods of wave activity coincides with a large rotation of the magnetic field and a large increase in the solar wind ram pressure' both these effects lead to magnetic disconnection of the spacecraft from shock. The planetwards motion of the shock's nose from 38.5 R(sub N) to 34.5 R(sub N) during the second time period occurred while the solar wind ram pressure remained constant to within 15 percent. This second period of planetwards motion of the shock is therefore strong evidence for Neptune's bow shock moving in response to the rotation of Neptune's oblique, tilted magnetic dipole. Normalizing the ram pressure, the remotely-sensed shock moves sunwards during the first wave period and planetwards in the second wave period. The maximum standoff distance occurs while the dipole axis is close to being perpendicular to the Sun-Neptune direction. The remote-sensing analysis provides strong evidence that the location of Neptune's bow shock is controlled by Neptune's rotation

  9. Propagation and Reflection of Diffusionless Torsional Waves in a Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, S.; Jackson, A.

    2015-12-01

    The magnetohydrodynamics of stars and planetary cores is usually dominated by the overwhelming importance of rotation compared to other forces. Under these conditions the fluid motions are characterized by a strong invariance along the rotation axis. In the presence of a background magnetic field, magnetohydrodynamic oscillations can be triggered. Among these, of particular interest are the torsional waves, azimuthal perturbations of the fluid that are axisymmetric and invariant along the vertical direction. Their periods depend solely on the intensity of the magnetic field component aligned with the radial direction of propagation. As the detection of the fundamental period could constrain the magnetic field intensity in the Earth's outer core there is a long history of attempted detection of torsional waves from geomagnetic data. There is however a fundamental lack of knowledge concerning the propagation and reflection properties of these waves, as observational studies suggests behaviors that are different from theoretical expectations. In particular, recent findings (Gillet et al., 2011) suggest the lack of reflection at the equator and at the rotation axis. Through numerical simulation and analytical techniques we analyze the temporal evolution of diffusionless torsional waves in spherical geometry, with particular attention on the reflection at the equator and the pseudo-reflection at the rotation axis. We develop a novel analytical solution to the torsional wave eigenvalue problem whose behavior at the boundaries helps us to illustrate the meaning of the boundary conditions. Furthermore we find that for any acceptable magnetic background field, reflections at both boundaries are allowed and we illustrate how the WKBJ approximation is an efficient tool for investigating them.

  10. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  11. In-line rotating capacitive torque sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-09-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for measuring torques developed along a rotating mechanical assembly comprising a rotating inner portion and a stationary outer portion. The rotating portion has an electrically-conductive flexing section fitted between two coaxial shafts in a configuration which varies radially in accordance with applied torque. The stationary portion comprises a plurality of conductive plates forming a surface concentric with and having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rotating portion. The capacitance between the outer, nonrotating and inner, rotating portion varies with changes in the radial configuration of the rotating portion. Signal output varies approximately linearly with torque for small torques, nonlinearly for larger torques. The sensor is preferably surrounded by a conductive shell to minimize electrical interference from external sources. 18 figures.

  12. In-line rotating capacitive torque sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring torques developed along a rotating mechanical assembly comprising a rotating inner portion and a stationary outer portion. The rotating portion has an electrically-conductive flexing section fitted between two coaxial shafts in a configuration which varies radially in accordance with applied torque. The stationary portion comprises a plurality of conductive plates forming a surface concentric with and having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rotating portion. The capacitance between the outer, nonrotating and inner, rotating portion varies with changes in the radial configuration of the rotating portion. Signal output varies approximately linearly with torque for small torques, nonlinearly for larger torques. The sensor is preferably surrounded by a conductive shell to minimize electrical interference from external sources.

  13. Approximate Qualitative Temporal Reasoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    i.e., their boundaries can be placed in such a way that they coincide with the cell boundaries of the appropriate partition of the time-line. (Think of...respect to some appropriate partition of the time-line. For example, I felt well on Saturday. When I measured my temperature I had a fever on Monday and on...Bittner / Approximate Qualitative Temporal Reasoning 49 [27] I. A. Goralwalla, Y. Leontiev , M. T. Özsu, D. Szafron, and C. Combi. Temporal granularity for

  14. Self-organized spiral and circular waves in premixed gas flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard G.; Ronney, Paul D.

    1994-01-01

    A diffusive-thermal high Lewis number (Le) gas-phase oscillator has been observed in premixed flames using a lean mixture of butane and oxygen diluted with helium (Le approximately equals 3.0). This reactive-diffusive system exhibits both propagating radial pulsations and rotating spiral waves perhaps analogous to those observed in other excitable media such as the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction.

  15. Rotating Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffetta, G.; Mazzino, A.; Musacchio, S.

    2016-09-01

    The turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor system in a rotating reference frame is investigated by direct numerical simulations within the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation. On the basis of theoretical arguments, supported by our simulations, we show that the Rossby number decreases in time, and therefore the Coriolis force becomes more important as the system evolves and produces many effects on Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence. We find that rotation reduces the intensity of turbulent velocity fluctuations and therefore the growth rate of the temperature mixing layer. Moreover, in the presence of rotation the conversion of potential energy into turbulent kinetic energy is found to be less effective, and the efficiency of the heat transfer is reduced. Finally, during the evolution of the mixing layer we observe the development of a cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry.

  16. Approximate theoretical model for the five electronic states ( Ω = 5/2, 3/2, 3/2, 1/2, 1/2) arising from the ground 3d 9 configuration in nickel halide molecules and for rotational levels of the two Ω = 1/2 states in that manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hougen, Jon T.

    2011-05-01

    In the first part of this paper an effective Hamiltonian for a non-rotating diatomic molecule containing only crystal-field and spin-orbit operators is set up to describe the energies of the five spin-orbit components that arise in the ground electronic configuration of the nickel monohalides. The model assumes that bonding in the nickel halides has the approximate form Ni +X -, with an electronic 3d 9 configuration plus closed shells on the Ni + moiety and a closed shell configuration on the X - moiety. From a crystal-field point of view, interactions of the positive d-hole with the cylindrically symmetrical electric charge distribution of the hypothetical NiX - closed-shell core can then be parameterized by three terms in a traditional expansion in spherical harmonics: C0 + C2Y20( θ, ϕ) + C4Y40( θ, ϕ). Interaction of the hole with the magnetic field generated by its own orbital motion can be parameterized by a traditional spin-orbit interaction operator A L · S. The Hamiltonian matrix is set up in a basis set consisting of the 10 Hund's case (a) basis functions | L, Λ; S , Σ> that arise when L = 2 and S = 1/2. Least-squares fits of the observed five spin-orbit components of the three lowest electronic states in NiF and NiCl are then carried out in terms of the four parameters C0, C2, C4, and A which lead to good agreement, except for the two | Ω| = 1/2 states. The large equal and opposite residuals of the | Ω| = 1/2 states can be reduced to values comparable with those for the | Ω| = 3/2 and | Ω| = 5/2 states by fixing A to its value in Ni + and then introducing an empirical correction factor for one off-diagonal orbital matrix element. In the second part of this paper the usual effective Hamiltonian B( J- L- S) 2 for a rotating diatomic molecule is used to derive expressions for the Ω-type doubling parameter p in the two | Ω| = 1/2 states. These expressions show (for certain sign conventions) that the sum of the two p values should be -2 B, but that

  17. Rotational Doppler effect in nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-08-01

    The translational Doppler effect of electromagnetic and sound waves has been successfully applied in measurements of the speed and direction of vehicles, astronomical objects and blood flow in human bodies, and for the Global Positioning System. The Doppler effect plays a key role for some important quantum phenomena such as the broadened emission spectra of atoms and has benefited cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light. Despite numerous successful applications of the translational Doppler effect, it fails to measure the rotation frequency of a spinning object when the probing wave propagates along its rotation axis. This constraint was circumvented by deploying the angular momentum of electromagnetic waves--the so-called rotational Doppler effect. Here, we report on the demonstration of rotational Doppler shift in nonlinear optics. The Doppler frequency shift is determined for the second harmonic generation of a circularly polarized beam passing through a spinning nonlinear optical crystal with three-fold rotational symmetry. We find that the second harmonic generation signal with circular polarization opposite to that of the fundamental beam experiences a Doppler shift of three times the rotation frequency of the optical crystal. This demonstration is of fundamental significance in nonlinear optics, as it provides us with insight into the interaction of light with moving media in the nonlinear optical regime.

  18. The Rapidly Rotating Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l < 60. The observationally constrained kinetic energy is approximately a thousandth of the theoretical prediction, suggesting the prevalence of an intrinsically different paradigm of turbulence. A fundamental question arises: what mechanism of turbulence transports the heat ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  19. Multidimensional WKB approximation for particle tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Zamastil, J.

    2005-08-15

    A method for obtaining the WKB wave function describing the particle tunneling outside of a two-dimensional potential well is suggested. The Cartesian coordinates (x,y) are chosen in such a way that the x axis has the direction of the probability flux at large distances from the well. The WKB wave function is then obtained by simultaneous expansion of the wave function in the coordinate y and the parameter determining the curvature of the escape path. It is argued, both physically and mathematically, that these two expansions are mutually consistent. It is shown that the method provides systematic approximation to the outgoing probability flux. Both the technical and conceptual advantages of this approach in comparison with the usual approach based on the solution of classical equations of motion are pointed out. The method is applied to the problem of the coupled anharmonic oscillators and verified through the dispersion relations.

  20. Effect of molecular-orbital rotations on ground-state energies in the parametric two-electron reduced density matrix method.

    PubMed

    Sand, Andrew M; Mazziotti, David A

    2013-06-28

    Different sets of molecular orbitals and the rotations connecting them are of great significance in molecular electronic structure. Most electron correlation methods depend on a reference wave function that separates the orbitals into occupied and unoccupied spaces. Energies and properties from these methods depend upon rotations between the spaces. Some electronic structure methods, such as modified coupled electron pair approximations and the recently developed parametric two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) methods [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], also depend upon rotations between occupied orbitals and rotations between unoccupied orbitals. In this paper, we explore the sensitivity of the ground-state energies from the parametric 2-RDM method to rotations within the occupied space and within the unoccupied space. We discuss the theoretical origin of the rotational dependence and provide computational examples at both equilibrium and non-equilibrium geometries. We also study the effect of these rotations on the size extensivity of the parametric 2-RDM method. Computations show that the orbital rotations have a small effect upon the parametric 2-RDM energies in comparison to the energy differences observed between methodologies such as coupled cluster and parametric 2-RDM. Furthermore, while the 2-RDM method is rigorously size extensive in a local molecular orbital basis set, calculations reveal negligible deviations in nonlocal molecular orbital basis sets such as those from canonical Hartree-Fock calculations.

  1. Asymptotically flat radiative space-times with boost-rotation symmetry: The general structure

    SciTech Connect

    Biicak, J.; Schmidt, B. )

    1989-09-15

    This paper deals for the first time with boost-rotation-symmetric space-times from a unified point of view. Boost-rotation-symmetric space-times are the only explicitly known exact solutions of the Einstein vacuum field equations which describe moving singularities or black holes, are radiative and asymptotically flat in the sense that they admit global, though not complete, smooth null infinity, as well as spacelike and timelike infinities. They very likely represent the exterior fields of uniformly accelerated sources in general relativity and may serve as tests of various approximation methods, as nontrivial illustrations of the theory of the asymptotic structure of radiative space-times, and as test beds in numerical relativity. Examples are the {ital C}-metric or the solutions of Bonnor and Swaminarayan. The space-times are defined in a geometrical manner and their global properties are studied in detail, in particular their asymptotic structure. It is demonstrated how one can construct any asymptotically flat boost-rotation-symmetric space-time starting from the boost-rotation-symmetric solution of the flat-space wave equation. The problem of uniformly accelerated sources in special relativity is also discussed. The radiative properties and specific examples of the boost-rotation-symmetric space-times will be analyzed in a following paper.

  2. The shape of a rapidly rotating polytrope with index unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopik, Jerzy; Mach, Patryk; Odrzywołek, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    We show that the solutions obtained in the paper `An exact solution for arbitrarily rotating gaseous polytropes with index unity' by Kong, Zhang, and Schubert represent only approximate solutions of the free-boundary Euler-Poisson system of equations describing uniformly rotating, self-gravitating polytropes with index unity. We discuss the quality of such solutions as approximations to the rigidly rotating equilibrium polytropic configurations.

  3. Hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Brandon M.; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2013-01-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a powerful technique for estimating the posterior distribution of a model’s parameters. It is especially important when the model to be fit has no explicit likelihood function, which happens for computational (or simulation-based) models such as those that are popular in cognitive neuroscience and other areas in psychology. However, ABC is usually applied only to models with few parameters. Extending ABC to hierarchical models has been difficult because high-dimensional hierarchical models add computational complexity that conventional ABC cannot accommodate. In this paper we summarize some current approaches for performing hierarchical ABC and introduce a new algorithm called Gibbs ABC. This new algorithm incorporates well-known Bayesian techniques to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the ABC approach for estimation of hierarchical models. We then use the Gibbs ABC algorithm to estimate the parameters of two models of signal detection, one with and one without a tractable likelihood function. PMID:24297436

  4. The effect of rotations on Michelson interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Maraner, Paolo

    2014-11-15

    In the contest of the special theory of relativity, it is shown that uniform rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. The effect is second order in the ratio of the interferometer’s speed to the speed of light, further suppressed by the ratio of the interferometer’s arms length to the radius of rotation and depends on the interferometer’s position in the co-rotating frame. The magnitude of the phase shift is just beyond the sensitivity of turntable rotated optical resonators used in present tests of Lorentz invariance. It grows significantly large in Earth’s rotated kilometer-scale Fabry–Perot enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors where it appears as a constant bias. The effect can provide the means of sensing center and radius of rotations. - Highlights: • Rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. • Earth’s rotation induces a constant bias in Michelson interferometers. • Michelson interferometers can be used to sense center and radius of rotations.

  5. Instability of counter-rotating stellar disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohlfeld, R. G.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    2015-09-01

    We use an N-body simulation, constructed using GADGET-2, to investigate an accretion flow onto an astrophysical disk that is in the opposite sense to the disk's rotation. In order to separate dynamics intrinsic to the counter-rotating flow from the impact of the flow onto the disk, we consider an initial condition in which the counter-rotating flow is in an annular region immediately exterior the main portion of the astrophysical disk. Such counter-rotating flows are seen in systems such as NGC 4826 (known as the "Evil Eye Galaxy"). Interaction between the rotating and counter-rotating components is due to two-stream instability in the boundary region. A multi-armed spiral density wave is excited in the astrophysical disk and a density distribution with high azimuthal mode number is excited in the counter-rotating flow. Density fluctuations in the counter-rotating flow aggregate into larger clumps and some of the material in the counter-rotating flow is scattered to large radii. Accretion flow processes such as this are increasingly seen to be of importance in the evolution of multi-component galactic disks.

  6. Future wave and wind projections for United States and United-States-affiliated Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Shope, James B.; Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christine A.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    throughout the study area during other seasons. Extreme wave directions in equatorial Micronesia during June-August undergo an approximate 30° clockwise rotation from primarily west to northwest. September-November RCP4.5 extreme mean wave directions rotate counterclockwise by approximately 30 to 45° in equatorial Micronesia; September-November RCP8.5 extreme mean wave directions within equatorial Micronesia rotate clockwise by approximately 20 to 30°. Extreme wind speeds decreased within both scenarios, with the largest decreases occurring in the September-November season. Extreme wind directions under RCP4.5 rotated clockwise by more than 60° in equatorial Micronesia during the September-November season and by approximately 30° during June-August. RCP8.5 extreme wind directions rotated counterclockwise during September-November within the same region by 30 to 50° and clockwise by 30 to 40° at one island. The spatial patterns and trends are similar between the two different greenhouse gas emission scenarios, with the magnitude and extent of the trends generally greater for the higher (RCP8.5) scenario.

  7. Rigid rotators. [deriving the time-independent energy states associated with rotational motions of the molecule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The two-particle, steady-state Schroedinger equation is transformed to center of mass and internuclear distance vector coordinates, leading to the free particle wave equation for the kinetic energy motion of the molecule and a decoupled wave equation for a single particle of reduced mass moving in a spherical potential field. The latter describes the vibrational and rotational energy modes of the diatomic molecule. For fixed internuclear distance, this becomes the equation of rigid rotator motion. The classical partition function for the rotator is derived and compared with the quantum expression. Molecular symmetry effects are developed from the generalized Pauli principle that the steady-state wave function of any system of fundamental particles must be antisymmetric. Nuclear spin and spin quantum functions are introduced and ortho- and para-states of rotators, along with their degeneracies, are defined. Effects of nuclear spin on entropy are deduced. Next, rigid polyatomic rotators are considered and the partition function for this case is derived. The patterns of rotational energy levels for nonlinear molecules are discussed for the spherical symmetric top, for the prolate symmetric top, for the oblate symmetric top, and for the asymmetric top. Finally, the equilibrium energy and specific heat of rigid rotators are derived.

  8. Countably QC-Approximating Posets

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xuxin; Xu, Luoshan

    2014-01-01

    As a generalization of countably C-approximating posets, the concept of countably QC-approximating posets is introduced. With the countably QC-approximating property, some characterizations of generalized completely distributive lattices and generalized countably approximating posets are given. The main results are as follows: (1) a complete lattice is generalized completely distributive if and only if it is countably QC-approximating and weakly generalized countably approximating; (2) a poset L having countably directed joins is generalized countably approximating if and only if the lattice σc(L)op of all σ-Scott-closed subsets of L is weakly generalized countably approximating. PMID:25165730

  9. Higher order dispersion in the propagation of a gravity wave packet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, K. C.; Dong, B.

    1989-01-01

    To the first order of approximation, the complex amplitude of a wave packet in an anisotropic and dispersive medium is convected with the group of velocity. However, a gravity wave is a vector wave. Its wave packet must be formed by superposition of various wave numbers with corresponding frequencies, as is the case for scalar waves, and additionally by superposing many eigenmodes which also depend on the wave number. To represent the vector wave packet self-consistently, it is found that a gradient term must be included in the expansion. For a Guassian wave packet, this gradient term is shown to have important implications on the velocity vector as represented by its hodograph. Numerical results show that the hodograph is influenced by the location of the relative position of interest from the center of a Gaussian pulse. Higher order expansion shows that an initial Gaussian wave packet will retain its Gaussian shape as it propagates, but the pulse will spread in all directions with its major axis undergoing a rotation. Numerical results indicate that these higher order dispersive effects may be marginally observable in the atmosphere.

  10. Large stationary gravity wave in the atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Futaguchi, Masahiko; Hashimoto, George L.; Horinouchi, Takeshi; Imamura, Takeshi; Iwagaimi, Naomoto; Kouyama, Toru; Murakami, Shin-Ya; Nakamura, Masato; Ogohara, Kazunori; Sato, Mitsuteru; Sato, Takao M.; Suzuki, Makoto; Taguchi, Makoto; Takagi, Seiko; Ueno, Munetaka; Watanabe, Shigeto; Yamada, Manabu; Yamazaki, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    The planet Venus is covered by thick clouds of sulfuric acid that move westwards because the entire upper atmosphere rotates much faster than the planet itself. At the cloud tops, about 65 km in altitude, small-scale features are predominantly carried by the background wind at speeds of approximately 100 m s-1. In contrast, planetary-scale atmospheric features have been observed to move slightly faster or slower than the background wind, a phenomenon that has been interpreted to reflect the propagation of planetary-scale waves. Here we report the detection of an interhemispheric bow-shaped structure stretching 10,000 km across at the cloud-top level of Venus in middle infrared and ultraviolet images from the Japanese orbiter Akatsuki. Over several days of observation, the bow-shaped structure remained relatively fixed in position above the highland on the slowly rotating surface, despite the background atmospheric super rotation. We suggest that the bow-shaped structure is the result of an atmospheric gravity wave generated in the lower atmosphere by mountain topography that then propagated upwards. Numerical simulations provide preliminary support for this interpretation, but the formation and propagation of a mountain gravity wave remain difficult to reconcile with assumed near-surface conditions on Venus. We suggest that winds in the deep atmosphere may be spatially or temporally more variable than previously thought.

  11. Approximation methods in gravitational-radiation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    The observation of gravitational-radiation damping in the binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 and the ongoing experimental search for gravitational waves of extraterrestrial origin have made the theory of gravitational radiation an active branch of classical general relativity. In calculations of gravitational radiation, approximation methods play a crucial role. Recent developments are summarized in two areas in which approximations are important: (a) the quadrupole approxiamtion, which determines the energy flux and the radiation reaction forces in weak-field, slow-motion, source-within-the-near-zone systems such as the binary pulsar; and (b) the normal modes of oscillation of black holes, where the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation gives accurate estimates of the complex frequencies of the modes.

  12. Rotation sensing with trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, W. C.; Hamilton, P.

    2017-03-01

    We present a protocol for rotation measurement via matter-wave Sagnac interferometry using trapped ions. The ion trap based interferometer encloses a large area in a compact apparatus through repeated round-trips in a Sagnac geometry. We show how a uniform magnetic field can be used to close the interferometer over a large dynamic range in rotation speed and measurement bandwidth without contrast loss. Since this technique does not require the ions to be confined in the Lamb–Dicke regime, Doppler laser cooling should be sufficient to reach a sensitivity of { S }=1.4× {10}-6 {{rad}} {{{s}}}-1 {{{H}}{{z}}}-1/2. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Wes Campbell was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  13. Finite element analysis of flexible, rotating blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Oliver G.

    1987-01-01

    A reference guide that can be used when using the finite element method to approximate the static and dynamic behavior of flexible, rotating blades is given. Important parameters such as twist, sweep, camber, co-planar shell elements, centrifugal loads, and inertia properties are studied. Comparisons are made between NASTRAN elements through published benchmark tests. The main purpose is to summarize blade modeling strategies and to document capabilities and limitations (for flexible, rotating blades) of various NASTRAN elements.

  14. An analytical theory of planetary rotation rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, A. W.

    1977-01-01

    An approximate analytical theory is derived for the rate of rotation acquired by a planet as it grows from the solar nebula. This theory was motivated by a numerical study by Giuli, and yields fair agreement with his results. The periods of planetary rotation obtained are proportional to planetesimal encounter velocity, and appear to suggest lower values of this velocity than are commonly assumed to have existed during planetary formation.

  15. Comment on "Compact envelope dark solitary wave in a discrete nonlinear electrical transmission line" [Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 3801-3809

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamgoué, Serge Bruno; Pelap, François Beceau

    2016-05-01

    We revisit the derivation of the equation modeling envelope waves in a discrete nonlinear electrical transmission line (NLTL) considered a few years back in Physics Letters A 373 (2009) 3801-3809. Using a combination of rotating wave approximation and the Gardner-Morikawa transformation, we show that the modulated waves are described by a new type of extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In addition the expressions of several coefficients of this equation are found to be strongly different from those given earlier. As a consequence, key relationships between these coefficients that sustained the previous analysis are broken.

  16. Spontaneous generation of rotation in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Parra Diaz, Felix

    2013-12-24

    Three different aspects of intrinsic rotation have been treated. i) A new, first principles model for intrinsic rotation [F.I. Parra, M. Barnes and P.J. Catto, Nucl. Fusion 51, 113001 (2011)] has been implemented in the gyrokinetic code GS2. The results obtained with the code are consistent with several experimental observations, namely the rotation peaking observed after an L-H transition, the rotation reversal observed in Ohmic plasmas, and the change in rotation that follows Lower Hybrid wave injection. ii) The model in [F.I. Parra, M. Barnes and P.J. Catto, Nucl. Fusion 51, 113001 (2011)] has several simplifying assumptions that seem to be satisfied in most tokamaks. To check the importance of these hypotheses, first principles equations that do not rely on these simplifying assumptions have been derived, and a version of these new equations has been implemented in GS2 as well. iii) A tokamak cross-section that drives large intrinsic rotation has been proposed for future large tokamaks. In large tokamaks, intrinsic rotation is expected to be very small unless some up-down asymmetry is introduced. The research conducted under this contract indicates that tilted ellipticity is the most efficient way to drive intrinsic rotation.

  17. Nonradial oscillations of slowly and differentially rotating compact stars

    SciTech Connect

    Stavridis, Adamantios; Kokkotas, Kostas; Passamonti, Andrea

    2007-03-15

    The equations describing nonradial adiabatic oscillations of differentially rotating relativistic stars are derived in relativistic slow rotation approximation. The differentially rotating configuration is described by a perturbative version of the relativistic j-constant rotation law. Focusing on the oscillation properties of the stellar fluid, the adiabatic nonradial perturbations are studied in the Cowling approximation with a system of five partial differential equations. In these equations, differential rotation introduces new coupling terms between the perturbative quantities with respect to the uniformly rotating stars. In particular, we investigate the axisymmetric and barotropic oscillations and compare their spectral properties with those obtained in nonlinear hydrodynamical studies. The perturbative description of the differentially rotating background and the oscillation spectrum agree within a few percent with those of the nonlinear studies.

  18. Approximating the Helium Wavefunction in Positronium-Helium Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiRienzi, Joseph; Drachman, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    In the Kohn variational treatment of the positronium- hydrogen scattering problem the scattering wave function is approximated by an expansion in some appropriate basis set, but the target and projectile wave functions are known exactly. In the positronium-helium case, however, a difficulty immediately arises in that the wave function of the helium target atom is not known exactly, and there are several ways to deal with the associated eigenvalue in formulating the variational scattering equations to be solved. In this work we will use the Kohn variational principle in the static exchange approximation to d e t e e the zero-energy scattering length for the Ps-He system, using a suite of approximate target functions. The results we obtain will be compared with each other and with corresponding values found by other approximation techniques.

  19. Torsional and rotational couplings in nonrigid molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omiste, Juan J.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2017-02-01

    We analyze theoretically the interplay between the torsional and the rotational motion of an aligned biphenyl-like molecule. To do so, we consider a transition between two electronic states with different internal torsional potentials, induced by means of a resonant laser pulse. The change in the internal torsional potential provokes the motion of the torsional wave packet in the excited electronic state, modifying the structure of the molecule, and hence, its inertia tensor. We find that this process has a strong impact on the rotational wave function, displaying different behavior depending on the electronic states involved and their associated torsional potentials. We describe the dynamics of the system by considering the degree of alignment and the expectation values of the angular momentum operators for the overall rotation of the molecule.

  20. Rotating swings—a theme with variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Rotating swing rides can be found in many amusement parks, in many different versions. The ‘wave swinger’ ride, which introduces a wave motion by tilting the roof, is among the classical amusement rides that are found in many different parks, in different sizes, from a number of different makes and names, and varying thematization. The ‘StarFlyer’ is a more recent version, adding the thrill of lifting the riders 60 m or more over the ground. These rotating swing rides involve beautiful physics, often surprising, but easily observed, when brought to attention. The rides can be used for student worksheet tasks and assignments of different degrees of difficulty, across many math and physics topics. This paper presents a number of variations of student tasks relating to the theme of rotating swing rides.

  1. Zonal flow regimes in rotating anelastic spherical shells (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastine, T.; Wicht, J.; Aurnou, J. M.; Heimpel, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    The surface zonal winds observed in the giant planets form a complex jet pattern with alternating prograde and retrograde direction. While the main equatorial band is prograde on the gas giants, both ice giants have a pronounced retrograde equatorial jet. The depth of these jets is however poorly known and highly debated. Theoretical scenarios range from "shallow models", that assume that these zonal flows are restricted to the outer stably stratified layer; to "deep models" that hypothesise that the surface winds are the signature of deep-seated convection. Most of the numerical models supporting the latter idea employed the Boussinesq approximation where compressibility effects are ignored. While this approximation is suitable for modelling the liquid iron core of terrestrial planets, this becomes questionable in the gas giants interiors, where density increases by several orders of magnitude. To tackle this problem, several numerical models using the "anelastic approximation" have been recently developed to study the compressibility effects while filtering out the fast acoustic waves. Here, we consider such anelastic models of rapidly-rotating spherical shells to explore the properties of the zonal winds in different regimes where either rotation or buoyancy dominates the force balance. We conduct several parameter studies to quantify the dependence of zonal flows on the background density stratification and the driving of convection. We find that the direction of the equatorial wind is controlled by the ratio of buoyancy and Coriolis force. The prograde equatorial band maintained by Reynolds stresses is found in the rotation-dominated regime. At low Ekman numbers, several alternating jets form at high latitude in a similar way to some previous Boussinesq calculations. In cases where buoyancy dominates Coriolis force, the angular momentum per unit mass is homogenised and the equatorial band is retrograde, reminiscent to those observed in the ice giants

  2. Rotational bands in99Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, B.; Monnand, E.; Pinston, J. A.; Münzel, J.; Möller, P.; Krumlinde, J.; Ziegert, W.; Kratz, K.-L.

    1984-02-01

    The β-decay of 59 ms99Rb has been studied at OSTIS. As is confirmed by RPA calculations with Nilsson model wave functions, the lowest energy levels in99Sr are consistent with rotational bands built on the [411 3/2], [413 5/2] and [422 3/2] Nilsson neutron configurations at 0, 423 and 1071 keV, respectively. All three bands have similar values of the inertial parameter ħ2/2θ indicating a nearly rigid rotor.

  3. Low-frequency oscillations of vortices in rotating He II

    SciTech Connect

    Sonin, E.B.

    1983-01-20

    The low-frequency branch of the spectrum of oscillations of a stack of disks in rotating He II with large angular velocities corresponds to excitation of an inertial wave, a well known phenomenon in hydrodynamics of rotating classical fluids, in the volume between the disks. This agrees with the results of experiments by Andereck, Chalupa, and Glaberson.

  4. An approximate classical unimolecular reaction rate theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meishan; Rice, Stuart A.

    1992-05-01

    We describe a classical theory of unimolecular reaction rate which is derived from the analysis of Davis and Gray by use of simplifying approximations. These approximations concern the calculation of the locations of, and the fluxes of phase points across, the bottlenecks to fragmentation and to intramolecular energy transfer. The bottleneck to fragment separation is represented as a vibration-rotation state dependent separatrix, which approximation is similar to but extends and improves the approximations for the separatrix introduced by Gray, Rice, and Davis and by Zhao and Rice. The novel feature in our analysis is the representation of the bottlenecks to intramolecular energy transfer as dividing surfaces in phase space; the locations of these dividing surfaces are determined by the same conditions as locate the remnants of robust tori with frequency ratios related to the golden mean (in a two degree of freedom system these are the cantori). The flux of phase points across each dividing surface is calculated with an analytic representation instead of a stroboscopic mapping. The rate of unimolecular reaction is identified with the net rate at which phase points escape from the region of quasiperiodic bounded motion to the region of free fragment motion by consecutively crossing the dividing surfaces for intramolecular energy exchange and the separatrix. This new theory generates predictions of the rates of predissociation of the van der Waals molecules HeI2, NeI2 and ArI2 which are in very good agreement with available experimental data.

  5. Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.

  6. Directional wave climate and power variability along the Southeast Australian shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortlock, Thomas R.; Goodwin, Ian D.

    2015-04-01

    Variability in the modal wave climate is a key process driving large-scale coastal behaviour on moderate- to high-energy sandy coastlines, and is strongly related to variability in synoptic climate drivers. On sub-tropical coasts, shifts in the sub-tropical ridge (STR) modulate the seasonal occurrence of different wave types. However, in semi-enclosed seas, isolating directional wave climates and synoptic drivers is hindered by a complex mixed sea-swell environment. Here we present a directional wave climate typology for the Tasman Sea based on a combined statistical-synoptic approach using mid-shelf wave buoy observations along the Southeast Australian Shelf (SEAS). Five synoptic-scale wave climates exist during winter, and six during summer. These can be clustered into easterly (Tradewind), south-easterly (Tasman Sea) and southerly (Southern Ocean) wave types, each with distinct wave power signatures. We show that a southerly shift in the STR and trade-wind zone, consistent with an observed poleward expansion of the tropics, forces an increase in the total wave energy flux in winter for the central New South Wales shelf of 1.9 GJ m-1 wave-crest-length for 1° southerly shift in the STR, and a reduction of similar magnitude (approximately 1.8 GJ m-1) during summer. In both seasons there is an anti-clockwise rotation of wave power towards the east and south-east at the expense of southerly waves. Reduced obliquity of constructive wave power would promote a general disruption to northward alongshore sediment transport, with the cross-shore component becoming increasingly prevalent. Results are of global relevance to sub-tropical east coasts where the modal wave climate is influenced by the position of the zonal STR.

  7. The motion of a thin liquid layer on the outer surface of a rotating cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morad, A. M.; Zhukov, M. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    We derive the shallow water equations describing the motion of a thin liquid film on the outer surface of a rotating cylinder. These equations are an analogue of the modified Boussinesq equations describing shallow water flows with constant vorticity. The standard multi-scale methods are employed to construct asymptotic equations in the long-wave approximation. These asymptotic equations are analyzed using the hodograph method. It is found that for the particular case of a dispersionless irrotational flow, the equations describing flows on the outer surface of a cylinder reduce to elliptic equations. Numerical evaluation of the exact solutions obtained shows that the asymptotic equations possess a rich variety of solutions representing various wave patterns.

  8. Relativistic wave-induced splitting of the Langmuir mode in a magnetized plasma.

    PubMed

    Robiche, J; Rax, J M

    2008-01-01

    A relativistic effect that occurs in a magnetized plasma irradiated by a circularly polarized wave is identified and analyzed: the usual plasma frequency associated with longitudinal oscillations splits into two new frequencies. We set up a Hamiltonian description of the plasma dynamic in order to identify this effect that results from the coupling between the plasma oscillation and the transverse circular motion driven by both the magnetic and wave fields. Within the small oscillations approximation, we compute for right- and left-handed polarization the two characteristics frequencies of the electron oscillations as functions of the field and wave parameters. We also describe the electron trajectories in the wave, magnetic, and restoring plasma fields. This new class of oscillations is rotational and therefore radiate suggesting a method for the diagnostics of strong static magnetic field in laser-plasma experiments.

  9. Structural tailoring of counter rotation propfans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Kenneth W.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    The STAT program was designed for the optimization of single rotation, tractor propfan designs. New propfan designs, however, generally consist of two counter rotating propfan rotors. STAT is constructed to contain two levels of analysis. An interior loop, consisting of accurate, efficient approximate analyses, is used to perform the primary propfan optimization. Once an optimum design has been obtained, a series of refined analyses are conducted. These analyses, while too computer time expensive for the optimization loop, are of sufficient accuracy to validate the optimized design. Should the design prove to be unacceptable, provisions are made for recalibration of the approximate analyses, for subsequent reoptimization.

  10. Nearshore Modeling using Rotational Boussinesq Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, A. B.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    There is a strong tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency in phase-resolving modeling of nearshore waves and currents: Boussinesq-type equations are relatively efficient but lack details of interior velocities and are limited in their range of wavenumbers, while full Navier-Stokes solvers are quite accurate but are slow enough to limit their application to small regions. Here, we present details of a new higher order Boussinesq model which includes rotational motions as part of its derivation, and allows for better representations of surf zone properties while retaining reasonable computational cost. Asymptotic rearrangement techniques allow improvement of wave properties up to very large water depths. A novel absorbing-generating sponge layer allows the simple and accurate generation of both linear and nonlinear regular or irregular waves while simultaneously absorbing outgoing waves. We present breaking and nonbreaking examples of nearshore wave transformation, setup and current generation for a variety of tests.

  11. Shear rotation numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doeff, E.; Misiurewicz, M.

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents results on rotation numbers for orientation-preserving torus homeomorphisms homotopic to a Dehn twist. Rotation numbers and the rotation set for such homeomorphisms have been defined and initially investigated by the first author in a previous paper. Here we prove that each rotation number 0951-7715/10/6/017/img5 in the interior of the rotation set is realized by some compact invariant set, and that there is an ergodic measure on that set with mean rotation number 0951-7715/10/6/017/img5. It is also proved that the function which assigns its rotation set to such a homeomorphism is continuous. Finally, a counterexample is presented that shows that rational extremal points of the shear rotation set do not necessarily correspond to any periodic orbits.

  12. Power Harvesting from Rotation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicone, Carmen; Feng, Z. C.

    2008-01-01

    We show the impossibility of harvesting power from rotational motions by devices attached to the rotating object. The presentation is suitable for students who have studied Lagrangian mechanics. (Contains 2 figures.)

  13. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... to these tendons may result in: Rotator cuff tendinitis, which is irritation and swelling of these tendons ... Brien MJ, Leggin BG, Williams GR. Rotator cuff tendinopathies and tears: surgery and therapy. In: Skirven TM, ...

  14. An approximate Riemann solver for hypervelocity flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    We describe an approximate Riemann solver for the computation of hypervelocity flows in which there are strong shocks and viscous interactions. The scheme has three stages, the first of which computes the intermediate states assuming isentropic waves. A second stage, based on the strong shock relations, may then be invoked if the pressure jump across either wave is large. The third stage interpolates the interface state from the two initial states and the intermediate states. The solver is used as part of a finite-volume code and is demonstrated on two test cases. The first is a high Mach number flow over a sphere while the second is a flow over a slender cone with an adiabatic boundary layer. In both cases the solver performs well.

  15. FAST FOSSIL ROTATION OF NEUTRON STAR CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Melatos, A.

    2012-12-10

    It is argued that the superfluid core of a neutron star super-rotates relative to the crust, because stratification prevents the core from responding to the electromagnetic braking torque, until the relevant dissipative (viscous or Eddington-Sweet) timescale, which can exceed {approx}10{sup 3} yr and is much longer than the Ekman timescale, has elapsed. Hence, in some young pulsars, the rotation of the core today is a fossil record of its rotation at birth, provided that magnetic crust-core coupling is inhibited, e.g., by buoyancy, field-line topology, or the presence of uncondensed neutral components in the superfluid. Persistent core super-rotation alters our picture of neutron stars in several ways, allowing for magnetic field generation by ongoing dynamo action and enhanced gravitational wave emission from hydrodynamic instabilities.

  16. Fast Fossil Rotation of Neutron Star Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melatos, A.

    2012-12-01

    It is argued that the superfluid core of a neutron star super-rotates relative to the crust, because stratification prevents the core from responding to the electromagnetic braking torque, until the relevant dissipative (viscous or Eddington-Sweet) timescale, which can exceed ~103 yr and is much longer than the Ekman timescale, has elapsed. Hence, in some young pulsars, the rotation of the core today is a fossil record of its rotation at birth, provided that magnetic crust-core coupling is inhibited, e.g., by buoyancy, field-line topology, or the presence of uncondensed neutral components in the superfluid. Persistent core super-rotation alters our picture of neutron stars in several ways, allowing for magnetic field generation by ongoing dynamo action and enhanced gravitational wave emission from hydrodynamic instabilities.

  17. DALI: Derivative Approximation for LIkelihoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellentin, Elena

    2015-07-01

    DALI (Derivative Approximation for LIkelihoods) is a fast approximation of non-Gaussian likelihoods. It extends the Fisher Matrix in a straightforward way and allows for a wider range of posterior shapes. The code is written in C/C++.

  18. Shaft-Rotation Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    Signal-processing subsystem generates signal indicative of rotation of shaft from output of accelerometer mounted on housing of bearing supporting shaft. Output of subsystem binary signal at frequency of rotation of shaft. Part of assembly of electronic equipment measuring vibrations in rotating machinery. Accelerometer mounted in such way sensitive to vibrations of shaft perpendicular to axis. Output of accelerometer includes noise and components of vibration at frequencies higher than rotational frequency of shaft.

  19. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  20. Taylor Approximations and Definite Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of approximating the value of a definite integral by approximating the integrand rather than using numerical methods to approximate the value of the definite integral. Particular cases considered include examples where the integral is improper, such as an elliptic integral. (Contains 4 tables and 2 figures.)