Science.gov

Sample records for rotational arc radiation

  1. Measurement of arc radiation and determination of arc spot rotation radius in high current breakers

    SciTech Connect

    Maftoul, J.; Fievet, C.

    1995-12-31

    Almost every modelling of an circuit-breaker includes the energy balance. The radiated energy is absorbed by the surrounding gas (SF{sub 6} or N{sub 2} in our case) and the walls of the circuit breaker. Another important parameter which determines the wear of contacts and the performances of the circuit breaker is the speed of the arc rotation due to the magnetic field.

  2. Rotating arc spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi

    2003-05-27

    A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

  3. SU-E-T-592: Comparison of Low Dose Volume and Integral Dose in Rotational Arc Radiation Therapy Modalities.

    PubMed

    Lian, J; Song, H; Liu, R; Qi, S; Hu, A

    2012-06-01

    To compare low dose volume and integral dose of various rotational arc radiation therapy modalities, including helical tomotherapy (HT) and other volumetric modulated arc therapies (VMAT). A digital cylindrical phantom and an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom were used in the study. HT treatment was planned on TomoTherapy Planning Station (Accuray) and VMAT plans were generated on Pinnacle (Philips) and Eclipse (Varian). Same objectives and criteria were used for all the planning tasks. Tomotherapy plans were made with both 1cm jaw and 2.5cm jaw. Pinnacle SmartArc and Eclipse RapidArc plans used 1 arc and 2 arcs. Plan quality was evaluated by dose-volume histograms, conformity index (CI), and heterogeneity index (HI). V10% and V20% of body were used in quantifying low dose volume. Integral doses were computed for each plan and compared. Dose profiles across the target center were retrieved to show the rate of dose falls off. All arc TPS generated clinically acceptable plan with comparable target CI and HI. The V20% of body of the cylindrical phantom case were 3551cc, 4054cc, 3375cc, 3438cc, 3714cc and 3679cc for tomotherapy 1 cm and 2 cm jaw, SmartArc 1 arc and 2 arc, and RapidArc 1 arc and 2 arc plans, respectively. The integral doses were 19.67, 22.78, 18.68, 18.50, 19.78 and 19.73 Joule, respectively. For the anthropomorphic phantom, the integral doses were 81.69, 102.77, 84.5 and 82.5 Joule for tomotherapy 1cm, 2cm, SmartArc 1arc and RapidArc 1arc, respectively. Dose profiles showed tomotherapy 1cm plan had similar longitudinal penumbra as SmartArc and RapidArc, while tomotherapy 2.5cm plan produced significant broader penumbra. Similar low dose volume and integral dose are found in SmartArc, Rapid Arc, and as well as helical tomotherapy plan of 1cm jaw. Tomotherapy plans of 2.5cm jaw, however, shows higher low dose volume and integral dose. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Rotating Drive for Electrical-Arc Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fransen, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    Rotating drive improves quality of holes made by electrical-arc machining. Mechanism (Uni-tek, rotary head, or equivalent) attached to electrical-arc system. Drive rotates electrode as though it were mechanical drill, while an arc disintegrates metal in workpiece, thereby creating hole. Rotating electrode method often used in electric-discharge machining. NASA innovation is application of technique to electrical-arc machining.

  5. Steady rotation of the Cascade arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray E.; McCaffrey, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Displacement of the Miocene Cascade volcanic arc (northwestern North America) from the active arc is in the same sense and at nearly the same rate as the present clockwise block motions calculated from GPS velocities in a North American reference frame. Migration of the ancestral arc over the past 16 m.y. can be explained by clockwise rotation of upper-plate blocks at 1.0°/m.y. over a linear melting source moving westward 1–4.5 km/m.y. due to slab rollback. Block motion and slab rollback are in opposite directions in the northern arc, but both are westerly in the southern extensional arc, where rollback may be enhanced by proximity to the edge of the Juan de Fuca slab. Similarities between post–16 Ma arc migration, paleomagnetic rotation, and modern GPS block motions indicate that the secular block motions from decadal GPS can be used to calculate long-term strain rates and earthquake hazards. Northwest-directed Basin and Range extension of 140 km is predicted behind the southern arc since 16 Ma, and 70 km of shortening is predicted in the northern arc. The GPS rotation poles overlie a high-velocity slab of the Siletzia terrane dangling into the mantle beneath Idaho (United States), which may provide an anchor for the rotations.

  6. Masking, persistence, and transfer in rotating arcs.

    PubMed

    Geremek, Adam; Stürzel, Frank; da Pos, Osvaldo; Spillmann, Lothar

    2002-10-01

    We demonstrate that the apparent length of a thin white arc on a black disk, rotating concentrically at 2.5 rps, varies with angular length and exposure duration. While short arcs (9-18 degrees ) gradually expand, long arcs (36-72 degrees ) first undergo a brief contraction, before they also expand. On average, perceived elongation asymptotes after 15 s equivalent to visual persistencies ranging from 68 to 170 ms. Using bi- and tri-colored arcs, we find that the apparent increase in length derives from the rear end of the rotating stimulus, while the initial shrinkage derives from contraction of the middle. After 15 s of adaptation, perceived length of the arc decays to actual stimulus length within an average of 6 s and, upon re-exposure of the arc, reaches its former value after only 5 s (priming). When the rotating arc is presented first to one eye and then to the other, apparent elongation transfers partially (46%), suggesting a contribution by the binocular cells in the visual cortex. A partial transfer (26%) also occurs from clockwise to counterclockwise rotation. When tested interocularly, the directional transfer is more pronounced (47%) and equals the interocular transfer under equidirectional conditions, suggesting that the directional transfer (cw versus ccw) might derive from non-directional cortical units. Whereas the initial contraction may be attributable to backward masking, the observed elongation likely reflects a cumulative build-up of after-discharge in cortical neurons over time.

  7. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  8. Thermal analysis of an arc heater electrode with a rotating arc foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Shepard, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A smoothly rotating arc foot and an arc foot that jumps between multiple sticking points were analyzed using analytic formulations and numerical solution procedures. For each case the temperature distribution for a copper electrode was obtained for the plausible range of operating conditions. It is shown that the smoothly rotating arc foot is an extremely safe mode of operation, whereas the jumping arc foot produces excessively high electrode surface temperatures which are not greatly alleviated by increasing the average rotational frequency of the arc foot. It is suggested to eliminate arc-foot rotation and rely on the distribution of fixed electrodes with stationary arc attachment to avoid electrode failure at high current.

  9. Arc-textured high emittance radiator surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    High emittance radiator surfaces are produced by arc-texturing. This process produces such a surface on a metal by scanning it with a low voltage electric arc from a carbon electrode in an inert environment.

  10. Characteristics of Atmospheric Pressure Rotating Gliding Arc Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhu, Fengsen; Tu, Xin; Bo, Zheng; Cen, Kefa; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a novel direct current (DC) atmospheric pressure rotating gliding arc (RGA) plasma reactor has been developed for plasma-assisted chemical reactions. The influence of the gas composition and the gas flow rate on the arc dynamic behaviour and the formation of reactive species in the N2 and air gliding arc plasmas has been investigated by means of electrical signals, high speed photography, and optical emission spectroscopic diagnostics. Compared to conventional gliding arc reactors with knife-shaped electrodes which generally require a high flow rate (e.g., 10-20 L/min) to maintain a long arc length and reasonable plasma discharge zone, in this RGA system, a lower gas flow rate (e.g., 2 L/min) can also generate a larger effective plasma reaction zone with a longer arc length for chemical reactions. Two different motion patterns can be clearly observed in the N2 and air RGA plasmas. The time-resolved arc voltage signals show that three different arc dynamic modes, the arc restrike mode, takeover mode, and combined modes, can be clearly identified in the RGA plasmas. The occurrence of different motion and arc dynamic modes is strongly dependent on the composition of the working gas and gas flow rate. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51576174), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20120101110099) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2015FZA4011)

  11. Radiation of long and high power arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressault, Y.; Bauchire, J. M.; Hong, D.; Rabat, H.; Riquel, G.; Sanchez, F.; Gleizes, A.

    2015-10-01

    The operators working on electrical installations of low, medium and high voltages can be accidentally exposed to short-circuit arcs ranging from a few kA to several tens of kA. To protect them from radiation, according to the exposure limits, we need to characterize the radiation emitted by the powerful arc. Therefore, we have developed a general experimental and numerical study in order to estimate the spectral irradiance received at a given distance from the arc. The experimental part was based on a very long arc (up to 2 m) with high ac current (between 4 and 40 kA rms, duration 100 ms) using 3 kinds of metallic contacts (copper, steel and aluminium). We measured the irradiance received 10m from the axis of the arc, and integrated on 4 spectral intervals corresponding to the UV, visible, IRA  +  B and IRC. The theoretical part consisted of calculating the radiance of isothermal plasmas in mixtures of air and metal vapour, integrated over the same spectral intervals as defined in the experiments. The comparison between the theoretical and experimental results has allowed the defining of three isothermal radiation sources whose combination leads to a spectral irradiation equivalent to the experimental one. Then the calculation allowed the deduction of the spectral description of the irradiance over all the wavelength range, between 200 nm and 20 μm. The final results indicate that the influence of metal is important in the visible and UVA ranges whereas the IR radiation is due to the air plasma and surrounding hot gas and fumes.

  12. Exposure assessment of aluminum arc welding radiation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-yu; Lan, Cheng-hang; Juang, Yow-jer; Tsao, Ta-ho; Dai, Yu-tung; Liu, Hung-hsin; Chen, Chiou-jong

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the non-ionizing radiation (NIR) exposure, especially optical radiation levels, and potential health hazard from aluminum arc welding processes based on the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) method. The irradiance from the optical radiation emissions can be calculated with various biological effective parameters [i.e., S(lambda), B(lambda), R(lambda)] for NIR hazard assessments. The aluminum arc welding processing scatters bright light with NIR emission including ultraviolet radiation (UVR), visible, and infrared spectra. The UVR effective irradiance (Eeff) has a mean value of 1,100 microW cm at 100 cm distance from the arc spot. The maximum allowance time (tmax) is 2.79 s according to the ACGIH guideline. Blue-light hazard effective irradiance (EBlue) has a mean value of 1840 microW cm (300-700 nm) at 100 cm with a tmax of 5.45 s exposure allowance. Retinal thermal hazard effective calculation shows mean values of 320 mW cm(-2) sr(-1) and 25.4 mW (cm-2) (380-875 nm) for LRetina (spectral radiance) and ERetina (spectral irradiance), respectively. From this study, the NIR measurement from welding optical radiation emissions has been established to evaluate separate types of hazards to the eye and skin simultaneously. The NIR exposure assessment can be applied to other optical emissions from industrial sources. The data from welding assessment strongly suggest employees involved in aluminum welding processing must be fitted with appropriate personal protection devices such as masks and gloves to prevent serious injuries of the skin and eyes upon intense optical exposure.

  13. Paleomagnetic rotations and the kinematics of the Gibraltar arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzman, E. S.

    1992-04-01

    Paleomagnetic investigations of a Mesozoic limestone sequence around the Gibraltar arc show that there have been large systematic rotations about a vertical axis and imply that there must have been a significant component of westward motion within the Betic-Rif orogenic belt. Rotations of the Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous limestones in the Betic Cordillera of southern Spain are clockwise, with the exception of the unrotated Sierra Gorda, whereas the Jurassic sites in the Rif Mountains of Morocco are rotated counterclockwise, except in the area around Tetuan. These data are generally consistent with formation of the arc either by a westward-moving Alboran microplate or by extensional collapse of a collisional mountain chain. The former model, however, fails to recognize the nonrigid, nonplate-like character of the Alboran domain and lacks a definable driving mechanism. A model of a collapsing east-west-elongated ridge that takes into account the obliquity of the convergence along the active margin may provide mechanisms both for the observed rotations and for the large westward component of motion, and therefore can explain the geometry of the Gibraltar are.

  14. Paleomagnetic rotations and the Cenozoic tectonics of the Cascade Arc, Washington, Oregon, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Paleomagnetic results from Cenozoic (62-12 Ma) volcanic rocks of the Cascade Arc and adjacent areas indicate that moderate to large clockwise rotations are an important component of the tectonic history of the arc, Two mechanisms of rotation are suggested. The progressive increase in rotation toward the coast in arc and forearc rocks results from distributed dextral shear, which is likely driven by oblique subduction of oceanic plates to the west. Simple shear rotation is accommodated in the upper crust by strike-slip faulting. A progressive eastward shift of the arc volcanic front with time in the rotated arc terrane is the result of the westward pivoting of the arc block in front of a zone of extension since Eocene time. Westward migration of bimodal Basin and Range volcanism since at least 16 Ma is tracking rotation of the frontal arc block and growth of the Basin and Range in its wake. -from Author

  15. Dynamic Collimator Angle Adjustments During Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy to Account for Prostate Rotations

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Johan de; Wolf, Anne Lisa; Szeto, Yenny Z.; Herk, Marcel van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Rotations of the prostate gland induce considerable geometric uncertainties in prostate cancer radiation therapy. Collimator and gantry angle adjustments can correct these rotations in intensity modulated radiation therapy. Modern volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments, however, include a wide range of beam orientations that differ in modulation, and corrections require dynamic collimator rotations. The aim of this study was to implement a rotation correction strategy for VMAT dose delivery and validate it for left-right prostate rotations. Methods and Materials: Clinical VMAT treatment plans of 5 prostate cancer patients were used. Simulated left-right prostate rotations between +15° and −15° were corrected by collimator rotations. We compared corrected and uncorrected plans by dose volume histograms, minimum dose (D{sub min}) to the prostate, bladder surface receiving ≥78 Gy (S78) and rectum equivalent uniform dose (EUD; n=0.13). Each corrected plan was delivered to a phantom, and its deliverability was evaluated by γ-evaluation between planned and delivered dose, which was reconstructed from portal images acquired during delivery. Results: On average, clinical target volume minimum dose (D{sub min}) decreased up to 10% without corrections. Negative left-right rotations were corrected almost perfectly, whereas D{sub min} remained within 4% for positive rotations. Bladder S78 and rectum EUD of the corrected plans matched those of the original plans. The average pass rate for the corrected plans delivered to the phantom was 98.9% at 3% per 3 mm gamma criteria. The measured dose in the planning target volume approximated the original dose, rotated around the simulated left-right angle, well. Conclusions: It is feasible to dynamically adjust the collimator angle during VMAT treatment delivery to correct for prostate rotations. This technique can safely correct for left-right prostate rotations up to 15°.

  16. Arc Deflection Length Affected by Transverse Rotating Magnetic Field with Lateral Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiino, Toru; Ishii, Yoko; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru; High Current Energy Laboratory (HiCEL) Team

    2016-10-01

    Gas metal arc welding using shielding gas is often used in the welding industry. However, the arc deflection affected by lateral gas is problem because of inappropriate heat transfer. Shielding gas is used in order to prevent the instability affected by the arc deflection. However, the shielding gas causes turbulence, then blowhole of weld defect occurs because the arc affected by the instability is contaminated by the air. Thus, the magnetic field is applied to the arc in order to stabilize the arc using low amount of shielding gas. The method of applying the transverse rotating magnetic field (RMF) to the arc is one of the methods to prevent the arc instability. The RMF drives the arc because of electromagnetic force. The driven arc is considered to be prevented to arc deflection of lateral gas because the arc is restrained by the magnetic field because of the driven arc. In addition, it is assume the RMF prevented to the arc deflection of lateral gas from the multiple directions. In this paper, the arc deflection length affected by the RMF with lateral gas was elucidated in order to know the effect of the RMF for arc stabilization. Specifically, the arc deflection length affected by the magnetic frequency and the magnetic flux density is measured by high speed video camera. As a result, the arc deflection length decreases with increasing magnetic frequency, and the arc deflection length increases with increasing the magnetic flux density.

  17. On the arc structures of the Saturnian kilometric radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Galopeau, P. H. M.; Rucker, H. O.; Voller, W.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the analysis of the dynamic spectra of the Saturnian kilometric radiation (SKR) recorded by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science Experiment (RPWS) in the frequency range from 100 kHz to about 1 MHz. We investigate the Saturnian kilometric spectra recorded by RPWS experiment from 01st Jan. 2004 to 31st Dec. 2007. Different Saturnian 'sources' can be defined by spectral characteristics. We show that the SKR presents different kinds of arc structures. Those arcs may be classified in two sets: the 'vertex early arcs' (VEA) and the 'vertex late arcs' (VLA). The arcs of the first group set open toward increasing time, while the arcs of the other one open towards decreasing time. A total of 556 arcs have been observed during the four investigated years, where 310 and 246 correspond, respectively, to the vertex early and late arcs. The arc occurrences are mainly observed when the spacecraft was close to the apoapses, and also when the Cassini latitude was in the range -20° and +20°. Similar VEA and VLA arc structures have been reported in the case of the Jovian hectometric (HOM) and decametric (DAM) radio emissions. In this contribution we put emphasis on the common and unusual arc features by comparing the auroral emissions related to Jupiter and Saturn.

  18. Paleomagnetic rotations and the Cenozoic tectonics of the Cascade Arc, Washington, Oregon, and California

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, R.E. )

    1990-11-10

    Paleomagnetic results from Cenozoic (62-12 Ma) volcanic rocks of the Cascade arc and adjacent indicate that moderate to large clockwise rotations are an important component of the tectonic history of the arc. Two mechanisms of rotation are suggested by the regional pattern of paleomagnetic rotations. The progressive increase in rotation toward the coast in arc and forearc rocks results from distributed dextral shear, which is likely driven by oblique subduction of oceanic plates to the west. Simple shear rotation is accommodated in the upper crust by strike-slip faulting. The right-lateral Mount St. Helens seismic zone may be an active manifestation of this process. Dextral shear probably obscures a subequal contribution to arc and forearc rotation that is driven by intraarc or backarc extension. This rotation is suggested by the average southward increase in continental margin rotations into the region outboard of the Basin and Range. The southward increase in rotation parallels a change in the arc tectonic regime from largely compressional in northern Washington to extensional in Oregon. Concomitant with this change is a southward increase in the volume of eruptive rocks and the number of basaltic vents in the arc. A progressive eastward shift of the arc volcanic front with time in the rotated arc terrane is the result of the westward pivoting of the arc block in front of a zone of extension since Eocene time. Westward migration of bimodal Basin and Range volcanism since at least 16 Ma is tracking westward rotation of the frontal arc block and growth of the Basin and Range in its wake.

  19. Arc-Polarized, Nonlinear Alfven Waves and Rotational Discontinuities: Directions of Propogation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Ho, C. M.; Sakurai, R.; Arballo, J. K.; Riley, P.; Balogh, A.

    1996-01-01

    Large amplitude, noncompressive Alfven waves and rotational discontinuities are shown to be arc-polarized. The slowly rotating Alfven wave portion plus the fast rotating discontinuity comprise 360(deg) in phase rotation. The magnetic field vector perturbation lies in a plane. There are two (or more) possible interpretations to the observations.

  20. Proton Arc Reduces Range Uncertainty Effects and Improves Conformality Compared With Photon Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Seco, Joao; Gu, Guan; Marcelos, Tiago; Kooy, Hanne; Willers, Henning

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To describe, in a setting of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the theoretical dosimetric advantages of proton arc stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in which the beam penumbra of a rotating beam is used to reduce the impact of range uncertainties. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with proton SBRT underwent repeat planning with photon volumetric modulated arc therapy (Photon-VMAT) and an in-house-developed arc planning approach for both proton passive scattering (Passive-Arc) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT-Arc). An arc was mimicked with a series of beams placed at 10° increments. Tumor and organ at risk doses were compared in the context of high- and low-dose regions, represented by volumes receiving >50% and <50% of the prescription dose, respectively. Results: In the high-dose region, conformality index values are 2.56, 1.91, 1.31, and 1.74, and homogeneity index values are 1.29, 1.22, 1.52, and 1.18, respectively, for 3 proton passive scattered beams, Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT. Therefore, proton arc leads to a 30% reduction in the 95% isodose line volume to 3-beam proton plan, sparing surrounding organs, such as lung and chest wall. For chest wall, V30 is reduced from 21 cm{sup 3} (3 proton beams) to 11.5 cm{sup 3}, 12.9 cm{sup 3}, and 8.63 cm{sup 3} (P=.005) for Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT, respectively. In the low-dose region, the mean lung dose and V20 of the ipsilateral lung are 5.01 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]), 4.38 Gy(RBE), 4.91 Gy(RBE), and 5.99 Gy(RBE) and 9.5%, 7.5%, 9.0%, and 10.0%, respectively, for 3-beam, Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT, respectively. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy with proton arc and Photon-VMAT generate significantly more conformal high-dose volumes than standard proton SBRT, without loss of coverage of the tumor and with significant sparing of nearby organs, such as chest wall. In addition

  1. The ultimate arc: Differential displacement, oroclinal bending, and vertical axis rotation in the External Betic-Rif arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, J. P.; Allerton, S.; Kirker, A.; Mandeville, C.; Mayfield, A.; Platzman, E. S.; Rimi, A.

    2003-06-01

    The External Betic-Rif arc, which lies between the converging African and Iberian plates, is one of the tightest orogenic arcs on Earth. It is a thin-skinned fold and thrust belt formed in Miocene time around the periphery of the Alborán Domain, an older contractional orogen that underwent extensional collapse coevally with the formation of the thrust belt. Restoration of four sections across the thrust belt, together with kinematic and paleomagnetic analysis, allows a reconstruction of the prethrusting geometry of the Alborán Domain, and the identification of the following processes that contributed to the formation of the arc: (1) The Alborán Domain moved some 250 km westward relative to Iberia and Africa during the Miocene. This initiated the two limbs of the arc on its NW and SW margins, closing to the WSW in the region of Cherafat in northern Morocco. The overall convergence direction on the Iberian side of the arc was between 310° and 295°, and on the African side it was between 235° and 215°. The difference in convergence direction between the two sectors was primarily a result of the relative motion between Africa and Iberia. (2) Extensional collapse of the Alborán Domain during the Miocene modified the geometry of the western end of the arc: the Internal Rif rotated anticlockwise to form the present north trending sector of the arc, and additional components of displacement produced by extension were transferred into the external thrust belt along a series of strike-slip faults and shear zones. These allowed the limbs of the arc to rotate and extend, tightening the arc, and creating variations in the amounts and directions of shortening around the arc. The Betic sector of the arc rotated clockwise by 25° during this process, and the southern Rif rotated anticlockwise by ˜55°. (3) Oblique convergence on the two limbs of the arc, dextral in the Betics and sinistral in the southern Rif, resulted in strongly noncoaxial deformation. This had three

  2. Radiation directivity rotation by acoustic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xue; Liang, Bin E-mail: jccheng@nju.edu.cn; Zou, Xin-ye; Cheng, Jian-chun E-mail: jccheng@nju.edu.cn; Zhang, Likun

    2015-08-31

    We use a metamaterial-based scheme to rotate the radiation directivity of sound radiated by a source surrounded by the structure. The rotation is demonstrated through both numerical simulations and experiments. The performance persists within a broadband and is entirely independent of the location and pattern of source inside, suggesting great potential in various practical scenarios where both the signal frequency and source position may vary significantly. We have also investigated the possibility to realize versatile controls of radiation direction by tailoring the structural parameters. Our design with special directivity-steering capability may open route to loudspeaker and auditorium acoustics designs and medical ultrasound applications.

  3. Radiation directivity rotation by acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xue; Zhang, Likun; Liang, Bin; Zou, Xin-ye; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2015-08-01

    We use a metamaterial-based scheme to rotate the radiation directivity of sound radiated by a source surrounded by the structure. The rotation is demonstrated through both numerical simulations and experiments. The performance persists within a broadband and is entirely independent of the location and pattern of source inside, suggesting great potential in various practical scenarios where both the signal frequency and source position may vary significantly. We have also investigated the possibility to realize versatile controls of radiation direction by tailoring the structural parameters. Our design with special directivity-steering capability may open route to loudspeaker and auditorium acoustics designs and medical ultrasound applications.

  4. Rotating arc cutoff with a Fluarc switch or a Rollarc contactor in SF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplay, C.

    1983-05-01

    The principles of rotating arc cutoff are reviewed, and applications to circuit breakers and contactors are indicated. The Rollarc (trademark) contactor offers high cutoff power (10 KA at 7.2 KV) and an extremely low level of overvoltage. The Fluorarc (trademark) circuit breaker is similar to the Rollarc, using a magnetic coil to shift the arc, but uses knife switches which are separated from the coil/arc assembly. Fluorarc is sealed for life, and requires no maintenance.

  5. Trajectory optimization for dynamic couch rotation during volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Gregory; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Evans, Philip M.; Bedford, James L.

    2013-11-01

    Non-coplanar radiation beams are often used in three-dimensional conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy to reduce dose to organs at risk (OAR) by geometric avoidance. In volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) non-coplanar geometries are generally achieved by applying patient couch rotations to single or multiple full or partial arcs. This paper presents a trajectory optimization method for a non-coplanar technique, dynamic couch rotation during VMAT (DCR-VMAT), which combines ray tracing with a graph search algorithm. Four clinical test cases (partial breast, brain, prostate only, and prostate and pelvic nodes) were used to evaluate the potential OAR sparing for trajectory-optimized DCR-VMAT plans, compared with standard coplanar VMAT. In each case, ray tracing was performed and a cost map reflecting the number of OAR voxels intersected for each potential source position was generated. The least-cost path through the cost map, corresponding to an optimal DCR-VMAT trajectory, was determined using Dijkstra’s algorithm. Results show that trajectory optimization can reduce dose to specified OARs for plans otherwise comparable to conventional coplanar VMAT techniques. For the partial breast case, the mean heart dose was reduced by 53%. In the brain case, the maximum lens doses were reduced by 61% (left) and 77% (right) and the globes by 37% (left) and 40% (right). Bowel mean dose was reduced by 15% in the prostate only case. For the prostate and pelvic nodes case, the bowel V50 Gy and V60 Gy were reduced by 9% and 45% respectively. Future work will involve further development of the algorithm and assessment of its performance over a larger number of cases in site-specific cohorts.

  6. Electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing in low density plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.; Doreswamy, C. V.

    1996-01-01

    An unavoidable step in the process of space exploration is to use high-power, very large spacecraft launched into Earth orbit. Obviously, the spacecraft will need powerful energy sources. Previous experience has shown that electrical discharges occur on the surfaces of a high-voltage array, and these discharges (arcs) are undesirable in many respects. Moreover, any high voltage conductor will interact with the surrounding plasma, and that interaction may result in electrical discharges between the conductor and plasma (or between two conductors with different potentials, for example, during docking and extravehicular activity). One very important aspect is the generation of electromagnetic radiation by arcing. To prevent the negative influence of electromagnetic noise on the operation of spacecraft systems, it seems necessary to determine the spectra and absolute levels of the radiation, and to determine limitations on the solar array bias voltage that depend on the parameters of LEO plasma and the technical requirements of the spacecraft equipment. This report describes the results of an experimental study and computer simulation of the electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing on spacecraft surfaces. A large set of high quality data was obtained during the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE, flight STS-62) and ground test. These data include the amplitudes of current, pulse forms, duration of each arc, and spectra of plasma waves. A theoretical explanation of the observed features is presented in this report too. The elaborated model allows us to determine the parameters of the electromagnetic noise for different frequency ranges, distances from the arcing site, and distinct kinds of plasma waves.

  7. Modeling of Radiative Heat Transfer in an Electric Arc Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Florian; Treffinger, Peter; Wöllenstein, Jürgen

    2017-08-01

    Radiation is an important means of heat transfer inside an electric arc furnace (EAF). To gain insight into the complex processes of heat transfer inside the EAF vessel, not only radiation from the surfaces but also emission and absorption of the gas phase and the dust cloud need to be considered. Furthermore, the radiative heat exchange depends on the geometrical configuration which is continuously changing throughout the process. The present paper introduces a system model of the EAF which takes into account the radiative heat transfer between the surfaces and the participating medium. This is attained by the development of a simplified geometrical model, the use of a weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model, and a simplified consideration of dust radiation. The simulation results were compared with the data of real EAF plants available in literature.

  8. Time-varying Entry Heating Profile Replication with a Rotating Arc Jet Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstead, Jay Henderson; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Noyes, Eric A.; Mach, Jeffrey J.; Empey, Daniel M.; White, Todd R.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach for arc jet testing of thermal protection materials at conditions approximating the time-varying conditions of atmospheric entry was developed and demonstrated. The approach relies upon the spatial variation of heat flux and pressure over a cylindrical test model. By slowly rotating a cylindrical arc jet test model during exposure to an arc jet stream, each point on the test model will experience constantly changing applied heat flux. The predicted temporal profile of heat flux at a point on a vehicle can be replicated by rotating the cylinder at a prescribed speed and direction. An electromechanical test model mechanism was designed, built, and operated during an arc jet test to demonstrate the technique.

  9. Reforming of biogas to synthesis gas by a rotating arc plasma at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Woo-Jae; Park, Hyun-Woo; Liu, Jing-Lin; Park, Dong-Wha

    2015-09-01

    In order to produce synthesis gas, reforming of biogas composed with 60 percent for CH4 and 40 percent for CO2 was performed by a novel rotating arc plasma process. The effect of O2/CH4 ratio on the conversion, syngas composition and energy cost was investigated to evaluate the performance of proposed system compared with conventional gliding arc plasma process. When the O2/CH4 ratio was increased from 0.4 to 0.9, the conversions of CH4 and O2 increased up to 97.5 percent and 98.8 percent, respectively, while CO2 conversion was almost constant to be 38.6 percent. This is due to more enhance the partial oxidation of CH4 to CO and H2 than that of dry reforming by increasing the O2/CH4 ratio. In this work, energy cost of 32 kJ/mol was achieved with high syngas composition of 71 percent using pure O2 as oxidant reactant. These are lower than those of different arc plasma processes (energy cost of 122 - 1870 kJ/mol) such as spark, spark-shade and gliding arc plasma. Because, this rotating arc plasma can remain in a long arc length and a large volume of plasma with constant arc length mode.

  10. Back-arc extension and contraction leading to Neogene rotations in the eastern Mediterranean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Koopman, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Aegean, western Anatolian and Carpathian regions are well known for major Neogene block rotations. In this contribution we show new paleomagnetic results from western Anatolia and Bulgaria, which complete the record of timing and distribution of major block rotations, and their relation to (back-arc) extension and compression. A new paleomagnetic reference direction from the Moesian platform and the Rhodope in Bulgaria show that this region has been firmly attached to Eurasia since the Eocene. This new direction provides a reference direction with which the rotation results from western Greece and the Carpathians can be compared to resolve the rotation differences, and their tectonic accommodations within this complex tectonic province. We conclude that the west-Aegean region rotated ~40° clockwise with respect to the Moesian platform since 15 Ma, and infer that this rotation difference was in part accommodated in the Aegean extensional back-arc, and in part by extrusion tectonics (and possibly renewed contraction) in the Balkanides of Albania and Serbia, leading to the motion of the Tisza Block around the northwestern edge of the Moesian platform, into the Carpathian back-arc. In the southwestern Anatolian region, at the eastern edge of the Aegean extensional back-arc, we show that counterclockwise rotation of the Bey Daðlarý platform also occurred since ~15 Ma. New paleomagnetic results also show absence of rotation with respect to Eurasia in northwestern Turkey. This rotation difference and inferred rates of extension are in line with the exhumation of the Central Menderes Massif between 15 and 5 Ma, as well as renewed contraction in the Isparta Angle. In both the western and eastern Aegean region the rotation pole is situated within the rotating domain, leading to contraction and/or extrusion west of the western rotation pole, and east of the eastern. The central segment is thus extending, and the rates and direction of extension are in line with the

  11. Reliability of Measurement of Glenohumeral Internal Rotation, External Rotation, and Total Arc of Motion in 3 Test Positions

    PubMed Central

    Kevern, Mark A.; Beecher, Michael; Rao, Smita

    2014-01-01

    Context: Athletes who participate in throwing and racket sports consistently demonstrate adaptive changes in glenohumeral-joint internal and external rotation in the dominant arm. Measurements of these motions have demonstrated excellent intrarater and poor interrater reliability. Objective: To determine intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and standard error of measurement for shoulder internal rotation, external rotation, and total arc of motion using an inclinometer in 3 testing procedures in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I baseball and softball athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic department. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-eight players participated in the study. Shoulder internal rotation, external rotation, and total arc of motion were measured by 2 investigators in 3 test positions. The standard supine position was compared with a side-lying test position, as well as a supine test position without examiner overpressure. Results: Excellent intrarater reliability was noted for all 3 test positions and ranges of motion, with intraclass correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.93 to 0.99. Results for interrater reliability were less favorable. Reliability for internal rotation was highest in the side-lying position (0.68) and reliability for external rotation and total arc was highest in the supine-without-overpressure position (0.774 and 0.713, respectively). The supine-with-overpressure position yielded the lowest interrater reliability results in all positions. The side-lying position had the most consistent results, with very little variation among intraclass correlation coefficient values for the various test positions. Conclusions: The results of our study clearly indicate that the side-lying test procedure is of equal or greater value than the traditional supine-with-overpressure method. PMID:25188316

  12. Reliability of measurement of glenohumeral internal rotation, external rotation, and total arc of motion in 3 test positions.

    PubMed

    Kevern, Mark A; Beecher, Michael; Rao, Smita

    2014-01-01

    Athletes who participate in throwing and racket sports consistently demonstrate adaptive changes in glenohumeral-joint internal and external rotation in the dominant arm. Measurements of these motions have demonstrated excellent intrarater and poor interrater reliability. To determine intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and standard error of measurement for shoulder internal rotation, external rotation, and total arc of motion using an inclinometer in 3 testing procedures in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I baseball and softball athletes. Cross-sectional study. Athletic department. Thirty-eight players participated in the study. Shoulder internal rotation, external rotation, and total arc of motion were measured by 2 investigators in 3 test positions. The standard supine position was compared with a side-lying test position, as well as a supine test position without examiner overpressure. Excellent intrarater reliability was noted for all 3 test positions and ranges of motion, with intraclass correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.93 to 0.99. RESULTS for interrater reliability were less favorable. Reliability for internal rotation was highest in the side-lying position (0.68) and reliability for external rotation and total arc was highest in the supine-without-overpressure position (0.774 and 0.713, respectively). The supine-with-overpressure position yielded the lowest interrater reliability results in all positions. The side-lying position had the most consistent results, with very little variation among intraclass correlation coefficient values for the various test positions. The results of our study clearly indicate that the side-lying test procedure is of equal or greater value than the traditional supine-with-overpressure method.

  13. Arc plasma assisted rotating electrode process for preparation of metal pebbles

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, T.; Tripathi, B.M.; Mahata, T.; Sinha, P.K.

    2014-07-01

    Spherical beryllium pebbles of size ranging from 0.2-2 mm are required as neutron multiplying material in solid Test Blanket Module (TBM) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Rotating electrode process (REP) has been identified as a suitable technique for preparation of beryllium pebbles. In REP, arc plasma generated between non-consumable electrode (cathode) and rotating metal electrode (anode) plays a major role for continuous consumption of metal electrode and preparation of spherical metal pebbles. This paper focuses on description of the process, selection of sub-systems for development of REP experimental set up and optimization of arc parameters, such as, cathode geometry, arc current, arc voltage, arc gap and carrier gas flow rate for preparation of required size spherical metal pebbles. Other parameters which affect the pebbles sizes are rotational speed, metal electrode diameter and physical properties of the metal. As beryllium is toxic in nature its surrogate metals such as stainless steel (SS) and Titanium (Ti) were selected to evaluate the performance of the REP equipment. Several experiments were carried out using SS and Ti electrode and process parameters have been optimized for preparation of pebbles of different sizes. (author)

  14. Self-consistent radiation-based simulation of electric arcs: II. Application to gas circuit breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanidis, A. A.; Franck, C. M.

    2008-07-01

    An accurate and robust method for radiative heat transfer simulation for arc applications was presented in the previous paper (part I). In this paper a self-consistent mathematical model based on computational fluid dynamics and a rigorous radiative heat transfer model is described. The model is applied to simulate switching arcs in high voltage gas circuit breakers. The accuracy of the model is proven by comparison with experimental data for all arc modes. The ablation-controlled arc model is used to simulate high current PTFE arcs burning in cylindrical tubes. Model accuracy for the lower current arcs is evaluated using experimental data on the axially blown SF6 arc in steady state and arc resistance measurements close to current zero. The complete switching process with the arc going through all three phases is also simulated and compared with the experimental data from an industrial circuit breaker switching test.

  15. Radiation Power Affected by Current and Wall Radius in Water Cooled Vortex Wall-stabilized Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwao, Toru; Nakamura, Takaya; Yanagi, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Shinji

    2015-11-01

    The arc lighting to obtain the environment to evacuate, save the life, keep the safety and be comfortable are focus on. The lack of radiation intensity and color rendering is problem because of inappropriate energy balance. Some researchers have researched the arc lamp mixed with metal vapor for improvement of color rendering spectrum. The metal vapor can emit the high intense radiation. In addition, the radiation is derived from the high temperature medium. Because the arc temperature can be controlled by current and arc radius, the radiation can be controlled by the current and arc radius. This research elucidates the radiation power affected by the current and wall radius in wall-stabilized arc of water-cooled vortex type. As a result, the radiation power increases with increasing the square of current / square of wall radius because of the temperature distribution which is derived from the current density at the simulation.

  16. Arc binary intensity modulated radiation therapy (AB IMRT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun

    The state of the art Intensity Modulate Radiation Therapy (IMRT) has been one of the most significant breakthroughs in the cancer treatment in the past 30 years. There are two types of IMRT systems. The first system is the binary-based tomotherapy, represented by the Peacock (Nomos Corp) and Tomo unit (TomoTherapy Inc.), adopting specific binary collimator leafs to deliver intensity modulated radiation fields in a serial or helical fashion. The other uses the conventional dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) to deliver intensity modulated fields through a number of gantry positions. The proposed Arc Binary IMRT attempts to deliver Tomo-like IMRT with conventional dynamic MLC and combines the advantages of the two types of IMRT techniques: (1) maximizing the number of pencil beams for better dose optimization, (2) enabling conventional linear accelerator with dynamic MLC to deliver Tomo-like IMRT. In order to deliver IMRT with conventional dynamic MLC in a binary fashion, the slice-by-slice treatment with limited slice thickness has been proposed in the thesis to accommodate the limited MLC traveling speed. Instead of moving the patient to subsequent treatment slices, the proposed method offsets MLC to carry out the whole treatment, slice by slice sequentially, thus avoid patient position error. By denoting one arc pencil beam set as a gene, genetic algorithm (GA) is used as the searching engine for the dose optimization process. The selection of GA parameters is a crucial step and has been studied in depth so that the optimization process will converge with reasonable speed. Several hypothetical and clinical cases have been tested with the proposed IMRT method. The comparison of the dose distribution with other commercially available IMRT systems demonstrates the clear advantage of the new method. The proposed Arc Binary Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy is not only theoretically sound but practically feasible. The implementation of this method would expand the

  17. Stabilized luminous arcs (rotating arcs) in nitrogen and carbon dioxide at pressures of one to forty atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foitzik, R.

    1984-01-01

    The arcs were run in the axis of a rapidly rotating glass tube, at 1 to 20 atm. For pressures over 20 atm., a decrease of stability appeared and above 40 atm., the results were very unsatisfactory owing to turbulence. The voltage and longitudinal-field-strength curves for both gases had a descending character. The field strength was 1.5 to 2.0 times as high in CO2 as in N. Under 10 atm. of pressure approx. linear values obtained. In N the column diam. increased with pressure. C. d. increased with pressure in CO2. Good agreement with the Steenbeck minimum principle was in general obtained.

  18. The origin of summit basins on the Aleutian Ridge: implications for block rotation of an arc massif ( Pacific).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Childs, J. R.; Scholl, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    It is proposed that many summit basins along the Aleutian Arc form from the clockwise rotation of blocks of the arc massic. Summit basins are arc-parallel grabens or half-grabens formed within the arc massif and are commonly located near or along the axis of late Cenozoic volcanism. Geomorphically, the Aleutian Arc appears to consist of contiguous rhombic blocks of varying size, 10's to 100's of km in length. Presents a model for block rotation that involves translation of blocks parallel to an arc. It is suggested that block rotation, which appears to have accelerated in late Cenozoic time, is linked to: 1) a shift in the Euler pole for the Pacific plate; 2) the consequential start-up of late Cenozoic volcanism; 3) improved interplate coupling instigated by sediment flooding of the Aleutian Trench; and 4) westward subduction of NE striking segments of the inactive Kula-Pacific Ridge.-from Authors

  19. Critical Collapse of Rotating Radiation Fluids.

    PubMed

    Baumgarte, Thomas W; Gundlach, Carsten

    2016-06-03

    We present results from the first fully relativistic simulations of the critical collapse of rotating radiation fluids. We observe critical scaling both in subcritical evolutions-in which case the fluid disperses to infinity and leaves behind flat space-and in supercritical evolutions, which lead to the formation of black holes. We measure the mass and angular momentum of these black holes, and find that both show critical scaling with critical exponents that are consistent with perturbative results. The critical exponents are universal: they are not affected by angular momentum, and are independent of the direction in which the critical curve, which separates subcritical from supercritical evolutions in our two-dimensional parameter space, is crossed. In particular, these findings suggest that the angular momentum decreases more rapidly than the square of the mass, so that, as criticality is approached, the collapse leads to the formation of a nonspinning black hole. We also demonstrate excellent agreement of our numerical data with new closed-form extensions of power-law scalings that describe the mass and angular momentum of rotating black holes formed close to criticality.

  20. SU-E-T-187: Feasibility Study of Stereotactic Liver Radiation Therapy Using Multiple Divided Partial Arcs in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y; Ozawa, S; Tsegmed, U; Nakashima, T; Shintaro, T; Ochi, Y; Kawahara, D; Kimura, T; Nagata, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To verify volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using flattening filter free (FFF) mode with jaw tracking (JT) feature for single breath hold as long as 15 s per arc in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) against intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) FFF-JT. Methods: Ten hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases were planned with 10 MV FFF using Pinnacle3 treatment planning system which delivered by TrueBeam to administer 48 Gy/ 4 fractions. Eight non-coplanar beams were assigned to IMRT using step-and-shoot technique. For VMAT, two or three non-coplanar partial arcs (up to 180 degrees) were further divided into subarcs with gantry rotation less than 80 degrees to limit delivery time within 15 s. Dose distributions were verified using OCTAVIUS II system and pass rates were evaluated using gamma analysis with criteria of 3%/3 mm at threshold of 5% to the maximum dose. The actual irradiation time was measured. Results: The VMAT-FFF-JT of partial-arcs with sub-divided arcs was able to produce a highly conformal plan as well as IMRT-FFF-JT. Isodose lines and DVH showed slight improvement in dosimetry when JT was employed for both IMRT and VMAT. Consequently, VMAT-FFF-JT was superior in reducing the dose to liver minus gross tumor volume. VMAT-FFF-JT has shorter total treatment time compared with 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) FFF because the gantry was rotated simultaneously with the beam delivery in VMAT. Moreover, due to the small and regular shape of HCC, VMAT-FFF-JT offered less multileaf collimator motion, thus the interplay effect is expected to be reduced. The patient specific QA of IMRT and VMAT acquired the pass rates higher than 90%. Conclusion: VMAT-FFF-JT could be a promising technique for liver SBRT as the sub-divided arcs method was able to accommodate a single breath hold irradiation time of less than 15 s without deterioration of the dose distribution compared with IMRT-FFF-JT.

  1. Dosimetric evaluation of the interplay effect in respiratory-gated RapidArc radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Craig; Yang, Yong Li, Tianfang; Zhang, Yongqian; Heron, Dwight E.; Huq, M. Saiful

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with gating capability has had increasing adoption in many clinics in the United States. In this new technique, dose rate, gantry rotation speed, and the leaf motion speed of multileaf collimators (MLCs) are modulated dynamically during gated beam delivery to achieve highly conformal dose coverage of the target and normal tissue sparing. Compared with the traditional gated intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique, this complicated beam delivery technique may result in larger dose errors due to the intrafraction tumor motion. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the dosimetric influence of the interplay effect for the respiration-gated VMAT technique (RapidArc, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Our work consisted of two parts: (1) Investigate the interplay effect for different target residual errors during gated RapidArc delivery using a one-dimensional moving phantom capable of producing stable sinusoidal movement; (2) Evaluate the dosimetric influence in ten clinical patients’ treatment plans using a moving phantom driven with a patient-specific respiratory curve. Methods: For the first part of this study, four plans were created with a spherical target for varying residual motion of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 cm. Appropriate gating windows were applied for each. The dosimetric effect was evaluated using EDR2 film by comparing the gated delivery with static delivery. For the second part of the project, ten gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy cases were selected and reoptimized to be delivered by the gated RapidArc technique. These plans were delivered to a phantom, and again the gated treatments were compared to static deliveries by the same methods. Results: For regular sinusoidal motion, the dose delivered to the target was not substantially affected by the gating windows when evaluated with the gamma statistics, suggesting the interplay effect has a small role in respiratory-gated RapidArc

  2. Dosimetric evaluation of the interplay effect in respiratory-gated RapidArc radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Craig; Yang, Yong Li, Tianfang; Zhang, Yongqian; Heron, Dwight E.; Huq, M. Saiful

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with gating capability has had increasing adoption in many clinics in the United States. In this new technique, dose rate, gantry rotation speed, and the leaf motion speed of multileaf collimators (MLCs) are modulated dynamically during gated beam delivery to achieve highly conformal dose coverage of the target and normal tissue sparing. Compared with the traditional gated intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique, this complicated beam delivery technique may result in larger dose errors due to the intrafraction tumor motion. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the dosimetric influence of the interplay effect for the respiration-gated VMAT technique (RapidArc, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Our work consisted of two parts: (1) Investigate the interplay effect for different target residual errors during gated RapidArc delivery using a one-dimensional moving phantom capable of producing stable sinusoidal movement; (2) Evaluate the dosimetric influence in ten clinical patients’ treatment plans using a moving phantom driven with a patient-specific respiratory curve. Methods: For the first part of this study, four plans were created with a spherical target for varying residual motion of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 cm. Appropriate gating windows were applied for each. The dosimetric effect was evaluated using EDR2 film by comparing the gated delivery with static delivery. For the second part of the project, ten gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy cases were selected and reoptimized to be delivered by the gated RapidArc technique. These plans were delivered to a phantom, and again the gated treatments were compared to static deliveries by the same methods. Results: For regular sinusoidal motion, the dose delivered to the target was not substantially affected by the gating windows when evaluated with the gamma statistics, suggesting the interplay effect has a small role in respiratory-gated RapidArc

  3. Clinical applications of advanced rotational radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalichowski, Adrian

    Purpose: With a fast adoption of emerging technologies, it is critical to fully test and understand its limits and capabilities. In this work we investigate new graphic processing unit (GPU) based treatment planning algorithm and its applications in helical tomotherapy dose delivery. We explore the limits of the system by applying it to challenging clinical cases of total marrow irradiation (TMI) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We also analyze the feasibility of alternative fractionation schemes for total body irradiation (TBI) and TMI based on reported historical data on lung dose and interstitial pneumonitis (IP) incidence rates. Methods and Materials: An anthropomorphic phantom was used to create TMI plans using the new GPU based treatment planning system and the existing CPU cluster based system. Optimization parameters were selected based on clinically used values for field width, modulation factor and pitch. Treatment plans were also created on Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems Inc, Palo Alto, CA) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for dose delivery on IX treatment unit. A retrospective review was performed of 42 publications that reported IP rates along with lung dose, fractionation regimen, dose rate and chemotherapy. The analysis consisted of nearly thirty two hundred patients and 34 unique radiation regimens. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine parameters associated with IP and establish does response function. Results: The results showed very good dosimetric agreement between the GPU and CPU calculated plans. The results from SBRT study show that GPU planning system can maintain 90% target coverage while meeting all the constraints of RTOG 0631 protocol. Beam on time for Tomotherapy and flattening filter free RapidArc was much faster than for Vero or Cyberknife. Retrospective data analysis showed that lung dose and Cyclophosphomide (Cy) are both predictors of IP in TBI/TMI treatments. The

  4. Clues for a Tortonian reconstruction of the Gibraltar Arc: Structural pattern, deformation diachronism and block rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Comas, Menchu; Balanyá, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    We proposed a reconstruction of one of the tightest orogenic arcs on Earth: the Gibraltar Arc System. This reconstruction, which includes onshore and offshore data, is completed for approximately 9 Ma. The clues that lead us to draw it are based on a review in terms of structures and age of the superposed deformational events that took place during Miocene, with special attention to the external zones. This review and new structural data presented in this paper permit us to constrain the timing of vertical axis-rotations evidenced by previously published paleomagnetic data, and to identify homogeneous domains in terms of relationships between timing of deformation events, (re)magnetization and rotations. In particular, remagnetization in the Betics took place after the main shortening which produced the external fold-and-thrust belts (pre-upper Miocene), but was mostly previous to a contractive reorganization that affected the whole area; it should have occurred during lower Tortonian (between 9.9 and 11 Ma). From Tortonian to Present, block-rotations as high as 53° took place. Together with plate convergence, they accommodated a tightening and lengthening of the Gibraltar Arc System and drastically altered its geometry. As the orientation and position of any pre-9 Ma kinematic indicator or structural element is also modified, our reconstruction should be used as starting point for any pre-Tortonian model of the westernmost orogenic segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean system.

  5. Artificial Optical Radiation photobiological hazards in arc welding.

    PubMed

    Gourzoulidis, G A; Achtipis, A; Topalis, F V; Kazasidis, M E; Pantelis, D; Markoulis, A; Kappas, C; Bourousis, C A

    2016-08-01

    Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) is associated with crucial social, economic, cultural and technical issues. A highly specialized OHS sector deals with the photobiological hazards from artificial optical radiation (AOR), which is divided into visible light, UV and IR emitted during various activities and which is legally covered by European Directive 2006/25/EC. Among the enormous amount of sources emitting AOR, the most important non-coherent ones to consider for health effects to the whole optical range, are arcs created during metal welding. This survey presents the effort to assess the complicated exposure limits of the Directive in the controlled environment of a welding laboratory. Sensors covering the UV and blue light range were set to measure typical welding procedures reproduced in the laboratory. Initial results, apart from apparently justifying the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) due to even subsecond overexposures measured, also set the basis to evaluate PPE's properties and support an integrated risk assessment of the complex welding environment. These results can also improve workers' and employer's information and training about radiation hazards, which is a crucial OHS demand.

  6. Simultaneous couch and gantry dynamic arc rotation (CG-Darc) in the treatment of breast cancer with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI): a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Carmen C; Beckham, Wayne A; Patenaude, Veronica V; Olivotto, Ivo A; Vlachaki, Maria T

    2013-01-07

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetry of CG-Darc with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) in the treatment of breast cancer with APBI. CG-Darc plans were generated using two tangential couch arcs combined with a simultaneous noncoplanar gantry arc. The dynamic couch arc was modeled by consecutive IMRT fields at 10° intervals. RapidArc plans used a single partial arc with an avoidance sector, preventing direct beam exit into the thorax. CG-Darc and RapidArc plans were compared with 3D CRT in 20 patients previously treated with 3D CRT (group A), and in 15 additional patients who failed the dosimetric constraints of the Canadian trial and of NSABP B-39/RTOG 0413 for APBI (group B). CG-Darc resulted in superior target coverage compared to 3D CRT and RapidArc (V95%: 98.2% vs. 97.1% and 95.7%). For outer breast lesions, CG-Darc and RapidArc significantly reduced the ipsilateral breast V50% by 8% in group A and 15% in group B (p < 0.05) as compared with 3D CRT. For inner and centrally located lesions, CG-Darc resulted in significant ipsilateral lung V10% reduction when compared to 3D CRT and RapidArc (10.7% vs. 12.6% and 20.7% for group A, and 15.1% vs. 25.2% and 27.3% for group B). Similar advantage was observed in the dosimetry of contralateral breast where the percent maximum dose for CG-Darc, 3D CRT, and RapidArc were 3.9%, 6.3%, and 5.8% for group A and 4.3%, 9.2%, and 6.3% for group B, respectively (p < 0.05). CG-Darc achieved superior target coverage while decreasing normal tissue dose even in patients failing APBI dose constraints. Consequently, this technique has the potential of expanding the use of APBI to patients currently ineligible for such treatment. Modification of the RapidArc algorithm will be necessary to link couch and gantry rotation with variable dose rate and, therefore, enable the use of CG-Darc in clinical practice.

  7. Continuous Arc Rotation of the Couch Therapy for the Delivery of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Treatment Planning Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaitelman, Simona F.; Kim, Leonard H.; Yan Di; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Vicini, Frank A.; Grills, Inga S.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: We present a novel form of arc therapy: continuous arc rotation of the couch (C-ARC) and compare its dosimetry with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). C-ARC, like VMAT, uses a modulated beam aperture and dose rate, but with the couch, not the gantry, rotating. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients previously treated with APBI using 3D-CRT were replanned with (1) C-ARC, (2) IMRT, and (3) VMAT. C-ARC plans were designed with one medial and one lateral arc through which the couch rotated while the gantry was held stationary at a tangent angle. Target dose coverage was normalized to the 3D-CRT plan. Comparative endpoints were dose to normal breast tissue, lungs, and heart and monitor units prescribed. Results: Compared with 3D-CRT, C-ARC, IMRT, and VMAT all significantly reduced the ipsilateral breast V50% by the same amount (mean, 7.8%). Only C-ARC and IMRT plans significantly reduced the contralateral breast maximum dose, the ipsilateral lung V5Gy, and the heart V5%. C-ARC used on average 40%, 30%, and 10% fewer monitor units compared with 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT, respectively. Conclusions: C-ARC provides improved dosimetry and treatment efficiency, which should reduce the risks of toxicity and secondary malignancy. Its tangent geometry avoids irradiation of critical structures that is unavoidable using the en face geometry of VMAT.

  8. Rotating bubble membrane radiator for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, B. J.; Antoniak, Z. I.

    1986-01-01

    An advanced radiator concept for heat rejection in space is described which uses a two-phase working fluid to radiate waste heat. The development of new advanced materials and the large surface area per mass makes the Bubble Membrane Radiator an attractive alternative to both conventional heat pipes and liquid droplet radiators for mid- to high-temperature applications. A system description, a discussion of design requirements, and a mass comparison with heat pipes and liquid droplet radiators is provided.

  9. Rotating bubble membrane radiator for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Brent J.

    1986-01-01

    An advanced radiator concept for heat rejection in space is described which uses a two-phase working fluid to radiate waste heat. The development of advanced materials and the large surface area per mass makes the Bubble Membrane Radiator an attractive alternative to both conventional heat pipes and liquid droplet radiators for mid to high temperature applications. A system description, a discussion of design requirements, and a mass comparison with heat pipes and liquid droplet radiators are provided.

  10. Natural gamma-radiation in the Aeolian volcanic arc.

    PubMed

    Chiozzi, P; Pasquale, V; Verdoya, M; Minato, S

    2001-11-01

    Pulse-height distributions of gamma-rays, obtained with a field NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in numerous sites of the Lipari and Vulcano islands (Aeolian volcanic arc, Italy), were measured to determine the U, Th and K concentrations of the bedrock and the relative values of the air absorbed dose rate. U is spatially related to both Th and K and the Th/U ratio is on average 3.1-3.5. The magmatic evolution is reflected by the concentration of the three radioelements, as they are more abundant within the more felsic units of the volcanic series. The higher values of U (15.7-20.0 ppm) coincide with higher Th (48.3-65.9 ppm) and K (4.9-6.1%) concentrations associated with rhyolitic rocks of the third cycle (< 50 ky). The air absorbed dose rate varies from 20 to 470 nGy h(-1). The highest values (> 350 nGy h(-1)) are observed on outcrops of rhyolitic obsidian lava flows. The cosmic-ray contribution is also evaluated to estimate the total background radiation dose rate.

  11. Anatomical study of the medial gastrocnemius muscle flap: a quantitative assessment of the arc of rotation.

    PubMed

    Veber, Michaël; Vaz, Gualter; Braye, Fabienne; Carret, Jean-Paul; Saint-Cyr, Michel; Rohrich, Rod J; Mojallal, Ali

    2011-07-01

    The authors compared the arc of rotation of medial gastrocnemius flaps according to three methods: standard harvesting, dissection of the "pes anserinus" muscle, and dissection of the medial condyle. This study was performed using 20 fresh cadavers in two anatomy laboratories in Lyon, France; and Dallas, Texas. The area covered by each flap was calculated. The arc of rotation was calculated using distance from a fixed point, the anterior tibial tuberosity, to the distal flap (segment 1), to the lateral knee (segment 2), to the upper knee (segment 3), and to the medial thigh (segment 4). All measurements were done with leg stretched, applying a tensile strength of 1 daN on the muscle. The average surface of the flaps (32.5 ± 8.55 cm) did not vary with the technique used; neither did the length of segment 1 (19.6 ± 3.53 cm). Segment 2 (9.6 ± 3.1 cm) and segment 3 (13.6 ± 2.76 cm) were increased by 7.3 ± 11.1 percent and 21.3 ± 13.9 percent, respectively, when using pes anserinus dissection; and by 30.2 ± 23 percent and 49.3 ± 34 percent when combining with medial condyle dissection. Segment 4 (22.9 ± 2.21 cm) increased by 15.3 ± 12.8 percent with pes anserinus dissection alone and 36.2 ± 13 percent when combining with medial condyle dissection. This study allowed precise measurement of the flaps and arcs of rotation according to the type of harvest. A marked length gain was achieved by pes anserinus dissection alone or the combination with medial condyle dissection. The authors' results support the importance of assessing the benefit/risk balance between different techniques according to the type and extent of soft-tissue loss requiring reconstruction.

  12. Excited atoms in the free-burning Ar arc: treatment of the resonance radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubovskii, Yu; Kalanov, D.; Gortschakow, S.; Baeva, M.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2016-11-01

    The collisional-radiative model with an emphasis on the accurate treatment of the resonance radiation transport is developed and applied to the free-burning Ar arc plasma. This model allows for analysis of the influence of resonance radiation on the spatial density profiles of the atoms in different excited states. The comparison of the radial density profiles obtained using an effective transition probability approximation with the results of the accurate solution demonstrates the distinct impact of transport on the profiles and absolute densities of the excited atoms, especially in the arc fringes. The departures from the Saha-Boltzmann equilibrium distributions, caused by different radiative transitions, are analyzed. For the case of the DC arc, the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state holds close to the arc axis, while strong deviations from the equilibrium state on the periphery occur. In the intermediate radial positions the conditions of partial LTE are fulfilled.

  13. Strongly coupled radiative transfer and Joule heating in the cathode of an arc heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durgapal, P.; Palmer, Grant E.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation and Joule heating in the electrode region of an arc heater are discussed. Radiative transport equations for a true axisymmetric geometry are used. A subsonic code is developed to numerically solve the fluid equations with strongly coupled radiation and Joule heating representative of a high pressure and high current arc heater. Analytic expression for the divergence of radiative heat flux derived previously is used. Jacobians of the radiation term are derived. The Joule heating term is computed using a previously developed code. The equilibrium gas model consists of seven species. The fluxes are differenced using Van Leer flux splitting. Using this code, the effects of radiative cooling on the thermodynamic parameters of the arc core are discussed.

  14. Rapidly rotating pulsar radiation in vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, V. I.; Denisova, I. P.; Pimenov, A. B.; Sokolov, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the corrections of vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics on rapidly rotating pulsar radiation and spin-down in the perturbative QED approach (post-Maxwellian approximation). An analytical expression for the pulsar's radiation intensity has been obtained and analyzed.

  15. Hawking radiation of non-asymptotically flat rotating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, Izzet; Aslan, Onur Atilla

    2016-04-01

    We study the Hawking radiation of non-asymptotically flat rotating linear dilaton black holes, which are the solutions to the 4D Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion action by using the semi-classical radiation spectrum method. Using scalar perturbations, we show that both angular and radial equations produce exact analytical solutions. Thus, we obtain a precise radiation spectrum for the rotating linear dilaton black hole. The high-frequency regime does not yield the standard Hawking temperature of this black hole computed from the surface gravity. However, we show in detail that the specific low-frequency band of the radiation spectrum allows for the original Hawking temperature of the rotating linear dilaton black hole. The computations are also exhibited graphically.

  16. Hawking radiation of a high-dimensional rotating black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhao; Lichun, Zhang; Huaifan, Li; Yueqin, Wu

    2010-01-01

    We extend the classical Damour-Ruffini method and discuss Hawking radiation spectrum of high-dimensional rotating black hole using Tortoise coordinate transformation defined by taking the reaction of the radiation to the spacetime into consideration. Under the condition that the energy and angular momentum are conservative, taking self-gravitation action into account, we derive Hawking radiation spectrums which satisfy unitary principle in quantum mechanics. It is shown that the process that the black hole radiates particles with energy ω is a continuous tunneling process. We provide a theoretical basis for further studying the physical mechanism of black-hole radiation.

  17. Graphite and ablative material response to CO2 laser, carbon-arc, and xenon-arc radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior was investigated of graphite and several charring ablators in a variety of high-radiative heat-flux environments. A commercial-grade graphite and nine state-of-the-art charring ablators were subjected to various radiative environments produced by a CO2 laser and a carbon arc. Graphite was also tested in xenon-arc radiation. Heat-flux levels ranged from 10 to 47 MW/sq m. Tests were conducted in air, nitrogen, helium, and a CO2-N2 mixture which simulated the Venus atmosphere. The experimental results were compared with theoretical results obtained with a one-dimensional charring-ablator analysis and a two-dimensional subliming-ablator analysis. Neither the graphite nor the charring ablators showed significant differences in appearance or microstructure after testing in the different radiative environments. The performance of phenolic nylon and graphite was predicted satisfactorily with existing analyses and published material property data. Good agreement between experimental and analytical results was obtained by using sublimation parameters from a chemical nonequilibrium analysis of graphite sublimation. Some charring ablators performed reasonably well and could withstand radiative fluxes of the level encountered in certain planetary entries. Other materials showed excessive surface recession and/or large amounts of cracking and spalling, and appear to be unsuitable for severe radiative environments.

  18. Fabricating Aluminum Bronze Rotating Band for Large-Caliber Projectiles by High Velocity Arc Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Fang, Ling-hui; Chen, Xiao-lei; Zou, Zhi-qiang; Yu, Xu-hua; Chen, Gang

    2014-02-01

    The necessity of finding new rotating band materials and developing corresponding joining technologies for large-caliber projectiles has been revealed by the recent increase in the ballistic performance of high loads. In this paper, aluminum bronze coatings were fabricated by the high velocity arc spraying (HVAS) technique. Microstructure and microhardness of the prepared coatings were investigated. Ring-on-disk dry sliding wear tests were conducted in an ambient condition to examine the tribological behavior of the coatings. Quasi-static engraving processes of rotating bands made of as-sprayed aluminum bronze coating and bulk copper were studied using rate-controlled push test methodology on an MTS 810 Material Testing System. The results show that the as-sprayed aluminum bronze coatings have a dense microstructure with porosity of about 1.6%. Meanwhile, the as-sprayed coating presents a higher microhardness than pure copper. The friction coefficient of coatings is about 0.2-0.3 in the steady state. Tribological mechanisms of the as-sprayed coatings were discussed. The engraving test results show that the aluminum bronze rotating band presents high bonding strength and good plasticity. The HVAS aluminum bronze coating should be a possible substitute for the state-of-the-art copper rotating band.

  19. Rotationally driven 'zebra stripes' in Earth's inner radiation belt.

    PubMed

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Mitchell, D G; Takahashi, K; Lanzerotti, L J; Mauk, B H

    2014-03-20

    Structured features on top of nominally smooth distributions of radiation-belt particles at Earth have been previously associated with particle acceleration and transport mechanisms powered exclusively by enhanced solar-wind activity. Although planetary rotation is considered to be important for particle acceleration at Jupiter and Saturn, the electric field produced in the inner magnetosphere by Earth's rotation can change the velocity of trapped particles by only about 1-2 kilometres per second, so rotation has been thought inconsequential for radiation-belt electrons with velocities of about 100,000 kilometres per second. Here we report that the distributions of energetic electrons across the entire spatial extent of Earth's inner radiation belt are organized in regular, highly structured and unexpected 'zebra stripes', even when the solar-wind activity is low. Modelling reveals that the patterns are produced by Earth's rotation. Radiation-belt electrons are trapped in Earth's dipole-like magnetic field, where they undergo slow longitudinal drift motion around the planet because of the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field. Earth's rotation induces global diurnal variations of magnetic and electric fields that resonantly interact with electrons whose drift period is close to 24 hours, modifying electron fluxes over a broad energy range into regular patterns composed of multiple stripes extending over the entire span of the inner radiation belt.

  20. High powered arc electrodes. [producing solar simulator radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. H.; Gettelman, C. C.; Pollack, J. L.; Goldman, G. C.; Decker, A. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Nonconsumable metal electric arc electrodes are described capable of being operated in a variety of gases at various pressures, current, and powers. The cathode has a circular annulus tip to spread the emission area for improved cooling.

  1. Contribution for Iron Vapor and Radiation Distribution Affected by Current Frequency of Pulsed Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokura, Takuya; Mori, Yusuke; Iwao, Toru; Yumoto, Motoshige

    Pulsed GTA welding has been used for improvement of stability, weld speed, and heat input control. However, the temperature and radiation power of the pulsed arc have not been elucidated. Furthermore, arc contamination by metal vapor changes the arc characteristics, e.g. by increasing radiation power. In this case, the metal vapor in pulsed GTA welding changes the distribution of temperature and radiation power as a function of time. This paper presents the relation between metal vapor and radiation power at different pulse frequencies. We calculate the Fe vapor distribution of the pulsed current. Results show that the Fe vapor is transported at fast arc velocity during the peak current period. During the base current period, the Fe vapor concentration is low and distribution is diffuse. The transition of Fe vapor distribution does not follow the pulsed current; the radiation power density distribution differs for high frequencies and low frequencies. In addition, the Fe vapor and radiation distribution are affected by the pulsed arc current frequency.

  2. Radiation spectrum of a high-dimensional rotating black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ren; Li, Huaifan; Zhang, Lichun; Wu, Yueqin

    2010-03-01

    This study extends the classical Damour-Ruffini method and discusses Hawking radiation in a ( n + 4)-dimensional rotating black hole. Under the condition that the total energy and angular momentum of spacetime are conservative, but angular momentum a = J/ M of unit mass of the black hole is variable, taking into consideration the reaction of the radiation of the particle to the spacetime, a new Tortoise coordinate transformation and discuss the black hole radiation spectrum is discussed. The radiation spectrum that satisfies the unitary principle in the general case is derived.

  3. Strain, displacement and rotation associated with the formation of curvature in fold belts; the example of the Jura arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindle, David; Burkhard, Martin

    1999-08-01

    A new simplified genetic classification scheme for arcuate fold-thrust belts is proposed. Based on total strain patterns and displacement vector fields, we distinguish three extreme end-member models: (1) `Oroclines', pure bending of an initially straight belt, (2) `Piedmont glacier' with divergent transport directions and (3) `Primary arcs'. A simple geometric model set-up for the simulation of strain patterns in primary arcs with uniform transport direction demonstrates that divergent strain trajectories and rotations of passive marker lines do not require any divergence in displacement directions. These often quoted arguments are insufficient for the identification of `Oroclinal bending' or `Piedmont glacier' type of arc formation. Only three-dimensional restorations of an arc provide the critical information about displacement directions. In their absence, arc parallel stretches and rotations in comparison with total strains provide the most useful criteria for the distinction of arc formation modes. As an example, the Jura fold-thrust belt of the external Alps is discussed. A large set of strain data includes total shortening estimates based on balanced cross-sections, local strain axes orientations from the inversion of fault populations [Homberg, C., 1996. Unpublished PhD thesis, Université de Paris VI (France)], tectonic stylolites and micro-strains from twinning in sparry calcite. Strain trajectories (maximum shortening direction) computed from these data define a strongly divergent fan with a 90° opening. A complete displacement vector field for the entire Jura has been determined from balanced cross-sections augmented with three-dimensional `block mosaic' restorations [Philippe, Y., 1995. Unpublished PhD thesis, Université de Chambéry (France)]. Displacement vectors diverge by about 40°, markedly less than strain trajectories. The non-parallelism between strain trajectories and transport directions indicates that considerable wrenching deformation

  4. Simulation of Arc Rotation and Its Effects on Pressure of Expansion Volume in an Auto-Expansion SF6 Circuit Breaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junmin; Chi, Chengbin; Guan, Yonggang; Liu, Weidong; Wu, Junhui

    2016-03-01

    A 3D Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) arc model in conjunction with an arc movement model is applied to simulate the arc rotation as well as to solve its effect on the pressure in an auto-expansion circuit breaker. The rotation of the arc driven by an external electromagnetic force is simulated in the case with 200 kA of the short circuit current and 16 ms of arc duration. The arc rotating process and the speed of arc rotation have been obtained in the simulation. A comparison of the pressure in the expansion volume with and without an external magnetic field has been carried out based on the calculation results of two cases. The results of the simulation reveal that the arc rotation, which causes more energy exchange between the arc and its surrounding gas, can evidently bring about the pressurization in the expansion volume, which would contribute to more effective arc quenching at current zero and further reducing operation power. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51177005 and 51477004)

  5. Hawking's radiation in non-stationary rotating de Sitter background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibohal, N.; Ibungochouba, T.

    2011-05-01

    Hawking's radiation effect of Klein-Gordon scalar field, Dirac particles and Maxwell's electromagnetic field in the non-stationary rotating de Sitter cosmological space-time is investigated by using a method of generalized tortoise co-ordinates transformation. The locations and the temperatures of the cosmological horizons of the non-stationary rotating de Sitter model are derived. It is found that the locations and the temperatures of the rotating cosmological model depend not only on the time but also on the angle. The stress-energy regularization techniques are applied to the two dimensional analog of the de Sitter metrics and the calculated stress-energy tensor contains the thermal radiation effect.

  6. Hawking radiation from rotating black holes and gravitational anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro

    2006-08-15

    We study the Hawking radiation from Rotating black holes from the gravitational anomalies point of view. First, we show that the scalar field theory near the Kerr black hole horizon can be reduced to the 2-dimensional effective theory. Then, following Robinson and Wilczek, we derive the Hawking flux by requiring the cancellation of gravitational anomalies. We also apply this method to Hawking radiation from higher dimensional Myers-Perry black holes. In the appendix, we present the trace anomaly derivation of Hawking radiation to argue the validity of the boundary condition at the horizon.

  7. Dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy with robotic stereotactic radiation therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Eun Kyung; Choi, Chul Won; Jang, Won Il; Lee, Sung Hyun; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Kim, Kum Bae; Lee, Dong Han

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy of RapidArc with robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of CyberKnife in the planning and delivery of SBRT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment by analyzing dosimetric parameters. Materials and Methods Two radiation treatment plans were generated for 29 HCC patients, one using Eclipse for the RapidArc plan and the other using Multiplan for the CyberKnife plan. The prescription dose was 60 Gy in 3 fractions. The dosimetric parameters of planning target volume (PTV) coverage and normal tissue sparing in the RapidArc and the CyberKnife plans were analyzed. Results The conformity index was 1.05 ± 0.02 for the CyberKnife plan, and 1.13 ± 0.10 for the RapidArc plan. The homogeneity index was 1.23 ± 0.01 for the CyberKnife plan, and 1.10 ± 0.03 for the RapidArc plan. For the normal liver, there were significant differences between the two plans in the low-dose regions of V1 and V3. The normalized volumes of V60 for the normal liver in the RapidArc plan were drastically increased when the mean dose of the PTVs in RapidArc plan is equivalent to the mean dose of the PTVs in the CyberKnife plan. Conclusion CyberKnife plans show greater dose conformity, especially in small-sized tumors, while RapidArc plans show good dosimetric distribution of low dose sparing in the normal liver and body. PMID:26484307

  8. Light and short arc rubs in rotating machines: Experimental tests and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennacchi, P.; Bachschmid, N.; Tanzi, E.

    2009-10-01

    Rotor-to-stator rub is a non-linear phenomenon which has been analyzed many times in rotordynamics literature, but very often these studies are devoted simply to highlight non-linearities, using very simple rotors, rather than to present reliable models. However, rotor-to-stator rub is actually one of the most common faults during the operation of rotating machinery. The frequency of its occurrence is increasing due to the trend of reducing the radial clearance between the seal and the rotor in modern turbine units, pumps and compressors in order to increase efficiency. Often the rub occurs between rotor and seals and the analysis of the phenomenon cannot set aside the consideration of the different relative stiffness. This paper presents some experimental results obtained by means of a test rig in which rub conditions of real machines are reproduced. In particular short arc rubs are considered and the shaft is stiffer than the obstacle. Then a model, suitable to be employed for real rotating machinery, is presented and the simulations obtained are compared with the experimental results. The model is able to reproduce the behaviour of the test rig.

  9. Accretion of radiation and rotating primordial black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Mahapatra, S. Nayak, B.

    2016-02-15

    We consider rotating primordial black holes (PBHs) and study the effect of accretion of radiation in the radiation-dominated era. The central part of our analysis deals with the role of the angular momentum parameter on the evolution of PBHs. We find that both the accretion and evaporation rates decrease with an increase in the angular momentum parameter, but the rate of evaporation decreases more rapidly than the rate of accretion. This shows that the evaporation time of PBHs is prolonged with an increase in the angular momentum parameter. We also note that the lifetime of rotating PBHs increases with an increase in the accretion efficiency of radiation as in the case of nonrotating PBHs.

  10. Some experience with arc-heater simulation of outer planet entry radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, W. L.; Snow, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    An electric arc heater was operated at 800 amperes and 100,000 pa (1 atm) with hydrogen, helium, and two mixtures of hydrogen and helium. A VUV-scanning monochromator was used to record the spectra from an end view while a second spectrometer was used to determine the plasma temperature using hydrogen continuum radiation at 562 nm. Except for pure helium, the plasma temperature was found to be too low to produce significant helium radiation, and the measured spectra were primarily the hydrogen spectra with the highest intensity in the pure hydrogen case. A radiation computer code was used to compute the spectra for comparison to the measurements and to extend the study to simulation of outer planet entry radiation. Conductive cooling prevented ablation of phenolic carbon material samples mounted inside the arc heater during a cursory attempt to produce radiation absorption by ablation gases.

  11. Optimum Location of Thermal Radiation Shield in Superconducting Rotating Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikiran, P. A.; Rao, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting rotating machines have rotor maintained at low temperatures, below the critical temperature of the superconductor. This establishes large temperature difference between the cold rotor and surroundings, resulting in large heat leak into rotor through conduction, convection and radiation. Minimizing this heat leak is essential to reduce the power expense of cryogenic cooling system. A radiation shield is anchored at a suitable location on torque tube to minimize the radiation heat leak into the cold rotor. This paper presents a methodology to determine the optimum location of this anchor-point of radiation shield for a given geometry, which minimizes the total heat leak into cold rotor. The location of radiation shield is found to be depending on emissivity of cold rotor.

  12. The GLAaS algorithm for portal dosimetry and quality assurance of RapidArc, an intensity modulated rotational therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nicolini, Giorgia; Vanetti, Eugenio; Clivio, Alessandro; Fogliata, Antonella; Korreman, Stine; Bocanek, Jiri; Cozzi, Luca

    2008-01-01

    Background To expand and test the dosimetric procedure, known as GLAaS, for amorphous silicon detectors to the RapidArc intensity modulated arc delivery with Varian infrastructures and to test the RapidArc dosimetric reliability between calculation and delivery. Methods The GLAaS algorithm was applied and tested on a set of RapidArc fields at both low (6 MV) and high (18 MV) beam energies with a PV-aS1000 detector. Pilot tests for short arcs were performed on a 6 MV beam associated to a PV-aS500. RapidArc is a novel planning and delivery method in the category of intensity modulated arc therapies aiming to deliver highly modulated plans with variable MLC shapes, dose rate and gantry speed during rotation. Tests were repeated for entire (360 degrees) gantry rotations on composite dose plans and for short partial arcs (of ~6 or 12 degrees) to assess GLAaS and RapidArc mutual relationships on global and fine delivery scales. The gamma index concept of Low and the Modulation Index concept of Webb were applied to compare quantitatively TPS dose matrices and dose converted PV images. Results The Gamma Agreement Index computed for a Distance to Agreement of 3 mm and a Dose Difference (ΔD) of 3% was, as mean ± 1 SD, 96.7 ± 1.2% at 6 MV and 94.9 ± 1.3% at 18 MV, over the field area. These findings deteriorated slightly is ΔD was reduced to 2% (93.4 ± 3.2% and 90.1 ± 3.1%, respectively) and improved with ΔD = 4% (98.3 ± 0.8% and 97.3 ± 0.9%, respectively). For all tests a grid of 1 mm and the AAA photon dose calculation algorithm were applied. The spatial resolution of the PV-aS1000 is 0.392 mm/pxl. The Modulation Index for calculations resulted 17.0 ± 3.2 at 6 MV and 15.3 ± 2.7 at 18 MV while the corresponding data for measurements were: 18.5 ± 3.7 and 17.5 ± 3.7. Partial arcs findings were (for ΔD = 3%): GAI = 96.7 ± 0.9% for 6° rotations and 98.0 ± 1.1% for 12° rotations. Conclusion The GLAaS method can be considered as a valid Quality Assurance tool

  13. Dosimetric Impact of the Interplay Effect During Stereotactic Lung Radiation Therapy Delivery Using Flattening Filter-Free Beams and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, Chin Loon; Dahele, Max; Slotman, Ben J.; Verbakel, Wilko F.A.R.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: We investigated the dosimetric impact of the interplay effect during RapidArc stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung tumors using flattening filter-free (FFF) beams with different dose rates. Methods and Materials: Seven tumors with motion ≤20 mm, treated with 10-MV FFF RapidArc, were analyzed. A programmable phantom with sinusoidal longitudinal motion (30-mm diameter “tumor” insert; period = 5 s; individualized amplitude from planning 4-dimensional computed tomography) was used for dynamic dose measurements. Measurements were made with GafChromic EBT III films. Plans delivered the prescribed dose to 95% of the planning target volume, created by a 5-mm expansion of the internal target volume. They comprised 2 arcs and maximum dose rates of 400 and 2400 MU/min. For 2400 MU/min plans, measurements were repeated at 3 different initial breathing phases to model interplay over 2 to 3 fractions. For 3 cases, 2 extra plans were created using 1 full rotational arc (with contralateral lung avoidance sector) and 1 partial arc of 224° to 244°. Dynamic and convolved static measurements were compared by use of gamma analysis of 3% dose difference and 1 mm distance-to-agreement. Results: For 2-arc 2400 MU/min plans, maximum dose deviation of 9.4% was found in a single arc; 7.4% for 2 arcs (single fraction) and <5% and 3% when measurements made at 2 and 3 different initial breathing phases were combined, simulating 2 or 3 fractions. For all 7 cases, >99% of the area within the region of interest passed the gamma criteria when all 3 measurements with different initial phases were combined. Single-fraction single-arc plans showed higher dose deviations, which diminished when dose distributions were summed over 2 fractions. All 400 MU/min plans showed good agreement in a single fraction measurement. Conclusion: Under phantom conditions, single-arc and single-fraction 2400 MU/min FFF RapidArc lung stereotactic body radiation therapy is susceptible to interplay

  14. Efficiency gains for spinal radiosurgery using multicriteria optimization intensity modulated radiation therapy guided volumetric modulated arc therapy planning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huixiao; Winey, Brian A; Daartz, Juliane; Oh, Kevin S; Shin, John H; Gierga, David P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate plan quality and delivery efficiency gains of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) versus a multicriteria optimization-based intensity modulated radiation therapy (MCO-IMRT) for stereotactic radiosurgery of spinal metastases. MCO-IMRT plans (RayStation V2.5; RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm, Sweden) of 10 spinal radiosurgery cases using 7-9 beams were developed for clinical delivery, and patients were replanned using VMAT with partial arcs. The prescribed dose was 18 Gy, and target coverage was maximized such that the maximum dose to the planning organ-at-risk volume (PRV) of the spinal cord was 10 or 12 Gy. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) constraints from the clinically acceptable MCO-IMRT plans were utilized for VMAT optimization. Plan quality and delivery efficiency with and without collimator rotation for MCO-IMRT and VMAT were compared and analyzed based upon DVH, planning target volume coverage, homogeneity index, conformity number, cord PRV sparing, total monitor units (MU), and delivery time. The VMAT plans were capable of matching most DVH constraints from the MCO-IMRT plans. The ranges of MU were 4808-7193 for MCO-IMRT without collimator rotation, 3509-5907 for MCO-IMRT with collimator rotation, 4444-7309 for VMAT without collimator rotation, and 3277-5643 for VMAT with collimator of 90 degrees. The MU for the VMAT plans were similar to their corresponding MCO-IMRT plans, depending upon the complexity of the target and PRV geometries, but had a larger range. The delivery times of the MCO-IMRT and VMAT plans, both with collimator rotation, were 18.3 ± 2.5 minutes and 14.2 ± 2.0 minutes, respectively (P < .05). The MCO-IMRT and VMAT can create clinically acceptable plans for spinal radiosurgery. The MU for MCO-IMRT and VMAT can be reduced significantly by utilizing a collimator rotation following the orientation of the spinal cord. Plan quality for VMAT is similar to MCO-IMRT, with similar MU for both modalities. Delivery times can be reduced

  15. Radiation from an accelerating neutral body: The case of rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarman, Tolga; Arik, Metin; Kholmetskii, Alexander L.

    2013-11-01

    diatomic molecule, for instance). If the object reaches its final state in a given medium, say air, and "friction" is present, such as the case of a dental drill, then energy should keep being supplied to it, to overcome friction, which is present either inside the "inner mechanism of rotation" or in its surroundings. In other words, the object in the latter case, would be constantly subject to a friction force, countering its motion, and tending to make it fall to lower rotational energy states. Any fluctuations in the power supply, on the other hand, will slow down the rotating object, no matter how indiscernibly. The small decrease in the rotational velocity is yet reincreased by restoring the power supply, thus perpetually securing a stationary rotational motion. Thereby, the object in this final state, due to fluctuations in either friction or power supply, or both, shall further be expected to emit a radiation of energy , where is the final angular velocity of the object in rotation. What is more is that our team has very successfully measured what is predicted here, and they will report their experimental results in a subsequent article. The approach presented here seems to shed light on the mysterious sonoluminescence. It also triggers the possibility of sensing earthquakes due to radiation that should be emitted by the faults, on which the seismic stress keeps increasing until the crackdown. By the same token, also two colliding (neutral) objects are expected to emit radiation.

  16. Carbon nanoparticles in the radiation field of the stationary arc discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, M. N.

    2015-07-15

    The paper considers a simple theoretical model of heating the nanoparticles, depending on their size and the parameters of the radiating arc and the surrounding gas. This problem is of interest to diagnostics and modeling of the dynamics of the nanoparticles formation and their local size distribution. Heating of nanoparticles by the radiation can affect the process of synthesis. The degree of heating of the particle is determined by its geometry, which opens, apparently, additional possibilities for nonintrusive optical diagnostics.

  17. Jeans instability of rotating magnetized quantum plasma: Influence of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, H.; Pensia, R. K.

    2015-07-31

    The effect of radiative heat-loss function and rotation on the Jeans instability of quantum plasma is investigated. The basic set of equations for this problem is constructed by considering quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model. Using normal mode analysis, the general dispersion relation is obtained. This dispersion relation is studied in both, longitudinal and transverse direction of propagations. In both case of longitudinal and transverse direction of propagation, the Jeans instability criterion is modified due to presence of radiative heat-loss function and quantum correction.

  18. GUP assisted Hawking radiation of rotating acoustic black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, I.; Övgün, A.; Jusufi, K.

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies (Steinhauer in Nat. Phys. 10:864, 2014, Phys. Rev. D 92:024043, 2015) provide compelling evidences that Hawking radiation could be experimentally proven by using an analogue black hole. In this paper, taking this situation into account we study the quantum gravitational effects on the Hawking radiation of rotating acoustic black holes. For this purpose, we consider the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) in the phenomenon of quantum tunneling. We firstly take the modified commutation relations into account to compute the GUP modified Hawking temperature when the massive scalar particles tunnel from this black hole. Then, we find a remarkably instructive expression for the GUP entropy to derive the quantum gravity corrected Hawking temperature of the rotating acoustic black hole.

  19. Earth rotation and GNSS orbits from one-day and three-day arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Simon; Schaer, Stefan; Dach, Rolf; Beutler, Gerhard; Steigenberger, Peter; Meindl, Michael; Jäggi, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    The Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) is one of the analysis centers of the International GNSS Service (IGS). It is estimating satellite orbits and consistent sets of Earth rotation parameters (ERPs) for the final, rapid, and ultra-rapid product lines of the IGS. The solutions are derived from a combined multi-system (GPS and GLONASS) analysis of the GNSS tracking data. Since September 2012 two series of final solutions are operationally generated and submitted to the IGS: the first is based on the observations from exactly one day (requirement of the IGS) and the second stacks the one-day normal equations of three consecutive days to get orbital arcs and piecewise linear Earth rotation parameters which are continuous at the boundaries of the middle day. The same two solution types were produced for the second reprocessing campaign of the IGS (covering the interval from 1994 to the end of 2013; GLONASS starts in 2002). The estimation of the polar motion rates reveals serious deficiencies in the case of the one-day solutions (probably due to interferences with the sub-daily ERPs). Suspicious signatures in the time series of the estimated parameters not visible in the three-day solutions are systematically disturbing the results of the one-day solutions. Artifacts with periods typical for the GLONASS constellation are clearly visible in the one-day solutions, but to a much lesser extent in the three-day solutions. This becomes even more evident in an alternative series generated as consistent (even regarding the station selection) GPS- and GLONASS-only products over four years (2007-2011).

  20. Anomalies, Hawking radiations, and regularity in rotating black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Iso, Satoshi; Umetsu, Hiroshi; Wilczek, Frank

    2006-08-15

    This is an extended version of our previous letter [S. Iso, H. Umetsu, and F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 151302 (2006).]. In this paper we consider rotating black holes and show that the flux of Hawking radiation can be determined by anomaly cancellation conditions and regularity requirement at the horizon. By using a dimensional reduction technique, each partial wave of quantum fields in a d=4 rotating black hole background can be interpreted as a (1+1)-dimensional charged field with a charge proportional to the azimuthal angular momentum m. From this and the analysis [S. P. Robinson and F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 011303 (2005), S. Iso, H. Umetsu, and F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 151302 (2006).] on Hawking radiation from charged black holes, we show that the total flux of Hawking radiation from rotating black holes can be universally determined in terms of the values of anomalies at the horizon by demanding gauge invariance and general coordinate covariance at the quantum level. We also clarify our choice of boundary conditions and show that our results are consistent with the effective action approach where regularity at the future horizon and vanishing of ingoing modes at r={infinity} are imposed (i.e. Unruh vacuum)

  1. Rotating Arc Jet Test Model: Time-Accurate Trajectory Heat Flux Replication in a Ground Test Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, Bernard; Grinstead, Jay; Dyakonov, Artem; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2011-01-01

    Though arc jet testing has been the proven method employed for development testing and certification of TPS and TPS instrumentation, the operational aspects of arc jets limit testing to selected, but constant, conditions. Flight, on the other hand, produces timevarying entry conditions in which the heat flux increases, peaks, and recedes as a vehicle descends through an atmosphere. As a result, we are unable to "test as we fly." Attempts to replicate the time-dependent aerothermal environment of atmospheric entry by varying the arc jet facility operating conditions during a test have proven to be difficult, expensive, and only partially successful. A promising alternative is to rotate the test model exposed to a constant-condition arc jet flow to yield a time-varying test condition at a point on a test article (Fig. 1). The model shape and rotation rate can be engineered so that the heat flux at a point on the model replicates the predicted profile for a particular point on a flight vehicle. This simple concept will enable, for example, calibration of the TPS sensors on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) aeroshell for anticipated flight environments.

  2. A comparison of three radiation models for the calculation of nozzle arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, C. M.; Yan, J. D.; Fang, M. T. C.

    2004-12-01

    Three radiation models, the semi-empirical model based on net emission coefficients (Zhang et al 1987 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 20 386-79), the five-band P1 model (Eby et al 1998 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 31 1578-88), and the method of partial characteristics (Aubrecht and Lowke 1994 J. Phys. D: Appl.Phys. 27 2066-73, Sevast'yanenko 1979 J. Eng. Phys. 36 138-48), are used to calculate the radiation transfer in an SF6 nozzle arc. The temperature distributions computed by the three models are compared with the measurements of Leseberg and Pietsch (1981 Proc. 4th Int. Symp. on Switching Arc Phenomena (Lodz, Poland) pp 236-40) and Leseberg (1982 PhD Thesis RWTH Aachen, Germany). It has been found that all three models give similar distributions of radiation loss per unit time and volume. For arcs burning in axially dominated flow, such as arcs in nozzle flow, the semi-empirical model and the P1 model give accurate predictions when compared with experimental results. The prediction by the method of partial characteristics is poorest. The computational cost is the lowest for the semi-empirical model.

  3. Role of radiative-convective feedbacks in tropical cyclogenesis in rotating radiative-convective equilibrium simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, A. A.; Camargo, S. J.; Sobel, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    "Self-aggregation" is a mode of convective organization found in idealized numerical simulations, in which there is a spontaneous transition from randomly distributed to organized convection despite homogeneous boundary conditions. Self-aggregation has primarily been studied in a non-rotating framework, but it has been hypothesized to be important to tropical cyclogenesis. In numerical simulations of tropical cyclones, a broad vortex or saturated column is often used to initialize the circulation. Here, we instead allow a circulation to develop spontaneously from a homogeneous environment in 3-d cloud-resolving simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium in a rotating framework, with interactive radiation and surface fluxes and fixed sea surface temperature. The goals of this study are two-fold: to study tropical cyclogenesis in an unperturbed environment free from the influence of a prescribed initial vortex or external disturbances, and to compare cyclogenesis to non-rotating self-aggregation. We quantify the feedbacks leading to tropical cyclogenesis using a variance budget equation for the vertically integrated frozen moist static energy. In the initial development of a broad circulation, the feedback processes are similar to the initial phase of non-rotating aggregation. Sensitivity tests in which the degree of interactive radiation is modified are also performed to determine the extent to which the radiative feedbacks that are essential to non-rotating self-aggregation are important for tropical cyclogenesis. Finally, we examine the evolution of the rotational and divergent flow, to determine the point at which rotation becomes important and the cyclogenesis process begins to differ from non-rotating aggregation.

  4. A collisional-radiative model of iron vapour in a thermal arc plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeva, M.; Uhrlandt, D.; Murphy, A. B.

    2017-06-01

    A collisional-radiative model for the ground state and fifty effective excited levels of atomic iron, and one level for singly-ionized iron, is set up for technological plasmas. Attention is focused on the population of excited states of atomic iron as a result of excitation, de-excitation, ionization, recombination and spontaneous emission. Effective rate coefficients for ionization and recombination, required in non-equilibrium plasma transport models, are also obtained. The collisional-radiative model is applied to a thermal arc plasma. Input parameters for the collisional-radiative model are provided by a magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a gas-metal welding arc, in which local thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed and the treatment of the transport of metal vapour is based on combined diffusion coefficients. The results clearly identify the conditions in the arc, under which the atomic state distribution satisfies the Boltzmann distribution, with an excitation temperature equal to the plasma temperature. These conditions are met in the central part of the arc, even though a local temperature minimum occurs here. This provides assurance that diagnostic methods based on local thermodynamic equilibrium, in particular those of optical emission spectroscopy, are reliable here. In contrast, deviations from the equilibrium atomic-state distribution are obtained in the near-electrode and arc fringe regions. As a consequence, the temperatures determined from the ratio of line intensities and number densities obtained from the emission coefficient in these regions are questionable. In this situation, the collisional-radiative model can be used as a diagnostic tool to assist in the interpretation of spectroscopic measurements.

  5. The Radiative Transfer Of CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} Plasma Arc

    SciTech Connect

    Benallal, R.; Liani, B.

    2008-09-23

    Any physical modelling of a circuit-breaker arc therefore requires an understanding of the radiated energy which is taken into account in the form of a net coefficient. The evaluation of the net emission coefficient is performed by the knowledge of the chemical plasma composition and the resolution of the radiative transfer equation. In this paper, the total radiation which escapes from a CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} plasma is calculated in the temperature range between 5000 and 30000K on the assumption of a local thermodynamic equilibrium and we have studied the nitrogen effect in the hydrocarbon plasmas.

  6. Feasibility study of a periodic arc compressor in the presence of coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of short electron bunches in high brightness linear accelerators has raised the awareness of the accelerator community to the degradation of the beam transverse emittance by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted in magnetic bunch length compressors, transfer lines and turnaround arcs. Beam optics control has been proposed to mitigate that CSR effect. In this article, we enlarge on the existing literature by reviewing the validity of the linear optics approach in a periodic, achromatic arc compressor. We then study the dependence of the CSR-perturbed emittance to beam optics, mean energy, and bunch charge. The analytical findings are compared with particle tracking results. Practical considerations on CSR-induced energy loss and nonlinear particle dynamics are included. As a result, we identify the range of parameters that allows feasibility of an arc compressor for driving, for example, a free electron laser or a linear collider.

  7. Generation of high charge state platinum ions on vacuum arc plasma heated by gyrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Yushkov, G Yu; Vodopyanov, A V; Nikolaev, A G; Izotov, I V; Savkin, K P; Golubev, S V; Oks, E M

    2014-02-01

    The hybrid high charge metal ion source based on vacuum arc plasma heated by gyrotron radiation into simple magnetic trap has been developed. Two types of magnetic traps were used: a mirror configuration and a cusp one with inherent "minimum-B" structure. Pulsed high power (>100 kW) gyrotrons with frequency 37.5 GHz and 75 GHz were used for heating the vacuum arc plasma injected into the traps. Two different ways were used for injecting the metal plasma-axial injection by a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and simultaneous radial injection by a number of sources mounted radially at the midplane of the traps. This article represents all data gathered for platinum ions, thus making comparison of the experimental results obtained with different traps and injections convenient and accurate.

  8. Acoustic wavefield and Mach wave radiation of flashing arcs in strombolian explosion measured by image luminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genco, Riccardo; Ripepe, Maurizio; Marchetti, Emanuele; Bonadonna, Costanza; Biass, Sebastien

    2014-10-01

    Explosive activity often generates visible flashing arcs in the volcanic plume considered as the evidence of the shock-front propagation induced by supersonic dynamics. High-speed image processing is used to visualize the pressure wavefield associated with flashing arcs observed in strombolian explosions. Image luminance is converted in virtual acoustic signal compatible with the signal recorded by pressure transducer. Luminance variations are moving with a spherical front at a 344.7 m/s velocity. Flashing arcs travel at the sound speed already 14 m above the vent and are not necessarily the evidence of a supersonic explosive dynamics. However, seconds later, the velocity of small fragments increases, and the spherical acousto-luminance wavefront becomes planar recalling the Mach wave radiation generated by large scale turbulence in high-speed jet. This planar wavefront forms a Mach angle of 55° with the explosive jet axis, suggesting an explosive dynamics moving at Mo = 1.22 Mach number.

  9. Influence of Welding Current and Focal Position on the Resonant Absorption of Laser Radiation in a TIG Welding Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emde, B.; Huse, M.; Hermsdorf, J.; Kaierle, S.; Wesling, V.; Overmeyer, L.

    The work presents the influence of welding current and focal position on the resonant absorption of diode laser radiation in a TIG welding arc. The laser beam is guided perpendicular to the electrical arc to avoid an interaction with the electrodes. Laser power measurements have shown a reduction of the measured laser power up to 18% after passing the electrical arc. This reduction results from the interaction of argon shielding gas atoms and laser radiation at 810.4 nm and 811.5 nm. The interaction is strongly affected by the adjusted welding current and the adjustment of the laser beam and the electrical arc. Lowering the welding current or shifting the laser beam out of the centerline of the electrical arc reduces the ionization probability. An increased ionization is necessary to decrease the resistance of the electrical arc.

  10. Anode-cathode voltage drop of a rotating arc in an auto-expansion circuit-breaker filled with SF6-N2 mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Beauvois, V.; Legros, W.; Scarpa, P.

    1995-12-31

    In auto-expansion circuit-breakers, the power dissipated by the arc itself heats the surrounding gas, inducing a pressure build up in the {open_quotes}upstream volume{close_quotes} and giving rise to a gas flow which blows the extinguishing arc. Moreover, in the studied apparatus, a magnetic field, due to the current flowing in a coil, provides arc radial stability and leads to arc rotation which efficiently reduces electrode erosion. In such a circuit-breaker, it is obvious that arc-gas and arc-electrode interactions are essential and govern. the energy balance in the plasma region. This paper deals more specifically with the phenomena occurring at the arc-electrode interfaces. It relates results of experiments carried out to determine the anode-cathode voltage drop when the apparatus is filled with different SF6-N2 mixtures.

  11. Radiative flow due to stretchable rotating disk with variable thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sumaira; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    Present article concerns with MHD flow of viscous fluid by a rotating disk with variable thickness. Heat transfer is examined in the presence of thermal radiation. Boundary layer approximation is applied to the partial differential equations. Governing equations are then transformed into ordinary differential equations by utilizing Von Karman transformations. Impact of physical parameters on velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number is presented and examined. It is observed that with an increase in disk thickness and stretching parameter the radial and axial velocities are enhanced. Prandtl number and radiation parameter have opposite behavior for temperature field. Skin friction decays for larger disk thickness index. Magnitude of Nusselt number enhances for larger Prandtl number.

  12. Radiative Interaction Between Driver and Driven Gases in an Arc-Driven Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Park, Chul

    2001-01-01

    An electric-arc driven shock tube was operated with hydrogen as the driven gas and either hydrogen or helium as the driver gas. Electron density was measured behind the primary shock wave spectroscopically from the width of the Beta line of hydrogen. The measured electron density values were many times greater than the values calculated by the Rankine - Hugoniot relations. By accounting for the radiative transfer from the driver gas to the driven gas, the measured electron density values were numerically recreated.

  13. Simulation of Fault Arc Based on Different Radiation Models in a Closed Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mei; Zhang, Junpeng; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Hantian; Wu, Yifei

    2016-05-01

    This paper focuses on the simulation of a fault arc in a closed tank based on the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) method, in which a comparative study of three radiation models, including net emission coefficients (NEC), semi-empirical model based on NEC as well as the P1 model, is developed. The pressure rise calculated by the three radiation models are compared to the measured results. Particularly when the semi-empirical model is used, the effect of different boundary temperatures of the re-absorption layer in the semi-empirical model on pressure rise is concentrated on. The results show that the re-absorption effect in the low-temperature region affects radiation transfer of fault arcs evidently, and thus the internal pressure rise. Compared with the NEC model, P1 and the semi-empirical model with 0.7<α<0.83 are more suitable to calculate the pressure rise of the fault arc, where is an adjusted parameter involving the boundary temperature of the re-absorption region in the semi-empirical model. supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51221005, 51177124), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University and Shaanxi Province Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2013JM-7010)

  14. Interaction of graphite and ablative materials with CO2-laser, carbon-arc, and xenon-arc radiation. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., Washington, D. C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The behavior of graphite and several charring ablators in a variety of high radiative heat flux environments was studied in various radiative environments produced by a CO2 laser and a carbon arc facility. Graphite was also tested in xenon arc radiation. Tests were conducted in air nitrogen, helium, and a mixture of CO2 and nitrogen, simulating the Venus atmosphere. The experimental results are compared with theoretical results obtained with a one dimensional charring ablator analysis and a two dimensional subliming ablator analysis. Photomicroscopy showed no significant differences in appearance or microstructure of the charring ablators or graphite after testing in the three different facilities, indicating that the materials respond fundamentally the same to the radiation of different frequencies. The performance of phenolic nylon and graphite was satisfactorily predicted with existing analyses and published material property data.

  15. A rotating two-phase gas/liquid flow for pressure reduction in underwater plasma arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkamp, H.; Creutz, M.; Mewes, D.; Bartzsch, J.

    1994-12-31

    Plasma arc welding processes are used in off-shore industry for the construction and maintenance in the wet surrounding of underwater structures and pipelines. In greater water depth the density of the plasma gas increase because of the greater hydrostatic pressure. This causes an increase of the conductive heat losses to the wet surrounding. To keep up the energy flux to the workpiece a pressure reduction is favorable against the surrounding. To keep up the energy flux to the workpiece a pressure reduction is favorable against the surrounding. The plasma arc has to burn in a locally dry area. This requirement can be fulfilled by a rotating disc placed above the workpiece. In the gap between the lower end of the cylinder and the workpiece a rotating two-phase flow is maintained. The flow around the rotating disc is experimentally investigated. The rotating disc is placed above the surface of the workpiece which is simulated by a flat plate. Water is forced out of the cylinder due to centrifugal forces set up by the rotating disc and flat plate. The velocity distribution in the flow is measured by Laser-Doppler-Anemometry. The phase distribution in the two-phase flow in the gap is measured by local electrical probes. The static pressure in the gaseous atmosphere is reduced in comparison to the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding water. The pressure reduction is given by the void fraction, the phase distribution and the volume flow rates of both phases in the gap as well as by the speed of revolution and the design of the disc and the work surface. Apart from the investigations on the fluid dynamics, the method to reduce the pressure was technically proved. Experiments were carried out under water with a plasma MIG welder.

  16. Hazard of ultraviolet radiation emitted in gas tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Utsunomiya, Akihiro; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Okuno, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) emitted during arc welding frequently causes keratoconjunctivitis and erythema. The extent of the hazard of UVR varies depending on the welding method and conditions. Therefore, it is important to identify the levels of UVR that are present under various conditions. In this study, we experimentally evaluated the hazard of UVR emitted in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of aluminum alloys. The degree of hazard of UVR is measured by the effective irradiance defined in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists guidelines. The effective irradiances measured in this study are in the range 0.10-0.91 mW/cm(2) at a distance of 500 mm from the welding arc. The maximum allowable exposure times corresponding to these levels are only 3.3-33 s/day. This demonstrates that unprotected exposure to UVR emitted by GTAW of aluminum alloys is quite hazardous in practice. In addition, we found the following properties of the hazard of UVR. (1) It is more hazardous at higher welding currents than at lower welding currents. (2) It is more hazardous when magnesium is included in the welding materials than when it is not. (3) The hazard depends on the direction of emission from the arc.

  17. Hazard of ultraviolet radiation emitted in gas tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    PubMed Central

    NAKASHIMA, Hitoshi; UTSUNOMIYA, Akihiro; FUJII, Nobuyuki; OKUNO, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) emitted during arc welding frequently causes keratoconjunctivitis and erythema. The extent of the hazard of UVR varies depending on the welding method and conditions. Therefore, it is important to identify the levels of UVR that are present under various conditions. In this study, we experimentally evaluated the hazard of UVR emitted in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of aluminum alloys. The degree of hazard of UVR is measured by the effective irradiance defined in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists guidelines. The effective irradiances measured in this study are in the range 0.10–0.91 mW/cm2 at a distance of 500 mm from the welding arc. The maximum allowable exposure times corresponding to these levels are only 3.3–33 s/day. This demonstrates that unprotected exposure to UVR emitted by GTAW of aluminum alloys is quite hazardous in practice. In addition, we found the following properties of the hazard of UVR. (1) It is more hazardous at higher welding currents than at lower welding currents. (2) It is more hazardous when magnesium is included in the welding materials than when it is not. (3) The hazard depends on the direction of emission from the arc. PMID:26632121

  18. Conditions for coherent-synchrotron-radiation-induced microbunching suppression in multibend beam transport or recirculation arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C.-Y.; Di Mitri, S.; Douglas, D.; Li, R.; Tennant, C.

    2017-02-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high-brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport or recirculation arcs, may result in beam phase space degradation. On one hand, CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beam line and possibly cause emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching instability. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Correspondingly, a few scenarios have been introduced to suppress CSR-induced microbunching instability, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching instability along transport or recirculation arcs. Examples are presented with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our developed semianalytical Vlasov solver [C.-Y. Tsai, D. Douglas, R. Li, and C. Tennant, Linear microbunching analysis for recirculation machines, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 19, 114401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.19.114401]. The example lattices include low-energy (˜100 MeV ) and high-energy (˜1 GeV ) recirculation arcs, and medium-energy compressor arcs. Our studies show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. Beam current dependences of maximal CSR microbunching gains are also demonstrated, which should help outline a beam line design for different scales of nominal currents. We expect this analysis can shed light on the lattice design approach that aims to control the CSR-induced microbunching.

  19. Noise radiated from a rotating submerged elastic cylindrical thin shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspall, Jayme J.; Yoda, Minami; Rogers, Peter H.

    2002-11-01

    Although the aeroacoustics of high Reynolds number boundary layers is reasonably well understood, less is known about the hydroacoustics of such flows, and the effect of fluid loading. The noise generated by the turbulent boundary layer around an elastic, thin-walled and cylindrical shell rotating in quiescent water was studied in the Georgia Tech. Underwater Acoustic Tank for Reynolds numbers up to 200000. The steel shell, which is filled with air, has a diameter D of 0.625 m, a wall thickness of 0.004D, and an aspect ratio of unity; the tank dimensions are 19D by 12D by 11D. Extraneous noise sources (e.g., bearing and motor vibration) were isolated from the net signal to estimate flow noise. Radiated noise power was calculated from hydrophone data under a diffuse field assumption. To our knowledge, these results are unique in both their structural acoustics and fluid mechanics scaling.

  20. A Radiative Transport Model for Heating Paints using High Density Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Duty, Chad E; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Nichols, Mark; Blue, Craig A; Ott, Ronald D

    2009-01-01

    The energy distribution and ensuing temperature evolution within paint-like systems under the influence of infrared radiation was studied. Thermal radiation effects as well as those due to heat conduction were considered. A complete set of material properties was derived and discussed. Infrared measurements were conducted to obtain experimental data for the temperature in the paint film. The heat flux of the incident radiation from the plasma arc lamp was measured using a heat flux sensor with a very short response time. The comparison between the computed and experimental results for temperature show that the models that are based on spectral four-flux RTE and accurate optical properties yield accurate results for the black paint systems.

  1. Particle image velocimetry analysis of the flow around circular cylinder induced by arc discharge rotating in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munhoz, D. S.; Bityurin, V. A.; Klimov, A. I.; Moralev, I. A.

    2016-11-01

    An experimental study of the flow around a circular cylinder model with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) actuator was carried out in subsonic wind tunnels (M < 0.2). Combined (high frequency and pulsed-periodic) electrical discharge was used in this MHD actuator. This intense pulsed-periodic discharge had the following characteristics: voltage amplitude up to 15 kV, current amplitude up to 16 A and frequency up to 1 kHz. Permanent magnets with an induction of B = 0.1 T on the model surface were placed inside the cylindrical model. Annular electrodes were situated on the surface of the cylindrical model. The Lorentz force causes the rotation of the electric arc on the model surface. In turn, the movement of the arc discharge induces the rotation of the gas near the surface of the model. In this experiment were carried out the measurement of the flow velocity profile near the surface of the model on the following operational modes: with plasma and without plasma. A parametric study of the aerodynamic performance of the model was fulfilled with respect to the discharge parameters and the flow velocity. To measure the velocity profile was used particle image velocimetry method.

  2. Dynamic behavior of a rotating gliding arc plasma in nitrogen: effects of gas flow rate and operating current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, ZHANG; Fengsen, ZHU; Xiaodong, LI; Changming, DU

    2017-04-01

    The effects of feed gas flow rate and operating current on the electrical characteristics and dynamic behavior of a rotating gliding arc (RGA) plasma codriven by a magnetic field and tangential flow were investigated. The operating current has been shown to significantly affect the time-resolved voltage waveforms of the discharge, particularly at flow rate = 2 l min‑1. When the current was lower than 140 mA, sinusoidal waveforms with regular variation periods of 13.5–17.0 ms can be observed (flow rate = 2 l min‑1). The restrike mode characterized by serial sudden drops of voltage appeared under all studied conditions. Increasing the flow rate from 8 to 12 l min‑1 (at the same current) led to a shift of arc rotation mode which would then result in a significant drop of discharge voltage (around 120–200 V). For a given flow rate, the reduction of current resulted in a nearly linear increase of voltage.

  3. Rotating, radiating mass imbedded in a de Sitter universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents a new solution to the Einstein field equations for a rotating, radiating mass imbedded in a de Sitter universe, the Kerr de Sitter-Vaidya or KDV line element. Solutions presented were precursers to the new solution. One of these, the Vaidya-Mallett or VM metric is used as a starting point to derive the KDV metric by a method called complexification. The mathematical framework for the KDV metric is the Newman-Penrose formalism, a powerful tool that provides insight into the various properties of the space-time geometry and optical properties of the radiation field. Using this formalism, the metric can be expressed in tetrad form and the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient equations solved for tetrad components of the trace-free Ricci tensor, Ricci scalar, Maxwell tensor, and Weyl tensor. Using the tetrad components of the Weyl tensor, the Petrov type for the gravitational and electromagnetic fields are found. The new solution is shown to be a solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations for a particular choice of energy-momentum tensor which is studied in detail.

  4. Effect of acoustic field parameters on arc acoustic binding during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weifeng; Fan, Chenglei; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao

    2016-03-01

    As a newly developed arc welding method, power ultrasound has been successfully introduced into arc and weld pool during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding process. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by utilizing additional ultrasonic field. Under the action of the acoustic wave, the plasma arc as weld heat source is regulated and its characteristics make an obvious change. Compared with the conventional arc, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc plasma is bound significantly and becomes brighter. To reveal the dependence of the acoustic binding force on acoustic field parameters, a two-dimensional acoustic field model for ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding device is established. The influences of the radiator height, the central pore radius, the radiator radius, and curvature radius or depth of concave radiator surface are discussed using the boundary element method. Then the authors analyze the resonant mode by this relationship curve between acoustic radiation power and radiator height. Furthermore, the best acoustic binding ability is obtained by optimizing the geometric parameters of acoustic radiator. In addition, three concave radiator surfaces including spherical cap surface, paraboloid of revolution, and rotating single curved surface are investigated systematically. Finally, both the calculation and experiment suggest that, to obtain the best acoustic binding ability, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding setup should be operated under the first resonant mode using a radiator with a spherical cap surface, a small central pore, a large section radius and an appropriate curvature radius.

  5. Efficiency of Synchrotron Radiation from Rotation-powered Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisaka, Shota; Tanaka, Shuta J.

    2017-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation is widely considered to be the origin of the pulsed non-thermal emissions from rotation-powered pulsars in optical and X-ray bands. In this paper, we study the synchrotron radiation emitted by the created electron and positron pairs in the pulsar magnetosphere to constrain the energy conversion efficiency from the Poynting flux to the particle energy flux. We model two pair creation processes, two-photon collision, which efficiently works in young γ-ray pulsars (≲106 year), and magnetic pair creation, which is the dominant process to supply pairs in old pulsars (≳106 year). Using the analytical model, we derive the maximum synchrotron luminosity as a function of the energy conversion efficiency. From the comparison with observations, we find that the energy conversion efficiency to the accelerated particles should be an order of unity in the magnetosphere, even though we make a number of the optimistic assumptions to enlarge the synchrotron luminosity. In order to explain the luminosity of the non-thermal X-ray/optical emission from pulsars with low spin-down luminosity L sd ≲ 1034 erg s‑1, non-dipole magnetic field components should be dominant at the emission region. For the γ-ray pulsars with L sd ≲ 1035 erg s‑1, observed γ-ray to X-ray and optical flux ratios are much higher than the flux ratio between curvature and the synchrotron radiations. We discuss some possibilities such as the coexistence of multiple accelerators in the magnetosphere as suggested from the recent numerical simulation results. The obtained maximum luminosity would be useful to select observational targets in X-ray and optical bands.

  6. Hawking radiation in a rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Songbai; Wang Bin; Su Rukeng

    2008-01-15

    We explore the signature of the extra dimension in the Hawking radiation in a rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons. Comparing with the spherical case, we find that the rotating parameter brings richer physics. We obtain the appropriate size of the extra dimension which can enhance the Hawking radiation and may open a window to detect the extra dimensions.

  7. Absolute Radiation Measurement During Planetary Entry in the NASA Ames Electric Arc Shock Tube Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2011-05-01

    During planetary entry, a shock-heated plasma that imparts significant heating to the structure is formed in front of the space vehicle. At high velocities, a significant portion of that energy transfer originates from radiation from the shock-heated plasma. Shock tubes are capable of simulating the high velocity and low density conditions typical of planetary entry and thus are able to recreate the radiative environment encountered by spacecraft. The Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) at NASA Ames Research Center is one of the few shock tubes in the world that is capable of reaching the high velocities that are necessary to study more extreme entry conditions. The EAST is presently being utilized to simulate radiation in a variety of planetary atmospheres. It is presently the only facility in which radiation originating in the vacuum ultraviolet is being quantified. This paper briefly describes recent tests in the EAST facility relevant to Earth, Mars, and Venus entry conditions, and outlines the issues in relating ground test data to flight relevant condition via predictive radiation simulations.

  8. Whole-brain hippocampal sparing radiation therapy: Volume-modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy case study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Katrina Lenards, Nishele; Holson, Janice

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampus is responsible for memory and cognitive function. An ongoing phase II clinical trial suggests that sparing dose to the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation therapy can help preserve a patient's neurocognitive function. Progressive research and advancements in treatment techniques have made treatment planning more sophisticated but beneficial for patients undergoing treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare hippocampal sparing whole-brain (HS-WB) radiation therapy treatment planning techniques using volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We randomly selected 3 patients to compare different treatment techniques that could be used for reducing dose to the hippocampal region. We created 2 treatment plans, a VMAT and an IMRT, from each patient's data set and planned on the Eclipse 11.0 treatment planning system (TPS). A total of 6 plans (3 IMRT and 3 VMAT) were created and evaluated for this case study. The physician contoured the hippocampus as per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933 protocol atlas. The organs at risk (OR) were contoured and evaluated for the plan comparison, which included the spinal cord, optic chiasm, the right and left eyes, lenses, and optic nerves. Both treatment plans produced adequate coverage on the planning target volume (PTV) while significantly reducing dose to the hippocampal region. The VMAT treatment plans produced a more homogenous dose distribution throughout the PTV while decreasing the maximum point dose to the target. However, both treatment techniques demonstrated hippocampal sparing when irradiating the whole brain.

  9. Convection in a differentially heated rotating spherical shell of Boussinesq fluid with radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babalola, David

    In this study we investigate the flow of a Boussinesq fluid contained in a rotating, differentially heated spherical shell. Previous work, on the spherical shell of Boussinesq fluid, differentially heated the shell by prescribing temperature on the inner boundary of the shell, setting the temperature deviation from the reference temperature to vary proportionally with -cos 2θ, from the equator to the pole. We change the model to include an energy balance equation at the earth's surface, which incorporates latitudinal solar radiation distribution and ice-albedo feedback mechanism with moving ice boundary. For the fluid velocity, on the inner boundary, two conditions are considered: stress-free and no-slip. However, the model under consideration contains only simple representations of a small number of climate variables and thus is not a climate model per se but rather a tool to aid in understanding how changes in these variables may affect our planet's climate. The solution of the model is followed as the differential heating is changed, using the pseudo arc-length continuation method, which is a reliable method that can successfully follow a solution curve even at a turning point. Our main result is in regards to hysteresis phenomenon that is associated with transition from one to multiple convective cells, in a differentially heated, co-rotating spherical shell. In particular, we find that hysteresis can be observed without transition from one to multiple convective cells. Another important observation is that the transition to multiple convective cells is significantly suppressed altogether, in the case of stress-free boundary conditions on the fluid velocity. Also, the results of this study will be related to our present-day climate.

  10. Gravitational radiation from rotating monopole-string systems

    SciTech Connect

    Babichev, E.; Dokuchaev, V.; Kachelriess, M.

    2005-02-15

    We study the gravitational radiation from a rotating monopole-antimonopole pair connected by a string. While at not too high frequencies the emitted gravitational spectrum is described asymptotically by P{sub n}{proportional_to}n{sup -1}, the spectrum is exponentially suppressed in the high-frequency limit, P{sub n}{proportional_to}exp(-n/n{sub cr}). Below n{sub cr}, the emitted spectrum of gravitational waves is very similar to the case of an oscillating monopole pair connected by a string, and we argue, therefore, that the spectrum found holds approximately for any moving monopole-string system. As an application, we discuss the stochastic gravitational wave background generated by monopole-antimonopole pairs connected by strings in the early Universe and gravitational wave bursts emitted at present by monopole-string networks. We confirm that advanced gravitational wave detectors have the potential to detect a signal for string tensions as small as G{mu}{approx}10{sup -13}.

  11. On the dynamics of a radiative rapidly rotating star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, M.; Espinosa Lara, F.

    2009-07-01

    The envelope of massive rapidly rotating stars is pervaded by baroclinic fluid flows, namely a differential rotation with a meridional circulation and likely a small-scale turbulence. We present here some of the first results of the ESTER project (Evolution STEllaire en Rotation). More specifically, using for the first time the spheroidal geometry, we give the shape of the differential rotation and show that the baroclinic torque imposes a fast rotating core and a slow envelope, together with a slow pole and a fast equator. The angular velocity of the core is 50% larger than that of the envelope.

  12. The effects of plane and arc of elevation on electromyography of shoulder musculature in patients with rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Alenabi, Talia; Dal Maso, Fabien; Tétreault, Patrice; Begon, Mickaël

    2016-02-01

    Arm elevations in different planes are commonly assessed in clinics and are included in rehabilitation protocols for patients with rotator cuff pathology. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of plane and angle of elevation on shoulder muscles activity in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tear to be used for rehabilitation purposes. Eight symptomatic patients with rotator cuff tears were assessed by using EMG (11 surface and 2 fine wire electrodes) synchronized with a motion analysis. The subjects completed five elevations in full can position (arm externally rotated and thumb up) in frontal, scapular and sagittal planes. Muscle activity in three elevation arcs of 20° (from 0° to 60°) was presented as the percentage of mean activity. Data were analyzed by mixed linear models (α=0.003), and Tuckey Post-hoc comparisons for significant effects (α=0.05). The effect of plane was significant for supraspinatus, middle trapezius, anterior, middle, and posterior deltoid, triceps, and pectoralis major (P<0.001). Supraspinatus was more active during abduction than scaption and flexion (P<0.05), and its activity did not increase significantly after 40° of elevation (P>0.05). Infraspinatus had similar activity pattern in the three planes of elevation (P>0.003) with increasing trend in accordance with the elevation angle. In any rehabilitation protocol, if less activity of supraspinatus is desired, active arm elevation should be directed toward flexion and scaption and postponed abduction to prevent high level of activity in this muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of photon beam energies in gold nanoparticle enhanced arc radiation therapy using Monte Carlo methods.

    PubMed

    Koger, B; Kirkby, C

    2016-12-02

    As a recent area of development in radiation therapy, gold nanoparticle (GNP) enhanced radiation therapy has shown potential to increase tumour dose while maintaining acceptable levels of healthy tissue toxicity. In this study, the effect of varying photon beam energy in GNP enhanced arc radiation therapy (GEART) is quantified through the introduction of a dose scoring metric, and GEART is compared to a conventional radiotherapy treatment. The PENELOPE Monte Carlo code was used to model several simple phantoms consisting of a spherical tumour containing GNPs (concentration: 15 mg Au g(-1) tumour, 0.8 mg Au g(-1) normal tissue) in a cylinder of tissue. Several monoenergetic photon beams, with energies ranging from 20 keV to 6 MeV, as well as 100, 200, and 300 kVp spectral beams, were used to irradiate the tumour in a 360° arc treatment. A dose metric was then used to compare tumour and tissue doses from GEART treatments to a similar treatment from a 6 MV spectrum. This was also performed on a simulated brain tumour using patient computed tomography data. GEART treatments showed potential over the 6 MV treatment for many of the simulated geometries, delivering up to 88% higher mean dose to the tumour for a constant tissue dose, with the effect greatest near a source energy of 50 keV. This effect is also seen with the inclusion of bone in a brain treatment, with a 14% increase in mean tumour dose over 6 MV, while still maintaining acceptable levels of dose to the bone and brain.

  14. Optimization of photon beam energies in gold nanoparticle enhanced arc radiation therapy using Monte Carlo methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koger, B.; Kirkby, C.

    2016-12-01

    As a recent area of development in radiation therapy, gold nanoparticle (GNP) enhanced radiation therapy has shown potential to increase tumour dose while maintaining acceptable levels of healthy tissue toxicity. In this study, the effect of varying photon beam energy in GNP enhanced arc radiation therapy (GEART) is quantified through the introduction of a dose scoring metric, and GEART is compared to a conventional radiotherapy treatment. The PENELOPE Monte Carlo code was used to model several simple phantoms consisting of a spherical tumour containing GNPs (concentration: 15 mg Au g-1 tumour, 0.8 mg Au g-1 normal tissue) in a cylinder of tissue. Several monoenergetic photon beams, with energies ranging from 20 keV to 6 MeV, as well as 100, 200, and 300 kVp spectral beams, were used to irradiate the tumour in a 360° arc treatment. A dose metric was then used to compare tumour and tissue doses from GEART treatments to a similar treatment from a 6 MV spectrum. This was also performed on a simulated brain tumour using patient computed tomography data. GEART treatments showed potential over the 6 MV treatment for many of the simulated geometries, delivering up to 88% higher mean dose to the tumour for a constant tissue dose, with the effect greatest near a source energy of 50 keV. This effect is also seen with the inclusion of bone in a brain treatment, with a 14% increase in mean tumour dose over 6 MV, while still maintaining acceptable levels of dose to the bone and brain.

  15. Hazard of ultraviolet radiation emitted in gas metal arc welding of mild steel.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Utsunomiya, Akihiro; Takahashi, Jyunya; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Okuno, Tsutomu

    2016-09-30

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) emitted during arc welding frequently causes keratoconjunctivitis and erythema in the workplace. The degree of hazard from UVR exposure depends on the welding method and conditions. Therefore, it is important to identify the UVR levels present under various conditions. We experimentally evaluated the UVR levels emitted in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of mild steel. We used both a pulsed welding current and a non-pulsed welding current. The shielding gases were 80% Ar + 20% CO2 and 100% CO2. The effective irradiance defined in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists guidelines was used to quantify the UVR hazard. The effective irradiance measured in this study was in the range of 0.51-12.9 mW/cm(2) at a distance of 500 mm from the arc. The maximum allowable exposure times at these levels are only 0.23-5.9 s/day. The following conclusions were made regarding the degree of hazard from UVR exposure during the GMAW of mild steel: (1) It is more hazardous at higher welding currents than at lower welding currents. (2) At higher welding currents, it is more hazardous when 80% Ar + 20% CO2 is used as a shielding gas than when 100% CO2 is used. (3) It is more hazardous for pulsed welding currents than for non-pulsed welding currents. (4) It appears to be very hazardous when metal transfer is the spray type. This study demonstrates that unprotected exposure to UVR emitted by the GMAW of mild steel is quite hazardous.

  16. Hazard of ultraviolet radiation emitted in gas metal arc welding of mild steel

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Utsunomiya, Akihiro; Takahashi, Jyunya; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Okuno, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) emitted during arc welding frequently causes keratoconjunctivitis and erythema in the workplace. The degree of hazard from UVR exposure depends on the welding method and conditions. Therefore, it is important to identify the UVR levels present under various conditions. Methods: We experimentally evaluated the UVR levels emitted in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of mild steel. We used both a pulsed welding current and a non-pulsed welding current. The shielding gases were 80% Ar + 20% CO2 and 100% CO2. The effective irradiance defined in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists guidelines was used to quantify the UVR hazard. Results: The effective irradiance measured in this study was in the range of 0.51-12.9 mW/cm2 at a distance of 500 mm from the arc. The maximum allowable exposure times at these levels are only 0.23-5.9 s/day. Conclusions: The following conclusions were made regarding the degree of hazard from UVR exposure during the GMAW of mild steel: (1) It is more hazardous at higher welding currents than at lower welding currents. (2) At higher welding currents, it is more hazardous when 80% Ar + 20% CO2 is used as a shielding gas than when 100% CO2 is used. (3) It is more hazardous for pulsed welding currents than for non-pulsed welding currents. (4) It appears to be very hazardous when metal transfer is the spray type. This study demonstrates that unprotected exposure to UVR emitted by the GMAW of mild steel is quite hazardous. PMID:27488036

  17. VUV shock layer radiation in an arc-jet wind tunnel experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Carrasco, Armando

    1994-01-01

    Measurements were made of the radiating gas cap of a blunt body in a NASA-Ames 20 MW arc-jet wind tunnel. The test gas was air. Spectra of the flux incident on a small aperture centered at the stagnation region were obtained. A helium-cooled, magnesium fluoride window transmitted the flux into an evacuated collimating system that focused the aperture onto the entrance slit of a spectrometer. Data were obtained with films and by photomultipliers. The spectral ranges covered were the vacuum ultraviolet, VUV, (120 nm to 200 nm) and the ultraviolet to near infrared (200 nm to 900 nm) with resolutions from 0.05 nm to 0.5 nm. This paper presents the preliminary VUV results from the experiment. Results from the 200 nm to 900 nm spectral range have been presented elsewhere. Representative spectral records from 120 nm to 200 nm are shown. The intense atomic oxygen and nitrogen lines which are of concern to hypersonic flight are measured. Carbon lines are are also seen. These results will be used to help develop and validate aerothermodynamic computational models of arc-jet wind tunnel performance and help to assess the importance of VUV heating to entering spacecraft.

  18. Impact of machines on plan quality: volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Clemente, S; Cozzolino, M; Oliviero, C; Fiorentino, A; Chiumento, C; Fusco, V

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of different machines on plan quality using both intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques. Eight patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx were selected at random. Plans were computed for IMRT and VMAT Smart Arc, using Pinnacle TPS for an Elekta (IMRT-E, VMAT-E) and Varian linac (IMRT-V, VMAT-V). A three-dose level prescription was used to deliver 70, 63 and 58.1 Gy to regions of macroscopic, microscopic high- and low-risk disease, respectively. All doses were given in 35 fractions. Comparisons were performed on dose-volume histogram data, monitor units (MU), and delivery time. VMAT-E plans resulted slightly MU efficient (-24 % p < 0.05) compared to VMAT-V while IMRT-V shortened delivery time (-19 % p < 0.05) compared to IMRT-E. All the delivery techniques resulted in equivalent target coverage in terms of D(98) % and D(2) %. For VMAT technique, a significant improvement of 7 % in homogeneity index (HI) for PTV58.1 was observed for Varian machine. A slight improvement in OARs sparing was observed with Elekta machine both for IMRT and VMAT techniques. Similar plan quality was observed for Elekta and Varian linacs, significant differences were observed in delivery efficiency, as MU number and delivery times, in favor of Elekta and Varian, respectively.

  19. NOTE: Monte Carlo simulation of RapidArc radiotherapy delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, K.; Townson, R.; Zavgorodni, S.

    2008-10-01

    RapidArc radiotherapy technology from Varian Medical Systems is one of the most complex delivery systems currently available, and achieves an entire intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment in a single gantry rotation about the patient. Three dynamic parameters can be continuously varied to create IMRT dose distributions—the speed of rotation, beam shaping aperture and delivery dose rate. Modeling of RapidArc technology was incorporated within the existing Vancouver Island Monte Carlo (VIMC) system (Zavgorodni et al 2007 Radiother. Oncol. 84 S49, 2008 Proc. 16th Int. Conf. on Medical Physics). This process was named VIMC-Arc and has become an efficient framework for the verification of RapidArc treatment plans. VIMC-Arc is a fully automated system that constructs the Monte Carlo (MC) beam and patient models from a standard RapidArc DICOM dataset, simulates radiation transport, collects the resulting dose and converts the dose into DICOM format for import back into the treatment planning system (TPS). VIMC-Arc accommodates multiple arc IMRT deliveries and models gantry rotation as a series of segments with dynamic MLC motion within each segment. Several verification RapidArc plans were generated by the Eclipse TPS on a water-equivalent cylindrical phantom and re-calculated using VIMC-Arc. This includes one 'typical' RapidArc plan, one plan for dual arc treatment and one plan with 'avoidance' sectors. One RapidArc plan was also calculated on a DICOM patient CT dataset. Statistical uncertainty of MC simulations was kept within 1%. VIMC-Arc produced dose distributions that matched very closely to those calculated by the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) that is used in Eclipse. All plans also demonstrated better than 1% agreement of the dose at the isocenter. This demonstrates the capabilities of our new MC system to model all dosimetric features required for RapidArc dose calculations.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of RapidArc radiotherapy delivery.

    PubMed

    Bush, K; Townson, R; Zavgorodni, S

    2008-10-07

    RapidArc radiotherapy technology from Varian Medical Systems is one of the most complex delivery systems currently available, and achieves an entire intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment in a single gantry rotation about the patient. Three dynamic parameters can be continuously varied to create IMRT dose distributions-the speed of rotation, beam shaping aperture and delivery dose rate. Modeling of RapidArc technology was incorporated within the existing Vancouver Island Monte Carlo (VIMC) system (Zavgorodni et al 2007 Radiother. Oncol. 84 S49, 2008 Proc. 16th Int. Conf. on Medical Physics). This process was named VIMC-Arc and has become an efficient framework for the verification of RapidArc treatment plans. VIMC-Arc is a fully automated system that constructs the Monte Carlo (MC) beam and patient models from a standard RapidArc DICOM dataset, simulates radiation transport, collects the resulting dose and converts the dose into DICOM format for import back into the treatment planning system (TPS). VIMC-Arc accommodates multiple arc IMRT deliveries and models gantry rotation as a series of segments with dynamic MLC motion within each segment. Several verification RapidArc plans were generated by the Eclipse TPS on a water-equivalent cylindrical phantom and re-calculated using VIMC-Arc. This includes one 'typical' RapidArc plan, one plan for dual arc treatment and one plan with 'avoidance' sectors. One RapidArc plan was also calculated on a DICOM patient CT dataset. Statistical uncertainty of MC simulations was kept within 1%. VIMC-Arc produced dose distributions that matched very closely to those calculated by the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) that is used in Eclipse. All plans also demonstrated better than 1% agreement of the dose at the isocenter. This demonstrates the capabilities of our new MC system to model all dosimetric features required for RapidArc dose calculations.

  1. Stereotactic body radiation therapy planning with duodenal sparing using volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer: A dosimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rachit; Wild, Aaron T.; Ziegler, Mark A.; Hooker, Ted K.; Dah, Samson D.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Kang, Jun; Smith, Koren; Zeng, Jing; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Tryggestad, Erik; Ford, Eric; Herman, Joseph M.

    2013-10-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) achieves excellent local control for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), but may increase late duodenal toxicity. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivers intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a rotating gantry rather than multiple fixed beams. This study dosimetrically evaluates the feasibility of implementing duodenal constraints for SBRT using VMAT vs IMRT. Non–duodenal sparing (NS) and duodenal-sparing (DS) VMAT and IMRT plans delivering 25 Gy in 1 fraction were generated for 15 patients with LAPC. DS plans were constrained to duodenal D{sub max} of<30 Gy at any point. VMAT used 1 360° coplanar arc with 4° spacing between control points, whereas IMRT used 9 coplanar beams with fixed gantry positions at 40° angles. Dosimetric parameters for target volumes and organs at risk were compared for DS planning vs NS planning and VMAT vs IMRT using paired-sample Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Both DS VMAT and DS IMRT achieved significantly reduced duodenal D{sub mean}, D{sub max}, D{sub 1cc}, D{sub 4%}, and V{sub 20} {sub Gy} compared with NS plans (all p≤0.002). DS constraints compromised target coverage for IMRT as demonstrated by reduced V{sub 95%} (p = 0.01) and D{sub mean} (p = 0.02), but not for VMAT. DS constraints resulted in increased dose to right kidney, spinal cord, stomach, and liver for VMAT. Direct comparison of DS VMAT and DS IMRT revealed that VMAT was superior in sparing the left kidney (p<0.001) and the spinal cord (p<0.001), whereas IMRT was superior in sparing the stomach (p = 0.05) and the liver (p = 0.003). DS VMAT required 21% fewer monitor units (p<0.001) and delivered treatment 2.4 minutes faster (p<0.001) than DS IMRT. Implementing DS constraints during SBRT planning for LAPC can significantly reduce duodenal point or volumetric dose parameters for both VMAT and IMRT. The primary consequence of implementing DS constraints for VMAT is increased dose to other organs at

  2. Effect of high power CO2 and Yb:YAG laser radiation on the characteristics of TIG arc in atmospherical pressure argon and helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shikai; Xiao, Rongshi

    2015-04-01

    The effects of laser radiation on the characteristics of the DC tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc were investigated by applying a high power slab CO2 laser and a Yb:YAG disc laser. Experiment results reveal that the arc voltage-current curve shifts downwards, the arc column expands, and the arc temperature rises while the high power CO2 laser beam vertically interacts with the TIG arc in argon. With the increase of the laser power, the voltage-current curve of the arc shifts downwards more significantly, and the closer the laser beam impingement on the arc to the cathode, the more the decrease in arc voltage. Moreover, the arc column expansion and the arc temperature rise occur mainly in the region between the laser beam incident position and the anode. However, the arc characteristics hardly change in the cases of the CO2 laser-helium arc and YAG laser-arc interactions. The reason is that the inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption coefficients are greatly different due to the different electron densities of the argon and helium arcs and the different wave lengths of CO2 and YAG lasers.

  3. Measurement of rotational temperature by simulated spectra in a Ar-CO{sub 2} arc

    SciTech Connect

    Coitout, H.; Faure, G.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that in a gas discharge plasma in mixture of CO{sub 2} with inert gas (Ar), a molecular carbon formation process occurs, characterised by the Swan band C{sub 2}(d{sup 3}{pi}{sub g}) {r_arrow} C{sub 2}(a{sup 3}{pi}{sub u}), located in the visible region of the spectrum. The rotational structure of this band of C{sub 2} is studied to determine the rotational temperature which can be approximated to the heavy particles temperature. The temperature determination is based on the comparison of experimental spectrum obtained by optical emission spectroscopy and synthetic spectra calculated for different temperatures.

  4. Modeling and Simulation of Radiative Compressible Flows in Aerodynamic Heating Arc-Jet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensassi, Khalil; Laguna, Alejandro A.; Lani, Andrea; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations of an arc heated flow inside NASA's 20 [MW] Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF) are performed in order to investigate the three-dimensional swirling flow and the current distribution inside the wind tunnel. The plasma is considered in Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium(LTE) and is composed of Air-Argon gas mixture. The governing equations are the Navier-Stokes equations that include source terms corresponding to Joule heating and radiative cooling. The former is obtained by solving an electric potential equation, while the latter is calculated using an innovative massively parallel ray-tracing algorithm. The fully coupled system is closed by the thermodynamics relations and transport properties which are obtained from Chapman-Enskog method. A novel strategy was developed in order to enable the flow solver and the radiation calculation to be preformed independently and simultaneously using a different number of processors. Drastic reduction in the computational cost was achieved using this strategy. Details on the numerical methods used for space discretization, time integration and ray-tracing algorithm will be presented. The effect of the radiative cooling on the dynamics of the flow will be investigated. The complete set of equations were implemented within the COOLFluiD Framework. Fig. 1 shows the geometry of the Anode and part of the constrictor of the Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF). Fig. 2 shows the velocity field distribution along (x-y) plane and the streamline in (z-y) plane.

  5. The Dosimetric Impact of Prostate Rotations During Electromagnetically Guided External-Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Amro, Hanan; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Mcshan, Daniel L.; Sandler, Howard; Vineberg, Karen; Hadley, Scott; Litzenberg, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of daily rotations and translations of the prostate on dosimetric coverage during radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Real-time tracking data for 26 patients were obtained during RT. Intensity modulated radiation therapy plans meeting RTOG 0126 dosimetric criteria were created with 0-, 2-, 3-, and 5-mm planning target volume (PTV) margins. Daily translations and rotations were used to reconstruct prostate delivered dose from the planned dose. D{sub 95} and V{sub 79} were computed from the delivered dose to evaluate target coverage and the adequacy of PTV margins. Prostate equivalent rotation is a new metric introduced in this study to quantify prostate rotations by accounting for prostate shape and length of rotational lever arm. Results: Large variations in prostate delivered dose were seen among patients. Adequate target coverage was met in 39%, 65%, and 84% of the patients for plans with 2-, 3-, and 5-mm PTV margins, respectively. Although no correlations between prostate delivered dose and daily rotations were seen, the data showed a clear correlation with prostate equivalent rotation. Conclusions: Prostate rotations during RT could cause significant underdosing even if daily translations were managed. These rotations should be managed with rotational tolerances based on prostate equivalent rotations.

  6. Hawking radiation of scalar particles from accelerating and rotating black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Gillani, Usman A.; Rehman, Mudassar; Saifullah, K. E-mail: mudassar051@yahoo.com

    2011-06-01

    Hawking radiation of uncharged and charged scalar particles from accelerating and rotating black holes is studied. We calculate the tunneling probabilities of these particles from the rotation and acceleration horizons of these black holes. Using this method we recover the correct Hawking temperature as well.

  7. Application of modified dynamic conformal arc (MDCA) technique on liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) planning following RTOG 0438 guideline

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Chengyu Chen, Yong; Fang, Deborah; Iannuzzi, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a feasible treatment method for the nonoperable, patient with early-stage liver cancer. Treatment planning for the SBRT is very important and has to consider the simulation accuracy, planning time, treatment efficiency effects etc. The modified dynamic conformal arc (MDCA) technique is a 3-dimensional conformal arc planning method, which has been proposed for liver SBRT planning at our center. In this study, we compared the MDCA technique with the RapidArc technique in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs). The results show that the MDCA technique has comparable plan quality to RapidArc considering PTV coverage, hot spots, heterogeneity index, and effective liver volume. For the 5 PTVs studied among 4 patients, the MDCA plan, when compared with the RapidArc plan, showed 9% more hot spots, more heterogeneity effect, more sparing of OARs, and lower liver effective volume. The monitor unit (MU) number for the MDCA plan is much lower than for the RapidArc plans. The MDCA plan has the advantages of less planning time, no-collision treatment, and a lower MU number.

  8. Application of modified dynamic conformal arc (MDCA) technique on liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) planning following RTOG 0438 guideline.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chengyu; Chen, Yong; Fang, Deborah Xiangdong; Iannuzzi, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a feasible treatment method for the nonoperable, patient with early-stage liver cancer. Treatment planning for the SBRT is very important and has to consider the simulation accuracy, planning time, treatment efficiency effects etc. The modified dynamic conformal arc (MDCA) technique is a 3-dimensional conformal arc planning method, which has been proposed for liver SBRT planning at our center. In this study, we compared the MDCA technique with the RapidArc technique in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs). The results show that the MDCA technique has comparable plan quality to RapidArc considering PTV coverage, hot spots, heterogeneity index, and effective liver volume. For the 5 PTVs studied among 4 patients, the MDCA plan, when compared with the RapidArc plan, showed 9% more hot spots, more heterogeneity effect, more sparing of OARs, and lower liver effective volume. The monitor unit (MU) number for the MDCA plan is much lower than for the RapidArc plans. The MDCA plan has the advantages of less planning time, no-collision treatment, and a lower MU number. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation from a charge rotating inside a cylindrical grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotanjyan, A. S.; Mkrtchyan, A. R.; Saharian, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the spectral-angular distribution for the radiation emitted by a point charge moving along a helical trajectory inside a cylindrical grating with conducting strips. Two types of the radiation processes are realized: undulator and Smith-Purcell radiations. Their relative contributions to the total radiation intensity are discussed in various asymptotic regions of the parameters describing the diffraction grating and for large harmonics. The region of the parameters is specified for which the interference effects between the undulator and Smith-Purcell radiations are essential.

  10. Effects of whole body (56)Fe radiation on contextual freezing and Arc-positive cells in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Raber, Jacob; Allen, Antiño R; Rosi, Susanna; Sharma, Sourabh; Dayger, Catherine; Davis, Matthew J; Fike, John R

    2013-06-01

    The space radiation environment contains high-energy charged particles such as (56)Fe, which could pose a significant hazard to hippocampal function in astronauts during and after the mission(s). The mechanisms underlying impairments in cognition are not clear but might involve alterations in the percentage of neurons in the dentate gyrus expressing the plasticity-related immediate early gene Arc. Previously, we showed effects of cranial (56)Fe irradiation on hippocampus-dependent contextual freezing and on the percentage of Arc-positive cells in the enclosed, but not free, blade. Because it is unclear whether whole body (56)Fe irradiation causes similar effects on these markers of hippocampal function, in the present study we quantified the effects of whole body (56)Fe irradiation (600MeV, 0.5 or 1Gy) on hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent cognitive performance and determined whether these effects were associated with changes in Arc expression in the enclosed and free blades of the dentate gyrus. Whole body (56)Fe irradiation impacted contextual but not cued fear freezing and the percentage of Arc-positive cells in the enclosed and free blades. In mice tested for contextual freezing, there was a correlation between Arc-positive cells in the enclosed and free blades. In addition, in mice irradiated with 0.5Gy, contextual freezing in the absence of aversive stimuli correlated with the percentage of Arc-positive cells in the enclosed blade. In mice tested for cued freezing, there was no correlation between Arc-positive cells in the enclosed and free blades. In contrast, cued freezing in the presence or absence of aversive stimuli correlated with Arc-positive cells in the free blade. In addition, in mice irradiated with 1Gy cued freezing in the absence of aversive stimuli correlated with the percentage of Arc-positive neurons in the free blade. These data indicate that while whole body (56)Fe radiation affects contextual freezing and Arc-positive cells

  11. Cherenkov imaging during volumetric modulated arc therapy for real-time radiation beam tracking and treatment response monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Glaser, Adam K.; Gladstone, David J.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    External beam radiotherapy utilizes high energy radiation to target cancer with dynamic, patient-specific treatment plans. The otherwise invisible radiation beam can be observed via the optical Cherenkov photons emitted from interaction between the high energy beam and tissue. Using a specialized camera-system, the Cherenkov emission can thus be used to track the radiation beam on the surface of the patient in real-time, even for complex cases such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Two patients undergoing VMAT of the head and neck were imaged and analyzed, and the viability of the system to provide clinical feedback was established.

  12. Space Station ATCS radiator rotation profiles in LVLH, TEA/LVLH, Arrow and Gravity Gradient mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantara, James J.; Graf, Jonathan

    1992-07-01

    Results are presented of an analysis of the Active Thermal Control System Central Thermal Bus radiator rotation profiles for the Space Station Freedom in local vertical/local horizontal (LVLH) two torgue equilibrium attitudes (MB11 and MB17), Arrow and Gravity Gradient modes, while maintaining radiator angular velocity and acceleration under 45 deg/min and 0.01 deg/sq sec, respectively. The model used in the analysis, which is an enhancement to the model described in the LESC-28760 (1990) technical memo, is structured to orient the radiator to the minimum environment during the sunlit portion of the orbit and to maximum environment during the dark-side portion. The results of the investigated cased indicate that, in order to minimize the environmental incident fluxes on the radiator and maximize the radiator heat rejection capabilities, the radiator should be allowed to rotate between -167 deg (Gravity Gradient mode) and 207 deg (Arrow mode).

  13. Transfer of PSR0531 rotation energy to the radiation of the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machabeli, G.; Gogoberidze, G.; Shapakidze, D.; Midelashvili, E.

    2017-04-01

    This study focuses on the transfer of the Crab pulsar rotation energy to the electrostatic plasma waves of the pulsar magnetosphere by means of parametric instability. The energy of generated Langmuir waves is redistributed both to the pulsar radiation and the radiation of Crab nebula. It is shown that the power of the electrostatic waves transmitted to the Nebula is much greater than the power of Langmuir waves responsible for the generation of high frequency pulsar radiation.

  14. Feasibility of a unified approach to intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volume-modulated arc therapy optimization and delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, Douglas A. Chen, Jeff Z.; MacFarlane, Michael; Wong, Eugene; Battista, Jerry J.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of unified intensity-modulated arc therapy (UIMAT) which combines intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) optimization and delivery to produce superior radiation treatment plans, both in terms of dose distribution and efficiency of beam delivery when compared with either VMAT or IMRT alone. Methods: An inverse planning algorithm for UIMAT was prototyped within the PINNACLE treatment planning system (Philips Healthcare). The IMRT and VMAT deliveries are unified within the same arc, with IMRT being delivered at specific gantry angles within the arc. Optimized gantry angles for the IMRT and VMAT phases are assigned automatically by the inverse optimization algorithm. Optimization of the IMRT and VMAT phases is done simultaneously using a direct aperture optimization algorithm. Five treatment plans each for prostate, head and neck, and lung were generated using a unified optimization technique and compared with clinical IMRT or VMAT plans. Delivery verification was performed with an ArcCheck phantom (Sun Nuclear) on a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems). Results: In this prototype implementation, the UIMAT plans offered the same target dose coverage while reducing mean doses to organs at risk by 8.4% for head-and-neck cases, 5.7% for lung cases, and 3.5% for prostate cases, compared with the VMAT or IMRT plans. In addition, UIMAT can be delivered with similar efficiency as VMAT. Conclusions: In this proof-of-concept work, a novel radiation therapy optimization and delivery technique that interlaces VMAT or IMRT delivery within the same arc has been demonstrated. Initial results show that unified VMAT/IMRT has the potential to be superior to either standard IMRT or VMAT.

  15. Synchrotron and Smith-Purcell radiations from a charge rotating around a cylindrical grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saharian, A. A.; Kotanjyan, A. S.; Mkrtchyan, A. R.; Khachatryan, B. V.

    2017-07-01

    We study the radiation for a charge rotating around a diffraction grating on a cylindrical surface with metallic strips parallel to the cylinder axis. The effect of the grating on the radiation intensity is approximated by the surface currents induced on the strips by the field of the rotating charge. The expressions are derived for the vector potential and for the angular density of the radiation intensity on a given harmonic. We show that the behavior of the radiation intensity on large harmonics can be essentially different from that for a charge rotating in the vacuum. For the geometry of diffraction grating the radiation intensity on higher harmonics does not vanish for small angles with respect to the cylinder axis. For given characteristics of the charge, by the choice of the parameters of the diffraction grating, one can have highly directional radiation near the normal to the plane of the charge rotation. With decreasing energy, the relative contribution of the synchrotron radiation decreases and the Smith-Purcell part is dominant.

  16. The Evolution of the G Ring Arc under the Effects of the Resonance with Mimas and the Solar Radiation Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourão, D. C.; Giuliatti Winter, S. M.; Sfair, R.

    2014-10-01

    The small satellite Aegaeon, less than 1km across, is embedded in an arc located in the G ring of Saturn. This satellite belong to a new class of structures imaged by the Cassini spacecraft, which is formed by small satellites immersed in arcs. Aegaeon is also locked in a 7:6 corotation resonance with the satellite Mimas. It has been proposed that Aegaoen, along with a set of large particles located in this arc, is responsible for the maintenance of the G ring against dissipative forces. In this work, we study the orbital evolution of a sample of tiny particles (sizes ranging from 1 to 100m) under the gravitational effects of Mimas and the solar radiation pressure. These particles were initially spread both along the ring, about ± 20 km from the semimajor axis resonance of Aegaeon, and close to the Aegaeon's surface. Our results show that, despite the particles are initially in a corotation resonance with Mimas, the effects of the solar radiation pressure remove by collision with Aegaeon most of smallest particles from the arc in a timespan of 100yrs. The remaining particles stay confined in the G ring.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Optical Radiation Emission as a Function of Welding Power during Gas Shielded Metal Arc Welding.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Stefan; Janßen, Marco; Schmitz, Martin; Ott, Günter

    2017-11-01

    Arc welding is accompanied by intense optical radiation emission that can be detrimental not only for the welder himself but also for people working nearby or for passersby. Technological progress advances continuously in the field of joining, so an up-to-date radiation database is necessary. Additionally, many literature irradiance data have been measured for a few welding currents or for parts of the optical spectral region only. Within this paper, a comprehensive study of contemporary metal active gas, metal inert gas, and cold metal transfer welding is presented covering optical radiation emission from 200 up to 2,700 nm by means of (spectro-) radiometric measurements. The investigated welding currents range from 70 to 350 A, reflecting values usually applied in industry. Based upon these new irradiance data, three mathematical models were derived in order to describe optical radiation emission as a function of welding power. The linear, exponential, and sigmoidal emission models depend on the process variant (standard or pulsed) as well as on the welding material (mild and stainless steel, aluminum). In conjunction with the corresponding exposure limit values for incoherent optical radiation maximum permissible exposure durations were calculated as a function of welding power. Typical times are shorter than 1 s for the ultraviolet spectral region and range from 1 to 10 s for visible radiation. For the infrared regime, exposure durations are of the order of minutes to hours. Finally, a validation of the metal active gas emission models was carried out with manual arc welding.

  18. Radiation measurements in the North arc: November 1986 through April 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, T.M.; Benson, E.; Ipe, N.; Gearhart, R.A.

    1987-05-12

    This paper is an effort to share preliminary data on radiation measurements. Measurements were made using passive lithium-flouride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) placed in the North arc during the start-up period of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Li-7 dosimeters were used for ionizing radiation measurements, and Li-6 dosimeters moderated by polyethylene were used for measuring neutrons. In addition, some measurements were made near alcove N-6 using a Cs-137 gamma-ray source in order to determine the effectiveness of the 2 inch lead wall placed at the entrance to the alcove. When it became apparent that significant doses were being recorded at some alcoves, Pb walls were put in front of those electronic racks and Pb was put in the magnets. The Pb (approximately 1/2 inch square) in the magnet gaps was placed only on those magnets where the gap faces the aisle, and typically was put on four such magnets upbeam of each alcove and three such magnets downbeam of the alcoves. Vertical profiles were made on the photon dose at the entrance to alcove N-3 before and after the Pb was added to the magnets. Measurements were also made in front of and behind the 2 inch thick Pb wall. In addition, measurements were made of the transmission of photons in Pb using spheres of different wall thickness. Finally, neutron fluences were measured at a few selected alcoves (N-1, N-3 and N-15T). Only one of these was made in the shadow of a Pb wall.

  19. Measured and calculated spectral radiation from a blunt body shock layer in an arc-jet wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babikian, Dikran S.; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Craig, Roger A.; Park, Chul; Palmer, Grant; Sharma, Surendra P.

    1994-01-01

    Spectra of the shock layer radiation incident on the stagnation point of a blunt body placed in an arc-jet wind tunnel were measured over the wavelength range from 600 nm to 880 nm. The test gas was a mixture of 80 percent air and 20 percent argon by mass, and the run was made in a highly nonequilibrium environment. The observed spectra contained contributions from atomic lines of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, of bound-free and free-free continua, and band systems of N2 and N2(+). The measured spectra were compared with the synthetic spectra, which were obtained through four steps: the calculation of the arc-heater characteristics, of the nozzle flow, of the blunt-body flow, and the nonequilibrium radiation processes. The results show that the atomic lines are predicted approximately correctly, but all other sources are underpredicted by orders of magnitude. A possible explanation for the discrepancy is presented.

  20. Progressive-arc- vs. strike-slip-related rotations in curved orogenic belts: a case study from the Northern Apennines (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtù, Antonio; Satolli, Sara; Maniscalco, Rosanna; Calamita, Fernando; Speranza, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    A detailed paleomagnetic study has been performed in the southern sector of the Olevano-Antrodoco-Sibillini (OAS) thrust front (i. e. the southern limb of the Northern Apennines, Italy). The oroclinal/progressive-arc vs. non rotational nature of the OAS thrust is still a matter of debate, as it has been interpreted in the literature as dextral strike-slip fault, dextral transpressive fault, or as a frontal to oblique ramp complex. We document the paleomagnetism of 52 sites from Jurassic to Eocene pelagic limestones and Messinian siliciclastic turbidites from both the OAS hanging wall and footwall. In the hanging wall, sampling was designed to follow two transects perpendicular to two thrust segments oriented roughly NE-SW and NNW-SSE. Paleomagnetic data have been integrated with biostratigraphical and structural data, in order to understand both the rotational nature of the OAS arc and the kinematics of the thrust front. All samples were paleomagnetically investigated by a 2G DC-SQUID cryogenic magnetometer at the INGV of Rome. Thermal cleaning was used throughout. A characteristic component of magnetization was successfully isolated in 39 (over 52) sites. The tilt-corrected directions were compared to the coeval directions expected for the Adriatic-African foreland, in order to calculate rotations due to Apennine orogenesis. On the basis of cluster analysis and tectonic constrains, we document a peculiar pattern of tectonic rotations along the OAS thrust with four rotational domains: 1. a strongly rotated clockwise (CW) domain (54.78° ±5.46° ) in the hanging wall, close to the NE-SW-trending segment of the thrust; 2. a less CW-rotated domain in the hanging wall (15.1° ±5.8° ) that includes both the NNW-SSE oriented thrust segment and sites far from the thrust; 3. a uniform counterclockwise (CCW) rotation (-30.79° ±4.73° ) in the footwall; 4. an approximately null rotation (-5.2° ±3.8° ) in the external footwall. The strong CW domain in the hanging wall

  1. Radiation-induced rotation of small celestial bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misconi, N. Y.; Oliver, John; Mzariegos, Roberto

    1992-01-01

    The rotation was studied of particles in a simulated space environment via a technique known as Laser Particle Levitation. The combination of both a high vacuum and optical laser levitation to negate the effects of Earth's gravity, simulate the space environment. The rotation mechanism under study is known as the 'Windmill Effect,' which is a spin mechanism that suggests that the interaction of the photon field from a star with the surface irregularities of cosmic dust will cause them to spin due to the imbalance in the directionality of the scattered photons which necessitates a non-zero angular momentum. This conclusion is based on the random nature of the orientation of the sites of surface irregularities. The general object is to study the behavior of particles in orbits around the Earth, both natural and man made, as well as interplanetary and circumstellar particles. To meet this objective, an apparatus was constructed which was designed to allow optical levitation in a vacuum.

  2. Enhanced gamma radiation towards the rotation axis from the immediate vicinity of extremely rotating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yoogeun; Pu, Hung-Yi; Hirotani, Kouichi; Matsushita, Satoki; Kong, Albert K. H.; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the acceleration of electrons and positrons by magnetic-field-aligned electric fields in the polar funnel of an accreting black hole (BH). Applying the pulsar outer-gap theory to BH magnetospheres, we find that such a lepton accelerator arises in the immediate vicinity of the event horizon due to frame-dragging, and that their gamma-ray luminosity increases with decreasing accretion rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the gamma-ray flux is enhanced along the rotation axis by more than an order of magnitude if the BH spin increases from $a=0.90M$ to $a=0.9999M$. As a result, if a ten-solar-mass, almost-maximally rotating BH is located within 3 kpc, when its accretion rate is between 0.005% and 0.01% of the Eddington rate, its high-energy flare becomes detectable with the Fermi/Large Area Telescope, provided that the flare lasts longer than 1.2 months and that we view the source nearly along the rotation axis. In addition, its very-high-energy flux is marginally detectable with the Cherenkov Telescope Array, provided that the flare lasts longer than a night and that our viewing angle is about 45 degrees with respect to the rotation axis.

  3. Rotating solid radiative coolant system for space nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Apley, W.J.; Babb, A.L.

    1988-05-01

    The RING power system described in this paper is proposed as a primary or emergency heat rejection system for advanced space reactor power applications. The system employs a set of four (4) counter-rotating, 90 degree offset, coolant-carrying rings. The rings (segmented, corrugated, finned, thin-walled pipes, filled with liquid lithium) pass through a cavity heat exchanger and reradiate the absorbed heat to the space environment. 25 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for pancreatic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Arif N.; Dhabaan, Anees H.; Jarrio, Christie S.; Siddiqi, Arsalan K.; Landry, Jerome C.

    2012-10-01

    Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has been previously evaluated for several tumor sites and has been shown to provide significant dosimetric and delivery benefits when compared with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). To date, there have been no published full reports on the benefits of VMAT use in pancreatic patients compared with IMRT. Ten patients with pancreatic malignancies treated with either IMRT or VMAT were retrospectively identified. Both a double-arc VMAT and a 7-field IMRT plan were generated for each of the 10 patients using the same defined tumor volumes, organs at risk (OAR) volumes, dose, fractionation, and optimization constraints. The planning tumor volume (PTV) maximum dose (55.8 Gy vs. 54.4 Gy), PTV mean dose (53.9 Gy vs. 52.1 Gy), and conformality index (1.11 vs. 0.99) were statistically similar between the IMRT and VMAT plans, respectively. The VMAT plans had a statistically significant reduction in monitor units compared with the IMRT plans (1109 vs. 498, p < 0.001). In addition, the doses to the liver, small bowel, and spinal cord were comparable between the IMRT and VMAT plans. However, the VMAT plans demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the mean left kidney V{sub 25} (9.4 Gy vs. 2.3 Gy, p = 0.018), mean right kidney V{sub 15} (53.4 Gy vs. 45.9 Gy, p = 0.035), V{sub 20} (32.2 Gy vs. 25.5 Gy, p = 0.016), and V{sub 25} (21.7 Gy vs. 14.9 Gy, p = 0.001). VMAT was investigated in patients with pancreatic malignancies and compared with the current standard of IMRT. VMAT was found to have similar or improved dosimetric parameters for all endpoints considered. Specifically, VMAT provided reduced monitor units and improved bilateral kidney normal tissue dose. The clinical relevance of these benefits in the context of pancreatic cancer patients, however, is currently unclear and requires further investigation.

  5. Hawking radiation of spin-1 particles from a three-dimensional rotating hairy black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Sakalli, I.; Ovgun, A.

    2015-09-15

    We study the Hawking radiation of spin-1 particles (so-called vector particles) from a three-dimensional rotating black hole with scalar hair using a Hamilton–Jacobi ansatz. Using the Proca equation in the WKB approximation, we obtain the tunneling spectrum of vector particles. We recover the standard Hawking temperature corresponding to the emission of these particles from a rotating black hole with scalar hair.

  6. Understanding progressive-arc- and strike-slip-related rotations in curve-shaped orogenic belts: The case of the Olevano-Antrodoco-Sibillini thrust (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtã¹, Antonio; Satolli, Sara; Maniscalco, Rosanna; Calamita, Fernando; Speranza, Fabio

    2013-02-01

    We report on a paleomagnetic study of the southern sector of the Olevano-Antrodoco-Sibillini (OAS) thrust front, which corresponds to the southern limb of the Northern Apennines (Italy) orogenic salient. A lively debate has developed regarding the oroclinal/progressive-arc versus non-rotational nature of the OAS, which has been alternatively interpreted as a dextral strike-slip fault, dextral transpressive fault, or frontal to oblique ramp that reactivated pre-existing Jurassic normal faults. Here, we document the paleomagnetism, integrated with biostratigraphic and structural data, of 52 new sites from both the OAS hanging wall and footwall. On the basis of 39 retained sites, we find a peculiar pattern of tectonic rotations along the OAS thrust that evidences four rotational domains. The thrust footwall is characterized by a southern domain that undergoes an approximately 30° counterclockwise rotation with respect to the stable foreland, and an approximately non-rotated domain. The data from the hanging wall indicate the occurrence of a dextral strike-slip component along the southern sector of the OAS thrust supported by a strong clockwise rotation close to the NE-SW lateral ramp, which rapidly fades 1 km from the thrust front. A slight but significant CW rotation observed in the remaining sites from the hanging wall confirms the progressive nature of the OAS, and its structural position as the southern limb of the Northern Apennines salient. Our detailed paleomagnetic study is crucial in discriminating between progressive-arc- and strike-slip-related components in the main curved orogenic front of the Northern Apennines.

  7. Characteristics of CrAlSiN + DLC coating deposited by lateral rotating cathode arc PVD and PACVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukaszkowicz, Krzysztof; Sondor, Jozef; Balin, Katarzyna; Kubacki, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    Coating system composed of CrAlSiN film covered by diamond-like carbon (DLC)-based lubricant, deposited on hot work tool steel substrate was the subject of the research. The CrAlSiN and DLC layers were deposited by PVD lateral rotating ARC-cathodes (LARC) and PACVD technology on the X40CrMoV5-1 respectively. HRTEM investigation shows an amorphous character of DLC layer. It was found that the tested CrAlSiN layer has a nanostructural character with fine crystallites while their average size is less than 10 nm. Based on the XRD pattern of the CrAlSiN, the occurrence of fcc phase was only observed in the coating, the texture direction <3 1 1> is perpendicular to the sample surface. Combined SEM, AES and ToF-SIMS studies confirmed assumed chemical composition and layered structure of the coating. The chemical distribution of the elements inside the layers and at the interfaces was analyzed by SEM and AES methods. It was shown that additional CrN layer is present between substrate and CrAlSiN coating. The atomic concentration of the particular elements of DLC and CrAlSiN layer was calculated from the XPS measurements. In sliding dry friction conditions the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.05 and 0.07. The investigated coating reveals high wear resistance. The coating demonstrated a dense cross-sectional morphology as well as good adhesion to the substrate.

  8. Collimator rotation in volumetric modulated arc therapy for craniospinal irradiation and the dose distribution in the beam junction region.

    PubMed

    Li, Qilin; Gu, Wendong; Mu, Jinming; Yin, Wenming; Gao, Min; Mo, Juncong; Pei, Honglei

    2015-11-19

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of beam collimator rotation in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) for craniospinal irradiation (CSI), and the impact on dose distribution in the beam junctions. Six adult patients were selected for the study. Six VMAT plans with different collimator angles were generated for each patient. The patients were treated in supine position with two beam isocenters. The plans were evaluated by analysis of Dose-Volume Histogram (DVHs) data for planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR), and conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for the target. Dose distributions in the beam junctions were examined carefully and experimentally validated in phantom, with measurement using an ion chamber array and film. The mean values of HI and CI for the plans with different beam collimator angles were not significantly different. The numbers of segments, monitor units (MUs) and the delivery time of the plans with 45° beam collimator were obviously higher than those in plans with other beam collimator angles. When collimator angle for both sets of beams were set at 0°, there was a 1 mm low dose gap measured in the junction region. By setting the collimator angle to 45°, only two isocenters were needed for the treatment of a target with the length up to 90 cm. The HI and CI of the plans were almost the same, regardless if the collimator angles were at 0°. The collimator angles for at least one set of beams should be off 0° in order to avoid a dose gap in the beam junction region.

  9. ENERGETIC GAMMA RADIATION FROM RAPIDLY ROTATING BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Hirotani, Kouichi; Pu, Hung-Yi

    2016-02-10

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) are believed to be the central powerhouse of active galactic nuclei. Applying the pulsar outer-magnetospheric particle accelerator theory to BH magnetospheres, we demonstrate that an electric field is exerted along the magnetic field lines near the event horizon of a rotating BH. In this particle accelerator (or a gap), electrons and positrons are created by photon–photon collisions and accelerated in the opposite directions by this electric field, efficiently emitting gamma-rays via curvature and inverse-Compton processes. It is shown that a gap arises around the null-charge surface formed by the frame-dragging effect, provided that there is no current injection across the gap boundaries. The gap is dissipating a part of the hole’s rotational energy, and the resultant gamma-ray luminosity increases with decreasing plasma accretion from the surroundings. Considering an extremely rotating supermassive BH, we show that such a gap reproduces the significant very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray flux observed from the radio galaxy IC 310, provided that the accretion rate becomes much less than the Eddington rate particularly during its flare phase. It is found that the curvature process dominates the inverse-Compton process in the magnetosphere of IC 310, and that the observed power-law-like spectrum in VHE gamma-rays can be explained to some extent by a superposition of the curvature emissions with varying curvature radius. It is predicted that the VHE spectrum extends into higher energies with increasing VHE photon flux.

  10. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation and Alignment of the Analogs of Interstellar Dust Grains by Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Witherow, W. K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment with respect to the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in grain rotation and alignment has not been achieved. As there appears to be no experimental data available on this subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron size nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approximately 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 Angstroms, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low frequency (approximately 0-100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in the light of the current theories of alignment.

  11. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation of Micron Size Cosmic Dust Grains with Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E.; Weingartner, J.; Witherow, W. K.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment along the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in grain rotation and alignment has not been achieved. As there appears to be no experimental data available on this subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron size nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 A, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low frequency (approx. 0-100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in the light of the current theories of alignment.

  12. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation of Micron Size Cosmic Dust Grains with Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E.; Weingartner, J.; Witherow, W. K.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment along the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in grain rotation and alignment has not been achieved. As there appears to be no experimental data available on this subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron size nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 A, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low frequency (approx. 0-100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in the light of the current theories of alignment.

  13. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation and Alignment of the Analogs of Interstellar Dust Grains by Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Witherow, W. K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment with respect to the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in grain rotation and alignment has not been achieved. As there appears to be no experimental data available on this subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron size nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approximately 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 Angstroms, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low frequency (approximately 0-100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in the light of the current theories of alignment.

  14. Arc Testing of a Mockup Cable in a Simulated Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, D. C.; Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    A mockup cable was irradiated with electrons of 25-100 keV energy in a vacuum chamber. The m'ockup cable consisted of insulated wires on a kapton substrate, overlaid with a metallized teonex shield. Voltages induced on the wires and shield by the electron beam during irradiation were monitored, and voltage changes were used, along with video, to detect arcs due to the charge built-up in the cable. The cable was also cooled with liquid nitrogen to very low temperatures, to simulate cables kept in the dark for long periods of time. Arcing was common at fluences typical of long space missions. Occasionally an arc would occur some time after the electron beam was turned off. The conductivity of the wires and shield was monitored as a function of temperature, and behaved as expected, with lower conductivities at lower temperatures. Arcs from the wires and shield to ground and from the wires to the shield were measured. Sympathetic arcs were also seen, wherein an arc from the shield to ground or from the wires to ground was followed in a short period of time by another arc of a different type. Implications of these results for real cables on long space missions will be discussed, and recommendations given for arc mitigation.

  15. Arc-textured metal surfaces for high thermal emittance space radiators

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, B.A.; Rutledge, S.K.; Mirtich, M.J.; Behrend, T.; Hotes, D.; Kussmaul, M.; Barry, J.; Stidham, C.; Stueber, T.; DiFilippo, F.

    1994-09-01

    Carbon arc electrical discharges struck across the surfaces of metals such as Nb-1% Zr, alter the morphology to produce a high thermal emittance surface. Metal from the surface and carbon from the arc electrode vaporize during arcing, and then condense on the metal surface to produce a microscopically rough surface having a high thermal emittance. Quantitative spectral reflectance measurements from 0.33 to 15 {mu}m were made on metal surfaces which were carbon arc treated in an inert gas environment. The resulting spectral reflectance data were then used to calculate thermal emittance as a function of temperature for various methods of arc treatment. The results of arc treatment on various metals are presented for both ac and dc arcs. Surface characterization data, including thermal emittance as a function of temperature, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic oxygen durability, are also presented. Ac arc texturing was found to increase the thermal emittance at 800 K from 0.05. to 0.70.

  16. Arc Testing of a Mockup Cable in a Simulated Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, D. C.; Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    A mockup cable was irradiated with electrons of 25-100 keV energy in a vacuum chamber. The m'ockup cable consisted of insulated wires on a kapton substrate, overlaid with a metallized teonex shield. Voltages induced on the wires and shield by the electron beam during irradiation were monitored, and voltage changes were used, along with video, to detect arcs due to the charge built-up in the cable. The cable was also cooled with liquid nitrogen to very low temperatures, to simulate cables kept in the dark for long periods of time. Arcing was common at fluences typical of long space missions. Occasionally an arc would occur some time after the electron beam was turned off. The conductivity of the wires and shield was monitored as a function of temperature, and behaved as expected, with lower conductivities at lower temperatures. Arcs from the wires and shield to ground and from the wires to the shield were measured. Sympathetic arcs were also seen, wherein an arc from the shield to ground or from the wires to ground was followed in a short period of time by another arc of a different type. Implications of these results for real cables on long space missions will be discussed, and recommendations given for arc mitigation.

  17. Acoustic Radiation From Rotating Blades: The Kirchhoff Method in Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of discrete frequency noise prediction for rotating blade machinery in the time domain. There are two major approaches both of which can be classified as the Kirchhoff method. These methods depend on the solution of two linear wave equations called the K and FW-H equations. The solutions of these equations for subsonic and supersonic surfaces are discussed and some important results of the research in the past years are presented. This paper is analytical in nature and emphasizes the work of the author and coworkers at NASA Langley Research Center.

  18. Effects of solar radiation pressure torque on the rotational motion of an artificial satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanardi, Maria Cecilia F. P. S.; Vilhenademoraes, Rodolpho

    1992-01-01

    The motion of an artificial satellite about its center of mass is studied considering torques due to the gravity gradient and direct solar radiation pressure. A model for direct solar radiation torque is derived for a circular cylindrical satellite. An analytical solution is obtained by the method of variation of the parameters. This solution shows that the angular variables have secular variation but that the modulus of the rotational angular momentum, the projection of rotational angular momentum on the z axis of the moment of inertia and inertial axis z, suffer only periodic variations. Considering a hypothetical artificial satellite, a numerical application is demonstrated.

  19. Large-scale block rotations from Late Tortonian to Present in the Gibraltar Arc System: input into the Messinian salinity crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Comas, Menchu; Balanyá, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    We propose a reconstruction of one of the tightest orogenic arcs on Earth: the Gibraltar Arc System (GAS), which closes the Alpine-Mediterranean orogenic system to the west. This reconstruction, which includes onshore and offshore data, is completed for approximately 9 Ma, a few Ma before the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). By that time a change in the direction of the Africa-Iberia convergence took place, the main shortening in the external wedge was accomplished, most of the low-angle normal fault systems that contribute to crustal-scale extension in the GAS ceased, and a significant emersion along the Africa and Iberia continental margins occurred, due to an overall contractive reorganization in the GAS. Our paleotectonic reconstruction is based on a review in terms of structures and age of the superposed deformational events that took place during the Miocene within the GAS, with special attention to the external zones of its northern branch. Our review and new structural data permit to constrain the timing of vertical axis-rotations evidenced by previously published paleomagnetic data, and to identify homogeneous domains in terms of relationships between timing of deformation events and block rotations. Block-rotations as high as 53° took place from 9 Ma to Present, which represents around 6°/Ma. The size of the rotated blocks reach 150 to 200 km long (measured along-strike). It implies that the rotations were accommodated by relatively rigid large-scale domains instead of smaller segments rotated progressively, which favors a model of vertical-axis block-rotations on top of crustal-scale decoupling levels. These rotations accommodated tightening and lengthening of the GAS and drastically altered its onshore and offshore geometry from 9 Ma onwards. In the back-arc Alboran Basin, this post-Miocene tightening produced inversion on Middle Miocene normal faults, wrench tectonics, the reactivation of shale diapirism and volcanism, and the uplift of the margins

  20. Void fraction and phase distribution of a rotating two-phase gas-liquid flow around a plasma arc under water

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkamp, H.; Mewes, D.

    1994-12-31

    Plasma arc welding processes are used in off-shore industry for construction and maintenance in the wet surrounding of underwater structures and pipelines. In greater water depth the density of the plasma gas increase because of the greater hydrostatic pressure. This causes the increase of conductive heat losses to the wet surrounding. To keep up the energy flux to the workpiece to be welded, the plasma arc has to burn in a local dry area with an inside pressure of 1 bar. This requirement can be fulfilled by a rotating cylinder with a liquid film flowing down the inner wall. The flow around the rotating cylinder to create a local dry area around the plasma arc under water is experimentally investigated. The rotating cylinder is placed above the work surface which is simulated by a flat plate. According to the centrifugal forces of the rotating flow inside the gap between the lower end of the cylinder and the flat plate the water is forced out of the cylinder. The velocity distribution in the flow is measured by Laser-Doppler anemometry. The phase distribution in the two-phase flow in the gap is measured by local electrical probes. The static pressure inside the gaseous atmosphere is reduced in comparison to the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding water. The pressure reduction is given by the void fraction, the phase distribution and the volume flow rates of both phases in the gap as well as by the speed of revolution and the design of the cylinder and the work surface. The influence of these parameters on the heat transfer from the workpiece to the two-phase flow regime is also investigated.

  1. Radiation Pressure Effects in the Oscillations of Compressible Rotating Homogeneous Spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, T. T.; Pung, S. Y.

    1993-09-01

    Earlier models of compressible, rotating, and homogeneous ellipsoids with gas pressure are generalized to include the presence of radiation pressure. Under the assumptions of a linear velocity field of the fluid and a bounded ellipsoidal surface, the dynamical behaviour of these models can be described by ordinary differential equations. These equations are used to study the finite oscillations of massive radiative models with masses 10M ⊙ and 30M ⊙ in which the effects of radiation pressure are expected to be important. Models with two different degrees of equilibrium are chosen: an equilibrium (i.e., dynamically stable) model with an initial asymmetric inward velocity, and a nonequilibrium model with a nonequilibrium central temperature and which falls inwards from rest. For each of these two degrees of equilibrium, two initial configurations are considered: rotating spheroidal and nonrotating spherical models. From the numerical integration of the differential equations for these models, we obtain the time evolution of their principal semi-diametersa 1 anda 3, and of their central temperatures, which are graphically displayed by making plots of the trajectories in the (a 1,a 3) phase space, and of botha 1 and the total central pressureP c against time. It is found that in all the equilibrium radiative models (in which radiation pressure is taken into account), the periods of the oscillations of botha 1 andP c are longer than those of the corresponding nonradiative models, while the reverse is true for the nonequilibrium radiative models. The envelopes of thea 1 oscillations of the equilibrium radiative models also have much longer periods; this result also holds for the nonequilibrium models whenever the envelope is well defined. Further, as compared to the nonradiative models, almost all the radiative models collapse to smaller volumes before rebouncing, with the more massive model undergoing a larger collapse and attaining a correspondingly larger peakP c

  2. Epid cine acquisition mode for in vivo dosimetry in dynamic arc radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidanzio, Andrea; Mameli, Alessandra; Placidi, Elisa; Greco, Francesca; Stimato, Gerardina; Gaudino, Diego; Ramella, Sara; D'Angelillo, Rolando; Cellini, Francesco; Trodella, Lucio; Cilla, Savino; Grimaldi, Luca; D'Onofrio, Guido; Azario, Luigi; Piermattei, Angelo

    2008-02-01

    In this paper the cine acquisition mode of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been calibrated and tested to determine the in vivo dose for dynamic conformal arc radiation therapy (DCAT). The EPID cine acquisition mode, that allows a frame acquisition rate of one image every 1.66 s, was studied with a monitor unit rate equal to 100 UM/min. In these conditions good signal stability, ±1% (2SD) evaluated during three months, signal reproducibility within ±0.8% (2SD) and linearity with dose and dose rate within ±1% (2SD) were obtained. The transit signal, St, (due to the transmitted beam below the phantom) measured by the EPID cine acquisition mode was used to determine, (i) a set of correlation functions, F(w,L), defined as the ratio between St and the dose at half thickness, Dm, measured in solid water phantoms of different thicknesses, w and with square fields of side L, (ii) a set of factors, f(d,L), that take into account the different X-ray scatter contribution from the phantom to the St signal as a function of the variation, d, of the air gap between the phantom and the EPID. The reconstruction of the isocenter dose, Diso, for DCAT was obtained convolving the transit signal values, obtained at different gantry angles, with the respective reconstruction factors determined by a house-made software. The method was tested with cylindrical and anthropomorphic phantoms and the results show that the reconstructed Diso values can be obtained with an accuracy within ±2.5% in cylindrical phantom and within ±3.4% for anthropomorphic phantom. In conclusion, the transit dosimetry by EPID was assessed to be adequate to perform DCAT in vivo dosimetry, that is not realizable with the other traditional techniques. Moreover, the method proposed here could be implemented to supply in vivo dose values in real time.

  3. Ethnic difference in risk of toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with dynamic arc radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Lopez Guerra, Jose L; Matute, Raul; Puebla, Fernando; Sánchez-Reyes, Alberto; Pontes, Beatriz; Rubio, Cristina; Nepomuceno, Isabel; Acevedo, Catalina; Isa, Nicolas; Lengua, Rafael; Praena-Fernandez, Juan Manuel; del Campo, Eleonor Rivin; Ortiz, Maria Jose; Azinovic, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of ethnicity on toxicity in patients treated with dynamic arc radiation therapy (ART) for prostate cancer (PC). From June 2006 to May 2012, 162 cT1-T3 cN0 cM0 PC patients were treated with ART (primary diagnosis, n = 125; post-prostatectomy/brachytherapy biochemical recurrence, n = 26; adjuvant post-prostatectomy, n = 11) at 2 institutions. Forty-five patients were Latin Americans and 117 were Europeans. The dose prescribed to the prostate ranged between 68 Gy and 81 Gy. The median age was 69 years (range 43-87 years). The median follow-up was 18 months (range 2-74 months). Overall, only 3 patients died, none due to a cancer-related cause. Biochemical recurrence was seen in 7 patients. The rates of acute grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities were 19.7% and 17%, respectively. Only 1 patient experienced acute grade 3 GI toxicity, whereas 11 patients (6.7%) experienced acute grade 3 GU toxicity. Multivariate analysis showed that undergoing whole pelvic lymph node irradiation was associated with a higher grade of acute GI toxicity (OR: 3.46; p = 0.003). In addition, older age was marginally associated with a higher grade of acute GI toxicity (OR: 2.10; p = 0.074). Finally, ethnicity was associated with acute GU toxicity: Europeans had lower-grade toxicity (OR: 0.27; p = 0.001). Our findings suggest an ethnic difference in GU toxicity for PC patients treated with ART. In addition, we found that ART is associated with a very low risk of severe toxicity and a low recurrence rate.

  4. Impact of gantry rotation time on plan quality and dosimetric verification--volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) vs. intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).

    PubMed

    Pasler, Marlies; Wirtz, Holger; Lutterbach, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    To compare plan quality criteria and dosimetric accuracy of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (ss-IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) using two different gantry rotation times. This retrospective planning study based on 20 patients was comprised of 10 prostate cancer (PC) and 10 head and neck (HN) cancer cases. Each plan contained two target volumes: a primary planning target volume (PTV) and a boost volume. For each patient, one ss-IMRT plan and two VMAT plans at 90 s (VMAT90) and 120 s (VMAT120) per arc were generated with the Pinnacle© planning system. Two arcs were provided for the PTV plans and a single arc for boost volumes. Dosimetric verification of the plans was performed using a 2D ionization chamber array placed in a full scatter phantom. VMAT reduced delivery time and monitor units for both treatment sites compared to IMRT. VMAT120 vs. VMAT90 increased delivery time and monitor units in PC plans without improving plan quality. For HN cases, VMAT120 provided comparable organs at risk sparing and better target coverage and conformity than VMAT90. In the VMAT plan verification, an average of 97.1% of the detector points passed the 3 mm, 3% γ criterion, while in IMRT verification it was 98.8%. VMAT90, VMAT120, and IMRT achieved comparable treatment plans. Slower gantry movement in VMAT120 plans only improves dosimetric quality for highly complex targets.

  5. Beam’s-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) guided rotational station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) planning based on reweighted total-variation minimization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hojin; Li, Ruijiang; Lee, Rena; Xing, Lei

    2015-03-07

    Conventional VMAT optimizes aperture shapes and weights at uniformly sampled stations, which is a generalization of the concept of a control point. Recently, rotational station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) has been proposed to improve the plan quality by inserting beams to the regions that demand additional intensity modulations, thus formulating nonuniform beam sampling. This work presents a new rotational SPORT planning strategy based on reweighted total-variation (TV) minimization (min.), using beam’s-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) guided beam selection. The convex programming based reweighted TV min. assures the simplified fluence-map, which facilitates single-aperture selection at each station for single-arc delivery. For the rotational arc treatment planning and non-uniform beam angle setting, the mathematical model needs to be modified by additional penalty term describing the fluence-map similarity and by determination of appropriate angular weighting factors. The proposed algorithm with additional penalty term is capable of achieving more efficient and deliverable plans adaptive to the conventional VMAT and SPORT planning schemes by reducing the dose delivery time about 5 to 10 s in three clinical cases (one prostate and two head-and-neck (HN) cases with a single and multiple targets). The BEVD guided beam selection provides effective and yet easy calculating methodology to select angles for denser, non-uniform angular sampling in SPORT planning. Our BEVD guided SPORT treatment schemes improve the dose sparing to femoral heads in the prostate and brainstem, parotid glands and oral cavity in the two HN cases, where the mean dose reduction of those organs ranges from 0.5 to 2.5 Gy. Also, it increases the conformation number assessing the dose conformity to the target from 0.84, 0.75 and 0.74 to 0.86, 0.79 and 0.80 in the prostate and two HN cases, while preserving the delivery efficiency, relative to conventional single-arc VMAT plans.

  6. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation and Alignment of the Analogs of Interstellar Dust Grains by Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Witherow, W. K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models, and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment with respect to the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in the rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron-sized, nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approximately 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 A, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low-frequency (approximately 0 - 100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in light of the current theories of alignment.

  7. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation and Alignment of the Analogs of Interstellar Dust Grains by Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Witherow, W. K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models, and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment with respect to the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in the rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron-sized, nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approximately 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 A, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low-frequency (approximately 0 - 100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in light of the current theories of alignment.

  8. Radiatively driven winds from magnetic, fast-rotating stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerney, S.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical procedure is developed to solve the magnetohydrodynamic equations for the stellar wind problem in the strong-magnetic field, optically thick limit for hot stars. The slow-mode, Alfven, and fast-mode critical points are modified by the radiation terms in the force equation but in a manner that can be treated relatively easily. Once the velocities at the critical points and the distances to the points are known, the streamline constants are determined in a straight-forward manner. This allows the structure of the wind to be elucidated without recourse to complicated computational schemes.

  9. Continuous calibration of a vacuum ultraviolet system from 65 to 125 nm by a cascade arc and comparison with the calibrated line radiation of a hollow cathode.

    PubMed

    Frost, R M; Awakowicz, P

    1997-03-20

    A high-power stationary helium cascade arc has been developed as a standard source for continuum radiation in the VUV spectral range from 65 to 125 nm. The calibration of the VUV system response was based on the calculated and measured continuum radiation of a 2-mmphi pure He arc. Diagnostics of the arc plasma in partial thermal equilibrium yielded the electron density and the temperature that were inserted in the calculations of the continuous radiation. The results were compared with the helium, argon, and krypton radiation lines of a high-current hollow cathode lamp. This lamp was built according to the construction drawings of a hollow cathode, which was calibrated by means of the electron synchrotron radiation at the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt Berlin.

  10. Asymptotically flat radiative space-times with boost-rotation symmetry: The general structure

    SciTech Connect

    Biicak, J.; Schmidt, B. )

    1989-09-15

    This paper deals for the first time with boost-rotation-symmetric space-times from a unified point of view. Boost-rotation-symmetric space-times are the only explicitly known exact solutions of the Einstein vacuum field equations which describe moving singularities or black holes, are radiative and asymptotically flat in the sense that they admit global, though not complete, smooth null infinity, as well as spacelike and timelike infinities. They very likely represent the exterior fields of uniformly accelerated sources in general relativity and may serve as tests of various approximation methods, as nontrivial illustrations of the theory of the asymptotic structure of radiative space-times, and as test beds in numerical relativity. Examples are the {ital C}-metric or the solutions of Bonnor and Swaminarayan. The space-times are defined in a geometrical manner and their global properties are studied in detail, in particular their asymptotic structure. It is demonstrated how one can construct any asymptotically flat boost-rotation-symmetric space-time starting from the boost-rotation-symmetric solution of the flat-space wave equation. The problem of uniformly accelerated sources in special relativity is also discussed. The radiative properties and specific examples of the boost-rotation-symmetric space-times will be analyzed in a following paper.

  11. Numerical study of thermal radiation and thermophoresis on peristalsis with rotational aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, T.; Zahir, H.; Alsaedi, A.; Ahmad, B.

    The present work concentrates for the impact of thermal radiation on peristaltic transport of viscous fluid in a rotating channel. Both fluid and channel are in a state of rigid body rotation. The influences of thermophoresis and chemical reaction are taken into account. Convective conditions for heat and mass transfer in the formulation are adopted. In addition, the non-uniform heat source/sink effect is included in heat transfer analysis. Exact solutions for stream function and temperature are obtained. Numerical solution for concentration of the developed mathematical model are obtained by considering low Reynolds number and long wavelength. The effects of emerging physical parameters are analyzed through graphical illustrations. It is found that the influence of thermophoretic and thermal radiation parameters on the temperature and concentration are quite opposite. Further heat transfer coefficient decays when rotation is increased.

  12. Experimental simulation of the Bubble Membrane Radiator using a rotating flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Baroudi, Homam; Klein, Andrew C.; Pauley, Keith A.

    The Bubble Membrane Radiator (BMR), to be used in space reactor systems, uses artificial gravity imposed on the working fluid by means of the centrifugal force to pump the fluid from the radiator. Experimental and analytical studies have been initiated to understand the nature of fluid and heat transport under the conditions of rotation. An experiment is described which measures the condensation of vapor on a rotating flat plate which is oriented normal to the Earth's gravity vector to simulate the BMR physics. The relationship between vapor flow rates and rotation speed of the flat plate and a number of physical parameters including amount of condensate, overall heat transfer coefficient, and condensate film thickness are studied experimentally.

  13. The radiative zone of the Sun and the tachocline: stability of baroclinic patterns of differential rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleo, Andrea; Balbus, Steven A.

    2016-04-01

    Barotropic rotation and radiative equilibrium are mutually incompatible in stars. The issue is often addressed by allowing for a meridional circulation, but this is not devoid of theoretical complications. Models of rotation in the Sun which maintain strict radiative equilibrium, making use of the observation that the Sun is not in a state of barotropic rotation, have recently been suggested. To investigate the dynamical behaviour of these solutions, we study the local stability of stratified, weakly magnetized, differentially rotating fluids to non-axisymmetric perturbations. Finite heat conductivity, kinematic viscosity, and resistivity are present. The evolution of local embedded perturbations is governed by a set of coupled, ordinary differential equations with time-dependent coefficients. Two baroclinic models of rotation for the upper radiative zone and tachocline are studied: (i) an interpolation based on helioseismology data, (ii) a theoretical solution directly compatible with radiative equilibrium. The growth of the local Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke instability appears to be suppressed, largely because of the viscosity. An extensive exploration of wavenumber space is carried out, with and without a magnetic field. Although we easily find classical local instabilities when they ought formally to be present, for the Sun the analysis reveals neither unstable solutions, nor even solutions featuring a large transient growth. We have not ruled out larger scale or non-linear instabilities, nor have we rigorously proven local stability. But rotational configurations in close agreement with observations, generally thought to be vulnerable to the classic local Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke instability, do appear to be locally stable under rather general circumstances.

  14. Effect of rotation on Jeans instability of magnetized radiative quantum plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, H.; Pensia, R. K.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of rotation on the Jeans instability of homogeneous magnetized radiative quantum plasma is investigated. The basic equations of the problem are constructed and linearized by using the Quantum Magnetohydrodynamics (QMHD) model. The general dispersion relation is obtained by using the normal mode analysis technique, which is reduced for both the transverse and the longitudinal mode of propagations and further it is reduced for the axis of rotation parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. We found that the stabilizing effects of rotation are decreases for a strong magnetic field which is shown in the graphical representation. We also found that the quantum correction modified the condition of Jeans instability in both modes of propagation. The stabilizing effect of rotation is more increased in the presence of quantum correction.

  15. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for abdominal targets using volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy with RapidArc: feasibility and clinical preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Scorsetti, Marta; Bignardi, Mario; Alongi, Filippo; Fogliata, Antonella; Mancosu, Pietro; Navarria, Piera; Castiglioni, Simona; Pentimalli, Sara; Tozzi, Angelo; Cozzi, Luca

    2011-05-01

    To report early clinical experience in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivered using volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy with RapidArc (RA) in patients with primary or metastatic tumours at abdominal sites. Thirty-seven consecutive patients were treated using RA. Of these, 16 had primary or metastatic liver tumours, nine had pancreatic cancer and 12 a nodal metastasis in the retro-peritoneum. Dose prescription varied from 45 to 75 Gy to the Clinical Target Volume in 3 to 6 fractions. The median follow-up was 12 months (6-22). Early local control and toxicity were investigated and reported. Planning objectives on target volumes and organs at risk were met in most cases. Delivery time ranged from 2.8 ± 0.3 to 9.2 ± 2.4 minutes and pre-treatment plan verification resulted in a Gamma Agreement Index from 95.3 ± 3.8 to 98.3 ± 1.7%. At the time of analysis, local control (freedom from progression) at six months, was assessable in 24 of 37 patients and was achieved in 19 patients with a crude rate of 79.2%. Seven patients experienced treatment-related toxicity. Three patients experienced a mild and transient G1 enteritis and two showed a transient G1 liver damage. Two had late toxicity: one developed chronic enteritis causing G1 diarrhoea and G1 abdominal pain and one suffered at three months a G3 gastric bleeding. No patients experienced G4 acute toxicity. SBRT for abdominal targets delivered by means of RA resulted to be feasible with good early clinical results in terms of local control rate and acute toxicity profile. RA allowed to achieve required target coverage as well as to keep within normal tissue dose/volume constraints.

  16. Dosimetric comparison of flattened and unflattened beams for stereotactic body radiation therapy: Impact of the size of the PTV on dynamic conformal arc and volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Vieillevigne, Laure; Bessieres, Sandra; Ouali, Monia; Lanaspeze, Christel

    2016-11-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) beams are frequently used for stereotactic body radiation therapy with various treatment modalities: conventional static fields, dynamic conformal arc (DCA) or Rapid Arc (RA). The goal of this study was to obtain some criteria to enable a conscious choice of the employment of FFF beams and of the DCA or RA technique, depending on the PTV size. 24 PTVs from 1.52cm(3) to 445.24cm(3) were studied in various sites: virtual phantom, lung and liver. For each PTV, DCA and RA plans were prepared using two flattened (FF) and two unflattened photon beams. Parameters such as conformity index, gradient index, healthy-tissue and organs at risk mean doses, number of monitor units (MU), beam on time (BOT) were used to quantify obtained dose distributions. Friedman tests and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were also performed. No significant differences were found between FF and FFF beams for RA regarding conformity and gradient indices. For DCA, 10FFF is less suitable and forward planning becomes more challenging as PTV volume increases. FFF beams provided a better sparing of healthy-tissues except for 10FFF used with DCA. 6FFF was slightly better than 10FFF in terms of healthy-tissue mean doses. FFF beams generated significantly reduced BOTs and increased MUs. These effects were more pronounced for larger volumes and especially for RA plans. FFF showed better results than FF beams for the considered plans. 10FFF used with DCA should be used with caution for medium and large volumes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. SmartArc-based volumetric modulated arc therapy for endometrial cancer: a dosimetric comparison with helical tomotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of using volumetric modulated arc therapy with SmartArc (VMAT-S) to achieve radiation delivery efficiency higher than that of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy (HT) when treating endometrial cancer, while maintaining plan quality. Methods Nine patients with endometrial cancer were retrospectively studied. Three plans per patient were generated for VMAT-S, IMRT and HT. The dose distributions for the planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk (OARs) and normal tissue were compared. The monitor units (MUs) and treatment delivery time were also evaluated. Results The average homogeneity index was 1.06, 1.10 and 1.07 for the VMAT-S, IMRT and HT plans, respectively. The V40 for the rectum, bladder and pelvis bone decreased by 9.0%, 3.0% and 3.0%, respectively, in the VMAT-S plan relative to the IMRT plan. The target coverage and sparing of OARs were comparable between the VMAT-S and HT plans. The average MU was 823, 1105 and 8403 for VMAT-S, IMRT and HT, respectively; the average delivery time was 2.6, 8.6 and 9.5 minutes, respectively. Conclusions For endometrial cancer, the VMAT-S plan provided comparable quality with significantly shorter delivery time and fewer MUs than with the IMRT and HT plans. In addition, more homogeneous PTV coverage and superior sparing of OARs in the medium to high dose region were observed in the VMAT-S relative to the IMRT plan. PMID:24175929

  18. Hawking radiation from rotating AdS black holes in conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuang-Qing; Deng, Gao-Ming; Wu, Di

    2014-08-01

    We extend to study Hawking radiation via tunneling in conformal gravity. We adopt Parikh-Wilczek's semi-classical tunneling method and the method of complex-path integral to investigate Hawking radiation from new rotating AdS black holes in conformal gravity. In this paper, the research on Hawking radiation from the rotating black holes is done in a general system, not limited in dragging coordinate systems any longer. Moreover, there existed some shortcomings in the previous derivation of geodesic equations. Different from the massless case, they used a different approach to derive the geodesic equation of the massive particles. Even the treatment was inconsistent with the variation principle of action. To remedy the shortcoming, we improve treatment to deduce the geodesic equations of massive and massless particles in a unified and self-consistent way. In addition, we also recover the Hawking temperature resorting to the complex-path integral method.

  19. The Equilibrium Mixed Layer Depth in the Tropical Atlantic. The Rotation Stress and Penetration of Radiation Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    represented when the rotation stress mechanism is included (h 2 ). In that region, the zonal wind stress has relatively large negative values, which causes 0...SSEP 1 29 THESISA THE EQUILIBRIUM MIXED LAYER DEPTH IN THE TROPICAL ATLANTIC: THE ROTATION STRESS AND PENETRATION OF RADIATION EFFECTS - i,o by Joaquim...Mixed Layer Depth in the June, 1985Tropical Atlantic the Rotation Stress and 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER Penetration of Radiation Effects 7

  20. Assessing the Value of an Optional Radiation Oncology Clinical Rotation During the Core Clerkships in Medical School

    SciTech Connect

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Malatesta, Theresa M.; Den, Robert B.; Wuthrick, Evan; Ahn, Peter H.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Shi, Wenyin; Dicker, Adam P.; Anne, P. Rani; Bar-Ad, Voichita; Showalter, Timothy N.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Few medical students are given proper clinical training in oncology, much less radiation oncology. We attempted to assess the value of adding a radiation oncology clinical rotation to the medical school curriculum. Methods and Materials: In July 2010, Jefferson Medical College began to offer a 3-week radiation oncology rotation as an elective course for third-year medical students during the core surgical clerkship. During 2010 to 2012, 52 medical students chose to enroll in this rotation. The rotation included outpatient clinics, inpatient consults, didactic sessions, and case-based presentations by the students. Tests of students' knowledge of radiation oncology were administered anonymously before and after the rotation to evaluate the educational effectiveness of the rotation. Students and radiation oncology faculty were given surveys to assess feedback about the rotation. Results: The students' prerotation test scores had an average of 64% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61-66%). The postrotation test scores improved to an average of 82% (95% CI, 80-83%; 18% absolute improvement). In examination question analysis, scores improved in clinical oncology from 63% to 79%, in radiobiology from 70% to 77%, and in medical physics from 62% to 88%. Improvements in all sections but radiobiology were statistically significant. Students rated the usefulness of the rotation as 8.1 (scale 1-9; 95% CI, 7.3-9.0), their understanding of radiation oncology as a result of the rotation as 8.8 (95% CI, 8.5-9.1), and their recommendation of the rotation to a classmate as 8.2 (95% CI, 7.6-9.0). Conclusions: Integrating a radiation oncology clinical rotation into the medical school curriculum improves student knowledge of radiation oncology, including aspects of clinical oncology, radiobiology, and medical physics. The rotation is appreciated by both students and faculty.

  1. Implementation of a volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment planning solution for kidney and adrenal stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Sonier, Marcus; Chu, William; Lalani, Nafisha; Erler, Darby; Cheung, Patrick; Korol, Renee

    2016-01-01

    To develop a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment planning solution in the treatment of primary renal cell carcinoma and oligometastatic adrenal lesions with stereotactic body radiation therapy. Single-arc VMAT plans (n = 5) were compared with clinically delivered step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with planning target volume coverage normalized between techniques. Target volume conformity, organ-at-risk (OAR) dose, treatment time, and monitor units were compared. A VMAT planning solution, created from a combination of arc settings and optimization constraints, auto-generated treatment plans in a single optimization. The treatment planning solution was evaluated on 15 consecutive patients receiving kidney and adrenal stereotactic body radiation therapy. Treatment time was reduced from 13.0 ± 2.6 to 4.0 ± 0.9 minutes for IMRT and VMAT, respectively. The VMAT planning solution generated treatment plans with increased target homogeneity, improved 95% conformity index, and a reduced maximum point dose to nearby OARs but with increased intermediate dose to distant OARs. The conformity of the 95% isodose improved from 1.32 ± 0.39 to 1.12 ± 0.05 for IMRT and VMAT treatment plans, respectively. Evaluation of the planning solution showed clinically acceptable dose distributions for 13 of 15 cases with tight conformity of the prescription isodose to the planning target volume of 1.07 ± 0.04, delivering minimal dose to OARs. The introduction of a stereotactic body radiation therapy VMAT treatment planning solution improves the efficiency of planning and delivery time, producing treatment plans of comparable or superior quality to IMRT in the case of primary renal cell carcinoma and oligometastatic adrenal lesions.

  2. Reducing the low-dose lung radiation for central lung tumors by restricting the IMRT beams and arc arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Rosca, Florin

    2012-10-01

    To compare the extent to which 7 different radiotherapy planning techniques for mediastinal lung targets reduces the lung volume receiving low doses of radiation. Thirteen non-small cell lung cancer patients with targets, including the mediastinal nodes, were identified. Treatment plans were generated to both 60- and 74-Gy prescription doses using 7 different planning techniques: conformal, hybrid conformal/intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT), 7 equidistant IMRT beams, 2 restricted beam IMRT plans, a full (360 Degree-Sign ) modulated arc, and a restricted modulated arc plan. All plans were optimized to reduce total lung V5, V10, and V20 volumes, while meeting normal tissue and target coverage constraints. The mean values for the 13 patients are calculated for V5, V10, V20, V{sub ave}, V0-20, and mean lung dose (MLD) lung parameters. For the 74-Gy prescription dose, the mean lung V10 was 42.7, 43.6, 48.2, 56.6, 57, 55.8, and 54.1% for the restricted {+-}36 Degree-Sign IMRT, restricted modulated arc, restricted {+-}45 Degree-Sign IMRT, full modulated arc, hybrid conformal/IMRT, equidistant IMRT, and conformal plans, respectively. A similar lung sparing hierarchy was found for the 60-Gy prescription dose. For the treatment of central lung targets, the {+-}36 Degree-Sign restricted IMRT and restricted modulated arc planning techniques are superior in lowering the lung volume treated to low dose, as well as in minimizing MLD, followed by the {+-}45 Degree-Sign restricted IMRT plan. All planning techniques that allow the use of lateral or lateral/oblique beams result in spreading the low dose over a higher lung volume. The area under the lung dose-volume histogram curve below 20 Gy, V0-20, is proposed as an alternative to individual V{sub dose} parameters, both as a measure of lung sparing and as a parameter to be minimized during IMRT optimization.

  3. New arcs associated with the smooth high-frequency radiation from Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Calvert, W.

    1990-01-01

    New vertex-early kilometric arcs have been found to be associated with the dominant smooth high-frequency radio emission from Uranus. These arc features had vertices at about 300 kHz and bandwidths of about 200 kHz. Based on the fact that they exhibited a different temporal occurrence, spectral character, source location, and beaming pattern compared to the more dominant smooth component, it is concluded that they are a separate and independent radio component, different from those previously identified for this planet.

  4. Rotations

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    The rotation, in forestry, is the planned number of years between formation of a crop or stand and its final harvest at a specified stage of maturity (Ford-Robertson 1971). The rotation used for many species is the age of culmination of mean usable volume growth [net mean annual increment (MAI)]. At that age, usable volume divided by age reaches its highest level. That...

  5. A late Tortonian paleotectonic restoration of the Gibraltar Arc System (GAS) based on the restoration of block rotations. Consequences on the GAS geodynamic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Comas, Menchu; Balanyá, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-01

    The Gibraltar Arc System (GAS) closes the Alpine-Mediterranean orogenic system to the west and includes the Betic-Rif orogenic belt, the Alboran and Argelian-Balearic basins and the accretionary prism present in the Cadiz Gulf. Previous investigations on this orogenic system, both onshore and offshore have permit to establish the first order milestones of its Miocene to Recent geodynamic evolution. In most of the models of the geodynamic evolution of the GAS, the external boundary of the Betic-Rif orogenic wedge, initially N-S directed, sweeps from east to west the Gibraltar Arc area, acquiring his arcuate geometry during this westward movement. Nevertheless, most of these models are generally at scale equivalent to 1:10.000.000 or even smaller, and frequently based on 2D schematic cross-sections from which a model for the whole arc is deduced. This fact under evaluates not only the mass movements oblique to the selected cross-section plane, but also the diachronism of the deformation, in turn expected in a so closed arc. In this communication, we want to zoom on the Gibraltar Arc area, to draw a detailed Late Tortonian paleotectonic restoration and to highlight the consequence of this reconstruction on the final evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean. Our approach is based on: 1) the identification and characterization of structural domains of the Gibraltar Arc orogenic system and the transfer fault zones that separate them, 2) an accurate dating of the superposed events of deformations for each one of these domains, 3) the restoration of vertical axis-rotations of some of these structural domains (evidenced by paleomagnetic data previously published), and 4) the quantification of Miocene shortening in the External zones. This exercise makes us to put all together the results of twenty years of research of our teams on this natural case-study, mainly with field and marine geology techniques, and to test it through the revision of an extensive bibliography. It

  6. Hawking Radiation via Damour-Ruffini Method in Squashed Charged Rotating Kaluza-Klein Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ji-Wan; Wu, Jing-He; Liu, Xian-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Using the Damour-Ruffini method, Hawking radiation of charged particles from squashed charged rotating five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein black holes is investigated extensively. Under the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation, Hawking temperature of the black holes is calculated by using charged scalar particles and Dirac fermions respectively. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature for charged Dirac fermions is the same as for charged scalar particles. What's more, the spectrum of Hawking radiation contains the information of the size of the extra dimension, which could provide insight for further investigation of large extra dimensions in the future.

  7. Hawking Radiation via Damour-Ruffini Method in Squashed Charged Rotating Kaluza-Klein Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ji-Wan; Wu, Jing-He; Liu, Xian-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Using the Damour-Ruffini method, Hawking radiation of charged particles from squashed charged rotating five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein black holes is investigated extensively. Under the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation, Hawking temperature of the black holes is calculated by using charged scalar particles and Dirac fermions respectively. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature for charged Dirac fermions is the same as for charged scalar particles. What's more, the spectrum of Hawking radiation contains the information of the size of the extra dimension, which could provide insight for further investigation of large extra dimensions in the future.

  8. Thermodynamics and Hawking radiation of five-dimensional rotating charged Goedel black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin

    2011-02-15

    We study the thermodynamics of Goedel-type rotating charged black holes in five-dimensional minimal supergravity. These black holes exhibit some peculiar features such as the presence of closed timelike curves and the absence of a globally spatial-like Cauchy surface. We explicitly compute their energies, angular momenta, and electric charges that are consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. Besides, we extend the covariant anomaly cancellation method, as well as the approach of the effective action, to derive their Hawking fluxes. Both the methods of the anomaly cancellation and the effective action give the same Hawking fluxes as those from the Planck distribution for blackbody radiation in the background of the charged rotating Goedel black holes. Our results further support that Hawking radiation is a quantum phenomenon arising at the event horizon.

  9. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation for Rotational Spectroscopy: Application to the Rotational Spectrum of Propynal in the 200-750 GHz Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, J.; Roy, P.; Appadoo, D.; Naughton, D. Mc; Robertson, E.; Manceron, L.

    2013-06-01

    In storage rings, short electron bunches can produce an intense THz radiation called Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). The flux of this emission between 250 and 750 GHz (in the mW range, up the 10000 times the regular synchrotron emission) is very advantageous for broad band absorption spectroscopy, using interferometric techniques. This source is, however, inherently difficult to stabilize, and intensity fluctuations lead to artifacts on the FT-based measurements, which strongly limit the use of CSR in particular for high-resolution measurements. At SOLEIL however, by screening different currents and bunch lengths, we defined stable CSR conditions for which the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) allows for measurements at high resolution. Moreover, we developed an artifact correction system, based on a simultaneous detection of the input and the output signals of the interferometer, which allows to further improve the S/N. For this purpose, the optics and electronics of two bolometers were matched. The stable CSR combined with this ingenious technique allowed us to record for the first time high-resolution FT spectra in the sub-THz range, with a S/N of 100 in a few hours. This enables many applications such as broadband rotational spectra in the THz range, studies of molecules with low frequency torsional modes, absolute intensities determinations, or studies of unstable species. Results obtained on Propynal illustrate these possibilities and enabled to improve significantly the ground state spectroscopic constants.

  10. SATURATION OF THE MAGNETO-ROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN STRONGLY RADIATION-DOMINATED ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yanfei; Stone, James M.; Davis, Shane W.

    2013-04-20

    The saturation level of the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) in a strongly radiation-dominated accretion disk is studied using a new Godunov radiation MHD code in the unstratified shearing box approximation. Since vertical gravity is neglected in this work, our focus is on how the MRI saturates in the optically thick mid-plane of the disk. We confirm that turbulence generated by the MRI is very compressible in the radiation-dominated regime, as found by previous calculations using the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We also find little difference in the saturation properties in calculations that use a larger horizontal domain (up to four times the vertical scale height in the radial direction). However, in strongly radiation pressure dominated disks (one in which the radiation energy density reaches {approx}1% of the rest mass energy density of the gas), we find that Maxwell stress from the MRI turbulence is larger than the value produced when radiation pressure is replaced with the same amount of gas pressure. At the same time, the ratio between Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress is increased by almost a factor of eight compared with the gas pressure dominated case. We suggest that this effect is caused by radiation drag, which acts like bulk viscosity and changes the effective magnetic Prandtl number of the fluid. Radiation viscosity significantly exceeds both the microscopic plasma viscosity and resistivity, ensuring that radiation-dominated systems occupy the high magnetic Prandtl number regime. Nevertheless, we find that radiative shear viscosity is negligible compared to the Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress in the flow. This may have important implications for the structure of radiation-dominated accretion disks.

  11. Saturation of the Magneto-rotational Instability in Strongly Radiation-dominated Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.; Davis, Shane W.

    2013-04-01

    The saturation level of the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) in a strongly radiation-dominated accretion disk is studied using a new Godunov radiation MHD code in the unstratified shearing box approximation. Since vertical gravity is neglected in this work, our focus is on how the MRI saturates in the optically thick mid-plane of the disk. We confirm that turbulence generated by the MRI is very compressible in the radiation-dominated regime, as found by previous calculations using the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We also find little difference in the saturation properties in calculations that use a larger horizontal domain (up to four times the vertical scale height in the radial direction). However, in strongly radiation pressure dominated disks (one in which the radiation energy density reaches ~1% of the rest mass energy density of the gas), we find that Maxwell stress from the MRI turbulence is larger than the value produced when radiation pressure is replaced with the same amount of gas pressure. At the same time, the ratio between Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress is increased by almost a factor of eight compared with the gas pressure dominated case. We suggest that this effect is caused by radiation drag, which acts like bulk viscosity and changes the effective magnetic Prandtl number of the fluid. Radiation viscosity significantly exceeds both the microscopic plasma viscosity and resistivity, ensuring that radiation-dominated systems occupy the high magnetic Prandtl number regime. Nevertheless, we find that radiative shear viscosity is negligible compared to the Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress in the flow. This may have important implications for the structure of radiation-dominated accretion disks.

  12. Evaluation of the trade-offs encountered in planning and treating locally advanced head and neck cancer: intensity-modulated radiation therapy vs dual-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, M; McConnell, D; Romani, M; McAllister, A; Pearce, A; Andronowski, A; Wang, X; Leszczynski, K

    2012-01-01

    Objective The primary purpose of this study was to assess the practical trade-offs between intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and dual-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (DA-VMAT) for locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods For 15 locally advanced HNC data sets, nine-field step-and-shoot IMRT plans and two full-rotation DA-VMAT treatment plans were created in the Pinnacle3 v. 9.0 (Philips Medical Systems, Fitchburg, WI) treatment planning environment and then delivered on a Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) to a cylindrical detector array. The treatment planning goals were organised into four groups based on their importance: (1) spinal cord, brainstem, optical structures; (2) planning target volumes; (3) parotids, mandible, larynx and brachial plexus; and (4) normal tissues. Results Compared with IMRT, DA-VMAT plans were of equal plan quality (p>0.05 for each group), able to be delivered in a shorter time (3.1 min vs 8.3 min, p<0.0001), delivered fewer monitor units (on average 28% fewer, p<0.0001) and produced similar delivery accuracy (p>0.05 at γ2%/2mm and γ3%/3mm). However, the VMAT plans took more planning time (28.9 min vs 7.7 min per cycle, p<0.0001) and required more data for a three-dimensional dose (20 times more, p<0.0001). Conclusions Nine-field step-and-shoot IMRT and DA-VMAT are both capable of meeting the majority of planning goals for locally advanced HNC. The main trade-offs between the techniques are shorter treatment time for DA-VMAT but longer planning time and the additional resources required for implementation of a new technology. Based on this study, our clinic has incorporated DA-VMAT for locally advanced HNC. Advances in knowledge DA-VMAT is a suitable alternative to IMRT for locally advanced HNC. PMID:22806619

  13. SU-E-T-62: Cardiac Toxicity in Dynamic Conformal Arc Therapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy of Lung Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, X; Zhang, Y; Feng, Y; Zhou, L; Deng, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The cardiac toxicity for lung cancer patients, each treated with dynamic conformal arc therapy (DAT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is investigated. Methods: 120 lung patients were selected for this study: 25 treated with DAT, 50 with IMRT and 45 with VMAT. For comparison, all plans were generated in the same treatment planning system, normalized such that the 100% isodose lines encompassed 95% of planning target volume. The plan quality was evaluated in terms of homogeneity index (HI) and 95% conformity index (%95 CI) for target dose coverage and mean dose, maximum dose, V{sub 30} Gy as well as V{sub 5} Gy for cardiac toxicity analysis. Results: When all the plans were analyzed, the VMAT plans offered the best target coverage with 95% CI = 0.992 and HI = 1.23. The DAT plans provided the best heart sparing with mean heart dose = 2.3Gy and maximum dose = 11.6Gy, as compared to 5.7 Gy and 31.1 Gy by IMRT as well as 4.6 Gy and 30.9 Gy by VMAT. The mean V30Gy and V5Gy of the heart in the DAT plans were up to 11.7% lower in comparison to the IMRT and VMAT plans. When the tumor volume was considered, the VMAT plans spared up to 70.9% more doses to the heart when the equivalent diameter of the tumor was larger than 4cm. Yet the maximum dose to the heart was reduced the most in the DAT plans with up to 139.8% less than that of the other two plans. Conclusion: Overall, the VMAT plans achieved the best target coverage among the three treatment modalities, and would spare the heart the most for the larger tumors. The DAT plans appeared advantageous in delivering the least maximum dose to the heart as compared to the IMRT and VMAT plans.

  14. Modeling of thermal processes in the modification of the surface by means of the cathode spot of vacuum arc on equipment with non-cooled rotating anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V. G.; Babushkina, E. S.; Kurbanov, T. A.

    2017-05-01

    Theoretically and experimentally the thermal processes in the case of modification the inner surface of the cylindrical cavity by means of the cathode spots of vacuum arc discharge are investigated. As the anode was used uncooled graphite electrode in the form of a half cut in diameter of a cylindrical rod. At the modeling of thermal processes was taken into account the process of heating the surface of the cylinder by radiation from the hot surface of the anode. In this case the cylindrical surface has been uneven wall thickness around the perimeter.

  15. Development of the numerical method for calculating sound radiation from a rotating dipole source in an opened thin duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Han-Lim; Lee, Duck Joo

    2006-08-01

    Sound radiation from a rotating dipole source in an opened thin duct is analyzed using the thin-body boundary element method in the frequency domain. The difficulty in describing the rotating source in the frequency domain is overcome by introducing a fixed Kirchhoff surface around the rotating source. Acoustic pressures generated from a rotating dipole source, a rotating point force, on the Kirchhoff surface are calculated using Lowson's equation. Normal derivatives on the Kirchhoff surface of acoustic pressures in the Helmholtz integral equation are derived analytically in this paper. Radiated acoustic pressure from the Kirchhoff source and that of the rotating original source in a free field are compared. Effects of the number of elements on the Kirchhoff surface are verified. The analytic solution for a dipole source in a duct is compared with the one obtained by the current Kirchhoff-Helmholtz thin-body boundary element method (K-H TBEM). Sound radiation from a ducted rotating force is calculated using K-H TBEM for selected rotating speeds. It is shown that wave propagation is strongly dependent on the cutoff frequency of the duct. Radiated acoustic pressure can be increased or decreased according to the relation between the cutoff frequency of the duct and the rotating frequency of the source.

  16. Feasibility of stereotactic body radiation therapy with volumetric modulated arc therapy and high intensity photon beams for hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Po-Ming; Hsu, Wei-Chung; Chung, Na-Na; Chang, Feng-Ling; Jang, Chin-Jyh; Fogliata, Antonella; Scorsetti, Marta; Cozzi, Luca

    2014-01-10

    To report technical features, early outcome and toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatments with volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Twenty patients (22 lesions) were prospectively enrolled in a feasibility study. Dose prescription was 50 Gy in 10 fractions. Seven patients (35%) were classified as AJCC stage I-II while 13 (65%) were stages III-IV. Eighteen patients (90%) were Child-Pugh stage A, the remaining were stage B. All patients were treated with RapidArc technique with flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams of 10 MV from a TrueBeam linear accelerator. Technical, dosimetric and early clinical assessment was performed to characterize treatment and its potential outcome. Median age was 68 years, median initial tumor volume was 124 cm3 (range: 6-848). Median follow-up time was 7.4 months (range: 3-13). All patients completed treatment without interruption. Mean actuarial overall survival was of 9.6 ± 0.9 months (95%C.L. 7.8-11.4), median survival was not reached; complete response was observed in 8/22 (36.4%) lesions; partial response in 7/22 (31.8%), stable disease in 6/22 (27.3%), 1/22 (4.4%) showed progression. Toxicity was mild with only 1 case of grade 3 RILD and all other types were not greater than grade 2. Concerning dosimetric data, Paddick conformity index was 0.98 ± 0.02; gradient index was 3.82 ± 0.93; V95% to the clinical target volume was 93.6 ± 7.7%. Mean dose to kidneys resulted lower than 3.0 Gy; mean dose to stomach 4.5 ± 3.0 Gy; D(3) 1(cm) to spinal cord was 8.2 ± 4.5 Gy; D1% to the esophagus was 10.2 ± 9.7 Gy. Average beam on time resulted 0.7 ± 0.2 minutes (range: 0.4-1.4) with the delivery of an average of 4.4 partial arcs (range: 3-6) of those 86% non-coplanar. Clinical results could suggest to introduce VMAT-RapidArc as an appropriate SBRT technique for patients with HCC in view of a prospective dose escalation trial.

  17. Collisional-Radiative Modeling of Free-Burning Arc Plasma in Argon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    chemistry used in non-equilibrium modelling of free-burning arc in argon. A simple chemistry model based on the approximation of prompt ionization, a...highlight of the model was the unified description of the whole plasma domain avoiding the division into sub-domains in which different models were used ...description. Therefore, the present work is aimed at the analysis of the plasma chemistry in a way that the model enables a deeper look into the polulations

  18. Maximum proton kinetic energy and patient-generated neutron fluence considerations in proton beam arc delivery radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Sengbusch, E; Pérez-Andújar, A; DeLuca, P M; Mackie, T R

    2009-02-01

    Several compact proton accelerator systems for use in proton therapy have recently been proposed. Of paramount importance to the development of such an accelerator system is the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that must be reached by the treatment system. The commonly used value for the maximum kinetic energy required for a medical proton accelerator is 250 MeV, but it has not been demonstrated that this energy is indeed necessary to treat all or most patients eligible for proton therapy. This article quantifies the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, necessary to treat a given percentage of patients with rotational proton therapy, and examines the impact of this energy threshold on the cost and feasibility of a compact, gantry-mounted proton accelerator treatment system. One hundred randomized treatment plans from patients treated with IMRT were analyzed. The maximum radiological pathlength from the surface of the patient to the distal edge of the treatment volume was obtained for 180 degrees continuous arc proton therapy and for 180 degrees split arc proton therapy (two 90 degrees arcs) using CT# profiles from the Pinnacle (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) treatment planning system. In each case, the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that would be necessary to treat the patient was calculated using proton range tables for various media. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to quantify neutron production in a water phantom representing a patient as a function of the maximum proton kinetic energy achievable by a proton treatment system. Protons with a kinetic energy of 240 MeV, immediately prior to entry into the patient, were needed to treat 100% of patients in this study. However, it was shown that 90% of patients could be treated at 198 MeV, and 95% of patients could be treated at 207 MeV. Decreasing the

  19. Maximum proton kinetic energy and patient-generated neutron fluence considerations in proton beam arc delivery radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sengbusch, E.; Pérez-Andújar, A.; DeLuca, P. M.; Mackie, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    Several compact proton accelerator systems for use in proton therapy have recently been proposed. Of paramount importance to the development of such an accelerator system is the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that must be reached by the treatment system. The commonly used value for the maximum kinetic energy required for a medical proton accelerator is 250 MeV, but it has not been demonstrated that this energy is indeed necessary to treat all or most patients eligible for proton therapy. This article quantifies the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, necessary to treat a given percentage of patients with rotational proton therapy, and examines the impact of this energy threshold on the cost and feasibility of a compact, gantry-mounted proton accelerator treatment system. One hundred randomized treatment plans from patients treated with IMRT were analyzed. The maximum radiological pathlength from the surface of the patient to the distal edge of the treatment volume was obtained for 180° continuous arc proton therapy and for 180° split arc proton therapy (two 90° arcs) using CT# profiles from the Pinnacle™ (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) treatment planning system. In each case, the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that would be necessary to treat the patient was calculated using proton range tables for various media. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to quantify neutron production in a water phantom representing a patient as a function of the maximum proton kinetic energy achievable by a proton treatment system. Protons with a kinetic energy of 240 MeV, immediately prior to entry into the patient, were needed to treat 100% of patients in this study. However, it was shown that 90% of patients could be treated at 198 MeV, and 95% of patients could be treated at 207 MeV. Decreasing the proton kinetic

  20. SU-E-T-39: Analyses of Plan Quality Using Different Gantry Rotation Time On Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in Rectal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Z; Li, R; Qiu, R; Cao, Y; Han, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare plan quality of volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) using different gantry rotation times. Methods: In ten rectal carcinoma patients, plans with different gantry rotation times were designed by Oncentra4.3 planning system, each of them was optimized by experienced planners using almost similar parameters and dose constraints except the different gantry rotation time. The gantry rotation time was increased from 30s to 150s by step of 30(30s, 60s, 90s, 120s, and 150s). Plans (VMAT30s, VMAT60s, VMAT90s, VMAT120s and VMAT150s) were normalized so that at least 95% of PTV would receive the prescription dose 50 Gray in 25 fractions. Dose-volume histograms and isodose distributions were evaluated. Conformity indices (CI), homogeneous indices (HI), monitor units (MUs), delivery time were also compared. Results: As the increasing of gantry rotation time, VMAT150s provided comparable organs at risk sparing and better target coverage and conformity than VMAT30s. In the normal tissue such as bladder and femurs, the VMAT plans show almost the same V30 and Dmean for them compared with IMRT plans, meanwhile the conformity indices (CI) was better than IMRT plans(p=0.021). However, there was no significant different among the VMAT60s, VMAT90s, VMAT120s and VMAT150s (p=0.054). VMAT150s increased delivery time and monitor units in plans without improving plan quality compared to VMAT60s, VMAT90s and VMAT120s. Conclusion: VMAT60s, VMAT90s, VMAT120s and VMAT150s achieved comparable treatment plans in rectal carcinoma. Slower gantry movement in VMAT150s only improves slight improvement than the others.

  1. Magnetogasdynamic Cylindrical Shock Waves in a Rotating Nonideal Gas with Radiation Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, J. P.; Patel, Nanhey

    2015-03-01

    A similarity solution is presented for a cylindrical magnetogasdynamic shock wave in a rotating nonideal gas in the presence of a variable axial magnetic field in the case where the radiation heat flux is of importance. The initial angular velocity of the medium is assumed to vary as some power of the distance from the symmetry axis. The radiation heat flux is evaluated from the equation of motion without explicit use of the radiation transfer equations. It is shown that the gas nonidealness increases the shock strength but decreases the shock velocity. On the other hand, the presence of a magnetic field decreases the shock strength but increases the shock velocity. Moreover, the shock velocity increases with the ratio of specific heats. The total energy of the shock wave increases with time.

  2. GPS and seismological constraints on active tectonics and arc-continent collision in Papua New Guinea: Implications for mechanics of microplate rotations in a plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Laura M.; Stevens, Colleen; Silver, Eli; McCaffrey, Rob; Loratung, Wesley; Hasiata, Suvenia; Stanaway, Richard; Curley, Robert; Rosa, Robert; Taugaloidi, Jones

    2004-05-01

    The island of New Guinea is located within the deforming zone between the Pacific and Australian plates that converge obliquely at ˜110 mm/yr. New Guinea has been fragmented into a complex array of microplates, some of which rotate rapidly about nearby vertical axes. We present velocities from a network of 38 Global Positioning System (GPS) sites spanning much of the nation of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The GPS-derived velocities are used to explain the kinematics of major tectonic blocks in the region and the nature of strain accumulation on major faults in PNG. We simultaneously invert GPS velocities, earthquake slip vectors on faults, and transform orientations in the Woodlark Basin for the poles of rotation of the tectonic blocks and the degree of elastic strain accumulation on faults in the region. The data are best explained by six distinct tectonic blocks: the Australian, Pacific, South Bismarck, North Bismarck, and Woodlark plates and a previously unrecognized New Guinea Highlands Block. Significant portions of the Ramu-Markham Fault appear to be locked, which has implications for seismic hazard determination in the Markham Valley region. We also propose that rapid clockwise rotation of the South Bismarck plate is controlled by edge forces initiated by the collision between the Finisterre arc and the New Guinea Highlands.

  3. Emittance of RSI Coatings Determined from Radiation Measurements in Arc Jet Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, R. M.; Stewart, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements were made on three surface insulation coatings for total surface radiation and radiation at discrete wavelengths between 0.88 and 4.5 microns. The mullite coating radiated all the applied heat at convective heat rates of 204 and 295 kw/sq m. Radiation from the ceramic mullite fiber coating was 170 kw/sq m at a heat rate of 454 kw/sq m. Effective total emissivity and spectral emissivity values were evaluated; all three coatings were significantly non-grey. Effective total emissivity values were 0.79 for mullite, 0.50 for ceramic mullite fiber, and 0.78 for silica composite.

  4. Solar Rotational Periodicities and the Semiannual Variation in the Solar Wind, Radiation Belt, and Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, Barbara A.; Richardson, Ian G.; Evans, David S.; Rich, Frederick J.; Wilson, Gordon R.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of a number of solar wind, radiation belt, auroral and geomagnetic parameters is examined during the recent extended solar minimum and previous solar cycles, covering the period from January 1972 to July 2010. This period includes most of the solar minimum between Cycles 23 and 24, which was more extended than recent solar minima, with historically low values of most of these parameters in 2009. Solar rotational periodicities from S to 27 days were found from daily averages over 81 days for the parameters. There were very strong 9-day periodicities in many variables in 2005 -2008, triggered by recurring corotating high-speed streams (HSS). All rotational amplitudes were relatively large in the descending and early minimum phases of the solar cycle, when HSS are the predominant solar wind structures. There were minima in the amplitudes of all solar rotational periodicities near the end of each solar minimum, as well as at the start of the reversal of the solar magnetic field polarity at solar maximum (approx.1980, approx.1990, and approx. 2001) when the occurrence frequency of HSS is relatively low. Semiannual equinoctial periodicities, which were relatively strong in the 1995-1997 solar minimum, were found to be primarily the result of the changing amplitudes of the 13.5- and 27-day periodicities, where 13.5-day amplitudes were better correlated with heliospheric daily observations and 27-day amplitudes correlated better with Earth-based daily observations. The equinoctial rotational amplitudes of the Earth-based parameters were probably enhanced by a combination of the Russell-McPherron effect and a reduction in the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling efficiency during solstices. The rotational amplitudes were cross-correlated with each other, where the 27 -day amplitudes showed some of the weakest cross-correlations. The rotational amplitudes of the > 2 MeV radiation belt electron number fluxes were progressively weaker from 27- to 5-day periods

  5. Solar Rotational Periodicities and the Semiannual Variation in the Solar Wind, Radiation Belt, and Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, Barbara A.; Richardson, Ian G.; Evans, David S.; Rich, Frederick J.; Wilson, Gordon R.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of a number of solar wind, radiation belt, auroral and geomagnetic parameters is examined during the recent extended solar minimum and previous solar cycles, covering the period from January 1972 to July 2010. This period includes most of the solar minimum between Cycles 23 and 24, which was more extended than recent solar minima, with historically low values of most of these parameters in 2009. Solar rotational periodicities from S to 27 days were found from daily averages over 81 days for the parameters. There were very strong 9-day periodicities in many variables in 2005 -2008, triggered by recurring corotating high-speed streams (HSS). All rotational amplitudes were relatively large in the descending and early minimum phases of the solar cycle, when HSS are the predominant solar wind structures. There were minima in the amplitudes of all solar rotational periodicities near the end of each solar minimum, as well as at the start of the reversal of the solar magnetic field polarity at solar maximum (approx.1980, approx.1990, and approx. 2001) when the occurrence frequency of HSS is relatively low. Semiannual equinoctial periodicities, which were relatively strong in the 1995-1997 solar minimum, were found to be primarily the result of the changing amplitudes of the 13.5- and 27-day periodicities, where 13.5-day amplitudes were better correlated with heliospheric daily observations and 27-day amplitudes correlated better with Earth-based daily observations. The equinoctial rotational amplitudes of the Earth-based parameters were probably enhanced by a combination of the Russell-McPherron effect and a reduction in the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling efficiency during solstices. The rotational amplitudes were cross-correlated with each other, where the 27 -day amplitudes showed some of the weakest cross-correlations. The rotational amplitudes of the > 2 MeV radiation belt electron number fluxes were progressively weaker from 27- to 5-day periods

  6. Temperature changes in contact lenses in connection with radiation from welding arcs.

    PubMed

    Lövsund, P; Nilsson, S E; Lindh, H; Oberg, P A

    1979-09-01

    Because of reports of risks associated with the use of contact lenses during exposure to welding arcs, the temperature changes in soft contact lenses were recorded in connection with certain types of welding [manual metal arc (MMA) welding, tungsten inert-gas (TIG) welding, and metal inert-gas (MIG) welding], both with free-hanging lenses and lenses applied to the eyes of anesthetized rabbits. A great increase in temperature was noted, especially with MMA welding. At a distance of 0.4 m the temperature of a lens on a rabbit eye rose from about 35 to 50 degrees C within 6 min, whereas the air temperature only increased from 23 to 30 degrees C. The increase was the greatest at the beginning of the welding period. Most of the lenses completely dried out during the experiment, and there would seem to be a potential risk that the lens would adhere to the cornea. One safety glass screen (DIN 10 A) proved effective in preventing the rise in temperature in contact lenses during MMA welding. Even though it is impossible to direct the eyes at the arc for a prolonged period of time, the use of contact lenses in connection with at least certain types of welding is not to be recommended without the use of a suitable safety glass screen (or safety glasses). With regard to the large number of particles in the welding environment, also a risk factor for contact lens wearers, it is doubtful whether even safety glasses or screens are satisfactory unless they fit closely.

  7. Recent Progress in Entry Radiation Measurements in the NASA Ames Electric ARC Shock Tube Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    The Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) at NASA Ames Research Center is NASA's only working shock tube capable of obtaining conditions representative of entry in a multitude of planetary atmospheres. The facility is capable of mapping spectroscopic signatures of a wide range of planetary entries from the Vacuum Ultraviolet through Mid-Wave Infrared (120-5500 nm). This paper summarizes the tests performed in EAST for Earth, Mars and Venus entries since 2008, then focuses on a specific test case for CO2/N2 mixtures. In particular, the paper will focus on providing information for the proper interpretation of the EAST data.

  8. An efficient Volumetric Arc Therapy treatment planning approach for hippocampal-avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Jin; Bender, Edward; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Basavatia, Amar; Hong, Linda; Bodner, William; Garg, Madhur K.; Kalnicki, Shalom; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2015-10-01

    An efficient and simple class solution is proposed for hippocampal-avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) planning using the Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT) delivery technique following the NRG Oncology protocol NRG-CC001 treatment planning guidelines. The whole-brain planning target volume (PTV) was subdivided into subplanning volumes that lie in plane and out of plane with the hippocampal-avoidance volume. To further improve VMAT treatment plans, a partial-field dual-arc technique was developed. Both the arcs were allowed to overlap on the in-plane subtarget volume, and in addition, one arc covered the superior out-of-plane sub-PTV, while the other covered the inferior out-of-plane subtarget volume. For all plans (n = 20), the NRG-CC001 protocol dose-volume criteria were met. Mean values of volumes for the hippocampus and the hippocampal-avoidance volume were 4.1 cm{sup 3} ± 1.0 cm{sup 3} and 28.52 cm{sup 3} ± 3.22 cm{sup 3}, respectively. For the PTV, the average values of D{sub 2%} and D{sub 98%} were 36.1 Gy ± 0.8 Gy and 26.2 Gy ± 0.6 Gy, respectively. The hippocampus D{sub 100%} mean value was 8.5 Gy ± 0.2 Gy and the maximum dose was 15.7 Gy ± 0.3 Gy. The corresponding plan quality indices were 0.30 ± 0.01 (homogeneity index), 0.94 ± 0.01 (target conformality), and 0.75 ± 0.02 (confirmation number). The median total monitor unit (MU) per fraction was 806 MU (interquartile range [IQR]: 792 to 818 MU) and the average beam total delivery time was 121.2 seconds (IQR: 120.6 to 121.35 seconds). All plans passed the gamma evaluation using the 5-mm, 4% criteria, with γ > 1 of not more than 9.1% data points for all fields. An efficient and simple planning class solution for HA-WBRT using VMAT has been developed that allows all protocol constraints of NRG-CC001 to be met.

  9. On the rotational stability of nonspherical particles driven by the radiation torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghese, Ferdinando; Denti, Paolo; Saija, Rosalba; Iati, Maria Antonia

    2007-07-01

    We calculate the radiation torque exerted by a monochromatic plane wave, either unpolarized or linearly polarized, on aggregates of spheres and investigate the stability of the resulting rotational motion. In fact, neglecting any braking momenta we calculate the component of the electromagnetic torque orthogonal to the principal axis of maximum moment of inertia through the center of mass (transverse torque), as a function of the direction of propagation of the incident field. The aggregates we study are composed of homogeneous spheres, possibly of different materials. The electromagnetic torque is calculated through the transition matrix approach along the lines of the theory reported in our recent paper [F. Borghese, P. Denti, R. Saija and M. A. Iatı, Opt. Express 14, 9508 (2006)]. When the transverse component of the electromagnetic torque is small or vanishes the rotational motion driven by the component along the principal axis of inertia may be nearly stable.

  10. Dosimetric effects of rotational offsets in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yun; Catalano, Suzanne; Kelsey, Chris R.; Yoo, David S.; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing

    2014-04-01

    To quantitatively evaluate dosimetric effects of rotational offsets in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. Overall, 11 lung SBRT patients (8 female and 3 male; mean age: 75.0 years) with medially located tumors were included. Treatment plans with simulated rotational offsets of 1°, 3°, and 5° in roll, yaw, and pitch were generated and compared with the original plans. Both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations were investigated. The following dosimetric metrics were quantitatively evaluated: planning target volume coverage (PTV V{sub 100%}), max PTV dose (PTV D{sub max}), percentage prescription dose to 0.35 cc of cord (cord D{sub 0.35} {sub cc}), percentage prescription dose to 0.35 cc and 5 cc of esophagus (esophagus D{sub 0.35} {sub cc} and D{sub 5} {sub cc}), and volume of the lungs receiving at least 20 Gy (lung V{sub 20}). Statistical significance was tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test at the significance level of 0.05. Overall, small differences were found in all dosimetric matrices at all rotational offsets: 95.6% of differences were < 1% or < 1 Gy. Of all rotational offsets, largest change in PTV V{sub 100%}, PTV D{sub max}, cord D{sub 0.35} {sub cc}, esophagus D{sub 0.35} {sub cc}, esophagus D{sub 5} {sub cc}, and lung V{sub 20} was − 8.36%, − 6.06%, 11.96%, 8.66%, 6.02%, and − 0.69%, respectively. No significant correlation was found between any dosimetric change and tumor-to-cord/esophagus distances (R{sup 2} range: 0 to 0.44). Larger dosimetric changes and intersubject variations were observed at larger rotational offsets. Small dosimetric differences were found owing to rotational offsets up to 5° in lung SBRT for medially located tumors. Larger intersubject variations were observed at larger rotational offsets.

  11. Beam’s-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) guided rotational station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) planning based on reweighted total-variation minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hojin; Li, Ruijiang; Lee, Rena; Xing, Lei

    2015-03-01

    Conventional VMAT optimizes aperture shapes and weights at uniformly sampled stations, which is a generalization of the concept of a control point. Recently, rotational station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) has been proposed to improve the plan quality by inserting beams to the regions that demand additional intensity modulations, thus formulating non-uniform beam sampling. This work presents a new rotational SPORT planning strategy based on reweighted total-variation (TV) minimization (min.), using beam’s-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) guided beam selection. The convex programming based reweighted TV min. assures the simplified fluence-map, which facilitates single-aperture selection at each station for single-arc delivery. For the rotational arc treatment planning and non-uniform beam angle setting, the mathematical model needs to be modified by additional penalty term describing the fluence-map similarity and by determination of appropriate angular weighting factors. The proposed algorithm with additional penalty term is capable of achieving more efficient and deliverable plans adaptive to the conventional VMAT and SPORT planning schemes by reducing the dose delivery time about 5 to 10 s in three clinical cases (one prostate and two head-and-neck (HN) cases with a single and multiple targets). The BEVD guided beam selection provides effective and yet easy calculating methodology to select angles for denser, non-uniform angular sampling in SPORT planning. Our BEVD guided SPORT treatment schemes improve the dose sparing to femoral heads in the prostate and brainstem, parotid glands and oral cavity in the two HN cases, where the mean dose reduction of those organs ranges from 0.5 to 2.5 Gy. Also, it increases the conformation number assessing the dose conformity to the target from 0.84, 0.75 and 0.74 to 0.86, 0.79 and 0.80 in the prostate and two HN cases, while preserving the delivery efficiency, relative to conventional single-arc VMAT plans.

  12. Core Collapse Supernovae Using CHIMERA: Gravitational Radiation from Non-Rotating Progenitors

    SciTech Connect

    Yakunin, Konstantin; Marronetti, Pedro; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Bruenn, S. W.; Lee, Ching-Tsai; Chertkow, Merek A; Hix, William Raphael; Blondin, J. M.; Lentz, Eric J; Messer, Bronson; Yoshida, S.

    2011-01-01

    The CHIMERA code is a multi-dimensional multi-physics engine dedicated primarily to the simulation of core collapse supernova explosions. One of the most important aspects of these explosions is their capacity to produce gravitational radiation that is detectable by earth-based laser-interferometric gravitational wave observatories such as LIGO and VIRGO. We present here preliminary gravitational signatures of two-dimensional models with non-rotating progenitors. These simulations exhibit explosions, which are followed for more than half a second after stellar core bounce.

  13. Dosimetric comparison of hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jia-Fu; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Yeh, Hui-Ling; Chang, Chen-Fa; Lin, Jin-Ching

    2015-10-01

    To compare the dosimetric performance of 3 different treatment techniques: hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy (hybrid-VMAT), pure-VMAT, and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (F-IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. The hybrid-VMAT treatment technique and 2 other treatment techniques—pure-VMAT and F-IMRT—were compared retrospectively in 10 patients with left-sided early breast cancer. The treatment plans of these patients were replanned using the same contours based on the original computed tomography (CT) data sets. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality. Total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were also recorded and evaluated. The hybrid-VMAT plan generated the best results in dose coverage of the target and the dose uniformity inside the target (p < 0.0001 for conformal index [CI]; p = 0.0002 for homogeneity index [HI] of planning target volume [PTV]{sub 50.4} {sub Gy} and p < 0.0001 for HI of PTV{sub 62} {sub Gy}). Volumes of ipsilateral lung irradiated to doses of 20 Gy (V{sub 20} {sub Gy}) and 5 Gy (V{sub 5} {sub Gy}) by the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those of the F-IMRT and the pure-VMAT plans. The volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated to a dose of 5 Gy was significantly less using the hybrid-VMAT plan than that using the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The total mean MUs for the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those for the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The mean machine delivery time was 3.23 ± 0.29 minutes for the hybrid-VMAT plans, which is longer than that for the pure-VMAT plans but shorter than that for the F-IMRT plans. The hybrid-VMAT plan is feasible for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer.

  14. Dosimetric comparison of hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Fu; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Yeh, Hui-Ling; Chang, Chen-Fa; Lin, Jin-Ching

    2015-01-01

    To compare the dosimetric performance of 3 different treatment techniques: hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy (hybrid-VMAT), pure-VMAT, and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (F-IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. The hybrid-VMAT treatment technique and 2 other treatment techniques—pure-VMAT and F-IMRT—were compared retrospectively in 10 patients with left-sided early breast cancer. The treatment plans of these patients were replanned using the same contours based on the original computed tomography (CT) data sets. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality. Total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were also recorded and evaluated. The hybrid-VMAT plan generated the best results in dose coverage of the target and the dose uniformity inside the target (p < 0.0001 for conformal index [CI]; p = 0.0002 for homogeneity index [HI] of planning target volume [PTV](50.4 Gy) and p < 0.0001 for HI of PTV(62 Gy)). Volumes of ipsilateral lung irradiated to doses of 20 Gy (V(20 Gy)) and 5 Gy (V(5 Gy)) by the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those of the F-IMRT and the pure-VMAT plans. The volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated to a dose of 5 Gy was significantly less using the hybrid-VMAT plan than that using the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The total mean MUs for the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those for the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The mean machine delivery time was 3.23 ± 0.29 minutes for the hybrid-VMAT plans, which is longer than that for the pure-VMAT plans but shorter than that for the F-IMRT plans. The hybrid-VMAT plan is feasible for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intensity-modulated arc therapy to improve radiation dose delivery in the treatment of abdominal neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gains, Jennifer E; Stacey, Christopher; Rosenberg, Ivan; Mandeville, Henry C; Chang, Yen-Ch'ing; D'Souza, Derek; Moroz, Veronica; Wheatley, Keith; Gaze, Mark N

    2013-03-01

    The standard European radiotherapy technique for children with neuroblastoma is a conventional parallel opposed pair. This frequently results in compromise on planning target volume coverage to stay within normal tissue tolerances. This study investigates the use of an intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) technique to improve dose distribution and allow better protocol compliance. Among 20 previously treated patients, ten had received the full prescribed dose with conventional planning (protocol compliant) and ten had a compromise on planning target volume coverage (protocol noncompliant). All patients were replanned with IMAT. Dosimetric parameters of the conventional radiotherapy and IMAT were compared. The dose received by 98% of the planning target volume, homogeneity and conformity indices were all improved with IMAT (p < 0.001). IMAT would have enabled delivery of the full protocol dose in eight out of ten protocol-noncompliant patients. IMAT may improve outcomes through improved protocol compliance and better dose distributions.

  16. Radiation therapy of anal canal cancer: from conformal therapy to volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Angelo; Cozzi, Luca; Iftode, Cristina; Ascolese, Annamaria; Campisi, Maria Concetta; Clerici, Elena; Comito, Tiziana; De Rose, Fiorenza; Fogliata, Antonella; Franzese, Ciro; Mancosu, Pietro; Navarria, Piera; Tomatis, Stefano; Villa, Elisa; Scorsetti, Marta

    2014-11-18

    To appraise the role of volumetric modulated arc (RapidArc, RA) in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma (ACC). A retrospective analysis has been conducted on 36 patients treated with RA since 2009 comparing outcome against a group of 28 patients treated with conformal therapy (CRT). RA treatments were prescribed with SIB technique with 59.4 Gy to the primary tumor and nodes and 49.5 Gy to the elective nodes. CRT was sequentially delivered with 45 Gy to the pelvic target and a boost of 14.4 Gy to the primary tumor. Median age of patients was 65 yrs for RA (59 yrs for CRT); 90% had Stage II-III (93% in the CRT group). No statistically significant differences were observed concerning survival or control. 5 yrs disease specific survival was 85.7% and 81.2%, loco-regional control was of 78.1% and 82.1% for RA and CRT respectively. RA treatments lead to lower incidence of higher grade of toxicity events (all retrospectively retrieved from charts as worse events). Grade 2-3 toxicity, compared to CRT, reduced from 89% to 68% for GI, from 39% to 33% for GU and from 82% to 75% for the skin. Late toxicity was as follows: 5/36 (14%) and 3/36 (8%) patients had G1 or G2 GI toxicity in the RA group (1/28 (4%) and 4/28 (14%) in the CRT group). GU late toxicity was observed only in 4/28 (14%) patients of the CRT group: 3/28 (11%) had G2 and 1/28 (4%) had G1. RA treatments of ACC patients proved to be equally effective than CRT but it was associated to a reduction of toxicity.

  17. SU-E-J-259: Quantification of Rotational Localization Offset in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y; Nguyen, N; Lee, S; Liu, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To verify the necessity of 6D localization detection and correction in radiation therapy. Methods: An anthropomorphic head and neck phantom was used to test the BrainLab ExacTrac x-ray imaging system. After initial positioning, both ExacTrac and the on-board kV CBCT were used to detect the offset at the same position, using both manual and automatic registration algorithms. Then 6D offset including rotational errors up to 5 degree were introduced. Both ExacTrac and CBCT were used to correct the offsets and the residual errors were evaluated. Finally, 6D offset detected by ExacTrac for a C-Spine patient was reported. Results: The differences in 3D offset detected by ExacTrac and CBCT were 1.5 ± 1.2(Lateral), 2.7 ± 2.7(Vertical), and 4.0 ± 6.3(longitudinal) mm with manual registration while the corresponding differences decreased to 0.6 ± 0.3, 1.0 ± 0.3, and 0.3 ± 0.3 when automatic registration were used. CBCT corrected the translational offset to within 0.5 mm but the rotational errors remained and detected by the ExacTrac system (Yaw=2.1, Roll=1.1, Pitch=1.4 degree). When similar offset was introduced and corrected using ExacTrac, the residual error detected by both CBCT and ExacTrac were within 0.5 mm / 0.5 degree. The average offset from the 112 ExacTrac x-ray corrections for the C-Spine patient was 0.6 ± 1.6 (lateral), 5.4 ± 8(vertical), 1.6±1.1(longitudinal) mm, and 0.7 ± 0.6 (pitch), 0.7 ± 0.4(roll), 1.2 ± 0.7 (yaw) degree. Larger rotational errors, with a maximum of 2.7 degree (corresponds to about 1.5 to 4.5 mm offset for a POI 10 to 30 cm away from the isocenter), were observed when couch rotational were involved. Conclusion: Rotational errors are common in patient localization, especially when couch rotation is involved. Both appropriate imaging system and 6D robotic couch are necessary to detect and correct the rotational localization errors.

  18. Comparative dosimetry of volumetric modulated arc therapy and limited-angle static intensity-modulated radiation therapy for early-stage larynx cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Riegel, Adam C.; Antone, Jeffrey; Schwartz, David L.

    2013-04-01

    To compare relative carotid and normal tissue sparing using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for early-stage larynx cancer. Seven treatment plans were retrospectively created on 2 commercial treatment planning systems for 11 consecutive patients with T1-2N0 larynx cancer. Conventional plans consisted of opposed-wedged fields. IMRT planning used an anterior 3-field beam arrangement. Two VMAT plans were created, a full 360° arc and an anterior 180° arc. Given planning target volume (PTV) coverage of 95% total volume at 95% of 6300 cGy and maximum spinal cord dose below 2500 cGy, mean carotid artery dose was pushed as low as possible for each plan. Deliverability was assessed by comparing measured and planned planar dose with the gamma (γ) index. Full-arc planning provided the most effective carotid sparing but yielded the highest mean normal tissue dose (where normal tissue was defined as all soft tissue minus PTV). Static IMRT produced next-best carotid sparing with lower normal tissue dose. The anterior half-arc produced the highest carotid artery dose, in some cases comparable with conventional opposed fields. On the whole, carotid sparing was inversely related to normal tissue dose sparing. Mean γ indexes were much less than 1, consistent with accurate delivery of planned treatment. Full-arc VMAT yields greater carotid sparing than half-arc VMAT. Limited-angle IMRT remains a reasonable alternative to full-arc VMAT, given its ability to mediate the competing demands of carotid and normal tissue dose constraints. The respective clinical significance of carotid and normal tissue sparing will require prospective evaluation.

  19. Dosimetric and radiobiological comparison of Forward Tangent Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (FT-IMRT) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) for early stage whole breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshiri Sedeh, Nader

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is a well-known type of external beam radiation therapy. The advancement in technology has had an inevitable influence in radiation oncology as well that has led to a newer and faster dose delivery technique called Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). Since the presence of the VMAT modality in clinics in the late 2000, there have been many studies in order to compare the results of the VMAT modality with the current popular modality IMRT for various tumor sites in the body such as brain, prostate, head and neck, cervix and anal carcinoma. This is the first study to compare VMAT with IMRT for breast cancer. The results show that the RapidArc technique in Eclipse version 11 does not improve all aspects of the treatment plans for the breast cases automatically and easily, but it needs to be manipulated by extra techniques to create acceptable plans thus further research is needed.

  20. Computer simulations of processes in solid-state laser radiators and amplifiers with phototube pumping: Electric-discharge pumping sources. Arc discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, V. M.; Mak, A. A.; Kromskiy, G. I.; Sklizkov, G. V.; Fedotov, S. I.; Shcherbakov, A. A.

    1986-03-01

    Problems of modeling and computer simulation are analyzed in reference to the design of solid state laser devices with glow tube pumping. Electric pulse and arc discharges are considered specifically. A model was constructed for a cylindrically symmetric column in the diffusion approximation with the correspoinding system of differential equations put in a form for most efficient and accurate simulation of the processes. For most economical use of the computer, the radiation spectrum is optimally subdivided into intervals. It is necessary to validate the assumption of a plasma in the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium by first accounting for and then discounting the various factors which disturb that equilibrium, namely emission of radiation and temperature gradients, as well as diffusion of charged particles toward the walls. In the case of arc discharge, a theory and a model are constructed for determining the electrophysical characteristics and the radiation characteristics of such discharge in inert gases and in vapors of alkali metals.

  1. Instability of magnetized and differentially rotating stellar radiation zones with high magnetic Mach number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüdiger, G.; Schultz, M.; Kitchatinov, L. L.

    2016-03-01

    With applications to inner solar-type radiative zones, a linear theory is used to analyse the instability of a toroidal background field of dipolar parity, in the presence of density stratification, differential rotation and realistically small Prandtl numbers. The physical parameters are the Alfvén frequency ΩA, the global rotation rate Ω and the buoyancy frequency N with ΩA < Ω < N. Only the solutions for the wavelengths with the maximal growth rates are considered. If these scales are combined to estimate radial velocities, one finds that it hardly depends on the latitudinal shear and the magnetic Mach number. In the formulation of Schatzman the radial mixing of chemicals can be estimated as Re* = O(100) which indeed is necessary to dissipate the lithium in the solar tachocline with a time-scale of 1 Gyr. The calculated growth rates indicate a destabilization of the system for growing latitudinal shear except for small Mach numbers and antisolar shear. The ratio ε of the magnetic and the kinetic energy of the instability pattern only slightly depends on the shear but a strong dependence on the magnetic Mach number exists with ε ∝ Mm2. The effective magnetic Prandtl number reaches values O(103) so that for the stars with high magnetic Mach number the differential rotation decays much faster than the toroidal background field.

  2. Orogen-Parallel and -Normal Extension at the Dinarides-Hellenides Junction during Clockwise Rotation and Radial Expansion of the Retreating Hellenic Arc-Trench System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, M.; Fügenschuh, B.; Giese, J.; Le Breton, E.; Muceku, B.; Onuzi, K.; Pleuger, J.; Schmid, S. M.; Ustaszewski, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Normal faults at the junction of the Dinarides and Hellenides in northern Albania trend both perpendicular and parallel to thrusts and fold axes. Most prominent is the SSE-dipping Skutari-Pec Normal Fault (SPNF), one of a system of normal faults that accommodate NW-SE-directed, orogen-parallel extension. Extensional throw along the SPNF increases from zero in northwestern Albania to at least 2 km near the Albania-Kosovo border, near where the brittle arm of the SPNF bounds the Mio-Pliocene Kosovo Basin. This differential orogen-parallel extension along the SPNF defines a vertical rotational axis in northwestern Albania that is interpreted to have accommodated 20-30° of clockwise motion of internal units on the southeastern (Hellenic) side of the fault with respect to the northwestern (Dinaric) side. Such rotation is in agreement with previously published paleomagnetic data and plate motion studies. The footwall of the SPNF exposes lower units of the Dinaric nappe stack that underwent vertical shortening and non-coaxial shearing during extensional exhumation. In the hangingwall of the SPNF, a system of orogen-parallel trending normal faults accommodate orogen-normal displacement of up to several km. Both orogen-parallel and -perpendicular systems of normal faults cut Late Cretaceous to Oligocene thrusts and folds, and are associated with pronounced Miocene paleo-relief. Most of this normal faulting is Miocene to Pliocene based on syn-extensional deposits in the Kosovo Basins and on thermal modelling of ZHe, AFT and AHe data, which suggest accelerated cooling at 18 Ma and between 4-6 Ma. Both fault systems also cut Holocene deposits, indicating ongoing extension. This corroborates published GPS data and earthquake focal mechanisms indicating active extension of the crust south and southeast of the SPNF. It is proposed that extension and clockwise rotation in this area were coeval and accommodated southwestward retreat and radial expansion of the Hellenic arc during

  3. Patient QA systems for rotational radiation therapy: a comparative experimental study with intentional errors.

    PubMed

    Fredh, Anna; Scherman, Jonas Bengtsson; Fog, Lotte S; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of commercial patient quality assurance (QA) systems to detect linear accelerator-related errors. Four measuring systems (Delta(4®), OCTAVIUS(®), COMPASS, and Epiqa™) designed for patient specific quality assurance for rotational radiation therapy were compared by measuring four clinical rotational intensity modulated radiation therapy plans as well as plans with introduced intentional errors. The intentional errors included increasing the number of monitor units, widening of the MLC banks, and rotation of the collimator. The measurements were analyzed using the inherent gamma evaluation with 2% and 2 mm criteria and 3% and 3 mm criteria. When applicable, the plans with intentional errors were compared with the original plans both by 3D gamma evaluation and by inspecting the dose volume histograms produced by the systems. There was considerable variation in the type of errors that the various systems detected; the failure rate for the plans with errors varied between 0% and 72%. When using 2% and 2 mm criteria and 95% as a pass rate the Delta(4®) detected 15 of 20 errors, OCTAVIUS(®) detected 8 of 20 errors, COMPASS detected 8 of 20 errors, and Epiqa™ detected 20 of 20 errors. It was also found that the calibration and measuring procedure could benefit from improvements for some of the patient QA systems. The various systems can detect various errors and the sensitivity to the introduced errors depends on the plan. There was poor correlation between the gamma evaluation pass rates of the QA procedures and the deviations observed in the dose volume histograms.

  4. Direct plan comparison of RapidArc and CyberKnife for spine stereotactic body radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young Eun; Kwak, Jungwon; Song, Si Yeol; Choi, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Seung Do; Cho, Byungchul

    2015-07-01

    We compared the treatment planning performance of RapidArc (RA) vs. CyberKnife (CK) for spinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Ten patients with spinal lesions who had been treated with CK were re-planned with RA, which consisted of two complete arcs. Computed tomography (CT) and volumetric dose data of CK, generated using the Multiplan (Accuray) treatment planning system (TPS) and the Ray-trace algorithm, were imported to Varian Eclipse TPS in Dicom format, and the data were compared with the RA plan by using an analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) dose calculation. The optimized dose priorities for both the CK and the RA plans were similar for all patients. The highest priority was to provide enough dose coverage to the planned target volume (PTV) while limiting the maximum dose to the spinal cord. Plan quality was evaluated with respect to PTV coverage, conformity index (CI), high-dose spillage, intermediate-dose spillage (R50% and D2cm), and maximum dose to the spinal cord, which are criteria recommended by the RTOG 0631 spine and 0915 lung SBRT protocols. The mean CI' SD values of the PTV were 1.11' 0.03 and 1.17' 0.10 for RA and CK ( p = 0.02), respectively. On average, the maximum dose delivered to the spinal cord in CK plans was approximately 11.6% higher than that in RA plans, and this difference was statistically significant ( p < 0.001). High-dose spillages were 0.86% and 2.26% for RA and CK ( p = 0.203), respectively. Intermediate-dose spillage characterized by D2cm was lower for RA than for CK; however, R50% was not statistically different. Even though both systems can create highly conformal volumetric dose distributions, the current study shows that RA demonstrates lower high- and intermediate-dose spillages than CK. Therefore, RA plans for spinal SBRT may be superior to CK plans.

  5. Critical Appraisal of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Metastases to Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Bignardi, Mario; Cozzi, Luca; Fogliata, Antonella; Lattuada, Paola; Mancosu, Pietro; Navarria, Piera; Urso, Gaetano; Vigorito, Sabrina; Scorsetti, Marta

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: A planning study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs, RapidArc (RA), fixed beam IMRT (IM), and conformal radiotherapy (CRT) with multiple static fields or short conformal arcs in a series of patients treated with hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for solitary or oligo-metastases from different tumors to abdominal lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients were included in the study. Dose prescription was set to 45 Gy (mean dose to clinical target volume [CTV]) in six fractions of 7.5 Gy. Objectives for CTV and planning target volume (PTV) were as follows: Dose{sub min} >95%, Dose{sub max} <107%. For organs at risk the following objectives were used: Maximum dose to spine <18 Gy; V{sub 15Gy} <35% for both kidneys, V{sub 36Gy} <1% for duodenum, V{sub 36Gy} <3% for stomach and small bowel, V{sub 15Gy} <(total liver volume - 700 cm{sup 3}) for liver. Dose-volume histograms were evaluated to assess plan quality. Results: Planning objectives on CTV and PTV were achieved by all techniques. Use of RA improved PTV coverage (V{sub 95%} = 90.2% +- 5.2% for RA compared with 82.5% +- 9.6% and 84.5% +- 8.2% for CRT and IM, respectively). Most planning objectives for organs at risk were met by all techniques except for the duodenum, small bowel, and stomach, in which the CRT plans exceeded the dose/volume constraints in some patients. The MU/fraction values were as follows: 2186 +- 211 for RA, 2583 +- 699 for IM, and 1554 +- 153 for CRT. Effective treatment time resulted as follows: 3.7 +- 0.4 min for RA, 10.6 +- 1.2 min for IM, and 6.3 +- 0.5 min for CRT. Conclusions: Delivery of SBRT by RA showed improvements in conformal avoidance with respect to standard conformal irradiation. Delivery parameters confirmed logistical advantages of RA, particularly compared with IM.

  6. Measurement and analysis of nitric oxide radiation in an arc-jet flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babikian, Dikran S.; Gopaul, Nigel K. J. M.; Park, Chul

    1993-01-01

    On the bases of the centerline enthalpy value deduced from heat transfer measurements and the NOZNT code, it is possible to predict the freestream conditions in an arcjet wind tunnel flow. The translational-rotational and vibrational temperature of NO is nearly reproducible by NOZNT. Relative to the electron and electronic temperatures, the vibrational temperature of N2 and NO are significantly lower at enthalpies of less than 45 MJ/kg. The enthalpy deduced from spectroscopic measurements is in rough agreement with that deduced from heat transfer measurements.

  7. Potential for improved intelligence quotient using volumetric modulated arc therapy compared with conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiation for whole-ventricular radiation in children.

    PubMed

    Qi, X Sharon; Stinauer, Michelle; Rogers, Brion; Madden, Jennifer R; Wilkening, Greta N; Liu, Arthur K

    2012-12-01

    To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of localized intracranial germinoma. We modeled the effect of the dosimetric differences on intelligence quotient (IQ). Ten children with intracranial germinomas were used for planning. The prescription doses were 23.4 Gy to the ventricles followed by 21.6 Gy to the tumor located in the pineal region. For each child, a 3D-CRT and full arc VMAT was generated. Coverage of the target was assessed by computing a conformity index and heterogeneity index. We also generated VMAT plans with explicit temporal lobe sparing and with smaller ventricular margin expansions. Mean dose to the temporal lobe was used to estimate IQ 5 years after completion of radiation, using a patient age of 10 years. Compared with the 3D-CRT plan, VMAT improved conformality (conformity index 1.10 vs 1.85), with slightly higher heterogeneity (heterogeneity index 1.09 vs 1.06). The averaged mean doses for left and right temporal lobes were 31.3 and 31.7 Gy, respectively, for VMAT plans and 37.7 and 37.6 Gy for 3D-CRT plans. This difference in mean temporal lobe dose resulted in an estimated IQ difference of 3.1 points at 5 years after radiation therapy. When the temporal lobes were explicitly included in the VMAT optimization, the mean temporal lobe dose was reduced 5.6-5.7 Gy, resulting in an estimated IQ difference of an additional 3 points. Reducing the ventricular margin from 1.5 cm to 0.5 cm decreased mean temporal lobe dose 11.4-13.1 Gy, corresponding to an estimated increase in IQ of 7 points. For treatment of children with intracranial pure germinomas, VMAT compared with 3D-CRT provides increased conformality and reduces doses to normal tissue. This may result in improvements in IQ in these children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential for Improved Intelligence Quotient Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Compared With Conventional 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation for Whole-Ventricular Radiation in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, X. Sharon; Stinauer, Michelle; Rogers, Brion; Madden, Jennifer R.; Wilkening, Greta N.; Liu, Arthur K.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of localized intracranial germinoma. We modeled the effect of the dosimetric differences on intelligence quotient (IQ). Method and Materials: Ten children with intracranial germinomas were used for planning. The prescription doses were 23.4 Gy to the ventricles followed by 21.6 Gy to the tumor located in the pineal region. For each child, a 3D-CRT and full arc VMAT was generated. Coverage of the target was assessed by computing a conformity index and heterogeneity index. We also generated VMAT plans with explicit temporal lobe sparing and with smaller ventricular margin expansions. Mean dose to the temporal lobe was used to estimate IQ 5 years after completion of radiation, using a patient age of 10 years. Results: Compared with the 3D-CRT plan, VMAT improved conformality (conformity index 1.10 vs 1.85), with slightly higher heterogeneity (heterogeneity index 1.09 vs 1.06). The averaged mean doses for left and right temporal lobes were 31.3 and 31.7 Gy, respectively, for VMAT plans and 37.7 and 37.6 Gy for 3D-CRT plans. This difference in mean temporal lobe dose resulted in an estimated IQ difference of 3.1 points at 5 years after radiation therapy. When the temporal lobes were explicitly included in the VMAT optimization, the mean temporal lobe dose was reduced 5.6-5.7 Gy, resulting in an estimated IQ difference of an additional 3 points. Reducing the ventricular margin from 1.5 cm to 0.5 cm decreased mean temporal lobe dose 11.4-13.1 Gy, corresponding to an estimated increase in IQ of 7 points. Conclusion: For treatment of children with intracranial pure germinomas, VMAT compared with 3D-CRT provides increased conformality and reduces doses to normal tissue. This may result in improvements in IQ in these children.

  9. A treatment-planning comparison of three beam arrangement strategies for stereotactic body radiation therapy for centrally located lung tumors using volumetric-modulated arc therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kentaro; Okada, Wataru; Ogino, Ryo; Kubo, Kazuki; Kishimoto, Shun; Nakahara, Ryuta; Kawamorita, Ryu; Ishii, Yoshie; Tada, Takuhito; Nakajima, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine appropriate beam arrangement for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of patients with centrally located lung tumors. Fifteen consecutive patients with centrally located lung tumors treated at our institution were enrolled. For each patient, three VMAT plans were generated using two coplanar partial arcs (CP VMAT), two non-coplanar partial arcs (NCP VMAT), and one coplanar full arc (Full VMAT). All plans were designed to deliver 70 Gy in 10 fractions. Target coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were compared across techniques. PTV coverage was almost identical for all approaches. The whole lung V10Gy was significantly lower with CP VMAT plans than with NCP VMAT plans, whereas no significant differences in the mean lung dose, V5Gy, V20Gy or V40Gy were observed. Full VMAT increased mean contralateral lung V5Gy by 12.57% and 9.15% when compared with NCP VMAT and CP VMAT, respectively. Although NCP VMAT plans best achieved the dose–volume constraints for mediastinal OARs, the absolute differences in dose were small when compared with CP VMAT. These results suggest that partial-arc VMAT may be preferable to minimize unnecessary exposure to the contralateral lung, and use of NCP VMAT should be considered when the dose–volume constraints are not achieved by CP VMAT. PMID:26951076

  10. A treatment-planning comparison of three beam arrangement strategies for stereotactic body radiation therapy for centrally located lung tumors using volumetric-modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kentaro; Okada, Wataru; Ogino, Ryo; Kubo, Kazuki; Kishimoto, Shun; Nakahara, Ryuta; Kawamorita, Ryu; Ishii, Yoshie; Tada, Takuhito; Nakajima, Toshifumi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine appropriate beam arrangement for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of patients with centrally located lung tumors. Fifteen consecutive patients with centrally located lung tumors treated at our institution were enrolled. For each patient, three VMAT plans were generated using two coplanar partial arcs (CP VMAT), two non-coplanar partial arcs (NCP VMAT), and one coplanar full arc (Full VMAT). All plans were designed to deliver 70 Gy in 10 fractions. Target coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were compared across techniques. PTV coverage was almost identical for all approaches. The whole lung V10Gy was significantly lower with CP VMAT plans than with NCP VMAT plans, whereas no significant differences in the mean lung dose, V5Gy, V20Gy or V40Gy were observed. Full VMAT increased mean contralateral lung V5Gy by 12.57% and 9.15% when compared with NCP VMAT and CP VMAT, respectively. Although NCP VMAT plans best achieved the dose-volume constraints for mediastinal OARs, the absolute differences in dose were small when compared with CP VMAT. These results suggest that partial-arc VMAT may be preferable to minimize unnecessary exposure to the contralateral lung, and use of NCP VMAT should be considered when the dose-volume constraints are not achieved by CP VMAT. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  11. Sci—Fri AM: Mountain — 05: Unified Optimization and Delivery of Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy and Volume-modulated Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J; Hoover, D; MacFarlane, M; Wong, E

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of a unified intensity-modulated arc therapy (UIMAT) that combines IMRT and VMAT optimization and delivery in order to produce efficient and superior radiation treatment plans. Methods: Inverse planning for UIMAT was prototyped on the Pinnacle treatment planning system (Philips Medical Systems). UIMAT integrates IMRT and VMAT delivery in the same arc where IMRT was delivered with gantry speed close to zero. Optimal gantry angles for the IMRT phases were selected automatically by the inverse optimization algorithm. Optimization of the VMAT phases and IMRT phases were done simultaneously using Pinnacle's direct machine parameter optimization algorithm. Five treatment plans each for prostate, head and neck, and lung were generated using our unified technique and compared with clinical VMAT or IMRT plans. Delivery verification was performed on an ArcCheck phantom (Sun Nuclear) and delivered in clinical mode on a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator. Results: In this prototype implementation, compared to the VMAT or IMRT plans, with the plans normalized to the same dose coverage to the planning target volumes, the UIMAT plans produced improved OAR sparing for head and neck cases, while for lung and prostate cases, the dosimetric improvements for OARs were not as significant. In this proof-of-concept work, we demonstrated that a novel radiation therapy delivery technique combining VMAT and IMRT delivery in the same arc is feasible. Initial results showed UIMAT has the potential to be superior to either standard IMRT or VMAT.

  12. Measuring the wobble of radiation field centers during gantry rotation and collimator movement on a linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song

    2011-08-01

    The isocenter accuracy of a linear accelerator is often assessed with star-shot films. This approach is limited in its ability to quantify three dimensional wobble of radiation field centers (RFCs). The authors report a Winston-Lutz based method to measure the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation, collimator rotation, and collimator field size change. A stationary ball-bearing phantom was imaged using multileaf collimator-shaped radiation fields at various gantry angles, collimator angles, and field sizes. The center of the ball-bearing served as a reference point, to which all RFCs were localized using a computer algorithm with sub-pixel accuracy. Then, the gantry rotation isocenter and the collimator rotation axis were derived from the coordinates of these RFCs. Finally, the deviation or wobble of the individual RFC from the derived isocenter or rotation axis was quantified. The results showed that the RFCs were stable as the field size of the multileaf collimator was varied. The wobble of RFCs depended on the gantry angle and the collimator angle and was reproducible, indicating that the mechanical imperfections of the linac were mostly systematic and quantifiable. It was found that the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation was reduced after compensating for a constant misalignment of the multileaf collimator. The 3D wobble of RFCs can be measured with submillimeter precision using the proposed method. This method provides a useful tool for checking and adjusting the radiation isocenter tightness of a linac.

  13. Measuring the wobble of radiation field centers during gantry rotation and collimator movement on a linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The isocenter accuracy of a linear accelerator is often assessed with star-shot films. This approach is limited in its ability to quantify three dimensional wobble of radiation field centers (RFCs). The authors report a Winston-Lutz based method to measure the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation, collimator rotation, and collimator field size change. Methods: A stationary ball-bearing phantom was imaged using multileaf collimator-shaped radiation fields at various gantry angles, collimator angles, and field sizes. The center of the ball-bearing served as a reference point, to which all RFCs were localized using a computer algorithm with subpixel accuracy. Then, the gantry rotation isocenter and the collimator rotation axis were derived from the coordinates of these RFCs. Finally, the deviation or wobble of the individual RFC from the derived isocenter or rotation axis was quantified. Results: The results showed that the RFCs were stable as the field size of the multileaf collimator was varied. The wobble of RFCs depended on the gantry angle and the collimator angle and was reproducible, indicating that the mechanical imperfections of the linac were mostly systematic and quantifiable. It was found that the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation was reduced after compensating for a constant misalignment of the multileaf collimator. Conclusions: The 3D wobble of RFCs can be measured with submillimeter precision using the proposed method. This method provides a useful tool for checking and adjusting the radiation isocenter tightness of a linac.

  14. Coherent Radiative Decay of Molecular Rotations: A Comparative Study of Terahertz-Oriented versus Optically Aligned Molecular Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damari, Ran; Rosenberg, Dina; Fleischer, Sharly

    2017-07-01

    The decay of field-free rotational dynamics is experimentally studied by two complementary methods: laser-induced molecular alignment and terahertz-field-induced molecular orientation. A comparison between the decay rates of different molecular species at various gas pressures reveals that oriented molecular ensembles decay faster than aligned ensembles. The discrepancy in decay rates is attributed to the coherent radiation emitted by the transiently oriented ensembles and is absent from aligned molecules. The experimental results reveal the dramatic contribution of coherent radiative emission to the observed decay of rotational dynamics and underline a general phenomenon expected whenever field-free coherent dipole oscillations are induced.

  15. Coherent Radiative Decay of Molecular Rotations: A Comparative Study of Terahertz-Oriented versus Optically Aligned Molecular Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Damari, Ran; Rosenberg, Dina; Fleischer, Sharly

    2017-07-21

    The decay of field-free rotational dynamics is experimentally studied by two complementary methods: laser-induced molecular alignment and terahertz-field-induced molecular orientation. A comparison between the decay rates of different molecular species at various gas pressures reveals that oriented molecular ensembles decay faster than aligned ensembles. The discrepancy in decay rates is attributed to the coherent radiation emitted by the transiently oriented ensembles and is absent from aligned molecules. The experimental results reveal the dramatic contribution of coherent radiative emission to the observed decay of rotational dynamics and underline a general phenomenon expected whenever field-free coherent dipole oscillations are induced.

  16. Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in nonlinear radiative flow of Jeffrey fluid between two stretchable rotating disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sumaira; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    This article addresses MHD Jeffrey fluid flow between two stretchable rotating disks. Momentum equation with magnetic field is presented. Energy equation is constructed in presence of heat source/sink and nonlinear radiation. Thermal stratification and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions are accounted. The related systems have been solved for convergent solutions. Velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are analyzed. The velocities (radial, axial, tangential) are increasing functions of Deborah number. Decline in axial velocity is noticed at lower disk for larger ratio of relaxation to retardation times constant. Thermal field is enhanced for temperature ratio parameter. Concentration has opposite behavior for larger homogeneous parameter and Schmidt number. Surface drag force decays for larger ratio of relaxation to retardation times at both disks. Heat transfer rate enhances for temperature ratio parameter.

  17. VUV radiometry below 100 nm: the high-power hydrogen arc as a standard source of continuum radiation between 53 nm and 92 nm.

    PubMed

    Behringer, K; Thoma, P

    1979-08-01

    A stationary hydrogen arc discharge may be used as a standard source of radiation in the VUV below 100 nm. The Lyman resonance continuum is used, the cross sections of which are theoretically well known. The method described is based on optically thin radiation, requiring high plasma temperatures and an effective helium gas separation in the arc. The investigations demonstrate that, in appropriate experimental conditions, the plasma is indeed transparent down to the onset of the He ground-state absorption. Above that, the VUV spectral radiance can be predicted within less than 15% uncertainty from conventional plasma diagnostics. For a first application, the He continuum has been measured between 65 nm and 92 nm. The consistency of these results with theoretical calculations confirms the validity of the concept presented.

  18. High-RRR thin-films of NB produced using energetic condensation from a coaxial, rotating vacuum ARC plasma (CEDTM)

    SciTech Connect

    Enrique Francisco Valderrama, Colt James, Mahadevan Krishnan, Xin Zhao, Larry Phillips, Charles Reece, Kang Seo

    2012-07-01

    We have recently demonstrated unprecedentedly high values of RRR (up to 542) in thin-films of pure Nb deposited on a-plane sapphire and MgO crystal substrates. The Nb films were grown using a vacuum arc discharge struck between a reactor grade Nb cathode rod (RRR {approx} 30) and a coaxial, semi-transparent Mo mesh anode, with a heated substrate placed just outside it. The substrates were pre-heated for several hours prior to deposition at different temperatures. Low pre-heat temperatures (<300 C) and deposition temperatures (<300 C) give low RRR (<50) films, whereas higher pre-heat (700 C) and coating temperatures (500 C) give RRR=214 on a-sapphire and RRR=542 on MgO. XRD (Bragg-Brentano scans and Pole Figures), EBSD and SIMS data reveal several features: (1) on asapphire, higher temperatures show better 3D registry for epitaxial growth of Nb; the crystal structure evolves from textured, polycrystalline (with twins) to single-crystal; (2) on MgO, there is a transition from {l_brace}110{r_brace} planes to {l_brace}100{r_brace} as the temperature is increased beyond 500 C. The dramatic increase in RRR (from {approx}10 at <300 C to {approx}500 at >600 C) is correlated with better epitaxial crystal structure in both a-sapphire and MgO substrate grown films. However, the SIMS data reveal that the most important requirement for high-RRR Nb films on either substrate is the reduction of impurities in the film, especially hydrogen. The hydrogen content in the MgO grown films is 1000 times lower than in bulk Nb tested as a reference from SRF cavity grade Nb. This result has potential implications for SRF accelerators. Coating bulk Nb cavities with an MgO layer followed by our CEDTM deposited Nb films, might create superior SRF cavities that would avoid Q-slope and operate at higher peak fields.

  19. Uniformly rotating global radiative-convective equilibrium in the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Kevin A.; Chavas, Daniel R.

    2015-12-01

    A standard atmospheric general circulation model is run in a uniformly rotating global radiative-convective equilibrium configuration to explore the equilibrium state, including the statistics of its constituent tropical cyclones, and its sensitivity to horizontal resolution. The Community Atmosphere Model 5 (CAM5) is run at the conventional resolution of approximately 100 km grid spacing and a high resolution of 25 km grid spacing globally. The setup uses an aqua-planet configuration with spatially uniform, diurnally varying insolation, uniform fixed sea surface temperatures, and a uniform rotation rate equal to that at 10°N. The resulting state is one in which tropical cyclones fill the global domain, such that storm count and outer storm size covary strongly. At higher resolution, the storm inner core is more intense and compact but the size of the outer circulation decreases only marginally, and storm count increases in a manner consistent with this decrease in size. Furthermore, the size of the wind field and precipitation fields are highly correlated. A simple analytical model is found to robustly reproduce the radial structure of the broad outer storm circulation. Finally, the minimum central pressure is demonstrated to be an exclusive function of peak azimuthal-mean wind speed and outer storm size. Despite significant changes in the statistics of storm count, intensity, and structure, the mean environment, including the potential intensity, is nearly identical for both simulations. Results are compared with the nonrotating case from a prior study, and a generalized conceptual framework for the interpretation of aggregation with or without rotation is proposed.

  20. A Monte Carlo simulation for the radiation imaging technique based on the Hemispherical Rotational Modulation Collimator (H-RMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bao, V.; Kim, G.

    2017-03-01

    The Rotational Modulation Collimator (RMC) is a simple and versatile tool for the radiation imaging system with low cost, makes it a reasonable selection for locating and tracking nuclear materials and radiation sources. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation-based design studies for an alternative RMC which has an extended field-of-view will be presented. Modulation patterns for 5 different hemispherical RMC (H-RMC) designs were simulated for various source locations, and fundamental characteristics of rotational modulation patterns were investigated. Obtained patterns showed variations depending on the source location for most of the H-RMC designs, exhibiting promises for the future development of an omni-directional radiation imager based on a non-position sensitive radiation detector.

  1. Spectral measurements of shock layer radiation in an arc-jet wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Giuseppe; Craig, Roger; Carrasco, Armando

    1993-01-01

    Measurements were made of the radiating gas cap of a blunt body in an NASA Ames 20 MW arcjet wind tunnel. The test gas was air. Spectra of the flux incident on a small aperture centered at the stagnation region were obtained. A helium-cooled MgF window transmitted flux into an evacuated collimating system that focused the aperture onto the entrance slit of a spectrometer. Data were obtained with films and by photomultipliers. The range covered was 120 nm to 1000 nm and the resolution was 0.05 nm to 0.5 nm. This paper presents preliminary results from the experiment. Representative spectral records from 200 nm to 1000 nm are shown. The spectra show the atomic lines from oxygen and nitrogen in the IR, as well as the molecular systems of NO, N2, N2(+), and CN. Copper, as a contaminant, and carbon are tentatively identified.

  2. Nuclear light bulb propellant heating simulation using a tungsten/argon aerosol and radiation from a dc arc surrounded by a segmented mirror cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to simulate radiant heating of the propellant stream of a nuclear light bulb engine to obtain high bulk exit temperatures in the flowing simulated propellant stream by absorption of large fractions of the incident thermal radiation. A high-power, vortex-stabilized dc arc within an uncooled fused silica tube was used as the radiant energy source. It was surrounded by a mirror system to increase the radiation incident on the simulated propellant. The 12.7-cm-long by 2.3-cm-wide, diverging-duct test section had a transparent front wall and a reflecting rear wall. The central stream of seeded gas, a tungsten-particle/argon aerosol, had unseeded argon buffer layers on both sides to prevent coating of the duct walls. Arc operating times were approximately 0.5 sec with power levels up to 780 kW. Bulk exit temperatures were measured using a calorimeter downstream of the duct. The maximum simulated propellant bulk exit temperature obtained was 4515 K, compared with 3860 K in previous tests, 3300 to 3700 K expected in in-reactor tests in the Nuclear Furnace, and 6660 K in the reference nuclear light bulb engine. The maximum temperature in these tests was limited primarily by the amount of radiation incident on the test section (determined by the arc operating characteristics and the effectiveness of the mirror cavity).

  3. Analysis of dose distribution in organs at risk in patients with prostate cancer treated with the intensity-modulated radiation therapy and arc technique.

    PubMed

    Biegała, Michał; Hydzik, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a comparative analysis of treatment plans in 48 patients with prostate cancer treated with ionizing radiation. Each patient was subjected to the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and arc technique. In each treatment plan, the organs at risk were assessed: the urinary bladder, rectum and heads of the femur, as well as the volume of normal tissue. The following features were compared: treatment time, conformity indices for the planning target volume, mean doses and standard deviation in organs at risk, and organ volumes for each particular dose. The treatment period in the arc technique is 13.7% shorter than in the IMRT technique. Comparing the results of the IMRT and arc techniques (arc vs. IMRT), the mean values were 29.21 ± 12.91 Gy versus 28.36 ± 13.79 Gy for the bladder, 20.36 ± 3.16 Gy versus 18.17 ± 5.11 Gy for the right femoral head, and 18.98 ± 3.28 Gy versus 16.67 ± 5.15 Gy for the left femoral head. For the rectum, lower values were obtained after application of the arc technique, not the IMRT technique: 35.84 ± 12.28 Gy versus 35.90 ± 13.05 Gy. The results indicate that the applied therapy has a statistically significant influence on the volume for a particular dose with regard to the urinary bladder. It is advisable to apply the IMRT technique to patients who need the femur heads and urinary bladder protected by exposing them to low irradiation doses.

  4. Dosimetric Impact of Intrafraction Motion During RapidArc Stereotactic Vertebral Radiation Therapy Using Flattened and Flattening Filter-Free Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, Chin Loon; Dahele, Max; Cuijpers, Johan P.; Senan, Suresh; Slotman, Ben J.; Verbakel, Wilko F.A.R.

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To study the dosimetric impact of relatively short-duration intrafraction shifts during a single fraction of RapidArc delivery for vertebral stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using flattened (FF) and flattening filter-free (FFF) beams. Methods and Materials: The RapidArc plans, each with 2 to 3 arcs, were generated for 9 patients using 6-MV FF and 10-MV FFF beams with maximum dose rates of 1000 and 2400 MU/min, respectively. A total of 1272 plans were created to estimate the dosimetric consequences in target and spinal cord volumes caused by intrafraction shifts during one of the arcs. Shifts of 1, 2, and 3 mm for periods of 5, 10, and 30 seconds, and 5 mm for 5 and 10 seconds, were modelled during a part of the arc associated with high doses and steep dose gradients. Results: For FFF plans, shifts of 2 mm over 10 seconds and 30 seconds could increase spinal cord D{sub max} by up to 6.5% and 13%, respectively. Dosimetric deviations in FFF plans were approximately 2-fold greater than in FF plans. Reduction in target coverage was <1% for 83% and 96% of the FFF and FF plans, respectively. Conclusion: Even short-duration intrafraction shifts can cause significant dosimetric deviations during vertebral SBRT delivery, especially when using very high dose rate FFF beams and when the shift occurs in that part of the arc delivering high doses and steep gradients. The impact is greatest on the spinal cord and its planning-at-risk volume. Accurate and stable patient positioning is therefore required for vertebral SBRT.

  5. Variations in the Rotational Modulation of Saturn Kilometric Radiation and Their Relationship to Magnetic Periodicities Observed Before and Near Equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Groene, J. B.; Persoon, A. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Kivelson, M. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Southwood, D. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR), which is an intense radio emission generated at high latitudes in Saturn's magnetosphere, displays a strong rotationally driven modulation at two rates, one characteristic of radiation from the northern auroral zone, and the other from the southern auroral zone. During the period from about 2007 to 2009, Cassini observations show that the rotation rates were about 816 and 780 deg/day, corresponding to rotational periods of about 10.6 and 10.8 hr. However, as Saturn approached equinox in August 2009, the two rotation rates began to converge, and have since crossed in early 2010. This interchange of the rotational modulation rates of SKR in the two hemispheres potentially provides an important clue as to how angular momentum is transferred from the interior of Saturn to the magnetosphere. Using these measurements a new longitude system has been developed, one for the northern hemisphere and one for the southern hemisphere (SLS4-N and SLS4-S). These longitude systems are used to investigate similar variations in the rotational modulation of Saturn's magnetic field and field-aligned currents.

  6. Clearance Analysis of CTC2 (on ELC4) to S-TRRJ HRS Radiator Rotation Envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, Donn

    2014-01-01

    In response to the planned retirement of the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station (ISS) management began stockpiling spare parts on the ISS. Many of the larger orbital replacement units were stored on the Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Logistics Carriers (ELCs) mounted on the end of the S3 and P3 truss segments, immediately outboard of the Thermal Radiator Rotary Joints (TRRJs) and their attached radiators. In an August 2009 computer-aided design (CAD) assessment, it was determined that mounting the Cargo Transport Container (CTC) 2 on the inboard face of ELC4 as planned would create insufficient clearance between the CTC2 and the rotational envelope of the radiators when the TRRJs were rotated to a gamma angle of 35.0 degrees. The true clearance would depend on how the Unpressurized Cargo Carrier Attachment System (UCCAS) was mounted to the S3 truss and how the ELC4 was attached to it. If the plane of the UCCAS attachment points were tilted even slightly inboard, it would significantly change the clearance between CTC2 and the Starboard TRRJ (S-TRRJ) radiators. Additionally, since CTC2 would be covered in multilayer insulation (MLI), the true outer profile of CTC2 was not captured in the CAD models used for the clearance assessment. It was possible that, even if the S-TRRJ radiators cleared CTC2, they could snag the MLI covering. In the fall of 2010, the Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) was asked to perform an on-orbit clearance analysis to determine the location of CTC2 on ELC4 and the S-TRRJ radiators at the angle of closest approach so that a positive clearance could be assured. To provide the measurements as quickly as possible to aid in the assessment, it was decided that the clearance analysis would be broken into two phases. Phase I: The location and orientation of the UCCAS fittings, which support and hold the ELC4 in place, would be measured relative to the ISS Analytical Coordinate System (ISSACS

  7. Prostate Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy to Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Louise J.; Lilley, John; Thompson, Christopher M.; Cosgrove, Vivian; Mason, Josh; Sykes, Jonathan; Franks, Kevin; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Henry, Ann M.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate boosting dominant intraprostatic lesions (DILs) in the context of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) and to examine the impact on tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate datasets were selected. DILs were defined using T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Four plans were produced for each dataset: (1) no boost to DILs; (2) boost to DILs, no seminal vesicles in prescription; (3) boost to DILs, proximal seminal vesicles (proxSV) prescribed intermediate dose; and (4) boost to DILs, proxSV prescribed higher dose. The prostate planning target volume (PTV) prescription was 42.7 Gy in 7 fractions. DILs were initially prescribed 115% of the PTV{sub Prostate} prescription, and PTV{sub DIL} prescriptions were increased in 5% increments until organ-at-risk constraints were reached. TCP and NTCP calculations used the LQ-Poisson Marsden, and Lyman-Kutcher-Burman models respectively. Results: When treating the prostate alone, the median PTV{sub DIL} prescription was 125% (range: 110%-140%) of the PTV{sub Prostate} prescription. Median PTV{sub DIL} D50% was 55.1 Gy (range: 49.6-62.6 Gy). The same PTV{sub DIL} prescriptions and similar PTV{sub DIL} median doses were possible when including the proxSV within the prescription. TCP depended on prostate α/β ratio and was highest with an α/β ratio = 1.5 Gy, where the additional TCP benefit of DIL boosting was least. Rectal NTCP increased with DIL boosting and was considered unacceptably high in 5 cases, which, when replanned with an emphasis on reducing maximum dose to 0.5 cm{sup 3} of rectum (Dmax{sub 0.5cc}), as well as meeting existing constraints, resulted in considerable rectal NTCP reductions. Conclusions: Boosting DILs in the context of SABR is technically feasible but should be approached with caution. If this therapy is adopted, strict rectal

  8. The reversal of the rotational modulation rates of the north and south components of Saturn kilometric radiation near equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Groene, J. B.; Persoon, A. M.; Menietti, J. D.; Ye, S.-Y.; Kurth, W. S.; MacDowall, R. J.; Lecacheux, A.

    2010-12-01

    It has been known for many years that Saturn emits intense radio emissions at kilometer wavelengths and that this radiation is modulated by the rotation of the planet at a rate that varies slowly on time scales of years. Recently it has been shown that the radio emission consists of two components that have different rotational modulation rates, one emitted from the northern auroral region and the other emitted from the southern auroral region. In this paper we show using radio measurements from the Cassini spacecraft that the rotational modulation rates of the northern and southern components reversed near Saturn's recent equinox, which occurred on 11 August 2009. We show that a similar reversal was also observed by the Ulysses spacecraft near the previous equinox, which occurred on 19 November 1995. The solar control implied by these reversals has important implications on how Saturn's rotation is coupled into the magnetosphere.

  9. Volumetric intensity-modulated arc therapy vs conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a dosimetric study

    PubMed Central

    White, Peter; Chan, Kit Chi; Cheng, Ka Wai; Chan, Ka Yiu; Chau, Ming Chun

    2013-01-01

    Dosimetric comparisons between RapidArc (RA) and conventional Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) techniques for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were performed to address differences in dose coverage of the target, sparing of organs-at-risk (OARs), delivery of monitor units (MUs) and time, to assess whether the RA technique was more beneficial for treatment of NPC. Eight NPC patients (Stages I–IV), who had completed RA treatment, were selected for this study. Computed tomography data sets were re-planned using 7-fields fixed beam IMRT. Quantitative measurements of dose-endpoint values on the dose-volume histograms were carried out for evaluation of: (i) dose homogeneity (D5% – D95%); (ii) degree of conformity (CI95%); (iii) tumor control probability (TCP); (iv) doses to OARs; (v) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP); (vi) treatment time; and (vii) MUs. RA plans achieved better dose conformity and TCP in planning target volumes (PTVs). Target dose homogeneity was not as high as for IMRT plans. Doses to tempero-mandibular joints, clavicles, parotid glands and posterior neck, and their NTCPs were significantly lower in RA plans (P < 0.05). Mean doses to the brainstem and spinal cord were slightly lower in IMRT plans. RA plans allowed for a mean reduction in MUs by 78% (P = 0.006), and a four-fold reduction in treatment delivery times, relative to IMRT plans. RA plans showed superior, or comparable, target coverage and dose conformity in PTVs, but at the expense of inferior dose homogeneity. RA plans also achieved significant improvements in dose reduction to OARs and healthy tissue sparing. A significant reduction in treatment delivery time for RA treatment technique was also noted. PMID:23188186

  10. The effect of oblateness and gravity darkening on the radiation driving in winds from rapidly rotating B stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Owocki, Stanley P.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the radiative driving force for winds around rapidly rotating oblate B stars, and we estimate the impact these forces should have on the production of a wind compressed disk. The effects of limb darkening, gravity darkening, oblateness, and an arbitrary wind velocity field are included in the computation of vector 'oblate finite disk' (OFD) factors, which depend on both radius and colatitude in the wind. The impact of limb darkening alone, with or without rotation, can increase the mass loss by as much as 10% over values computed using the standard uniformly bright spherical finite disk factor. For rapidly rotating stars, limb darkening makes 'sub-stellar' gravity darkening the dominant effect in the radial and latitudinal OFD factors, and lessens the impact of gravity darkening at other visible latitudes (nearer to the oblate limb). Thus, the radial radiative driving is generally stronger over the poles and weaker over the equator, following the gravity darkening at these latitudes. The nonradial radiative driving is considerably smaller in magnitude than the radial component, but is directed both away from the equatorial plane and in a retrograde azimuthal direction, acting to decrease the effective stellar rotation velocity. These forces thus weaken the equatorward wind compression compared to wind models computed with nonrotating finite disk factors.

  11. Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers Mentor Report and Baseline Surface Radiation Network Submission Status

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, G.

    2005-03-18

    There are currently twenty-four Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSR) operating within Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM). Eighteen are located within the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region, there is one at each of the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites, and one is part of the instrumentation of the ARM Mobile Facility. At this time there are four sites, all extended facilities within the SGP, that are equipped for a MFRSR but do not have one due to instrument failure and a lack of spare instruments. In addition to the MFRSRs, there are three other MFRSR derived instruments that ARM operates. They are the Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR), the Normal Incidence Multi-Filter Radiometer (NIMFR) and the Narrow Field of View (NFOV) radiometer. All are essentially just the head of a MFRSR used in innovative ways. The MFR is mounted on a tower and pointed at the surface. At the SGP Central Facility there is one at ten meters and one at twenty-five meters. The NSA has a MFR at each station, both at the ten meter level. ARM operates three NIMFRs; one is at the SGP Central Facility and one at each of the NSA stations. There are two NFOVs, both at the SGP Central Facility. One is a single channel (870) and the other utilizes two channels (673 and 870).

  12. Intensity modulated radiation therapy with field rotation--a time-varying fractionation study.

    PubMed

    Dink, Delal; Langer, Mark P; Rardin, Ronald L; Pekny, Joseph F; Reklaitis, Gintaras V; Saka, Behlul

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel mathematical approach to the beam selection problem in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning. The approach allows more beams to be used over the course of therapy while limiting the number of beams required in any one session. In the proposed field rotation method, several sets of beams are interchanged throughout the treatment to allow a wider selection of beam angles than would be possible with fixed beam orientations. The choice of beamlet intensities and the number of identical fractions for each set are determined by a mixed integer linear program that controls jointly for the distribution per fraction and the cumulative dose distribution delivered to targets and critical structures. Trials showed the method allowed substantial increases in the dose objective and/or sparing of normal tissues while maintaining cumulative and fraction size limits. Trials for a head and neck site showed gains of 25%-35% in the objective (average tumor dose) and for a thoracic site gains were 7%-13%, depending on how strict the fraction size limits were set. The objective did not rise for a prostate site significantly, but the tolerance limits on normal tissues could be strengthened with the use of multiple beam sets.

  13. Entrainment of polaritons in rotating ruby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, V. O.; Gorelik, V. S.; Portnov, D. I.; Filatov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    A luminescent trace has been observed in a ruby crystal (Al2O3: Cr3+) that rotates at a frequency of 2 to 200 Hz and is irradiated by 532-nm coherent electromagnetic radiation. A method has been proposed to determine the lifetime of the excited electronic state of chromium ions from the measurement of the length of an arc of the trajectory of a light spot on the surface of a rotating ruby single crystal. A "comet trace" formed at the passage of radiation through the rotating crystal near the absorption band of the material has been detected inside the ruby crystal. It has been shown that the theory based on the analysis of the motion of polaritons in the rotating reference frame is in satisfactory agreement with experimental results.

  14. Rotating Flow of Magnetite-Water Nanofluid over a Stretching Surface Inspired by Non-Linear Thermal Radiation.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, M; Mushtaq, A; Hayat, T; Alsaedi, A

    2016-01-01

    Present study explores the MHD three-dimensional rotating flow and heat transfer of ferrofluid induced by a radiative surface. The base fluid is considered as water with magnetite-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Novel concept of non-linear radiative heat flux is considered which produces a non-linear energy equation in temperature field. Conventional transformations are employed to obtain the self-similar form of the governing differential system. The arising system involves an interesting temperature ratio parameter which is an indicator of small/large temperature differences in the flow. Numerical simulations with high precision are determined by well-known shooting approach. Both uniform stretching and rotation have significant impact on the solutions. The variation in velocity components with the nanoparticle volume fraction is non-monotonic. Local Nusselt number in Fe3O4-water ferrofluid is larger in comparison to the pure fluid even at low particle concentration.

  15. New method to test the gantry, collimator, and table rotation angles of a linear accelerator used in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Stéphane; Torfeh, Tarraf; Latreille, Romain; Ben Hdech, Yassine; Guedon, Jeanpierre

    2011-03-01

    The precision of a medical LINear ACcelerator (LINAC) gantry rotation angle is crucial for the radiation therapy process, especially in stereotactic radio surgery, given the expected precision of the treatment and in Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) where the mechanical stability is disturbed due to the additional weight of the kV x-ray tube and detector. We present in this paper an extension of the Winston and Lutz test initially dedicated to control the size and the position of the isocenter of the LINAC and here adapted to test the gantry rotation angle with no additional portal images. This new method uses a test-object patented by QualiFormeD5 and is integrated in the QUALIMAGIQ software platform developed to automatically analyze images acquired for quality control of medical devices.

  16. Rotating Flow of Magnetite-Water Nanofluid over a Stretching Surface Inspired by Non-Linear Thermal Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, M.; Mushtaq, A.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Present study explores the MHD three-dimensional rotating flow and heat transfer of ferrofluid induced by a radiative surface. The base fluid is considered as water with magnetite-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Novel concept of non-linear radiative heat flux is considered which produces a non-linear energy equation in temperature field. Conventional transformations are employed to obtain the self-similar form of the governing differential system. The arising system involves an interesting temperature ratio parameter which is an indicator of small/large temperature differences in the flow. Numerical simulations with high precision are determined by well-known shooting approach. Both uniform stretching and rotation have significant impact on the solutions. The variation in velocity components with the nanoparticle volume fraction is non-monotonic. Local Nusselt number in Fe3O4–water ferrofluid is larger in comparison to the pure fluid even at low particle concentration. PMID:26894690

  17. Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.

    2009-03-01

    The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

  18. A dosimetric comparative study: Volumetric modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of nasal cavity carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Kham; Cummings, David; Lanza, Vincent C.; Morris, Kathleen; Wang, Congjun; Sutton, Jordan; Garcia, John

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of nasal cavity carcinomas. The treatment of 10 patients, who had completed IMRT treatment for resected tumors of the nasal cavity, was replanned with the Philips Pinnacle{sup 3} Version 9 treatment-planning system. The IMRT plans used a 9-beam technique whereas the VMAT (known as SmartArc) plans used a 3-arc technique. Both types of plans were optimized using Philips Pinnacle{sup 3} Direct Machine Parameter Optimization algorithm. IMRT and VMAT plans' quality was compared by evaluating the maximum, minimum, and mean doses to the target volumes and organs at risk, monitor units (MUs), and the treatment delivery time. Our results indicate that VMAT is capable of greatly reducing treatment delivery time and MUs compared with IMRT. The reduction of treatment delivery time and MUs can decrease the effects of intrafractional uncertainties that can occur because of patient movement during treatment delivery. VMAT's plans further reduce doses to critical structures that are in close proximity to the target volume.

  19. Gas tungsten arc welder

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  20. Multilayer radiation shield

    SciTech Connect

    Urbahn, John Arthur; Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon

    2009-06-16

    A power generation system including: a generator including a rotor including a superconductive rotor coil coupled to a rotatable shaft; a first prime mover drivingly coupled to the rotatable shaft; and a thermal radiation shield, partially surrounding the rotor coil, including at least a first sheet and a second sheet spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft. A thermal radiation shield for a generator including a rotor including a super-conductive rotor coil including: a first sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material; and at least one additional sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft, wherein each successive sheet is an incrementally greater circumferential arc length and wherein the centripetal force shapes the sheets into a substantially catenary shape.

  1. Rotating radiative-convective equilibrium simulated by a cloud-resolving model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairoutdinov, Marat; Emanuel, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    The results of a series of cloud-resolving radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE) simulations are presented. The RCE simulations, used as an idealization for the mean tropical climate, are run for a wide range of prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), from 21oC to 36oC, representing the range of past, present, and, possibly, future mean tropical SSTs. The RCE with constant Coriolis parameter f is contrasted with nonrotating RCE. The Coriolis parameter is artificially increased from typical values in the Tropics by about one order of magnitude to allow multiple tropical cyclones (TCs) to coexist in a relatively small 2300 × 2300 km2 domain with a 3 km horizontal grid spacing. Nonrotating RCE is also simulated, but using a substantially smaller, 384 × 384 km2 domain. Rotating RCE, which we nickname "TC World," contains from 8 to 26 TCs with the average number of TCs monotonically decreasing with increasing SST. At the same time, the TCs' size, intensity, and per-TC precipitation rate tend to increase in response to increasing SST. For example, the average per-TC kinetic energy and precipitation rate tend to double for every 6oC SST increase. These results are consistent with scaling laws in which TC velocities and inner core diameters scale with the potential intensity and its ratio to the Coriolis parameter, respectively, while the separation between cyclone centers appears to scale with the deformation radius. It is also found that the outflow temperature of TC's, as defined as the height of the local maximum of the upper-troposphere cloud fraction, remains relatively invariant with SST. The cold-point tropopause height in TC World is found to be about 2 km higher than the corresponding height in nonrotating RCE.

  2. Dosimetric Impact of Using the Acuros XB Algorithm for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and RapidArc Planning in Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, Monica W.K.; Leung, Lucullus H.T.; Yu, Peter K.N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric implications for the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc (RA) of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) due to the use of the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm versus the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA). Methods and Materials: Nine-field sliding window IMRT and triple-arc RA plans produced for 12 patients with NPC using AAA were recalculated using AXB. The dose distributions to multiple planning target volumes (PTVs) with different prescribed doses and critical organs were compared. The PTVs were separated into components in bone, air, and tissue. The change of doses by AXB due to air and bone, and the variation of the amount of dose changes with number of fields was also studied using simple geometric phantoms. Results: Using AXB instead of AAA, the averaged mean dose to PTV{sub 70} (70 Gy was prescribed to PTV{sub 70}) was found to be 0.9% and 1.2% lower for IMRT and RA, respectively. It was approximately 1% lower in tissue, 2% lower in bone, and 1% higher in air. The averaged minimum dose to PTV{sub 70} in bone was approximately 4% lower for both IMRT and RA, whereas it was approximately 1.5% lower for PTV{sub 70} in tissue. The decrease in target doses estimated by AXB was mostly contributed from the presence of bone, less from tissue, and none from air. A similar trend was observed for PTV{sub 60} (60 Gy was prescribed to PTV{sub 60}). The doses to most serial organs were found to be 1% to 3% lower and to other organs 4% to 10% lower for both techniques. Conclusions: The use of the AXB algorithm is highly recommended for IMRT and RapidArc planning for NPC cases.

  3. Cylindrical shock waves in rotational axisymmetric non-ideal dusty gas with increasing energy under the action of monochromatic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, P. K.

    2017-08-01

    The propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a rotational axisymmetric non-ideal dusty gas under the action of monochromatic radiation with increasing energy, which has variable azimuthal and axial components of fluid velocity, is investigated. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. Similarity solutions are obtained as well as the effects of the variation of the radiation parameters, the parameter of non-idealness of the gas, the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture, the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas, and the piston velocity index are worked out in detail. The total energy of the shock wave is varying and increases with time. It is observed that the radiation parameter and the piston velocity index have opposite behaviour on the flow variables as well as the shock strength.

  4. Evaluation of Rotational Errors in Treatment Setup of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Liver Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Minsong; Lasley, Foster D.; Das, Indra J.; DesRosiers, Colleen M.; Slessinger, Eric D.; Cardenes, Higinia R.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of rotational setup errors in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of liver tumors and to investigate whether translational shifts can compensate for rotation. Methods and Materials: The positioning accuracy in 20 patients with liver malignancies treated with SBRT was reevaluated offline by matching the patients' cone-beam computed tomography (CT) scans (n=75) to the planning CT scans and adjusting the 3 rotational angles (pitch, roll, and yaw). Systematic and random setup errors were calculated. The dosimetric changes caused by rotational setup errors were quantified for both simulated and observed patient rotations. Dose distributions recalculated on the rotated CT scans were compared with the original planned doses. Translational corrections were simulated based on manual translational registration of the rotated images to the original CT scans. The correction efficacy was evaluated by comparing the recalculated plans with the original plans. Results: The systematic rotational setup errors were -0.06 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.68 Degree-Sign , -0.29 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.62 Degree-Sign , and -0.24 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.61 Degree-Sign ; the random setup errors were 0.80 Degree-Sign , 1.05 Degree-Sign , and 0.61 Degree-Sign for pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. Analysis of CBCT images showed that 56.0%, 14.7%, and 1.3% of treated fractions had rotational errors of >1 Degree-Sign , >2 Degree-Sign , and >3 Degree-Sign , respectively, in any one of the rotational axes. Rotational simulations demonstrated that the reduction of gross tumor volume (GTV) coverage was <2% when rotation was <3 Degree-Sign . Recalculated plans using actual patient roll motions showed similar reduction (<2%) in GTV coverage. Translational corrections improved the GTV coverage to within 3% of the original values. For organs at risk (OAR), the dosimetric impact varied case by case. Conclusion: Actual rotational setup errors in SBRT for liver tumors are

  5. Experimental study on copper cathode erosion rate and rotational velocity of magnetically driven arcs in a well-type cathode non-transferred plasma torch operating in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, S. W.; Hsu, K. L.; Lin, D. L.; Tzeng, C. C.

    2007-04-01

    The cathode erosion rate, arc root velocity and output power of a well-type cathode (WTC), non-transferred plasma torch operating in air are studied experimentally in this paper. An external solenoid to generate a magnetically driven arc and a circular swirler to produce a vortex flow structure are equipped in the studied torch system, which is designed to reduce the erosion rate at the cathode. A least square technique is applied to correlate the system parameters, i.e. current, axial magnetic field and mass flow rate, with the cathode erosion rate, arc root velocity and system power output. In the studied WTC torch system, the cathode erosion has a major thermal erosion component and a minor component due to the ion-bombardment effect. The cathode erosion increases with the increase of current due to the enhancement in both Joule heating and ion bombardment. The axial magnetic field can significantly reduce the cathode erosion by reducing the thermal loading of cathode materials at the arc root and improving the heat transfer to gas near the cathode. But, the rise in the mass flow rate leads to the deterioration of erosion, since the ion-bombardment effect prevails over the convective cooling at the cathode. The most dominant system parameter to influence the arc root velocity is the axial magnetic field, which is mainly contributed to the magnetic force driving the arc. The growth in current has a negative impact on increasing the arc root velocity, because the friction force acting at the spot due to a severe molten condition becomes the dominant component counteracting the magnetic force. The mass flow rate also suppresses the arc root velocity, as a result of which the arc root moves in the direction against that of the swirled working gas. All system parameters such as current, magnetic field and gas flow rate increase with the increase in the torch output power. The experimental evidences suggest that the axial magnetic field is the most important parameter

  6. Polarized radiative transfer through terrestrial atmosphere accounting for rotational Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelli, Luca; Rozanov, Vladimir V.; Vountas, Marco; Burrows, John P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper is devoted to the phenomenological derivation of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) accounting for first-order source terms of rotational Raman scattering (RRS), which is responsible for the in-filling of Fraunhofer and telluric lines by inelastic scattered photons. The implementation of the solution of the VRTE within the framework of the forward-adjoint method is given. For the Ca II and the oxygen A-band (O2 A) spectral windows, values of reflectance, degree of linear polarization (DOLP) and in-filling, in zenith and nadir geometry, are compared with results given in literature. Moreover, the dependence of these quantities on the columnar loading and vertical layering of non-spherical dust aerosols is investigated, together with their changes as function of two habits of ice crystals, modeled as regular icosahedra and severely rough aggregated columns. Bi-directional effects of an underlying polarizing surface are accounted for. The forward simulations are performed for one selected wavelength in the continuum and one in the strong absorption of the O2 A, as their combination can be exploited for the spaceborne retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties. For this reason, we also mimic seasonal maps of reflectance, DOLP and in-filling, that are prototypical measurements of the Ultraviolet-Visible-Near Infrared (UVN) sensor, at a nominal spectral resolution of 0.12 nm. UVN is the core payload of the upcoming European Sentinel-4 mission, that will observe Europe in geostationary orbit for air quality monitoring purposes. In general, in the core of O2 A, depending on the optical thickness and altitude of the scatterers, we find RRS-induced in-filling values ranging from 1.3% to 1.8%, while DOLP decreases by 1%. Conversely, while negligible differences of RRS in-filling are calculated with different ice crystal habits, the severely rough aggregated column model can reduce DOLP by a factor up to 10%. The UVN maps of in-filling show values varying

  7. Singularities in radiative heat generation and interaction forces for two rotating nanoparticles caused by the anomalous Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, A. I.; Dubas, E. V.

    2017-06-01

    The quantum heat generation, interaction force, and friction torque for two rotating spherical nanoparticles with the radius R are calculated. In contrast to a static case where an upper bound in the radiative heat transfer between two particles exists, the quantum heat generation for two rotating particles diverges at distances between particles d < d 0 = R(3/ɛ″(ω0))1/3 (where ɛ″(ω0) is the imaginary part of the dielectric function for the material of a particle at the resonance frequency ω0), when the rotation frequency coincides with poles in the excitation generation rate at Ω = 2ω0. These poles are due to the anomalous Doppler effect and the mutual polarization of particles and exist even in the presence of dissipation in particles. The anomalous heat generation is associated with the conversion of mechanical rotation energy into heat mediated by quantum friction. Similar singularities also exist for the interaction force and friction torque. The results can be of significant importance for biomedical applications.

  8. Planetary period oscillations in Saturn's magnetosphere: Evidence in magnetic field phase data for rotational modulation of Saturn kilometric radiation emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, D. J.; Cecconi, B.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Dougherty, M. K.; Lamy, L.; Provan, G.; Zarka, P.

    2011-09-01

    Initial Voyager observations of Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) indicated that the modulations in emitted power near the ˜11 h planetary rotation period are “strobe like,” varying with a phase independent of observer position, while subsequent Cassini studies of related oscillations in the magnetospheric magnetic field and plasma parameters have shown that these rotate around the planet with a period close to the SKR period. However, analysis of magnetic oscillation data over the interval 2004-2010 reveals the presence of variable secular drifts between the phases of the dominant southern period magnetic oscillations and SKR modulations, which become very marked after Cassini apoapsis moved for the first time into the postdusk sector in mid-2009. Here we use a simple theoretical model to show that such phase drifts arise if the SKR modulation phase also rotates around the auroral oval, combined with a highly restricted view of the SKR sources by the spacecraft due to the conical beaming of the emissions. Strobe-like behavior then occurs in the predawn-to-noon sector where the spacecraft has a near-continuous view of the most intense midmorning SKR sources, in agreement with the Voyager findings, while elsewhere the SKR modulation phase depends strongly on spacecraft local time, being in approximate antiphase with the midmorning sources in the postdusk sector. Supporting evidence for this scenario is provided through an independent determination of the variable rotation period of the southern magnetic field perturbations throughout the 6 year interval.

  9. Radiation exposure to operating staff during rotational flat-panel angiography and C-arm cone beam computed tomography (CT) applications.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Boris; Heidenreich, Ralf; Heidenreich, Monika; Eichler, Katrin; Thalhammer, Axel; Naeem, Naguib Nagy Naguib; Vogl, Thomas Josef; Zangos, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the radiation exposure for operating personnel associated with rotational flat-panel angiography and C-arm cone beam CT. Using a dedicated angiography-suite, 2D and 3D examinations of the liver were performed on a phantom to generate scattered radiation. Exposure was measured with a dosimeter at predefined heights (eye, thyroid, breast, gonads and knee) at the physician's location. Analysis included 3D procedures with a field of view (FOV) of 24 cm × 18 cm (8s/rotation, 20s/rotation and 5s/2 rotations), and 47 cm×18 cm (16s/2 rotations) and standard 2D angiography (10s, FOV 24 cm×18 cm). Measurements showed the highest radiation dose at the eye and thyroid level. In comparison to 2D-DSA (3.9 μSv eye-exposure), the 3D procedures caused an increased radiation exposure both in standard FOV (8s/rotation: 28.0 μSv, 20s/rotation: 79.3 μSv, 5s/2 rotations: 32.5 μSv) and large FOV (37.6 μSv). Proportional distributions were measured for the residual heights. With the use of lead glass, irradiation of the eye lens was reduced to 0.2 μSv (2D DSA) and 10.6 μSv (3D technique with 20s/rotation). Rotational flat-panel angiography and C-arm cone beam applications significantly increase radiation exposure to the attending operator in comparison to 2D angiography. Our study indicates that the physician should wear protective devices and leave the examination room when performing 3D examinations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating the kinematics of local thrust sheet rotation in the limb of an orocline: a paleomagnetic and structural analysis of the Esla tectonic unit, Cantabrian-Asturian Arc, NW Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Arlo Brandon; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Wicks, David

    2013-01-01

    The Esla tectonic unit lies along the southern boundary of the Cantabrian-Asturian Arc, a highly curved foreland fold-thrust belt that was deformed during the final amalgamation of the Pangea supercontinent. Previous structural and paleomagnetic analyses of the Cantabrian-Asturian Arc suggest a two-stage tectonic history in which an originally linear belt was bent into its present configuration, creating an orocline. The Esla tectonic unit is a particularly complex region due to the interaction of rotating thrust sheets from the southern limb of the arc and the southward-directed thrusts of the Picos de Europa tectonic domain during late-stage north-south shortening and oroclinal bending. These structural interactions resulted in intense modification of early-phase thin-skinned tectonic structures that were previously affected by a deeper out-of-sequence antiformal stack that passively deformed the early thrust stack. A total of 75 paleomagnetic sites were collected from the Portilla and Santa Lucia formations, two carbonate passive-margin reef platform units from the middle Devonian. Similar to other regions of the Cantabrian-Asturian Arc, Esla Unit samples carry a secondary remanent magnetization that was acquired after initial thrusting and folding of Variscan deformation in the late Carboniferous. Protracted deformation during late-stage oroclinal bending caused reactivation of existing thrust sheets that include the Esla and younger Corniero and Valbuena thrusts. When combined with existing structural data and interpretations, these data indicate that the present-day sinuosity of the Esla Unit is the consequence of both secondary rotation of originally linear features in the western Esla exposures (e.g., frontal thrusts), and secondary modification and tightening of originally curvilinear features in the eastern Esla exposures (e.g., hanging-wall lateral/oblique ramps). Differences in structural style between the Esla and other tectonic units of the arc

  11. An approach for online evaluations of dose consequences caused by small rotational setup errors in intracranial stereotactic radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Bo; Li, Jonathan; Kahler, Darren; Yan Guanghua; Mittauer, Kathryn; Shi Wenyin; Okunieff, Paul; Liu, Chihray

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to investigate the impact of small rotational errors on the magnitudes and distributions of spatial dose variations for intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatment setups, and to assess the feasibility of using the original dose map overlaid with rotated contours (ODMORC) method as a fast, online evaluation tool to estimate dose changes (using DVHs) to clinical target volumes (CTVs) and organs-at-risks (OARs) caused by small rotational setup errors. Methods: Fifteen intracranial SRT cases treated with either three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques were chosen for the study. Selected cases have a variety of anatomical dimensions and pathologies. Angles of {+-}3 deg. and {+-}5 deg. in all directions were selected to simulate the rotational errors. Dose variations in different regions of the brain, CTVs, and OARs were evaluated to illustrate the various spatial effects of dose differences before and after rotations. DVHs accounting for rotations that were recomputed by the treatment planning system (TPS) and those generated by the ODMORC method were compared. A framework of a fast algorithm for multicontour rotation implemented by ODMORC is introduced as well. Results: The average values of relative dose variations between original dose and recomputed dose accounting for rotations were greater than 4.0% and 10.0% in absolute mean and in standard deviation, respectively, at the skull and adjacent regions for all cases. They were less than 1.0% and 2.5% in absolute mean and in standard deviation, respectively, for dose points 3 mm away from the skull. The results indicated that spatial dose to any part of the brain organs or tumors separated from the skull or head surface would be relatively stable before and after rotations. Statistical data of CTVs and OARs indicate the lens and cochleas have the large dose variations before and after rotations

  12. Effects of full-neck volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs split-field intensity-modulated head and neck radiation therapy on low neck targets and structures

    PubMed Central

    Anamalayil, Shibu J; Teo, Boon-Keng K; Lin, Alexander; Lustig, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While split-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (SF-IMRT) decreases dose to low neck (LAN) structures such as the glottic larynx compared with full-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), it is unknown whether SF-IMRT affords superior dose avoidance to organs than whole neck-field volumetric-modulated arc therapy (WF-VMAT). Methods: 10 patients treated definitively with radiation for oropharyngeal, oral cavity or nasopharyngeal carcinoma were compared. Only patients ideally suited for SF-IMRT plans were included. The glottic larynx, supraglottic larynx, arytenoids, pharyngeal constrictors, oesophagus, brachial plexus and target volume coverage in the LAN were compared between WF-VMAT and SF-IMRT. Results: Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) yielded statistically significant decreases in maximum dose to the arytenoids and mean dose to the oesophagus. There was no difference in dose to the glottic larynx, supraglottic larynx, pharyngeal constrictors and brachial plexus. WF-VMAT led to improved coverage to 50/2 Gy fraction equivalent in LAN compared with SF-IMRT using an anteroposterior (AP) LAN field but no difference to the 60/2 Gy fraction equivalent between SF-IMRT and WF-VMAT using AP/posterior–anterior LAN boost. Conclusion: WF-VMAT affords equivalent glottic and supraglottic larynx dose and lower dose to the arytenoids and oesophagus. WF-VMAT better covers most LAN target structures. Given these findings as well as concerns with matchline cold spots or hotspots with SF-IMRT, patients requiring comprehensive elective nodal irradiation should typically be treated with WF-VMAT. Advances in Knowledge: SF-IMRT for larynx sparing has better dosimetric results to normal structures than whole-neck IMRT, but with increased matchline recurrence risk. We show dosimetric equivalence or superiority of WF-VMAT compared with SF-IMRT. PMID:27043353

  13. Bright Arcing Loops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-27

    Several arcing loops rotated into view and swirled above an active region, which gave us a nice profile view of the action (June 26-27, 2016). The arcing plasma is tracing magnetic field lines extending out from the active region. Some darker matter also jiggled back and forth near the active region as well, pulled about by magnetic forces. At one point a lick of plasma pushed its way out from the region but quickly fell back into the sun. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Movies are also available at the Photojournal. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20882

  14. Plan quality and delivery time comparisons between volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy for scalp angiosarcoma: A planning study.

    PubMed

    Kai, Yudai; Toya, Ryo; Saito, Tetsuo; Kuraoka, Akiko; Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Nakaguchi, Yuji; Maruyama, Masato; Murakami, Ryuji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Oya, Natsuo

    2017-07-29

    Due to its spherical surface, scalp angiosarcoma requires careful consideration for radiation therapy planning and dose delivery. Herein, we investigated whether volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is superior to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in terms of the plan quality and delivery time. Three different coplanar treatment plans were created for four patients, comprising a two-arc VMAT plan as well as 5-field and 9-field IMRT plans with 6 MV beams. The X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo algorithm was employed for dose calculation. A radiation therapy dose of 60 Gy was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV) in 30 fractions. The homogeneity indexes (HIs) and conformity indexes (CIs) of the PTV, organs at risk (OARs) doses and delivery times were calculated and compared. For the VMAT, 5-field and 9-field IMRT plans, the mean HIs were 0.14, 0.16 and 0.15; CIs100% were 0.63, 0.61 and 0.64; CIs98% were 0.72, 0.66 and 0.70 and CIs95% were 0.74, 0.67 and 0.71 respectively. All mean dose parameters of the VMAT and 9-field IMRT plans for the brain were equal to or lower than those of the 5-field IMRT plan. For the 5-field IMRT plan, the dose constraints for the left lens were not satisfied in two patients. The mean delivery times were 3.3, 11.1 and 14.7 min for the VMAT, 5-field and 9-field IMRT plans respectively. The VMAT plan quality is comparable to that of 9-field IMRT, with a reduced delivery time. Therefore, VMAT represents a valuable, sophisticated irradiation technique for treating scalp angiosarcoma. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  15. Anomalous Doppler-effect singularities in radiative heat generation, interaction forces, and frictional torque for two rotating nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    We calculate the quantum heat generation, the interaction force, and the frictional torque for two rotating spherical nanoparticles with a radius R . In contrast to the static case, when there is an upper limit in the radiative heat transfer between the particles, for two rotating nanoparticles the quantum heat generation rate diverges when the angular velocity becomes equal to the poles in the photon emission rate. These poles arise for the separation d

  16. Spin-orbit and rotational couplings in radiative association of C(3P) and N(4S) atoms.

    PubMed

    Antipov, Sergey V; Gustafsson, Magnus; Nyman, Gunnar

    2011-11-14

    The role of spin-orbit and rotational couplings in radiative association of C((3)P) and N((4)S) atoms is investigated. Couplings among doublet electronic states of the CN radical are considered, giving rise to a 6-state model of the process. The solution of the dynamical problem is based on the L(2) method, where a complex absorbing potential is added to the Hamiltonian operator in order to treat continuum and bound levels in the same manner. Comparison of the energy-dependent rate coefficients calculated with and without spin-orbit and rotational couplings shows that the couplings have a strong effect on the resonance structure and low-energy baseline of the rate coefficient.

  17. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy for adult craniospinal irradiation—A comparison with traditional techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Studenski, Matthew T.; Shen, Xinglei; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Ying; Shi, Wenyin; Biswas, Tithi; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Harrison, Amy S.

    2013-04-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) poses a challenging planning process because of the complex target volume. Traditional 3D conformal CSI does not spare any critical organs, resulting in toxicity in patients. Here the dosimetric advantages of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) are compared with classic conformal planning in adults for both cranial and spine fields to develop a clinically feasible technique that is both effective and efficient. Ten adult patients treated with CSI were retrospectively identified. For the cranial fields, 5-field IMRT and dual 356° VMAT arcs were compared with opposed lateral 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) fields. For the spine fields, traditional posterior-anterior (PA) PA fields were compared with isocentric 5-field IMRT plans and single 200° VMAT arcs. Two adult patients have been treated using this IMRT technique to date and extensive quality assurance, especially for the junction regions, was performed. For the cranial fields, the IMRT technique had the highest planned target volume (PTV) maximum and was the least efficient, whereas the VMAT technique provided the greatest parotid sparing with better efficiency. 3D-CRT provided the most efficient delivery but with the highest parotid dose. For the spine fields, VMAT provided the best PTV coverage but had the highest mean dose to all organs at risk (OAR). 3D-CRT had the highest PTV and OAR maximum doses but was the most efficient. IMRT provides the greatest OAR sparing but the longest delivery time. For those patients with unresectable disease that can benefit from a higher, definitive dose, 3D-CRT–opposed laterals are the most clinically feasible technique for cranial fields and for spine fields. Although inefficient, the IMRT technique is the most clinically feasible because of the increased mean OAR dose with the VMAT technique. Quality assurance of the beams, especially the junction regions, is essential.

  18. Beam controlled arc therapy-a delivery concept for stationary targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. H.; Betzel, G. T.; Yi, B. Y.; D'Souza, W. D.

    2013-10-01

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) presupposes that it is beneficial to deliver radiation from all beam angles as the gantry rotates, requiring the multi-leaf collimator to maintain continuity in shape from one angle to another. In turn, radiation from undesirable beam angles could compromise the dose distribution. In this work, we challenge the notion that the radiation beam must be held on as the gantry rotates around the patient. We propose a new approach for delivering intensity-modulated arc therapy, beam-controlled arc therapy (BCAT), during which the radiation beam is controlled on or off and the dose rate is modulated while the gantry rotates around the patient. We employ linear-programming-based dose optimization to each aperture weight, resulting in some zero weight apertures. During delivery, the radiation beam is held off at control points with zero weights as the MLC shape transits to the next non-zero weight shape. This was tested on ten head and neck cases. Plan quality and delivery efficiency were compared with VMAT. Improvements of up to 17% (p-value 0.001) and 57% (p-value 0.018) in organ-at-risk sparing and target dose uniformity, respectively, were achieved. Compared to the fixed number of apertures used in single-arc and double-arc VMAT, the BCAT used 109 and 175 apertures on average, respectively. The difference in total MUs for VMAT and BCAT plans was less than 4%. Plan quality improvement was confirmed after delivery with γ analysis resulting in over 99% agreement, or 4 in 1099 points that failed.

  19. Nonlinear thermal radiation and cubic autocatalysis chemical reaction effects on the flow of stretched nanofluid under rotational oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Sood, Shilpa; Sheikholeslami, Mohsen; Shehzad, Sabir Ali

    2017-11-01

    Combined effects of nonlinear thermal radiation and cubic autocatalysis chemical reaction on the three dimensional flow of stretched nanofluid along a rotating sheet have been investigated in this paper. The flow field is assumed to be suspended with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). Hamilton-Crosser model is applied to measure effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid. Rosseland approximation is employed to obtain the nonlinear radiative heat flux. For novelty and practical point of view, influence of fluctuating surface velocity and periodic surface temperature constraints are incorporated into the governing equations which in turn are made dimension free by employing suitable transformations. For numerical solutions, an explicit finite difference scheme has been proposed under the restrictions of derived stability conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring Rotations Due to Radiation Pressure: 2-D to 3-D Transition Is Interesting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation pressure is an important topic within a standard physics course (see, in particular, Refs. 1 and 2). The physics of radiation pressure is described, the magnitude of it is derived, both for the case of a perfectly absorbing surface and of a perfect reflector, and various applications of this interesting effect are discussed, such as…

  1. General relativistic radiative transfer code in rotating black hole space-time: ARTIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Rohta; Umemura, Masayuki

    2017-02-01

    We present a general relativistic radiative transfer code, ARTIST (Authentic Radiative Transfer In Space-Time), that is a perfectly causal scheme to pursue the propagation of radiation with absorption and scattering around a Kerr black hole. The code explicitly solves the invariant radiation intensity along null geodesics in the Kerr-Schild coordinates, and therefore properly includes light bending, Doppler boosting, frame dragging, and gravitational redshifts. The notable aspect of ARTIST is that it conserves the radiative energy with high accuracy, and is not subject to the numerical diffusion, since the transfer is solved on long characteristics along null geodesics. We first solve the wavefront propagation around a Kerr black hole that was originally explored by Hanni. This demonstrates repeated wavefront collisions, light bending, and causal propagation of radiation with the speed of light. We show that the decay rate of the total energy of wavefronts near a black hole is determined solely by the black hole spin in late phases, in agreement with analytic expectations. As a result, the ARTIST turns out to correctly solve the general relativistic radiation fields until late phases as t ˜ 90 M. We also explore the effects of absorption and scattering, and apply this code for a photon wall problem and an orbiting hotspot problem. All the simulations in this study are performed in the equatorial plane around a Kerr black hole. The ARTIST is the first step to realize the general relativistic radiation hydrodynamics.

  2. Exploring Rotations Due to Radiation Pressure: 2-D to 3-D Transition Is Interesting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation pressure is an important topic within a standard physics course (see, in particular, Refs. 1 and 2). The physics of radiation pressure is described, the magnitude of it is derived, both for the case of a perfectly absorbing surface and of a perfect reflector, and various applications of this interesting effect are discussed, such as…

  3. SU-E-T-633: Preparation and Planning of a VMAT Multi - Arc Radiation Therapy Technique for Full Scalp Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, C; Bardock, A; Berkelaar, S; Gillund, D; McGee, K; Mohamed, I; Lapointe, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The target volume for angiosarcoma of the scalp encompasses the entire scalp. Full scalp radiotherapy (FSRT) requires careful design of required bolus, immobilization and marking of the field before the patient CT is acquired. A VMAT multi-arc technique was designed to deliver FSRT for a patient with angiosarcoma of the scalp to a dose of 6000cGy in 25 fractions. Methods: A custom bolus helmet was fabricated from a 0.5 cm thick sheet of aquaplast material, which was molded to the patient’s head. With the bolus helmet in place the patient was then positioned supine on a H&N immobilization board. A custom vaclock bag positioned on a standard headrest and a thermoplastic mask were used to immobilize the patient. Additional bolus to cover the remaining treatment area was attached to the mask. We acquired two CT scans of the patient’s head, one in treatment position and an additional scan without the immobilization mask with wires marking the treatment area that the oncologist had delineated on the patient’s skin. The second scan was registered to the first and used to define the treatment CTV. A four-arc VMAT treatment planned using Varian-Eclipse was optimized to cover the skin with a PTV margin while sparing the brain and limiting the dose to the optic apparatus and lacrimal glands. Daily treatment setup was verified using anterior and lateral kV on-board-imaging. To verify the treated dose, TLDs were positioned on the patient’s scalp during one fraction. Results: With full dose coverage to the PTV, the mean dose to the brain was less than 24 Gy. The dose measured by the TLDs (mean difference 1%, standard deviation 4%)showed excellent agreement with the treatment planning calculation. Conclusion: FSRT delivered with a bolus helmet and a VMAT multi-arc technique can be accurately delivered with high dose uniformity and conformality.

  4. Gravitational radiation and angular momentum flux from a slowly rotating dynamical black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Huei; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2011-04-15

    A four-dimensional asymptotic expansion scheme is used to study the next-order effects of the nonlinearity near a spinning dynamical black hole. The angular-momentum flux and energy flux formula are then obtained by constructing the reference frame in terms of the compatible constant spinors and the compatibility of the coupling leading-order Newman-Penrose equations. By using the slow rotation and small-tide approximation for a spinning black hole, the horizon cross-section we chose is spherical symmetric. It turns out the flux formula is rather simple and can be compared with the known results. Directly from the energy flux formula of the slow-rotating dynamical horizon, we find that the physically reasonable condition on requiring the positivity of the gravitational energy flux yields that the shear will monotonically decrease with time. Thus a slow-rotating dynamical horizon will asymptotically approach an isolated horizon during late time.

  5. Whole abdomen radiation therapy in ovarian cancers: a comparison between fixed beam and volumetric arc based intensity modulation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A study was performed to assess dosimetric characteristics of volumetric modulated arcs (RapidArc, RA) and fixed field intensity modulated therapy (IMRT) for Whole Abdomen Radiotherapy (WAR) after ovarian cancer. Methods and Materials Plans for IMRT and RA were optimised for 5 patients prescribing 25 Gy to the whole abdomen (PTV_WAR) and 45 Gy to the pelvis and pelvic nodes (PTV_Pelvis) with Simultaneous Integrated Boost (SIB) technique. Plans were investigated for 6 MV (RA6, IMRT6) and 15 MV (RA15, IMRT15) photons. Objectives were: for both PTVs V90% > 95%, for PTV_Pelvis: Dmax < 105%; for organs at risk, maximal sparing was required. The MU and delivery time measured treatment efficiency. Pre-treatment Quality assurance was scored with Gamma Agreement Index (GAI) with 3% and 3 mm thresholds. Results IMRT and RapidArc resulted comparable for target coverage. For PTV_WAR, V90% was 99.8 ± 0.2% and 93.4 ± 7.3% for IMRT6 and IMRT15, and 98.4 ± 1.7 and 98.6 ± 0.9% for RA6 and RA15. Target coverage resulted improved for PTV_Pelvis. Dose homogeneity resulted slightly improved by RA (Uniformity was defined as U5-95% = D5%-D95%/Dmean). U5-95% for PTV_WAR was 0.34 ± 0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.06 (IMRT6 and IMRT15), 0.30 ± 0.03 and 0.26 ± 0.04 (RA6 and RA15); for PTV_Pelvis, it resulted equal to 0.1 for all techniques. For organs at risk, small differences were observed between the techniques. MU resulted 3130 ± 221 (IMRT6), 2841 ± 318 (IMRT15), 538 ± 29 (RA6), 635 ± 139 (RA15); the average measured treatment time was 18.0 ± 0.8 and 17.4 ± 2.2 minutes (IMRT6 and IMRT15) and 4.8 ± 0.2 (RA6 and RA15). GAIIMRT6 = 97.3 ± 2.6%, GAIIMRT15 = 94.4 ± 2.1%, GAIRA6 = 98.7 ± 1.0% and GAIRA15 = 95.7 ± 3.7%. Conclusion RapidArc showed to be a solution to WAR treatments offering good dosimetric features with significant logistic improvements compared to IMRT. PMID:21078145

  6. Whole abdomen radiation therapy in ovarian cancers: a comparison between fixed beam and volumetric arc based intensity modulation.

    PubMed

    Mahantshetty, Umesh; Jamema, Swamidas; Engineer, Reena; Deshpande, Deepak; Sarin, Rajiv; Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Shrivastava, Shyamkishore; Cozzi, Luca

    2010-11-15

    A study was performed to assess dosimetric characteristics of volumetric modulated arcs (RapidArc, RA) and fixed field intensity modulated therapy (IMRT) for Whole Abdomen Radiotherapy (WAR) after ovarian cancer. Plans for IMRT and RA were optimised for 5 patients prescribing 25 Gy to the whole abdomen (PTV_WAR) and 45 Gy to the pelvis and pelvic nodes (PTV_Pelvis) with Simultaneous Integrated Boost (SIB) technique. Plans were investigated for 6 MV (RA6, IMRT6) and 15 MV (RA15, IMRT15) photons. Objectives were: for both PTVs V90% > 95%, for PTV_Pelvis: Dmax < 105%; for organs at risk, maximal sparing was required. The MU and delivery time measured treatment efficiency. Pre-treatment Quality assurance was scored with Gamma Agreement Index (GAI) with 3% and 3 mm thresholds. IMRT and RapidArc resulted comparable for target coverage. For PTV_WAR, V90% was 99.8 ± 0.2% and 93.4 ± 7.3% for IMRT6 and IMRT15, and 98.4 ± 1.7 and 98.6 ± 0.9% for RA6 and RA15. Target coverage resulted improved for PTV_Pelvis. Dose homogeneity resulted slightly improved by RA (Uniformity was defined as U5-95% = D5%-D95%/Dmean). U5-95% for PTV_WAR was 0.34 ± 0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.06 (IMRT6 and IMRT15), 0.30 ± 0.03 and 0.26 ± 0.04 (RA6 and RA15); for PTV_Pelvis, it resulted equal to 0.1 for all techniques. For organs at risk, small differences were observed between the techniques. MU resulted 3130 ± 221 (IMRT6), 2841 ± 318 (IMRT15), 538 ± 29 (RA6), 635 ± 139 (RA15); the average measured treatment time was 18.0 ± 0.8 and 17.4 ± 2.2 minutes (IMRT6 and IMRT15) and 4.8 ± 0.2 (RA6 and RA15). GAIIMRT6 = 97.3 ± 2.6%, GAIIMRT15 = 94.4 ± 2.1%, GAIRA6 = 98.7 ± 1.0% and GAIRA15 = 95.7 ± 3.7%. RapidArc showed to be a solution to WAR treatments offering good dosimetric features with significant logistic improvements compared to IMRT.

  7. Analytical solutions in rotating linear dilaton black holes: Resonant frequencies, quantization, greybody factor, and Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, I.

    2016-10-01

    Charged massive scalar field perturbations are studied in the gravitational, electromagnetic, dilaton, and axion fields of rotating linear dilaton black holes. In this geometry, we separate the covariant Klein-Gordon equation into radial and angular parts and obtain the exact solutions of both the equations in terms of the confluent Heun functions. Using the radial solution, we study the problems of resonant frequencies, entropy/area quantization, and greybody factor. We also analyze the behavior of the wave solutions near the event horizon of the rotating linear dilaton black hole and derive its Hawking temperature via the Damour-Ruffini-Sannan method.

  8. SU-E-J-165: Dosimetric Impact of Liver Rotations in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnaduwage, D; Paulsson, A; Sudhyadhom, A; Chen, J; Chang, A; Anwar, M; Gottschalk, A; Yom, S S.; Descovich, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Often in liver stereotactic body radiotherapy a single fiducial is implanted near the tumor for image-guided treatment delivery. In such cases, rotational corrections are calculated based on the spine. This study quantifies rotational differences between the spine and liver, and investigates the corresponding dosimetric impact. Methods: Seven patients with 3 intrahepatic fiducials and 4DCT scans were identified. The planning CT was separately co-registered with 4 phases of the 4DCT (0%, 50%, 100% inhale and 50% exhale) by 1) rigid registration of the spine, and 2) point-based registration of the 3 fiducials. Rotation vectors were calculated for each registration. Translational differences in fiducial positions between the 2 registrations methods were investigated. Dosimetric impact due to liver rotations and deformations was assessed using critical structures delineated on the 4DCT phases. For dose comparisons, a single fiducial was translationally aligned following spine alignment to represent what is typically done in the clinic. Results: On average, differences between spine and liver rotations during the 0%, 50%, 100% inhale, and 50% exhale phases were 3.23°, 3.27°, 2.26° and 3.11° (pitch), 3.00°, 2.24°, 3.12° and 1.73° (roll), and 1.57°, 1.98°, 2.09° and 1.36° (yaw), respectively. The maximum difference in rotations was 12°, with differences of >3° seen in 14/28 (pitch), 10/28 (roll), and 6/28 (yaw) cases. Average fiducial displacements of 2.73 (craniocaudal), 1.04 (lateral) and 1.82 mm (vertical) were seen. Evaluating percent dose differences for 5 patients at the peaks of the respiratory cycle, the maximum dose to the duodenum, stomach, bowel and esophagus differed on average by 11.4%, 5.3%, 11.2% and 49.1% between the 2 registration methods. Conclusion: Lack of accounting for liver rotation during treatment might Result in clinically significant dose differences to critical structures. Both rotational and translational deviations

  9. Cathodic arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2003-10-29

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas standout due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. Industrial processes often use cathodic arc plasma in reactive mode. In contrast, the science of arcs has focused on the case of vacuum arcs. Future research directions include closing the knowledge gap for reactive mode, large area coating, linear sources and filters, metal plasma immersion process, with application in high-tech and biomedical fields.

  10. A new radiative forcing data set comprising the major volcanic eruptions from the Central American Volcanic Arc for paleo climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzner, D.; Krüger, K.; Timmreck, C.; Kutterolf, S.; Freundt, A.

    2009-04-01

    Of all the natural causes of climate change, major volcanic eruptions are most important as they have a significant impact on Earth's global climate system, especially on the stratosphere and troposphere, the atmospheric circulation and chemical composition. The direct injection of gases, aerosols and volcanic ash into the stratosphere has a strong and long lasting radiative influence, which leads to a global cooling of surface temperatures for several years, probably decades. In this study we will investigate the climate feedbacks of large Plinian eruptions from volcanoes at the Central American Arc within the last 200ka with the help of state of the art climate models. To evaluate the radiative forcing of the climate system, we need reliable estimates of the paleo volcanic stratospheric aerosol loading. Here we use a newly derived volcanic data set for Central America based on a) new eruptive mass estimations that are based on compositional land-sea correlations of widespread tephra layers and b) incoporation of measured degassed volatile fractions (S, Cl, F, Br, I) derived from those tephras by the "petrological method" into the mass calculations (Kutterolf et al. 2008a,b). This facilitates the consideration of large eruptions of the past for climate modelling. Using information about strength and height of the volcanic sulphur injection we create a new data set of aerosol optical depth comprising the major volcanic eruptions of Central American Volcanic Arc over the last 200ka. The poster will introduce the underlying steps to derive an aerosol optical depth set from the petrologic derived sulfate aerosol loading in more detail and discuss possible uncertainties. As soon as possible climate sensitivity studies will follow, in which different SO2 scenarios will be applied, for low, medium and large size SO2 eruptions. To assess the climate impact of past CAVA eruptions on a paleo time scale an earth system climate model of intermediate complexity will be

  11. The sensitivity of ArcCHECK-based gamma analysis to manufactured errors in helical tomotherapy radiation delivery.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Alistair K; Chu, James C H; Turian, Julius V

    2015-01-08

    Three-dimensional measurement arrays are an efficient means of acquiring a distribution of data for patient plan delivery QA. However, the tie between plan integrity and traditional gamma-based analysis of these data are not clear. This study explores the sensitivity of such analysis by creating errors in Helical Tomotherapy delivery and measuring the passing rates with an ArcCHECK cylindrical diode array. Errors were introduced in each of the couch speed, leaf open time, and gantry starting position in increasing magnitude while the resulting gamma passing rates were tabulated. The error size required to degrade the gamma passing rate to 90% or below was on average a 3% change in couch speed, 5° in gantry synchronization, or a 5 ms in leaf closing speed for a 3%/3 mm Van Dyk gamma analysis. This varied with plan type, with prostate plans exhibiting less sensitivity than head and neck plans and with gamma analysis criteria, but in all cases the error magnitudes were large compared to actual machine tolerances. These findings suggest that the sensitivity of ArcCHECK-based gamma analysis to single-mode errors in tomotherapy plans is dependent upon plan and analysis type and at traditional passing thresholds unable to detect small defects in the plan.

  12. Radiative-transfer models for explosions from rotating and non-rotating single WC stars. Implications for SN 1998bw and LGRB/SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc; John Hillier, D.; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli

    2017-07-01

    Using 1D, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium and time-dependent radiative transfer simulations, we study the ejecta properties required to match the early- and late-time photometric and spectroscopic properties of supernovae (SNe) associated with long-duration γ-ray bursts (LGRBs). Matching the short rise time, narrow light curve peak and extremely broad spectral lines of SN 1998bw requires a model with ≲3 M⊙ ejecta but a high explosion energy of a few 1052 erg and 0.5 M⊙ of 56Ni. The relatively high luminosity, presence of narrow spectral lines of intermediate mass elements, and low ionisation at the nebular stage, however, are matched with a more standard C-rich Wolf-Rayet (WR) star explosion, an ejecta of ≳10 M⊙, an explosion energy ≳1051 erg, and only 0.1 M⊙ of 56Ni. As the two models are mutually exclusive, the breaking of spherical symmetry is essential to match the early- and late-time photometric and spectroscopic properties of SN 1998bw. This conclusion confirms the notion that the ejecta of SN 1998bw is highly aspherical on large scales. More generally, with asphericity, the energetics and 56Ni masses of LGRB/SNe are reduced and their ejecta masses are increased, favouring a massive fast-rotating Wolf-Rayet star progenitor. Contrary to persisting claims in favour of the proto-magnetar model for LGRB/SNe, such progenitor/ejecta properties are compatible with collapsar formation. Ejecta properties of LGRB/SNe inferred from 1D radiative-transfer modelling are fundamentally flawed.

  13. Chronic exposure to the ultraviolet radiation levels from arc welding does not result in obvious damage to the human corneal endothelium.

    PubMed

    Oblak, Emil; Doughty, Michael J

    2002-11-01

    Occupational exposure of the cornea to ultraviolet radiation (UVR, e.g. in welding) is a well-known cause of 'arc eye' (photo-keratoconjunctivitis), but has also been considered to be a risk for the development of alterations in the size (polymegethism) and shape (pleomorphism) of the deeper-lying human corneal endothelial cells. Human data are however limited and so a further study was undertaken, with a control group. Non-contact specular micrographs of the central region of the corneal endothelium were obtained from 40 white males aged between 32 and 63 years; 20 were arc welders with an average of 25 +/- 7 years job experience, while the others were office workers (n = 20). All the welders reported occupational exposure to UVR (i.e. welders 'flashes') and up to 3 times per year. None of the subjects had a history of contact lens wear, major eye disease or surgery. The endothelial image was scanned, projected onto an overlay and cell border marking carried out in a masked fashion. The overlay was independently analysed, by a customised semi-automated method, providing cell-border-adjusted data on cell areas and cell shape (sides) on 124 to 260 cells per image. The endothelial cell density (ECD) values were also calculated from individual cell area values. All corneas appeared to be healthy, and showed no fluorescein staining indicating damage to the surface epithelium. Central corneal thickness values were normal at 0.531 +/- 0.031 (mean +/- SD) and 0.527 +/- 0.036 mm in the welders and non-welders respectively. All endothelia appeared healthy, with no evidence of cell oedema. The group-mean endothelial cell area was 393 +/- 35 and 392 +/- 21 microm2, ECD values were 2855 +/- 224 cells mm(-2) and 2852 +/- 210 cells mm(-2), while the percentages of 6-sided cells were 60 +/- 5.2 and 59 +/- 4.1% respectively. Cell area distributions were statistically identical (p > or = 0.8), and cell area-side relationships were marginally, but not statistically different. This

  14. Adaptive-passive control of noise radiation of gear-box systems using a pair of shunted piezo-based rotating inertial actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Alujevic, N.; Depraetere, B.; Pinte, Gregory; Sas, P.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, two Piezo-Based Rotating Inertial Actuators (PBRIAs) are considered for the suppression of the structureborne noise radiated from rotating machinery. Each inertial actuator comprises a piezoelectric stack element shunted with the Antoniou's gyrator circuit. This type of electrical circuit can be used to emulate a variable inductance. By varying the shunt inductance it is possible to realize two tuneable vibration neutralizers in order to suppress single frequency vibrations of a slowly rotating shaft. As a consequence, reductions in the sound radiated from the machine housing can be also achieved. First a theoretical study is performed using a simplified lumped parameter model of the system at hand. The simplified model consists of a rotating shaft and two perpendicularly mounted shunted PBRIAs. Secondly, the shunted PBRIA is tested on an experimental test bed comprising a rotating shaft mounted in a frame. The noise is radiated by a plate that is attached to the frame. The experimental results show that a reduction of 11 dB on the disturbance force transmitted from the rotating shaft through the bearing to the housing can be achieved. This also generates a reduction of 9 dB for the plate vibration and the radiated noise.

  15. Radiative Lifetimes of NH2(\\Atilde2A1): Rotational Quantum Number Dependence and Implications for Cometary Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Doumi, M.; Halpern, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Fluorescence (X2B1 ← \\Atilde2A1) from the first electronically excited state transition of NH2 (\\Atilde2A1), extends from 300 to 830 nm and, can be seen as a major visible emission from comets where it is a marker of ammonia NH3 concentrations via photolysis and solar excitation. Inference of ammonia concentrations from the intensity of the NH2 emission depends on knowledge of the radiative lifetime. Petrongolo et al. 2003 remeasured radiative lifetimes of various vibrational levels in the first electronically excited state NH2 (\\Atilde2A1). Their results were a factor of 2.5 or more lower than previous experimental measurements from 1985 and earlier. Collision free, radiative lifetimes from the first electronically excited state of the amidogen free radical, NH2(\\Atilde2A1) are reported here for a number of rotational states in the (0,8,0) and the (0,9,0) vibrational levels. In particular, the (0,8,0) band overlaps the strong OI emission at 630 nm and is commonly used to determine NH3 abundance and the ratio of NH3 to H2O in comets. The results from this work generally agree the older measurements and not with those of Petrolongo, et al. Further, the radiative lifetimes in a vibrational level are shown for the first time to increase with increasing rotational quantum number and also with the projection of the total electronic angular momentum along the internuclear axis. The average radiative lifetimes of the (0,9,0) Γ, τ1 = 18.4 ± 0.2 μs and (0,8,0) Φ, τ2 = 23.4 ± 0.1 μs levels were much longer than those of the (0,9,0) Σ, τ3 = 10.5 ± 0.2 μs and (0,8,0) Π, τ4 = 13.2 ± 0.3 μs states suggesting increased mixing of the first electronic excited and the ground states. This study suggests that the variation of radiative lifetime within the emission band should be taken into consideration in calculations of concentrations of NH2 in comet tails and the inferred NH3 concentration in the comets themselves. Petrongolo, C.; Fan, H.; Ionescu, I.; Kuffel

  16. Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices in the f-plane shallow water system

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, Norihiko

    2015-12-15

    Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices is investigated numerically in a rotating shallow water system in order to focus on cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry at different values of the Rossby number (Ro). A numerical study is conducted on a model using a spectral method in an unbounded domain to estimate the gravity wave flux with high accuracy. Continuous gravity wave radiation is observed in three stages of vortical flows: co-rotating of the vortices, merging of the vortices, and unsteady motion of the merged vortex. A cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry appears at all stages at smaller Ro (≤20). Gravity waves from anticyclones are always larger than those from cyclones and have a local maximum at smaller Ro (∼2) compared with that for an idealized case of a co-rotating vortex pair with a constant rotation rate. The source originating in the Coriolis acceleration has a key role in cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry in gravity waves. An additional important factor is that at later stages, the merged axisymmetric anticyclone rotates faster than the elliptical cyclone due to the effect of the Rossby deformation radius, since a rotation rate higher than the inertial cutoff frequency is required to radiate gravity waves.

  17. Heat transfer in GTA welding arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huft, Nathan J.

    Heat transfer characteristics of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) arcs with arc currents of 50 to 125 A and arc lengths of 3 to 11 mm were measured experimentally through wet calorimetry. The data collected were used to calculate how much heat reported to the cathode and anode and how much was lost from the arc column. A Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) macro was written to further analyze the data and account for Joule heating within the electrodes and radiation and convection losses from the arc, providing a detailed account of how heat was generated and dissipated within the system. These values were then used to calculate arc efficiencies, arc column voltages, and anode and cathode fall voltages. Trends were noted for variances in the arc column voltage, power dissipated from the arc column, and the total power dissipated by the system with changing arc length. Trends for variances in the anode and cathode fall voltages, total power dissipated, Joule heating within the torches and electrodes with changing arc current were also noted. In addition, the power distribution between the anode and cathode for each combination of arc length and arc current was examined. Keywords: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, GTAW, anode fall, cathode fall, heat transfer, wet calorimetry

  18. Dosimetric effects of weight loss or gain during volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pair, Matthew L.; Du, Weiliang; Rojas, Hector D.; Kanke, James E.; McGuire, Sean E.; Lee, Andrew K.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

    2013-10-01

    Weight loss or gain during the course of radiation therapy for prostate cancer can alter the planned dose to the target volumes and critical organs. Typically, source-to-surface distance (SSD) measurements are documented by therapists on a weekly basis to ensure that patients' exterior surface and isocenter-to-skin surface distances remain stable. The radiation oncology team then determines whether the patient has undergone a physical change sufficient to require a new treatment plan. The effect of weight change (SSD increase or decrease) on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dosimetry is not well known, and it is unclear when rescanning or replanning is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of weight change (SSD increase or decrease) on IMRT or VMAT dose delivery in patients with prostate cancer and to determine the SSD change threshold for replanning. Whether IMRT or VMAT provides better dose stability under weight change conditions was also determined. We generated clinical IMRT and VMAT prostate and seminal vesicle treatment plans for varying SSDs for 10 randomly selected patients with prostate cancer. The differences due to SSD change were quantified by a specific dose change for a specified volume of interest. The target mean dose, decreased or increased by 2.9% per 1-cm SSD decrease or increase in IMRT and by 3.6% in VMAT. If the SSD deviation is more than 1 cm, the radiation oncology team should determine whether to continue treatment without modifications, to adjust monitor units, or to resimulate and replan.

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Microwave Millimeter Radiation from Hollow, Rotating Electron Beams.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-30

    project includes an Imagen laser printer and several graphics terminals. This facility has been installed in a separate shielded room in our high bay...of several experi- has an electron beam propagating in some cylindrical "- " mental studies on the University of Marland’s high-en- waveguide immersed...try FEL has been explored both theoretically and experi- trons rotate is added an azimuthally periodic wiggler field, mentally in a collaborative

  20. Dosimetric and delivery characterizations of full-arc and half-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy for maxillary cancer.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hideharu; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Tanooka, Masao; Doi, Hiroshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Takada, Yasuhiro; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Hirota, Shozo

    2012-09-01

    We compared the efficiency and accuracy of full-arc and half-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery for maxillary cancer. Plans for gantry rotation angles of 360° and 180° (full-arc and half-arc VMAT) were created for six maxillary cancer cases with the Monaco treatment planning system, and delivered using an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Full-arc and half-arc VMAT were compared with regard to homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), mean dose to normal brain, total monitor units (MU), delivery times, root mean square (r.m.s.) gantry accelerations (°/s(2)), and r.m.s. gantry angle errors (°). The half-arc VMAT plans achieved comparable HI and CI to the full-arc plans. Mean doses to the normal brain and brainstem with the half-arc VMAT plans were on average 16% and 17% lower than those with the full-arc VMAT plans. For other organs at risk (OARs), no significant DVH differences were observed between plans. Half-arc VMAT resulted in 11% less total MU and 20% shorter delivery time than the full-arc VMAT, while r.m.s. gantry acceleration and r.m.s. gantry angle error during half-arc VMAT delivery were 30% and 23% less than those during full-arc VMAT delivery, respectively. Furthermore, the half-arc VMAT plans were comparable with the full-arc plans regarding dose homogeneity and conformity in maxillary cancer, and provided a statistical decrease in mean dose to OAR, total MU, delivery time and gantry angle error. Half-arc VMAT plans may be a suitable treatment option in radiotherapy for maxillary cancer.

  1. Shifting of infrared radiation using rotational raman resonances in diatomic molecular gases

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1980-01-01

    A device for shifting the frequency of infrared radiation from a CO.sub.2 laser by stimulated Raman scattering in either H.sub.2 or D.sub.2. The device of the preferred embodiment comprises an H.sub.2 Raman laser having dichroic mirrors which are reflective for 16 .mu.m radiation and transmittive for 10 .mu.m, disposed at opposite ends of an interaction cell. The interaction cell contains a diatomic molecular gas, e.g., H.sub.2, D.sub.2, T.sub.2, HD, HT, DT and a capillary waveguide disposed within the cell. A liquid nitrogen jacket is provided around the capillary waveguide for the purpose of cooling. In another embodiment the input CO.sub.2 radiation is circularly polarized using a Fresnel rhomb .lambda./4 plate and applied to an interaction cell of much longer length for single pass operation.

  2. ROTATION AND STABILITY OF THE TOROIDAL MAGNETIC FIELD IN STELLAR RADIATION ZONES

    SciTech Connect

    Bonanno, Alfio; Urpin, Vadim E-mail: vadim.urpin@uv.es

    2013-03-20

    The stability of the magnetic field in radiation zones is of crucial importance for mixing and angular momentum transport in the stellar interior. We consider the stability properties of stars containing a predominant toroidal field in spherical geometry by means of a linear stability in the Boussinesq approximation taking into account the effect of thermal conductivity. We calculate the growth rate of instability and analyze in detail the effects of stable stratification and heat transport. We argue that the stabilizing influence of gravity can never entirely suppress the instability caused by electric currents in radiation zones. However, the stable stratification can essentially decrease the growth rate of instability.

  3. Clinical implementation of intensity-modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Shepard, David M; Cao, Daliang

    2011-01-01

    Intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is a rotational approach to radiation therapy delivered on a conventional linear accelerator using a conventional multileaf collimator. There are 2 key advantages of IMAT. First, the rotational nature of the delivery provides great flexibility in shaping each dose distribution. As a result, IMAT can provide dosimetric advantages relative to fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The second advantage is the highly efficient nature of the delivery. For centers with an active IMRT program, the clinical implementation of IMAT should be relatively straightforward. For clinical implementation of IMAT, it is important to fully characterize the accuracy of the dose model used, and the performance of the quality assurance equipment.

  4. Comparison of testicular dose delivered by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in patients with prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeffrey M.; Handorf, Elizabeth A.; Price, Robert A.; Cherian, George; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Chen, David Y.; Kutikov, Alexander; Johnson, Matthew E.; Ma, Chung-Ming Charlie; Horwitz, Eric M.

    2015-10-01

    A small decrease in testosterone level has been documented after prostate irradiation, possibly owing to the incidental dose to the testes. Testicular doses from prostate external beam radiation plans with either intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were calculated to investigate any difference. Testicles were contoured for 16 patients being treated for localized prostate cancer. For each patient, 2 plans were created: 1 with IMRT and 1 with VMAT. No specific attempt was made to reduce testicular dose. Minimum, maximum, and mean doses to the testicles were recorded for each plan. Of the 16 patients, 4 received a total dose of 7800 cGy to the prostate alone, 7 received 8000 cGy to the prostate alone, and 5 received 8000 cGy to the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. The mean (range) of testicular dose with an IMRT plan was 54.7 cGy (21.1 to 91.9) and 59.0 cGy (25.1 to 93.4) with a VMAT plan. In 12 cases, the mean VMAT dose was higher than the mean IMRT dose, with a mean difference of 4.3 cGy (p = 0.019). There was a small but statistically significant increase in mean testicular dose delivered by VMAT compared with IMRT. Despite this, it unlikely that there is a clinically meaningful difference in testicular doses from either modality.

  5. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Microwave and Millimeter Wave Radiation from Hollow, Rotating, Electron Beams.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    detection bands (X, Ku, K (a) produced by a rotating electron beam in a cylindrical drif t tube. 9- 600 (a a)400- ~200. 28 32 36 f (GHz) 600 (b) ~400...are plotted in an radii Rj,Ro, as shown in Fig. 2. o- k , diagram. At the interaction points indicated ( k -f ,a-) The stability of the system is examined...by linearizingw-kqs diaram Atd t5h. i ercto porbit indicaton ( k -naw -) and ( k ,’ ,w), we have "resopant interaction". If these are Eqs. (4) and (5

  6. Verification of Planning Target Volume Settings in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy by Using In-Treatment 4-Dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Wataru; Yamashita, Hideomi; Kida, Satoshi; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Sakumi, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Haga, Akihiro

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate setup error and tumor motion during beam delivery by using 4-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4D CBCT) and to assess the adequacy of the planning target volume (PTV) margin for lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT). Methods and Materials: Fifteen lung cancer patients treated by single-arc VMAT-SBRT were selected in this analysis. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on maximum inspiration and maximum expiration CT datasets from 4D CT respiratory sorting and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The PTV margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Registration was automatically performed using “pre-3D” CBCT. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy delivered in 4 fractions. The 4D tumor locations during beam delivery were determined using in-treatment 4D CBCT images acquired in each fraction. Then, the discrepancy between the actual tumor location and the ITV was evaluated in the lateral, vertical, and longitudinal directions. Results: Overall, 55 4D CBCT sets during VMAT-SBRT were successfully obtained. The amplitude of tumor motion was less than 10 mm in all directions. The average displacements between ITV and actual tumor location during treatment were 0.41 ± 0.93 mm, 0.15 ± 0.58 mm, and 0.60 ± 0.99 mm for the craniocaudal, left-right, and anteroposterior directions, respectively. The discrepancy in each phase did not exceed 5 mm in any direction. Conclusions: With in-treatment 4D CBCT, we confirmed the required PTV margins when the registration for moving target was performed using pre-3D CBCT. In-treatment 4D CBCT is a direct method for quantitatively assessing the intrafractional location of a moving target.

  7. Verification of planning target volume settings in volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy by using in-treatment 4-dimensional cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Wataru; Yamashita, Hideomi; Kida, Satoshi; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Sakumi, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Haga, Akihiro

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate setup error and tumor motion during beam delivery by using 4-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4D CBCT) and to assess the adequacy of the planning target volume (PTV) margin for lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT). Fifteen lung cancer patients treated by single-arc VMAT-SBRT were selected in this analysis. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on maximum inspiration and maximum expiration CT datasets from 4D CT respiratory sorting and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The PTV margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Registration was automatically performed using "pre-3D" CBCT. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy delivered in 4 fractions. The 4D tumor locations during beam delivery were determined using in-treatment 4D CBCT images acquired in each fraction. Then, the discrepancy between the actual tumor location and the ITV was evaluated in the lateral, vertical, and longitudinal directions. Overall, 55 4D CBCT sets during VMAT-SBRT were successfully obtained. The amplitude of tumor motion was less than 10 mm in all directions. The average displacements between ITV and actual tumor location during treatment were 0.41 ± 0.93 mm, 0.15 ± 0.58 mm, and 0.60 ± 0.99 mm for the craniocaudal, left-right, and anteroposterior directions, respectively. The discrepancy in each phase did not exceed 5 mm in any direction. With in-treatment 4D CBCT, we confirmed the required PTV margins when the registration for moving target was performed using pre-3D CBCT. In-treatment 4D CBCT is a direct method for quantitatively assessing the intrafractional location of a moving target. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multi-institutional comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy vs. intensity-modulated radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer: a planning study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compared to static beam Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), the main advantage of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is a shortened delivery time, which leads to improved patient comfort and possibly smaller intra-fraction movements. This study aims at a treatment planner-independent comparison of radiotherapy treatment planning of IMRT and VMAT for head-and-neck cancer performed by several institutes and based on the same CT- and contouring data. Methods Five institutes generated IMRT and VMAT plans for five oropharyngeal cancer patients using either Pinnacle3 or Oncentra Masterplan to be delivered on Elekta linear accelerators. Results Comparison of VMAT and IMRT plans within the same patient and institute showed significantly better sparing for almost all OARs with VMAT. The average mean dose to the parotid glands and oral cavity was reduced from 27.2 Gy and 39.4 Gy for IMRT to 25.0 Gy and 36.7 Gy for VMAT, respectively. The dose conformity at 95% of the prescribed dose for PTVboost and PTVtotal was 1.45 and 1.62 for IMRT and 1.37 and 1.50 for VMAT, respectively. The average effective delivery time was reduced from 13:15 min for IMRT to 5:54 min for VMAT. Conclusions Independently of institution-specific optimization strategies, the quality of the VMAT plans including double arcs was superior to step-and-shoot IMRT plans including 5–9 beam ports, while the effective treatment delivery time was shortened by ~50% with VMAT. PMID:23369221

  9. A practical method of modeling a treatment couch using cone-beam computed tomography for intensity-modulated radiation therapy and RapidArc treatment delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Aldosary, Ghada; Nobah, Ahmad; Al-Zorkani, Faisal; Devic, Slobodan; Moftah, Belal

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a treatment couch on dose perturbation is not always fully considered in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). In the course of inverse planning radiotherapy techniques, beam parameter optimization may change in the absence of the couch, causing errors in the calculated dose distributions. Although modern treatment planning systems (TPS) include data for the treatment couch components, they are not manufactured identically. Thus, variations in their Hounsfield unit (HU) values may exist. Moreover, a radiotherapy facility may wish to have a third-party custom tabletop installed that is not included by the TPS vendor. This study demonstrates a practical and simple method of acquiring reliable computed tomography (CT) data for the treatment couch and shows how the absorbed dose calculated with the modeled treatment couch can differ from that with the default treatment couch found in the TPS. We also experimentally verified that neglecting to incorporate the treatment couch completely in the treatment planning process might result in dose differences of up to 9.5% and 7.3% for 4-MV and 10-MV photon beams, respectively. Furthermore, 20 RapidArc and IMRT cases were used to quantify the change in calculated dose distributions caused by using either the default or modeled couch. From 2-dimensional (2D) ionization chamber array measurements, we observed large dose distribution differences between the measurements and calculations when the couch was omitted that varied according to the planning technique and anatomic site. Thus, incorporating the treatment couch in the dose calculation phase of treatment planning significantly decreases dose calculation errors.

  10. Radiative Rotational Lifetimes and State-Resolved Relative Detachment Cross Sections from Photodetachment Thermometry of Molecular Anions in a Cryogenic Storage Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, C.; Becker, A.; Blaum, K.; Breitenfeldt, C.; George, S.; Göck, J.; Grieser, M.; Grussie, F.; Guerin, E. A.; von Hahn, R.; Herwig, P.; Krantz, C.; Kreckel, H.; Lion, J.; Lohmann, S.; Mishra, P. M.; Novotný, O.; O'Connor, A. P.; Repnow, R.; Saurabh, S.; Schwalm, D.; Schweikhard, L.; Spruck, K.; Sunil Kumar, S.; Vogel, S.; Wolf, A.

    2017-07-01

    Photodetachment thermometry on a beam of OH- in a cryogenic storage ring cooled to below 10 K is carried out using two-dimensional frequency- and time-dependent photodetachment spectroscopy over 20 min of ion storage. In equilibrium with the low-level blackbody field, we find an effective radiative temperature near 15 K with about 90% of all ions in the rotational ground state. We measure the J =1 natural lifetime (about 193 s) and determine the OH- rotational transition dipole moment with 1.5% uncertainty. We also measure rotationally dependent relative near-threshold photodetachment cross sections for photodetachment thermometry.

  11. Laboratory optical spectroscopy of the thiophenoxy radical and its profile simulation as a diffuse interstellar band based on rotational distribution by radiation and collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, Mitsunori; Niwayama, Kei; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2014-11-01

    The gas-phase optical absorption spectrum of the thiophenoxy radical (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}S), a diffuse interstellar band (DIB) candidate molecule, was observed in the discharge of thiophenol using a cavity ringdown spectrometer. The ground-state rotational constants of the thiophenoxy radical were theoretically calculated, and the excited-state rotational constants were determined from the observed rotational profile. The rotational profile of a near prolate molecule having C {sub 2v} symmetry was simulated on the basis of a rotational distribution model by radiation and collisions. Although the simulated profile did not agree with the observed DIBs, the upper limit of the column density for the thiophenoxy radical in the diffuse clouds toward HD 204827 was evaluated to be 2 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup –2}. The profile simulation indicates that rotational distribution by radiation and collisions is important to reproduce a rotational profile for a DIB candidate and that the near prolate C {sub 2v} molecule is a possible candidate for DIB with a band width variation dependent on the line of sight.

  12. On the Anatomy of a Point-charge in Superluminal Rotation and Its Relevance to Pulsar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Andrea C.; Singleton, J.; Middleditch, J.; Ardavan, H.; Ardavan, A.

    2013-06-01

    Recent theoretical work and data gathered from ground-based astrophysics experiments have shown unambiguously that most salient features of pulsar emission can be explained in terms of superluminal (faster than light in vacuum) polarization currents whose distribution pattern follows a circular orbit. A generic, simplified model of this kind has been found to approximate quantitatively the spectrum of the Crab pulsar as well as a variety of other pulsars for which multi-wavelength observations are available over 16 to 18 orders of magnitude of frequency with very few adjustable parameters. Here, we study the emission of a localized charge, e.g., a polarization-current element of infinitesimal volume, in constant superluminal rotation to simulate a typical pulsar’s emitting region. We set out by applying basic methods introduced by Huyghens and Fresnel to gain phase information and find that radiation sources that travel not only faster than light, but are also subject to acceleration, possess a two-sheeted envelope and a cusp - a region of intense concentration of energy. Moreover, careful analysis of the relationship between emission and observation time reveals that this need not be monotonic and one-to-one, as multiple retarded times - or even extended periods of source time - can contribute to a single instant of reception. To introduce amplitude in addition to phase information, we derive and numerically evaluate the correct formulae for the Liénard-Wiechert potentials and fields excited by a point charge travelling arbitrarily fast along a given trajectory. Finally, we compare these findings to the radiation emitted by pulsars and find that virtually all of the enigmatic features of pulsar radiation - the polarization properties, image structure, apparent radiation temperature and peak spectral frequencies - can be explained using a single, elegant model with few input parameters and no external assumptions.

  13. On MHD rotational transport, instabilities and dynamo action in stellar radiation zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, Stéphane; Brun, A.-S.; Zahn, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic field and their related dynamical effects are thought to be important in stellar radiation zones. For instance, it has been suggested that a dynamo, sustained by a m = 1 MHD instability of toroidal magnetic fields (discovered by Tayler in 1973), could lead to a strong transport of angular momentum and of chemicals in such stable regions. We wish here to recall the different magnetic transport processes present in radiative zone and show how the dynamo can operate by recalling the conditions required to close the dynamo loop (BPol → BTor → BPol). Helped by high-resolution 3D MHD simulations using the ASH code in the solar case, we confirm the existence of the m = 1 instability, study its non-linear saturation, but we do not detect, up to a magnetic Reylnods number of 105, any dynamo action.

  14. Framing the features of Brownian motion and thermophoresis on radiative nanofluid flow past a rotating stretching sheet with magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabood, F.; Ibrahim, S. M.; Khan, W. A.

    This article addresses the combined effects of chemical reaction and viscous dissipation on MHD radiative heat and mass transfer of nanofluid flow over a rotating stretching surface. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of the Brownian motion and thermophoresis in the presence of heat source. Similarity transformation variables have been used to model the governing equations of momentum, energy, and nanoparticles concentration. Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method with shooting technique is applied to solve the resulting coupled ordinary differential equations. Physical features for all pertinent parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient, and heat and mass transfer rates are analyzed graphically. The numerical comparison has also presented for skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number as a special case for our study. It is noted that fluid velocity enhances when rotational parameter is increased. Surface heat transfer rate enhances for larger values of Prandtl number and heat source parameter while mass transfer rate increases for larger values of chemical reaction parameter.

  15. Understanding the impact of model resolution on tropical cyclones in CAM5 using rotating radiative-convective equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Kevin; Chavas, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    In our continued effort to understand the climate system and improve its representation in general circulation models (GCMs) it is crucial to develop new methods to evaluate these models. This is certainly true as the GCM community advances towards high horizontal resolutions (i.e., grid spacing less than 0.5 degrees), which will require interpreting and improving the performance of many model components. Of specific interest is the simulation of tropical cyclones at these spatial scales. Idealized, or reduced complexity, frameworks can be used to investigate how model assumptions impact behavior across scales. Here we explore the implication of horizontal resolution on tropical cyclones in GCMs using an idealized global rotating radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE) configuration. The National Center for Atmospheric Research and U.S. Department of Energy supported Community Atmosphere Model 5 (CAM5) is configured for an ocean-covered earth with diurnally varying, spatially uniform insolation and spatially uniform rotation, a setup that permits the formation of tropical cyclones throughout the entire global domain. CAM5 is run with the spectral element dynamics package at two horizontal resolutions: a standard resolution of approximately 1 degree grid spacing and a high-resolution of approximately 0.25 degree grid spacing. In this unique testbed, the statistics of tropical cyclone intensity and outer size, as measured by the azimuthal-mean radius of 12 m/s, are analyzed under both configurations. Implications of the results for both model development and tropical cyclone physics are discussed.

  16. SU-E-T-335: Dosimetric Investigation of An Advanced Rotating Gamma Ray System for Imaged Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C; Eldib, A; Chibani, O; Li, J; Chen, L; Li, C; Mora, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Co-60 beams have unique dosimetric properties for cranial treatments and thoracic cancers. The conventional concern about the high surface dose is overcome by modern system designs with rotational treatment techniques. This work investigates a novel rotational Gamma ray system for image-guided, external beam radiotherapy. Methods: The CybeRT system (Cyber Medical Corp., China) consists of a ring gantry with either one or two treatment heads containing a Gamma source and a multileaf collimator (MLC). The MLC has 60 paired leaves, and the maximum field size is either 40cmx40cm (40 pairs of 0.5cm central leaves, 20 pairs of 1cm outer leaves), or 22cmx40cm (32 pairs of 0.25cm central leaves, 28 pairs of 0.5cm outer leaves). The treatment head(s) can swing 35° superiorly and 8° inferiorly, allowing a total of 43° non-coplanar beam incident. The treatment couch provides 6-degrees-of-freedom motion compensation and the kV cone-beam CT system has a spatial resolution of 0.4mm. Monte Carlo simulations were used to compute dose distributions and compare with measurements. A retrospective study of 98 previously treated patients was performed to compare CybeRT with existing RT systems. Results: Monte Carlo results confirmed the CybeRT design parameters including output factors and 3D dose distributions. Its beam penumbra/dose gradient was similar to or better than that of 6MV photon beams and its isocenter accuracy is 0.3mm. Co-60 beams produce lower-energy secondary electrons that exhibit better dose properties in low-density lung tissues. Because of their rapid depth dose falloff, Co-60 beams are favorable for peripheral lung tumors with half-arc arrangements to spare the opposite lung and critical structures. Superior dose distributions were obtained for head and neck, breast, spine and lung tumors. Conclusion: Because of its accurate dose delivery and unique dosimetric properties of C-60 sources, CybeRT is ideally suited for advanced SBRT as well as

  17. A retrospective planning analysis comparing intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using two optimization algorithms for the treatment of early-stage prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Elith, Craig A; Dempsey, Shane E; Warren-Forward, Helen M

    2013-09-15

    The primary aim of this study is to compare intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for the radical treatment of prostate cancer using version 10.0 (v10.0) of Varian Medical Systems, RapidArc radiation oncology system. Particular focus was placed on plan quality and the implications on departmental resources. The secondary objective was to compare the results in v10.0 to the preceding version 8.6 (v8.6). Twenty prostate cancer cases were retrospectively planned using v10.0 of Varian's Eclipse and RapidArc software. Three planning techniques were performed: a 5-field IMRT, VMAT using one arc (VMAT-1A), and VMAT with two arcs (VMAT-2A). Plan quality was assessed by examining homogeneity, conformity, the number of monitor units (MUs) utilized, and dose to the organs at risk (OAR). Resource implications were assessed by examining planning and treatment times. The results obtained using v10.0 were also compared to those previously reported by our group for v8.6. In v10.0, each technique was able to produce a dose distribution that achieved the departmental planning guidelines. The IMRT plans were produced faster than VMAT plans and displayed improved homogeneity. The VMAT plans provided better conformity to the target volume, improved dose to the OAR, and required fewer MUs. Treatments using VMAT-1A were significantly faster than both IMRT and VMAT-2A. Comparison between versions 8.6 and 10.0 revealed that in the newer version, VMAT planning was significantly faster and the quality of the VMAT dose distributions produced were of a better quality. VMAT (v10.0) using one or two arcs provides an acceptable alternative to IMRT for the treatment of prostate cancer. VMAT-1A has the greatest impact on reducing treatment time.

  18. Dual-Gated Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fahimian, Benjamin; Wu, Junqing; Wu, Huanmei; Geneser, Sarah; Xing, Lei

    2014-09-25

    Gated Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is an emerging radiation therapy modality for treatment of tumors affected by respiratory motion. However, gating significantly prolongs the treatment time, as delivery is only activated during a single respiratory phase. To enhance the efficiency of gated VMAT delivery, a novel dual-gated VMAT (DG-VMAT) technique, in which delivery is executed at both exhale and inhale phases in a given arc rotation, is developed and experimentally evaluated. Arc delivery at two phases is realized by sequentially interleaving control points consisting of MUs, MLC sequences, and angles of VMAT plans generated at the exhale and inhale phases. Dual-gated delivery is initiated when a respiration gating signal enters the exhale window; when the exhale delivery concludes, the beam turns off and the gantry rolls back to the starting position for the inhale window. The process is then repeated until both inhale and exhale arcs are fully delivered. DG-VMAT plan delivery accuracy was assessed using a pinpoint chamber and diode array phantom undergoing programmed motion. DG-VMAT delivery was experimentally implemented through custom XML scripting in Varian's TrueBeam™ STx Developer Mode. Relative to single gated delivery at exhale, the treatment time was improved by 95.5% for a sinusoidal breathing pattern. The pinpoint chamber dose measurement agreed with the calculated dose within 0.7%. For the DG-VMAT delivery, 97.5% of the diode array measurements passed the 3%/3 mm gamma criterion. The feasibility of DG-VMAT delivery scheme has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. By leveraging the stability and natural pauses that occur at end-inspiration and end-exhalation, DG-VMAT provides a practical method for enhancing gated delivery efficiency by up to a factor of two.

  19. 21 cm maps of Jupiter's radiation belts from all rotational aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pater, I.

    1980-01-01

    Two-dimensional maps of the radio emission from Jupiter were made in December 1977 at a frequency of 1,412 MHz using the Westerbork telescope. Pictures in all four Stokes parameters have been obtained every 15 deg in longitude, each smeared over 15 deg of the planet's rotation. The maps have an E-W resolution of about 1/3 of the diameter of the disk and a N-S resolution 3 times less. The total intensity and linear polarization maps are accurate to 0.5% and the circularly polarized maps to 0.1% of the maximum intensities in I. The whole set of maps clearly shows the existence of higher order terms in the magnetic field of Jupiter.

  20. Technical progress report: Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of atmospheric radiation measurement spectral shortwave data

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.

    1996-04-01

    Our goal in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the improvement of radiation models used in general circulation models (GCMs), especially in the shortwave, (1) by providing improved shortwave radiometric measurements for the testing of models and (2) by developing methods for retrieving climatologically sensitive parameters that serve as input to shortwave and longwave models. At the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) in Albany, New York, we are acquiring downwelling direct and diffuse spectral irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling broadband longwave, and upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave irradiances that we combine with National Weather Service surface and upper air data from the Albany airport as a test data set for ARM modelers. We have also developed algorithms to improve shortwave measurements made at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site by standard thermopile instruments and by the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) based on these Albany data sets. Much time has been spent developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from the direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had success in calculating shortwave surface albedo and aerosol optical depth from the ratio of direct to diffuse spectral reflectance.

  1. Similarity solution for a cylindrical shock wave in a rotational axisymmetric dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, J. P.; Nath, G.

    2012-01-01

    The propagation of shock waves in a rotational axisymmetric dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux, which has a variable azimuthally fluid velocity together with a variable axial fluid velocity, is investigated. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-condition is maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston (or inner expanding surface). The fluid velocities in the ambient medium are assume to be vary and obey power laws. The density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant, the heat conduction is express in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. In order to obtain the similarity solutions the angular velocity of the ambient medium is assume to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. The effects of the variation of the heat transfer parameter and non-idealness of the gas in the mixture are investigated. The effects of an increase in (i) the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and (ii) the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas on the flow variables are also investigated.

  2. Propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a rotating dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, J. P.; Nath, G.

    2010-04-01

    A self-similar solution for the propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux, which is rotating about the axis of symmetry, is investigated. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a piston (an inner expanding surface) and the dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles. The density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and radiation is considered to be of diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. Similarity solutions are obtained, and the effects of variation of the parameter of non-idealness of the gas in the mixture, the mass concentration of solid particles and the ratio of density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas are investigated.

  3. Spectral and polarization characteristics of the nonspherically decaying radiation generated by polarization currents with superluminally rotating distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Ardavan, Houshang; Ardavan, Arzhang; Singleton, John

    2004-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of the emission from a superluminal polarization current whose distribution pattern rotates (with an angular frequency omega) and oscillates (with a frequency Omega) at the same time and that comprises both poloidal and toroidal components. This type of polarization current is found in recent practical machines designed to investigate superluminal emission. We find that the superluminal motion of the distribution pattern of the emitting current generates localized electromagnetic waves that do not decay spherically, i.e., that do not have an intensity diminishing as RP(-2) with the distance RP from their source. The nonspherical decay of the focused wave packets that are emitted by the polarization currents does not contravene conservation of energy: The constructive interference of the constituent waves of such propagating caustics takes place within different solid angles on spheres of different radii (RP) centered on the source. For a polarization current whose longitudinal distribution (over an azimuthal interval of length 2pi) consists of m cycles of a sinusoidal wave train, the nonspherically decaying part of the emitted radiation contains the frequencies Omega +/- momega; i.e., it contains only the frequencies involved in the creation and implementation of the source. This is in contrast to recent studies of the spherically decaying emission, which was shown to contain much higher frequencies. The polarization of the emitted radiation is found to be linear for most configurations of the source.

  4. Astrophysical Jets with Conical Wire Arrays: Radiative Cooling, Rotation and Deflection

    SciTech Connect

    Ampleford, D. J.; Jennings, C. A.; Lebedev, S. V.; Bland, S. N.; Hall, G. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Palmer, J. B. A.; Chittenden, J. P.; Ciardi, A.; Bott, S. C.

    2009-01-21

    Highly collimated outflows or jets are produced by a number of astrophysical objects including protostars. The morphology and collimation of these jets is thought to be strongly influenced by the effects of radiative cooling, angular momentum and the interstellar medium surrounding the jet. Astrophysically relevant experiments are performed with conical wire array z-pinches investigating each of these effects. It is possible in each case to enter the appropriate parameter regime, leading the way towards future experiments where these different techniques can be more fully combined.

  5. GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION FROM HYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE IN A DIFFERENTIALLY ROTATING NEUTRON STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Melatos, A.; Peralta, C.

    2010-01-20

    The mean-square current quadrupole moment associated with vorticity fluctuations in high-Reynolds-number turbulence in a differentially rotating neutron star is calculated analytically, as are the amplitude and decoherence time of the resulting, stochastic gravitational wave signal. The calculation resolves the subtle question of whether the signal is dominated by the smallest or largest turbulent eddies: for the Kolmogorov-like power spectrum observed in superfluid spherical Couette simulations, the wave strain is controlled by the largest eddies, and the decoherence time approximately equals the maximum eddy turnover time. For a neutron star with spin frequency nu{sub s} and Rossby number Ro, at a distance d from Earth, the root mean square wave strain reaches h{sub rms} approx 3 x 10{sup -24} Ro{sup 3}(nu{sub s}/30 Hz){sup 3}(d/1 kpc){sup -1}. Ordinary rotation-powered pulsars (nu{sub s} approx< 30 Hz, Ro approx< 10{sup -4}) are too dim to be detected by the current generation of long-baseline interferometers. Millisecond pulsars are brighter; for example, an object born recently in a Galactic supernova or accreting near the Eddington rate can have nu{sub s} approx 1 kHz, Ro approx> 0.2, and hence h{sub rms} approx 10{sup -21}. A cross-correlation search can detect such a source in principle, because the signal decoheres over the timescale tau{sub c} approx 1 x 10{sup -3} Ro{sup -1}(nu{sub s}/30 Hz){sup -1} s, which is adequately sampled by existing long-baseline interferometers. Hence, hydrodynamic turbulence imposes a fundamental noise floor on gravitational wave observations of neutron stars, although its polluting effect may be muted by partial decoherence in the hectohertz band, where current continuous-wave searches are concentrated, for the highest frequency (and hence most powerful) sources. This outcome is contingent on the exact shape of the turbulent power spectrum, which is modified by buoyancy and anisotropic global structures, such as stratified

  6. Arc-based smoothing of ion beam intensity on targets

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-15

    By manipulating a set of ion beams upstream of a target, it is possible to arrange for a smoother deposition pattern, so as to achieve more uniform illumination of the target. A uniform energy deposition pattern is important for applications including ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion energy ('heavy-ion fusion'). Here, we consider an approach to such smoothing that is based on rapidly 'wobbling' each of the beams back and forth along a short arc-shaped path, via oscillating fields applied upstream of the final pulse compression. In this technique, uniformity is achieved in the time-averaged sense; this is sufficient provided the beam oscillation timescale is short relative to the hydrodynamic timescale of the target implosion. This work builds on two earlier concepts: elliptical beams applied to a distributed-radiator target [D. A. Callahan and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)] and beams that are wobbled so as to trace a number of full rotations around a circular or elliptical path [R. C. Arnold et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 199, 557 (1982)]. Here, we describe the arc-based smoothing approach and compare it to results obtainable using an elliptical-beam prescription. In particular, we assess the potential of these approaches for minimization of azimuthal asymmetry, for the case of a ring of beams arranged on a cone. It is found that, for small numbers of beams on the ring, the arc-based smoothing approach offers superior uniformity. In contrast with the full-rotation approach, arc-based smoothing remains usable when the geometry precludes wobbling the beams around a full circle, e.g., for the X-target [E. Henestroza, B. G. Logan, and L. J. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)] and some classes of distributed-radiator targets.

  7. Arc-based smoothing of ion beam intensity on targets

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-20

    Manipulating a set of ion beams upstream of a target, makes it possible to arrange a smoother deposition pattern, so as to achieve more uniform illumination of the target. A uniform energy deposition pattern is important for applications including ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion energy (“heavy-ion fusion”). Here, we consider an approach to such smoothing that is based on rapidly “wobbling” each of the beams back and forth along a short arc-shaped path, via oscillating fields applied upstream of the final pulse compression. In this technique, uniformity is achieved in the time-averaged sense; this is sufficient provided the beam oscillation timescale is short relative to the hydrodynamic timescale of the target implosion. This work builds on two earlier concepts: elliptical beams applied to a distributed-radiator target [D. A. Callahan and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)] and beams that are wobbled so as to trace a number of full rotations around a circular or elliptical path [R. C. Arnold et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 199, 557 (1982)]. Here, we describe the arc-based smoothing approach and compare it to results obtainable using an elliptical-beam prescription. In particular, we assess the potential of these approaches for minimization of azimuthal asymmetry, for the case of a ring of beams arranged on a cone. We also found that, for small numbers of beams on the ring, the arc-based smoothing approach offers superior uniformity. In contrast with the full-rotation approach, arc-based smoothing remains usable when the geometry precludes wobbling the beams around a full circle, e.g., for the X-target [E. Henestroza, B. G. Logan, and L. J. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)] and some classes of distributed-radiator targets.

  8. Arc-based smoothing of ion beam intensity on targets

    DOE PAGES

    Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-20

    Manipulating a set of ion beams upstream of a target, makes it possible to arrange a smoother deposition pattern, so as to achieve more uniform illumination of the target. A uniform energy deposition pattern is important for applications including ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion energy (“heavy-ion fusion”). Here, we consider an approach to such smoothing that is based on rapidly “wobbling” each of the beams back and forth along a short arc-shaped path, via oscillating fields applied upstream of the final pulse compression. In this technique, uniformity is achieved in the time-averaged sense; this ismore » sufficient provided the beam oscillation timescale is short relative to the hydrodynamic timescale of the target implosion. This work builds on two earlier concepts: elliptical beams applied to a distributed-radiator target [D. A. Callahan and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)] and beams that are wobbled so as to trace a number of full rotations around a circular or elliptical path [R. C. Arnold et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 199, 557 (1982)]. Here, we describe the arc-based smoothing approach and compare it to results obtainable using an elliptical-beam prescription. In particular, we assess the potential of these approaches for minimization of azimuthal asymmetry, for the case of a ring of beams arranged on a cone. We also found that, for small numbers of beams on the ring, the arc-based smoothing approach offers superior uniformity. In contrast with the full-rotation approach, arc-based smoothing remains usable when the geometry precludes wobbling the beams around a full circle, e.g., for the X-target [E. Henestroza, B. G. Logan, and L. J. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)] and some classes of distributed-radiator targets.« less

  9. Elements of arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This paper looks at the following arc welding techniques: (1) shielded metal-arc welding; (2) submerged-arc welding; (3) gas metal-arc welding; (4) flux-cored arc welding; (5) electrogas welding; (6) gas tungsten-arc welding; and (7) plasma-arc welding.

  10. Rotation-Vibration Spectra of Malonaldehyde Obtained with Far-Infrared Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokaryk, D. W.; Ross, S. C.; Forthomme, D.; Prescott, J. E.; Yamada, K. M. T.; Ito, F.

    2011-06-01

    Malonaldehyde is an open 5-membered ring molecule which exhibits interesting quantum-mechancial effects due to tunnelling of one of its protons. This results in a 21 Cm-1 tunnelling-splitting in the ground vibrational state, which has been well-studied by microwave spectroscopy. We have taken far-infrared Fourier transform spectra of malonaldehyde at the Canadian Light Source synchrotron, and have recorded a number of rotation-vibration fundamental bands between 100-1000 Cm-1 at 0.00096 Cm-1 resolution. The data permit us to determine with high precision the changes in the tunnelling-splitting induced by vibrational excitation. We have also observed spectra at 240 and 219 Cm-1 that appear to be transitions from the two components of the ground vibrational state to a common upper state that is not mentioned in conventional vibrational analyses of malonaldehyde. We will offer suggestions as to the nature of the newly-observed state. P. Turner, S. L. Baughcum, S. L. Coy and Z. Smith, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106 (1984) 2265-2267 T. Baba, T. Tanaka, I. Morino, K. M. T. Yamada and K. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 110 (1999) 4131-4133. A. Alparone and S. Millefiori, Chem. Phys. 290 (2003) 15-25.

  11. Volumetric-modulated Arc Therapy Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Dosimetric Quality Assurance: A Comparison between Radiochromic Film and Chamber Array

    PubMed Central

    Colodro, Juan Fernando Mata; Berná, Alfredo Serna; Puchades, Vicente Puchades; Amores, David Ramos; Baños, Miguel Alcaraz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this work is to verify the use of radiochromic film in the quality assurance (QA) of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) plans and compare the results with those obtained using an ion chamber array. Materials and Methods: QA was performed for 14 plans using a two-dimensional-array seven29 and EBT3 film. Dose values per session ranged between 7.5 Gy and 18 Gy. The multichannel method was used to obtain a dose map for film. Results: The results obtained were compared with treatment planning system calculated profiles through gamma analysis. Passing criteria were 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm and 3%/1.5 mm with maximum and local dose (LD) normalization. Mean gamma passing rate (GPR) (percentage of points presenting a gamma function value of <1) was obtained and compared. Calibration curves were obtained for each color channel within the dose range 0–16 Gy. Mean GPR values for film were >98.9% for all criteria when normalizing per maximum dose. When using LD, normalization was >92.7%. GPR values for the array were lower for all criteria; this difference being statistically significant when normalizing at LD, reaching 12% for the 3%/1.5 mm criterion. Conclusion: Both detectors provide satisfactory results for the QA of plans for VMAT lung SBRT. The film provided greater mean GPR values, afforded greater spatial resolution and was more efficient overall. PMID:28974858

  12. Treatment plan comparison between stereotactic body radiation therapy techniques for prostate cancer: non-isocentric CyberKnife versus isocentric RapidArc.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kuei-Hua; Ho, Hsiu-Wen; Lin, Hsiu-Man; Lin, Li-Ching; Lee, Steve P; Chui, Chen-Shou

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and dose distribution of two different stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) techniques, isocentric RapidArc (RA) and non-isocentric CyberKnife (CK), for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Two groups of patients (Groups 1 and 2 with ten patients per group) treated with CK were re-planned with RA. The patients were grouped according to the rectum constraint used (Group1, maximum dose for rectum; Group 2, dose-volume histogram for rectum). The prescription dose was 37.5 Gy in five fractions. The two SBRT techniques were compared by target coverage, normal tissue sparing, and dose distribution parameters. Monitor units (MUs) and the delivery time were likewise compared to assess delivery efficiency. The RA plans consistently exhibited superior PTV coverage and better rectum sparing at low doses in the both groups. The conformity and heterogeneity indices of the RA plans were better than the CK plans. Additionally, the RA plans resulted in fewer low-dose regions, lower MUs, and faster delivery times than the CK plans. The good dosimetric distribution and shorter delivery time make RA an attractive SBRT technique for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EXTREMAL ENERGY SHIFTS OF RADIATION FROM A RING NEAR A ROTATING BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, VladimIr; Sochora, Vjaceslav

    2010-12-20

    Radiation from a narrow circular ring shows a characteristic double-horn profile dominated by photons having energy around the maximum or minimum of the allowed range, i.e., near the extremal values of the energy shift. The energy span of a spectral line is a function of the ring radius, black hole spin, and observer's viewing angle. We describe a useful approach to calculate the extremal energy shifts in the regime of strong gravity. Then we consider an accretion disk consisting of a number of separate nested annuli in the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole, above the innermost stable circular orbit. We suggest that the radial structure of the disk emission could be reconstructed using the extremal energy shifts of the individual rings deduced from the broad wings of a relativistic spectral line.

  14. The radiation-induced rotation of cosmic dust particles: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misconi, N. Y.; Ratcliff, K. F.

    1981-01-01

    A crossed beam, horizontal optical trap, used to achieve laser levitation of particles in an effort to determine how solar radiation produces high spin rate in interplanetary dust particles, is described. It is suggested that random variations in albedo and geometry give rise to a nonzero effective torque when the influence of a unidrectional source of radiaton (due to the Sun) over the surface of a interplanetary dust particle is averaged. This resultant nonzero torque is characterized by an asymmetry factor which is the ratio of the effective moment arm to the maximum linear dimension of the body and is estimated to be 5 X 10 to the minus four power. It is hoped that this symmetry factor, which stabilizes the nonstatistical response of the particle, can be measured in a future Spacelab experiment.

  15. The effect on radiated noise of non-zero propeller rotational plane attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzynski, W. M.

    1986-07-01

    Subsequent to CAEP's decision to introduce a new noise certification procedure, a joint attempt was made by the FAA and DFVLR to quantitatively determine the influence of a nonzero propeller-disk attitude on the resulting noise; tests were conducted with the German Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) in its aeroacoustic mode. It was found that the effect of propeller disk-plane attitude on maximum overall A-weighted noise levels can be related to a steady-state Mach number effect for the propeller operating at subsonic helical blade-tip (HBT) Mach-numbers exceeding a value of 0.7. For HBT Mach-numbers significantly below 0.7, additional noise radiation due to the unsteady flow properties within one propeller revolution dominate the overall A-weighted noise levels.

  16. Energy balance in MIG arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnick, M.; Hertel, M.; Fuessel, U.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies of metal inert gas (MIG) processes by spectroscopy and fluid simulations have shown that metal evaporation causes a specific spatial structure of the arc, and among others a minimum of plasma temperature at the arc centre. Changes in the arc structure and in the heat transfer to the material are closely connected with the arc energy balance; its detailed analysis has not been carried out so far under the specific impact of metal vapour. In this paper, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of an MIG arc in argon including iron evaporation at the wire tip are considered. The main terms in the energy balance are discussed focusing on a comparison of the arc regions with and without metal vapour. In addition, a simple approach of the energy balance at a cross section of the MIG arc is proposed where all details of the heat transport are neglected. The MHD model and the simplified approach are in good agreement and clearly demonstrate that the specific structure in an MIG arc is mainly caused by the different temperature dependence of the plasma radiation and the electrical conductivity in argon or in argon mixtures with iron vapour.

  17. Radiative lifetimes and quenching rate coefficients for directly excited rotational levels of OH/A 2Sigma +, v-prime = 0/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermid, I. S.; Laudenslager, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A narrow-bandwidth pulsed dye laser was used to excite OH X 2Pi i radicals to the A 2Sigma(+) state by pumping in the (0, 0) vibrational band around 308 nm. The radiative lifetimes of specific (K-prime, J-prime) rotational levels in v-prime = 0 were measured at low pressures (not greater than 1 mtorr), which yielded a mean lifetime of 0.71 + or - 0.009 microsec (2 sigma). Electronic quenching rate constants for N2, O2, H2O, and H2 were measured for a range of initially excited rotational levels. A strong dependence of this rate constant on the initially excited rotational level was found for N2, and less markedly for O2, with the rate constant tending to increase for the lowest rotational levels K-prime not greater than 3. The implications of these results for the laser-induced fluorescence detection of atmospheric OH are discussed.

  18. THE RADIATIVE X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY EFFICIENCIES OF ROTATION-POWERED PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Vink, Jacco; Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2011-02-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the X-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars and their surrounding nebulae using the sample of Kargaltsev and Pavlov, and we complement this with an analysis of the {gamma}-ray emission of Fermi-detected pulsars. We report a strong trend in the efficiency with which spin-down power is converted to X-ray and {gamma}-ray emission with characteristic age: young pulsars and their surrounding nebulae are efficient X-ray emitters, whereas in contrast old pulsars are efficient {gamma}-ray emitters. We divided the X-ray sample in a young ({tau}{sub c} < 1.7 x 10{sup 4} yr) and old sample and used linear regression to search for correlations between the logarithm of the X-ray and {gamma}-ray luminosities and the logarithms of the periods and period derivatives. The X-ray emission from young pulsars and their nebulae are both consistent with L{sub X}{proportional_to} P-dot{sup 3}/P{sup 6}. For old pulsars and their nebulae the X-ray luminosity is consistent with a more or less constant efficiency {eta}{identical_to}L{sub X}/ E-dot{sub rot}{approx}8x10{sup -5}. For the {gamma}-ray luminosity we confirm that L{sub {gamma}} {proportional_to} {radical}E-dot{sub rot}. We discuss these findings in the context of pair production inside pulsar magnetospheres and the striped wind model. We suggest that the striped wind model may explain the similarity between the X-ray properties of the pulsar wind nebulae and the pulsars themselves, which according to the striped wind model may both find their origin outside the light cylinder, in the pulsar wind zone.

  19. The Radiative X-ray and Gamma-ray Efficiencies of Rotation-powered Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Jacco; Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2011-02-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the X-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars and their surrounding nebulae using the sample of Kargaltsev & Pavlov, and we complement this with an analysis of the γ-ray emission of Fermi-detected pulsars. We report a strong trend in the efficiency with which spin-down power is converted to X-ray and γ-ray emission with characteristic age: young pulsars and their surrounding nebulae are efficient X-ray emitters, whereas in contrast old pulsars are efficient γ-ray emitters. We divided the X-ray sample in a young (τ c < 1.7 × 104 yr) and old sample and used linear regression to search for correlations between the logarithm of the X-ray and γ-ray luminosities and the logarithms of the periods and period derivatives. The X-ray emission from young pulsars and their nebulae are both consistent with L_X ∝ \\dot{P}^3/P^6. For old pulsars and their nebulae the X-ray luminosity is consistent with a more or less constant efficiency η ≡ L_X/\\dot{E}_{rot} ≈ 8× 10^{-5}. For the γ-ray luminosity we confirm that L_γ ∝ √{\\dot{E}_{rot}}. We discuss these findings in the context of pair production inside pulsar magnetospheres and the striped wind model. We suggest that the striped wind model may explain the similarity between the X-ray properties of the pulsar wind nebulae and the pulsars themselves, which according to the striped wind model may both find their origin outside the light cylinder, in the pulsar wind zone.

  20. A Dosimetric Comparison of Tomotherapy and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in the Treatment of High-Risk Prostate Cancer With Pelvic Nodal Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquier, David; Cavillon, Fabrice; Lacornerie, Thomas; Touzeau, Claire; Tresch, Emmanuelle; Lartigau, Eric

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric results of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and helical tomotherapy (HT) in the treatment of high-risk prostate cancer with pelvic nodal radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Plans were generated for 10 consecutive patients treated for high-risk prostate cancer with prophylactic whole pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT) using VMAT and HT. After WPRT, a sequential boost was delivered to the prostate. Plan quality was assessed according to the criteria of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements 83 report: the near-minimal (D98%), near-maximal (D2%), and median (D50%) doses; the homogeneity index (HI); and the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Beam-on time, integral dose, and several organs at risk (OAR) dosimetric indexes were also compared. Results: For WPRT, HT was able to provide a higher D98% than VMAT (44.3 {+-} 0.3 Gy and 43.9 {+-} 0.5 Gy, respectively; P=.032) and a lower D2% than VMAT (47.3 {+-} 0.3 Gy and 49.1 {+-} 0.7 Gy, respectively; P=.005), leading to a better HI. The DSC was better for WPRT with HT (0.89 {+-} 0.009) than with VMAT (0.80 {+-} 0.02; P=.002). The dosimetric indexes for the prostate boost did not differ significantly. VMAT provided better rectum wall sparing at higher doses (V70, V75, D2%). Conversely, HT provided better bladder wall sparing (V50, V60, V70), except at lower doses (V20). The beam-on times for WPRT and prostate boost were shorter with VMAT than with HT (3.1 {+-} 0.1 vs 7.4 {+-} 0.6 min, respectively; P=.002, and 1.5 {+-} 0.05 vs 3.7 {+-} 0.3 min, respectively; P=.002). The integral dose was slightly lower for VMAT. Conclusion: VMAT and HT provided very similar and highly conformal plans that complied well with OAR dose-volume constraints. Although some dosimetric differences were statistically significant, they remained small. HT provided a more homogeneous dose distribution, whereas VMAT enabled a shorter delivery time.

  1. SU-E-T-338: Dosimetric Study of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) in Early Stage Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I; Quinn, K; Seebach, A; Wang, H; Yah, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study evaluates the dosimetric differences using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in patients previously treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy IMRT for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in early stage lung cancer. Methods: We evaluated 9 consecutive medically inoperable lung cancer patients at the start of the SBRT program who were treated with IMRT from November 2010 to October 2011. These patients were treated using 6 MV energy. The 9 cases were then re-planned with VMAT performed with arc therapy using 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) energy with the same organs at risk (OARS) constraints. Data collected for the treatment plans included target coverage, beam on time, dose to OARS and gamma pass rate. Results: Five patients were T1N0 and four patients were T2N0 with all tumors less than 5 cm. The average GTV was 13.02 cm3 (0.83–40.87) and average PTV was 44.65 cm3 (14.06–118.08). The IMRT plans had a mean of 7.2 angles (6–9) and 5.4 minutes (3.6–11.1) per plan. The VMAT plans had a mean of 2.8 arcs (2–3) and 4.0 minutes (2.2–6.0) per plan. VMAT had slightly more target coverage than IMRT with average increase in D95 of 2.68% (1.24–5.73) and D99 of 3.65% (0.88–8.77). VMAT produced lower doses to all OARs. The largest reductions were in maximum doses to the spinal cord with an average reduction of 24.1%, esophagus with an average reduction of 22.1%, and lung with an average reduction in the V20 of 16.3% The mean gamma pass rate was 99.8% (99.2–100) at 3 mm and 3% for VMAT with comparable values for IMRT. Conclusion: These findings suggest that using VMAT for SBRT in early stage lung cancer is superior to IMRT in terms of dose coverage, OAR dose and a lower treatment delivery time with a similar gamma pass rate.

  2. Self-similar Solution of a Cylindrical Shock Wave under the Action of Monochromatic Radiation in a Rotational Axisymmetric Dusty Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, G.; Sahu, P. K.

    2017-03-01

    A self-similar flow behind a cylindrical shock wave is studied under the action of monochromatic radiation in a rotational axisymmetric dusty gas. The dusty gas is taken to be a mixture of small solid particles and perfect gas, and solid particles are continuously distributed in the mixture. The similarity solutions are obtained and the effects of the variation of the radiation parameter, the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas, the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and the index for the time dependent energy law are investigated. It is observed that an increase in the radiation parameter has decaying effect on the shock waves; whereas the shock strength increases with an increase in the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas or the index for the time dependent energy law. Also, it is found that an increase in the radiation parameter has effect to decrease the flow variables except the density and the azimuthal component of fluid velocity. A comparison is also made between rotating and non-rotating cases.

  3. Statistical quality control for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery by using the machine's log data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Me-Yeon; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Park, Soah; Hwang, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Han, Tae Jin; Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to set up statistical quality control for monitoring the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery error by using the machine's log data. Eclipse and a Clinac iX linac with the RapidArc system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) are used for delivery of the VMAT plan. During the delivery of the RapidArc fields, the machine determines the delivered monitor units (MUs) and the gantry angle's position accuracy and the standard deviations of the MU ( σMU: dosimetric error) and the gantry angle ( σGA: geometric error) are displayed on the console monitor after completion of the RapidArc delivery. In the present study, first, the log data were analyzed to confirm its validity and usability; then, statistical process control (SPC) was applied to monitor the σMU and the σGA in a timely manner for all RapidArc fields: a total of 195 arc fields for 99 patients. The MU and the GA were determined twice for all fields, that is, first during the patient-specific plan QA and then again during the first treatment. The sMU and the σGA time series were quite stable irrespective of the treatment site; however, the sGA strongly depended on the gantry's rotation speed. The σGA of the RapidArc delivery for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was smaller than that for the typical VMAT. Therefore, SPC was applied for SBRT cases and general cases respectively. Moreover, the accuracy of the potential meter of the gantry rotation is important because the σGA can change dramatically due to its condition. By applying SPC to the σMU and σGA, we could monitor the delivery error efficiently. However, the upper and the lower limits of SPC need to be determined carefully with full knowledge of the machine and log data.

  4. A comparison of treatment plan quality between Tri-Co-60 intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-In; Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Choi, Chang Heon

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the plan quality of tri-Co-60 intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for cervical cancer. A total of 20 patients who received postoperative radiotherapy for cervical cancer were selected. For each patient, a tri-Co-60 IMRT plan for which the target volume was the planning target volume (PTV) generated by adding 1mm isotropic margins from the clinical target volume (CTV) and a VMAT plan for which the target volume was the PTV generated by adding 7mm and 10mm margins from the CTV were generated. The tri-Co-60 IMRT plans were generated with the ViewRay™ system while the VMAT plans were generated with 15-MV photon beams from a linear accelerator (prescription dose=50.4Gy in 28 fractions). The average volumes of the PTVs and CTVs were 704.9cc±87.8cc and 271.6cc±51.6cc, respectively. No noticeable differences in the dose-volumetric parameters for the target volumes were observed between the tri-Co-60 IMRT and VMAT plans. The values of V40Gy for the small bowel and rectal wall, V45Gy of the bladder, and V35Gy of the femoral heads for the VMAT plans were 14.6%±7.8%, 54.4%±4.2%, 30.0%±4.7%, and 8.9%±3.3%, respectively. Those of the tri-Co-60 IMRT plans were 2.8%±2.1%, 23.0%±8.9%, 17.1%±6.1%, and 0.3%±0.4%, respectively. Owing to the target margin reduction capability, the tri-Co-60 IMRT plans were more favorable than the VMAT plans for cervical cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Which T Category of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma May Benefit Most from Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Compared with Step and Shoot Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wen-Jing; Tang, Ling-Long; Yu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Mo; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Meng-Zhong; Ma, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with conventional step and shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (s-IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, and identify which T category patient gains the maximum benefit from VMAT. Methods Fifty-two patients that randomly selected from 205 patients received VMAT at a single center were retrospectively replanned with s-IMRT. For a fair comparison, the planning target volume (PTV) coverage of the 2 plans was normalized to the same level. A standard planning constraint set was used; the constraints for the organs at risk (OARs) were individually adapted. The calculated doses to the PTV and OARs were compared for s-IMRT and VMAT plans generated using the Monaco treatment planning system. Results VMAT and s-IMRT plans had similar PTV coverage and OAR sparing within all T categories. However, in stratified analysis, VMAT plans lead to better or similar sparing of the OARs in early T category patients; and lead to poorer sparing of the OARs in advanced T category patients (P<0.05). VMAT shows significant advantages for low dose burden (P<0.05) compared with s-IMRT. The delivery time per fraction for VMAT (424±64 s) was shorter than s-IMRT (778 ± 126 s, p<0.01). Conclusions VMAT provides similar dose coverage of the PTVs and similar/better normal tissue sparing in early T category NPC, and poorer OARs sparing in advanced T category NPC. And VMAT shows significant advantages for low dose burden and delivery time. PMID:24086503

  6. Stability of Neptune's ring arcs in question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Christophe; Terrile, Richard J.; Smith, Bradford A.; Schneider, Glenn; Becklin, E. E.

    1999-08-01

    Although all four of the gas-giant planets in the Solar System have ring systems, only Neptune exhibits `ring arcs'-stable clumps of dust that are discontinuous from each other. Two basic mechanisms for confining the dust to these arcs have been proposed. The firstrelies on orbital resonances with two shepherding satellites, while the second invokes a single satellite (later suggested to be Galatea) to produce the observed ring arc structures. Here we report observations of the ring arcs and Galatea, which show that there isa mismatch between the locations of the arcs and the site of Galatea's co-rotation inclined resonance. This result calls into question Galatea's sole role in confining the arcs.

  7. A comparative planning study for lung SABR between tri-Co-60 magnetic resonance image guided radiation therapy system and volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Hak Jae; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Carlson, Joel; Kim, Jung-In

    2016-08-01

    To compare the plan quality of tri-(60)Co magnetic-resonance image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to that of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). A total of 22 patients with lung tumors located in the lower lobe were selected retrospectively. For each patient, VMAT plans with linac and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans with the tri-(60)Co system were generated with prescription doses of 60Gy (daily dose=15Gy). For both plan types, identical CT image sets and structures were used, with the exception of planning target volumes (PTV). The PTV for VMAT was generated from the internal target volume (ITV) while the PTV for the tri-(60)Co system was generated from the gross tumor volume (GTV). Clinically relevant dose-volumetric parameters were calculated and analyzed. The average PTV volumes of tri-(60)Co plans and VMAT plans were 10.5±12.3cc vs. 27.2±23.5cc, respectively (p<0.001). The maximum and mean doses to PTVs were 64.0±2.6Gy vs. 62.5±0.9Gy (p=0.005) and 61.4±1.7Gy vs. 60.0±0.5Gy (p<0.001), respectively. The conformity and homogeneity indices were 1.89±0.38 vs. 1.01±0.40 (p<0.001) and 0.06±0.02 vs. 0.04±0.00 (p<0.001), respectively. No considerable differences for organs at risk (OARs) were observed between tri-(60)Co plans and VMAT plans. In terms of target conformity, integral dose and lung mean dose, the plan quality of tri-(60)Co plans was inferior to that of VMAT plans when the PTV volumes of tri-(60)Co plans were less than 10cc. However, all treatment plans of tri-(60)Co system were clinically acceptable. For lung SABR, the quality of ITV-based VMAT plans was better than that of GTV-based tri-(60)Co plans especially when the PTV volumes of the tri-(60)Co plans were less than 10cc. If the breathing pattern of a patient is reproducible, VMAT is considered the optimal option for lung SABR, otherwise the tri-(60)Co IGRT should be considered due to the ability to monitor tumor

  8. Spectroscopic Diagnostics and an Arc Jet Heated Air Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Larry Howard, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Spectral radiation measurements were made in the range of 200 to 900 nm across a section of the plenum of an arc jet wind tunnel using a series of optical fibers. The spectra contained line radiation from Oxygen and Nitrogen atoms and molecular radiation from N2(+), N2, and NO. Abel inversion technique is used to obtain radial distribution of the spectra. The analysis yielded radial profiles of the electronic excitation, vibrational and rotational temperatures of the flow field. Spectral fitting yielded branching ratios for different vibrational and rotational bands. Relatively mild flow conditions, i.e. enthalpy and mass flow rate, were used for prolonged measurements of up to and over two hours to establish the best experimental methods of temperature determinations. Signal to noise was improved by at least an order of magnitude enabling the molecular vibrational band heads of N2(+) (first negative system), N2 (second positive system), and NO (beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon systems) to be resolved in the lower ultraviolet wavelength regions. The increased signal to noise ratio also enabled partial resolution of the rotational lines of N2(+) and N2 in certain regions of minimal overlap. Comparison of the spectra with theoretical models such as the NEQAIR2 code are presented and show potential for fitting the spectra when reliable calibration is performed for the complete wavelength range.

  9. Solar rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziembowski, W.

    Sunspot observations made by Johannes Hevelius in 1642 - 1644 are the first ones providing significant information about the solar differential rotation. In modern astronomy the determination of the rotation rate is done in a routine way by measuring positions of various structures on the solar surface as well as by studying the Doppler shifts of spectral lines. In recent years a progress in helioseismology enabled determination of the rotation rate in the layers inaccessible for direct observations. There are still uncertainties concerning, especially, the temporal variations of the rotation rate and its behaviour in the radiative interior. We are far from understanding the observations. Theoretical works have not yet resulted in a satisfactory model for the angular momentum transport in the convective zone.

  10. Effective radiation dose and eye lens dose in dental cone beam CT: effect of field of view and angle of rotation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, G; Theodorakou, C; Walker, A; Bosmans, H; Jacobs, R; Bogaerts, R; Horner, K

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the effect of field of view (FOV) and angle of rotation on radiation dose in dental cone beam CT (CBCT) and to define a preliminary volume–dose model. Methods: Organ and effective doses were estimated using 148 thermoluminescent dosemeters placed in an anthropomorphic phantom. Dose measurements were undertaken on a 3D Accuitomo 170 dental CBCT unit (J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan) using six FOVs as well as full-rotation (360°) and half-rotation (180°) protocols. Results: For the 360° rotation protocols, effective dose ranged between 54 µSv (4 × 4 cm, upper canine) and 303 µSv (17 × 12 cm, maxillofacial). An empirical relationship between FOV dimension and effective dose was derived. The use of a 180° rotation resulted in an average dose reduction of 45% compared with a 360° rotation. Eye lens doses ranged between 95 and 6861 µGy. Conclusion: Significant dose reduction can be achieved by reducing the FOV size, particularly the FOV height, of CBCT examinations to the actual region of interest. In some cases, a 180° rotation can be preferred, as it has the added value of reducing the scan time. Eye lens doses should be reduced by decreasing the height of the FOV rather than using inferior FOV positioning, as the latter would increase the effective dose considerably. Advances in knowledge: The effect of the FOV and rotation angle on the effective dose in dental CBCT was quantified. The dominant effect of FOV height was demonstrated. A preliminary model has been proposed, which could be used to predict effective dose as a function of FOV size and position. PMID:25189417

  11. Earth zonal harmonics from rapid numerical analysis of long satellite arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A zonal geopotential is presented to degree 21 from evaluation of mean elements for 21 satellites including 2 of low inclination. Each satellite is represented by an arc of at least one apsidal rotation. The lengths range from 200 to 800 days. Differential correction of the initial elements in all of the arcs, together with radiation pressure and atmospheric drag coefficients, was accomplished simultaneously with the correction for the zonal harmonics. The satellite orbits and their variations are generated by numerical integration of the Lagrange equations for mean elements. Disturbances due to precession and nutation of the earth's pole, atmospheric drag, radiation pressure and luni-solar gravity are added at from 1- to 8-day intervals in the integrated orbits. The results agree well with recent solutions from other authors using different methods and different satellite sets.

  12. Commissioning and quality assurance of Dynamic WaveArc irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Sayaka; Miyabe, Yuki; Takahashi, Kunio; Yamada, Masahiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Ishihara, Yoshitomo; Yokota, Kenji; Kaneko, Shuji; Mizowaki, Takashi; Monzen, Hajime; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2015-03-08

    A novel three-dimensional unicursal irradiation technique "Dynamic WaveArc" (DWA), which employs simultaneous and continuous gantry and O-ring rotation during dose delivery, has been implemented in Vero4DRT. The purposes of this study were to develop a commissioning and quality assurance procedure for DWA irradiation, and to assess the accuracy of the mechanical motion and dosimetric control of Vero4DRT. To determine the mechanical accuracy and the dose accuracy with DWA irradiation, 21 verification test patterns with various gantry and ring rotational directions and speeds were generated. These patterns were irradiated while recording the irradiation log data. The differences in gantry position, ring position, and accumulated MU (EG, ER, and EMU, respectively) between the planned and actual values in the log at each time point were evaluated. Furthermore, the doses delivered were measured using an ionization chamber and spherical phantom. The constancy of radiation output during DWA irradiation was examined by comparison with static beam irradiation. The mean absolute error (MAE) of EG and ER were within 0.1° and the maximum error was within 0.2°. The MAE of EMU was within 0.7 MU, and maximum error was 2.7 MU. Errors of accumulated MU were observed only around control points, changing gantry, and ring velocity. The gantry rotational range, in which EMU was greater than or equal to 2.0 MU, was not greater than 3.2%. It was confirmed that the extent of the large differences in accumulated MU was negligibly small during the entire irradiation range. The variation of relative output value for DWA irradiation was within 0.2%, and this was equivalent to conventional arc irradiation with a rotating gantry. In conclusion, a verification procedure for DWA irradiation was designed and implemented. The results demonstrated that Vero4DRT has adequate mechanical accuracy and beam output constancy during gantry and ring rotation.

  13. Aperture modulated arc therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooks, S. M.; Wu, Xiaodong; Takita, C.; Watzich, M.; Xing, Lei

    2003-05-01

    We show that it is possible to translate an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plan and deliver it as a single arc. This technique is referred to in this paper as aperture modulation arc therapy (AMAT). During this arc, the MLC leaves do not conform to the projection of the target PTV and the machine output of the accelerator has a constant value. Dose was calculated using the CORVUS 4.0 IMRT system, which uses a pencil beam dose algorithm, and treatments were delivered using a Varian 2100C/D Clinac. Results are presented for a head and neck and a prostate case, showing the equivalence of the IMRT and the translated AMAT delivery. For a prostate AMAT delivery, coronal plane film dose for the IMRT and AMAT deliveries agreed within 7.19 +/- 6.62%. For a meningioma the coronal plane dose distributions were similar to a value of 4.6 +/- 6.62%. Dose to the isocentre was measured as being within 2% of the planned value in both cases.

  14. CyberArc: a non-coplanar-arc optimization algorithm for CyberKnife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Vasant; Cheung, Joey P.; McGuinness, Christopher; Solberg, Timothy D.

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel non-coplanar-arc optimization algorithm (CyberArc). This method aims to reduce the delivery time of conventional CyberKnife treatments by allowing for continuous beam delivery. CyberArc uses a 4 step optimization strategy, in which nodes, beams, and collimator sizes are determined, source trajectories are calculated, intermediate radiation models are generated, and final monitor units are calculated, for the continuous radiation source model. The dosimetric results as well as the time reduction factors for CyberArc are presented for 7 prostate and 2 brain cases. The dosimetric quality of the CyberArc plans are evaluated using conformity index, heterogeneity index, local confined normalized-mutual-information, and various clinically relevant dosimetric parameters. The results indicate that the CyberArc algorithm dramatically reduces the treatment time of CyberKnife plans while simultaneously preserving the dosimetric quality of the original plans.

  15. SU-E-T-618: Plan Robustness Study of Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy Vs. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W; Patel, S; Shen, J; Harrington, D; Stoker, J; Ding, X; Hu, Y; Wong, W; Halyard, M; Schild, S; Ezzell, G; Bues, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Lack of plan robustness may contribute to local failure in volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to treat head and neck (H&N) cancer. Thus we compared plan robustness of VMAT with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: VMAT and IMRT plans were created for 9 H&N cancer patients. For each plan, six new perturbed dose distributions were computed — one each for ± 3mm setup deviations along the S-I, A-P and L-R directions. We used three robustness quantification tools: (1) worst-case analysis (WCA); (2) dose-volume histograms (DVHs) band (DVHB); and (3) root-mean-square-dose deviation (RMSD) volume histogram (DDVH). DDVH represents the relative volume (y) on the vertical axis and the RMSD (x) on the horizontal axis. Similar to DVH, this means that y% of the volume of the indicated structure has the RMSD at least x Gy[RBE].The width from the first two methods at different target DVH indices (such as D95 and D5) and the area under the DDVH curves (AUC) for the target were used to indicate plan robustness. In these robustness quantification tools, the smaller the value, the more robust the plan is. Plan robustness evaluation metrics were compared using Wilcoxon test. Results: DVHB showed the width at D95 from IMRT to be larger than from VMAT (unit Gy) [1.59 vs 1.18 (p=0.49)], while the width at D5 from IMRT was found to be slightly larger than from VMAT [0.59 vs 0.54 (p=0.84)]. WCA showed similar results [D95: 3.28 vs 3.00 (p=0.56); D5: 1.68 vs 1.95 (p=0.23)]. DDVH showed the AUC from IMRT to be slightly smaller than from VMAT [1.13 vs 1.15 (p=0.43)]. Conclusion: VMAT plan robustness is comparable to IMRT plan robustness. The plan robustness conclusions from WCA and DVHB are DVH parameter dependent. On the other hand DDVH captures the overall effect of uncertainties on the dose to a volume of interest. NIH/NCI K25CA168984; Eagles Cancer Research Career Development; The Lawrence W. and Marilyn W. Matteson Fund for Cancer Research Mayo ASU Seed

  16. Physical processes in gas-tungsten arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, G.N.; Farmer, A.J.D.; Kovitya, P.; Cram, L.E.

    1986-08-01

    Experiments designed to validate a two-dimensional theoretical model of a gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) arc are described. The predicted temperature distributions agree well with the measured values in the body of the arc. Agreement between theory and experiment near the electrodes has been improved by the new boundary conditions in the theory. Experimental determinations of the effects of gas flow rate, electrode stick-out distance, and nozzle diameter on the temperature of GTAW arcs are discussed. A theoretical investigation of an addition of 0.1-percent cerium to an argon arc shows that enhanced low-temperature conductivity and extra radiative cooling due to cerium can lead to marked changes in arc properties.

  17. Magnetogasdynamics shock waves in a rotational axisymmetric non-ideal gas with increasing energy and conductive and radiative heat-fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Gorakh

    2016-07-01

    Self-similar solutions are obtained for one-dimensional adiabatic flow behind a magnetogasdynamics cylindrical shock wave propagating in a rotational axisymmetric non ideal gas with increasing energy and conductive and radiative heat fluxes in presence of an azimuthal magnetic field. The fluid velocities and the azimuthal magnetic field in the ambient medium are assume to be varying and obeying power laws. In order to find the similarity solutions the angular velocity of the ambient medium is taken to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The effects of the presence of radiation and conduction, the non-idealness of the gas and the magnetic field on the shock propagation and the flow behind the shock are investigated.

  18. APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR ARC WELDING

    DOEpatents

    Noland, R.A.; Stone, C.C.

    1960-05-10

    An apparatus and method are given for forming a welding arc which is rotated by a magnetic field very rapidly about an annular electrode so that a weld is produced simultaneously over all points of an annular or closed path. This invention inhibits outgassing from the jacket of a fuel slug which is being welded by adjusting the pressure throughout the welding cycle to establish a balance between the gas pressure within the jacket and that of the atmosphere surrounding the jacket. Furthermore, an improved control of the magnetic field producing rotation of the welding arc is disclosed whereby this rotation is prevented from splashing about the metal being welded as the welding arc makes it molten.

  19. Which technique for radiation is most beneficial for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer? Intensity modulated proton therapy versus intensity modulated photon treatment, helical tomotherapy and volumetric arc therapy for primary radiation - an intraindividual comparison.

    PubMed

    Marnitz, Simone; Wlodarczyk, Waldemar; Neumann, Oliver; Koehler, Christhardt; Weihrauch, Mirko; Budach, Volker; Cozzi, Luca

    2015-04-17

    To compare highly sophisticated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivered by either helical tomotherapy (HT), RapidArc (RA), IMRT with protons (IMPT) in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Twenty cervical cancer patients were irradiated using either conventional IMRT, VMAT or HT; ten received pelvic (PEL) and ten extended field irradiation (EFRT). The dose to the planning-target volume A (PTV_A: cervix, uterus, pelvic ± para-aortic lymph nodes) was 1.8/50.4 Gy. The SIB dose for the parametrium (PTV_B), was 2.12/59.36 Gy. MRI-guided brachytherapy was administered with 5 fractions up to 25 Gy. For EBRT, the lower target constraints were 95% of the prescribed dose in 95% of the target volume. The irradiated small bowel (SB) volumes were kept as low as possible. For every patient, target parameters as well as doses to the organs at risk (SB, bladder, rectum) were evaluated intra-individually for IMRT, HT, VMAT and IMPT. All techniques provided excellent target volume coverage, homogeneity, conformity. With IMPT, there was a significant reduction of the mean dose (Dmean) of the SB from 30.2 ± 4.0 Gy (IMRT); 27.6 ± 5.6 Gy (HT); 34.1 ± 7.0 (RA) to 18.6 ± 5.9 Gy (IMPT) for pelvic radiation and 26.3 ± 3.2 Gy (IMRT); 24.0 ± 4.1 (HT); 25.3 ± 3.7 (RA) to 13.8 ± 2.8 Gy (IMPT) for patients with EFRT, which corresponds to a reduction of 38-52% for the Dmean (SB). Futhermore, the low dose bath (V10Gy) to the small bowel was reduced by 50% with IMPT in comparison to all photon techniques. Furthermore, Dmean to the bladder and rectum was decresed by 7-9 Gy with IMPT in patents with pelvic radiation and EFRT. All modern techniques (were proved to be dosimetrically adequate regarding coverage, conformity and homogeneity of the target. Protons offered the best sparing of small bowel and rectum and therefore could contribute to a significant reduction of acute and late toxicity in cervical cancer treatment.

  20. Analysis of Saturnian planetary rotation following the knowledge on Jovian radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Galopeau, Patrick H. M.; Sawas, Sami; Lammer, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    We report on the Saturnian Radio Emission (SRE) recorded at Saturn by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science experiment (RPWS). We attempt to estimate the planetary rotation by applying the spectral method previously considered for the Jupiter radio emissions. This technique consists to distinguish between the spectral patterns occurring during one full Jovian rotation. Hence symmetrical features act around the axis of the planetary magnetic field due to the hollow cone beam. Therefore arc shapes appear with different orientations, i.e. vertex-early and -late arcs. This spectral 'symmetry' is fortified by the inclination between the geographical and the magnetic axes. The Saturnian radio emissions exhibit more spectral complexity because both axes (.i.e. magnetic and geographic) are quasi-aligned. Arc shapes are not frequently observed as in the case of Jupiter. We illustrate in our analysis that there is possibility to separate between Saturnian planetary rotations. Their occurrences are compared to the classic technique based on the variation of the Saturnian Kilometric Radiation (SKR) versus the sub-solar phase and the observation time (Kurth et al., JGR, 113, 2008). We discuss and we show that in several cases the planetary rotation accuracy is less than few minutes when combining both methods. We emphasize on spectral features by showing that the SRE and the SKR exhibit similar planetary rotation despite a difference in the emission frequency range.

  1. Effect of controlled arc motion on the surface of a weldpool on the quality of a weld during argon-arc welding of a 1565chM aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Drits, A. M.; Kurbatova, I. A.; Rastopchin, R. N.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of the rotation of an arc on the weld formation in welding 1565chM alloy sheets is studied. The arc rotation is shown to induce controlled low-frequency perturbations, which depend on the tungsten electrode rotation frequency, in a weldpool. Periodic changes in the value and direction of temperature gradient favor misorientation and refining of the weld structure. The arc rotation in welding intensifies the release of gas bubbles and oxide inclusions from a weld.

  2. Spin-orbit and rotational couplings in radiative association of C({sup 3}P) and N({sup 4}S) atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, Sergey V.; Gustafsson, Magnus; Nyman, Gunnar

    2011-11-14

    The role of spin-orbit and rotational couplings in radiative association of C({sup 3}P) and N({sup 4}S) atoms is investigated. Couplings among doublet electronic states of the CN radical are considered, giving rise to a 6-state model of the process. The solution of the dynamical problem is based on the L{sup 2} method, where a complex absorbing potential is added to the Hamiltonian operator in order to treat continuum and bound levels in the same manner. Comparison of the energy-dependent rate coefficients calculated with and without spin-orbit and rotational couplings shows that the couplings have a strong effect on the resonance structure and low-energy baseline of the rate coefficient.

  3. Electric arc welding gun

    DOEpatents

    Luttrell, Edward; Turner, Paul W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to improved apparatus for arc welding an interior joint formed by intersecting tubular members. As an example, the invention is well suited for applications where many similar small-diameter vertical lines are to be welded to a long horizontal header. The improved apparatus includes an arc welding gun having a specially designed welding head which is not only very compact but also produces welds that are essentially free from rolled-over solidified metal. The welding head consists of the upper end of the barrel and a reversely extending electrode holder, or tip, which defines an acute angle with the barrel. As used in the above-mentioned example, the gun is positioned to extend upwardly through the vertical member and the joint to be welded, with its welding head disposed within the horizontal header. Depending on the design of the welding head, the barrel then is either rotated or revolved about the axis of the vertical member to cause the electrode to track the joint.

  4. Similarity Solutions for the Flow Behind an Exponential Shock in a Rotating Nonideal Gas with Heat Conduction and Radiation Heat Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. K.; Nath, B.

    2014-07-01

    A self-similar solution for the propagation of a shock wave driven by a cylindrical piston moving according to exponential temporal law in a nonideal rotating gas with heat conduction and radiation heat fluxes is investigated. The density and angular velocity of the ambient medium are assumed to be constant. Heat conduction is expressed in terms of the Fourier law, and radiation is considered to be of diffusion type for an optically thick gray gas model. The thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density. Similarity solutions are obtained, and the effects of variations in the heat transfer parameters and gas nonidealness on the flow variables in the region behind the shock are investigated.

  5. Of Eggs and Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Thomas, P. C.; Helfenstein, P.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Hedman, M. M.; Agarwal, M.

    2012-10-01

    New scenarios for the origins of Saturn’s rings/interior moons have directed scientific attention to the region just exterior to Saturn’s main rings. Four satellites (Aegaeon = Ae; Anthe = An; Methone = Me; Pallene = Pa) discovered by the Cassini mission on either side of Mimas’s orbit perhaps comprise a distinct class of ring-moon. They are tiny (R = 0.3-2.5 km); three (AeAnMe) are trapped in co-rotation resonances with Mimas and reside within ring-arcs; and at least two (MePa) have remarkably regular shapes. Images with pixel scales as fine as 27 m taken in May 2012 reveal Methone to be ovoid within 10 m (from sub-pixel limb detection) and devoid of any craters (>130 m) across its 9 km2 of surface; Pallene and even tiny Aegaeon have similar appearances in lesser-quality images. Numerical simulations demonstrate that particles comprising the surrounding ring-arcs populate the same resonances as their embedded moons; escape speeds from the moons are < 0.5 m/s, smaller than the 2 m/s that dynamically characterize the resonant well. We investigate the gentle transfer of particles back and forth between the ring-arcs and any embedded bodies. In this environment, the moons’ shapes are smooth equipotentials; electrostatic effects may also determine how grains settle to surfaces. Considering these shapes to represent equipotential surfaces for rotating, tidally distorted, homogeneous bodies, we infer mean satellite densities of 250+/-60 (Pa), 310+/-30 (Me), and 540+/-120 (Ae) kg m-3. About half of Methone’s leading hemisphere is covered by a sharply bounded, lemon-shaped, relatively dark region, having a form reminiscent of Mimas’s thermal anomaly (Howett et al. 2011). Its (601 nm) albedo is 13% lower than the bounding brighter material. An irregularly shaped, even-darker (by 4%) blotch straddles the apex of the moon’s motion. Impacts with circum-planetary meteoroids and plasma are likely responsible for these features.

  6. Weld arc simulator

    DOEpatents

    Burr, Melvin J.

    1990-01-30

    An arc voltage simulator for an arc welder permits the welder response to a variation in arc voltage to be standardized. The simulator uses a linear potentiometer connected to the electrode to provide a simulated arc voltage at the electrode that changes as a function of electrode position.

  7. Weld arc simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.J.

    1989-03-01

    An arc voltage simulator for an arc welder permits the welder response to a variation in arc voltage to be standardized. The simulator uses a linear potentiometer connected to the electrode to provide a simulated arc voltage at the electrode that changes as a function of electrode position.

  8. Weld arc simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.J.

    1990-01-30

    This patent describes an arc voltage simulator for an arc welder which permits the welder response to a variation in arc voltage to be standardized. The simulator uses a linear potentiometer connected to the electrode to provide a simulated arc voltage at the electrode that changes as a function of electrode position.

  9. Cone beam CT-based set-up strategies with and without rotational correction for stereotactic body radiation therapy in the liver.

    PubMed

    Bertholet, Jenny; Worm, Esben; Høyer, Morten; Poulsen, Per

    2017-06-01

    Accurate patient positioning is crucial in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) due to a high dose regimen. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is often used for patient positioning based on radio-opaque markers. We compared six CBCT-based set-up strategies with or without rotational correction. Twenty-nine patients with three implanted markers received 3-6 fraction liver SBRT. The markers were delineated on the mid-ventilation phase of a 4D-planning-CT. One pretreatment CBCT was acquired per fraction. Set-up strategy 1 used only translational correction based on manual marker match between the CBCT and planning CT. Set-up strategy 2 used automatic 6 degrees-of-freedom registration of the vertebrae closest to the target. The 3D marker trajectories were also extracted from the projections and the mean position of each marker was calculated and used for set-up strategies 3-6. Translational correction only was used for strategy 3. Translational and rotational corrections were used for strategies 4-6 with the rotation being either vertebrae based (strategy 4), or marker based and constrained to ±3° (strategy 5) or unconstrained (strategy 6). The resulting set-up error was calculated as the 3D root-mean-square set-up error of the three markers. The set-up error of the spinal cord was calculated for all strategies. The bony anatomy set-up (2) had the largest set-up error (5.8 mm). The marker-based set-up with unconstrained rotations (6) had the smallest set-up error (0.8 mm) but the largest spinal cord set-up error (12.1 mm). The marker-based set-up with translational correction only (3) or with bony anatomy rotational correction (4) had equivalent set-up error (1.3 mm) but rotational correction reduced the spinal cord set-up error from 4.1 mm to 3.5 mm. Marker-based set-up was substantially better than bony-anatomy set-up. Rotational correction may improve the set-up, but further investigations are required to determine the optimal correction

  10. Metrology in arc plasmas - A new cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croche, R.

    1980-02-01

    A new radiating source consisting of an electric arc under argon pressure is described, with power varying between about 0.2 and 1.5 kW, and with the plasma furnishing a continuous spectrum between 115 and 350 nm. The arc functions from 5 to 50 A, with a voltage varying between 30 and 35 V. The cathode of the transfer arc is described in detail, including such advantages as easy igniting of the arc and the possibility of re-sharpening the tip of the cathode. Most important, the new 'knife-shaped' form of the tungsten cathode has improved the stability and reproducibility of the ultraviolet continuum emitted by the plasma of the arc, which is used at the French National Institute of Metrology as a transfer standard of spectral radiance in the vacuum ultraviolet.

  11. SU-E-T-626: Practical Method to Implement Arc Therapy Using Scanned Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Eley, J; Mehta, M; Molitoris, J; Langner, U; Langen, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to propose a method to implement arc therapy that is compatible with existing particle therapy systems having gantries and pencil-beam scanning capacities. Furthermore, we sought to demonstrate expected benefits of this method for selected clival chordoma patients. Methods: We propose that a desired particle arc treatment plan can be discretized into a finite number of fixed beams and that only one (or a subset) of these beams be delivered in any single treatment fraction; the target should receive uniform dose during each fraction. For 3 clival-chordoma patients, robust-optimized, scanned proton beams were simulated to deliver 78 Gy (RBE) to clinical target volumes (CTVs), using either a single-field plan with a posterior-anterior (PA) beam or a discrete-arc plan with 16 beams that were equally spaced throughout a 360-degree axial arc. Dose-volume metrics were compared with emphasis on the brainstem, since risk of radiation necrosis there can often restrict application of tumoricidal doses for chordomas. Results: The mean volume of brainstem receiving a dose of 60 Gy (RBE) or higher (V60Gy) was 10.3±0.9 cm{sup 3} for the single-field plan and 4.7±1.8 cm{sup 3} for the discrete-arc plan, a reduction of 55% in favor of arcs. The mean dose to the brainstem was also reduced using arcs, by 18%, while the maximum dose was nearly identical for both methods. For the whole brain, V60Gy was reduced by 23%, in favor of arcs. Mean dose to the CTVs were nearly identical for both strategies, within 0.3%. Conclusion: Discrete arc treatments can be implemented using existing scanned particle-beam facilities. Aside from the physical advantages, the biological uncertainties of particle therapy, particularly high in the distal edge, can be reduced by arc therapy via rotational smearing, which may be of benefit for tumors near the brainstem.

  12. Combined Influence of Hall Current and Soret Effect on Chemically Reacting Magnetomicropolar Fluid Flow from Radiative Rotating Vertical Surface with Variable Suction in Slip-Flow Regime

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    An analysis study is presented to study the effects of Hall current and Soret effect on unsteady hydromagnetic natural convection of a micropolar fluid in a rotating frame of reference with slip-flow regime. A uniform magnetic field acts perpendicularly to the porous surface which absorbs the micropolar fluid with variable suction velocity. The effects of heat absorption, chemical reaction, and thermal radiation are discussed and for this Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in energy equation. The entire system rotates with uniform angular velocity Ω about an axis normal to the plate. The nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are solved by perturbation techniques. In order to get physical insight, the numerical results of translational velocity, microrotation, fluid temperature, and species concentration for different physical parameters entering into the analysis are discussed and explained graphically. Also, the results of the skin-friction coefficient, the couple stress coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number are discussed with the help of figures for various values of flow pertinent flow parameters. PMID:27350957

  13. Combined Influence of Hall Current and Soret Effect on Chemically Reacting Magnetomicropolar Fluid Flow from Radiative Rotating Vertical Surface with Variable Suction in Slip-Flow Regime.

    PubMed

    Jain, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    An analysis study is presented to study the effects of Hall current and Soret effect on unsteady hydromagnetic natural convection of a micropolar fluid in a rotating frame of reference with slip-flow regime. A uniform magnetic field acts perpendicularly to the porous surface which absorbs the micropolar fluid with variable suction velocity. The effects of heat absorption, chemical reaction, and thermal radiation are discussed and for this Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in energy equation. The entire system rotates with uniform angular velocity Ω about an axis normal to the plate. The nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are solved by perturbation techniques. In order to get physical insight, the numerical results of translational velocity, microrotation, fluid temperature, and species concentration for different physical parameters entering into the analysis are discussed and explained graphically. Also, the results of the skin-friction coefficient, the couple stress coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number are discussed with the help of figures for various values of flow pertinent flow parameters.

  14. Oscillatory MHD Convective Flow of Second Order Fluid Through Porous Medium in a Vertical Rotating Channel in Slip-Flow Regime with Heat Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, B. P.; Singh, K. D.; Bansal, A. K.

    2015-02-01

    An analysis of an oscillatory magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) convective flow of a second order (viscoelastic), incompressible, and electrically conducting fluid through a porous medium bounded by two infinite vertical parallel porous plates is presented. The two porous plates with slip-flow condition and the no-slip condition are subjected respectively to a constant injection and suction velocity. The pressure gradient in the channel varies periodically with time. A magnetic field of uniform strength is applied in the direction perpendicular to the planes of the plates. The induced magnetic field is neglected due to the assumption of a small magnetic Reynolds number. The temperature of the plate with no-slip condition is non-uniform and oscillates periodically with time and the temperature difference of the two plates is assumed high enough to induce heat radiation. The entire system rotates in unison about the axis perpendicular to the planes of the plates. Adopting complex variable notations, a closed form solution of the problem is obtained. The analytical results are evaluated numerically and then presented graphically to discuss in detail the effects of different parameters of the problem. The velocity, temperature and the skin-friction in terms of its amplitude and phase angle have been shown graphically to observe the effects of the viscoelastic parameter γ, rotation parameter Ω, suction parameter λ , Grashof number Gr, Hartmann number M, the pressure A, Prandtl number Pr, radiation parameter N and the frequency of oscillation ω .

  15. Helical Tomotherapy Versus Single-Arc Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy: A Collaborative Dosimetric Comparison Between Two Institutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rong Yi; Tang, Grace; Welsh, James S.; Mohiuddin, Majid M.; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Yu, Cedric X.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Both helical tomotherapy (HT) and single-arc intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) deliver radiation using rotational beams with multileaf collimators. We report a dual-institution study comparing dosimetric aspects of these two modalities. Methods and Materials: Eight patients each were selected from the University of Maryland (UMM) and the University of Wisconsin Cancer Center Riverview (UWR), for a total of 16 cases. Four cancer sites including brain, head and neck (HN), lung, and prostate were selected. Single-arc IMAT plans were generated at UMM using Varian RapidArc (RA), and HT plans were generated at UWR using Hi-Art II TomoTherapy. All 16 cases were planned based on the identical anatomic contours, prescriptions, and planning objectives. All plans were swapped for analysis at the same time after final approval. Dose indices for targets and critical organs were compared based on dose-volume histograms, the beam-on time, monitor units, and estimated leakage dose. After the disclosure of comparison results, replanning was done for both techniques to minimize diversity in optimization focus from different operators. Results: For the 16 cases compared, the average beam-on time was 1.4 minutes for RA and 4.8 minutes for HT plans. HT provided better target dose homogeneity (7.6% for RA and 4.2% for HT) with a lower maximum dose (110% for RA and 105% for HT). Dose conformation numbers were comparable, with RA being superior to HT (0.67 vs. 0.60). The doses to normal tissues using these two techniques were comparable, with HT showing lower doses for more critical structures. After planning comparison results were exchanged, both techniques demonstrated improvements in dose distributions or treatment delivery times. Conclusions: Both techniques created highly conformal plans that met or exceeded the planning goals. The delivery time and total monitor units were lower in RA than in HT plans, whereas HT provided higher target dose uniformity.

  16. Intrafraction Prostate Translations and Rotations During Hypofractionated Robotic Radiation Surgery: Dosimetric Impact of Correction Strategies and Margins

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Steven van de; Valli, Lorella; Aluwini, Shafak; Lanconelli, Nico; Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric impact of intrafraction prostate motion and the effect of robot correction strategies for hypofractionated CyberKnife treatments with a simultaneously integrated boost. Methods and Materials: A total of 548 real-time prostate motion tracks from 17 patients were available for dosimetric simulations of CyberKnife treatments, in which various correction strategies were included. Fixed time intervals between imaging/correction (15, 60, 180, and 360 seconds) were simulated, as well as adaptive timing (ie, the time interval reduced from 60 to 15 seconds in case prostate motion exceeded 3 mm or 2° in consecutive images). The simulated extent of robot corrections was also varied: no corrections, translational corrections only, and translational corrections combined with rotational corrections up to 5°, 10°, and perfect rotational correction. The correction strategies were evaluated for treatment plans with a 0-mm or 3-mm margin around the clinical target volume (CTV). We recorded CTV coverage (V{sub 100%}) and dose-volume parameters of the peripheral zone (boost), rectum, bladder, and urethra. Results: Planned dose parameters were increasingly preserved with larger extents of robot corrections. A time interval between corrections of 60 to 180 seconds provided optimal preservation of CTV coverage. To achieve 98% CTV coverage in 98% of the treatments, translational and rotational corrections up to 10° were required for the 0-mm margin plans, whereas translational and rotational corrections up to 5° were required for the 3-mm margin plans. Rectum and bladder were spared considerably better in the 0-mm margin plans. Adaptive timing did not improve delivered dose. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate motion substantially affected the delivered dose but was compensated for effectively by robot corrections using a time interval of 60 to 180 seconds. A 0-mm margin required larger extents of additional rotational corrections than a 3

  17. Application of the electron pencil beam redefinition algorithm to electron arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Chi, Pai-Chun M; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Starkschall, George; Boyd, Robert A; Tucker, Susan L; Antolak, John A

    2006-07-01

    V. For depths in the buildup region at 15 MeV the calculations overestimated the measured dose by as much as 3.4%. Mid-arc depth dose in the high-dose gradient region agreed to within 2.2 mm of measured dose. Calculated two-dimensional relative dose distributions in the plane of rotation were compared to dose measurements using film in a cylindrical polystyrene phantom for a 90 degree arc angle and field widths of 4, 5, and 6 cm at 10 and 15 MeV. Results showed that off-axis dose at the ends of arc (without skin collimation) agreed to within 2% in the low-dose gradient region and to within 1.2 mm in the high-dose gradient region. This work showed that the accuracy of the PBRA arced-beam dose model met the criteria specified by Van Dyk et al. [Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 26, 261-273 (1993)] with the exception of the buildup region of the 15 MeV beam. Based on the present results, results of a previous study showing acceptable accuracy in the presence of skin collimation, and results of a previous study showing acceptable accuracy in the presence of internal heterogeneities, it is concluded that the PBRA arced-beam dose model should be adequate for planning electron arc therapy.

  18. Gas arc constriction for plasma arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, William F. (Inventor); Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has an inert gas applied circumferentially about the arc column externally of the constricting nozzle so as to apply a constricting force on the arc after it has exited the nozzle orifice and downstream of the auxiliary shielding gas. The constricting inert gas is supplied to a plenum chamber about the body of the torch and exits through a series of circumferentially disposed orifices in an annular wall forming a closure at the forward end of the constricting gas plenum chamber. The constricting force of the circumferential gas flow about the arc concentrates and focuses the arc column into a more narrow and dense column of energy after exiting the nozzle orifice so that the arc better retains its energy density prior to contacting the workpiece.

  19. An Arc in Saturn's G Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Hedman, M.; Tiscareno, M.; Porco, C.; Jones, G.; Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.

    2006-09-01

    The G ring is a narrow, faint ring located between the orbits of Janus and Mimas. Approximately 4000 km wide, it has a strongly asymmetric brightness profile with a sharp inner edge between 167,000 km and 168,000 km from Saturn's center and a more diffuse outer part. In Cassini images, a portion of the ring contains a bright arc that abuts the G-ring's inner edge and extends over 30 degrees in longitude. By tracking this arc over the first two years of the Cassini Mission, we find its orbital period is 0.80813 day, corresponding to a semi-major axis of 167,496 km. Since this location places the arc within 6 km of the Mimas 7:6 Co-rotation Eccentricity Resonance and within 12 km of the Mimas 7:6 Inner Lindblad Resonance, the arc is likely confined in longitude by Mimas just as Neptune's ring arcs are held in place by Galatea. The arc's longitude relative to Mimas is consistent with this model. Cassini now has the opportunity to study the dynamics of this sort of system in detail over a period of years. The arc, which may be the debris of a fragmented moon, may also supply the particles found in the rest of the G ring; micron-sized grains drift outwards by non-gravitational processes in this region. The G-ring is responsible for a broad, relatively modest decrease in the fluxes of magnetospheric charged particles. When Cassini passed over the G ring in the vicinity of the arc, on September 5, 2005, the MIMI instrument detected a particularly sharp and deep charged particle absorption signature. Such a pronounced charged particle absorption was not seen in the other G-ring passages that occurred longitudinally far from the arc. The nature of this absorption provides constraints on the population of large particles in this arc.

  20. Gas tungsten arc welder with electrode grinder

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.

    1984-01-01

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  1. Gas tungsten arc welder with electrode grinder

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    1984-10-30

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process is claimed. A rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  2. Orbital evolution of Neptune's ring arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliatti-Winter, Silvia; Madeira, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    Voyager 2 spacecraft sent several images of the Neptune's ring system in 1989. These images show a set of arcs (Courage, Liberté, Egalité and Fraternité), previously detected by stellar occultation in 1984, embedded in the tenuous Adams ring. In order to maintain the confinement of the arcs against the spreading, Renner et al. (2015) proposeda model which the Adams ring has a collection of small coorbital satellites placed in specific positions. These coorbitals would be responsible for maintaining the arcs particles. In this work we analyse the orbital evolution of the particles coorbital to the satellites by adding the effects of the solar radiation force. Our numerical results show that due to this dissipative effect the smallest particles, 1μm in size, leave the arc in less than 10years. Larger particles leave the arc, but can stay confined between the coorbital satellites. De Pater et al. (2005) suggested that a small moonlet embedded in the arc Fraternité can be the source of the arcs and even theAdams ring through an erosion mechanism. Our preliminary results showed that a moonlet up to 200m in radius can stay in the arc without causing any significant variation in the eccentricities of the coorbitals and the particles.

  3. 128-slice CT angiography of the aorta without ECG-gating: efficacy of faster gantry rotation time and iterative reconstruction in terms of image quality and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Russo, Vincenzo; Garattoni, Monica; Buia, Francesco; Attinà, Domenico; Lovato, Luigi; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of non ECG-gated 128-slice CT angiography of the aorta (CTAA) with fast gantry rotation time and iterative reconstruction. Four hundred and eighty patients underwent non ECG-gated CTAA. Qualitative and quantitative image quality assessments were performed. Radiation dose was assessed and compared with the dose of patients who underwent ECG-gated CTAA (n = 126) and the dose of previous CTAA performed with another CT (n = 339). Image quality (aortic root-ascending portion) was average-to-excellent in more than 94% of cases, without any non-diagnostic scan. For proximal coronaries, image quality was average-to-excellent in more than 50%, with only 21.5% of non-diagnostic cases. Quantitative analysis results were also good. Mean radiation dose for thoracic CTAA was 5.6 mSv versus 20.6 mSv of ECG-gated protocol and 20.6 mSv of 16-slice CTAA scans, with an average dose reduction of 72.8% (p < 0.001). Mean radiation dose for thoracic-abdominal CTAA was 9.7 mSv, versus 20.9 mSv of 16-slice CTAA scans, with an average dose reduction of 53.6% (p < 0.001). Non ECG-gated 128-slice CTAA is feasible and able to provide high quality visualization of the entire aorta without significant motion artefacts, together with a considerable dose and contrast media volume reduction. • CT image quality of aortic root-ascending aorta is challenging. • Non ECG-gated scans are often limited by pulsatility artefacts. • ECG-gated examinations are usually limited by high radiation doses. • Non ECG-gated 128-slice low dose CTAA provides high quality images. • 128-slice CTAA low dose protocol could frequently replace ECG-gated CTAA.

  4. Rotating shielded crane system

    DOEpatents

    Commander, John C.

    1988-01-01

    A rotating, radiation shielded crane system for use in a high radiation test cell, comprises a radiation shielding wall, a cylindrical ceiling made of radiation shielding material and a rotatable crane disposed above the ceiling. The ceiling rests on an annular ledge intergrally attached to the inner surface of the shielding wall. Removable plugs in the ceiling provide access for the crane from the top of the ceiling into the test cell. A seal is provided at the interface between the inner surface of the shielding wall and the ceiling.

  5. Industry-relevant magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc ultra-high vacuum deposition system for in situ x-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth using high energy synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, J L; Thomson, W; Howard, B; Schell, N; Näslund, L-Å; Rogström, L; Johansson-Jõesaar, M P; Ghafoor, N; Odén, M; Nothnagel, E; Shepard, A; Greer, J; Birch, J

    2015-09-01

    We present an industry-relevant, large-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc deposition system purposefully designed for time-resolved in situ thin film deposition/annealing studies using high-energy (>50 keV), high photon flux (>10(12) ph/s) synchrotron radiation. The high photon flux, combined with a fast-acquisition-time (<1 s) two-dimensional (2D) detector, permits time-resolved in situ structural analysis of thin film formation processes. The high-energy synchrotron-radiation based x-rays result in small scattering angles (<11°), allowing large areas of reciprocal space to be imaged with a 2D detector. The system has been designed for use on the 1-tonne, ultra-high load, high-resolution hexapod at the P07 High Energy Materials Science beamline at PETRA III at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany. The deposition system includes standard features of a typical UHV deposition system plus a range of special features suited for synchrotron radiation studies and industry-relevant processes. We openly encourage the materials research community to contact us for collaborative opportunities using this unique and versatile scientific instrument.

  6. Time resolved optical spectra from MIG welding arc ignitions

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksen, P.

    1985-03-01

    Optical radiation from MIG (GMAW) welding arc ignitions has been measured with a rapid scan spectrometer. The time resolved spectral measurements reveal a substantial overshoot of ultraviolet radiation during the ignition phase of a 200 A aluminum arc. Calculations which follow the ACGIH guidelines show that, at a welding current of 300 A, the unprotected eye at a distance of 0.5 m may suffer a flash after the reception of radiation from only one ignition.

  7. Stochastic versus deterministic kernel-based superposition approaches for dose calculation of intensity-modulated arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Grace; Earl, Matthew A.; Luan, Shuang; Wang, Chao; Cao, Daliang; Yu, Cedric X.; Naqvi, Shahid A.

    2008-09-01

    Dose calculations for radiation arc therapy are traditionally performed by approximating continuous delivery arcs with multiple static beams. For 3D conformal arc treatments, the shape and weight variation per degree is usually small enough to allow arcs to be approximated by static beams separated by 5°-10°. But with intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT), the variation in shape and dose per degree can be large enough to require a finer angular spacing. With the increase in the number of beams, a deterministic dose calculation method, such as collapsed-cone convolution/superposition, will require proportionally longer computational times, which may not be practical clinically. We propose to use a homegrown Monte Carlo kernel-superposition technique (MCKS) to compute doses for rotational delivery. The IMAT plans were generated with 36 static beams, which were subsequently interpolated into finer angular intervals for dose calculation to mimic the continuous arc delivery. Since MCKS uses random sampling of photons, the dose computation time only increased insignificantly for the interpolated-static-beam plans that may involve up to 720 beams. Ten past IMRT cases were selected for this study. Each case took approximately 15-30 min to compute on a single CPU running Mac OS X using the MCKS method. The need for a finer beam spacing is dictated by how fast the beam weights and aperture shapes change between the adjacent static planning beam angles. MCKS, however, obviates the concern by allowing hundreds of beams to be calculated in practically the same time as for a few beams. For more than 43 beams, MCKS usually takes less CPU time than the collapsed-cone algorithm used by the Pinnacle3 planning system.

  8. Dufour and Soret effect on heat and mass transfer with radiative heat flux in a viscous liquid over a rotating disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Rehan Ali; Shuaib, Muhammad; Khan, Aamir

    2017-08-01

    Free surface flow of an incompressible viscous fluid over a porous rotating disk with heat and mass transfer with radiative heat flux is studied. The effect of the natural parameters such as Dufour number, Soret number, Prandtl number, radiation parameter, Suction parameter and Schmidt number on the fluid properties are determined and shown graphically. The corresponding skin friction coefficient, the Nusselt number and the Sherwood number are also calculated and displayed in tables showing the effects of various parameters on velocity profile. Individual averaged square residual errors as well as optimal values of converges control parameterconvergence control parameters are also discussed in detail. It is found that Dufour and radiation effects cause reductions in the fluid temperature. The effect of suction decreases the velocities, temperature and concentration profiles significantly in boundary layer. The total averaged squared errors and average squared residual errors are further reduced as the order of approximation is increased. This analysis was performed by means of the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) and for validity it is compared with the results of BVP4C numerical routine.

  9. Simulation of arc-electrode interaction using sheath modelling in SF6 circuit-breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruzewski, P.; Martin, A.; Reggio, M.; Trépanier, J.-Y.

    2002-05-01

    The transition layer, or sheath, located at the interface between the electrode and the electric arc plasma in circuit-breaker arcs is modelled and integrated into software for the simulation of arcs. The sheath model includes the equation of the continuity of electrons, the generalized Ohm's law and the equation of conservation of total energy. The latter equation takes into account Joule heating, the radiation from the arc and phenomena on the surface of the electrode such as thermionic and radiative cooling by thermal emission. The resulting arc model can predict electrode and arc temperatures simultaneously.

  10. Long-rotation sugarcane in Hawaii sustains high carbon accumulation and radiation use efficiency in 2nd year of growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugarcane has been a major agronomic crop in Hawaii with an unique, high-yield, two-year production system. However,parameters relevant to advanced, cellulosic biofuel production, such as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and radiation use efficiency (RUE), have not been evaluated in Hawaii under com...

  11. Theory of Kerr and Faraday rotation in Topological Weyl Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargarian, Mehdi; Randeria, Mohit; Trivedi, Nandini

    2015-03-01

    Topological Weyl semimetals are characterized by bulk Dirac nodes separated in momentum space by a distance 2 b and lead to Fermi arcs in the surfaces electronic structure. We calculate the Faraday θF and Kerr θK angles for electromagnetic waves scattered from such a Weyl semimetal using the Kubo formalism. (1) For thin films with electromagnetic radiation incident on a surface without arcs, we show that θK = bd / απ and θF = απ / bd where α is the fine structure constant, and the film thickness d << λ , the wavelength. We further show multiple reflections give rise to giant Kerr rotation, under certain conditions, for a film on a substrate. (2) In the case when the electromagnetic radiation is incident on the surface with arcs, the wave propagating inside the material acquires a longitudinal component of the electric field proportional to b. We discuss the implications of our results for thin films of pyrochlore iridates, and also for the recently discovered Dirac semimetals in a magnetic field. We acknowledge the support of the CEM, an NSF MRSEC, under Grant DMR-1420451.

  12. Corrected Article: "Experimental observation of nonspherically-decaying radiation from a rotating superluminal source" [J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4614 (2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardavan, A.; Hayes, W.; Singleton, J.; Ardavan, H.; Fopma, J.; Halliday, D.

    2004-12-01

    We describe the experimental implementation of a superluminal (i.e., faster than light in vacuo) polarization current distribution that both oscillates and undergoes centripetal acceleration. Theoretical treatments predict that the radiation emitted by each volume element of the superluminally moving distribution pattern will comprise a Čerenkov-like envelope with two sheets that meet along a cusp. Correspondingly, the emission from the experimental machine is found to be tightly beamed in both the azimuthal and polar directions. The beaming is frequency independent and has a sharply defined and unchanging geometry determined only by the speed and path of the moving distribution pattern, i.e., by the parameters governing the structure of the Čerenkov-like envelopes. In addition, over a restricted range of angles, we detect the presence of cusps in the emitted radiation. These, which are due to the focusing of wave fronts on a propagating space curve, result in the reception, during a short time period, of radiation emitted over a considerably longer period of (retarded) source time. The intensity of the radiation at these angles was observed to decline more slowly with increasing distance from the source than would the emission from a conventional antenna. The angular distribution of the emitted radiation and the properties associated with the cusps are in good quantitative agreement with theoretical models of superluminal sources once the effect of reflections from the earth's surface are taken into account. In particular, the prediction that the beaming and the slow decay should extend into the far zone has been tested to several hundred Fresnel distances (Rayleigh ranges). The excellent agreement between the theoretical calculations and the data suggests that the apparatus achieves precise and reproducible control of the polarization current and that similar machines could be of general interest for studying and utilizing the novel effects associated with

  13. A generalized inverse planning tool for volumetric-modulated arc therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Daliang; Afghan, Muhammad K. N.; Ye, Jinsong; Chen, Fan; Shepard, David M.

    2009-11-01

    The recent development in linear accelerator control systems, named volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), has generated significant interest in arc-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The VMAT delivery technique features simultaneous changes in dose rate, gantry angle and gantry rotation speed as well as multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions while radiation is on. In this paper, we describe a generalized VMAT planning tool that is designed to take full advantage of the capabilities of the new linac control systems. The algorithm incorporates all of the MLC delivery constraints such as restrictions on MLC leaf interdigitation and the MLC leaf velocity constraints. A key feature of the algorithm is that it is able to plan for both single- and multiple-arc deliveries. Compared to conventional step-and-shoot IMRT plans, our VMAT plans created using this tool can achieve similar or better plan quality with less MU and better delivery efficiency. The accuracy of the obtained VMAT plans is also demonstrated through plan verifications performed on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator equipped with a conventional MLC of 1 cm leaf width using a PreciseBeam® VMAT linac control system.

  14. Low pressure arc electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenn, P. D.; Richter, R.

    1970-01-01

    Reducing the pressure in the vicinity of the arc attachment point by allowing the gas to flow through a supersonic nozzle minimizes local heating rates, prevents ablation, and increases the efficiency of coaxial gas-flow arcs.

  15. Effect of hall current on MHD flow of a nanofluid with variable properties due to a rotating disk with viscous dissipation and nonlinear thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Wahed, Mohamed; Akl, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of the MHD Nanofluid boundary layer flow over a rotating disk with a constant velocity in the presence of hall current and non-linear thermal radiation has been covered in this work. The variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity of the fluid due to temperature and nanoparticles concentration and size is considered. The problem described by a system of P.D.E that converted to a system of ordinary differential equations by the similarity transformation technique, the obtained system solved analytically using Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) with association of mathematica program. The velocity profiles and temperature profiles of the boundary layer over the disk are plotted and investigated in details. Moreover, the surface shear stress, rate of heat transfer explained in details.

  16. Radiation imaging with a rotational modulation collimator (RMC) coupled to a Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Suk; Ye, Sung-Joon; Shin, Youngjun; Lee, Gyemin; Kim, Geehyun

    2016-12-01

    As an attempt to develop a gamma-ray/neutron dual-particle imager, we employed a rotating modulation collimator (RMC) coupled to a pulse shape discrimination-capable scintillator. We performed fundamental simulations on the proposed RMC system utilizing a CLYC detector to verify the basic properties of the RMC system and to optimize the computing methods for the Monte Carlo simulation. We obtained batches of modulation patterns for various source locations by using Monte Carlo N-Particle simulations, and we studied the characteristics of the modulation patterns, such as the rotational effect, the shift effect, and the symmetric effect. We compared simulated modulation patterns with those obtained from the mathematical model of the RMC system to investigate the feasibility of identifying the source location correctly based on the simulated patterns. When a source was located in the far-field region, the modulation patterns showed good agreement between the Monte Carlo simulation and the mathematical model. The results hold promises for reconstructing gamma and neutron images of radioactivity by using a RMC system on a CLYC detector.

  17. Arc tracking energy balance for copper and aluminum aeronautic cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, T.; Valensi, F.; Teulet, P.; Cressault, Y.; Zink, T.; Caussé, R.

    2017-04-01

    Arc tracking tests have been carried out between two voluntarily damaged aeronautic cables. Copper or aluminum conductors have been exposed to short circuits under alternating current. Various data have been recorded (arc voltage and current, radiated power and ablated mass), enabling to determine a power balance, in which every contribution is estimated. The total power is mainly transferred to the cables (between 50 and 65%, depending on the current and the cable type), and causes the melting and partial vaporization of the metallic core and insulating material, or is conducted or radiated. The other part is deposited into the arc column, being either radiated, convected or conducted.

  18. Evaluation of the clinical usefulness of modulated arc treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Kyu; Jang, Hong Seok; Kim, Yeon Sil; Choi, Byung Ock; Kang, Young-Nam; Nam, Sang Hee; Park, Hyeong Wook; Kim, Shin Wook; Shin, Hun Joo; Lee, Jae Choon; Kim, Ji Na; Park, Sung Kwang; Kim, Jin Young

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of modulated arc (mARC) treatment techniques. The mARC treatment plans for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were made in order to verify the clinical usefulness of mARC. A pre-study was conducted to find the best plan condition for mARC treatment, and the usefulness of the mARC treatment plan was evaluated by comparing it with other Arc treatment plans such as tomotherapy and RapidArc plans. In the case of mARC, the optimal condition for the mARC plan was determined by comparing the dosimetric performance of the mARC plans developed by using various parameters, which included the photon energy (6 MV, 10 MV), the optimization point angle (6°- 10°intervals), and the total number of segments (36 - 59 segments). The best dosimetric performance of mARC was observed at a 10 MV photon energy, a point angle 6 degrees, and 59 segments. The treatment plans for the three different techniques were compared by using the following parameters: the conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), the target coverage, the dose to the OARs, the number of monitor units (MU), the beam on time, and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). As a result, the three different treatment techniques showed similar target coverages. The mARC plan had the lowest V20 (volume of lung receiving > 20 Gy) and MU per fraction compared with both the RapidArc and the tomotherapy plans. The mARC plan reduced the beam on time as well. Therefore, the results of this study provide satisfactory evidence that the mARC technique can be considered as a useful clinical technique for radiation treatment.

  19. Correlation of some radiative processes resulting from electronic and vibrational spectra of a CN molecule excited in an electric arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iova, Iancu; Bazavan, M.; Biloiu, Costel; Ilie, Gheorghe; Bulinski, M.

    1998-07-01

    The molecular vibration temperature of the plasma from an interrupt arc discharge in air at atmospheric pressure and at current intensities in the range of 2 divided by 8 Amperes, using electronic and vibration bands of violet [B2(Sigma) + - X2(Sigma) +] and red [A2(Pi) - X2(Sigma) +] systems of the CN molecule was determined. At the equilibrium temperature of 6400 K, 27 lines of Ti, contained as impurity in coal electrode were found. These spectral lines were found in the 247 divided by 340 nm spectral range, having the upper levels of the excitation energies in the 3.60 divided by 5.69 eV range, in the neighborhood of the energy of dissociation of the CN molecule on the fundamental electronic state. Some considerations about the vibrational states populations are also made.

  20. DC arc weld starter

    DOEpatents

    Campiotti, Richard H.; Hopwood, James E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for starting an arc for welding uses three DC power supplies, a high voltage supply for initiating the arc, an intermediate voltage supply for sustaining the arc, and a low voltage welding supply directly connected across the gap after the high voltage supply is disconnected.

  1. SU-E-T-268: Differences in Treatment Plan Quality and Delivery Between Two Commercial Treatment Planning Systems for Volumetric Arc-Based Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S; Zhang, H; Zhang, B; D’Souza, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To clinically evaluate the differences in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plan and delivery between two commercial treatment planning systems. Methods: Two commercial VMAT treatment planning systems with different VMAT optimization algorithms and delivery approaches were evaluated. This study included 16 clinical VMAT plans performed with the first system: 2 spine, 4 head and neck (HN), 2 brain, 4 pancreas, and 4 pelvis plans. These 16 plans were then re-optimized with the same number of arcs using the second treatment planning system. Planning goals were invariant between the two systems. Gantry speed, dose rate modulation, MLC modulation, plan quality, number of monitor units (MUs), VMAT quality assurance (QA) results, and treatment delivery time were compared between the 2 systems. VMAT QA results were performed using Mapcheck2 and analyzed with gamma analysis (3mm/3% and 2mm/2%). Results: Similar plan quality was achieved with each VMAT optimization algorithm, and the difference in delivery time was minimal. Algorithm 1 achieved planning goals by highly modulating the MLC (total distance traveled by leaves (TL) = 193 cm average over control points per plan), while maintaining a relatively constant dose rate (dose-rate change <100 MU/min). Algorithm 2 involved less MLC modulation (TL = 143 cm per plan), but greater dose-rate modulation (range = 0-600 MU/min). The average number of MUs was 20% less for algorithm 2 (ratio of MUs for algorithms 2 and 1 ranged from 0.5-1). VMAT QA results were similar for all disease sites except HN plans. For HN plans, the average gamma passing rates were 88.5% (2mm/2%) and 96.9% (3mm/3%) for algorithm 1 and 97.9% (2mm/2%) and 99.6% (3mm/3%) for algorithm 2. Conclusion: Both VMAT optimization algorithms achieved comparable plan quality; however, fewer MUs were needed and QA results were more robust for Algorithm 2, which more highly modulated dose rate.

  2. Frequency spectrum of focused broadband pulses of electromagnetic radiation generated by polarization currents with superluminally rotating distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Ardavan, Houshang; Ardavan, Arzhang; Singleton, John

    2003-11-01

    We investigate the spectral features of the emission from a superluminal polarization current whose distribution pattern rotates (with an angular frequency omega) and oscillates (with a frequency omega > omega differing from an integral multiple of omega) at the same time. This type of polarization current is found in recent practical machines designed to investigate superluminal emission. Although all of the processes involved are linear, we find that the broadband emission contains frequencies that are higher than omega by a factor of the order of (omega/omega)2. This generation of frequencies not required for the creation of the source stems from mathematically rigorous consequences of the familiar classical expression for the retarded potential. The results suggest practical applications for superluminal polarization currents as broadband radio-frequency and infrared sources.

  3. Red Arcs on Tethys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-29

    Unusual arc-shaped, reddish streaks cut across the surface of Saturn's ice-rich moon Tethys in this enhanced-color mosaic. The red streaks are narrow, curved lines on the moon's surface, only a few miles (or kilometers) wide but several hundred miles (or kilometers) long. The red streaks are among the most unusual color features on Saturn's moons to be revealed by Cassini's cameras. A few of the red arcs can be faintly seen in Cassini imaging observations made earlier in the mission, but the color images for this observation, which were obtained in April 2015, were the first to show large northern areas of Tethys under the illumination and viewing conditions necessary to see the features clearly. As the Saturn system moved into its northern hemisphere summer over the past few years, northern latitudes have become increasingly well illuminated. As a result, the red arc features have become clearly visible for the first time. The origin of the features and their reddish color is currently a mystery to Cassini scientists. Possibilities being studied include ideas that the reddish material is exposed ice with chemical impurities, or the result of outgassing from inside Tethys. The streaks could also be associated with features like fractures that are below the resolution of the available images. Except for a few small craters on Dione, reddish tinted features are rare on other moons of Saturn. However, many reddish features are observed on the geologically young surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. Images taken using clear, green, infrared and ultraviolet spectral filters were combined to create the view, which highlights subtle color differences across Tethys' surface at wavelengths not visible to human eyes. The moon's surface is fairly uniform in natural color. The yellowish tones on the left side of the view are a result of alteration of the moon's surface by high-energy particles from Saturn's magnetosphere. This particle radiation slams into the moon's trailing

  4. Accelerated hypofractionated adjuvant whole breast radiation with simultaneous integrated boost using volumetric modulated arc therapy for early breast cancer: A phase I/II dosimetric and clinical feasibility study from a tertiary cancer care centre of India.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Dodul; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Daya Nand; Jana, Manisha; Laviraj, Macharla Anjaneyelu; Deo, Suryanarayan Vs; Roy, Soumyajit; Guleria, Randeep; Rath, Goura K

    2017-03-01

    Hypofractionation has become standard of care after Breast Conserving Therapy (BCT) in many European and few others western countries. Though still debatable, tumor cavity boost is routinely practised in our centre. Hypofractionation is not yet the current standard of practice in Asian countries. Employing hypofractionation and simultaneous integrated boost to lumpectomy cavity with conformal technique is not the current practice in this region. Hence the study was performed to see whether accelerated hypofractionation and simultaneous boost can be combined using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in treating early breast cancer (EBC) patients. Female patients with EBC treated by whole breast radiation and boost were treated simultaneously to a dose of 40.5Gy and 48Gy in fifteen fractions over three weeks to entire breast and tumor cavity respectively with VMAT. Dosimetry including target coverage, OAR (organ at risk) sparing and acute radiation toxicity were evaluated. Ten consecutive patients were treated. Planning target volume (PTV) coverage and OAR sparing were mostly satisfactory. Mean volume of PTVWB and PTVBoost were 786.18cm(3) and 228.9cm(3) respectively. Mean Dmean to PTVWB and PTVBOOST were 41.9Gy and 49.1Gy respectively. Dmax to PTVWB and PTVBOOST were 127.56% and 110.67% respectively. Ipsilateral lung mean dose and V20 were 13.92Gy and 21.53% respectively. V40 and V25 of heart were 0.17% and 2.25% respectively. All patients are disease free after a median follow up of two years. Most acute toxicities were Grade1. Only two patients out of ten developed Grade 2 skin reaction during radiation. Early cosmesis using Harvard cosmesis scale is good to excellent. Accelerated hypofractionated RT using SIB-VMAT is a clinically feasible technique with acceptable initial result. Initial results are encouraging. Simultaneous integrated boost with accelerated hypofractionated whole breast radiotherapy using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy is a novel approach

  5. Percussive arc welding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hollar, Jr., Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    A percussive arc welding apparatus includes a generally cylindrical actuator body having front and rear end portions and defining an internal recess. The front end of the body includes an opening. A solenoid assembly is provided in the rear end portion in the internal recess of the body, and an actuator shaft assembly is provided in the front end portion in the internal recess of the actuator body. The actuator shaft assembly includes a generally cylindrical actuator block having first and second end portions, and an actuator shaft having a front end extending through the opening in the actuator body, and the rear end connected to the first end portion of the actuator block. The second end portion of the actuator block is in operational engagement with the solenoid shaft by a non-rigid connection to reduce the adverse rebound effects of the actuator shaft. A generally transversely extending pin is rigidly secured to the rear end of the shaft. One end of the pin is received in a slot in the nose housing sleeve to prevent rotation of the actuator shaft during operation of the apparatus.

  6. Self-similar flow of a rotating dusty gas behind the shock wave with increasing energy, conduction and radiation heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, G.

    2012-01-01

    A self-similar solution is obtained for one dimensional adiabatic flow behind a cylindrical shock wave propagating in a rotating dusty gas in presence of heat conduction and radiation heat flux with increasing energy. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-condition is maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston (or inner expanding surface). The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature only. In order to obtain the similarity solutions the initial density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant and the angular velocity of the ambient medium is assumed to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. The effects of the variation of the heat transfer parameters and non-idealness of the gas in the mixture are investigated. The effects of an increase in (i) the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and (ii) the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas on the flow variables are also investigated.

  7. Radiation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  8. SU-E-T-625: Potential for Reduced Radiation Induced Toxicity for the Treatment of Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using RapidArc Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhrel, D; Sood, S; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Saleh, H; Wang, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using RapidArc (RA) treatment planning to reduce irradiation volume of normal lung and other organs at risk (OARs) in the treatment of inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods: A retrospective treatment planning and delivery study was performed to compare target coverage and the volumes of the normal lung, spinal cord, heart and esophagus on 4D-CT scan above their dose tolerances delivered by RA vs. IMRT for ten inoperable NSCLC patients (Stage I-IIIB). RA plans consisted of either one-full or two-partial co-planar arcs used to treat 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) with 6MV beam to a prescription of 66Gy in 33 fractions. IMRT plans were generated using 5–7 co-planar fields with 6MV beam. PTV coverage, dose-volume histograms, homogeneity/conformity indices (CI), total number of monitor units(MUs), beam-on time and delivery accuracy were compared between the two treatment plans. Results: Similar target coverage was obtained between the two techniques. RA (CI=1.02) provided more conformal plans without loss of homogeneity compared to IMRT plans (CI=1.12). Compared to IMRT, RA achieved a significant median dose reduction in V10 (3%), V20 (8%), and mean lung dose (3%) on average, respectively. On average, V5 was comparable between the two treatment plans. RA reduced mean esophagus (6%), mean heart (18%), and maximum spinal cord dose (7%), on average, respectively. Total number of MUs and beam-on time were each reduced almost by a factor of 2 when compared to IMRT-patient comfort, reduced intra-fraction-motion and leakage dose. The average IMRT and RA QA pass rate was about 98% for both types of plans for 3%/3mm criterion. Conclusion: Compared to IMRT plans, RA provided not only comparable target coverage, but also improved conformity, treatment time, and significant reduction in irradiation of OARs. This may potentially allow for target dose escalation without increase in normal tissue toxicity.

  9. Simulating AOTV heating environment in an arc jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balboni, J.; Winovich, W.; Balakrishnan, A.

    1986-01-01

    The application of arc-jet facilities to the simulation of the combined radiative and convective heating environments calculated for AOTV return missions is presented. The AOTV mission requirement and design configuration determine the magnitude of the radiative and convective heating rates. This paper considers methods for obtaining radiation from the high temperature plasma in arc-jet flows. A computer code that predicts arc-heater performance was used to determine the effect of gas mixtures on arc-heater performance, with the intent of increasing the gas temperature and resultant radiative emission. Numerical radiation solutions were compared with direct measurements of the radiative intensity from the gas cap. Convective heating measurements were made as well. The arc-jet was operated at AOTV enthalpy and pressure levels for these measurements to assess the simulation capabilities for AOTV material development/testing. A parametric study is presented that defines the capability of the Interaction Heating Facility arc jet at Ames to simulate both the radiative and the convective heating for current AOTV configurations.

  10. Glenohumeral joint rotation range of motion in competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Riemann, Bryan L; Witt, Joe; Davies, George J

    2011-08-01

    Much research has examined shoulder range of motion adaptations in overhead-unilateral athletes. Based on the void examining overhead-bilateral athletes, especially competitive swimmers, we examined shoulder external rotation, isolated internal rotation, composite internal rotation, and total arc of motion range of motion of competitive swimmers. The range of motion of registered competitive swimmers (n = 144, age = 12-61 years) was compared by limb (dominant, non-dominant), sex, and age group (youth, high school, college, masters). Significantly (P < 0.05) greater dominant external rotation was observed for both men and women high school and college swimmers, youth women swimmers, and men masters swimmers compared with the non-dominant limb. The isolated internal rotation (glenohumeral rotation), composite internal rotation (glenohumeral rotation plus scapulothoracic protraction), and total arc of motion (external rotation plus composite internal rotation) of the non-dominant limb was significantly greater than that of the dominant limb by sex and age group. Youth and high school swimmers demonstrated significantly greater composite internal rotation than college and masters swimmers. Youth swimmers displayed significantly greater total arc of motion than all other age groups. These data will aid in the interpretation of shoulder range of motion values in competitive swimmers during preseason screenings, injury evaluations and post-rehabilitation programmes, with the results suggesting that differences exist in bilateral external rotation, isolated internal rotation, composite internal rotation, and total arc of motion range of motion.

  11. Rethinking Recycling in Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P.; Behn, M. D.; Jagoutz, O.

    2012-12-01

    Hacker et al EPSL 2011 and Behn et al Nature Geosci 2011 investigated pathways for return of buoyant, subducted material to arc crust. These include (1) diapirs rising into the hot mantle wedge, with extensive melts adding a component to arc magmas, (2) flow of material back up a relatively cold "subduction channel", adding solids to the lower crust and small-degree partial melts to the upper crust, (3) flow from the forearc along the base of arc crust, and (4) imbrication of forearc material into arc crust. These processes add felsic, incompatible-element-rich components to arc crust. The flux of incompatible elements such as Th in arc lavas, thought to be mainly recycled from subducted sediments, is > sediment subduction flux. There are large uncertainties: arc crustal growth rates are imprecise; young, primitive arc lavas may not be representative of magmatic flux into arc crust; sediment subduction flux may have varied. Nevertheless, this result is found for all arcs examined, using recently published growth rates. Perhaps arc growth rates that include subduction erosion are systematically overestimated. Instead or in addition, maybe significant Th comes from material other than sediments. Here, we consider the implications of pathways 1-4 for arc growth rates and incompatible element enrichment, in the context of subduction erosion and arc-arc collision. Subducting arc lithologies can become separated, with only felsic components returned to arc crust. Buoyant lithologies are mobile in viscous instabilities at > 700-800°C. Whereas thin layers such as sediments may become mobile all at once, instabilities may periodically strip the hottest parts from the top of thick buoyant layers, replacing them with hot mantle. In arc-arc collision, the top of a subducting plate starts at about 0°C on the seafloor, so heating is slow. In subduction erosion, forearc material in the subducting package can be > 200°C before erosion so buoyant lithologies reach 700-800

  12. Effect of cathode model on arc attachment for short high-intensity arc on a refractory cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi Shirvan, Alireza; Choquet, Isabelle; Nilsson, Håkan

    2016-12-01

    Various models coupling the refractory cathode, the cathode sheath and the arc at atmospheric pressure exist. They assume a homogeneous cathode with a uniform physical state, and differ by the cathode layer and the plasma arc model. However even the most advanced of these models still fail in predicting the extent of the arc attachment when applied to short high-intensity arcs such as gas tungsten arcs. Cathodes operating in these conditions present a non-uniform physical state. A model taking into account the first level of this non-homogeneity is proposed based on physical criteria. Calculations are done for 5 mm argon arcs with a thoriated tungsten cathode. The results obtained show that radiative heating and cooling of the cathode surface are of the same order. They also show that cathode inhomogeneity has a significant effect on the arc attachment, the arc temperature and pressure. When changing the arc current (100 A, 200 A) the proposed model allows predicting trends observed experimentally that cannot be captured by the homogeneous cathode model unless restricting a priori the size of the arc attachment. The cathode physics is thus an important element to include to obtain a comprehensive and predictive arc model.

  13. Arc initiation in cathodic arc plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2002-01-01

    A "triggerless" arc initiation method and apparatus is based on simply switching the arc supply voltage to the electrodes (anode and cathode). Neither a mechanical trigger electrode nor a high voltage flashover from a trigger electrode is required. A conducting path between the anode and cathode is provided, which allows a hot spot to form at a location where the path connects to the cathode. While the conductive path is eroded by the cathode spot action, plasma deposition ensures the ongoing repair of the conducting path. Arc initiation is achieved by simply applying the relatively low voltage of the arc power supply, e.g. 500 V-1 kV, with the insulator between the anode and cathode coated with a conducting layer and the current at the layer-cathode interface concentrated at one or a few contact points. The local power density at these contact points is sufficient for plasma production and thus arc initiation. A conductive surface layer, such as graphite or the material being deposited, is formed on the surface of the insulator which separates the cathode from the anode. The mechanism of plasma production (and arc initiation) is based on explosive destruction of the layer-cathode interface caused by joule heating. The current flow between the thin insulator coating and cathode occurs at only a few contact points so the current density is high.

  14. ARC-1978-AC78-1071

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-11-24

    4' and 24' Shock Tubes - Electric Arc Shock Tube Facililty N-229 (East) The facility is used to investigate the effects of radiation and ionization during outer planetary entries as well as for air-blast simualtion which requires the strongest possible shock generation in air at loadings of 1 atm or greater.

  15. Tumor cell survival dependence on helical tomotherapy, continuous arc and segmented dose delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wensha; Wang, Li; Larner, James; Read, Paul; Benedict, Stan; Sheng, Ke

    2009-11-01

    The temporal pattern of radiation delivery has been shown to influence the tumor cell survival fractions for the same radiation dose. To study the effect more specifically for state of the art rotational radiation delivery modalities, 2 Gy of radiation dose was delivered to H460 lung carcinoma, PC3 prostate cancer cells and MCF-7 breast tumor cells by helical tomotherapy (HT), seven-field LINAC (7F), and continuous dose delivery (CDD) over 2 min that simulates volumetric rotational arc therapy. Cell survival was measured by the clonogenic assay. The number of viable H460 cell colonies was 23.2 ± 14.4% and 27.7 ± 15.6% lower when irradiated by CDD compared with HT and 7F, respectively, and the corresponding values were 36.8 ± 18.9% and 35.3 ± 18.9% lower for MCF7 cells (p < 0.01). The survival of PC3 was also lower when irradiated by CDD than by HT or 7F but the difference was not as significant (p = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively). The higher survival fraction from HT delivery was unexpected because 90% of the 2 Gy was delivered in less than 1 min at a significantly higher dose rate than the other two delivery techniques. The results suggest that continuous dose delivery at a constant dose rate results in superior in vitro tumor cell killing compared with prolonged, segmented or variable dose rate delivery.

  16. Quality of treatment plans and accuracy of in vivo portal dosimetry in hybrid intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bedford, James L; Smyth, Gregory; Hanson, Ian M; Tree, Alison C; Dearnaley, David P; Hansen, Vibeke N

    2016-08-01

    Delivering selected parts of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans using step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) beams has the potential to increase plan quality by allowing specific aperture positioning. This study investigates the quality of treatment plans and the accuracy of in vivo portal dosimetry in such a hybrid approach for the case of prostate radiotherapy. Conformal and limited-modulation VMAT plans were produced, together with five hybrid IMRT/VMAT plans, in which 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of the segments were sequenced for IMRT, while the remainder were sequenced for VMAT. Integrated portal images were predicted for the plans. The plans were then delivered as a single hybrid beam using an Elekta Synergy accelerator with Agility head to a water-equivalent phantom and treatment time, isocentric dose and portal images were measured. Increasing the IMRT percentage improves dose uniformity to the planning target volume (p<0.01 for 50% IMRT or more), substantially reduces the volume of rectum irradiated to 65Gy (p=0.02 for 25% IMRT) and increases the monitor units (p<0.001). Delivery time also increases substantially. All plans show accurate delivery of dose and reliable prediction of portal images. Hybrid IMRT/VMAT can be efficiently planned and delivered as a single beam sequence. Beyond 25% IMRT, the delivery time becomes unacceptably long, with increased risk of intrafraction motion, but 25% IMRT is an attractive compromise. Integrated portal images can be used to perform in vivo dosimetry for this technique. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Long arc stabilities with various arc gas flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, K.; Takeda, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Noguchi, Y.

    2014-11-01

    A new arc torch for use in magnetically driven arc device was developed with a commercially available TIG welding arc torch. The torch has a water-cooling system to the torch nozzle and has a nozzle nut to supply a swirling-free plasma gas flow. Its endurance against arc thermal load is examined. Features of its generated arc are investigated.

  18. EDITORIAL Metal vapour in atmospheric-pressure arcs Metal vapour in atmospheric-pressure arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Anthony B.

    2010-11-01

    Metal vapour has a significant, and in some cases dominant, influence in many applications of atmospheric-pressure plasmas, including arc welding, circuit interruption and mineral processing. While the influence of metal vapour has long been recognized, it is only recently that diagnostic and computational tools have been sufficiently well-developed to allow this influence to be more thoroughly examined and understood. Some unexpected findings have resulted: for example, that the presence of metal vapour in gas-metal arc welding leads to local minima in the temperature and current density in the centre of the arc. It has become clear that the presence of metal vapour, as well as having intrinsic scientific interest, plays an important role in determining the values of critical parameters in industrial applications, such as the weld penetration in arc welding and the extinction time in circuit breakers. In gas-tungsten arc welding, metal vapour concentrations are formed by evaporation of the weld pool, and are relatively low, typically at most a few per cent. Moreover, the convective flow of the plasma near the weld pool tends to direct the metal vapour plume radially outwards. In gas-metal arc welding, in contrast, metal vapour concentrations can reach over 50%. In this case, the metal vapour is produced mainly by evaporation of the wire electrode, and the strong downwards convective flow below the electrode concentrates the metal vapour in the central region of the arc. The very different metal concentrations and distributions in the two welding processes mean that the metal vapour has markedly different influences on the arc. In gas-tungsten arc welding, the current density distribution is broadened near the weld pool by the influence of the metal vapour on the electrical conductivity of the plasma, and the arc voltage is decreased. In contrast, in gas-metal arc welding, the arc centre is cooled by increased radiative emission and the arc voltage is increased. In

  19. Electric Arc and Electrochemical Surface Texturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Snyder, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    Surface texturing of conductive materials can readily be accomplished by means of a moving electric arc which produces a plasma from the environmental gases as well as from the vaporized substrate and arc electrode materials. As the arc is forced to move across the substrate surface, a condensate from the plasma re-deposits an extremely rough surface which is intimately mixed and attached to the substrate material. The arc textured surfaces produce greatly enhanced thermal emittance and hold potential for use as high temperature radiator surfaces in space, as well as in systems which use radiative heat dissipation such as computer assisted tomography (CAT) scan systems. Electrochemical texturing of titanium alloys can be accomplished by using sodium chloride solutions along with ultrasonic agitation to produce a random distribution of craters on the surface. The crater size and density can be controlled to produce surface craters appropriately sized for direct bone in-growth of orthopaedic implants. Electric arc texturing and electrochemical texturing techniques, surface properties and potential applications will be presented.

  20. Welding arc plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, Bruce L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.

  1. Evaluation of the OMI Cloud Pressures Derived from Rotational Raman Scattering by Comparisons with other Satellite Data and Radiative Transfer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Joiner, Joanna; Spurr, Robert; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Levelt, Pieternel; Stephens, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine differences between cloud pressures retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using the ultraviolet rotational Raman scattering (RRS) algorithm and those from the thermal infrared (IR) Aqua/MODIS. Several cloud data sets are currently being used in OMI trace gas retrieval algorithms including climatologies based on IR measurements and simultaneous cloud parameters derived from OMI. From a validation perspective, it is important to understand the OMI retrieved cloud parameters and how they differ with those derived from the IR. To this end, we perform radiative transfer calculations to simulate the effects of different geophysical conditions on the OMI RRS cloud pressure retrievals. We also quantify errors related to the use of the Mixed Lambert-Equivalent Reflectivity (MLER) concept as currently implemented of the OMI algorithms. Using properties from the Cloudsat radar and MODIS, we show that radiative transfer calculations support the following: (1) The MLER model is adequate for single-layer optically thick, geometrically thin clouds, but can produce significant errors in estimated cloud pressure for optically thin clouds. (2) In a two-layer cloud, the RRS algorithm may retrieve a cloud pressure that is either between the two cloud decks or even beneath the top of the lower cloud deck because of scattering between the cloud layers; the retrieved pressure depends upon the viewing geometry and the optical depth of the upper cloud deck. (3) Absorbing aerosol in and above a cloud can produce significant errors in the retrieved cloud pressure. (4) The retrieved RRS effective pressure for a deep convective cloud will be significantly higher than the physical cloud top pressure derived with thermal IR.

  2. Evaluation of the OMI Cloud Pressures Derived from Rotational Raman Scattering by Comparisons with other Satellite Data and Radiative Transfer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Joiner, Joanna; Spurr, Robert; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Levelt, Pieternel; Stephens, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine differences between cloud pressures retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using the ultraviolet rotational Raman scattering (RRS) algorithm and those from the thermal infrared (IR) Aqua/MODIS. Several cloud data sets are currently being used in OMI trace gas retrieval algorithms including climatologies based on IR measurements and simultaneous cloud parameters derived from OMI. From a validation perspective, it is important to understand the OMI retrieved cloud parameters and how they differ with those derived from the IR. To this end, we perform radiative transfer calculations to simulate the effects of different geophysical conditions on the OMI RRS cloud pressure retrievals. We also quantify errors related to the use of the Mixed Lambert-Equivalent Reflectivity (MLER) concept as currently implemented of the OMI algorithms. Using properties from the Cloudsat radar and MODIS, we show that radiative transfer calculations support the following: (1) The MLER model is adequate for single-layer optically thick, geometrically thin clouds, but can produce significant errors in estimated cloud pressure for optically thin clouds. (2) In a two-layer cloud, the RRS algorithm may retrieve a cloud pressure that is either between the two cloud decks or even beneath the top of the lower cloud deck because of scattering between the cloud layers; the retrieved pressure depends upon the viewing geometry and the optical depth of the upper cloud deck. (3) Absorbing aerosol in and above a cloud can produce significant errors in the retrieved cloud pressure. (4) The retrieved RRS effective pressure for a deep convective cloud will be significantly higher than the physical cloud top pressure derived with thermal IR.

  3. SU-E-T-426: Feasibility of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) with Active Breathing Control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Jackson, J; Davies, G; Herman, J; Forbang, R Teboh

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: SBRT shows excellent tumor control and toxicity rates for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (PCA). Herein, we evaluate the feasibility of using VMAT with ABC for PCA SBRT. Methods: Nine PCA patients previously treated via SBRT utilizing 11-beam step-and-shoot IMRT technique in our center were retrospectively identified, among whom eight patients received 3300cGy in 5 fractions while one received 3000cGy in 5 fractions. A VMAT plan was generated on each patient’s planning CT in Pinnacle v9.8 on Elekta Synergy following the same PCA SBRT clinical protocol. Three partial arcs (182°–300°, 300°-60°, and 60°-180°) with 2°/4° control-point spacing were used. The dosimetric difference between the VMAT and the original IMRT plans was analyzed. IMRT QA was performed for the VMAT plans using MapCheck2 in MapPHAN and the total delivery time was recorded. To mimic the treatment situation with ABC, where patients hold their breath for 20–30 seconds, the delivery was intentionally interrupted every 20–30 seconds. For each plan, the QA was performed with and without beam interruption. Gamma analysis (2%/2mm) was used to compare the planned and measured doses. Results: All VMAT plans with 2mm dose grid passed the clinic protocol with similar PTV coverage and OARs sparing, where PTV V-RxDose was 92.7±2.1% (VMAT) vs. 92.1±2.6% (IMRT), and proximal stomach V15Gy was 3.60±2.69 cc (VMAT) vs. 4.80±3.13 cc (IMRT). The mean total MU and delivery time of the VMAT plans were 2453.8±531.1 MU and 282.1±56.0 seconds. The gamma passing rates of absolute dose were 94.9±3.4% and 94.5±4.0% for delivery without and with interruption respectively, suggesting the dosimetry of VMAT delivery with ABC for SBRT won’t be compromised. Conclusion: This study suggests that PCA SBRT using VMAT with ABC is a feasible technique without compromising plan dosimetry. The combination of VMAT with ABC will potentially reduce the SBRT treatment time.

  4. Fore-arc migration in Cascadia and its neotectonic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Neogene deformation, paleomagnetic rotations, and sparse geodetic data suggest the Cascadia fore arc is migrating northward along the coast and breaking up into large rotating blocks. Deformation occurs mostly around the margins of a large, relatively aseismic Oregon coastal block composed of thick, accreted seamount crust. This 400 km long block is moving slowly clockwise with respect to North America about a Euler pole in eastern Washington, thus increasing convergence rates along its leading edge near Cape Blanco, and creating an extensional volcanic arc on its trailing edge. Northward movement of the block breaks western Washington into smaller, seismically active blocks and compresses them against the Canadian Coast Mountains restraining bend. Arc-parallel transport of fore-arc blocks is calculated to be up to 9 mm/yr, sufficient to produce damaging earthquakes in a broad deformation zone along block margins.

  5. Radiation-induced second primary cancer risks from modern external beam radiotherapy for early prostate cancer: impact of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and flattening filter free (FFF) radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Louise J.; Thompson, Christopher M.; Lilley, John; Cosgrove, Vivian; Franks, Kevin; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Henry, Ann M.

    2015-02-01

    Risks of radiation-induced second primary cancer following prostate radiotherapy using 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), flattening filter free (FFF) and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) were evaluated. Prostate plans were created using 10 MV 3D-CRT (78 Gy in 39 fractions) and 6 MV 5-field IMRT (78 Gy in 39 fractions), VMAT (78 Gy in 39 fractions, with standard flattened and energy-matched FFF beams) and SABR (42.7 Gy in 7 fractions with standard flattened and energy-matched FFF beams). Dose-volume histograms from pelvic planning CT scans of three prostate patients, each planned using all 6 techniques, were used to calculate organ equivalent doses (OED) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of second rectal and bladder cancers, and pelvic bone and soft tissue sarcomas, using mechanistic, bell-shaped and plateau models. For organs distant to the treatment field, chamber measurements recorded in an anthropomorphic phantom were used to calculate OEDs and EARs using a linear model. Ratios of OED give relative radiation-induced second cancer risks. SABR resulted in lower second cancer risks at all sites relative to 3D-CRT. FFF resulted in lower second cancer risks in out-of-field tissues relative to equivalent flattened techniques, with increasing impact in organs at greater distances from the field. For example, FFF reduced second cancer risk by up to 20% in the stomach and up to 56% in the brain, relative to the equivalent flattened technique. Relative to 10 MV 3D-CRT, 6 MV IMRT or VMAT with flattening filter increased second cancer risks in several out-of-field organs, by up to 26% and 55%, respectively. For all techniques, EARs were consistently low. The observed large relative differences between techniques, in absolute terms, were very low, highlighting the importance of considering absolute risks alongside the corresponding relative risks, since when absolute

  6. Volumetric modulated arc therapy versus step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of large nerve perineural spread to the skull base: a comparative dosimetric planning study

    SciTech Connect

    Gorayski, Peter; Fitzgerald, Rhys; Barry, Tamara; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Foote, Matthew

    2014-06-15

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with large nerve perineural (LNPN) infiltration of the base of skull is a radiotherapeutic challenge given the complex target volumes to nearby organs at risk (OAR). A comparative planning study was undertaken to evaluate dosimetric differences between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of LNPN. Five consecutive patients previously treated with IMRT for LNPN were selected. VMAT plans were generated for each case using the same planning target volumes (PTV), dose prescriptions and OAR constraints as IMRT. Comparative parameters used to assess target volume coverage, conformity and homogeneity included V95 of the PTV (volume encompassed by the 95% isodose), conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI). In addition, OAR maximum point doses, V20, V30, non-target tissue (NTT) point max doses, NTT volume above reference dose, monitor units (MU) were compared. IMRT and VMAT plans generated were comparable for CI (P = 0.12) and HI (P = 0.89). VMAT plans achieved better V95 (P = < 0.001) and reduced V20 and V30 by 652 cubic centimetres (cc) (28.5%) and 425.7 cc (29.1%), respectively. VMAT increased MU delivered by 18% without a corresponding increase in NTT dose. Compared with IMRT plans for LNPN, VMAT achieved comparable HI and CI.

  7. Comparison of the performance between portal dosimetry and a commercial two-dimensional array system on pretreatment quality assurance for volumetric-modulated arc and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yon-Lae; Chung, Jin-Beom; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Sik

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dosimetric performance and to evaluate the pretreatment quality assurance (QA) of a portal dosimetry and a commercial two-dimensional (2-D) array system. In the characteristics comparison study, the measured values for the dose linearity, dose rate response, reproducibility, and field size dependence for 6-MV photon beams were analyzed for both detector systems. To perform the qualitative evaluations of the 10 IMRT and the 10 VMAT plans, we used the Gamma index for quantifying the agreement between calculations and measurements. The performance estimates for both systems show that overall, minimal differences in the dosimetric characteristics exist between the Electron portal imaging device (EPID) and 2-D array system. In the qualitative analysis for pretreatment quality assurance, the EPID and 2-D array system yield similar passing rate results for the majority of clinical Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) cases. These results were satisfactory for IMRT and VMAT fields and were within the acceptable criteria of γ%≤1, γ avg <0.5. The EPDI and the 2-D array systems showed comparable dosimetric results. In this study, the results revealed both systems to be suitable for patient-specific QA measurements for IMRT and VMAT. We conclude that, depending on the status of clinic, both systems can be used interchangeably for routine pretreatment QA.

  8. Potential for reduced radiation-induced toxicity using intensity-modulated arc therapy for whole-brain radiotherapy with hippocampal sparing.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Damodar; Sood, Sumit; Lominska, Christopher; Kumar, Parvesh; Badkul, Rajeev; Jiang, Hongyu; Wang, Fen

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the accuracy, plan quality, and efficiency of using intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) patients with sparing not only the hippocampus (following RTOG 0933 compliance criteria) but also other organs at risk (OARs). A total of 10 patients previously treated with nonconformal opposed laterals whole-brain radiotherapy (NC-WBRT) were retrospectively replanned for hippocampal sparing using IMAT treatment planning. The hippocampus was volumetrically contoured on fused diagnostic T1-weighted MRI with planning CT images and hippocampus avoidance zone (HAZ) was generated using a 5 mm uniform margin around the hippocampus. Both hippocampi were defined as one paired organ. Whole brain tissue minus HAZ was defined as the whole-brain planning target volume (WB-PTV). Highly conformal IMAT plans were generated in the Eclipse treatment planning system for Novalis TX linear accelerator consisting of high-definition multileaf collimators (HD-MLCs: 2.5 mm leaf width at isocenter) and 6 MV beam for a prescription dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions following RTOG 0933 dosimetric criteria. Two full coplanar arcs with orbits avoidance sectors were used. In addition to RTOG criteria, doses to other organs at risk (OARs), such as parotid glands, cochlea, external/middle ear canals, skin, scalp, optic pathways, brainstem, and eyes/lens, were also evaluated. Subsequently, dose delivery efficiency and accuracy of each IMAT plan was assessed by delivering quality assurance (QA) plans with a MapCHECK device, recording actual beam-on time and measuring planed vs. measured dose agreement using a gamma index. On IMAT plans, following RTOG 0933 dosimetric criteria, the maximum dose to WB-PTV, mean WB-PTV D2%, and mean WB-PTV D98% were 34.9±0.3 Gy,33.2±0.4 Gy, and 26.0±0.4 Gy, respectively. Accordingly, WB-PTV received the prescription dose of 30 Gy and mean V30 was 90.5%±0.5%. The D100%, and mean

  9. Potential for reduced radiation-induced toxicity using intensity-modulated arc therapy for whole-brain radiotherapy with hippocampal sparing.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Damodar; Sood, Sumit; Lominska, Christopher; Kumar, Pravesh; Badkul, Rajeev; Jiang, Hongyu; Wang, Fen

    2015-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the accuracy, plan quality, and efficiency of using intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) patients with sparing not only the hippocampus (following RTOG 0933 compliance criteria) but also other organs at risk (OARs). A total of 10 patients previously treated with nonconformal opposed laterals whole-brain radiotherapy (NC-WBRT) were retrospectively replanned for hippocampal sparing using IMAT treatment planning. The hippocampus was volumetrically contoured on fused diagnostic T1-weighted MRI with planning CT images and hippocampus avoidance zone (HAZ) was generated using a 5 mm uniform margin around the hippocampus. Both hippocampi were defined as one paired organ. Whole brain tissue minus HAZ was defined as the whole-brain planning target volume (WB-PTV). Highly conformal IMAT plans were generated in the Eclipse treatment planning system for Novalis TX linear accelerator consisting of high-definition multileaf collimators (HD-MLCs: 2.5 mm leaf width at isocenter) and 6 MV beam for a prescription dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions following RTOG 0933 dosimetric criteria. Two full coplanar arcs with orbits avoidance sectors were used. In addition to RTOG criteria, doses to other organs at risk (OARs), such as parotid glands, cochlea, external/middle ear canals, skin, scalp, optic pathways, brainstem, and eyes/lens, were also evaluated. Subsequently, dose delivery efficiency and accuracy of each IMAT plan was assessed by delivering quality assurance (QA) plans with a MapCHECK device, recording actual beam-on time and measuring planed vs. measured dose agreement using a gamma index. On IMAT plans, following RTOG 0933 dosimetric criteria, the maximum dose to WB-PTV, mean WB-PTV D2%, and mean WB-PTV D98% were 34.9 ± 0.3 Gy, 33.2 ± 0.4 Gy, and 26.0± 0.4Gy, respectively. Accordingly, WB-PTV received the prescription dose of 30Gy and mean V30 was 90.5% ± 0.5%. The D100%, and

  10. Role of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy with Volumetric-Modulated Arcs and High-Intensity Photon Beams for the Treatment of Abdomino-Pelvic Lymph-Node Metastases.

    PubMed

    Franzese, Ciro; Cozzi, Luca; Franceschini, Davide; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Comito, Tiziana; De Rose, Fiorenza; Navarria, Pierina; Mancosu, Pietro; Tomatis, Stefano; Fogliata, Antonella; Scorsetti, Marta

    2016-08-08

    To study clinical outcome for oligometastatic patients (abdominal lymph-node metastases) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. Seventy-one patients were studied retrospectively. Dose prescription was 45 Gy in six fractions. Clinical outcome was assessed with actuarial analysis. The median follow-up was 1.5 years; 45 patients (63.3%) had solitary metastasis, and 26 (36.6%) had multiple lesions. Local control was achieved in 97.5% with a 1-year actuarial rate of 83%. Two-year progression-free survival was 63.1%, and the overall survival was 76.9%. Two patients (3%) developed grade 2 gastro-enteric toxicity. The treatment provided adequate clinical response in the management of oligometastatic cases.

  11. Arc-driven rail accelerator research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Pradosh K.

    1987-01-01

    Arc-driven rail accelerator research is analyzed by considering wall ablation and viscous drag in the plasma. Plasma characteristics are evaluated through a simple fluid-mechanical analysis considering only wall ablation. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the average properties of the plasma are determined as a function of time and rate of ablation. Locations of two simultaneously accelerating arcs were determined by optical and magnetic probes and fron streak camera photographs. All three measurements provide consistent results.

  12. Magnetically Diffused Radial Electric-Arc Air Heater Employing Water-Cooled Copper Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, R. F.; Davis, D. D., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    A magnetically rotated electric-arc air heater has been developed that is novel in that an intense magnetic field of the order of 10,000 to 25,000 gauss is employed. This field is supplied by a coil that is connected in series with the arc. Experimentation with this heater has shown that the presence of an intense magnetic field transverse to the arc results in diffusion of the arc and that the arc has a positive effective resistance. With the field coil in series with the arc, highly stable arc operation is obtained from a battery power supply. External ballast is not required to stabilize the arc when it is operating at maximum power level. The electrode erosion rate is so low that the airstream contamination is no more than 0.07 percent and may be substantially less.

  13. In the Arc

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-15

    NASA Cassini spacecraft image holds an unseen treasure orbiting within the bright arc of Saturn G ring: the tiny moonlet Aegaeon. Too small to be seen here, it is thought to be the source of the debris forming the bright arc in the lower right.

  14. TIGER Arc Modification Application

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Hillary

    1995-03-06

    The application enables the geometric correction of TIGER arcs to a more accurate spatial data set. This is done in a structured automated environment according to Census Bureau guidelines and New Mexico state GIS standards. Arcs may be deleted, added, combined, split, and moved relative to a coverage or image displayed in the background.

  15. WSTF electrical arc projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linley, Larry

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of these projects include the following: validate method used to screen wire insulation with arc tracking characteristics; determine damage resistance to arc as a function of source voltage and insulation thickness; investigate propagation characteristics of Kapton at low voltages; and investigate pyrolytic properties of polyimide insulated (Kapton) wire for low voltage (less than 35 VDC) applications. Supporting diagrams and tables are presented.

  16. WSTF electrical arc projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linley, Larry

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of these projects include the following: validate method used to screen wire insulation with arc tracking characteristics; determine damage resistance to arc as a function of source voltage and insulation thickness; investigate propagation characteristics of Kapton at low voltages; and investigate pyrolytic properties of polyimide insulated (Kapton) wire for low voltage (less than 35 VDC) applications. Supporting diagrams and tables are presented.

  17. The Dosimetric Importance of Six Degree of Freedom Couch End to End Quality Assurance for SRS/SBRT Treatments when Comparing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulizio, Vincent Michael

    With the advancement of technology there is an increasing ability for lesions to be treated with higher radiation doses each fraction. This also allows for low fractionated treatments. Because the patient is receiving a higher dose of radiation per fraction and because of the fast dose falloff in these targets there must be extreme accuracy in the delivery. The 6 DOF couch allows for extra rotational corrections and for a more accurate set-up. The movement of the couch needs to be verified to be accurate and because of this, end to end quality assurance tests for the couch have been made. After the set-up is known to be accurate then different treatment techniques can be studied. SBRT of the Spine has a very fast dose falloff near the spinal cord and was typically treated with IMRT. Treatment plans generated using this technique tend to have streaks of low dose radiation, so VMAT is being studied to determine if this treatment technique can reduce the low dose radiation volume as well as improve OAR sparing. For the 6 DOF couch QA, graph paper is placed on the anterior and right lateral sides of the VisionRT OSMS Cube Phantom. Each rotational shift is then applied individually, with a 3 degree shift in the positive and negative directions for pitch and roll. A mark is drawn on the paper to record each shift. A CBCT is then taken of the Cube and known shifts are applied and then an additional CBCT is taken to return the Cube to isocenter. The original IMRT plans for SBRT of the Spine are evaluated and then a plan is made utilizing VMAT. These plans are then compared for low dose radiation, OAR sparing, and conformity. If the original IMRT plan is determined to be an inferior treatment to what is acceptable, then this will be re-planned and compared to the VMAT plan. The 6 DOF couch QA tests have proven to be accurate and reproducible. The average deviations in the 3 degree and -3 degree pitch and roll directions were 0.197, 0.068, 0.091, and 0.110 degrees

  18. Lazy arc consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Schiex, T.; Gaspin, C.; Regin, J.C.; Verfaillie, G.

    1996-12-31

    Arc consistency filtering is widely used in the framework of binary constraint satisfaction problems: with a low complexity, inconsistency may be detected and domains are filtered. In this paper, we show that when detecting inconsistency is the objective, a systematic domain filtering is useless and a lazy approach is more adequate. Whereas usual arc consistency algorithms produce the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, when it exists, we propose a method, called LAC{tau}, which only looks for any arc consistent sub-domain. The algorithm is then extended to provide the additional service of locating one variable with a minimum domain cardinality in the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, without necessarily computing all domain sizes. Finally, we compare traditional AC enforcing and lazy AC enforcing using several benchmark problems, both randomly generated CSP and real life problems.

  19. Hazards from High Intensity Lamps and Arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    The principal occupational health problem generally associated with high intensity arc lamps results from exposure of the eye and skin to ultraviolet radiation. Occasionally, the chorioretinal burns are of concern. The eye is generally more susceptible than the skin to injury from high intensity optical radiation sources whether ultraviolet, visible or infrared. Recent developments in technology have shown that some high intensity optical radiation sources which have output parameters greatly different from those encountered in the natural environment present a serious chorioretinal burn hazard.

  20. Hazards from High Intensity Lamps and Arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    The principal occupational health problem generally associated with high intensity arc lamps results from exposure of the eye and skin to ultraviolet radiation. Occasionally, the chorioretinal burns are of concern. The eye is generally more susceptible than the skin to injury from high intensity optical radiation sources whether ultraviolet, visible or infrared. Recent developments in technology have shown that some high intensity optical radiation sources which have output parameters greatly different from those encountered in the natural environment present a serious chorioretinal burn hazard.

  1. Late Cenozoic fault kinematics and basin development, Calabrian arc, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, S.D.; Turco, E.

    1988-08-01

    Current views for explaining the present structure of the Calabrian arc emphasize bending or buckling of an initially straight zone by rigid indentation. Although bending has played an important role, bending itself cannot explain all structural features now seen in the arc for the following reasons: (1) across-arc extension is inconsistent with buckling, (2) north-south compression predicted by a bending mechanism to occur in the internal part of a curved mountain belt is not present in the Calabrian arc, and (3) lateral shear occurs throughout the arc, not just along the northern and southern boundaries. The model presented here is based on lateral bending of mantle and lower crust (demonstrated by variation in extension in the Tyrrhenian basin) and semibrittle faulting and block rotation in the upper crust. These two styles of deformation are confined to the upper plate of the Calabrian subduction system. This deformation is considered to have been active from the beginning of extension in the Tyrrhenian basin (late Tortonian) and is still active today (based on Holocene seismicity). Block rotations are a consequence of lateral heterogeneous shear during extension. Therefore, some of the observed rotation of paleo-magnetic declinations may have occurred in areas undergoing extension and not just during thrusting. Inversion of sedimentary basins by block rotation is predicted by the model. The model will be a useful aid in interpreting reflection seismic data and exploring and developing offshore and onshore sedimentary basins in southern Italy.

  2. [Study on the arc spectral information for welding quality diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Gu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Huan; Yang, Li-Jun

    2009-03-01

    Through collecting the spectral signals of TIG and MIG welding arc with spectrometer, the arc light radiations were analyzed based on the basic theory of plasma physics. The radiation of welding arc distributes over a broad range of frequency, from infrared to ultraviolet. The arc spectrum is composed of line spectra and continuous spectra. Due to the variation of metal density in the welding arc, there is great difference between the welding arc spectra of TIG and MIG in both their intensity and distribution. The MIG welding arc provides more line spectra of metal and the intensity of radiation is greater than TIG. The arc spectrum of TIG welding is stable during the welding process, disturbance factors that cause the spectral variations can be reflected by the spectral line related to the corresponding element entering the welding arc. The arc spectrum of MIG welding will fluctuate severely due to droplet transfer, which produces "noise" in the line spectrum aggregation zone. So for MIG welding, the spectral zone lacking spectral line is suitable for welding quality diagnosis. According to the characteristic of TIG and MIG, special spectral zones were selected for welding quality diagnosis. For TIG welding, the selected zone is in ultraviolet zone (230-300 nm). For MIG welding, the selected zone is in visible zone (570-590 nm). With the basic theory provided for welding quality diagnosis, the integral intensity of spectral signal in the selected zone of welding process with disturbing factor was studied to prove the theory. The results show that the welding quality and disturbance factors can be diagnosed with good signal to noise ratio in the selected spectral zone compared with signal in other spectral zone. The spectral signal can be used for real-time diagnosis of the welding quality.

  3. Dynamic electron arc radiotherapy (DEAR): a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Anna; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Qiuwen

    2014-01-20

    Compared to other radiation therapy modalities, clinical electron beam therapy has remained practically unchanged for the past few decades even though electron beams with multiple energies are widely available on most linacs. In this paper, we present the concept of dynamic electron arc radiotherapy (DEAR), a new conformal electron therapy technique with synchronized couch motion. DEAR utilizes combination of gantry rotation, couch motion, and dose rate modulation to achieve desirable dose distributions in patient. The electron applicator is kept to minimize scatter and maintain narrow penumbra. The couch motion is synchronized with the gantry rotation to avoid collision between patient and the electron cone. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of DEAR delivery and demonstrate the potential of DEAR to improve dose distributions on simple cylindrical phantoms. DEAR was delivered on Varian's TrueBeam linac in Research Mode. In conjunction with the recorded trajectory log files, mechanical motion accuracies and dose rate modulation precision were analyzed. Experimental and calculated dose distributions were investigated for different energies (6 and 9 MeV) and cut-out sizes (1×10 cm(2) and 3×10 cm(2) for a 15×15 cm(2) applicator). Our findings show that DEAR delivery is feasible and has the potential to deliver radiation dose with high accuracy (root mean square error, or RMSE of <0.1 MU, <0.1° gantry, and <0.1 cm couch positions) and good dose rate precision (1.6 MU min(-1)). Dose homogeneity within ±2% in large and curved targets can be achieved while maintaining penumbra comparable to a standard electron beam on a flat surface. Further, DEAR does not require fabrication of patient-specific shields. These benefits make DEAR a promising technique for conformal radiotherapy of superficial tumors.

  4. Dynamic electron arc radiotherapy (DEAR): a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Anna; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Qiuwen

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other radiation therapy modalities, clinical electron beam therapy has remained practically unchanged for the past few decades even though electron beams with multiple energies are widely available on most linacs. In this paper, we present the concept of dynamic electron arc radiotherapy (DEAR), a new conformal electron therapy technique with synchronized couch motion. DEAR utilizes combination of gantry rotation, couch motion, and dose rate modulation to achieve desirable dose distributions in patient. The electron applicator is kept to minimize scatter and maintain narrow penumbra. The couch motion is synchronized with the gantry rotation to avoid collision between patient and the electron cone. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of DEAR delivery and demonstrate the potential of DEAR to improve dose distributions on simple cylindrical phantoms. DEAR was delivered on Varian's TrueBeam linac in Research Mode. In conjunction with the recorded trajectory log files, mechanical motion accuracies and dose rate modulation precision were analyzed. Experimental and calculated dose distributions were investigated for different energies (6 and 9 MeV) and cut-out sizes (1×10 cm2 and 3×10 cm2 for a 15×15 cm2 applicator). Our findings show that DEAR delivery is feasible and has the potential to deliver radiation dose with high accuracy (root mean square error, or RMSE of <0.1 MU, <0.1° gantry, and <0.1 cm couch positions) and good dose rate precision (1.6 MU min-1). Dose homogeneity within ±2% in large and curved targets can be achieved while maintaining penumbra comparable to a standard electron beam on a flat surface. Further, DEAR does not require fabrication of patient-specific shields. These benefits make DEAR a promising technique for conformal radiotherapy of superficial tumors.

  5. Welding arc initiator

    DOEpatents

    Correy, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    An improved inert gas shielded tungsten arc welder is disclosed of the type wherein a tungsten electrode is shielded within a flowing inert gas, and, an arc, following ignition, burns between the energized tungsten electrode and a workpiece. The improvement comprises in combination with the tungsten electrode, a starting laser focused upon the tungsten electrode which to ignite the electrode heats a spot on the energized electrode sufficient for formation of a thermionic arc. Interference problems associated with high frequency starters are thus overcome.

  6. Welding arc initiator

    DOEpatents

    Correy, T.B.

    1989-05-09

    An improved inert gas shielded tungsten arc welder is disclosed of the type wherein a tungsten electrode is shielded within a flowing inert gas, and, an arc, following ignition, burns between the energized tungsten electrode and a workpiece. The improvement comprises in combination with the tungsten electrode, a starting laser focused upon the tungsten electrode which to ignite the electrode heats a spot on the energized electrode sufficient for formation of a thermionic arc. Interference problems associated with high frequency starters are thus overcome. 3 figs.

  7. Arc spraying in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianjun

    2001-03-01

    Although are spraying is not a new technique, recent development of arc spraying device systems, spray wires, research on the coating mechanism, and the dynamic behavior of spraying make it a most active thermal spray process. In China, the arc spraying technique is the most efficient way for long life corrosion protection of steel structures. In addition, the arc spraying process is widely used for renovation and surface modification of machine components, mold making for plastic products, high-temperature corrosion resistance for waterwalls of boilers, antisliding coatings, self-lubricating coatings, etc.

  8. Tokamak ARC damage

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.G.; Gorker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage.

  9. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, Paul R [Richland, WA

    1986-01-01

    A portable, hand held electric arc saw has a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc to erode a workpiece. Electric current is supplied to the blade by biased brushes and a slip ring which are mounted in the frame. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads stretched between two pulleys are used to facilitate movement of the electric arc saw. The pulleys are formed of dielectric material to electrically insulate the crawler treads from the frame.

  10. Theoretical analysis of ARC constriction

    SciTech Connect

    Stoenescu, M.L.; Brooks, A.W.; Smith, T.M.

    1980-12-01

    The physics of the thermionic converter is governed by strong electrode-plasma interactions (emissions surface scattering, charge exchange) and weak interactions (diffusion, radiation) at the maximum interelectrode plasma radius. The physical processes are thus mostly convective in thin sheaths in front of the electrodes and mostly diffusive and radiative in the plasma bulk. The physical boundaries are open boundaries to particle transfer (electrons emitted or absorbed by the electrodes, all particles diffusing through some maximum plasma radius) and to convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. In a first approximation the thermionic converter may be described by a one-dimensional classical transport theory. The two-dimensional effects may be significant as a result of the sheath sensitivity to radial plasma variations and of the strong sheath-plasma coupling. The current-voltage characteristic of the converter is thus the result of an integrated current density over the collector area for which the boundary conditions at each r determine the regime (ignited/unignited) of the local current density. A current redistribution strongly weighted at small radii (arc constriction) limits the converter performance and opens questions on constriction reduction possibilities. The questions addressed are the followng: (1) what are the main contributors to the loss of current at high voltage in the thermionic converter; and (2) is arc constriction observable theoretically and what are the conditions of its occurrence. The resulting theoretical problem is formulated and results are given. The converter electrical current is estimated directly from the electron and ion particle fluxes based on the spatial distribution of the electron/ion density n, temperatures T/sub e/, T/sub i/, electrical voltage V and on the knowledge of the transport coefficients. (WHK)

  11. Analogue models of progressive arcs: insights into the kinematics of Mediterranean orogens as view from the Gibraltar Arc System (GAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Bonilla, Alejandro; Crespo, Ana; Balanyá, Juan Carlos; Expósito, Inmaculada; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    The western Mediterranean orogenic belt is characterized by two arcs marked by their extremely tight trend-line pattern. Both arcs, Gibraltar and Calabria arcs, show a similar kinematic pattern of extension in their internal zones associated with the development of a back-arc basin approximately counterweighted by outward radial thrusting in their external zones. At the same time, opposite vertical-axis rotations at the arc limbs have been reported. Our case study is the Gibraltar Arc System (GAS), a highly protruded arc in which differential vertical-axis rotations of hundreds of kilometer-scale blocks have been identified. During the last 10 Ma, these differential rotations reach 70° in the westernmost part of the arc [1]. Consequently, the GAS external zone was deformed into a curved fold-and-thrust belt. To look into the geometry, kinematics and progressive deformation of the GAS fold-and-thrust belt -which is detached within an evaporitic-rich layer-, analogue models were performed employing a deformable plastic strip that is able to increase its protrusion grade during the experiment. Three types of set-ups were made using: (1) a 66cm x 51cm initial parallelepiped built only with a sand layer; (2) a 66cm x 51cm initial parallelepiped floored by ductile layer of silicone of variable thickness overlaid by sand; (3) a 100cm x 65cm initial parallelepiped floored by silicone overlaid by sand. In all the experiments, the parallelepiped was deformed into a curved fold-and-thrust belt with outward radial transport direction. The thicker the silicone layer is, the more frequent backthrusting is and the more noticeable the lack of cylindrism is. During the progression of the deformation, the arc-parallel lengthening was achieved by arc-perpendicular normal faults and oblique, conjugate strike-slip faults, which individualized blocks that rotated independently in the second and third set of models. Grid markers rotated clockwise and anticlockwise at the left and right

  12. Metal halide arc discharge lamp having short arc length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muzeroll, Martin E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A metal halide arc discharge lamp includes a sealed light-transmissive outer jacket, a light-transmissive shroud located within the outer jacket and an arc tube assembly located within the shroud. The arc tube assembly includes an arc tube, electrodes mounted within the arc tube and a fill material for supporting an arc discharge. The electrodes have a spacing such that an electric field in a range of about 60 to 95 volts per centimeter is established between the electrodes. The diameter of the arc tube and the spacing of the electrodes are selected to provide an arc having an arc diameter to arc length ratio in a range of about 1.6 to 1.8. The fill material includes mercury, sodium iodide, scandium tri-iodide and a rare gas, and may include lithium iodide. The lamp exhibits a high color rendering index, high lumen output and high color temperature.

  13. Under conditions of large geometric miss, tumor control probability can be higher for static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy compared to volume-modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Balderson, Michael Brown, Derek; Johnson, Patricia; Kirkby, Charles

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) under scenarios involving large geometric misses, i.e., those beyond what are accounted for when margin expansion is determined. Using a planning approach typical for these treatments, a linear-quadratic–based model for TCP was used to compare mean TCP values for a population of patients who experiences a geometric miss (i.e., systematic and random shifts of the clinical target volume within the planning target dose distribution). A Monte Carlo approach was used to account for the different biological sensitivities of a population of patients. Interestingly, for errors consisting of coplanar systematic target volume offsets and three-dimensional random offsets, static gantry IMRT appears to offer an advantage over VMAT in that larger shift errors are tolerated for the same mean TCP. For example, under the conditions simulated, erroneous systematic shifts of 15 mm directly between or directly into static gantry IMRT fields result in mean TCP values between 96% and 98%, whereas the same errors on VMAT plans result in mean TCP values between 45% and 74%. Random geometric shifts of the target volume were characterized using normal distributions in each Cartesian dimension. When the standard deviations were doubled from those values assumed in the derivation of the treatment margins, our model showed a 7% drop in mean TCP for the static gantry IMRT plans but a 20% drop in TCP for the VMAT plans. Although adding a margin for error to a clinical target volume is perhaps the best approach to account for expected geometric misses, this work suggests that static gantry IMRT may offer a treatment that is more tolerant to geometric miss errors than VMAT.

  14. Under conditions of large geometric miss, tumor control probability can be higher for static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy compared to volume-modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Balderson, Michael; Brown, Derek; Johnson, Patricia; Kirkby, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) under scenarios involving large geometric misses, i.e., those beyond what are accounted for when margin expansion is determined. Using a planning approach typical for these treatments, a linear-quadratic-based model for TCP was used to compare mean TCP values for a population of patients who experiences a geometric miss (i.e., systematic and random shifts of the clinical target volume within the planning target dose distribution). A Monte Carlo approach was used to account for the different biological sensitivities of a population of patients. Interestingly, for errors consisting of coplanar systematic target volume offsets and three-dimensional random offsets, static gantry IMRT appears to offer an advantage over VMAT in that larger shift errors are tolerated for the same mean TCP. For example, under the conditions simulated, erroneous systematic shifts of 15mm directly between or directly into static gantry IMRT fields result in mean TCP values between 96% and 98%, whereas the same errors on VMAT plans result in mean TCP values between 45% and 74%. Random geometric shifts of the target volume were characterized using normal distributions in each Cartesian dimension. When the standard deviations were doubled from those values assumed in the derivation of the treatment margins, our model showed a 7% drop in mean TCP for the static gantry IMRT plans but a 20% drop in TCP for the VMAT plans. Although adding a margin for error to a clinical target volume is perhaps the best approach to account for expected geometric misses, this work suggests that static gantry IMRT may offer a treatment that is more tolerant to geometric miss errors than VMAT. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rotating Juno for Integrating Instruments

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    Once the radiation vault was installed on top of the propulsion module, NASA Juno spacecraft was lifted onto a large rotation fixture. The fixture allows the spacecraft to be turned for convenient access for integrating and testing instruments.

  16. Arc Voltage Between Deion Grid Affected by Division of Arc in Magnetic Driven Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inuzuka, Yutaro; Yamato, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic driven arc has been applied to DC breaker and fault current limiters. However, it has not been researched, especially stagnation and re-strike of the arc. In this paper, the arc voltage between deion grid affected by division of arc in magnetic driven arc and arc behavior are measured by using the oscilloscope and HSVC (High Speed Video Camera). As a result, arc voltage increased because of division of the arc. The arc mean moving speed increases with increasing the external magnetic field. However, when the arc was not stalemate, the arc moving speed does not change so much. The arc re-strike time increases and stalemate time decreases with increasing the external magnetic field. Therefore, the anode spot moving speed increases 8 times because arc re-strike occurs easily with the external magnetic field. Thus, the erosion of electrodes decreases and the arc movement becomes the smooth. When the arc is divided, the arc voltage increased because of the electrode fall voltage. Therefore, the arc voltage increases with increasing the number of deion grid.

  17. ARC-1964-A-31910

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-01-24

    Dr. Dean R. Chapman a Ames Research Center scientists studing tektits, holding a simulated tektite created in the Ames arc jet facility (left) and authentic Australian tektite over a map of Australia.

  18. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-18

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

  19. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  20. Rotational moulding.

    PubMed

    Crawford, R J; Kearns, M P

    2003-10-01

    Rotational moulding promises designers attractive economics and a low-pressure process. The benefits of rotational moulding are compared here with other manufacturing methods such as injection and blow moulding.

  1. Rotating Vesta

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Astronomers combined 146 exposures taken by NASA's Hubble SpaceTelescope to make this 73-frame movie of the asteroid Vesta's rotation.Vesta completes a rotation every 5.34 hours.› Asteroid and...

  2. Study of an ablation-dominated arc in a model circuit breaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhoff, D.; Kurz, A.; Kozakov, R.; Gött, G.; Uhrlandt, D.; Schnettler, A.

    2012-08-01

    A switching arc in a model circuit breaker is studied by means of CFD simulations and optical emission spectroscopy. The arc is initiated between tungsten-copper electrodes in a carbon dioxide atmosphere and is led through PTFE (polytetrafluorethylene) nozzles. Radiation emitted by the arc plasma is absorbed by the surface of the nozzles leading to ablation of the wall material. The CFD simulations are based on a model of the arcing zone including a consistent treatment of the radiation transport and wall ablation. Carbon ion line radiation is analysed in the experiment using an optical path in the heating channel between the nozzles. Temperature profiles obtained from spectroscopy and simulations are compared. The pressure value in the arc is estimated based on the line width-intensity dependence. The obtained values correspond to the measured pressure outside the arc. Coincidence in temperature for the peak current and discrepancy on the falling edge are found and discussed.

  3. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  4. SU-E-J-170: Dosimetric Consequences of Uncorrected Rotational Setup Errors During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Treatment of Pancreatic Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Di Maso, L; Forbang, R Teboh; Zhang, Y; Herman, J; Lee, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the dosimetric consequences of uncorrected rotational setup errors during SBRT for pancreatic cancer patients. Methods: This was a retrospective study utilizing data from ten (n=10) previously treated SBRT pancreas patients. For each original planning CT, we applied rotational transformations to derive additional CT images representative of possible rotational setup errors. This resulted in 6 different sets of rotational combinations, creating a total of 60 CT planning images. The patients’ clinical dosimetric plans were then applied to their corresponding rotated CT images. The 6 rotation sets encompassed a 3, 2 and 1-degree rotation in each rotational direction and a 3-degree in just the pitch, a 3-degree in just the yaw and a 3-degree in just the roll. After the dosimetric plan was applied to the rotated CT images, the resulting plan was then evaluated and compared with the clinical plan for tumor coverage and normal tissue sparing. Results: PTV coverage, defined here by V33 throughout all of the patients’ clinical plans, ranged from 92–98%. After an n degree rotation in each rotational direction that range decreased to 68–87%, 85–92%, and 88– 94% for n=3, 2 and 1 respectively. Normal tissue sparing defined here by the proximal stomach V15 throughout all of the patients’ clinical plans ranged from 0–8.9 cc. After an n degree rotation in each rotational direction that range increased to 0–17 cc, 0–12 cc, and 0–10 cc for n=3, 2, and 1 respectively. Conclusion: For pancreatic SBRT, small rotational setup errors in the pitch, yaw and roll direction on average caused under dosage to PTV and over dosage to proximal normal tissue. The 1-degree rotation was on average the least detrimental to the normal tissue and the coverage of the PTV. The 3-degree yaw created on average the lowest increase in volume coverage to normal tissue. This research was sponsored by the AAPM Education Council through the AAPM Education and Research

  5. Optimized dynamic rotation with wedges.

    PubMed

    Rosen, I I; Morrill, S M; Lane, R G

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic rotation is a computer-controlled therapy technique utilizing an automated multileaf collimator in which the radiation beam shape changes dynamically as the treatment machine rotates about the patient so that at each instant the beam shape matches the projected shape of the target volume. In simple dynamic rotation, the dose rate remains constant during rotation. For optimized dynamic rotation, the dose rate is varied as a function of gantry angle. Optimum dose rate at each gantry angle is computed by linear programming. Wedges can be included in the optimized dynamic rotation therapy by using additional rotations. Simple and optimized dynamic rotation treatment plans, with and without wedges, for a pancreatic tumor have been compared using optimization cost function values, normal tissue complication probabilities, and positive difference statistic values. For planning purposes, a continuous rotation is approximated by static beams at a number of gantry angles equally spaced about the patient. In theory, the quality of optimized treatment planning solutions should improve as the number of static beams increases. The addition of wedges should further improve dose distributions. For the case studied, no significant improvements were seen for more than 36 beam angles. Open and wedged optimized dynamic rotations were better than simple dynamic rotation, but wedged optimized dynamic rotation showed no definitive improvement over open beam optimized dynamic rotation.

  6. The Effect of Flattening Filter Free on Three-dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT), Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Plans for Metastatic Brain Tumors from Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li-Wan; Lai, You-Qun; Lin, Qin; Ha, Hui-Ming; Fu, Li-Rong

    2015-07-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) may affect outcome measures of radiotherapy. The objective of this study is to compare the dosimetric parameters in three types of radiotherapy plans, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), with or without the flattening filter (FF), developed for the treatment of metastatic brain tumors from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From July 2013 to October 2013, 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT treatment plans were designed using 6 MV and 10 MV, with and without FF, for 10 patients with brain metastasis from NSCLC. The evaluation of the treatment plans included homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), monitor units (MU), mean dose (Dmean), treatment time, and the influence of FFF on volumes. There was no difference in CI or HI between FFF and FF models with 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT plans. At 6 MV, a lower Dmean was seen in the FFF model of 3D-CRT and in the VMAT plan at 10 MV. In the IMRT 6 MV, IMRT 10 MV, and VMAT 10 MV plans, higher MUs were seen in the FFF models. FFF treatments are similar in quality to FF plans, generally lead to more monitor units, and are associated with shorter treatment times. FFF plans ranked by the order of superiority in terms of a time advantage are VMAT, 3D-CRT, and IMRT.

  7. Influence of axial self-magnetic field component on arcing behavior of spiral-shaped contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Dingyu; Xiu, Shixin Wang, Yi; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Yali; Bi, Dongli

    2015-10-15

    The transverse magnetic field (TMF) contact design is commonly used in vacuum interrupters. When arcing occurs between the TMF contacts, the contact structure can create a self-induced magnetic field that drives the arc to move and rotate on the contact, and thus local overheating and severe erosion can be avoided. However, TMF contacts could also create an axial self-magnetic component, and the influence of this component on the arc behavior has not been considered to date. In this paper, five different types of Cu-Cr spiral-shaped TMF contacts with three different structures are investigated in a demountable vacuum chamber that contains a high-speed charge-coupled device video camera. It was found that the contact structure greatly influenced the arc behavior, especially in terms of arc rotation and the effective contact area, while contacts with the same slot structure but different diameters showed similar arc behavior and arc motion. The magnetic field distribution and the Lorentz force of each of the three different contact structures are simulated, and the axial self-magnetic field was first taken into consideration for investigation of the TMF contact design. It was found that contact designs that have higher axial self-magnetic field components tend to have arc columns with larger diameters and show poorer arc motion and rotation performance in the experiments.

  8. Leaf position error during conformal dynamic arc and intensity modulated arc treatments.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, C R; Spencer, K M; Alhakeem, R; Oliver, A L

    2001-01-01

    Conformal dynamic arc (CD-ARC) and intensity modulated arc treatments (IMAT) are both treatment modalities where the multileaf collimator (MLC) can change leaf position dynamically during gantry rotation. These treatment techniques can be used to generate complex isodose distributions, similar to those used in fix-gantry intensity modulation. However, a beam-hold delay cannot be used during CD-ARC or IMAT treatments to reduce spatial error. Consequently, a certain amount of leaf position error will have to be accepted in order to make the treatment deliverable. Measurements of leaf position accuracy were taken with leaf velocities ranging from 0.3 to 3.0 cm/s. The average and maximum leaf position errors were measured, and a least-squares linear regression analysis was performed on the measured data to determine the MLC velocity error coefficient. The average position errors range from 0.03 to 0.21 cm, with the largest deviations occurring at the maximum achievable leaf velocity (3.0 cm/s). The measured MLC velocity error coefficient was 0.0674 s for a collimator rotation of 0 degrees and 0.0681 s for a collimator rotation of 90 degrees. The distribution in leaf position error between the 0 degrees and 90 degrees collimator rotations was within statistical uncertainty. A simple formula was developed based on these results for estimating the velocity-dependent dosimetric error. Using this technique, a dosimetric error index for plan evaluation can be calculated from the treatment time and the dynamic MLC leaf controller file.

  9. The statistical difference between bending arcs and regular polar arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullen, A.; Fear, R. C.; Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Karlsson, T.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the Polar UVI data set by Kullen et al. (2002) of 74 polar arcs is reinvestigated, focusing on bending arcs. Bending arcs are typically faint and form (depending on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By direction) on the dawnside or duskside oval with the tip of the arc splitting off the dayside oval. The tip subsequently moves into the polar cap in the antisunward direction, while the arc's nightside end remains attached to the oval, eventually becoming hook-shaped. Our investigation shows that bending arcs appear on the opposite oval side from and farther sunward than most regular polar arcs. They form during By-dominated IMF conditions: typically, the IMF clock angle increases from 60 to 90° about 20 min before the arc forms. Antisunward plasma flows from the oval into the polar cap just poleward of bending arcs are seen in Super Dual Auroral Radar Network data, indicating dayside reconnection. For regular polar arcs, recently reported characteristics are confirmed in contrast to bending arcs. This includes plasma flows along the nightside oval that originate close to the initial arc location and a significant delay in the correlation between IMF By and initial arc location. In our data set, the highest correlations are found with IMF By appearing at least 1-2 h before arc formation. In summary, bending arcs are distinctly different from regular arcs and cannot be explained by existing polar arc models. Instead, these results are consistent with the formation mechanism described in Carter et al. (2015), suggesting that bending arcs are caused by dayside reconnection.

  10. Back-arc spreading of the northern Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands arc clarified by GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Takuya

    2011-11-01

    We examined GPS data in the northwestern Pacific region, which includes the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Mariana (IBM) arc and the Japan arc. GPS velocity vectors on the Izu Islands, including Hachijo-jima and Aoga-shima, show systematic eastward movement deviating from that predicted by the rigid rotation of the Philippine Sea plate; this deviation supports the active back-arc spreading model suggested by previous geological studies. The results of a statistical F-test analysis with 99% confidence level showed that the forearc of the Izu Islands arc has an independent motion with respect to the rigid part of the Philippine Sea plate. We developed a kinematic block-fault model to estimate both rigid rotations of crustal blocks and elastic deformation due to locked faults on the block boundaries. The model suggests that the back-arc opening rate along the Izu back-arc rift zone ranges from 2 mm/yr at its southern end to 9 mm/yr near Miyake-jima, its northern end. It also predicts 23-28 mm/yr of relative motion along the Sagami Trough in the direction of ~ N25°W, where the Izu forearc subducts beneath central Japan. The orientation of this motion is supported by slip vectors of recent medium-size earthquakes, repeated slow-slip events, and the 1923 M = 7.9 Kanto earthquake.

  11. Theory of Kerr and Faraday rotations and linear dichroism in Topological Weyl Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Kargarian, Mehdi; Randeria, Mohit; Trivedi, Nandini

    2015-08-03

    We consider the electromagnetic response of a topological Weyl semimetal (TWS) with a pair of Weyl nodes in the bulk and corresponding Fermi arcs in the surface Brillouin zone. We compute the frequency-dependent complex conductivities σαβ(ω) and also take into account the modification of Maxwell equations by the topological θ-term to obtain the Kerr and Faraday rotations in a variety of geometries. For TWS films thinner than the wavelength, the Kerr and Faraday rotations, determined by the separation between Weyl nodes, are significantly larger than in topological insulators. In thicker films, the Kerr and Faraday angles can be enhanced by choice of film thickness and substrate refractive index. We show that, for radiation incident on a surface with Fermi arcs, there is no Kerr or Faraday rotation but the electric field develops a longitudinal component inside the TWS, and there is linear dichroism signal. Our results have implications for probing the TWS phase in various experimental systems.

  12. The automated rotating shadowband spectroradiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, L.; Beik, M.A.; Michalsky, J.J.

    1993-11-01

    We are developing a photodiode array rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) as part of the Instrument Development Program (IDP) of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). This instrument uses the automated rotating shadowband technique to separate and measure the spectrally resolved direct-normal, total horizontal, and diffuse horizontal irradiances in the 360 to 1060 nm wavelength region. It is intended as an instrument for the central facility of each of the cloud and radiation testbed (CART) sites, and will complement the array of multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) currently being deployed by ARM and other research programs including TOGA/COARE.

  13. Consolidating NASA's Arc Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balboni, John A.; Gokcen, Tahir; Hui, Frank C. L.; Graube, Peter; Morrissey, Patricia; Lewis, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the consolidation of NASA's high powered arc-jet testing at a single location. The existing plasma arc-jet wind tunnels located at the Johnson Space Center were relocated to Ames Research Center while maintaining NASA's technical capability to ground-test thermal protection system materials under simulated atmospheric entry convective heating. The testing conditions at JSC were reproduced and successfully demonstrated at ARC through close collaboration between the two centers. New equipment was installed at Ames to provide test gases of pure nitrogen mixed with pure oxygen, and for future nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. A new control system was custom designed, installed and tested. Tests demonstrated the capability of the 10 MW constricted-segmented arc heater at Ames meets the requirements of the major customer, NASA's Orion program. Solutions from an advanced computational fluid dynamics code were used to aid in characterizing the properties of the plasma stream and the surface environment on the calorimeters in the supersonic flow stream produced by the arc heater.

  14. Control of arc length during gas metal arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Madigan, R.B.; Quinn, T.P.

    1994-12-31

    An arc-length control system has been developed for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) under spray transfer welding conditions. The ability to monitor and control arc length during arc welding allows consistent weld characteristics to be maintained and therefore improves weld quality. Arc length control has only been implemented for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), where an automatic voltage control (AVC) unit adjusts torch-to-work distance. The system developed here compliments the voltage- and current-sensing techniques commonly used for control of GMAW. The system consists of an arc light intensity sensor (photodiode), a Hall-effect current sensor, a personal computer and software implementing a data interpretation and control algorithms. Arc length was measured using both arc light and arc current signals. Welding current was adjusted to maintain constant arc length. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was used. Gains were automatically selected based on the desired welding conditions. In performance evaluation welds, arc length varied from 2.5 to 6.5 mm while welding up a sloped workpiece (ramp in CTWD) without the control. Arc length was maintained within 1 mm of the desired (5 mm ) with the control.

  15. Rotational testing.

    PubMed

    Furman, J M

    2016-01-01

    The natural stimulus for the semicircular canals is rotation of the head, which also might stimulate the otolith organs. Vestibular stimulation usually induces eye movements via the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The orientation of the subject with respect to the axis of rotation and the orientation of the axis of rotation with respect to gravity together determine which labyrinthine receptors are stimulated for particular motion trajectories. Rotational testing usually includes the measurement of eye movements via a video system but might use a subject's perception of motion. The most common types of rotational testing are whole-body computer-controlled sinusoidal or trapezoidal stimuli during earth-vertical axis rotation (EVAR), which stimulates primarily the horizontal semicircular canals bilaterally. Recently, manual impulsive rotations, known as head impulse testing (HIT), have been developed to assess individual horizontal semicircular canals. Most types of rotational stimuli are not used routinely in the clinical setting but may be used in selected research environments. This chapter will discuss clinically relevant rotational stimuli and several types of rotational testing that are used primarily in research settings.

  16. Absolute Radiation Measurements in Earth and Mars Entry Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of radiative heating for shock heated flows which simulate conditions for Mars and Earth entries. Radiation measurements are made in NASA Ames' Electric Arc Shock Tube at velocities from 3-15 km/s in mixtures of N2/O2 and CO2/N2/Ar. The technique and limitations of the measurement are summarized in some detail. The absolute measurements will be discussed in regards to spectral features, radiative magnitude and spatiotemporal trends. Via analysis of spectra it is possible to extract properties such as electron density, and rotational, vibrational and electronic temperatures. Relaxation behind the shock is analyzed to determine how these properties relax to equilibrium and are used to validate and refine kinetic models. It is found that, for some conditions, some of these values diverge from non-equilibrium indicating a lack of similarity between the shock tube and free flight conditions. Possible reasons for this are discussed.