Science.gov

Sample records for rotator cuff tears

  1. Proximal Biceps Tendon and Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Virk, Mandeep S; Cole, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    The long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) is frequently involved in rotator cuff tears and can cause anterior shoulder pain. Tendon hypertrophy, hourglass contracture, delamination, tears, and tendon instability in the bicipital groove are common macroscopic pathologic findings affecting the LHBT in the presence of rotator cuff tears. Failure to address LHBT disorders in the setting of rotator cuff tear can result in persistent shoulder pain and poor satisfaction after rotator cuff repair. Tenotomy or tenodesis of the LHBT are effective options for relieving pain arising from the LHBT in the setting of reparable and selected irreparable rotator cuff tears.

  2. Ultrasound determination of rotator cuff tear repairability

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Andrew K; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Hackett, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff repair aims to reattach the torn tendon to the greater tuberosity footprint with suture anchors. The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability and to assess which sonographic and pre-operative features are strongest in predicting repairability. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of measurements made prospectively in a cohort of 373 patients who had ultrasounds of their shoulder and underwent rotator cuff repair. Measurements of rotator cuff tear size and muscle atrophy were made pre-operatively by ultrasound to enable prediction of rotator cuff repairability. Tears were classified following ultrasound as repairable or irreparable, and were correlated with intra-operative repairability. Results Ultrasound assessment of rotator cuff tear repairability has a sensitivity of 86% (p < 0.0001) and a specificity of 67% (p < 0.0001). The strongest predictors of rotator cuff repairability were tear size (p < 0.001) and age (p = 0.004). Sonographic assessments of tear size ≥4 cm2 or anteroposterior tear length ≥25 mm indicated an irreparable rotator cuff tear. Conclusions Ultrasound assessment is accurate in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability. Tear size or anteroposterior tear length and age were the best predictors of repairability. PMID:27582996

  3. Evaluation and treatment of rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Lansdown, Drew A; Feeley, Brian T

    2012-05-01

    Rotator cuff injuries are common problems and a frequent reason for patients to present to primary care physicians. These injuries are seen more frequently now with the aging population. These muscles allow for movement of the arm in overhead activities and controlled movements through space. A thorough physical examination can lead to the diagnosis of rotator cuff pathology. Radiographic imaging may offer some insight into the underlying pathology, and magnetic resonance imaging provides for excellent visualization of the rotator cuff. Many rotator cuff tears, especially partial tears, will symptomatically improve with conservative management. Surgical treatment may offer improved pain relief and function in those patients for whom nonoperative care is insufficient. In cases in which rotator cuff repair is not possible, the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is a possibility. New technologies are also under investigation that allow for biological augmentation of rotator cuff tears.

  4. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  5. Patterns of Tear Progression for Asymptomatic Degenerative Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Keener, Jay D; Hsu, Jason E; Steger-May, Karen; Teefey, Sharlene A; Chamberlain, Aaron M; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to examine patterns of rotator cuff tear size progression in degenerative rotator cuff tears and to compare tear progression risks for tears with and without anterior supraspinatus tendon disruption. Methodology Asymptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears with minimum 2-year follow-up were examined with annual shoulder ultrasounds. Integrity of the anterior 3mm of the supraspinatus tendon determined classification of cable-intact versus disrupted tears. Tear enlargement was defined as an increase of 5mm or greater in width. Tear propagation direction was calculated from measured changes in tear width in reference to the biceps tendon on serial ultrasounds. Results The cohort included 139 full-thickness tears with a mean subject age of 63.3 years and follow-up duration of 6.0 years. Ninety-six (69.1%) of the tears were considered cable-intact. Cable-disrupted tears were larger at baseline (median 19.0mm vs. 10.0mm, p<0.0001) than cable-intact tears. There was no difference in the risk of enlargement (52.1% vs. 67.4%, p=0.09) or time to enlargement (3.2 vs. 2.2 years, p=0.37) for cable-intact compared to cable-disrupted tears. There was no difference in the magnitude of enlargement for cable-intact and cable-disrupted tears (median 7.0mm vs.9.0mm, p=0.18). Cable-intact tears propagated a median of 5mm anteriorly and 4mm posteriorly, whereas cable-disrupted tears propagated posteriorly. Conclusions The majority of degenerative rotator cuff tears spare the anterior supraspinatus tendon. Although tears classified as cable-disrupted are larger at baseline than cable-intact tears, tear enlargement risks are similar for each tear type. PMID:26589385

  6. Patterns of tear progression for asymptomatic degenerative rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Keener, Jay D; Hsu, Jason E; Steger-May, Karen; Teefey, Sharlene A; Chamberlain, Aaron M; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of rotator cuff tear size progression in degenerative rotator cuff tears and to compare tear progression risks for tears with and without anterior supraspinatus tendon disruption. Asymptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears with minimum 2-year follow-up were examined with annual shoulder ultrasound examinations. Integrity of the anterior 3 mm of the supraspinatus tendon determined classification of cable-intact vs. cable-disrupted tears. Tear enlargement was defined as an increase of 5 mm or more in width. Tear propagation direction was calculated from measured changes in tear width in reference to the biceps tendon on serial ultrasound examinations. The cohort included 139 full-thickness tears with a mean subject age of 63.3 years and follow-up duration of 6.0 years. Ninety-six (69.1%) of the tears were considered cable intact. Cable-disrupted tears were larger at baseline (median, 19.0 mm vs. 10.0 mm; P < .0001) than cable-intact tears. There was no difference in the risk of enlargement (52.1% vs. 67.4%; P = .09) or time to enlargement (3.2 vs. 2.2 years; P = .37) for cable-intact compared with cable-disrupted tears. There was no difference in the magnitude of enlargement for cable-intact and cable-disrupted tears (median, 7.0 mm vs.9.0 mm; P = .18). Cable-intact tears propagated a median of 5 mm anteriorly and 4 mm posteriorly, whereas cable-disrupted tears propagated posteriorly. The majority of degenerative rotator cuff tears spare the anterior supraspinatus tendon. Although tears classified as cable disrupted are larger at baseline than cable-intact tears, tear enlargement risks are similar for each tear type. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rotator Cuff Tear Pain and Tear Size and Scapulohumeral Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Scibek, Jason S; Carpenter, James E; Hughes, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    Context: The body of knowledge concerning shoulder kinematics in patients with rotator cuff tears is increasing. However, the level of understanding regarding how pain and tear size affect these kinematic patterns is minimal. Objective: To identify relationships between pain associated with a full-thickness rotator cuff tear, tear size, and scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) and to determine whether pain and tear size serve as predictors of SHR. Design: A test-retest design was used to quantify pain and SHR before and after a subacromial lidocaine injection. Correlation and multivariate analyses were used to identify relationships among pain, tear size, and SHR. Setting: Orthopaedic biomechanics research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen patients (age range, 40–75 years) with diagnosed full-thickness rotator cuff tears participated. They were experiencing pain at the time of testing. Intervention(s): Shoulder kinematic data were collected with an electromagnetic tracking system before and after the patient received a lidocaine injection. Main Outcome Measure(s): Pain was rated using a visual analog scale. Three-dimensional scapular kinematics and glenohumeral elevation were assessed. Scapular kinematics included anterior-posterior tilt, medial-lateral tilt, and upward-downward rotation. A regression model was used to calculate SHR (scapular kinematics to glenohumeral elevation) for phases of humeral elevation and lowering. Results: Linear relationships were identified between initial pain scores and SHR and between tear size and SHR, representing an increased reliance on scapular motion with increasing pain and tear size. Pain was identified as an independent predictor of SHR, whereas significant findings for the effect of tear size on SHR and the interaction between pain and tear size were limited. Conclusions: We noted an increased reliance on scapular contributions to overall humeral elevation with increasing levels of pain and rotator cuff tear

  8. Symptomatic Progression of Asymptomatic Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Mall, Nathan A.; Kim, H. Mike; Keener, Jay D.; Steger-May, Karen; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Middleton, William D.; Stobbs, Georgia; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purposes of this study were to identify changes in tear dimensions, shoulder function, and glenohumeral kinematics when an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear becomes painful and to identify characteristics of individuals who develop pain compared with those who remain asymptomatic. Methods: A cohort of 195 subjects with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear was prospectively monitored for pain development and examined annually for changes in various parameters such as tear size, fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscle, glenohumeral kinematics, and shoulder function. Forty-four subjects were found to have developed new pain, and the parameters before and after pain development were compared. The forty-four subjects were then compared with a group of fifty-five subjects who remained asymptomatic over a two-year period. Results: With pain development, the size of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear increased significantly, with 18% of the full-thickness tears showing an increase of >5 mm, and 40% of the partial-thickness tears had progressed to a full-thickness tear. In comparison with the assessments made before the onset of pain, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores for shoulder function were significantly decreased and all measures of shoulder range of motion were decreased except for external rotation at 90° of abduction. There was an increase in compensatory scapulothoracic motion in relation to the glenohumeral motion during early shoulder abduction with pain development. No significant changes were found in external rotation strength or muscular fatty degeneration. Compared with the subjects who remained asymptomatic, the subjects who developed pain were found to have significantly larger tears at the time of initial enrollment. Conclusions: Pain development in shoulders with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear is associated with an increase in tear size. Larger tears are more likely to develop pain in the short term than are smaller

  9. Role of metalloproteinases in rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Raffaele; Cesari, Eugenio; Vinci, Enzo; Castagna, Alessandro

    2011-09-01

    The role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPS) in the pathophysiology of rotator cuff tears has not been established yet. Recent advances empathize about the role of MMPs and TIMPS in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and degradation in rotator cuff tears pathogenesis and healing after surgical repair. An increase in MMPs synthesis and the resulting MMPs mediated alterations in the ECM of tendons have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of tendinopathy, and there is an increase in the expression of MMPs and a decrease in TIMP messenger ribonucleic acid expression in tenocytes from degenerative or ruptured tendons. Importantly, MMPs are amenable to inhibition by cheap, safe, and widely available drugs such as the tetracycline antibiotics and bisphosphonates. A better understanding of relationship and activity of these molecules could provide better strategies to optimize outcomes of rotator cuff therapy.

  10. Challenges and Controversies in Treating Massive Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Stephen S; Ricchetti, Eric T; Levine, William N; Galatz, Leesa M

    2016-01-01

    Massive rotator cuff tears present several challenges for orthopaedic surgeons. Many rotator cuff tears can be repaired; however, some chronic rotator cuff tears require advanced reconstructive techniques. Repair, if possible, is the optimal treatment for rotator cuff tears. In general, muscle transfers are an option for patients younger than 60 years who do not have pseudoparalysis. Arthroplasty is an option for older patients who have concomitant arthritis and for patients who have pseudoparalysis. Biologic augmentation in the setting of rotator cuff tears continues to evolve, and the application of biologic products should be guided by sound evidence and cost-benefit considerations.

  11. Clinical and biological aspects of rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Giai Via, Alessio; De Cupis, Mauro; Spoliti, Marco; Oliva, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rotator cuff tears are common and are a frequent source of shoulder pain and disability. A wide variation in the prevalence of rotator cuff tears has been reported. The etiology of rotator cuff tear remains multifactorial and attempts to unify intrinsic and extrinsic theories tried to explain the etiopathogenesis of rotator cuff tears. Knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of rotator cuff tears is important to improve our therapies, surgical techniques and promote tendon repair. Several strategies have been proposed to enhance tendon healing and recently research has focused on regenerative therapies, such as Growth Factors (GFs) and Plasma Rich Platelet (PRP), with high expectations of success. PMID:23888289

  12. Management of irreparable rotator cuff tears and glenohumeral arthritis.

    PubMed

    Laudicina, Laurence; D'Ambrosia, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Glenohumeral arthritis with irreparable rotator cuff tears remain a difficult entity to treat. Varied causes include rotator cuff tear arthropathy, osteoarthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis with irreparable cuff tear. Common symptoms are progressive pain and dysfunction. Physical examination may reveal pain, crepitance, rotator cuff weakness, and loss of motion and function. Radiographs may reveal varying degrees of osteophyte formation, sclerotic bone, superior humeral head migration, and bony erosion. Additional imaging modalities may reveal cuff tear size, retraction, atrophy, and fatty infiltration. Failure of nonoperative management may lead to operative intervention. Rotator cuff repair or reconstruction may help prevent progression of tears and future arthritic changes. In patients with moderate to severe glenohumeral arthritis and irreparable rotator cuff tears, hemiarthroplasty is currently the procedure of choice. For patients with severe cuff dysfunction or loss of coracoacromial arch, or for patients who require revision, the reverse shoulder prosthesis may offer a treatment option. Future management continues to be defined with additional study.

  13. Rotator Cuff Tear Consequent to Glenohumeral Dislocation.

    PubMed

    Gilotra, Mohit N; Christian, Matthew W; Lovering, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The patient was a 21-year-old collegiate running back who was tackled during a football game and sustained a posterior glenohumeral dislocation. He was referred to an orthopaedist and presented 3 weeks after the injury, and, following examination, further imaging was ordered by the orthopaedist due to rotator cuff weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a complete tear of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, as well as a posterior Bankart lesion, a subscapularis tear, and a dislocation of the biceps long head tendon into the reverse Hill-Sachs lesion. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):708. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0413.

  14. Massive rotator cuff tears: definition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lädermann, Alexandre; Denard, Patrick J; Collin, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this review is to summarise tear pattern classification and management options for massive rotator cuff tears (MRCT), as well as to propose a treatment paradigm for patients with a MRCT. Data from 70 significant papers were reviewed in order to define the character of reparability and the possibility of alternative techniques in the management of MRCT. Massive rotator cuff tears (MRCT) include a wide panoply of lesions in terms of tear pattern, functional impairment, and reparability. Pre-operative evaluation is critical to successful treatment. With the advancement of medical technology, arthroscopy has become a frequently used method of treatment, even in cases of pseudoparalytic shoulders. Tendon transfer is limited to young patients with an irreparable MRCT and loss of active rotation. Arthroplasty can be considered for the treatment of a MRCT with associated arthritis. There is insufficient evidence to establish an evidence-based treatment algorithm for MRCTs. Treatment is based on patient factors and associated pathology, and includes personal experience and data from case series.

  15. Rotator cuff tears in young patients: a different disease than rotator cuff tears in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Lazarides, Alexander L; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Choi, J H James; Stuart, Joseph J; Lo, Ian K Y; Garrigues, Grant E; Taylor, Dean C

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the characteristics of injury and treatment outcomes of rotator cuff tears in young patients. A systematic electronic search was performed for clinical studies evaluating rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 40 years with special emphasis on reporting of injury characteristics and treatment outcomes with a minimum 1-year follow-up. Twelve studies (involving 336 patients) met inclusion criteria. The mean age of the patients was 28 years (range, 16-40 years), with a mean follow-up of 39 months. There were 2 distinct subgroups. The majority of studies (7 of 10) showed that patients typically had a full-thickness tear with an acute traumatic etiology. However, within the subgroup of elite throwers, 5 of 6 studies demonstrated a majority of tears that were partial thickness stemming from chronic overuse. Rotator cuff repair improved pain and strength in almost all studies reporting on these parameters. Eighty-seven percent of patients reported they were satisfied. However, all studies examining elite throwers showed significant difficulty in returning to play (25%-97%). In young patients with rotator cuff tears, there are 2 primary groups. (1) A majority group with rotator cuff tears of traumatic origin responded well to both arthroscopic and open rotator cuff repair in terms of pain relief and self-reported outcomes postoperatively. These patients reported high levels of satisfaction and return to preinjury level of play. (2) A unique subpopulation composed of elite throwers had improved outcomes but suboptimal return to play. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment and treatment strategies for rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hakim, Wisam; Noorani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Tears of the rotator cuff are common and becoming an increasingly frequent problem. There is a vast amount of literature on the merits and limitations of the various methods of clinical and radiological assessment of rotator cuff tears. This is also the case with regard to treatment strategies. Certain popular beliefs and principles practiced widely and the basis upon which they are derived may be prone to inaccuracy. We provide an overview of the historical management of rotator cuff tears, as well as an explanation for how and why rotator cuff tears should be managed, and propose a structured methodology for their assessment and treatment. PMID:27582960

  17. Rotator cuff tears: An evidence based approach

    PubMed Central

    Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Khanna, Vishesh; Gul, Arif; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the rotator cuff (RC) are a common occurrence affecting millions of people across all parts of the globe. RC tears are also rampantly prevalent with an age-dependent increase in numbers. Other associated factors include a history of trauma, limb dominance, contralateral shoulder, smoking-status, hypercholesterolemia, posture and occupational dispositions. The challenge lies in early diagnosis since a high proportion of patients are asymptomatic. Pain and decreasing shoulder power and function should alert the heedful practitioner in recognizing promptly the onset or aggravation of existing RC tears. Partial-thickness tears (PTT) can be bursal-sided or articular-sided tears. Over the course of time, PTT enlarge and propagate into full-thickness tears (FTT) and develop distinct chronic pathological changes due to muscle retraction, fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy. These lead to a reduction in tendon elasticity and viability. Eventually, the glenohumeral joint experiences a series of degenerative alterations - cuff tear arthropathy. To avert this, a vigilant clinician must utilize and corroborate clinical skill and radiological findings to identify tear progression. Modern radio-diagnostic means of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging provide excellent visualization of structural details and are crucial in determining further course of action for these patients. Physical therapy along with activity modifications, anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications form the pillars of nonoperative treatment. Elderly patients with minimal functional demands can be managed conservatively and reassessed at frequent intervals. Regular monitoring helps in isolating patients who require surgical interventions. Early surgery should be considered in younger, active and symptomatic, healthy patients. In addition to being cost-effective, this helps in providing a functional shoulder with a stable cuff. An easily reproducible technique of maximal strength and

  18. Delaminated rotator cuff tear: extension of delamination and cuff integrity after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Heui-Chul; Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Jung-Han; Choo, Hye-Jeung; Sagong, Seung-Yeob; Shin, John

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extension of delamination and the cuff integrity after arthroscopic repair of delaminated rotator cuff tears. Sixty-five patients with delaminated rotator cuff tears were retrospectively reviewed. The delaminated tears were divided into full-thickness delaminated tears and partial-thickness delaminated tears. To evaluate the medial extension, we calculated the coronal size of the delaminated portion. To evaluate the posterior extension, we checked the tendon involved. Cuff integrity was evaluated by computed tomography arthrography. The mean medial extension in the full-thickness and partial-thickness delaminated tears was 18.1 ± 6.0 mm and 22.7 ± 6.3 mm, respectively (P = .0084). The posterior extension into the supraspinatus and the infraspinatus was 36.9% and 32.3%, respectively, in the full-thickness delaminated tears, and it was 27.7% and 3.1%, respectively, in the partial-thickness delaminated tears (P = .0043). With regard to cuff integrity, 35 cases of anatomic healing, 10 cases of partial healing defects, and 17 cases of retear were detected. Among the patients with retear and partial healing of the defect, all the partially healed defects showed delamination. Three retear patients showed delamination, and 14 retear patients did not show delamination; the difference was statistically significant (P = .0001). The full-thickness delaminated tears showed less medial extension and more posterior extension than the partial-thickness delaminated tears. Delamination did not develop in retear patients, but delamination was common in the patients with partially healed defects. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Location and Initiation of Degenerative Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H. Mike; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Middleton, William D.; Stobbs, Georgia; Steger-May, Karen; Yamaguchi, Ken; Keener, Jay D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has been theorized that degenerative rotator cuff tears most commonly involve the supraspinatus tendon, initiating at the anterior portion of the supraspinatus insertion and propagating posteriorly. The purposes of this study were to determine the most common location of degenerative rotator cuff tears and to examine tear location patterns associated with various tear sizes. Methods: Ultrasonograms of 360 shoulders with either a full-thickness rotator cuff tear (272) or a partial-thickness rotator cuff tear (eighty-eight) were obtained to measure the width and length of the tear and the distance from the biceps tendon to the anterior margin of the tear. Tears were grouped on the basis of their size (anteroposterior width) and extent (partial or full-thickness). Each tear was represented numerically as a column of consecutive numbers representing the tear width and distance posterior to the biceps tendon. All tears were pooled to graphically represent the width and location of the tears within groups. Frequency histograms of the pooled data were generated, and the mode was determined for each histogram representing various tear groups. Results: The mean age (and standard deviation) of the 233 subjects (360 shoulders) was 64.7 ± 10.2 years. The mean width and length of the tears were 16.3 ± 12.1 mm and 17.0 ± 13.0 mm, respectively. The mean distance from the biceps tendon to the anterior tear margin was 7.8 ± 5.7 mm (range, 0 to 26 mm). Histograms of the various tear groups invariably showed the location of 15 to 16 mm posterior to the biceps tendon to be the most commonly torn location within the posterior cuff tendons. The histograms of small tears (a width of <10 mm) and partial-thickness tears showed similar distributions of tear locations, indicating that the region approximately 15 mm posterior to the biceps tendon may be where rotator cuff tears most commonly initiate. Conclusions: Degenerative rotator cuff tears most commonly involve a

  20. The factors affecting stiffness occurring with rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seung-Suk; Choi, Jang-Seuk; An, Ki-Chan; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Sang-Bum

    2012-03-01

    Stiffness after a rotator cuff tear is common, and it affects postoperative prognosis. This study aims to define the factors affecting stiffness that accompanies rotator cuff tear. From June 2002 to May 2009 (84 months), 143 patients underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Of these, 119 were enrolled as subjects in this study. Preoperative range of motion was measured in all patients. Stiffness of the shoulder was defined as restriction of active and passive motion of 100° of elevation or less, less than 50% of external rotation, and internal rotation only to the sacrum. Factors that can affect stiffness were evaluated, including the type, size, and direction of rotator cuff; duration of symptoms; gender; age; presence of accompanying medical disease; degenerative factors (Goutallier classification); and presence of trauma. Retrospective analysis was conducted accordingly. A statistically significantly higher degree of stiffness was seen for full-thickness tears than for partial-thickness tears (P = .0187). Between 2 groups that were divided by direction of rotator cuff tear, posterosuperior cuff tears showed a statistically significantly higher prevalence of stiffness (P = .0415). Patients with trauma had a statistically higher prevalence of stiffness (P = .0264). The other factors did not show significant differences. In patients with rotator cuff tear, the type and direction of rotator cuff tear and the presence of trauma seem to increase the limitation of preoperative joint range of motion. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Management of massive and irreparable rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Neri, Brian R; Chan, Keith W; Kwon, Young W

    2009-01-01

    Massive rotator cuff tears pose a distinct clinical challenge for the orthopaedist. In this review, we will discuss the classification, diagnosis, and evaluation of massive rotator cuff tears before discussing various treatment options for this problem. Nonoperative treatment has had inconsistent results and proven unsuccessful for chronic symptoms while operative treatment including debridement and partial and complete repairs have had varying degrees of success. For rotator cuff tears that are deemed irreparable, treatment options are limited. The use of tendon transfers in younger patients to reconstruct rotator cuff function and restore shoulder kinematics can be useful in salvaging this difficult problem.

  2. Medialized repair for retracted rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Jung, Kyu-Hak; Won, Jun-Sung; Cho, Seung-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of medialized rotator cuff repair and the continuity of repaired tendon in chronic retracted rotator cuff tears. Thirty-five consecutive patients were selected from 153 cases that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for more than medium-sized posterosuperior rotator cuff tears between July 2009 and July 2012 performed with the medialized repair. All cases were available for at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. The visual analog scale of pain, muscle strength, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and University of California-Los Angeles score were evaluated. At the final follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved. The visual analog scale score for pain improved from 6 ± 1 preoperatively to 2 ± 1 postoperatively. The range of motion increased from preoperatively to postoperatively: active forward elevation, from 134° ± 49° to 150° ± 16°; active external rotation at the side, from 47° ± 15° to 55° ± 10°; and active internal rotation, from L3 to L1. The shoulder score also improved: Constant score, from 53.5 ± 16.7 to 79 ± 10; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, from 51 ± 15 to 82 ± 8; and University of California-Los Angeles score, from 14 ± 4 to 28 ± 4. The retear cases at the final follow-up were 6 (17%). Medialized repair may be useful in cases in which anatomic bone-to-tendon repair would be difficult because of the excessive tension of the repaired tendon and a torn tendon that does not reach the anatomic insertion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rotator cuff tear: physical examination and conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Eiji

    2013-03-01

    Rotator cuff tear is one of the most common shoulder diseases. It is interesting that some rotator cuff tears are symptomatic, whereas others are asymptomatic. Pain is the most common symptom of patients with a tear. Even in patients with an asymptomatic tear, it may become symptomatic with an increase in tear size. Physical examination is extremely important to evaluate the presence, location, and extent of a tear. It also helps us to understand the mechanism of pain. Conservative treatment often works. Patients with well-preserved function of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus are the best candidates for conservative treatment. After a successful conservative treatment, the symptom once disappeared may come back again. This recurrence of symptoms is related to tear expansion. Those with high risk of tear expansion and those with less functional rotator cuff muscles are less likely to respond to conservative treatment. They may need a surgical treatment.

  4. [Diagnostics and treatment of anterosuperior rotator cuff tears].

    PubMed

    Wellmann, M

    2016-02-01

    Anterosuperior rotator cuff lesions are defined as combined tears of the subscapularis and the supraspinatus tendon and are usually accompanied by an associated lesion of the rotator interval. There are three different types of lesion: extended lesions of the biceps pulley, transmural tears of the supraspinatus with an associated partial lesion of the subscapularis tendon, and massive anterosuperior rotator cuff tears. None of these lesions responds well to physiotherapy because of biceps tendon instability. Therefore, surgical treatment is required, including tenodesis or tenotomy of the biceps tendon and additional repair of the rotator cuff. Deep partial tears of the subscapularis or the supraspinatus tendon (≥ 6 mm) should be refixed as well. Massive anterosuperior rotator cuff tears should be treated immediately because of the high retraction tendency of the subscapularis tendon.

  5. Frequency of various tear patterns in full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Sallay, Peter I; Hunker, Patti J; Lim, Jit Kheng

    2007-10-01

    We define specific rotator cuff tear patterns, prospectively document their occurrences, and emphasize the importance of tear pattern recognition during arthroscopy. We prospectively analyzed 193 full-thickness rotator cuff tears intraoperatively from a single surgeon's practice. We address specific tear patterns, tear size, tissue mobility, tissue quality, and chronicity. Most of the tears were able to be categorized into 6 morphologic patterns. Of the tears, 3% could not be categorized. Appreciation of various rotator cuff tear patterns guided the positioning of bone and tissue sutures to achieve accurate apposition of tendon fibers. Transverse tears were the smallest and most common tear pattern, whereas tongue-shaped and U-shaped tears were larger patterns of comparable size. U-shaped tears had more retraction and less mobility and were of poorer tissue quality. Transverse tears were easily repaired, whereas U-shaped tears could not be repaired in 38% of cases (5/13). The quality and mobility of rotator cuff tissue were correlated with tear pattern, size, retraction, and chronicity. We describe a comprehensive rotator cuff tear classification scheme that encompasses 97% of all tears. Tear type was correlated with tendon retraction, tear size, cuff mobility, and tissue quality. On the basis of this information, the surgeon can anticipate tear patterns, which may improve pattern recognition and facilitate anatomic repair. Level IV, prognostic case series.

  6. Biological factors in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Berton, Alessandra; Loppini, Mattia; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2011-09-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common, and lead to shoulder pain and functional impairment. Despite their frequency and related disability, etiology and pathogenesis are still debated. Multiple factors contribute to tears of the rotator cuff. Extrinsic factors are anatomic variables, such as acromial morphologic characteristics, os acromiale, and acromial spurs that compress the rotator cuff by bony impingement or direct pressure from the surrounding soft tissue. Intrinsic factors arise from the tendon itself, because of tensile overload, aging, microvascular supply, traumatisms, or degeneration. Little information is available from a cellular and molecular point of view. We reviewed the biological factors involved in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tears. Understanding the mechanism of rotator cuff pathology would facilitate the rationale for therapeutic interventions, by guiding the design, selection, and implementation of treatment strategies such as biologic modulation and preventive measures.

  7. Rotator Cuff Tears in the Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Geary, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCT) are a common clinical problem in the geriatric population, and debate exists over how to best provide pain relief and restore shoulder function. Treatment options can be broadly divided into nonsurgical and surgical, with the majority of patients initially placed on a trial of conservative therapy. For those with irreparable RCT, low functional demand, or interest in nonoperative management, there are a number of nonsurgical treatments to consider, including rehabilitation and injections of corticosteroids, hyaluronate, and platelet-rich plasma. Surgical treatment is increasingly common, as geriatric patients remain active with high functional demands. Studies in elderly populations have demonstrated satisfactory healing and clinical results following surgical repair. Predictors of poor outcome after repair are large tear size as well as higher stages of fatty infiltration. Decompression is a less invasive surgical option that has been shown to provide short-term pain relief, though the lasting effects may deteriorate over time. A number of factors must be weighed when considering which patients are likely to benefit from surgical intervention. PMID:26328240

  8. Relationship of ABO Blood Type on Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Lee, Han-Dong; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    ABO blood groups are associated with various diseases. A relationship between Achilles tendon ruptures and blood type O has been reported, although its pathogenesis was not clear. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study describing the relationship between blood type and rotator cuff tendon tears. To determine whether patients with rotator cuff tear had a greater prevalence of blood type O than those without rotator cuff tear. A cross-sectional study. Research hospital outpatient evaluation. A total of 316 subjects with shoulder pain were included and divided into "tear" and "no-tear" groups according to ultrasonographic examination. ABO blood group, gender, dominant arm, smoking history, trauma history, and age were compared between the 2 groups and the odds ratios of these factors were evaluated by logistic regression. The tear group (38.6%) had more instances of blood type O than the healthy population (27.2%; P = .002). The adjusted odds ratio for rotator cuff tear for blood type O to non-O was 2.38 (95% confidence interval 1.28-4.42). The odds ratios for rotator cuff tears for smoking, major trauma history, minor trauma history, and age were 2.08, 3.11, 2.29, and 1.06, respectively. Patients with rotator cuff tears were more likely to have blood type O. The odds ratios of factors for rotator cuff tears were high in the following order: major trauma history, blood type O, minor trauma history, and age. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rotator cuff tear and sarcopenia: are these related?

    PubMed

    Chung, Seok Won; Yoon, Jong Pil; Oh, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Hyung Sup; Kim, Young Gun; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Jeong, Won-Ju; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Jong Soo; Yoon, Jee Wook

    2016-09-01

    Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and consequent loss of muscle function with aging. Its prevalence among the general population is 12% to 30% in those aged >60 years. We evaluated (1) the difference in the prevalence of sarcopenia between patients with rotator cuff tear and controls and (2) the sarcopenia severity according to the size of the rotator cuff tear. Group 1 included 48 consecutive patients with chronic symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears (mean age, 60.1 ± 6.5 years; range, 46-76 years), and group 2 included 48 age- and sex-matched patients. The sarcopenic index was evaluated by using the grip strength of the asymptomatic contralateral side and the skeletal muscle mass. No significant differences were found in the baseline data and demographic factors between the groups. The sarcopenic index was significantly inferior in the rotator cuff tear group than in the age- and sex-matched control groups (P = .041, .007, and .05, respectively). Patients with large to massive tears had a significantly inferior sarcopenic index than those with small and medium tears. The results showed that sarcopenia was more severe in patients with a chronic symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tear than in the age- and sex-matched control population and was correlated with the size of the tear, with the numbers available. Despite the individual variance in the underlying medical condition and physical activities, this study suggests that clinicians should consider the sarcopenic condition of patients with a rotator cuff tear, especially in elderly patients with large to massive tears. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MR Imaging of Rotator Cuff Tears: Correlation with Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bhandary, Sudarshan; Khandige, Ganesh; Kabra, Utkarsh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rotator cuff tears are quite common and can cause significant disability. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has now emerged as the modality of choice in the preoperative evaluation of patients with rotator cuff injuries, in view of its improved inherent soft tissue contrast and resolution. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of routine MRI in the detection and characterisation of rotator cuff tears, by correlating the findings with arthroscopy. Materials and Methods This prospective study was carried out between July 2014 and August 2016 at the AJ Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. A total of 82 patients were diagnosed with rotator cuff injury on MRI during this period, out of which 45 patients who underwent further evaluation with arthroscopy were included in this study. The data collected was analysed for significant correlation between MRI diagnosis and arthroscopic findings using kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of full and partial thickness tears were calculated using arthroscopic findings as the reference standard. Results There were 27 males and 18 females in this study. The youngest patient was 22 years and the oldest was 74 years. Majority of rotator cuff tears (78%) were seen in patients above the age of 40 years. MRI showed a sensitivity of 89.6%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 83.3% for the diagnosis of full thickness rotator cuff tears. For partial thickness tears, MRI showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 86.6%, positive predictive value of 78.9% and negative predictive value of 100%. The accuracy was 93.1% for full thickness tears and 91.1% for partial thickness tears. The p-value was less than 0.01 for both full and partial thickness tears. There was good agreement between the MRI and arthroscopic findings, with kappa value of 0.85 for full thickness tears and 0.81 for partial

  11. Editorial Commentary: Rotator Cuff Tears of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-10-01

    Abductor muscle tears are the rotator cuff tears of the hip. Arthroscopic or endoscopic repair results in fewer complications and equal clinical outcomes to open repair. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Humeral head cysts: association with rotator cuff tears and age.

    PubMed

    Suluova, Fatih; Kanatli, Ulunay; Ozturk, Burak Yagmur; Esen, Erdinc; Bolukbasi, Selcuk

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of the cystic changes at rotator cuff footprint on proximal humeral tuberosities and investigate their relationship with rotator cuff tears and patient age. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 657 patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy for treatment of rotator cuff disorders were reviewed to localize the cystic changes at anterior (supraspinatus insertion) and posterior (infraspinatus insertion) aspects of greater tuberosity (GT) and lesser tuberosity (subscapularis insertion). Preoperative MR reports as well as cyst size and locations on MR images were correlated with arthroscopic records of rotator cuff pathology (tear type, size, location and tendon involvement) and patient age. The prevalence of cystic changes was 9.1% (60 patients) in the study population. Anterior GT cysts were found in 56% of patients and were strongly associated with full-thickness (p<.001) and articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (p=.02). Posterior GT and lesser tuberosity cysts were found in 27 and 17% of patients, respectively, and were not significantly related to rotator cuff tears, although there was an increased trend of posterior cysts in patients with infraspinatus tears (p=.09). A significant relation was found between patient age and the cyst size (p=.01), while none of the cyst localizations were statistically related to age. Anterior GT cysts were more common in this patient group and demonstrated a strong association with rotator cuff disorders regardless of age. Posterior GT and lesser tuberosity cysts were less common and showed no association with rotator cuff pathology or patient age.

  13. Epidemiology, genetics and biological factors of rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Berton, Alessandra; Papapietro, Nicola; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Rotator cuff disease is among the most common musculoskeletal disorders with high direct and indirect costs in industrialized countries. Not all rotator cuff tears are symptomatic. Genetics has recently been investigated as a factor involved in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff pathology. Genetic factors seem to be involved in symptom presentation and tear progression. As rotator cuff disease is multifactorial, no single gene is directly involved in the pathology. Phenotypic expression of genetic susceptibility manifests at the level of ultrastructure of the tendon. Predisposing genes may also operate through apoptosis and regenerative capacity. Studies on cellular and molecular biology are more numerous, but still incomplete, and recently have focussed on the role of apoptosis in tendinopathy, analyzing its key mediators and cellular changes. Oxidative stress is responsible for reduction of collagen synthesis. Biological investigations have identified recently new risk factors. Preliminary reports introduced the possible role of glucose as a risk factor for rotator cuff tear. Further studies are required to fully clarify the genetic and biological factors involved in rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. New Surgery May Fix Tough-To-Treat Rotator Cuff Tears

    MedlinePlus

    ... html New Surgery May Fix Tough-to-Treat Rotator Cuff Tears Procedure could offer option for otherwise irreparable ... It was developed by Japanese surgeons to fix rotator cuff injuries once considered irreparable. The rotator cuff is ...

  15. No prosthetic management of massive and irreparable rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Raffaele; Cesari, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    A massive rotator cuff tear is not necessarily irreparable. Number of tendons involved, muscle-tendon unit quality, and decreased acromionhumeral distance (AHD) are as important as tear size in determining reparability of lesion. Massive and irreparable rotator cuff tears cannot be anatomically repaired to the bone and are a common source of pain and disability even in middle-aged patients. In these patients when conservative management has failed, it is possible to perform different surgical techniques. A functional repair can help to restore the horizontal force couple of the cuff on the humeral head and to increase the AHD. Debridement of irreparable tears and biceps tenotomy or tenodesis can have a role in low functional demand patients but results deteriorate over time. Recently, several commercially available tissue-engineered biological and synthetic scaffolds have been developed to augment rotator cuff repairs. The aim is to provide a mechanical improvement in case of poor quality tissue at time zero and give a support to have a better cuff healing. In selected cases, the scaffold can be used also to bridge tendon defect. Patients who not have pseudoparalysis, cuff tear arthropathy and with intact deltoid function can benefit from tendon transfers with satisfactory outcomes. These different procedures should be chosen for each patient with selected criteria and after a satisfactory explanation about the really possible expectation after surgery. PMID:27582930

  16. Correlation between Rotator Cuff Tears and Systemic Atherosclerotic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Andrea; Schweitzer, Mark; Bencardino, Jenny; Petchprapa, Catherine; Cohen, Jodi; Ciavarra, Gina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of aortic arch calcification, a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, with rotator cuff tendinosis and tears given the hypothesis that decreased tendon vascularity is a contributing factor in the etiology of tendon degeneration. A retrospective review was performed to identify patients ages 50 to 90 years who had a shoulder MRI and a chest radiograph performed within 6 months of each other. Chest radiographs and shoulder MRIs from 120 patients were reviewed by two sets of observers blinded to the others' conclusions. Rotator cuff disease was classified as tendinosis, partial thickness tear, and full thickness tear. The presence or absence of aortic arch calcification was graded and compared with the MRI appearance of the rotator cuff. The tendon tear grading was positively correlated with patient age. However, the tendon tear grading on MRI was not significantly correlated with the aorta calcification scores on chest radiographs. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between aorta calcification severity and tendon tear grading. In conclusion, rotator cuff tears did not significantly correlate with aortic calcification severity. This suggests that tendon ischemia may not be associated with the degree of macrovascular disease. PMID:22091372

  17. Risk Factors, Pathobiomechanics and Physical Examination of Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Samuel G.; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Millett, Peter J.; Petri, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is important to appreciate the risk factors for the development of rotator cuff tears and specific physical examination maneuvers. Methods: A selective literature search was performed. Results: Numerous well-designed studies have demonstrated that common risk factors include age, occupation, and anatomic considerations such as the critical shoulder angle. Recently, research has also reported a genetic component as well. The rotator cuff axially compresses the humeral head in the glenohumeral joint and provides rotational motion and abduction. Forces are grouped into coronal and axial force couples. Rotator cuff tears are thought to occur when the force couples become imbalanced. Conclusion: Physical examination is essential to determining whether a patient has an anterosuperior or posterosuperior tear. Diagnostic accuracy increases when combining a series of examination maneuvers. PMID:27708731

  18. Characterization of Rotator Cuff Tears: Ultrasound Versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Okoroha, Kelechi R; Mehran, Nima; Duncan, Jonathan; Washington, Travis; Spiering, Tyler; Bey, Michael J; Van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are both capable of diagnosing full-thickness rotator cuff tears. However, it is unknown which imaging modality is more accurate and precise in evaluating the characteristics of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in a surgical population. This study reviewed 114 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear over a 1-year period. Of these patients, 61 had both preoperative MRI and ultrasound for review. Three musculoskeletal radiologists evaluated each ultrasound and MRI in a randomized and blinded fashion on 2 separate occasions. Tear size, retraction status, muscle atrophy, and fatty infiltration were analyzed and compared between the 2 modalities. Ultrasound measurements were statistically smaller in both tear size (P=.001) and retraction status (P=.001) compared with MRI. The 2 image modalities showed comparable intraobserver reliability in assessment of tear size and retraction status. However, MRI showed greater interobserver reliability in assessment of tear size, retraction status, and atrophy. Independent observers are more likely to agree on measurements of the characteristics of rotator cuff tears when using MRI compared with ultrasound. As tear size increases, the 2 image modalities show greater differences in measurement of tear size and retraction status. Additionally, compared with MRI, ultrasound shows consistently low reliability in detecting subtle, but clinically important, degeneration of the soft tissue envelope. Although it is inexpensive and convenient, ultrasound may be best used to identify a tear, and MRI is superior for use in surgical planning for larger tears. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e124-e130.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: Restoring Joint Kinematics by Tendon Transfers

    PubMed Central

    Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Millett, Peter J.; Moulton, Samuel G.; Petri, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tendon transfers can be a surgical treatment option in managing younger, active patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the use of tendon transfers to treat massive irreparable rotator cuff tears and to summarize clinical outcomes. Methods: A selective literature search was performed and personal surgical experiences are reported. Results: Latissimus dorsi transfers have been used for many years in the management of posterosuperior rotator cuff tears with good reported clinical outcomes. It can be transferred without or with the teres major (L’Episcopo technique). Many surgical techniques have been described for latissimus dorsi transfer including single incision, double incision, and arthroscopically assisted transfer. Transfer of the pectoralis major tendon is the most common tendon transfer procedure performed for anterosuperior rotator cuff deficiencies. Several surgical techniques have been described, however transfer of the pectoralis major beneath the coracoid process has been found to most closely replicate the force vector that is normally provided by the intact subscapularis. Conclusion: Tendon transfers can be used successfully in the management of younger patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears and minimal glenohumeral arthritis. Improvements in clinical outcomes scores and range of motion have been demonstrated. This can delay arthroplasty, which is of particular importance for younger patients with high functional demands. PMID:27708730

  20. Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: Restoring Joint Kinematics by Tendon Transfers.

    PubMed

    Greenspoon, Joshua A; Millett, Peter J; Moulton, Samuel G; Petri, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Tendon transfers can be a surgical treatment option in managing younger, active patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the use of tendon transfers to treat massive irreparable rotator cuff tears and to summarize clinical outcomes. A selective literature search was performed and personal surgical experiences are reported. Latissimus dorsi transfers have been used for many years in the management of posterosuperior rotator cuff tears with good reported clinical outcomes. It can be transferred without or with the teres major (L'Episcopo technique). Many surgical techniques have been described for latissimus dorsi transfer including single incision, double incision, and arthroscopically assisted transfer. Transfer of the pectoralis major tendon is the most common tendon transfer procedure performed for anterosuperior rotator cuff deficiencies. Several surgical techniques have been described, however transfer of the pectoralis major beneath the coracoid process has been found to most closely replicate the force vector that is normally provided by the intact subscapularis. Tendon transfers can be used successfully in the management of younger patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears and minimal glenohumeral arthritis. Improvements in clinical outcomes scores and range of motion have been demonstrated. This can delay arthroplasty, which is of particular importance for younger patients with high functional demands.

  1. Decision-making in massive rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Thès, André; Hardy, Philippe; Bak, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Treatment of massive rotator cuff tears has developed over many years ranging from conservative treatment to open and arthroscopic repair, muscle transfers and reversed arthroplasty. The evolution of more advanced techniques in arthroscopic repair has changed the treatment approach and improved the prognosis for functional outcome despite low healing rates. Due to this rapid development, our evidence-based knowledge today is mainly founded in Level 3 and Level 4 studies. Based on the literature, the current knowledge on treatment of symptomatic massive rotator cuff tears is proposed in an algorithm. Level of evidence V.

  2. I.S.Mu.L.T - Rotator Cuff Tears Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Francesco; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Bossa, Michela; Via, Alessio Giai; Colombo, Alessandra; Chillemi, Claudio; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Pellicciari, Leonardo; Franceschetti, Edoardo; Rugiero, Clelia; Scialdoni, Alessandro; Vittadini, Filippo; Brancaccio, Paola; Creta, Domenico; Buono, Angelo Del; Garofalo, Raffaele; Franceschi, Francesco; Frizziero, Antonio; Mahmoud, Asmaa; Merolla, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Simone; Spoliti, Marco; Osti, Leonardo; Padulo, Johnny; Portinaro, Nicola; Tajana, Gianfranco; Castagna, Alex; Foti, Calogero; Masiero, Stefano; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Tarantino, Umberto; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high level achieved in the field of shoulder surgery, a global consensus on rotator cuff tears management is lacking. This work is divided into two main sessions: in the first, we set questions about hot topics involved in the rotator cuff tears, from the etiopathogenesis to the surgical treatment. In the second, we answered these questions by mentioning Evidence Based Medicine. The aim of the present work is to provide easily accessible guidelines: they could be considered as recommendations for a good clinical practice developed through a process of systematic review of the literature and expert opinion, in order to improve the quality of care and rationalize the use of resources.

  3. Symptomatic rotator cuff tears show higher radioisotope uptake on bone scintigraphy compared with asymptomatic tears.

    PubMed

    Koike, Yoichi; Sano, Hirotaka; Kita, Atushi; Itoi, Eiji

    2013-09-01

    Some patients with rotator cuff tears complain of pain, whereas others are asymptomatic. Previous studies have pointed out the presence of active bone metabolism in the painful shoulder, identified with increased radioisotope uptake during bone scintigraphy. Shoulders with symptomatic rotator cuff tears will demonstrate higher radioisotope uptake than shoulders with asymptomatic tears with bone scintigraphy, reflecting active bone metabolism in symptomatic tears. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The study consisted of 3 groups: patients with symptomatic tears (symptomatic group), patients with asymptomatic tears (asymptomatic group), and controls (no tear group). The symptomatic group consisted of 28 shoulders from 28 patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears (pain score ≤4 on the University of California, Los Angeles [UCLA] shoulder evaluation form) who underwent bone scintigraphy followed by rotator cuff repair. Of 70 volunteers who had previously undergone bone scintigraphy for diseases unrelated to their shoulder, 34 were selected for the asymptomatic group (pain score ≥8 on the UCLA shoulder form), and 32 were selected for the no tear group. The mean radioisotope uptake in the symptomatic group was significantly higher than that in the asymptomatic group (P = .02) and the no tear group (P = .02). Ten of 28 shoulders (36%) in the symptomatic group showed increased radioisotope uptake exceeding 2 standard deviations from the mean of the no tear group. This percentage was significantly higher when compared with the asymptomatic group (0%) (P < .01). Shoulders with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear showed higher radioisotope uptake on bone scintigraphy than those with an asymptomatic tear. The radioisotope uptake in shoulders with an asymptomatic tear was comparable with that in shoulders without a tear. Positive radioisotope uptake may be associated with pain in a subgroup of patients with rotator cuff tears.

  4. Rotator cuff tear arthropathy: evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment: AAOS exhibit selection.

    PubMed

    Nam, Denis; Maak, Travis G; Raphael, Bradley S; Kepler, Christopher K; Cross, Michael B; Warren, Russell F

    2012-03-21

    Rotator cuff tear arthropathy encompasses a broad spectrum of pathology, but it involves at least three critical features: rotator cuff insufficiency, degenerative changes of the glenohumeral joint, and superior migration of the humeral head. Although many patients possess altered biomechanics of the glenohumeral joint secondary to rotator cuff pathology, not all patients develop rotator cuff tear arthropathy, and thus the exact etiology of rotator cuff tear arthropathy remains unclear. The objectives of this manuscript are to (1) review the biomechanical properties of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral joint, (2) discuss the proposed causes of rotator cuff tear arthropathy, (3) provide a brief review of the historically used surgical options to treat rotator cuff tear arthropathy, and (4) present a treatment algorithm for rotator cuff tear arthropathy based on a patient's clinical presentation, functional goals, and anatomic integrity.

  5. Non-Operative Management of Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Petri, M.; Ettinger, M.; Brand, S.; Stuebig, T.; Krettek, C.; Omar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of nonoperative management for rotator cuff tears remains a matter of debate. Clinical results reported in the literature mainly consist of level IV studies, oftentimes combining a mixed bag of tear sizes and configurations, and are contradictory to some extent. Methods: A selective literature search was performed and personal surgical experiences are reported. Results: Most studies show an overall success rate of around 75% for nonoperative treatment. However, the majority of studies also present a progression of tear size and fatty muscle infiltration over time, with however debatable clinical relevance for the patient. Suggested factors associated with progression of a rotator cuff tear are an age of 60 years or older, full-thickness tears, and fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles at the time of initial diagnosis. Conclusion: Non-operative management is indicated for patients with lower functional demands and moderate symptoms, and/or of course for those refusing to have surgery. Close routinely monitoring regarding development of tear size should be performed, especially in patients that remain symptomatic during nonoperative treatment. To ensure judicious patient counseling, it has to be taken into account that 1) tears that are initially graded as reparable may become irreparable over time, and 2) results after secondary surgical therapy after failed nonoperative treatment are usually reported to be inferior to those who underwent primary tendon repair. PMID:27708737

  6. Retraction pattern of delaminated rotator cuff tears: dual-layer rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Cha, Sang-Won; Lee, Choon-Key; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Kim, Taegyun; Lee, Su-Chan

    2016-07-06

    There has been no report to date regarding retraction patterns of delaminated rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and tearing patterns of delamination and repair integrity after the dual-layer repair of delaminated cuff tears. A consecutive series of 64 patients with posterosuperior rotator cuff tears underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair from August 2011 to September 2012. Among the patients, 53 who received either dual-layer double-row (DLDR) repair or dual-layer suture bridge (DLSB) repair and 11 who received a single-layer repair were evaluated. The mean follow-up period after surgery was 26.5 months. The retraction direction of the deep and superficial layers was analyzed, and the integrity of the repaired constructs was determined in 37 patients through magnetic resonance imaging at a mean of 12.1 months after surgery. The incidence of delamination was 82.8 %. Posteromedial retraction of the deep and superficial layers was observed in 98.1 and 88.5 % of cases, respectively. The Constant score and UCLA score increased preoperatively to postoperatively, showing no significant differences between the dual-layer repair group and single-layer repair group. Retear was found in two (7.6 %) patients in the dual-layer repair group and three (27.2 %) patients in the single-layer repair group (p = 0.016). Differential rotator cuff repair strategies are needed to address rotator cuff tears, since recent studies have changed our concept of rotator cuff tears. We have focused on three areas: incidence, retraction patterns, and clinical outcomes. The incidence of delamination was extremely high. Both the superficial layer and deep layer were mainly retracted posteromedially. The retraction of the deep layer and superficial layer may be affected by the infraspinatus. Dual-layer rotator cuff repair based on the retraction pattern of delamination is recommended for improvement of repair integrity and of clinical outcomes.

  7. Evaluation of cartilage degeneration in a rat model of rotator cuff tear arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Erik J; Bodendorfer, Blake M; Laron, Dominique; Wong, Jason; Kim, Hubert T; Liu, Xuhui; Feeley, Brian T

    2013-12-01

    Rotator cuff tears are the most common injury seen by shoulder surgeons. Glenohumeral osteoarthritis develops in many late-stage rotator cuff tear patients as a result of torn cuff tendons, termed "cuff tear arthropathy." However, the mechanisms of cuff tear arthropathy have not been fully established. It has been hypothesized that a combination of synovial and mechanical factors contribute equally to the development of cuff tear arthropathy. The goal of this study was to assess the utility of this model in investigating cuff tear arthropathy. We used a rat model that accurately reflects rotator cuff muscle degradation after massive rotator cuff tears through either infraspinatus and supraspinatus tenotomy or suprascapular nerve transection. Using a modified Mankin scoring system, we found significant glenohumeral cartilage damage after both rotator cuff tenotomy and suprascapular nerve transection after only 12 weeks. Cartilage degeneration was similar between groups and was present on both the humeral head and the glenoid. Denervation of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles without opening the joint capsule caused cartilage degeneration similar to that found in the tendon transection group. Our results suggest that altered mechanical loading after rotator cuff tears is the primary factor in cartilage degeneration after rotator cuff tears. Clinically, understanding the process of cartilage degeneration after rotator cuff injury will help guide treatment decisions in the setting of rotator cuff tears. Basic science study, animal model. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding and preventing complications in repairing rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Papalia, Rocco; Del Buono, Angelo; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Repair of rotator cuff tears is a common procedure. Prior to approaching this surgery, it should be realized that each surgical step can lead to complications, including those related to positioning and anaesthesia. Stiffness, infection and failure of repair are the more frequent complications reported. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. WITHDRAWN: Interventions for tears of the rotator cuff in adults.

    PubMed

    Ejnisman, Benno; Andreoli, Carlos V; Soares, Bernardo; Peccin, Maria Stella; Abdalla, Rene J; Faloppa, Flávio; Cohen, Moisés

    2009-01-21

    Tears of the rotator cuff tendons, which surround the joints of the shoulder, are one of the most common causes of pain and disability in the upper extremity. To review the efficacy and safety of common interventions for tears of the rotator cuff in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group specialised trail register (July 2002), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library issue 2, 2002), MEDLINE (1966 to December 2001), EMBASE (1974 to December 2001), Biological Abstracts (1980 to December 2001), LILACS (1982 to December 2001), CINAHL (November 1982 to December 2001), Science Citation Index and reference lists of articles. We also contacted authors and handsearched conference proceedings focusing on shoulder conditions. Randomised or quasi-randomised clinical trials involving tears of the rotator cuff were the focus of this review. All trials involving conservative interventions or surgery were included (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, intra-articular or subacromial glucocorticosteroid injection, oral glucocorticosteroid treatment, physiotherapy, and open or arthroscopic surgery). Two reviewers independently assessed suitability for inclusion, methodological quality and extracted data. Dichotomous data were presented as relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using the fixed effects model. Eight trials involving 455 people were included and 393 patients analysed. Trials were grouped in eight categories of conservative or surgical treatment. The median quality score of all trials combined was 16 out of a possible 24 points, with a range of 12-18. In general, included trials differed on diagnostic criteria for rotator cuff tear, there was no uniformity in reported outcome measures, and data which could be summarised were rarely reported. Only results from two studies comparing open repair to arthroscopic debridement could be pooled. There is weak evidence for the superiority of open repair of rotator

  10. Interventions for tears of the rotator cuff in adults.

    PubMed

    Ejnisman, B; Andreoli, C V; Soares, B G O; Fallopa, F; Peccin, M S; Abdalla, R J; Cohen, M

    2004-01-01

    Tears of the rotator cuff tendons, which surround the joints of the shoulder, are one of the most common causes of pain and disability in the upper extremity. To review the efficacy and safety of common interventions for tears of the rotator cuff in adults. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group specialised trail register (July 2002), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library issue 2, 2002), MEDLINE (1966 to December 2001), EMBASE (1974 to December 2001), Biological Abstracts (1980 to December 2001), LILACS (1982 to December 2001), CINAHL (November 1982 to December 2001), Science Citation Index and reference lists of articles. We also contacted authors and handsearched conference proceedings focusing on shoulder conditions. Randomised or quasi-randomised clinical trials involving tears of the rotator cuff were the focus of this review. All trials involving conservative interventions or surgery were included (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, intra-articular or subacromial glucocorticosteroid injection, oral glucocorticosteroid treatment, physiotherapy, and open or arthroscopic surgery). Two reviewers independently assessed suitability for inclusion, methodological quality and extracted data. Dichotomous data were presented as relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using the fixed effects model. Eight trials involving 455 people were included and 393 patients analysed. Trials were grouped in eight categories of conservative or surgical treatment. The median quality score of all trials combined was 16 out of a possible 24 points, with a range of 12-18. In general, included trials differed on diagnostic criteria for rotator cuff tear, there was no uniformity in reported outcome measures, and data which could be summarised were rarely reported. Only results from two studies comparing open repair to arthroscopic debridement could be pooled. There is weak evidence for the superiority of open repair of rotator cuff

  11. The effect of tear size on the treatment outcome of operatively treated rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Kukkonen, Juha; Kauko, Tommi; Virolainen, Petri; Äärimaa, Ville

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the tear size and the short-term clinical outcome of rotator cuff reconstruction. The hypothesis was that the size of the rotator cuff tear has a direct negative correlation with post-operative clinical outcome. Five hundred and seventy-six consecutive shoulders with a primarily arthroscopically treated full-thickness rotator cuff tear were followed up. Rotator cuff tear size (anteroposterior dimension) was measured intraoperatively with an arthroscopic measuring probe. The Constant score was used as an outcome measure and was measured pre-operatively and 1-year post-operatively. Five hundred and sixty-nine patients (99 %) were available for 1-year follow-up. The mean age of patients was 59.6 (SD 9.6) years. There were 225 (40 %) female and 344 (60 %) male patients. The mean size of the rotator cuff tear was 25 mm (SD 18). The mean pre- and post-operative Constant score was 52.3 (SD 17.4) and 74.2 (SD 15.5), respectively (p < 0.0001). The intraoperatively detected tear size correlated significantly with the pre-operative Constant score (r = -0.20, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, there was even stronger and significant correlation between the tear size and the final post-operative Constant score (r = -0.36, p < 0.0001). The correlation was similar between the genders, but the Constant scores were significantly lower in women (p < 0.0001). The lowest scores were detected in tears with infraspinatus tendon involvement. The size of the rotator cuff tear linearly correlates with the Constant scores both pre- and post-operatively. The outcome of rotator cuff reconstruction is strongly related to the intraoperatively detected tear size. Retrospective comparative register study, Level III.

  12. Glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps: a rare complication of traumatic rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Agnollitto, Paulo Moraes; Chu, Marcio Wen King; Lorenzato, Mario Muller; Zatiti, Salomão Chade Assan; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The present report describes a case where typical findings of traumatic glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps were surgically confirmed. This condition is a rare complication of shoulder trauma. Generally, it occurs in high-energy trauma, frequently in association with glenohumeral joint dislocation. Radiography demonstrated increased joint space, internal rotation of the humerus and coracoid process fracture. In addition to the mentioned findings, magnetic resonance imaging showed massive rotator cuff tear with interposition of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis stumps within the glenohumeral joint. Surgical treatment was performed confirming the injury and the rotator cuff stumps interposition. It is important that radiologists and orthopedic surgeons become familiar with this entity which, because of its rarity, might be neglected in cases of shoulder trauma.

  13. Glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps: a rare complication of traumatic rotator cuff tear*

    PubMed Central

    Agnollitto, Paulo Moraes; Chu, Marcio Wen King; Lorenzato, Mario Muller; Zatiti, Salomão Chade Assan; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The present report describes a case where typical findings of traumatic glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps were surgically confirmed. This condition is a rare complication of shoulder trauma. Generally, it occurs in high-energy trauma, frequently in association with glenohumeral joint dislocation. Radiography demonstrated increased joint space, internal rotation of the humerus and coracoid process fracture. In addition to the mentioned findings, magnetic resonance imaging showed massive rotator cuff tear with interposition of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis stumps within the glenohumeral joint. Surgical treatment was performed confirming the injury and the rotator cuff stumps interposition. It is important that radiologists and orthopedic surgeons become familiar with this entity which, because of its rarity, might be neglected in cases of shoulder trauma. PMID:26929462

  14. Degenerative rotator cuff tear in an elderly athlete: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of rotator cuff tear increases with age. Degenerative rotator cuff tears are commonly seen in athletes above 40 years. These athletes are commonly involved in overhead activities. Repetitive microtrauma is a more important factor in rotator cuff degeneration than acute trauma. Conservative treatment is the mainstay treatment for these injuries. A case report of an elderly athlete who sailed competitively is presented. The clinical and radiographic presentations, management and rehabilitation of degenerative rotator cuff tears are discussed. ImagesFigure 1

  15. Progression of Fatty Muscle Degeneration in Atraumatic Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Hebert-Davies, Jonah; Teefey, Sharlene A; Steger-May, Karen; Chamberlain, Aaron M; Middleton, William; Robinson, Kathryn; Yamaguchi, Ken; Keener, Jay D

    2017-05-17

    The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the progression of fatty muscle degeneration over time in asymptomatic shoulders with degenerative rotator cuff tears. Subjects with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear in 1 shoulder and pain due to rotator cuff disease in the contralateral shoulder were enrolled in a prospective cohort. Subjects were followed annually with shoulder ultrasonography, which evaluated tear size, location, and fatty muscle degeneration. Tears that were either full-thickness at enrollment or progressed to a full-thickness defect during follow-up were examined. A minimum follow-up of 2 years was necessary for eligibility. One hundred and fifty-six shoulders with full-thickness rotator cuff tears were potentially eligible. Seventy shoulders had measurable fatty muscle degeneration of at least 1 rotator cuff muscle at some time point. Patients with fatty muscle degeneration in the shoulder were older than those without degeneration (mean, 65.8 years [95% confidence interval (CI), 64.0 to 67.6 years] compared with 61.0 years [95% CI, 59.1 to 62.9 years]; p < 0.05), and the median size of the tears at baseline was larger in shoulders with degeneration than in shoulders that did not develop degeneration (13 and 10 mm wide, respectively, and 13 and 10 mm long; p < 0.05). Tears with fatty muscle degeneration were more likely to have enlarged during follow-up than were tears that never developed muscle degeneration (79% compared with 58%; odds ratio, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.29 to 5.39]; p < 0.05). Progression of fatty muscle degeneration occurred more frequently in shoulders with tears that had enlarged (43%; 45 of 105) than in shoulders with tears that had not enlarged (20%; 10 of 51; p < 0.05). Additionally, tears with enlargement and progression of muscle degeneration were more likely to extend into the anterior supraspinatus than were those without progression (53% and 17%, respectively; p < 0.05); however, this relationship was lost when

  16. Comma Sign–Directed Repair of Anterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Dilisio, Matthew F.; Neyton, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    The comma sign was described as an arthroscopic landmark to identify the torn subscapularis stump to mobilize and repair the tendon in anterosuperior rotator cuff tears. It was hypothesized that it is composed of the humeral attachments of the superior glenohumeral and coracohumeral ligaments. This arthroscopic finding has since become accepted orthopaedic nomenclature pathognomonic for subscapularis tears and a key component of subscapularis tear classification. We propose an alternative theory of the pathoanatomy of the comma sign in anterosuperior rotator cuff tears and present the technique of comma sign–directed repairs of combined subscapularis and supraspinatus lesions. After appropriate releases, tendon-to-tendon repair of the distal-superior aspect of the comma sign to the upper border of the remnant subscapularis results in anatomic re-creation of the intra-articular portion of the torn subscapularis with concomitant reduction of the anterior leading edge of the supraspinatus and reconstitution of the rotator cable complex. A tension-free, single-anchor subscapularis repair is then performed to secure the tendon to the lesser tuberosity. After subscapularis repair, the supraspinatus that was previously retracted to the glenoid rim takes the appearance of a crescent-type tear that is easily approximated to its anatomic insertion. PMID:25685676

  17. I.S.Mu.L.T - Rotator Cuff Tears Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Francesco; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Bossa, Michela; Via, Alessio Giai; Colombo, Alessandra; Chillemi, Claudio; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Pellicciari, Leonardo; Franceschetti, Edoardo; Rugiero, Clelia; Scialdoni, Alessandro; Vittadini, Filippo; Brancaccio, Paola; Creta, Domenico; Buono, Angelo Del; Garofalo, Raffaele; Franceschi, Francesco; Frizziero, Antonio; Mahmoud, Asmaa; Merolla, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Simone; Spoliti, Marco; Osti, Leonardo; Padulo, Johnny; Portinaro, Nicola; Tajana, Gianfranco; Castagna, Alex; Foti, Calogero; Masiero, Stefano; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Tarantino, Umberto; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high level achieved in the field of shoulder surgery, a global consensus on rotator cuff tears management is lacking. This work is divided into two main sessions: in the first, we set questions about hot topics involved in the rotator cuff tears, from the etiopathogenesis to the surgical treatment. In the second, we answered these questions by mentioning Evidence Based Medicine. The aim of the present work is to provide easily accessible guidelines: they could be considered as recommendations for a good clinical practice developed through a process of systematic review of the literature and expert opinion, in order to improve the quality of care and rationalize the use of resources. PMID:26958532

  18. Biceps Lesion Associated With Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ho Yeon; Kim, Jung Youn; Cho, Nam Su; Rhee, Yong Girl

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various tenodesis methods are being used for long head of the biceps tendon lesions. However, there is no consensus on the most appropriate surgical method. Hypothesis: There are significant differences in incidence of cosmetic deformity and persistent bicipital pain between open subpectoral and arthroscopic intracuff tenodesis groups. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This study included 72 patients who underwent biceps tenodesis and rotator cuff repair between January 2009 and May 2014 and who were followed for at least 1 year. Open subpectoral tenodesis was performed in 39 patients (group A), and arthroscopic intracuff tenodesis was performed in 33 patients (group B). Results: In group A, the mean visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain during motion and mean University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Constant scores significantly improved from 4.6, 18.6, and 64.5 preoperatively to 1.9, 30.5, and 86.5 at last follow-up, respectively (P < .001 for all). In group B, these scores significantly improved from 5.1, 17.6, and 62.9 preoperatively to 1.8, 31.5, and 85.9 at last follow-up, respectively (P < .001 for all). Popeye deformity was noted in 2 (5.2%) patients from group A and 5 (15.6%) patients from group B (P = .231). Additionally, persistent bicipital tenderness was noted in 1 (2.6%) patient from group A and 8 (24.2%) patients from group B (P = .012). Conclusion: Both open subpectoral tenodesis and arthroscopic intracuff tenodesis show good clinical outcomes for long head of the biceps tendon lesions. However, open subpectoral tenodesis may be more appropriate, considering the low incidence of Popeye deformity and tenderness. PMID:27231699

  19. Clinical application of radial magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Honda, H; Morihara, T; Arai, Y; Horii, M; Ito, H; Furukawa, R; Kida, Y; Sukenari, T; Ikoma, K; Oda, R; Yamada, Y; Fujiwara, H; Kubo, T

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is useful for evaluating the rotator cuff, but some tendinous insertions cannot be assessed using oblique sagittal, oblique coronal, and axial magnetic resonance (MR) images because of the presence of the partial volume effect. The purpose of this study was to determine whether radial-slice MR images could reveal normal rotator cuff insertions and rotator cuff tears more clearly than conventional MR images. The study included 18 subjects with normal rotator cuffs and 30 with rotator cuff tears. MR images of rotator cuff insertions sliced into radial, oblique coronal, and axial sections were obtained. The extent to which normal rotator cuff insertions and rotator cuff tears were visualized in each of the three MR images was evaluated. The top to posterior portions of the rotator cuff insertions from 0° to 120° could be visualized in the radial MR images. In comparison, the posterior portions of the rotator cuff insertions could not be visualized around 45° in both the oblique coronal and axial MR images. These findings demonstrate that radial MR images are superior to the oblique coronal and axial MR images regarding their ability to accurately visualize rotator cuff insertions. Radial MR images also revealed greater detail around 45° in the posterior area of the rotator cuff tears than the oblique coronal and axial MR images. Radial MR images are particularly useful for visualizing clinically important posterosuperior rotator cuff tears. Level III - Diagnostic study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Complications Following Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Tear Repair

    PubMed Central

    Audigé, Laurent; Blum, Raphael; Müller, Andreas M.; Flury, Matthias; Durchholz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Background Valid comparison of outcomes after surgical procedures requires consensus on which instruments and parameters should be used, including the recording and evaluation of surgical complications. An international standard outlining the terminology and definitions of surgical complications in orthopaedics is lacking. Purpose This study systematically reviewed the literature for terms and definitions related to the occurrence of negative events or complications after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) with specific focus on shoulder stiffness. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases were searched for reviews, clinical studies, and case reports of complications associated with ARCR. Reference lists of selected articles were also screened. The terminology of complications and their definitions were extracted from all relevant original articles by a single reviewer and verified by a second reviewer. Definitions of shoulder stiffness or equivalent terms were tabulated. Results Of 654 references published after 2007 and obtained from the search, 233 full-text papers (44 reviews, 155 studies, 31 case reports, and 3 surgical technique presentations) were reviewed. Twenty-two additional references cited for a definition were checked. One report defined the term surgical complication. There were 242 different terms used to describe local events and 64 to describe nonlocal events. Furthermore, 16 definitions of terms such as frozen shoulder, shoulder stiffness, or stiff painful shoulder were identified. Diagnosis criteria for shoulder stiffness differed widely; 12 various definitions for restriction in range of motion were noted. One definition included a gradation of stiffness severity, whereas another considered the patient’s subjective assessment of motion. Conclusion The literature does not consistently report on complications after ARCR, making valid comparison of the incidence of

  1. Muscle architectural changes after massive human rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Michael C; Sato, Eugene J; Bachasson, Damien; Cheng, Timothy; Azimi, Hassan; Schenk, Simon; Engler, Adam J; Singh, Anshuman; Ward, Samuel R

    2016-12-01

    Rotator cuff (RC) tendon tears lead to negative structural and functional changes in the associated musculature. The structural features of muscle that predict function are termed "muscle architecture." Although the architectural features of "normal" rotator cuff muscles are known, they are poorly understood in the context of cuff pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tear and repair on RC muscle architecture. To this end thirty cadaveric shoulders were grouped into one of four categories based on tear magnitude: Intact, Full-thickness tear (FTT), Massive tear (MT), or Intervention if sutures or hardware were present, and key parameters of muscle architecture were measured. We found that muscle mass and fiber length decreased proportionally with tear size, with significant differences between all groups. Conversely, sarcomere number was reduced in both FTT and MT with no significant difference between these two groups, in large part because sarcomere length was significantly reduced in MT but not FTT. The loss of muscle mass in FTT is due, in part, to subtraction of serial sarcomeres, which may help preserve sarcomere length. This indicates that function in FTT may be impaired, but there is some remaining mechanical loading to maintain "normal" sarcomere length-tension relationships. However, the changes resulting from MT suggest more severe limitations in force-generating capacity because sarcomere length-tension relationships are no longer normal. The architectural deficits observed in MT muscles may indicate deeper deficiencies in muscle adaptability to length change, which could negatively impact RC function despite successful anatomical repair. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2089-2095, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Epidemiology, natural history, and indications for treatment of rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Robert Z

    2012-10-01

    The etiology of rotator cuff disease is likely multifactorial, including age-related degeneration and microtrauma and macrotrauma. The incidence of rotator cuff tears increases with aging with more than half of individuals in their 80s having a rotator cuff tear. Smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and genetics have all been shown to influence the development of rotator cuff tearing. Substantial full-thickness rotator cuff tears, in general, progress and enlarge with time. Pain, or worsening pain, usually signals tear progression in both asymptomatic and symptomatic tears and should warrant further investigation if the tear is treated conservatively. Larger (>1-1.5 cm) symptomatic full-thickness cuff tears have a high rate of tear progression and, therefore, should be considered for earlier surgical repair in younger patients if the tear is reparable and there is limited muscle degeneration to avoid irreversible changes to the cuff, including tear enlargement and degenerative muscle changes. Smaller symptomatic full-thickness tears have been shown to have a slower rate of progression, similar to partial-thickness tears, and can be considered for initial nonoperative treatment due to the limited risk for rapid tear progression. In both small full-thickness tears and partial-thickness tears, increasing pain should alert physicians to obtain further imaging as it can signal tear progression. Natural history data, along with information on factors affecting healing after rotator cuff repair, can help guide surgeons in making appropriate decisions regarding the treatment of rotator cuff tears. The management of rotator cuff tears should be considered in the context of the risks and benefits of operative versus nonoperative treatment. Tear size and acuity, the presence of irreparable changes to the rotator cuff or glenohumeral joint, and patient age should all be considered in making this decision. Initial nonoperative care can be safely undertaken in older patients (>70

  3. Natural history of infraspinatus fatty infiltration in rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Melis, Barbara; Wall, Bryan; Walch, Gilles

    2010-07-01

    Muscular fatty infiltration (FI) represents an important prognostic factor in rotator cuff repair. The goal of this study was to analyze the natural history of infraspinatus FI in rotator cuff tears to determine the timing of the appearance and the speed of progression of this phenomenon. The preoperative MRI or CT-arthrograms of 1688 patients operated for rotator cuff tears were reviewed. The degree of infraspinatus FI was correlated with the type of tendon tear, patient sex, dominant hand, presence of traumatic injury, delay between the onset of symptoms and imaging studies, and age of the patients at imaging. Infraspinatus FI was graded on axial images according to Goutallier classification and described as minimal (stage 0 or 1), medium (stage 2), and severe (stages 3 and 4). Statistical regression was used to determine the most significant factors. Infraspinatus FI increased significantly in presence of an infraspinatus tendon tear and when multiple tendons were torn (P < .0005), with increasing delay between the onset of symptoms and imaging studies (P < .0005) and increasing patient age (P < .0005). Medium FI appeared on average 2 and a half years after the onset of symptoms, and severe FI appeared at an average of 4 years after symptom onset. Larger tendon tears, longer delays after tendon rupture and older patient age are associated with more severe and frequent FI. Stage 2 FI appears at an average of 2 and a half years after the onset of symptoms, and surgical repair should be done within this time frame if possible. 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Latissimus Dorsi Transfer in Posterior Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis P.; Alexiadis, George; Spyridonos, Sarantis; Fandridis, Emmanouil

    2017-01-01

    Background: Massive rotator cuff tears pose a difficult and complex challenge even for the experienced surgeon; inability to repair these tears by conventional means designates them as irreparable, while management becomes quite taxing. Several operative options have been suggested for the management of such lesions with varying degrees of success, while it is imperative to match patient demands and expectations to the predicted outcome. Methods: Research articles are examined and key concepts are discussed, in order to provide an evidence based review of the available literature. The anatomy and pathomechanics along with the indications, contraindications and surgical techniques are reported. Results: Transfer of the Latissimus dorsi has been used with success to restore shoulder function in deficits of the posterior rotator cuff. Although it can be used in a variety of settings, the ideal patient for a Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a young and active individual, with no glenohumeral osteoarthritis that has a severe disability and weakness related to an irreparable posterior cuff tear. Conclusion: Tendon transfers have proved to be a successful treatment option in salvaging this difficult problem, providing pain relief and restoring shoulder function. Despite the excellent functional outcomes and pain suppression following operation, a variety of factors may affect the outcome; thus making indications and preoperative assessment a valuable component. PMID:28400877

  5. Partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears: in situ repair versus tear completion prior to repair.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Paul M; Rajaram, Arun; Obopilwe, Elifho; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2013-06-01

    Uncertainty exists over the ideal surgical treatment method for partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears, with options ranging from debridement to in situ repair to tear completion prior to repair. The purpose of this study was to determine whether in situ repair was a viable biomechanical treatment option compared with tear completion prior to repair of partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears. Fourteen fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were dissected. Partial articular-sided tears were created and repaired using in situ repair or tear completion prior to the repair. Strain and displacement were measured at 45°, 60°, and 90° of glenohumeral abduction. Testing was performed with a load of 100 N applied for 30 cycles. Data from the biomechanical testing displayed 4 conditions that showed improved characteristics of in situ repair over completion and repair: bursal-sided strain anteriorly at 45°, bursal-sided strain anteriorly at 90°, bursal-sided displacement anteriorly at 45°, and bursal-sided displacement anteriorly at 90°. The data indicate that in situ repair is a viable biomechanical treatment option compared with tear completion prior to repair of partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears. When clinically appropriate, the in situ repair may offer some biomechanical advantages, with lower strain and displacement observed on the bursal side compared with tear completion prior to repair. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. A new tear pattern of the rotator cuff and its treatment: Fosbury flop tears

    PubMed Central

    Lädermann, Alexandre; Denard, Patrick J.; Kolo, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe a new full-thickness tear pattern of the posterosuperior rotator cuff with reversal healing. We describe the specific radiologic signs associated with this tear pattern and the arthroscopic rotator cuff repair technique. Materials and Methods: A prospective radiologic and clinical study collected all patients with a magnetic resonance imaging arthrogram that underwent an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair over a 1 year period. Results: Among 97 patients, five demonstrated a tear of the posterosuperior rotator cuff with reversal healing. Characteristic radiographic findings included a thicker tendon than normal, the presence of a stump and accumulation of liquid in the superior-medial part of the subacromial bursa, and adhesions between the supraspinatus tendon and the wall of the subacromial bursa. Conclusion: Avulsion of the posterosuperior rotator cuff with reversal healing on its bursal-side is a less common condition. This type of lesion and distinct radiographic signs that can be recognized to facilitate anatomic repair of the rotator cuff. Level of evidence: Level IV. PMID:25709239

  7. Predicting rotator cuff tears using data mining and Bayesian likelihood ratios.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsueh-Yi; Huang, Chen-Yuan; Su, Chwen-Tzeng; Lin, Chen-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Rotator cuff tear is a common cause of shoulder diseases. Correct diagnosis of rotator cuff tears can save patients from further invasive, costly and painful tests. This study used predictive data mining and Bayesian theory to improve the accuracy of diagnosing rotator cuff tears by clinical examination alone. In this retrospective study, 169 patients who had a preliminary diagnosis of rotator cuff tear on the basis of clinical evaluation followed by confirmatory MRI between 2007 and 2011 were identified. MRI was used as a reference standard to classify rotator cuff tears. The predictor variable was the clinical assessment results, which consisted of 16 attributes. This study employed 2 data mining methods (ANN and the decision tree) and a statistical method (logistic regression) to classify the rotator cuff diagnosis into "tear" and "no tear" groups. Likelihood ratio and Bayesian theory were applied to estimate the probability of rotator cuff tears based on the results of the prediction models. Our proposed data mining procedures outperformed the classic statistical method. The correction rate, sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve of predicting a rotator cuff tear were statistical better in the ANN and decision tree models compared to logistic regression. Based on likelihood ratios derived from our prediction models, Fagan's nomogram could be constructed to assess the probability of a patient who has a rotator cuff tear using a pretest probability and a prediction result (tear or no tear). Our predictive data mining models, combined with likelihood ratios and Bayesian theory, appear to be good tools to classify rotator cuff tears as well as determine the probability of the presence of the disease to enhance diagnostic decision making for rotator cuff tears.

  8. Partial rotator cuff tears in adolescents: factors affecting outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Eric A; Roocroft, Joanna H; Moor, Molly A; Edmonds, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    In the adult population, rotator cuff tears are common and established treatment methods yield satisfactory results. In adolescents, however, these injuries are uncommon and few treatment methods and outcome reports exist. The purpose of this study was to examine a series of adolescent rotator cuff tears, identify associated pathology, and report treatment outcomes. A retrospective comparative analysis of adolescent patients treated for rotator cuff tears diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or arthroscopy between 2008 and 2010 was performed. Patients were divided by treatment rendered: nonoperative or operative. Demographic and diagnostic variables were compared between the 2 groups. After release to full activity, 3 patient outcome measures were obtained: QuickDASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand), QuickDASH Sports module, and the Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE). Fifty-three adolescents (38 boys and 15 girls) with a mean age of 15.8 years (8.8 to 18.8 y) met the inclusion criteria. All rotator cuff tears were partial articular-sided tendon avulsions, and surgical treatment (when required) consisted of debridement to stable edges. All patients underwent a trial of at least 6 weeks of physical therapy, with 57% failing to improve and requiring subsequent surgery. In the patients that were treated nonoperatively, 39% were diagnosed with associated pathology based on MRI findings, whereas operative patients exhibited an associated pathology rate of 70%. Patients with MRI-diagnosed associated pathology were 1.8 times more likely (95% confidence interval, 1.02-3.13, P=0.025) to require surgery compared with those without MRI-identified associated pathology. Nineteen patients (13 operative, 6 nonoperative) completed the outcome questionnaires at a mean 16.9 months after treatment. QuickDASH, SANE, and QuickDASH Sports module scores were not statistically different between nonoperative and operative treatment groups (7.5 vs. 8.1, P=0

  9. The Rotator Cuff Organ: Integrating Developmental Biology, Tissue Engineering, and Surgical Considerations to Treat Chronic Massive Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Rothrauff, Benjamin B; Pauyo, Thierry; Debski, Richard E; Rodosky, Mark W; Tuan, Rocky S; Musahl, Volker

    2017-08-01

    The torn rotator cuff remains a persistent orthopedic challenge, with poor outcomes disproportionately associated with chronic, massive tears. Degenerative changes in the tissues that comprise the rotator cuff organ, including muscle, tendon, and bone, contribute to the poor healing capacity of chronic tears, resulting in poor function and an increased risk for repair failure. Tissue engineering strategies to augment rotator cuff repair have been developed in an effort to improve rotator cuff healing and have focused on three principal aims: (1) immediate mechanical augmentation of the surgical repair, (2) restoration of muscle quality and contractility, and (3) regeneration of native enthesis structure. Work in these areas will be reviewed in sequence, highlighting the relevant pathophysiology, developmental biology, and biomechanics, which must be considered when designing therapeutic applications. While the independent use of these strategies has shown promise, synergistic benefits may emerge from their combined application given the interdependence of the tissues that constitute the rotator cuff organ. Furthermore, controlled mobilization of augmented rotator cuff repairs during postoperative rehabilitation may provide mechanotransductive cues capable of guiding tissue regeneration and restoration of rotator cuff function. Present challenges and future possibilities will be identified, which if realized, may provide solutions to the vexing condition of chronic massive rotator cuff tears.

  10. Association between alcohol consumption and rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Passaretti, Daniele; Candela, Vittorio; Venditto, Teresa; Giannicola, Giuseppe; Gumina, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Long-term alcohol intake is associated with various negative effects on capillary microcirculation and tissue perfusion. We hypothesized that alcohol consumption might be a risk factor for both the occurrence and the severity of rotator cuff tears (RCTs). Patients and methods — A case-control study was performed. We studied 249 consecutive patients (139 men and 110 women; mean age 64 (54–78) years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Tear size was determined intraoperatively. The control group had 356 subjects (186 men and 170 women; mean age 66 (58–82) years) with no RCT. All participants were questioned about their alcohol intake. Participants were divided into: (1) non-drinkers if they consumed less than 0.01 g of ethanol per day, and (2) moderate drinkers and (3) excessive drinkers if women (men) consumed > 24 g (36 g) per day for at least 2 years. Results — Total alcohol consumption, wine consumption, and duration of alcohol intake were higher in both men and women with RCT than in both men and women in the control group. Excessive alcohol consumption was found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of RCT in both sexes (men: OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–3.9; women: OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.94–4.1). Massive tears were associated with a higher intake of alcohol (especially wine) than smaller lesions. Interpretation — Long-term alcohol intake is a significant risk factor for the occurrence and severity of rotator cuff tear in both sexes. PMID:26610042

  11. Irreparable rotator cuff tears: a novel classification system.

    PubMed

    Castricini, R; De Benedetto, M; Orlando, N; Gervasi, E; Castagna, A

    2014-04-01

    Irreparable rotator cuff tears can be managed by several approaches. However, current tear classifications fail to reflect the wide variety of their presentation, which has important clinical and prognostic implications. We describe a novel classification system based on preoperative imaging findings and intraoperative observation where each cuff tendon (numbered sequentially: 1-supraspinatus, 2-infraspinatus, 3-teres minor, and 4-subscapularis) is assessed intraoperatively for reducibility to the footprint; tendons with reparable lesions are assessed for fatty degeneration (which predicts healing potential) and given a plus if degeneration is <50 % (Fuchs stage I-II/Goutallier stage 0-II) or a minus if it is ≥50 % (Fuchs stage III/Goutallier stage III-IV). The proposed system (1) allows more consistent and reproducible classification of cuff tears where at least one tendon is irreparable; (2) results in more accurate diagnosis; (3) guides in treatment selection; and (4) ensures better outcomes and realistic patient expectations. The novel classification system can contribute to develop increasingly exhaustive and reproducible classification models.

  12. Biceps tendinitis in chronic rotator cuff tears: a histologic perspective.

    PubMed

    Singaraju, Vamsi M; Kang, Richard W; Yanke, Adam B; McNickle, Allison G; Lewis, Paul B; Wang, Vincent M; Williams, James M; Chubinskaya, Susan; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    Patients with chronic rotator cuff tears frequently have anterior shoulder pain attributed to the long head of the biceps brachii (LHBB) tendon. In this study, tenodesis or tenotomy samples and cadaveric controls were assessed by use of immunohistochemical and histologic methods to quantify inflammation, vascularity, and neuronal plasticity. Patients had moderate pain and positive results on at least 1 clinical test of shoulder function. The number of axons in the distal LHBB was significantly less in patients with biceps tendinitis. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P immunostaining was predominantly within nerve roots and blood vessels. A moderate correlation (R = 0.5) was identified between LHBB vascularity and pain scores. On the basis of these results, we conclude that, in the context of rotator cuff disease, the etiology of anterior shoulder pain with macroscopic changes in the biceps tendon is related to the complex interaction of the tendon and surrounding soft tissues, rather than a single entity.

  13. Predicting Rotator Cuff Tears Using Data Mining and Bayesian Likelihood Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsueh-Yi; Huang, Chen-Yuan; Su, Chwen-Tzeng; Lin, Chen-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Rotator cuff tear is a common cause of shoulder diseases. Correct diagnosis of rotator cuff tears can save patients from further invasive, costly and painful tests. This study used predictive data mining and Bayesian theory to improve the accuracy of diagnosing rotator cuff tears by clinical examination alone. Methods In this retrospective study, 169 patients who had a preliminary diagnosis of rotator cuff tear on the basis of clinical evaluation followed by confirmatory MRI between 2007 and 2011 were identified. MRI was used as a reference standard to classify rotator cuff tears. The predictor variable was the clinical assessment results, which consisted of 16 attributes. This study employed 2 data mining methods (ANN and the decision tree) and a statistical method (logistic regression) to classify the rotator cuff diagnosis into “tear” and “no tear” groups. Likelihood ratio and Bayesian theory were applied to estimate the probability of rotator cuff tears based on the results of the prediction models. Results Our proposed data mining procedures outperformed the classic statistical method. The correction rate, sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve of predicting a rotator cuff tear were statistical better in the ANN and decision tree models compared to logistic regression. Based on likelihood ratios derived from our prediction models, Fagan's nomogram could be constructed to assess the probability of a patient who has a rotator cuff tear using a pretest probability and a prediction result (tear or no tear). Conclusions Our predictive data mining models, combined with likelihood ratios and Bayesian theory, appear to be good tools to classify rotator cuff tears as well as determine the probability of the presence of the disease to enhance diagnostic decision making for rotator cuff tears. PMID:24733553

  14. Gene expression profiles of changes underlying different-sized human rotator cuff tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Salma; Xia, Zhidao; Thakkar, Dipti; Hakimi, Osnat; Carr, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Progressive cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) changes related to age and disease severity have been demonstrated in rotator cuff tendon tears. Larger rotator cuff tears demonstrate structural abnormalities that potentially adversely influence healing potential. This study aimed to gain greater insight into the relationship of pathologic changes to tear size by analyzing gene expression profiles from normal rotator cuff tendons, small rotator cuff tears, and large rotator cuff tears. We analyzed gene expression profiles of 28 human rotator cuff tendons using microarrays representing the entire genome; 11 large and 5 small torn rotator cuff tendon specimens were obtained intraoperatively from tear edges, which we compared with 12 age-matched normal controls. We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for validation. Torn rotator cuff tendons demonstrated upregulation of a number of key genes, such as matrix metalloproteinase 3, 10, 12, 13, 15, 21, and 25; a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 12, 15, and 22; and aggrecan. Amyloid was downregulated in all tears. Small tears displayed upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 5. Chemokines and cytokines that may play a role in chemotaxis were altered; interleukins 3, 10, 13, and 15 were upregulated in tears, whereas interleukins 1, 8, 11, 18, and 27 were downregulated. The gene expression profiles of normal controls and small and large rotator cuff tear groups differ significantly. Extracellular matrix remodeling genes were found to contribute to rotator cuff tear pathogenesis. Rotator cuff tears displayed upregulation of a number of matrix metalloproteinase (3, 10, 12, 13, 15, 21, and 25), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM 12, 15, and 22) genes, and downregulation of some interleukins (1, 8, and 27), which play important roles in chemotaxis. These gene products may potentially have a role as biomarkers of failure of healing or therapeutic targets to improve tendon

  15. Preexisting Rotator Cuff Tears as a Predictor of Outcomes in National Football League Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Gombera, M Mustafa; Saltzman, Matthew D; Nuber, Gordon W; Schroeder, Gregory D; Labelle, Mark; Hollett, Brian P

    A preexisting rotator cuff tear may affect the draft status and career performance of National Football League (NFL) players. Preexisting rotator cuff tears decrease a player's draft status, performance, and longevity in the NFL. Retrospective cohort study. Level 3. Medical reports of prospective NFL players during the NFL Scouting Combine from 2003 to 2011 were evaluated to identify players with a previous rotator cuff tear. Athletes were matched to control draftees without documented shoulder pathology by age, position, year drafted, and round drafted. Career statistics and performance scores were calculated. Between 2003 and 2011, 2965 consecutive athletes were evaluated. Forty-nine athletes had preexisting rotator cuff tears: 22 athletes underwent surgical intervention for their tear and 27 were treated nonoperatively. Those with a rotator cuff tear were significantly less likely to be drafted than those without a previous injury (55.1% vs 77.5%, P = 0.002). The 27 drafted athletes with preexisting rotator cuff tears started significantly fewer games (23.7 vs 43.0, P = 0.02) and played significantly fewer years (4.3 vs 5.7, P = 0.04) and significantly fewer games (47.1 vs 68.4, P = 0.04) than matched control athletes without rotator cuff tears. Athletes with a preexisting rotator cuff tear were less likely to be drafted and had decreased career longevity.

  16. Volumetric evaluation of the rotator cuff musculature in massive rotator cuff tears with pseudoparalysis.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Yong Girl; Cho, Nam Su; Song, Jong Hoon; Park, Jung Gwan; Kim, Tae Yong

    2017-09-01

    If the balance of the rotator cuff force couple is disrupted, pseudoparalysis may occur, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of rotator cuff force couple disruption on active range of motion in massive rotator cuff tear (mRCT) by rotator cuff muscle volume analysis. The study included 53 patients with irreparable mRCT: 22 in the nonpseudoparalysis group and 31 in the pseudoparalysis group. The volumes of the subscapularis (SBS), infraspinatus (ISP), and teres minor (TM) muscles were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the ratios of each muscle volume to the anatomic external rotator (aER) volume were calculated. A control group of 25 individuals with normal rotator cuffs was included. Anterior-to-posterior cuff muscle volume ratio (SBS/ISP + TM) was imbalanced in both mRCT groups (1.383 nonpseudoparalysis and 1.302 pseudoparalysis). Between the 2 groups, the ISP/aER ratio (0.277 vs. 0.249) and the inferior SBS/aER ratio (0.426 vs. 0.390) were significantly decreased in the pseudoparalysis group (P= .022 and P= .040, respectively). However, neither the TM/aER ratio (0.357 vs. 0.376) nor the superior SBS/aER ratio (0.452 vs. 0.424) showed a significant difference between the two groups (P= .749 and P= .068, respectively). If the inferior SBS was torn, a high frequency of pseudoparalysis was noted (81.0%, P= .010). The disruption of transverse force couple was noted in both irreparable mRCT groups, although no significant difference was found between the nonpseudoparalysis and pseudoparalysis groups. ISP and inferior SBS muscle volumes showed a significant decrease in pseudoparalysis group and, therefore, were considered to greatly influence the loss of active motion in mRCT. The TM did not exert significant effect on the incidence of pseudoparalysis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between massive chronic rotator cuff tear pattern and loss of active shoulder range of motion.

    PubMed

    Collin, Philippe; Matsumura, Noboru; Lädermann, Alexandre; Denard, Patrick J; Walch, Gilles

    2014-08-01

    Management of massive chronic rotator cuff tears remains controversial, with no clearly defined clinical presentation as yet. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of tear size and location on active motion in patients with chronic and massive rotator cuff tears with severe muscle degeneration. One hundred patients with massive rotator cuff tears accompanied by muscle fatty infiltration beyond Goutallier stage 3 were prospectively included in this study. All patients were divided into 5 groups on the basis of tear pattern (supraspinatus, superior subscapularis, inferior subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor). Active range of shoulder motion was assessed in each group and differences were analyzed. Active elevation was significantly decreased in patients with 3 tear patterns involved. Pseudoparalysis was found in 80% of the cases with supraspinatus and complete subscapularis tears and in 45% of the cases with tears involving the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and superior subscapularis. Loss of active external rotation was related to tears involving the infraspinatus and teres minor; loss of active internal rotation was related to tears of the subscapularis. This study revealed that dysfunction of the entire subscapularis and supraspinatus or 3 rotator cuff muscles is a risk factor for pseudoparalysis. For function to be preserved in patients with massive chronic rotator cuff tears, it may be important to avoid fatty infiltration with anterior extension into the lower subscapularis or involvement of more than 2 rotator cuff muscles. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Editorial Commentary: Options Abound for Calcific Tendonitis of the Shoulder Without a Rotator Cuff Tear.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2016-01-01

    For patients with calcific tendonitis of the shoulder without a rotator cuff tear, nonsurgical options exist. When nonsurgical options fail, or when patients have a concomitant rotator cuff tear, arthroscopy is a safe and effective treatment. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Mazoué, Christopher G; Andrews, James R

    2006-02-01

    Despite the relative frequency of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears seen in baseball players, full-thickness rotator cuff tears in baseball players are uncommon. Return to competitive baseball is difficult after surgical treatment of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. We evaluated the results of 16 professional baseball players after a mini-open repair of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Twelve patients were pitchers with injury to their dominant shoulders. Four patients were position players; 2 had injuries involving their dominant shoulders, and 2 had injuries to their nondominant shoulders. At a mean follow-up of 66.6 months for the pitchers, only 1 player (8%) was able to return to a high competitive level of baseball with no significant shoulder dysfunction after mini-open repair of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Of the 2 position players with mini-open repairs of the full-thickness rotator cuff tear of their dominant shoulders, 1 was able to return to professional baseball. Of the 2 position players with mini-open repairs of the full-thickness rotator cuff tear of their nondominant shoulders, both were able to return to professional baseball at the same or higher level. It is very difficult for a professional baseball pitcher to return to a competitive level of pitching after a full-thickness rotator cuff repair with a mini-open approach.

  20. Shoulder ultrasonography performed by orthopedic surgeons increases efficiency in diagnosis of rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Hao; Chen, Poyu; Chen, Alvin Chao-Yu; Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Chang, Shih-Sheng; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Yeung-Jen

    2017-04-20

    Rotator cuff tears are very common and their incidence increases with age. Shoulder ultrasonography has recently gained popularity in detecting rotator cuff tears because of its efficiency, cost-effectiveness, time-saving, and real-time nature of the procedure. Well-trained orthopedic surgeons may utilize shoulder ultrasonography to diagnose rotator cuff tears. The wait time of patients planned to have shoulder MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) to rule in rotator cuff tears may decrease after orthopedic surgeon start doing shoulder ultrasonography as a screening tool for that. Patients with rotator cuff tears may be detected earlier by ultrasonography and have expedited surgical repair. The efficacy in determination of rotator cuff tears will also increase. Patients were retrospectively reviewed from January 2007 to December 2012. They were divided into 2 groups: Ultrasound (-) group and the Ultrasound (+) group. Age, gender, wait time from outpatient department (OPD) visit to MRI exam, MRI exam to operation (OP), and OPD visit to OP, patient number for MRI exam, and number of patients who finally had rotator cuff repair within two groups were compared. The wait time of OPD visit to OP and MRI to OP in patients who received shoulder ultrasonography was significantly less than that in patients did not receive shoulder ultrasonography screening. Only 23.8% of the patients with a suspected rotator cuff injury undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair before ultrasonography was applied as a screening tool. The percentage increased to 53.6% after orthopedic surgeon started using ultrasonography as a screening tool for rotator cuff tears. Office-based shoulder ultrasound examination can reduce the wait time for a shoulder MRI. The efficacy of determination of rotator cuff tears will also increase after the introduction of shoulder ultrasonography.

  1. Increasing age and tear size reduce rotator cuff repair healing rate at 1 year.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mustafa S; Cooper, Cushla; Cook, Jonathan; Cooper, David; Dakin, Stephanie G; Snelling, Sarah; Carr, Andrew J

    2017-09-07

    Background and purpose - There is a need to understand the reasons why a high proportion of rotator cuff repairs fail to heal. Using data from a large randomized clinical trial, we evaluated age and tear size as risk factors for failure of rotator cuff repair. Patients and methods - Between 2007 and 2014, 65 surgeons from 47 hospitals in the National Health Service (NHS) recruited 447 patients with atraumatic rotator cuff tendon tears to the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Trial (UKUFF) and 256 underwent rotator cuff repair. Cuff integrity was assessed by imaging in 217 patients, at 12 months post-operation. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age and intra-operative tear size on healing. Hand dominance, sex, and previous steroid injections were controlled for. Results - The overall healing rate was 122/217 (56%) at 12 months. Healing rate decreased with increasing tear size (small tears 66%, medium tears 68%, large tears 47%, and massive tears 27% healed). The mean age of patients with a healed repair was 61 years compared with 64 years for those with a non-healed repair. Mean age increased with larger tear sizes (small tears 59 years, medium tears 62 years, large tears 64 years, and massive tears 66 years). Increasing age was an independent factor that negatively influenced healing, even after controlling for tear size. Only massive tears were an independent predictor of non-healing, after controlling for age. Interpretation - Although increasing age and larger tear size are both risks for failure of rotator cuff repair healing, age is the dominant risk factor.

  2. After rotator cuff tears, the remaining (intact) tendons are mechanically altered.

    PubMed

    Perry, Stephanie M; Getz, Charles L; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2009-01-01

    Although presumed, damage in the remaining (intact) rotator cuff tendons in the presence of an isolated supraspinatus tendon tear or multiple tendon tear has not been well studied. This study used an animal model of multiple rotator cuff tendon tears to investigate alterations in the remaining (intact) tendon mechanical properties at 4 and 8 weeks after injury. Twenty-four rats served as uninjured controls, whereas 72 were divided among 3 tendon detachment groups: supraspinatus tendon detachment, supraspinatus + infraspinatus tendon detachment, and supraspinatus + subscapularis tendon detachment. The remaining (intact) rotator cuff tendons had decreased mechanical properties in the presence of rotator cuff tears. The remaining (intact) subscapularis and infraspinatus tendon cross-sectional areas increased, whereas tendon modulus decreased after tears of both 1 and 2 tendons. The remaining (intact) tendon cross-sectional areas continued to increase with time after injury. These alterations could potentially lead to further tendon damage and tear progression.

  3. Sonographic Visualization of the Rotator Cable in Patients With Symptomatic Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Correlation With Tear Size, Muscular Fatty Infiltration and Atrophy, and Functional Outcome.

    PubMed

    Bureau, Nathalie J; Blain-Paré, Etienne; Tétreault, Patrice; Rouleau, Dominique M; Hagemeister, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of sonographic visualization of the rotator cable in patients with symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears and asymptomatic controls and to correlate rotator cable visualization with tear size, muscular fatty infiltration and atrophy, and the functional outcome in the patients with rotator cuff tears. Fifty-seven patients with rotator cuff tears and 30 asymptomatic volunteers underwent shoulder sonography for prospective assessment of the rotator cable and rotator cuff tear and responded to 2 functional outcome questionnaires (shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [QuickDASH] and Constant). In the patients with rotator cuff tears, appropriate tests were used to correlate rotator cable visualization with the tear size, functional outcome, muscular fatty infiltration, and atrophy. The patients with rotator cuff tears included 25 women and 32 men (mean age,57 years; range, 39-67 years), and the volunteers included 13 women and 17 men (mean age, 56 years; range, 35-64 years). The rotator cable was identified in 77% (23 of 30) of controls and 23% (13 of 57) of patients with rotator cuff tears. In the patients, nonvisualization of the rotator cable correlated with larger tears (P < 0.001) and higher grades of supraspinatus atrophy (P = .049) and fatty infiltration (P = .022). There was no significant correlation with functional outcome scores (QuickDASH, P = .989; Constant, P = .073) or infraspinatus fatty infiltration (P = .065). Nonvisualization of the rotator cable was more prevalent in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears than asymptomatic controls and was associated with a larger tear size and greater supraspinatus fatty infiltration and atrophy. Diligent assessment of the supraspinatus muscle should be done in patients with rotator cuff tears without a visible rotator cable, as the integrity of these anatomic structures may be interdependent.

  4. Intense focused ultrasound stimulation of the rotator cuff: evaluation of the source of pain in rotator cuff tears and tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gellhorn, Alfred C; Gillenwater, Cody; Mourad, Pierre D

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the ability of individual 0.1-s long pulses of intense focused ultrasound (iFU) emitted with a carrier frequency of 2 MHz to evoke diagnostic sensations when applied to patients whose shoulders have rotator cuff tears or tendinopathy. Patients were adults with painful shoulders and clinical and imaging findings consistent with rotator cuff disease. iFU stimulation of the shoulder was performed using B-mode ultrasound coupled with a focused ultrasound transducer that allowed image-guided delivery of precisely localized pulses of energy to different anatomic areas around the rotator cuff. The main outcome measure was iFU spatial average-temporal average intensity (I_SATA), and location required to elicit sensation. In control patients, iFU produced no sensation throughout the range of stimulation intensities (≤2000 W/cm(2) I_SATA). In patients with rotator cuff disease, iFU was able to induce sensation in the tendons of the rotator cuff, the subacromial bursa, and the subchondral bone in patients with chronic shoulder pain and rotator cuff disease, with an average ± standard deviation intensity equaling 680 ± 281 W/cm(2) I_SATA. This result suggests a primary role for these tissues in the pathogenesis of shoulder pain related to rotator cuff tendinopathy.

  5. Management of degenerative rotator cuff tears: a review and treatment strategy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to present an over view of degenerative rotator cuff tears and a suggested management protocol based upon current evidence. Degenerative rotator cuff tears are common and are a major cause of pain and shoulder dysfunction. The management of these tears is controversial, as to whether they should be managed non-operatively or operatively. In addition when operative intervention is undertaken, there is question as to what technique of repair should be used. This review describes the epidemiology and natural history of degenerative rotator cuff tears. The management options, and the evidence to support these, are reviewed. We also present our preferred management protocol and method, if applicable, for surgical fixation of degenerative rotator cuff tears. PMID:23241147

  6. The effect of a rotator cuff tear and its size on three-dimensional shoulder motion.

    PubMed

    Kolk, Arjen; Henseler, Jan Ferdinand; de Witte, Pieter Bas; van Zwet, Erik W; van der Zwaal, Peer; Visser, Cornelis P J; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G H H; de Groot, Jurriaan H

    2017-06-01

    Rotator cuff-disease is associated with changes in kinematics, but the effect of a rotator cuff-tear and its size on shoulder kinematics is still unknown in-vivo. In this cross-sectional study, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic kinematics of the affected shoulder were evaluated using electromagnetic motion analysis in 109 patients with 1) subacromial pain syndrome (n=34), 2) an isolated supraspinatus tear (n=21), and 3) a massive rotator cuff tear involving the supraspinatus and infraspinatus (n=54). Mixed models were applied for the comparisons of shoulder kinematics between the three groups during abduction and forward flexion. In the massive rotator cuff-tear group, we found reduced glenohumeral elevation compared to the subacromial pain syndrome (16°, 95% CI [10.5, 21.2], p<0.001) and the isolated supraspinatus tear group (10°, 95% CI [4.0, 16.7], p=0.002) at 110° abduction. Reduced glenohumeral elevation in massive rotator cuff tears coincides with an increase in scapulothoracic lateral rotation compared to subacromial pain syndrome (11°, 95% CI [6.5, 15.2], p<0.001) and supraspinatus tears (7°, 95% CI [1.8, 12.1], p=0.012). Comparable differences were observed for forward flexion. No differences in glenohumeral elevation were found between the subacromial pain syndrome and isolated supraspinatus tear group during arm elevation. The massive posterosuperior rotator cuff-tear group had substantially less glenohumeral elevation and more scapulothoracic lateral rotation compared to the other groups. These observations suggest that the infraspinatus is essential to preserve glenohumeral elevation in the presence of a supraspinatus tear. Shoulder kinematics are associated with rotator cuff-tear size and may have diagnostic potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of faulty posture on rotator cuff tears with and without symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Takagishi, Kenji; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Takasawa, Eiji; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Osawa, Toshihisa

    2015-03-01

    We hypothesized that the prevalence of rotator cuff tears would be higher among individuals with poor posture, regardless of the presence of symptoms. The study initially comprised 525 residents of a mountain village who participated in an annual health check. Participants completed a background questionnaire, and physical examinations were performed to evaluate shoulder function. Ultrasonographic examinations were also performed to identify rotator cuff tears, and participants were grouped according to the presence or absence of tears. Posture was classified by 2 observers into 4 types according to the classification of Kendall, as follows: ideal alignment, kyphotic-lordotic posture, flat-back posture, and sway-back posture. Univariate analyses were performed to compare differences in background characteristics between groups, then multivariate analysis was performed to identify those factors associated with rotator cuff tears. Final analysis was performed for 379 participants (135 men, 244 women; mean age, 62.0 years; range, 31-94 years) showing the same posture classification from both observers. Of these, 93 (24.5%) showed rotator cuff tear in one shoulder and 45 (11.9%) showed tears in both. Prevalence of rotator cuff tears was 2.9% with ideal alignment, 65.8% with kyphotic-lordotic posture, 54.3% with flat-back posture, and 48.9% with sway-back posture. Logistic regression analysis identified increased age, abnormal posture, and past pain as factors associated with rotator cuff tears. Postural abnormality represented an independent predictor of both symptomatic and asymptomatic rotator cuff tears. These results may help define preventive measures for rotator cuff tears and in design ing rehabilitation therapies for shoulder disease. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidence and severity of biceps long head tendon lesion in patients with complete rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Hwa; Hsu, Kuo-Yaw; Chen, Wen-Jer; Shih, Chun-Hsiung

    2005-06-01

    Biceps long head tendon lesion is commonly associated with rotator cuff tendon pathology. This study is to determine the pathologic spectrum of biceps long head tendon in surgical cases with complete full thickness rotator cuff tear. Between 1993 and 2002, 122 complete rotator cuff tears with surgery were included for the analysis. During surgery, biceps long head tendon was grossly examined or evaluated via arthroscopy. A simplified classification was used to describe the biceps lesion. 50 (41%) patients had type 1 lesion (tendinitis), 10 (8%) patients had type 2 lesion (subluxation), 12 (10%) patients had type 3 (dislocation), 15 (12%) patients had type 4 (partial tear), and 6 patients (5%) had type 5 (complete rupture). The remaining 29 patients (24%) did not have obvious pathology. All chronic rotator cuff tear (> 3 months) were associated with biceps tendon pathology. A rotator cuff tear greater than 5 cm as determined at surgery was strongly associated with an advanced biceps lesion. Biceps tendon injuries are associated with complete rotator cuff tears and there may be a causal relationship due to the impingement that occurs. Early identification and repair of rotator cuff lesions may prevent further deterioration of the biceps tendon.

  9. Acromion Index in Korean Population and Its Relationship with Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Kum, Dong Ho; Kim, Jun Ho; Park, Keun Min; Lee, Eun Su; Park, Yong Bok; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2017-06-01

    Among the many causes of rotator cuff tears, scapular morphology is associated with the accelerating degenerative process of the rotator cuff. Acromion index (AI) was previously introduced and compared in two populations. We enrolled 100 Korean patients diagnosed with full-thickness rotator cuff tears by magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative arthroscopic findings between January and December 2013. Another 100 Korean patients with an intact rotator cuff tendon identified on magnetic resonance imaging and other shoulder diseases, such as frozen shoulder and instability, were enrolled as controls. We retrospectively compared these 100 rotator cuff tear patients (mean age, 63 years) and 100 controls (mean age, 51 years) in this study. Two independent orthopedic surgeons assessed the AI on radiographs. We performed an interobserver reliability test of the AI assessment, and then compared the AI between two groups. The measurement of the AI showed excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.82). The mean AI in the rotator cuff tear group was 0.68 and it was significantly different between groups (p<0.001, 95% confidence interval). The AI was not related to tear size. Our study showed that the AI was an effective predictive factor for rotator cuff tears in a Korean population.

  10. MRI of symptomatic and asymptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Rana; Stiris, Morten G; Smith, Hans-Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Why some full-thickness rotator cuff tears are symptomatic and others are asymptomatic is not understood. By comparing MRI findings in symptomatic and asymptomatic tears, we wanted to identify any tear characteristics that differed between groups. Patients and methods 50 subjects with asymptomatic and 50 subjects with symptomatic full-thickness tears were examined by MRI. Tear characteristics including tear size, tear location, the condition of the long head of the biceps, atrophy, and fatty degeneration of the muscles were compared between groups. Results Single factor logistic regression analysis showed that there were statistically significant associations between symptoms and tear size exceeding 3 cm in the medial-lateral plane, positive tangent sign, and fatty degeneration exceeding grade 1 of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. Interpretation We found associations between the symptomatic status of a rotator cuff tear and MRI-derived tear characteristics. The causal relationships are unclear. PMID:20450423

  11. The biomechanical relevance of anterior rotator cuff cable tears in a cadaveric shoulder model.

    PubMed

    Mesiha, Mena M; Derwin, Kathleen A; Sibole, Scott C; Erdemir, Ahmet; McCarron, Jesse A

    2013-10-16

    Anterior tears of the supraspinatus tendon are more likely to be clinically relevant than posterior tears of the supraspinatus. We hypothesized that anterior tears of the supraspinatus tendon involving the rotator cuff cable insertion are associated with greater tear gapping, decreased tendon stiffness, and increased regional tendon strain under physiologic loading conditions compared with equivalently sized tears of the rotator cuff crescent. Twelve human cadaveric shoulders were randomized to undergo simulation of equivalently sized supraspinatus tears of either the anterior rotator cuff cable (n = 6) or the adjacent rotator cuff crescent (n = 6). For each specimen, the supraspinatus tendon was cyclically loaded from 10 N to 180 N, and a custom three-dimensional optical system was used to track markers on the surface of the tendon. Tear gap distance, stiffness, and regional strains of the supraspinatus tendon were calculated. The tear gap distance of large cable tears (median gap distance, 5.2 mm) was significantly greater than that of large crescent tears (median gap distance, 1.3 mm) (p = 0.002), the stiffness of tendons with a small (p = 0.002) or large (p = 0.002) cable tear was significantly greater than that of tendons with equivalently sized crescent tears, and regional strains across the supraspinatus were significantly increased in magnitude and altered in distribution by tears involving the anterior insertion of the rotator cuff cable. These findings support our hypothesis that the rotator cuff cable, which is in the most anterior 8 to 12 mm of the supraspinatus tendon immediately posterior to the bicipital groove, is the primary load-bearing structure within the supraspinatus for force transmission to the proximal part of the humerus. Conversely, in the presence of an intact rotator cuff cable, the rotator cuff crescent insertion is relatively stress-shielded and plays a significantly lesser role in supraspinatus force transmission. Clinicians should

  12. The relevance of long head biceps degeneration in the presence of rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Long head biceps (LHB) degeneration in combination with rotator cuff tears can be a source of chronic shoulder pain. LHB tenotomy is an approved surgical procedure for pain reduction and improvement of joint function, however, the pathophysiology of LHB degeneration is not fully understood. In the literature, neoangiogenesis in tendon tissue has previously been shown to be associated with tendon degeneration. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is an important inducer of neoangiogenesis. The hypotheses are first that an elevated VEGF expression and vessel density can be found in degenerated LHB tissue and second that there is a relation between VEGF expression, vessel density and the different types of rotator cuff tears. Methods LHB samples of 116 patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears were harvested during arthroscopic tenotomy. The samples were dehydrated and paraffin embedded. VEGF expression was determined using immunohistochemistry. Vessel density and vessel size were determined on Masson-Goldner stained tissue sections. On the basis of intraoperative findings, patients were assigned to 4 different groups (control group, partial thickness rotator cuff tear, full thickness rotator cuff tear and cuff arthropathy). Partial thickness rotator cuff tears were classified according to Ellman grade I-III, full thickness rotator cuff tears according to Bateman's classification (grade I-IV). The control group consisted of eight healthy tendon samples. Results VEGF expression in the LHB was significantly higher in the presence of rotator cuff tears than in healthy tendons (p < 0.05) whereas vessel density and vessel size were significantly higher in the LHB of patients with cuff arthropathy (p < 0.05). Furthermore, there was significantly higher VEGF expression in LHB samples from patients with articular-sided compared to bursal-sided partial thickness rotator cuff tears (p < 0.05). No significant dependence was found between VEGF expression

  13. Macroscopic and histologic evaluation of a rat model of chronic rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Eiko; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Sasaki, Yu; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Kijima, Takehiro; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Ohtori, Seiji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-12-01

    The major cause of rotator cuff tears in humans is thought to be tendon degeneration. Although some studies have reported chronic rotator cuff tear models in animals, few studies of chronic rat models have demonstrated persistent defects for a relatively long time. The purpose of this study was to establish a chronic rotator cuff tear model in the rat and to evaluate the model macroscopically and histologically. Sixty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: tendon detachment only (tear group) and tendon detachment plus figure resin (chronic group). The contralateral shoulder served as a sham-operated control (sham group). In the tear group, the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons were completely detached. In addition to cuff detachment, figure resin was placed on the greater tuberosity to prevent cuff reattachment and scar formation in the chronic group. Macroscopic and histologic changes were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks after surgery. A full-thickness cuff defect was observed in all chronic-group rats at both 4 and 12 weeks after surgery, and it could be repaired secondarily by traction in lower tension. However, no cuff defects were observed in the tear group because of obvious scar tissue formation. On histologic evaluation, progressive tendon degeneration, muscle atrophy, and fatty infiltration were observed in the chronic model at 12 weeks after surgery. We established a rat model of chronic rotator cuff tears using figure resin. This chronic rotator cuff tear model might be useful for further clinical investigations of rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring of progression of nonsurgically treated rotator cuff tears by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Yokoya, Shin; Mochizuki, Yu; Harada, Yohei; Kikugawa, Kazuhiko; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2015-03-01

    Nonsurgically treated rotator cuff tears sometimes become irreparable in the lead up to surgical repair. The purposes of our study were to identify predictive factors in the progression of tear size, and determine the changes in tear location. Eighty shoulders from 71 patients (mean age 69.4 years) diagnosed with rotator cuff tears by MRI were treated nonsurgically. MRI was repeated after more than 1 year of initial diagnosis. Tear size was measured from the edge of the tear to the lateral aspect of the greater tuberosity. Tears were classified into 5 groups based on tear size and 4 groups based on tear location. Changes in tear size and location were examined. The mean follow-up period was 22.3 months. The average progression of tear size was 5 mm during follow-up, averaging 3 mm per year. Tears that were initially <1 or ≥4 cm were unlikely to progress in tear size. On the other hand, 1- to 2-cm tears on the initial MRI exhibited the greatest progression in tear size, followed by 2- to 3-cm tears. Furthermore, 62.5 % of localized tears in the posterior of the superior facet spread anteriorly, whereas 88.9 % of localized tears in the anterior of the superior facet did not change. Medium-sized tears are at high risk of tear progression. In contrast, there is little risk of early development of irreparable damage in partial tear or small full-thickness tears. In addition, typical tears may start in the posterior of the superior facet, and subsequently spread anteriorly. Our present findings may serve as a useful reference in determining the treatment course for rotator cuff tears. Level IV, Case Series, Prognosis Study.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination features for identifying large rotator cuff tears in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Cadogan, Angela; McNair, Peter; Laslett, Mark; Hing, Wayne; Taylor, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Rotator cuff tears are a common and disabling complaint. The early diagnosis of medium and large size rotator cuff tears can enhance the prognosis of the patient. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features with the strongest ability to accurately predict the presence of a medium, large or multitendon (MLM) rotator cuff tear in a primary care cohort. Methods: Participants were consecutively recruited from primary health care practices (n = 203). All participants underwent a standardized history and physical examination, followed by a standardized X-ray series and diagnostic ultrasound scan. Clinical features associated with the presence of a MLM rotator cuff tear were identified (P<0.200), a logistic multiple regression model was derived for identifying a MLM rotator cuff tear and thereafter diagnostic accuracy was calculated. Results: A MLM rotator cuff tear was identified in 24 participants (11.8%). Constant pain and a painful arc in abduction were the strongest predictors of a MLM tear (adjusted odds ratio 3.04 and 13.97 respectively). Combinations of ten history and physical examination variables demonstrated highest levels of sensitivity when five or fewer were positive [100%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86–1.00; negative likelihood ratio: 0.00, 95% CI: 0.00–0.28], and highest specificity when eight or more were positive (0.91, 95% CI: 0.86–0.95; positive likelihood ratio 4.66, 95% CI: 2.34–8.74). Discussion: Combinations of patient history and physical examination findings were able to accurately detect the presence of a MLM rotator cuff tear. These findings may aid the primary care clinician in more efficient and accurate identification of rotator cuff tears that may require further investigation or orthopedic consultation. PMID:24421626

  16. [Controversies in the therapy of rotator cuff tears. Operative or nonoperative treatment, open or arthroscopic repair?].

    PubMed

    Lorbach, O

    2016-02-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of shoulder pain that may lead to severe impairment of shoulder function with significant limitation of the quality of life. Furthermore, they are associated with high direct and indirect costs.Conservative therapy and various surgical procedures for rotator cuff repair are all possible treatment options. Therefore, the correct treatment for a symptomatic rotator cuff tear is important.The conservative therapy may be considered as an alternative treatment option for a symptomatic rotator cuff tear in patients with small or incomplete tears with no fatty atrophy or tendon retraction, with only slight pain, and in older patients with few functional demands. Surgical treatment is recommended after failed conservative treatment lasting 3-6 months, with the corresponding psychological strain. Moreover, surgical treatment should be considered as a primary treatment option for a symptomatic rotator cuff tear in young patients with high functional demands, patients with a high level of physical strain in their jobs, large tears, and tears where there is already significant muscle atrophy or tendon retraction.Arthroscopic treatment is considered to be the gold standard because of the better cosmetic results and treatment of concomitant pathological conditions, the lower levels of postoperative pain, the potentially lower risk of shoulder stiffness, and more focused adhesiolysis. However, arthroscopy does not improve clinical results. Because of the current financial situation, however, open rotator cuff repair is still a viable alternative.

  17. The Relationship Between Intraoperative Tear Dimensions and Postoperative Pain in 1624 Consecutive Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repairs.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Daniel Y T; Walton, Judie R; Lam, Patrick; Murrell, George A C

    2017-03-01

    Rotator cuff repair often results in significant pain postoperatively, the cause of which is undetermined. Purpose/Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between rotator cuff tear area and postoperative pain in patients who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. We hypothesized that larger tears would be more painful because of elevated repair tension at 1 week postoperatively but that smaller tears would be more painful because of a greater healing response, especially from 6 weeks postoperatively. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 1624 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were included in this study. Exclusion criteria were moderate to severe osteoarthritis, isolated subscapularis repair, calcific tendinitis, synthetic patch repair, revision surgery, and retears on ultrasound at 6 months after surgery. Rotator cuff tears were subdivided into groups based on the tear size and retear rate found for each group. A modified L'Insalata questionnaire was given before surgery and at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient tests were performed between rotator cuff tear areas and pain scores. Intraoperative rotator cuff tear areas did not correlate with pain scores preoperatively or at 1 week after surgery. A smaller tear area was associated with more frequent and severe pain with overhead activities, at rest, and during sleep as well as a poorer perceived overall shoulder condition at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after repair ( r = 0.11-0.23, P < .0001). Patients who were younger, had partial-thickness tears, and had occupational injuries experienced more pain postoperatively ( r = 0.10-0.28, P < .0001). Larger tears did not have more pain at 1 week after surgery. The retear rate was 7% in tears <2 cm(2) but reached 44% in tears >8 cm(2). There were fewer retears with smaller tears, but they were more painful than large tears postoperatively

  18. Rotator cuff tear reduces muscle fiber specific force production and induces macrophage accumulation and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Gumucio, Jonathan P; Davis, Max E; Bradley, Joshua R; Stafford, Patrick L; Schiffman, Corey J; Lynch, Evan B; Claflin, Dennis R; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    Summary Full-thickness tears to the rotator cuff can cause severe pain and disability. Untreated tears progress in size and are associated with muscle atrophy and an infiltration of fat to the area, a condition known as “fatty degeneration.” To improve the treatment of rotator cuff tears, a greater understanding of the changes in the contractile properties of muscle fibers and the molecular regulation of fatty degeneration is essential. Using a rat model of rotator cuff injury, we measured the force generating capacity of individual muscle fibers and determined changes in muscle fiber type distribution that develop after a full thickness rotator cuff tear. We also measured the expression of mRNA and miRNA transcripts involved in muscle atrophy, lipid accumulation, and matrix synthesis. We hypothesized that a decrease in specific force of rotator cuff muscle fibers, an accumulation of type IIb fibers, an upregulation in fibrogenic, adipogenic, and inflammatory gene expression occur in torn rotator cuff muscles. Thirty days following rotator cuff tear, we observed a reduction in muscle fiber force production, an induction of fibrogenic, adipogenic and autophagocytic mRNA and miRNA molecules, and a dramatic accumulation of macrophages in areas of fat accumulation. PMID:22696414

  19. Rotator cuff tear reduces muscle fiber specific force production and induces macrophage accumulation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Gumucio, Jonathan P; Davis, Max E; Bradley, Joshua R; Stafford, Patrick L; Schiffman, Corey J; Lynch, Evan B; Claflin, Dennis R; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2012-12-01

    Full-thickness tears to the rotator cuff can cause severe pain and disability. Untreated tears progress in size and are associated with muscle atrophy and an infiltration of fat to the area, a condition known as "fatty degeneration." To improve the treatment of rotator cuff tears, a greater understanding of the changes in the contractile properties of muscle fibers and the molecular regulation of fatty degeneration is essential. Using a rat model of rotator cuff injury, we measured the force generating capacity of individual muscle fibers and determined changes in muscle fiber type distribution that develop after a full thickness rotator cuff tear. We also measured the expression of mRNA and miRNA transcripts involved in muscle atrophy, lipid accumulation, and matrix synthesis. We hypothesized that a decrease in specific force of rotator cuff muscle fibers, an accumulation of type IIb fibers, and an upregulation in fibrogenic, adipogenic, and inflammatory gene expression occur in torn rotator cuff muscles. Thirty days following rotator cuff tear, we observed a reduction in muscle fiber force production, an induction of fibrogenic, adipogenic, and autophagocytic mRNA and miRNA molecules, and a dramatic accumulation of macrophages in areas of fat accumulation. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  20. Recovery of Muscle Strength After Intact Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair According to Preoperative Rotator Cuff Tear Size.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Chung, Jaeyoon; Lee, Juyeob; Ko, Young-Won

    2016-04-01

    The recovery of muscle strength after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair based on the preoperative tear size has not yet been well described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the recovery period of muscle strength by a serial assessment of isometric strength after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair based on the preoperative tear size. The hypothesis was that muscle strength in patients with small and medium tears would recover faster than that in those with large-to-massive tears. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 164 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were included. Isometric strength in forward flexion (FF), internal rotation (IR), and external rotation (ER) was evaluated preoperatively and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after surgery. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans were assessed to evaluate the quality of the rotator cuff muscle, including fatty infiltration, occupation ratio, and tangent sign. Patient satisfaction as well as visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and Constant scores were assessed at every follow-up. Muscle strength demonstrated the slowest recovery in pain relief and the restoration of shoulder function. To reach the strength of the uninjured contralateral shoulder in all 3 planes of motion, recovery took 6 months in patients with small tears and 18 months in patients with medium tears. Patients with large-to-massive tears showed continuous improvement in strength up to 18 months; however, they did not reach the strength of the contralateral shoulder at final follow-up. At final follow-up, mean strength in FF, IR, and ER was 113.0%, 118.0%, and 112.6% of the contralateral shoulder in patients with small tears, respectively; 105.0%, 112.1%, and 102.6% in patients with medium tears, respectively; and 87.6%, 89.5%, and 85.2% in patients with large-to-massive tears, respectively. Muscle strength in any direction did not significantly correlate with

  1. Pulley lesions in rotator cuff tears: prevalence, etiology, and concomitant pathologies.

    PubMed

    Hawi, Nael; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Garving, Christina; Habermeyer, Peter; Tauber, Mark

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of lesions in the biceps pulley complex in a representative, consecutive series of rotator cuff tears and rotator cuff interval treatments. We also analyzed associated tear pattern of rotator cuff injuries and superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions. We evaluated the relationships of these lesions to traumatic genesis and the prevalence of pulley lesions in revision cases. This retrospective study analyzed all pre- and intra-operative documentation on arthroscopic rotator cuff reconstructions and isolated pulley lesion treatments performed by a single surgeon over 2 consecutive years. According to Habermeyer et al., we classified cases into four groups, based on the presence of additional or related complete or partial rotator cuff tears, SLAP lesions, trauma, and primary or revision surgery. Among 382 patients with rotator cuff tears, 345 (90.3%) had an injured pulley system; 151 (43.8%) had partial tears of the rotator cuff; out of these, 106 (30.6%) were articular-sided. All of these articular-sided partial tears showed extension into the pulley complex. In 154 cases (44.6%), history of shoulder trauma was associated with the beginning of symptoms. In addition, concomitant SLAP lesions occurred in 25-62% of pulley lesions, correlating with the severity of pulley lesions. Among the 345 cases, there have been 32 (9.3%) revision cases where a pulley lesion was intra-operatively identified and addressed. Pulley complex lesions are present in 90.3% of surgically treated rotator cuff lesions, particularly in articular-sided injuries. In addition, we found a significant relationship between the incidence of SLAP lesions and the severity of pulley lesions. It seems reasonable to assume an important role of pulley system injuries in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff lesions.

  2. Rotator Cuff Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ... cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the ...

  3. High incidence of acute full-thickness rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Zidan, Fikri; Lunsjo, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Epidemiological studies of full-thickness rotator cuff tears (FTRCTs) have mainly investigated degenerative lesions. We estimated the population-based incidence of acute FTRCT using a new diagnostic model. Patients and methods During the period November 2010 through October 2012, we prospectively studied all patients aged 18–75 years with acute onset of pain after shoulder trauma, with limited active abduction, and with normal conventional radiographs. 259 consecutive patients met these inclusion criteria. The patients had a median age of 51 (18–75) years. 65% were males. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the clinical findings: group I, suspected FTRCT; group II, other specific diagnoses; and group III, sprain. Semi-acute MRI was performed in all patients in group I and in patients in group III who did not recover functionally. Results We identified 60 patients with FTRCTs. The estimated annual incidence of MRI-verified acute FTRCT was 16 (95% CI: 11–23) per 105 inhabitants for the population aged 18–75 years and 25 (CI: 18–36) per 105 inhabitants for the population aged 40–75 years. The prevalence of acute FTRCT in the study group was 60/259 (23%, CI: 18–28). The tears were usually large and affected more than 1 tendon in 36 of these 60 patients. The subscapularis was involved in 38 of the 60 patients. Interpretation Acute FTRCTs are common shoulder injuries, especially in men. They are usually large and often involve the subscapularis tendon. PMID:25708526

  4. Result from arthroscopic surgical treatment of renewed tearing of the rotator cuff of the shoulder☆

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Glaydson Gomes; França, Flávio de Oliveira; Freitas, José Márcio Alves; Santos, Flávio Márcio Lago; Prandini, Alexandre; Godinho, André Couto; Costa, Rafael Patrocínio de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate function among patients with postoperative recurrence of rotator cuff injuries that was treated arthroscopically (case series) and compare this with function in patients without recurrence (control group); and to compare function among patients with recurrence of rotator cuff injuries that were greater than and smaller than 3 cm. Methods This was a retrospective evaluation of patients who underwent arthroscopic revision of rotator cuff injuries using the ASES, Constant & Murley and UCLA scores and a visual analog pain scale, in comparison with patients in a control group who underwent primary rotator cuff repair. Results The size of the rotator cuff injury recurrence had a statistically significant influence on the result from the arthroscopic surgical treatment. The functional scores showed worse results than those from the first procedure. Conclusion Arthroscopic surgical treatment of renewed tearing of rotator cuff injuries showed worse functional scores than those from primary repair of the injury. PMID:26229900

  5. Simvastatin reduces fibrosis and protects against muscle weakness after massive rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Max E; Korn, Michael A; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Harning, Julie A; Saripalli, Anjali L; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic rotator cuff tears are a common source of shoulder pain and disability, and patients with chronic cuff tears often have substantial weakness, fibrosis, inflammation and fat accumulation. Identifying therapies to prevent the development of these pathologies will likely have a positive impact on clinical outcomes. Simvastatin is a drug with demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in many tissues, but had not previously been studied in the context of rotator cuff tears. We hypothesized that following the induction of a massive supraspinatus tear, simvastatin would protect muscles from a loss of force production and fibrosis. Methods We measured changes in muscle fiber contractility, histology and biochemical markers of fibrosis and fatty infiltration in rats that received a full-thickness supraspinatus tear and were treated with either carrier alone or simvastatin. Results Compared to vehicle treated controls, simvastatin did not have an appreciable effect on muscle fiber size, but treatment did increase muscle fiber specific force by 20%. Simvastatin also reduced collagen accumulation by 50%, but did not effect triglyceride content of muscles. Several favorable changes in the expression of genes and other markers of inflammation, fibrosis and regeneration were also observed. Conclusions Simvastatin partially protected muscles from the weakness that occurs as a result of chronic rotator cuff tear. Fibrosis was also markedly reduced in simvastatin treated animals. While further studies are necessary, statin medication could potentially help to improve outcomes for patients with rotator cuff tears. PMID:25213828

  6. Living with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear ‘bad days, bad nights’: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of shoulder pain. There is an absence of information about symptomatic rotator cuffs from the patients’ perspective; this limits the information clinicians can share with patients and the information that patients can access via sources such as the internet. This study describes the experiences of people with a symptomatic rotator cuff, their symptoms, the impact upon their daily lives and the coping strategies utilised by study participants. Methods An interpretive phenomenological analysis approach was used. 20 participants of the UKUFF trial (The United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Surgery Trial) agreed to participate in in-depth semi-structured interviews about their experiences about living with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear. Interviews were digitally recorded and fully transcribed. Field notes, memos and a reflexive diary were used. Data was coded in accordance with interpretive phenomenological analysis. Peer review, code-recode audits and constant comparison of data, codes and categories occurred throughout. Results The majority of patients described intense pain and severely disturbed sleep. Limited movement and reduced muscle strength were described by some participants. The predominantly adverse impact that a symptomatic rotator cuff tear had upon activities of daily living, leisure activities and occupation was described. The emotional and financial impact and impact upon caring roles were detailed. Coping strategies included attempting to carry on as normally as possible, accepting their condition, using their other arm, using analgesics, aids and adaptions. Conclusions Clinicians need to appreciate and understand the intensity and shocking nature of pain that may be experienced by participants with known rotator cuff tears and understand the detrimental impact tears can have upon all areas of patient’s lives. Clinicians also need to be aware of the potential emotional impact caused by cuff tears and to

  7. Surgery or conservative treatment for rotator cuff tear: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ryösä, Anssi; Laimi, Katri; Äärimaa, Ville; Lehtimäki, Kaisa; Kukkonen, Juha; Saltychev, Mikhail

    2017-07-01

    Comparative evidence on treating rotator cuff tear is inconclusive. The objective of this review was to evaluate the evidence on effectiveness of tendon repair in reducing pain and improving function of the shoulder when compared with conservative treatment of symptomatic rotator cuff tear. Search on CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and Pedro databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing surgery and conservative treatment of rotator cuff tear. Study selection and extraction based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic reviews of Interventions. Random effects meta-analysis. Three identified RCTs involved 252 participants (123 cases and 129 controls). The risk of bias was considered low for all three RCTs. For Constant score, statistically insignificant effect size was 5.6 (95% CI -0.41 to 11.62) points in 1-year follow up favouring surgery and below the level of minimal clinically important difference. The respective difference in pain reduction was -0.93 (95% CI -1.65 to -0.21) cm on a 0-10 pain visual analogue scale favouring surgery. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.012) in 1-year follow up but below the level of minimal clinically important difference. There is limited evidence that surgery is not more effective in treating rotator cuff tear than conservative treatment alone. Thus, a conservative approach is advocated as the initial treatment modality. Implications for Rehabilitation There is limited evidence that surgery is not more effective in treating rotator cuff tear than conservative treatment alone. There was no clinically significant difference between surgery and active physiotherapy in 1-year follow-up in improving Constant score or reducing pain caused by rotator cuff tear. As physiotherapy is less proneness to complications and less expensive than surgery, a conservative approach is advocated as the initial treatment modality to rotator cuff tears.

  8. Creatinine and nonprotein nitrogen plasma levels: possible etiopathogenetic factors in rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Rocco; Del Buono, Angelo; Leonardi, Francesco; Osti, Leonardo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2011-05-01

    To determine the plasma levels of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) and creatinine in healthy patients with rotator cuff tears. The study included 400 subjects. The study group included 200 patients (93 men and 107 women; mean age, 56.8 years; range, 23-81 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear from 2004 to 2007. The control group included 200 patients (93 men and 107 women; mean age, 53.9 years; range, 20-81 years) who underwent arthroscopy for management of a meniscal tear, with or without articular cartilage damage, in the same period. The 2 groups were frequency-matched by age and sex. Measurement of plasma levels of NPN and creatinine were performed in all patients. Patients with rotator cuff tears showed higher plasma NPN levels within the normal range (P = 0.035) than patients with knee disorders (control group). Creatinine levels were comparable (P = 0.66) in both groups. There appears to be an association between plasma NPN levels and rotator cuff tears. On the basis of our findings, plasma NPN could be involved in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tears, although we advocate further research to draw more definitive conclusions.

  9. The role of the biceps tendon in massive rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Pill, Stephan G; Walch, Gilles; Hawkins, Richard J; Kissenberth, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Tendinopathy of the long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon commonly occurs in patients with rotator cuff tears, and the inflammation of one head tends to lead to inflammation of the other. Many theories have been proposed regarding the function of the LHB tendon; however, its exact purpose is poorly understood. It has been described as an important stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint, a depressor of the humeral head, and as a vestigial structure. The LHB tendon can be a significant source of pain in patients with rotator cuff tears. The appropriate treatment depends on the patient's age, comorbidities, activity level, extent of disability, the presence of rotator cuff arthropathy, and the quality of the rotator cuff tissue. Conservative treatment is usually attempted first, with modalities such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections, physical therapy, and activity modification. If symptoms persist, biceps tenotomy or tenodesis may be combined with rotator cuff repair, depending on the quality of the rotator cuff tissue, the severity of rotator cuff arthropathy, and the willingness of the patient to comply with postoperative immobilization and rehabilitation. Even when rotator cuff repair is not possible, isolated tenotomy or tenodesis of the LHB tendon can provide substantial pain relief.

  10. A prospective evaluation of survivorship of asymptomatic degenerative rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Keener, Jay D; Galatz, Leesa M; Teefey, Sharlene A; Middleton, William D; Steger-May, Karen; Stobbs-Cucchi, Georgia; Patton, Rebecca; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2015-01-21

    The purpose of this prospective study was to report the long-term risks of rotator cuff tear enlargement and symptom progression associated with degenerative asymptomatic tears. Subjects with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear in one shoulder and pain due to rotator cuff disease in the contralateral shoulder enrolled as part of a prospective longitudinal study. Two hundred and twenty-four subjects (118 initial full-thickness tears, fifty-six initial partial-thickness tears, and fifty controls) were followed for a median of 5.1 years. Validated functional shoulder scores were calculated (visual analog pain scale, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons [ASES], and simple shoulder test [SST] scores). Subjects were followed annually with shoulder ultrasonography and clinical evaluations. Tear enlargement was seen in 49% of the shoulders, and the median time to enlargement was 2.8 years. The occurrence of tear-enlargement events was influenced by the severity of the final tear type, with enlargement of 61% of the full-thickness tears, 44% of the partial-thickness tears, and 14% of the controls (p < 0.05). Subject age and sex were not related to tear enlargement. One hundred subjects (46%) developed new pain. The final tear type was associated with a greater risk of pain development, with the new pain developing in 28% of the controls, 46% of the shoulders with a partial-thickness tear, and 50% of those with a full-thickness tear (p < 0.05). The presence of tear enlargement was associated with the onset of new pain (p < 0.05). Progressive degenerative changes of the supraspinatus muscle were associated with tear enlargement, with supraspinatus muscle degeneration increasing in 4% of the shoulders with a stable tear compared with 30% of the shoulders with tear enlargement (p < 0.05). Nine percent of the shoulders with a stable tear showed increased infraspinatus muscle degeneration compared with 28% of those in which the tear had enlarged (p = 0.07). This study demonstrates

  11. A Prospective Evaluation of Survivorship of Asymptomatic Degenerative Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Keener, Jay D.; Galatz, Leesa M.; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Middleton, William D.; Steger-May, Karen; Stobbs-Cucchi, Georgia; Patton, Rebecca; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this prospective study was to report the long-term risks of rotator cuff tear enlargement and symptom progression associated with degenerative asymptomatic tears. Methods: Subjects with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear in one shoulder and pain due to rotator cuff disease in the contralateral shoulder enrolled as part of a prospective longitudinal study. Two hundred and twenty-four subjects (118 initial full-thickness tears, fifty-six initial partial-thickness tears, and fifty controls) were followed for a median of 5.1 years. Validated functional shoulder scores were calculated (visual analog pain scale, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons [ASES], and simple shoulder test [SST] scores). Subjects were followed annually with shoulder ultrasonography and clinical evaluations. Results: Tear enlargement was seen in 49% of the shoulders, and the median time to enlargement was 2.8 years. The occurrence of tear-enlargement events was influenced by the severity of the final tear type, with enlargement of 61% of the full-thickness tears, 44% of the partial-thickness tears, and 14% of the controls (p < 0.05). Subject age and sex were not related to tear enlargement. One hundred subjects (46%) developed new pain. The final tear type was associated with a greater risk of pain development, with the new pain developing in 28% of the controls, 46% of the shoulders with a partial-thickness tear, and 50% of those with a full-thickness tear (p < 0.05). The presence of tear enlargement was associated with the onset of new pain (p < 0.05). Progressive degenerative changes of the supraspinatus muscle were associated with tear enlargement, with supraspinatus muscle degeneration increasing in 4% of the shoulders with a stable tear compared with 30% of the shoulders with tear enlargement (p < 0.05). Nine percent of the shoulders with a stable tear showed increased infraspinatus muscle degeneration compared with 28% of those in which the tear had enlarged (p = 0

  12. Lessons we can learn from gene expression patterns in rotator cuff tears and tendinopathies.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Salma; Carr, Andrew J

    2012-02-01

    Persistently high failure rates that are reported after rotator cuff repairs have encouraged greater understanding of the pathophysiology that underlies rotator cuff tears. Biologic changes that contribute to the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tears and tendinopathies, as well as adaptation after these changes, have been well described. A subset of patients with a genetic predisposition to early onset of rotator cuff tears and earlier symptom and disease progression have been identified. Many biologic changes occurring at the gene level have been identified. Pathways that are believed to contribute to rotator cuff tendinopathies include extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis, changes in metabolism, apoptosis, and stress-related genes. Metaplasia of rotator cuff cells is contributed to by changes in gene expression. Modification of these gene changes may be possible through mechanical loading, drugs, or cellular manipulation. Gene changes may offer greater insight into why certain tears fail to heal and help to identify therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reversal of suprascapular neuropathy following arthroscopic repair of massive supraspinatus and infraspinatus rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Costouros, John G; Porramatikul, Mason; Lie, Denny T; Warner, Jon J P

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the prevalence of suprascapular neuropathy (SSN) in the setting of massive rotator cuff tears and to determine if arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, even if partial, was associated with reversal of SSN and clinical improvement in pain and function. Over a 13-month period, 26 of 216 patients with rotator cuff tears treated operatively were identified to have massive tears associated with retraction and moderate to severe fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. All patients had pain and marked weakness in abduction and external rotation which did not improve with conservative treatment. Electrodiagnostic electromyographic/nerve conduction velocity (EMG/NCV) evaluation, as well as pre- and postoperative questionnaire and physical examination, were performed. An arthroscopic repair, either partial or complete, was performed on patients identified to have a massive rotator cuff tear in association with SSN. Fourteen of 26 patients with massive rotator cuff tears (54%) were identified to have a peripheral nerve injury. Seven of these 26 (38%) had isolated suprascapular nerve injury, 4 had axillary nerve injury, 2 had an associated upper trunk brachial plexus injury, and 1 had a cervical radiculopathy. All 7 patients with isolated suprascapular injury underwent arthroscopic treatment, 1 of which was not technically reparable at the time of surgery. In the 6 patients who underwent either partial or complete arthroscopic repair, follow-up EMG/NCV after 6 months demonstrated partial or full recovery of the suprascapular nerve palsy that correlated with complete pain relief and marked improvement in function. SSN is found in a significant proportion of patients with massive rotator cuff tears, and is associated with pain and dysfunction. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair can result in reversal of SSN, which may correlate with substantial improvement in pain and function. Level IV, case series.

  14. Functional outcomes of traumatic and non-traumatic rotator cuff tears after arthroscopic repair

    PubMed Central

    Abechain, José Jorge Kitagaki; Godinho, Glaydson Gomes; Matsunaga, Fabio Teruo; Netto, Nicola Archetti; Daou, Julia Pozzetti; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun Sugawara

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare the functional outcomes of traumatic and non-traumatic rotator cuff tears after arthroscopic repair. METHODS Eighty-seven patients with rotator cuff tears following arthroscopic treatment were divided into traumatic and non-traumatic tear groups. Postoperative muscle strength and outcomes using the modified University of California, Los Angeles score were evaluated. Sex, age, affected limb and dominant limb were correlated between groups. Muscle strength of the repaired and unaffected shoulders was compared. Rotator cuff injury size was measured. RESULTS Of the 87 patients who underwent rotator cuff repairs, 35 had traumatic tears and 52 had non-traumatic tears. In patients with non-traumatic tears, the average age was 59 years, 74.5% were female, 96.1% were right-hand dominant and 92.3% had their dominant shoulder affected. Patients with traumatic tears were 59.5 years old on average, 51.4% were female, 91.4% were right-hand dominant and 88.5% had their dominant shoulder affected. No difference existed in the mean modified University of California, Los Angeles score between patients with traumatic tears (33.7) compared with those with non-traumatic tears (32.8). No strength differences were observed between groups: The strength difference between the non-affected and affected sides was 1.21 kg in the non-traumatic group and 1.39 kg in the traumatic group (P = 0.576), while the strength ratio between the non-affected/affected sides was 0.805 in the non-traumatic group and 0.729 in the traumatic group (P = 0.224). CONCLUSION The functional results of traumatic rotator cuff repairs are similar to non-traumatic tears. Both outcomes are satisfactory. PMID:28875129

  15. Graft Utilization in the Bridging Reconstruction of Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lewington, Matthew R; Ferguson, Devin P; Smith, T Duncan; Burks, Robert; Coady, Catherine; Wong, Ivan Ho-Bun

    2017-03-01

    Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common conditions affecting the shoulder. Because of the difficulty in managing massive rotator cuff tears and the inability of standard techniques to prevent arthropathy, surgeons have developed several novel techniques to improve outcomes and ideally alter the natural history. To systematically review the existing literature and analyze reported outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of using a bridging graft reconstruction technique to treat large to massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. Systematic review. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CENTRAL was employed with the key terms "tear," "allograft," and "rotator cuff." Eligibility was determined by a 3-phase screening process according to the outlined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data in relation to the primary and secondary outcomes were summarized. The results were synthesized according to the origin of the graft and the level of evidence. Fifteen studies in total were included in this review: 2 comparative studies and 13 observational case series. Both the biceps tendon and the fascia lata autograft groups had significantly superior structural integrity rates on magnetic resonance imaging at 12-month minimum follow-up when compared with their partial primary repair counterparts (58% vs 26%, P = .036; 79% vs 58%, P < .05), respectively. Multiple noncomparative case series investigating allografts, xenografts, and synthetic materials for bridging reconstruction of large to massive rotator cuff tears demonstrated high structural healing rates (74%-90%, 73%-100%, and 60%-90%, respectively). Additionally, both comparative studies and case series demonstrated a general improvement of patients' functional outcome scores. Using a graft for an anatomic bridging rotator cuff repair results in improved function on objective testing and may be functionally better than nonanatomic or partial repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears. Allograft or xenograft

  16. Tendinopathy and tears of the rotator cuff are associated with hypoxia and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Benson, R T; McDonnell, S M; Knowles, H J; Rees, J L; Carr, A J; Hulley, P A

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of tissue hypoxia and apoptosis at different stages of tendinopathy and tears of the rotator cuff. We studied tissue from 24 patients with eight graded stages of either impingement (mild, moderate and severe) or tears of the rotator cuff (partial, small, medium, large and massive) and three controls. Biopsies were analysed using three immunohistochemical techniques, namely antibodies against HIF-1alpha (a transcription factor produced in a hypoxic environment), BNip3 (a HIF-1alpha regulated pro-apoptotic protein) and TUNEL (detecting DNA fragmentation in apoptosis). The HIF-1alpha expression was greatest in mild impingement and in partial, small, medium and large tears. BNip3 expression increased significantly in partial, small, medium and large tears but was reduced in massive tears. Apoptosis was increased in small, medium, large and massive tears but not in partial tears. These findings reveal evidence of hypoxic damage throughout the spectrum of pathology of the rotator cuff which may contribute to loss of cells by apoptosis. This provides a novel insight into the causes of degeneration of the rotator cuff and highlights possible options for treatment.

  17. Tendinopathy and tears of the rotator cuff are associated with hypoxia and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Benson, R. T.; McDonnell, S. M.; Knowles, H. J.; Rees, J. L.; Carr, A. J.; Hulley, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of tissue hypoxia and apoptosis at different stages of tendinopathy and tears of the rotator cuff. We studied tissue from 24 patients with eight graded stages of either impingement (mild, moderate and severe) or tears of the rotator cuff (partial, small, medium, large and massive) and three controls. Biopsies were analysed using three immunohistochemical techniques, namely antibodies against HIF-1α (a transcription factor produced in a hypoxic environment), BNip3 (a HIF-1α regulated pro-apoptotic protein) and TUNEL (detecting DNA fragmentation in apoptosis). The HIF-1α expression was greatest in mild impingement and in partial, small, medium and large tears. BNip3 expression increased significantly in partial, small, medium and large tears but was reduced in massive tears. Apoptosis was increased in small, medium, large and massive tears but not in partial tears. These findings reveal evidence of hypoxic damage throughout the spectrum of pathology of the rotator cuff which may contribute to loss of cells by apoptosis. This provides a novel insight into the causes of degeneration of the rotator cuff and highlights possible options for treatment. PMID:20190320

  18. Clinical evidence in the treatment of rotator cuff tears with hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Buda, Matteo; Buono, Angelo Del; Osti, Raffaella; Massari, Leo

    2015-01-01

    the aim of this quantitative review is to document potential benefit and adverse effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) injection into the shoulder with rotator cuff tears. a systematic literature search was performed in english PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar and Embase databases using the combined key words "hyaluronic acid", "rotator cuff tear", "hyaluronate", "shoulder", "viscosupplementation", with no limit regarding the year of publication. Articles were included if they reported data on clinical and functional outcomes, complications in series of patients who had undergone HA injection for management of rotator cuff tears. Two Authors screened the selected articles for title, abstract and full text in accordance with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The papers were accurately analyzed focusing on objective rating scores reported. a total of 11 studies, prospective, 7 were randomized were included by full text. A total of 1102 patients were evaluated clinically after different HA injection compare with corticosteroid injection, physically therapies, saline solution injection and control groups. The use of HA in patients with rotator cuff tears improve VAS and functional score in all trials that we have analyzed. intra-articular injection with HA is effective in reducing pain and improving function in shoulder with rotator cuff tears and without severe adverse reaction. Level I.

  19. Comparison of Clinical and Structural Outcomes by Subscapularis Tendon Status in Massive Rotator Cuff Tear.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Nam, Dae Jin; Kim, Se Jin; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2017-09-01

    The subscapularis tendon is essential in maintaining normal glenohumeral biomechanics. However, few studies have addressed the outcomes of tears extending to the subscapularis tendon in massive rotator cuff tears. To assess the clinical and structural outcomes of arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears involving the subscapularis. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Between January 2010 and January 2014, 122 consecutive patients with massive rotator cuff tear underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Overall, 122 patients were enrolled (mean age, 66 years; mean follow-up period, 39.5 months). Patients were categorized into 3 groups based on subscapularis tendon status: intact subscapularis tendon (I group; n = 45), tear involving less than the superior one-third (P group; n = 35), and tear involving more than one-third of the subscapularis tendon (C group; n = 42). All rotator cuff tears were repaired; however, subscapularis tendon tears involving less than the superior one-third in P group were only debrided. Pain visual analog scale, Constant, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores and passive range of motion were measured preoperatively and at the final follow-up. Rotator cuff integrity, global fatty degeneration index, and occupation ratio were determined via magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. We identified 37 retears (31.1%) based on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging evaluation. Retear rate in patients in the C group (47.6%) was higher than that in the I group (22.9%) or P group (20.0%) ( P = .011). Retear subclassification based on the involved tendons showed that subsequent subscapularis tendon retears were noted in only the C group. The improvement in clinical scores after repair was statistically significant in all groups but not different among the groups. Between-group comparison showed significant differences in preoperative external rotation ( P = .021). However, no statistically

  20. Rotator cuff tears after total shoulder arthroplasty in primary osteoarthritis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David M.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Harris, Joshua D.; Bach, Bernard R.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears have been reported to be uncommon following total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Postoperative rotator cuff tears can lead to pain, proximal humeral migration, and glenoid component loosening. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the incidence of post-TSA rotator cuff tears or dysfunction in osteoarthritic patients. A systematic review of multiple databases was performed using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Levels I-IV evidence clinical studies of patients with primary osteoarthritis with a minimum 2-year follow-up were included. Fifteen studies with 1259 patients (1338 shoulders) were selected. Student's t-tests were used with a significant alpha value of 0.05. All patients demonstrated significant improvements in motion and validated clinical outcome scores (P < 0.001). Radiographic humeral head migration was the most commonly reported data point for extrapolation of rotator cuff integrity. After 6.6 ± 3.1 years, 29.9 ± 20.7% of shoulders demonstrated superior humeral head migration and 17.9 ± 14.3% migrated a distance more than 25% of the head. This was associated with an 11.3 ± 7.9% incidence of postoperative superior cuff tears. The incidence of radiographic anterior humeral head migration was 11.9 ± 15.9%, corresponding to a 3.0 ± 13.6% rate of subscapularis tears. We found an overall 1.2 ± 4.5% rate of reoperation for cuff injury. Nearly all studies reported indirect markers of rotator cuff dysfunction, such as radiographic humeral head migration and clinical exam findings. This systematic review suggests that rotator cuff dysfunction following TSA may be more common than previously reported. IV, systematic review of Levels I-IV studies. PMID:27186060

  1. Preoperative and post-operative sleep quality evaluation in rotator cuff tear patients.

    PubMed

    Serbest, Sancar; Tiftikçi, Uğur; Askın, Aydogan; Yaman, Ferda; Alpua, Murat

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential relationship between subjective sleep quality and degree of pain in patients with rotator cuff repair. Thirty-one patients who underwent rotator cuff repair prospectively completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index, and the Constant and Murley shoulder scores before surgery and at 6 months after surgery. Preoperative demographic, clinical, and radiologic parameters were also evaluated. The study analysed 31 patients with a median age of 61 years. There was a significant difference preoperatively versus post-operatively in terms of all PSQI global scores and subdivisions (p < 0.001). A statistically significant improvement was determined by the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Scale and the Constant and Murley shoulder scores (p ˂ 0.001). Sleep disorders are commonly seen in patients with rotator cuff tear, and after repair, there is an increase in the quality of sleep with a parallel improvement in shoulder functions. However, no statistically significant correlation was determined between arthroscopic procedures and the size of the tear and sleep quality. It is suggested that rotator cuff tear repair improves the quality of sleep and the quality of life. IV.

  2. Symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears: diagnostic performance of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging with surgical correlation.

    PubMed

    Vlychou, M; Dailiana, Z; Fotiadou, A; Papanagiotou, M; Fezoulidis, I V; Malizos, K

    2009-01-01

    The painful shoulder is a relatively common clinical entity that may be attributed to a variety of pathologies, including partial rotator cuff tears. Conservative treatment or surgical intervention may be offered, depending on the extent of the partial tear and the degree of patient discomfort. To apply ultrasound (US) imaging in order to evaluate the prevalence of partial rotator cuff tears in patients with painful shoulders. Fifty-six patients (17 men, 39 women; mean age 53.7 years) were included in the study, with symptomatic impingement syndrome of the shoulder after having failed to respond to conservative treatment. All patients underwent US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans prior to surgical intervention. Arthroscopy or mini-open surgery revealed 53 cases with partial tears of the rotator cuff and three with extensive tendinopathy. Both imaging modalities detected successfully 44 cases of partial tears of the supraspinatus tendon. US imaging yielded a sensitivity of 95.6%, a specificity of 70%, an accuracy of 91%, and a positive predictive accuracy of 93.6%. The corresponding values for MRI were 97.7%, 63.6%, 91%, and 91.7%, respectively. US imaging can be considered almost equally effective in detecting partial tears of the rotator cuff compared to MRI, particularly located in the area of the supraspinatus tendon. MRI may be reserved for doubtful or complex cases, in which delineation of adjacent structures is mandatory prior to surgical intervention.

  3. Clinical evidence in the treatment of rotator cuff tears with hyaluronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Osti, Leonardo; Buda, Matteo; Buono, Angelo Del; Osti, Raffaella; Massari, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Purpose the aim of this quantitative review is to document potential benefit and adverse effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) injection into the shoulder with rotator cuff tears. Methods a systematic literature search was performed in english PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar and Embase databases using the combined key words “hyaluronic acid”, “rotator cuff tear”, “hyaluronate”, “shoulder”, “viscosupplementation”, with no limit regarding the year of publication. Articles were included if they reported data on clinical and functional outcomes, complications in series of patients who had undergone HA injection for management of rotator cuff tears. Two Authors screened the selected articles for title, abstract and full text in accordance with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The papers were accurately analyzed focusing on objective rating scores reported. Results a total of 11 studies, prospective, 7 were randomized were included by full text. A total of 1102 patients were evaluated clinically after different HA injection compare with corticosteroid injection, physically therapies, saline solution injection and control groups. The use of HA in patients with rotator cuff tears improve VAS and functional score in all trials that we have analyzed. Conclusion intra-articular injection with HA is effective in reducing pain and improving function in shoulder with rotator cuff tears and without severe adverse reaction. Level of evidence Level I. PMID:26958534

  4. Surgical referral criteria for degenerative rotator cuff tears: a Delphi questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Stephanie; Yohannes, A M

    2014-06-01

    Selecting the most appropriate patients to refer for surgery is crucial for high-quality and efficient clinical care. However, there are no specific referral criteria to guide the referral of appropriate patients for rotator cuff repair surgery. The aim of the present study was to design robust surgical referral criteria for patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears using consensus methodology. A two-round Delphi questionnaire was undertaken with a nationally representative sample of 41 specialist shoulder surgeons experienced in rotator cuff repair. Surgical referral criteria for degenerative rotator cuff tear were developed where consensus of at least 70% agreement was achieved. The initial questionnaire consisted of 24 items. Consensus was reached on 14 items, including: severity of pain, functional limitation, the identification of fat atrophy, agreement that a course of physiotherapy should be attempted before surgical referral, and exclusion for those with an active frozen shoulder. However, there was no consensus with regard to the dimensions of the tear. The surgical referral criteria developed were novel and promising for patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears, and further research is required to examine their efficacy.

  5. THE EFFECT OF TEAR SIZE AND NERVE INJURY ON ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLE FATTY DEGENERATION IN A RODENT ANIMAL MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H. Mike; Galatz, Leesa M.; Lim, Chanteak; Havlioglu, Necat; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    Background Irreversible muscle changes following rotator cuff tears is a well-known negative prognostic factor after shoulder surgery. Currently, little is known about the pathomechanism of fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles after chronic cuff tears. Hypothesis/Purpose The purposes of this study were: 1) to develop a rodent animal model of chronic rotator cuff tears that can reproduce fatty degeneration of the cuff muscles seen clinically, 2) to describe the effects of tear size and concomitant nerve injury on muscle degeneration, and 3) to evaluate the changes in gene expression of relevant myogenic and adipogenic factors following rotator cuff tears using the animal model. Methods Rotator cuff tears were created in rodents with and without transection of the suprascapular nerve. The supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were examined 2, 8, and 16 weeks after injury for histological evidence of fatty degeneration and expression of myogenic and adipogenic genes. Results Histological analysis revealed adipocytes, intramuscular fat globules, and intramyocellular fat droplets in the tenotomized and neurotomized supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. Changes increased with time and were most severe in the muscles with combined tenotomy and neurotomy. Adipogenic and myogenic transcription factors and markers were upregulated in muscles treated with tenotomy or tenotomy combined with neurotomy compared to normal muscles. Conclusions The present study describes a rodent animal model that produces fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles similar to human muscles after chronic cuff tears. The severity of changes was associated with tear size and concomitant nerve injury. PMID:21831663

  6. Alterations in Glenohumeral Kinematics in Patients With Rotator Cuff Tears Measured With Biplane Fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Millett, Peter J; Giphart, J Erik; Wilson, Katharine J; Kagnes, Kine; Greenspoon, Joshua A

    2016-03-01

    To quantitatively measure the 3-dimensional (3D) glenohumeral translations during dynamic shoulder abduction in the scapular plane, using a biplane fluoroscopy system, in patients with supraspinatus rotator cuff tears. A custom biplane fluoroscopy system was used to measure the 3D position and orientation of the scapula and humerus of 14 patients with full-thickness supraspinatus or supraspinatus and infraspinatus rotator cuff tears and 10 controls as they performed shoulder abduction over their full range of motion. The 3D geometries of the scapula and humerus were extracted from a computed tomography scan of each shoulder. For each frame, the 3D bone position and orientation were estimated using a contour-based matching algorithm, and the 3D position of the humeral head center was determined relative to the glenoid. For each subject the superior-inferior and anterior-posterior translation curves were determined from 20° through 150° of arm elevation. The humeral head in shoulders with rotator cuff tears was positioned significantly inferior compared with controls for higher elevation angles of 80° to 140° (P < .05). For both groups the humeral head translated inferiorly during shoulder abduction from 80° (P = .044; rotator cuff tear v controls: -0.2 ± 1.3 v 1.2 ± 1.4 mm) up to 140° (P = .047; rotator cuff tear v controls: -1.3 ± 2.2 v 0.44 ± 1.4 mm). There was no significant translation in the anterior- posterior direction. Patients with well-compensated single or 2-tendon rotator cuff tears show no dynamic superior humeral head migration but unexpectedly show an inferior shift during active elevation. It is unclear whether the size of the translational differences found in this study, while statistically significant, are also of clinical significance. Level III, comparative study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship of Tear Size and Location to Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H. Mike; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Keener, Jay D.; Galatz, Leesa M.; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Background: Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles may have detrimental effects on both anatomical and functional outcomes following shoulder surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tear geometry and muscle fatty degeneration in shoulders with a deficient rotator cuff. Methods: Ultrasonograms of both shoulders of 262 patients were reviewed to assess the type of rotator cuff tear and fatty degeneration in the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. The 251 shoulders with a full-thickness tear underwent further evaluation for tear size and location. The relationship of tear size and location to fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles was investigated with use of statistical comparisons and regression models. Results: Fatty degeneration was found almost exclusively in shoulders with a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Of the 251 shoulders with a full-thickness tear, eighty-seven (34.7%) had fatty degeneration in either the supraspinatus or infraspinatus, or both. Eighty-two (32.7%) of the 251 full-thickness tears had a distance of 0 mm between the biceps tendon and anterior margin of the tear. Ninety percent of the full-thickness tears with fatty degeneration in both muscles had a distance of 0 mm posterior from the biceps, whereas only 9% of those without fatty degeneration had a distance of 0 mm. Tears with fatty degeneration had significantly greater width and length than those without fatty degeneration (p < 0.0001). Tears with fatty degeneration had a significantly shorter distance posterior from the biceps than those without fatty degeneration (p < 0.0001). The distance posterior from the biceps was found to be the most important predictor for supraspinatus fatty degeneration, whereas tear width and length were found to be the most important predictors for infraspinatus fatty degeneration. Conclusions: Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles is closely associated with tear size and

  8. Relationship of tear size and location to fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Kim, H Mike; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Teefey, Sharlene A; Keener, Jay D; Galatz, Leesa M; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2010-04-01

    Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles may have detrimental effects on both anatomical and functional outcomes following shoulder surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tear geometry and muscle fatty degeneration in shoulders with a deficient rotator cuff. Ultrasonograms of both shoulders of 262 patients were reviewed to assess the type of rotator cuff tear and fatty degeneration in the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. The 251 shoulders with a full-thickness tear underwent further evaluation for tear size and location. The relationship of tear size and location to fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles was investigated with use of statistical comparisons and regression models. Fatty degeneration was found almost exclusively in shoulders with a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Of the 251 shoulders with a full-thickness tear, eighty-seven (34.7%) had fatty degeneration in either the supraspinatus or infraspinatus, or both. Eighty-two (32.7%) of the 251 full-thickness tears had a distance of 0 mm between the biceps tendon and anterior margin of the tear. Ninety percent of the full-thickness tears with fatty degeneration in both muscles had a distance of 0 mm posterior from the biceps, whereas only 9% of those without fatty degeneration had a distance of 0 mm. Tears with fatty degeneration had significantly greater width and length than those without fatty degeneration (p < 0.0001). Tears with fatty degeneration had a significantly shorter distance posterior from the biceps than those without fatty degeneration (p < 0.0001). The distance posterior from the biceps was found to be the most important predictor for supraspinatus fatty degeneration, whereas tear width and length were found to be the most important predictors for infraspinatus fatty degeneration. Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles is closely associated with tear size and location. The finding of this study

  9. Effect of tamoxifen on fatty degeneration and atrophy of rotator cuff muscles in chronic rotator cuff tear: An animal model study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Edward; Zhang, Yue; Pruznak, Anne; Kim, H Mike

    2015-12-01

    Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles is an irreversible change resulting from chronic rotator cuff tear and is associated with poor clinical outcomes following rotator cuff repair. We evaluated the effect of Tamoxifen, a competitive estrogen receptor inhibitor, on fatty degeneration using a mouse model for chronic rotator cuff tear. Sixteen adult mice were divided into two diet groups (Tamoxifen vs. Regular) and subjected to surgical creation of a large rotator cuff tear and suprascapular nerve transection in their left shoulder with the right shoulder serving as a control. The rotator cuff muscles were harvested at 16 weeks and subjected to histology and RT-PCR for adipogenic and myogenic markers. Histology showed substantially decreased atrophy and endomysial inflammation in Tamoxifen group, but no significant differences in the amount of intramuscular adipocytes and lipid droplets compared to the Regular group. With RT-PCR, the operated shoulders showed significant upregulation of myogenin and PPAR-γ, and downregulation of myostatin compared to the nonsurgical shoulder. No significant differences of gene expression were found between the two diet groups. Our study demonstrated that tamoxifen diet leads to decreased muscle atrophy and inflammatory changes following chronic rotator cuff tear, but has no apparent effect on adipogenesis. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A Case Report of an Acromioclavicular Joint Ganglion Associated with a Rotator Cuff Tear.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Suguru; Gotoh, Masafumi; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Shirachi, Isao; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Shiba, Naoto

    2017-02-06

    We report a case of subcutaneous ganglion adjacent to the acromioclavicular joint with massive rotator cuff tear [1-7]. An 81-year-old woman presented with a ganglion adjacent to the acromioclavicular joint that had first been identified 9 months earlier. The ganglion had recurred after having been aspirated by her local physician, so she was referred to our hospital. The puncture fluid was yellowish, clear and viscous. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a massive rotator cuff tear with multi- lobular cystic lesions continuous to the acromioclavicular joint, presenting the "geyser sign". During arthroscopy, distal clavicular resection and excision of the ganglion were performed together with joint debridement. At present, the ganglion has not recurred and the patient has returned to normal daily activity. In this case, the ganglion may have developed subsequent to the concomitant massive cuff tear, due to subcutaneous fluid flow through the damaged acromioclavicular joint.

  11. Reduced muscle fiber force production and disrupted myofibril architecture in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Mendias, Christopher L; Roche, Stuart M; Harning, Julie A; Davis, Max E; Lynch, Evan B; Sibilsky Enselman, Elizabeth R; Jacobson, Jon A; Claflin, Dennis R; Calve, Sarah; Bedi, Asheesh

    2015-01-01

    A persistent atrophy of muscle fibers and an accumulation of fat, collectively referred to as fatty degeneration, commonly occur in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears. The etiology of fatty degeneration and function of the residual rotator cuff musculature have not been well characterized in humans. We hypothesized that muscles from patients with chronic rotator cuff tears have reduced muscle fiber force production, disordered myofibrils, and an accumulation of fat vacuoles. The contractility of muscle fibers from biopsy specimens of supraspinatus muscles of 13 patients with chronic full-thickness posterosuperior rotator cuff tears was measured and compared with data from healthy vastus lateralis muscle fibers. Correlations between muscle fiber contractility, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, and tear size were analyzed. Histology and electron microscopy were also performed. Torn supraspinatus muscles had a 30% reduction in maximum isometric force production and a 29% reduction in normalized force compared with controls. Normalized supraspinatus fiber force positively correlated with ASES score and negatively correlated with tear size. Disordered sarcomeres were noted, along with an accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages in the extracellular matrix surrounding supraspinatus muscle fibers. Patients with chronic supraspinatus tears have significant reductions in muscle fiber force production. Force production also correlates with ASES scores and tear size. The structural and functional muscle dysfunction of the residual muscle fibers is independent of the additional area taken up by fibrotic tissue. This work may help establish future therapies to restore muscle function after the repair of chronically torn rotator cuff muscles. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simvastatin reduces fibrosis and protects against muscle weakness after massive rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Davis, Max E; Korn, Michael A; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Harning, Julie A; Saripalli, Anjali L; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2015-02-01

    Chronic rotator cuff tears are a common source of shoulder pain and disability, and patients with chronic cuff tears often have substantial weakness, fibrosis, inflammation, and fat accumulation. Identifying therapies to prevent the development of these pathologic processes will likely have a positive impact on clinical outcomes. Simvastatin is a drug with demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects in many tissues but had not previously been studied in the context of rotator cuff tears. We hypothesized that after the induction of a massive supraspinatus tear, simvastatin would protect muscles from a loss of force production and fibrosis. We measured changes in muscle fiber contractility, histology, and biochemical markers of fibrosis and fatty infiltration in rats that received a full-thickness supraspinatus tear and were treated with either carrier alone or simvastatin. Compared with vehicle-treated controls, simvastatin did not have an appreciable effect on muscle fiber size, but treatment did increase muscle fiber specific force by 20%. Simvastatin also reduced collagen accumulation by 50% but did not affect triglyceride content of muscles. Several favorable changes in the expression of genes and other markers of inflammation, fibrosis, and regeneration were also observed. Simvastatin partially protected muscles from the weakness that occurs as a result of chronic rotator cuff tear. Fibrosis was also markedly reduced in simvastatin-treated animals. Whereas further studies are necessary, statin medication could potentially help improve outcomes for patients with rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiology of the rotator cuff tears: a new incidence related to thyroid disease

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Francesco; Osti, Leonardo; Padulo, Johnny; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: in the last years the incidence of rotator cuff tears increased and one main cause still waiting to be clarified. Receptors for thyroid hormones in rotator cuff tendons suggest possible effects on tendons metabolism and status. We undertook a retrospective, observational cohort study of 441 patients who underwent arthroscopic and mini-open repair for non traumatic degenerative rotator cuff tears. Methods: all the patients, predominantly females (63%), were interview to assess the relationship (frequency for class age “20 yrs” and factor analysis) between lesions of the rotator cuff with the following variables: gender, thyroid disease, smoker, taking medications for diabetes, hypertension or high cholesterol; presence of associated conditions (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia). Results: thyroid disease is highly frequently (until 63% for 60<80 yrs) in females group independent to the age. Conversely, males showed a high frequency for smoker 37<62% until 80 yrs and 50% hypercholesterolemia over 80 yrs for the clinical variable studied. Conclusions: this is the first clinical report that shown a relationship between thyroid pathologies and non-traumatic rotator cuff tear as increased risk factors. PMID:25489548

  14. Detection and measurement of rotator cuff tears with sonography: analysis of diagnostic errors.

    PubMed

    Teefey, Sharlene A; Middleton, William D; Payne, William T; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the causes of errors in the detection and measurement of rotator cuff tears in our patient population. Seventy-one consecutive patients with shoulder pain who were prospectively studied with sonography had subsequent arthroscopy that showed a full-thickness or partial-thickness tear or intact cuff. For sonography and arthroscopy, the length or degree of retraction and width of a tear, when present, was recorded. When there were discrepant findings, representative images were jointly evaluated by the radiologist and orthopedic surgeon to determine the cause of the error. Fifteen detection errors were found, including five misses (three < 5-mm subscapularis and two small partial-thickness tears), four errors inherent with the test (distinguishing large bursal side or extensive partial-thickness from full-thickness tears and tendinopathy from partial-thickness tears), three errors of an unknown cause, two due to misinterpretation, and one error inherent with the patient. Seventeen measurement errors occurred with full-thickness tears, 15 of those in patients with large or massive tears. Bursal thickening (n = 4), non-visualization of the torn tendon end (n = 2), nonretracted tear (n = 2), and complex tear (n = 1) contributed to the errors. Eight measurement errors occurred with partial-thickness tears. Difficulty distinguishing tendinopathy from partial-thickness tears (n = 3) and complex tears (n = 3) accounted for six errors. Although infrequent, detection errors were due to limitations inherent with the test or misses. Limitations inherent with the patient and misinterpretation of the findings were rare. Most measurement errors occurred in patients with large or massive cuff tears.

  15. Arthroscopic treatment for pigmented villonodular synovitis of the shoulder associated with massive rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Chiang, En-Rung; Ma, Hsiao-Li; Wang, Shih-Tien; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Tain-Hsiung

    2009-07-01

    Our purpose was to investigate arthroscopic treatment of patients diagnosed with pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the shoulder and massive rotator cuff tear with the initial presentation of large, recurrent joint effusion. From December 2005 to June 2007, 5 patients (3 males and 2 females) diagnosed with PVNS of the shoulder and massive rotator cuff tear were treated with arthroscopic synovectomy, partial cuff repair, or debridement if the cuff was irreparable. All 5 patients were followed-up for a mean of 22.4 months (range, 12 to 33 months). Outcomes were measured with use of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) scoring systems. Two patients received partial rotator cuff repair by suture anchors and another 2 received suture repairs only. All of the patients had residual tear with variable sizes. With a mean follow-up of 22.4 months (range, 12 to 33 months), the mean ASES and UCLA scores improved from preoperative values of 48.2 and 7.8 to 80.0 and 29.6 points, respectively (P < .05). All patients were satisfied with the procedure, and no signs of recurrence were noted during the follow-up period. Five cases of PVNS of the shoulder and massive rotator cuff tears with the initial symptoms of shoulder effusion and function limitation were reported. After arthroscopic synovectomy and partial rotator cuff repair or debridement, all patients gained symptomatic and limited functional improvement at an average follow-up of 22 months. Level IV, therapeutic case series.

  16. The science of rotator cuff tears: translating animal models to clinical recommendations using simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Mannava, Sandeep; Plate, Johannes F; Tuohy, Christopher J; Seyler, Thorsten M; Whitlock, Patrick W; Curl, Walton W; Smith, Thomas L; Saul, Katherine R

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to review basic science studies using various animal models for rotator cuff research and to describe structural, biomechanical, and functional changes to muscle following rotator cuff tears. The use of computational simulations to translate the findings from animal models to human scale is further detailed. A comprehensive review was performed of the basic science literature describing the use of animal models and simulation analysis to examine muscle function following rotator cuff injury and repair in the ageing population. The findings from various studies of rotator cuff pathology emphasize the importance of preventing permanent muscular changes with detrimental results. In vivo muscle function, electromyography, and passive muscle-tendon unit properties were studied before and after supraspinatus tenotomy in a rodent rotator cuff injury model (acute vs chronic). Then, a series of simulation experiments were conducted using a validated computational human musculoskeletal shoulder model to assess both passive and active tension of rotator cuff repairs based on surgical positioning. Outcomes of rotator cuff repair may be improved by earlier surgical intervention, with lower surgical repair tensions and fewer electromyographic neuromuscular changes. An integrated approach of animal experiments, computer simulation analyses, and clinical studies may allow us to gain a fundamental understanding of the underlying pathology and interpret the results for clinical translation.

  17. New Solution for Massive, Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: The Subacromial “Biodegradable Spacer”

    PubMed Central

    Savarese, Eugenio; Romeo, Rocco

    2012-01-01

    Massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears are a source of pain and disability. Although most rotator cuff tears can be completely repaired, a significant number are considered massive and irreparable. Numerous operative techniques have been described for the treatment of these kinds of tears including arthroscopic debridement, biceps tenotomy, tendon transfer, grafting, and reverse arthroplasty. We describe a surgical technique using a biodegradable subacromial balloon spacer (InSpace; OrthoSpace, Kfar Saba, Israel) implanted between the humeral head and acromion that permits smooth, frictionless gliding, restoring the shoulder biomechanics. The technique is easy to perform and is less invasive than the conventional surgical techniques available, and it may potentially serve as a bridging option in patients with massive, irreparable tears who are normally candidates for reverse arthroplasty. PMID:23766979

  18. T lymphocytes are not required for the development of fatty degeneration after rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Gumucio, J.; Flood, M.; Harning, J.; Phan, A.; Roche, S.; Lynch, E.; Bedi, A.; Mendias, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Rotator cuff tears are among the most common and debilitating upper extremity injuries. Chronic cuff tears result in atrophy and an infiltration of fat into the muscle, a condition commonly referred to as ‘fatty degeneration’. While stem cell therapies hold promise for the treatment of cuff tears, a suitable immunodeficient animal model that could be used to study human or other xenograft-based therapies for the treatment of rotator cuff injuries had not previously been identified. Methods A full-thickness, massive supraspinatus and infraspinatus tear was induced in adult T-cell deficient rats. We hypothesised that, compared with controls, 28 days after inducing a tear we would observe a decrease in muscle force production, an accumulation of type IIB fibres, and an upregulation in the expression of genes involved with muscle atrophy, fibrosis and inflammation. Results Chronic cuff tears in nude rats resulted in a 30% to 40% decrease in muscle mass, a 23% reduction in production of muscle force, and an induction of genes that regulate atrophy, fibrosis, lipid accumulation, inflammation and macrophage recruitment. Marked large lipid droplet accumulation was also present. Conclusions The extent of degenerative changes in nude rats was similar to what was observed in T-cell competent rats. T cells may not play an important role in regulating muscle degeneration following chronic muscle unloading. The general similarities between nude and T-cell competent rats suggest the nude rat is likely an appropriate preclinical model for the study of xenografts that have the potential to enhance the treatment of chronically torn rotator cuff muscles. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:262–72. PMID:25185444

  19. Learning curve of office-based ultrasonography for rotator cuff tendons tears.

    PubMed

    Ok, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Yang-Soo; Kim, Jung-Man; Yoo, Tae-Wook

    2013-07-01

    To compare the accuracy of ultrasonography and MR arthrography (MRA) imaging in detecting of rotator cuff tears with arthroscopic finding used as the reference standard. The ultrasonography and MRA findings of 51 shoulders that underwent the arthroscopic surgery were prospectively analysed. Two orthopaedic doctors independently performed ultrasonography and interpreted the findings at the office. The tear size measured at ultrasonography and MRA was compared with the size measured at surgery using Pearson correlation coefficients (r). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and false-positive rate were calculated for a diagnosis of partial-and full-thickness rotator cuff tears. The kappa coefficient was calculated to verify the inter-observer agreement. The sensitivity of ultrasonography and MRA for detecting partial-thickness tears was 45.5 and 72.7 %, and that for full-thickness tears was 80.0 and 100 %, respectively. The accuracy of ultrasonograpy and MRA for detecting partial-thickness tears was 45.1 and 88.2 %, and that for full-thickness tears was 82.4 and 98 %, respectively. Tear size measured based on ultrasonography examination showed a poor correlation with the size measured at arthroscopic surgery (r = 0.21; p < 0.05). However, tear size estimated by MRA showed a strong correlation (r = 0.75; p < 0.05). The kappa coefficient was 0.47 between the two independent examiners. The accuracy of office-based ultrasonography for beginner orthopaedic surgeons to detect full-thickness rotator cuff tears was comparable to that of MRA but was less accurate for detecting partial-thickness tears and torn size measurement. Inter-observer agreement on the interpretation was fair. These results highlight the importance of the correct technique and experience in operation of ultrasonography in shoulder joint. Diagnostic study, Level II.

  20. Conservative management of rotator cuff tears: literature review and proposal for a prognostic. Prediction Score

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Saporito, Marco; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Summary Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain and shoulder dysfunction. The prevalence of the rotator cuff tears increases with the age reaching the 80% in patients aged more than 80 year. Symptomatic shoulders usually are initially treated conservatively and then, in case of poor outcomes, with surgery. Different parameters are still used to decide between the conservative or surgical treatment in patients with rotator cuff tears. Aim of the current study is to characterize the various features used in decision making and to validate a “Prediction Score” that let us know which patients could have a good and stable outcome with non operative treatment. We enrolled 60 patients (mean age 52 years) with symptomatic rotator cuff tears who were assigned to conservative treatment and were evaluated at 6,9 and 12 months follow-up. We developed a score based on 18 clinical and radiographic parameters. 27 patients (“non conservative”) (45%) with a mean prediction score of 16.1 ± 1.7 interrupted the conservative treatment, while 33 patients (“conservative”) (55%) with an average prediction score of 11.3 ± 1.8 remained conservatively treated at last follow-up. The conservative patients were 14 years older than non conservative patients. According to the results of this study we identified a value of 13 points as a “cut-off” score to predict good results by conservative management of rotator cuff tear. These outcomes support the assumption that a predictive prognostic score may guarantee a rational approach in the management of subjects with RC tears, especially in elderly who continue to have the higher rate of recurrence and therefore could be well treated with standard conservative therapies. PMID:23738239

  1. Use of cuff tear arthroplasty head prosthesis for rotator cuff arthropathy treatment in elderly patients with comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Cassiano Diniz; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the clinical and functional behavior of patients undergoing cuff tear arthroplasty at different stages of the disease. Methods Cuff tear arthroplasty hemiarthroplasties were performed in 34 patients with rotator cuff arthropathy and associated comorbidities, classified according to Seebauer. The mean age was 76.3 years, and the sample comprised 23 females (67.6%) and 11 males (32.4%). The mean follow-up period was 21.7 months, and evaluations were performed using the Visual Analog Scale for pain and the Constant scale. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the mean reduction in the Visual Analog Scale or in the Constant scale increase between the female and male groups. The variation between the pre- and postoperative Visual Analog Scale and Constant scale evaluations was significant. There was also no statistically significant difference between the Seebauer classification groups regarding the mean Visual Analog Scale reduction, or the mean Constant scale increase. Conclusion Cuff tear arthroplasty shoulder hemiarthroplasty is a good option for rotator cuff arthropathy in patients with comorbidities. PMID:28076600

  2. Tendon transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tears: indications and surgical rationale

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Chillemi, Claudio; Franceschini, Vincenzo; Cerciello, Simone; Ippolito, Giorgio; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: treatment of symptomatic irreparable rotator cuff tears is extremely challenging because, at present, there are no ideal solutions to this problem. Many patients respond favorably to nonsurgical treatment. However, when conservative measures fail to improve the patient’s pain and disability, surgery should be considered. Methods: different surgical techniques are available and the choice of the most appropriate procedure depends on the presenting symptoms, age of the patient, functional demand, medical comorbidities, joint stability and presence of arthritic changes. The transposition of the surrounding muscles to replace the rotator cuff function represents a viable option in the treatment of younger patients without glenohumeral osteoarthritis and with severe functional limitation. Purpose: aim of this study is to give an overview of the currently available evidence regarding tendon transfer procedures for irreparable rotator cuff tears. PMID:25767779

  3. Biomechanical analysis of articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and repair.

    PubMed

    Mihata, Teruhisa; McGarry, Michelle H; Ishihara, Yoko; Bui, Christopher N H; Alavekios, Damon; Neo, Masashi; Lee, Thay Q

    2015-02-01

    Articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears are common injuries in throwing athletes. The superior shoulder capsule beneath the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons works as a stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint. To assess the effect of articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and repair on shoulder biomechanics. The hypothesis was that shoulder laxity might be changed because of superior capsular plication in transtendon repair of articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. Controlled laboratory study. Nine fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were tested by using a custom shoulder-testing system at the simulated late-cocking phase and acceleration phase of throwing motion. Maximum glenohumeral external rotation angle, anterior translation, position of the humeral head apex with respect to the glenoid, internal impingement area, and glenohumeral and subacromial contact pressures were measured. Each specimen underwent 3 stages of testing: stage 1, with the intact shoulder; stage 2, after creation of articular-sided partial-thickness tears of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons; and stage 3, after transtendon repair of the torn tendons by using 2 suture anchors. Articular-sided partial-thickness tears did not significantly change any of the shoulder biomechanical measurements. In the simulated late-cocking phase, transtendon rotator cuff repair resulted in decreased maximum external rotation angle by 4.2° (P = .03), posterior shift of the humeral head (1.1-mm shift; P = .02), decreased glenohumeral contact pressure by 1.7 MPa (56%; P = .004), and decreased internal impingement area by 26.4 mm(2) (65%; P < .001) compared with values in the torn shoulder. In the acceleration phase, the humeral head shifted inferiorly (1.2-mm shift; P = .03 vs torn shoulder), and glenohumeral anterior translation (1.5-mm decrease; P = .03 vs torn shoulder) and subacromial contact pressure (32% decrease; P = .004 vs intact shoulder) decreased

  4. Adipogenic and myogenic gene expression in rotator cuff muscle of the sheep after tendon tear.

    PubMed

    Frey, Eric; Regenfelder, Felix; Sussmann, Patrick; Zumstein, Matthias; Gerber, Christian; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

    2009-04-01

    Chronic rotator cuff tendon tears lead to fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy with impaired physiological functions of the affected muscles. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of corresponding pathophysiological processes remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to characterize the expression pattern of adipogenic (PPARgamma, C/EBPbeta) and myogenic (myostatin, myogenin, Myf-5) transcription factors in infraspinatus muscle of sheep after tenotomy, implantation of a tension device, refixation of the tendon, and rehabilitation, reflecting a model of chronic rotator cuff tears. In contrast to human patients, the presented sheep model allows a temporal evaluation of the expression of a given marker in the same individual over time. Semiquantitative RT/PCR analysis of PPARgammaã, myostatin, myogenin, Myf-5, and C/EBPbeta transcript levels was carried out with sheep muscle biopsy-derived total RNA. We found a significantly increased expression of Myf-5 and PPARgamma after tenotomy and a significant change for Myf-5 and C/EBPbeta after continuous traction and refixation. This experimental sheep model allows the molecular analysis of pathomechanisms of muscular changes after rotator cuff tear. The results point to a crucial role of the transcription factors PPARgamma, C/EBPbeta, and Myf-5 in impairment and regeneration of rotator cuff muscles after tendon tears in sheep.

  5. Comparing surgical repair with conservative treatment for degenerative rotator cuff tears: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lambers Heerspink, Frederik O; van Raay, Jos J A M; Koorevaar, Rinco C T; van Eerden, Pepijn J M; Westerbeek, Robin E; van 't Riet, Esther; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Diercks, Ronald L

    2015-08-01

    Good clinical results have been reported for both surgical and conservative treatment of rotator cuff tears. The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare functional and radiologic improvement after surgical and conservative treatment of degenerative rotator cuff tears. We conducted a randomized controlled trial that included 56 patients with a degenerative full-thickness rotator cuff tear between January 2009 and December 2012; 31 patients were treated conservatively, and rotator cuff repair was performed in 25 patients. Outcome measures, including the Constant-Murley score (CMS), visual analog scale (VAS) pain and VAS disability scores, were assessed preoperatively and after 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively. At 12 months postoperatively, the mean CMS was 81.9 (standard deviation [SD], 15.6) in the surgery group vs 73.7 (SD, 18.4) in the conservative group (P = .08). VAS pain (P = .04) and VAS disability (P = .02) were significantly lower in the surgery group at the 12-month follow-up. A subgroup analysis showed postoperative CMS results were significantly better in surgically treated patients without a retear compared with conservatively treated patients (88.5 [SD, 6.2] vs 73.7 [SD, 18.4]). In our population of patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears who were randomly treated by surgery or conservative protocol, we did not observe differences in functional outcome as measured with the CMS 1 year after treatment. However, significant differences in pain and disabilities were observed in favor of surgical treatment. The best outcomes in function and pain were seen in patients with an intact rotator cuff postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical results of arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction for irreparable rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Mihata, Teruhisa; Lee, Thay Q; Watanabe, Chisato; Fukunishi, Kunimoto; Ohue, Mutsumi; Tsujimura, Tomoyuki; Kinoshita, Mitsuo

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome and radiographic findings after arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction (ASCR) for symptomatic irreparable rotator cuff tears. From 2007 to 2009, 24 shoulders in 23 consecutive patients (mean, 65.1 years) with irreparable rotator cuff tears (11 large, 13 massive) underwent ASCR using fascia lata. We used suture anchors to attach the graft medially to the glenoid superior tubercle and laterally to the greater tuberosity. We added side-to-side sutures between the graft and infraspinatus tendon and between the graft and residual anterior supraspinatus/subscapularis tendon to improve force coupling. Physical examination, radiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed before surgery; at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery; and yearly thereafter. Average follow-up was 34.1 months (24 to 51 months) after surgery. Mean active elevation increased significantly from 84° to 148° (P < .001) and external rotation increased from 26° to 40° (P < .01). Acromiohumeral distance (AHD) increased from 4.6 ± 2.2 mm preoperatively to 8.7 ± 2.6 mm postoperatively (P < .0001). There were no cases of progression of osteoarthritis or rotator cuff muscle atrophy. Twenty patients (83.3%) had no graft tear or tendon retear during follow-up (24 to 51 months). The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score improved from 23.5 to 92.9 points (P < .0001). ASCR restored superior glenohumeral stability and function of the shoulder joint with irreparable rotator cuff tears. Our results suggest that this reconstruction technique is a reliable and useful alternative treatment for irreparable rotator cuff tears. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional evaluation of patient after arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Jadhav, Umesh

    2014-06-01

    Rotator cuff tear is a common problem either after trauma or after degenerative tear in old age group. Arthroscopic repair is the current concept of rotator cuff repair. Here, we are trying to evaluate the functional outcome after arthroscopic repair of full thickness rotator cuff tear (single row) in Indian population. Twenty five patients (14 males and 11 females) who underwent arthroscopic repair of full thickness rotator cuff tear at a single institution were included in the study. Postoperatively patient's shoulder was rated according to UCLA score, pain was graded according to the visual analog score. The range of motion was analysed and documented. The mean age of the patients were 50.48 years. The preoperative VAS score mode was 7 and post operative VAS was 1 (p value <0.001). The UCLA grading was good in 80% (n = 20), fair in 12% (n = 3), excellent in 8% (n = 2) and poor results were seen in none of the patients. The mean UCLA improved from a score of 15.84 to 30.28 with a p value <0.001. Mean postoperative forward flexion was 161.6°, mean abduction was 147.6° and mean external rotation was 45.4°. Arthroscopic repair is a good procedure for full thickness rotator cuff tear with minimal complications. The newer double row repair claims to be biomechanically superior with faster healing rates without functional advantages, hence we used a single row repair considering the Indian population and the cost effectiveness of the surgery with good to excellent results.

  8. Prognostic Factors Affecting Rotator Cuff Healing After Arthroscopic Repair in Small to Medium-sized Tears.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Soon; Park, Hyung Jun; Kim, Sae Hoon; Oh, Joo Han

    2015-10-01

    Small and medium-sized rotator cuff tears usually have good clinical and anatomic outcomes. However, healing failure still occurs in some cases. To evaluate prognostic factors for rotator cuff healing in patients with only small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were prospectively collected from 339 patients with small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears who underwent arthroscopic repair by a single surgeon between March 2004 and August 2012 and who underwent magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic arthrography at least 1 year after surgery. The mean age of the patients was 59.8 years (range, 39-80 years), and the mean follow-up time was 20.8 months (range, 12-66 months). The functional evaluation included the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant-Murley score, and Simple Shoulder Test. Postoperative VAS for pain and functional scores improved significantly compared with preoperative values (P < .001). Forty-five healing failures occurred (13.3%), and fatty degeneration of the infraspinatus muscle, tear size (anteroposterior dimension), and age were significant factors affecting rotator cuff healing (P < .001, = .018, and = .011, respectively) in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Grade II and higher infraspinatus fatty degeneration correlated with a higher failure rate. The failure rate was also significantly higher in patients with a tear >2 cm in size (34.2%) compared with patients with a tear ≤2 cm (10.6%) (P < .001). A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the predictive cut-off value for the oldest age and the largest tear size for successful healing, which were calculated as 69 years and 2 cm, respectively, with a specificity of 90%. In small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears, grade II fatty degeneration of the infraspinatus muscle according to the Goutallier classification could be a reference point for successful

  9. Physician Training Ultrasound and Accuracy of Diagnosis in Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Day, Michael; Phil, M; McCormack, Richard A; Nayyar, Samir; Jazrawi, Laith

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonography offers a fast and inexpensive method to evaluate the rotator cuff in the office setting. However, the accuracy of ultrasound is highly user dependent. The purpose of this study is to investigate the learning curve of an orthopaedic surgeon in using ultrasound to diagnose rotator cuff tears. A sports medicine fellowship trained orthopaedic surgeon was taught how to perform and interpret an ultrasound examination of the shoulder by a musculoskeletal radiologist. In this prospective study, subjects were patients who presented to the office with shoulder pain suspected to be consistent with rotator cuff pathology, either complete or partial tears. The surgeon was blinded to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results and performed the ultrasound after performing a physical exam. Based on ultrasound and exam, the surgeon assessed if the rotator cuff was intact (no tear) or torn (having a partial or full thickness tear). Results were compared to MRI findings and arthroscopic findings (when available), and accuracy was evaluated over time to determine overall accuracy and if significant learning and improvement in accuracy took place over the time period studied. Eighty patients were enrolled in the study; seventy-four had an MRI within 3 months of the ultrasound and were available for evaluation. Nineteen patients underwent ultrasound, MRI, and arthroscopy. Ultrasound was able to accurately diagnose the correct rotator cuff pathology (no tear, a partial thickness tear, or a full thickness tear) in 61% of patients. Ultrasound accurately diagnosed simply the presence or absence of a tear in 74% of patients. There was a general trend toward improved accuracy as the investigator gained experience, with accuracy rates of approximately 51% for the first 40 patients, and 69% for the last 40 patients evaluated, although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.154). Ultrasound imaging requires significant training and practice to provide a clinically

  10. Rotator cuff muscle degeneration and tear severity related to myogenic, adipogenic, and atrophy genes in human muscle.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shivam A; Kormpakis, Ioannis; Cavinatto, Leonardo; Killian, Megan L; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Galatz, Leesa M

    2017-05-04

    Large rotator cuff tear size and advanced muscle degeneration can affect reparability of tears and compromise tendon healing. Clinicians often rely on direct measures of rotator cuff tear size and muscle degeneration from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether the rotator cuff tear is repairable. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between gene expression changes in rotator cuff muscle degeneration to standard data available to clinicians. Radiographic assessment of preoperative rotator cuff tear severity was completed for 25 patients with varying magnitudes of rotator cuff tears. Tear width and retraction were measured using MRI, and Goutallier grade, tangent (tan) sign, and Thomazeau grade were determined. Expression of myogenic-, adipogenic-, atrophy-, and metabolism-related genes in biopsied muscles were correlated with tear width, tear retraction, Goutallier grade, tan sign, and Thomazeau grade. Tear width positively correlated with Goutallier grade in both the supraspinatus (r = 0.73) and infraspinatus (r = 0.77), along with tan sign (r = 0.71) and Thomazeau grade (r = 0.68). Decreased myogenesis (Myf5), increased adipogenesis (CEBPα, Lep, Wnt10b), and decreased metabolism (PPARα) correlated with radiographic assessments. Gene expression changes suggest that rotator cuff tears lead to a dramatic molecular response in an attempt to maintain normal muscle tissue, increase adipogenesis, and decrease metabolism. Fat accumulation and muscle atrophy appear to stem from endogenous changes rather than from changes mediated by infiltrating cells. Results suggest that chronic unloading of muscle, induced by rotator cuff tear, disrupts muscle homeostasis. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Revision Rotator Cuff Reconstruction for Large Tears With Retraction: A Novel Technique Using Autogenous Tendon and Autologous Marrow.

    PubMed

    Skoff, Hillel D

    2015-07-01

    Revision rotator cuff reconstruction for large tears with retraction results in a high rate of recurrent cuff tearing. To try to obtain more consistent results, I conducted a study of a technique that addresses the potential factors involved. Ten patients (7 men, 3 women) were enrolled. Mean age was 58 years. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Mean time between primary and revision cuff surgery was 36 months. The cardinal inclusion criterion was a symptomatic, full-thickness rotator cuff tear with at least 3 cm of retraction in a shoulder that previously underwent rotator cuff repair. Ultrasound was used for postoperative radiographic assessment of cuff integrity. Validated Constant, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder scoring systems were used. Surgical technique included mini-open incision, adequate débridement and mobilization of remaining cuff, reconstitution of cuff defect with autogenous biceps tendon incubated in concentrated autologous bone marrow, and sewing under zero tissue tension. Constant, ASES, and UCLA scores improved significantly (standard error at .001). Ultrasound revealed 0% incidence of full-thickness rotator cuff retearing. In patients with large recurrent retracted rotator cuff tears the technique presented in the current study consistently yields satisfactory clinical results and promotes rotator cuff tissue healing without full-thickness retearing.

  12. Preliminary Results of a Consecutive Series of Large & Massive Rotator Cuff Tears Treated with Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repairs Augmented with Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Consigliere, Paolo; Polyzois, Ioannis; Sarkhel, Tanaya; Gupta, Rohit; Levy, Ofer; Narvani, A. Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recurrence rate of rotator cuff tears is still high despite the improvements of surgical techniques, materials used and a better knowledge of the healing process of the rotator cuff tendons. Large to massive rotator cuff tears are particularly associated with a high failure rate, especially in elderly. Augmentation of rotator cuff repairs with extracellular matrix or synthetic patches has gained popularity in recent years with the aim of reducing failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of rotator cuff repairs augmented with denatured extracellular matrix in a series of patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for large to massive tears. Methods: Ten consecutive patients, undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with extracellular matrix augment for large and massive tears, were prospectively enrolled into this single surgeon study. All repairs were performed arthroscopically with a double row technique augmented with extracellular matrix. Oxford Shoulder Score, Constant Score and pain visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to monitor the shoulder function and outcome pre-operatively and at three, six and 12-month follow-up. Minimum follow up was three months. Mean follow up was 7 months. Results: Mean Constant score improved from 53 (SD=4) pre-operatively to 75 (SD=11) at final follow up. Mean Oxford score also increased from 30 (SD=8) pre-operatively to 47 (SD=10) at the final follow up. The visual analogue scale (VAS) improved from seven out of 10 (SD=2) preoperatively to 0.6 (SD=0.8) at final follow up. Additionally, there was significant improvement at three months mark in Constant score. Conclusion: Arthroscopic repair and augmentation of large and massive rotator cuff tears with extracellular matrix patch has good early outcome. PMID:28271082

  13. Preliminary Results of a Consecutive Series of Large & Massive Rotator Cuff Tears Treated with Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repairs Augmented with Extracellular Matrix.

    PubMed

    Consigliere, Paolo; Polyzois, Ioannis; Sarkhel, Tanaya; Gupta, Rohit; Levy, Ofer; Narvani, A Ali

    2017-01-01

    Recurrence rate of rotator cuff tears is still high despite the improvements of surgical techniques, materials used and a better knowledge of the healing process of the rotator cuff tendons. Large to massive rotator cuff tears are particularly associated with a high failure rate, especially in elderly. Augmentation of rotator cuff repairs with extracellular matrix or synthetic patches has gained popularity in recent years with the aim of reducing failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of rotator cuff repairs augmented with denatured extracellular matrix in a series of patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for large to massive tears. Ten consecutive patients, undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with extracellular matrix augment for large and massive tears, were prospectively enrolled into this single surgeon study. All repairs were performed arthroscopically with a double row technique augmented with extracellular matrix. Oxford Shoulder Score, Constant Score and pain visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to monitor the shoulder function and outcome pre-operatively and at three, six and 12-month follow-up. Minimum follow up was three months. Mean follow up was 7 months. Mean Constant score improved from 53 (SD=4) pre-operatively to 75 (SD=11) at final follow up. Mean Oxford score also increased from 30 (SD=8) pre-operatively to 47 (SD=10) at the final follow up. The visual analogue scale (VAS) improved from seven out of 10 (SD=2) preoperatively to 0.6 (SD=0.8) at final follow up. Additionally, there was significant improvement at three months mark in Constant score. Arthroscopic repair and augmentation of large and massive rotator cuff tears with extracellular matrix patch has good early outcome.

  14. Rotator cuff tears: correlation between geometric tear patterns on MRI and arthroscopy and pre- and postoperative clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Sela, Yaron; Eshed, Iris; Shapira, Shachar; Oran, Ariel; Vogel, Guy; Herman, Amir; Perry Pritsch, Moshe

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered to be the best non-invasive procedure for the evaluation of rotator cuff (RC) tendon tears. Burkhart's classification is a geometric classification of full-thickness RC tears on MRI. To correlate MRI and arthroscopic geometric full-thickness RC tears according to the Burkhart's classification with pre- and postoperative clinical findings. Patients who underwent arthroscopic RC repair between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. Preoperative MRI and arthroscopic surgical reports were reviewed for tear geometry (Burkhart's) by three (1 radiologist, 2 surgeons) and two (surgeons) readers. MRIs were also evaluated for tear size and change of tear size in successive sagittal sections and for muscle mass and fatty infiltration. Clinical examinations were performed preoperatively and at least 12 months afterwards. Postoperative function questionnaires were filled in by the patients. Forty-six patients (35 men, 11 women; mean age, 57 years; range, 41-72 years) were evaluated. Tears depicted on MRIs were classified as crescent in 11 patients (24%), longitudinal in three (6.5%), massive contracted in 29 (63%), and cuff arthropathy in three (6.5%). Muscle changes were noted almost exclusively in patients with massive tears and cuff arthropathy (16/32 patients, P = 0.013). MRIs and arthroscopic geometric classifications were in close agreement. Tear type did not correlate with pre- and postoperative physical examination or with postoperative clinical questionnaires scores. Geometric RC tear characterizations on preoperative MRIs were closely associated with arthroscopic findings. Postoperative results were not affected by the geometric pattern of the tears. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Results of arthroscopic partial repair of large retracted rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Wellmann, Mathias; Lichtenberg, Sven; da Silva, Gaspar; Magosch, Petra; Habermeyer, Peter

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the midterm results of partial rotator cuff repair using the Constant score and the acromiohumeral radiographic measurement. Thirty-eight patients with a mean age of 65 years and a large retracted rotator cuff tear (at least 2 tendons) were included in the study. Patients underwent clinical examination, standard radiography, and isometric strength testing at a mean follow-up of 47 months. The rotator cuff tears were classified as posterosuperior, anterosuperior, or global tears (≥3 tendons), and an arthroscopic partial repair was performed. The mean Constant score significantly increased from 56 points before surgery to 71 points after surgery (P = .041); the mean age- and sex-adjusted Constant score significantly improved from 63% to 90% at a mean follow-up of 47 months after arthroscopic partial rotator cuff repair (P = .003); and the subcategories pain and activity significantly improved (P = .001, P = .014, respectively). The active range of motion improved from 133° of flexion and 111° of abduction before surgery to 163° of forward flexion and 156° of abduction after surgery (P < .001). However, the active range of external rotation decreased from 44° before surgery to 36° after surgery. Further, there was a trend toward a decrease in the mean acromiohumeral distance from 7.0 mm before surgery to 5.6 mm after surgery. The abduction strength did not significantly improve after surgery (4.2 kg before surgery and 4.8 kg after surgery; P = .116). An arthroscopic partial repair of the rotator cuff is an effective tool to improve the Constant score by restoring active forward flexion and abduction and through pain relief. Further, we found that a pathologically decreased acromiohumeral distance cannot be reversed by a partial rotator cuff repair. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Is the Supraspinatus Muscle Atrophy Truly Irreversible after Surgical Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seok Won; Kim, Sae Hoon; Tae, Suk-Kee; Yoon, Jong Pil; Choi, Jung-Ah

    2013-01-01

    Background Atrophy of rotator cuff muscles has been considered an irreversible phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether atrophy is truly irreversible after rotator cuff repair. Methods We measured supraspinatus muscle atrophy of 191 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative multidetector computed tomography images, taken at least 1 year after operation. The occupation ratio was calculated using Photoshop CS3 software. We compared the change between pre- and postoperative occupation ratios after modifying the preoperative occupation ratio. In addition, possible relationship between various clinical factors and the change of atrophy, and between the change of atrophy and cuff integrity after surgical repair were evaluated. Results The mean occupation ratio was significantly increased postoperatively from 0.44 ± 0.17 to 0.52 ± 0.17 (p < 0.001). Among 191 patients, 81 (42.4%) showed improvement of atrophy (more than a 10% increase in occupation ratio) and 33 (17.3%) worsening (more than a 10% decrease). Various clinical factors such as age tear size, or initial degree of atrophy did not affect the change of atrophy. However, the change of atrophy was related to repair integrity: cuff healing failure rate of 48.5% (16 of 33) in worsened atrophy; and 22.2% (18 of 81) in improved atrophy (p = 0.007). Conclusions The supraspinatus muscle atrophy as measured by occupation ratio could be improved postoperatively in case of successful cuff repair. PMID:23467404

  17. Arthroscopic treatment options for irreparable rotator cuff tears of the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Anley, Cameron M; Chan, Samuel KL; Snow, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears remains a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons with the final treatment option in many algorithms being either a reverse shoulder arthroplasty or a tendon transfer. The long term results of these procedures are however still widely debated, especially in younger patients. A variety of arthroscopic treatment options have been proposed for patients with an irreparable rotator cuff tear without the presence of arthritis of the glenohumeral joint. These include a simple debridement with or without a biceps tenotomy, partial rotator cuff repair with or without an interval slide, tuberplasty, graft interposition of the rotator cuff, suprascapular nerve ablation, superior capsule reconstruction and insertion of a biodegradable spacer (Inspace) to depress the humeral head. These options should be considered as part of the treatment algorithm in patients with an irreparable rotator cuff and could be used as either as an interim procedure, delaying the need for more invasive surgery in the physiologically young and active, or as potential definitive procedures in the medically unfit. The aim of this review is to highlight and summarise arthroscopic procedures and the results thereof currently utilised in the management of these challenging patients. PMID:25405083

  18. Reduced levels of mesenchymal stem cells at the tendon-bone interface tuberosity in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe; Merouse, Guillaume; Duffiet, Pascal; Chevalier, Nathalie; Rouard, Helene

    2015-06-01

    While the use of bone marrow concentrate (BMC) has been described in the treatment of rotator cuff tears, the impact of a rotator cuff injury on the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) content present in the human shoulder has not been determined, especially with regard to changes in the levels of MSCs at the tendon-bone interface. With the hypothesis that there was a decreased level of MSCs at the tendon-bone interface tuberosity in patients with rotator cuff tear, we assessed the level of MSCs in the tuberosity of the shoulder of patients undergoing a rotator cuff repair. We analysed the data of 125 patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears and of 75 control patients without rotator cuff injury. We recorded the following data: size of tear, number of torn tendons, aetiology of the tear, lag time between onset of shoulder symptoms/injury and repair, and also fatty infiltration of muscles. Mesenchymal stem cell content at the tendon-bone interface tuberosity was evaluated by bone marrow aspiration collected in the humeral tuberosities of patients at the beginning of surgery. A significant reduction in MSC content (from moderate, 30-50 %, to severe >70 %) at the tendon-bone interface tuberosity relative to the MSC content of the control was observed in all rotator cuff repair study patients. Severity of the decrease was statistically correlated to a number of factors, including the delay between onset of symptoms and surgery, number of involved tendons, fatty infiltration stage and increasing patient age. This study demonstrates that the level of MSCs present in the greater tuberosity of patients with a rotator cuff tear decreases as a function of a number of clinical factors, including lag time from tear onset to treatment, tear size, number of tears and stage of fatty infiltration, among others. This information may help the practices in using biologic augmentation of a rotator cuff repair.

  19. Symptoms of Pain Do Not Correlate with Rotator Cuff Tear Severity

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Warren R.; Kuhn, John E.; Sanders, Rosemary; An, Qi; Baumgarten, Keith M.; Bishop, Julie Y.; Brophy, Robert H.; Carey, James L.; Holloway, G. Brian; Jones, Grant L.; Ma, C. Benjamin; Marx, Robert G.; McCarty, Eric C.; Poddar, Sourav K.; Smith, Matthew V.; Spencer, Edwin E.; Vidal, Armando F.; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: For many orthopaedic disorders, symptoms correlate with disease severity. The objective of this study was to determine if pain level is related to the severity of rotator cuff disorders. Methods: A cohort of 393 subjects with an atraumatic symptomatic full-thickness rotator-cuff tear treated with physical therapy was studied. Baseline pretreatment data were used to examine the relationship between the severity of rotator cuff disease and pain. Disease severity was determined by evaluating tear size, retraction, superior humeral head migration, and rotator cuff muscle atrophy. Pain was measured on the 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) in the patient-reported American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. A linear multiple regression model was constructed with use of the continuous VAS score as the dependent variable and measures of rotator cuff tear severity and other nonanatomic patient factors as the independent variables. Forty-eight percent of the patients were female, and the median age was sixty-one years. The dominant shoulder was involved in 69% of the patients. The duration of symptoms was less than one month for 8% of the patients, one to three months for 22%, four to six months for 20%, seven to twelve months for 15%, and more than a year for 36%. The tear involved only the supraspinatus in 72% of the patients; the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, with or without the teres minor, in 21%; and only the subscapularis in 7%. Humeral head migration was noted in 16%. Tendon retraction was minimal in 48%, midhumeral in 34%, glenohumeral in 13%, and to the glenoid in 5%. The median baseline VAS pain score was 4.4. Results: Multivariable modeling, controlling for other baseline factors, identified increased comorbidities (p = 0.002), lower education level (p = 0.004), and race (p = 0.041) as the only significant factors associated with pain on presentation. No measure of rotator cuff tear severity correlated with pain (p > 0.25). Conclusions

  20. Rabbit supraspinatus motor endplates are unaffected by a rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Gayton, J Christopher; Rubino, L Joseph; Rich, Mark M; Stouffer, Mark H; Wang, Qingbo; Boivin, Gregory P

    2013-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a major cause of morbidity. Following rotator cuff tears, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration begin in the tissue, limiting repair potential and leading to a higher re-tear rate and a worse functional outcome. We evaluated whether fatty degeneration resulting from a complete supraspinatus tear with retraction is associated with an injury to the suprascapular nerve. Four skeletally mature New Zealand white rabbits were randomized to receive an index procedure on either their right or left shoulder with the opposite shoulder serving as a control. At the index procedure, the supraspinatus tendon was transected at its insertion and allowed to retract. At 3 months, the rabbits were euthanized, and both supraspinatus muscles were harvested. The specimens were then examined with confocal microscopy and histology. Atrophy was grossly visible in all four test muscles, and fatty infiltration was confirmed with osmium tetroxide staining. In all four rabbits, the degree of denervation (p = 0.71) and partial denervation (p = 0.91) was not significantly different between control and experimental muscle. Rotator cuff tear does not affect the motor endplate or innervation status of the supraspinatus. Fatty infiltration occurs independent of denervation of the supraspinatus.

  1. Bone density of the greater tuberosity is decreased in rotator cuff disease with and without full-thickness tears.

    PubMed

    Waldorff, Erik I; Lindner, James; Kijek, Theresa G; Downie, Brian K; Hughes, Richard E; Carpenter, James E; Miller, Bruce S

    2011-09-01

    Despite the high prevalence of rotator cuff disease in the aging adult population, the basic mechanisms initiating the disease are not known. It is known that changes occur at both the bone and tendon after rotator cuff tears. However, no study has focused on early or "pretear" rotator cuff disease states. The purpose of this study was to compare the bone mineral density of the greater tuberosity in normal subjects with that in subjects with impingement syndrome and full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Digital anteroposterior shoulder radiographs were obtained for 3 sex- and age-matched study groups (men, 40-70 years old): normal asymptomatic shoulders (control), rotator cuff disease without full-thickness tears (impingement), and full-thickness rotator cuff tears (n = 39 per group). By use of imaging software, bone mineral densities were determined for the greater tuberosity, the greater tuberosity cortex, the greater tuberosity subcortex, and the cancellous region of the humeral head. The bone mineral density of the greater tuberosity was significantly higher for the normal control subjects compared with subjects with impingement or rotator cuff tears. No differences were found between the two groups of patients with known rotator cuff disease. The greater tuberosity cortex and greater tuberosity subcortex outcome measures were similar. Bone mineral changes are present in the greater tuberosity of shoulders with rotator cuff disease both with and without full-thickness tears. The finding of focal diminished bone mineral density of the greater tuberosity in the absence of rotator cuff tears warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-Versus Double-Row Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair in Massive Tears

    PubMed Central

    Wang, EnZhi; Wang, Liang; Gao, Peng; Li, ZhongJi; Zhou, Xiao; Wang, SongGang

    2015-01-01

    Background It is a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons to treat massive rotator cuff tears. The optimal management of massive rotator cuff tears remains controversial. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare arthroscopic single- versus double-row rotator cuff repair with a larger sample size. Material/Methods Of the subjects with massive rotator cuff tears, 146 were treated using single-row repair, and 102 were treated using double-row repair. Pre- and postoperative functional outcomes and radiographic images were collected. The clinical outcomes were evaluated for a minimum of 2 years. Results No significant differences were shown between the groups in terms of functional outcomes. Regarding the integrity of the tendon, a lower rate of post-treatment retear was observed in patients who underwent double-row repair compared with single-row repair. Conclusions The results suggest that double-row repair is relatively superior in shoulder ROM and the strength of tendon compared with single-row repair. Future studies involving more patients in better-designed randomized controlled trials will be required. PMID:26017641

  3. Distribution and expression of type VI collagen and elastic fibers in human rotator cuff tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Dipti; Grant, Tyler M; Hakimi, Osnat; Carr, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a progressive extracellular matrix change in rotator cuff disease progression. Directly surrounding the cell is the pericellular matrix, where assembly of matrix aggregates typically occurs making it critical in the response of tendon cells to pathological conditions. Studies in animal models have identified type VI collagen, fibrillin-1 and elastin to be located in the pericellular matrix of tendon and contribute in maintaining the structural and biomechanical integrity of tendon. However, there have been no reports on the localization of these proteins in human tendon biopsies. This study aimed to characterize the distribution of these ECM components in human rotator cuffs and gain greater insight into the relationship of pathology to tear size by analyzing the distribution and expression profiles of these ECM components. Confocal microscopy confirmed the localization of these structural molecules in the pericellular matrix of the human rotator cuff. Tendon degeneration led to an increased visibility of these components with a significant disorganization in the distribution of type VI collagen. At the genetic level, an increase in tear size was linked to an increased transcription of type VI collagen and fibrillin-1 with no significant alteration in the elastin levels. This is the first study to confirm the localization of type VI collagen, elastin and fibrillin-1 in the pericellular region of human supraspinatus tendon and assesses the effect of tendon degeneration on these structures, thus providing a useful insight into the composition of human rotator cuff tears which can be instrumental in predicting disease prognosis.

  4. Aging-associated exacerbation in fatty degeneration and infiltration following rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Gumucio, Jonathan P; Korn, Michael A; Saripalli, Anjali L; Flood, Michael D; Phan, Anthony C; Roche, Stuart M; Lynch, Evan B; Claflin, Dennis R; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints and a substantial source of morbidity in elderly patients. Chronic cuff tears are associated with muscle atrophy and an infiltration of fat to the area, a condition known as “fatty degeneration.” To improve the treatment of cuff tears in elderly patients, a greater understanding of the changes in the contractile properties of muscle fibers and the molecular regulation of fatty degeneration is essential. Methods Using a full-thickness, massive supraspinatus and infraspinatus tear model in elderly rats, we measured fiber contractility and determined changes in fiber type distribution that develop 30 days after tear. We also measured the expression of mRNA and miRNA transcripts involved in muscle atrophy, lipid accumulation, and matrix synthesis. We hypothesized that a decrease in specific force of muscle fibers, an accumulation of type IIb fibers, and an upregulation in atrophic, fibrogenic, and inflammatory gene expression would occur in torn cuff muscles. Results Thirty days following tear, we observed a reduction in muscle fiber force and an induction of RNA molecules that regulate atrophy, fibrosis, lipid accumulation, inflammation and macrophage recruitment. A marked accumulation of advanced glycation end products, and a significant accretion of macrophages in areas of fat accumulation were observed. Conclusions The extent of degenerative changes in old rats was greater than that observed in adults. Additionally, we identified that the ectopic fat accumulation that occurs in chronic cuff tears does not occur by activation of canonical intramyocellular lipid storage and synthesis pathways. PMID:23790676

  5. Current evidence for effectiveness of interventions to treat rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Huisstede, Bionka M A; Koes, Bart W; Gebremariam, Lukas; Keijsers, Ellen; Verhaar, Jan A N

    2011-06-01

    In this systematic review we assessed effectiveness of non-surgical and (post)surgical interventions for symptomatic rotator cuff tears (RotCuffTear). The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and Pedro were searched for relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two reviewers independently selected relevant studies, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. Three Cochrane reviews (7 RCTs) and 14 RCTs were included (3 non-surgery, 10 surgery, 8 post-surgery). For small or medium RotCufftears, moderate evidence was found in favour of surgery versus physiotherapy in mid- and long-term. In surgery, tendon-to-bone fixation with one metal suture anchor loaded with double sutures (TB) was more effective (moderate evidence) than a side-to-side repair with permanent sutures (SS) in the mid- and long-term; limited evidence for effectiveness was found in favour of debridement versus anchor replacement and suture repair of the type II SLAP tear in the long-term. Further, no evidence was found in favour of any non-surgical, surgical or post-surgical intervention. In conclusion, although surgery seems to give better results compared to non-surgery and TB is more effective than SS in rotator cuff repair (RCR), it remains hard to draw firm evidence-based conclusions for effectiveness of non-surgical or (post)surgical interventions to treat RotCuffTears. More research is clearly needed.

  6. Outcomes of Combined Bone Marrow Stimulation and Patch Augmentation for Massive Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Pil; Chung, Seok Won; Kim, Jae Yoon; Lee, Byung Joo; Kim, Hyung-Sub; Kim, Ju Eun; Cho, Jung Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The high failure rate after surgical repair of massive rotator cuff tears is a consistent problem. To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with bone marrow stimulation and patch augmentation in patients with massive rotator cuff tears. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. This study included 21 patients who underwent bone marrow stimulation and patch augmentation (group 1) and 54 patients who underwent conventional repair (group 2) for massive rotator cuff tears. Postoperative clinical outcomes were evaluated based on visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, simple shoulder test (SST), University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Constant, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores at baseline, 1 year postoperatively, and final follow-up. Anatomic outcomes were evaluated by using postoperative magnetic resonance imaging at 1 year after surgery. No significant differences in demographic characteristics and baseline data were observed between groups 1 and 2. Clinical symptoms were significantly improved at the final follow-up in both groups (P < .001). At the final follow-up, no significant differences were found in VAS pain (P = .676), SST (P = .598), UCLA (P = .100), Constant (P = .469), or ASES (P = .880) scores. However, the retear rate was lower in group 1 (4/21, 19.0%) than in group 2 (25/54, 46.3%) (P = .036), and the medial-row failure rate (type 2 retears) was much lower in group 1 (0/4, 0%) than in group 2 (18/25, 72.0%) (P = .014). Concomitant bone marrow stimulation and patch augmentation significantly reduced retear and medial-row failure rates in the arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Arthroscopic subacromial decompression in the treatment of full thickness rotator cuff tears: a 3- to 6-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zvijac, J E; Levy, H J; Lemak, L J

    1994-10-01

    Arthroscopic subacromial decompression has become an accepted treatment for patients with impingement syndrome; however, its use for full thickness rotator cuff tears continues to be controversial. The purpose of this study is to determine if the results of arthroscopic subacromial decompression alone for full thickness rotator cuff tears deteriorate at long-term follow-up. We reevaluated all 25 patients with full thickness rotator cuff tears who underwent arthroscopic subacromial decompression from our original study group. Based on the University of California at Los Angeles shoulder rating, 68% of patients were rated as excellent or good at the present mean follow-up of 45.8 months (range 36-72 months). This represents a significant decrease from our initial report of 84% satisfactory results at a mean follow-up of 24.6 months. There was a significant decrease in ratings with regard to pain and function; however, no significant deterioration was noted with regard to motion and strength. Two additional patients required open rotator cuff repair since the time of initial follow-up for a total of six. Large and massive rotator cuff tears fared worse over time as compared with small and moderate size tears. Although 1- to 3-year results of arthroscopic subacromial decompression and rotator cuff debridement were favorable, the long-term follow-up demonstrates deterioration of results. We therefore cannot support the use of decompression and debridement alone in the treatment of repairable full thickness rotator cuff tears.

  8. Correlation of clinical symptoms and function with fatty degeneration of infraspinatus in rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Seo, Joong-Bae; Yoo, Jae-Sung; Jang, Ho-Seong; Kim, Jung-Sang

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation of clinical symptoms and function with the fatty degeneration of the infraspinatus in rotator cuff tears. A total of 152 patients who had rotator cuff tears was enroled retrospectively. The infraspinatus muscle was divided into two compartments according to the bundle of fibres, and the patients were divided into four groups that reflected fatty degeneration. The muscle strength of the shoulder and clinical symptoms was investigated. The severity of the rotator cuff tear and retraction increased with fatty degeneration of both the superior and inferior parts in the infraspinatus muscles. Because of the increasing fatty degeneration of the superior part of the infraspinatus, the shoulder strength index (SSI) of abduction had poor results. Additionally, as the fatty degeneration of the inferior part of the infraspinatus increased, the SSI of abduction and external rotation had worse results. Fatty degeneration of the superior part of the infraspinatus has no correlation with the power of external rotation but has a negative correlation with the power of abduction. Moreover, fatty degeneration of the inferior part of the infraspinatus has a negative correlation with both the power of abduction and external rotation. Retrospective study, Level IV.

  9. Morphology of large rotator cuff tears and of the rotator cable and long-term shoulder disability in conservatively treated elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David A; Miller, Bruce; Brandon, Catherine; Gandikota, Girish; Jacobson, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the morphology of the rotator cuff tendon tears and long-term shoulder disability in conservatively treated elderly patients and determine if an association exists between these factors. Assessment of the rotator cuff tendon tear dimensions and depth, rotator interval involvement, rotator cable morphology and location, and rotator cuff muscle status was carried out on magnetic resonance studies of 24 elderly patients treated nonoperatively for rotator cuff tendon tears. Long-term shoulder function was measured using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index; Disabilities of the Shoulder, Arm, and Hand questionnaire; and the American Shoulder Elbow Self-assessment form, and a correlation between the outcome scores and morphologic magnetic resonance findings was carried out. The majority of large rotator cuff tendon tears are limited to the rotator cuff crescent. Medial rotator interval involvement (isolated or in association with lateral rotator interval involvement) was significantly associated with WORC physical symptoms total (P = 0.01), WORC lifestyle total (P = 0.04), percentage of all WORC domains (P = 0.03), and American Shoulder Elbow Self-assessment total (P = 0.01), with medial rotator interval involvement associated with an inferior outcome. Medial rotator interval tears are associated with long-term inferior outcome scores in conservatively treated elderly patients with large rotator cuff tendon tears.

  10. Hypertrophy of the extra-articular tendon of the long head of biceps correlates with the location and size of a rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Sugaya, H; Matsuki, K; Miyauchi, H; Matsumoto, M; Tokai, M; Onishi, K; Hoshika, S; Ueda, Y

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess hypertrophy of the extra-articular tendon of the long head of biceps (LHB) in patients with a rotator cuff tear. The study involved 638 shoulders in 334 patients (175 men, 159 women, mean age 62.6 years; 25 to 81) with unilateral symptomatic rotator cuff tears. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the LHB tendon in the bicipital groove was measured pre-operatively in both shoulders using ultrasound. There were 154 asymptomatic rotator cuff tears in the contralateral shoulder. Comparisons were made between those with a symptomatic tear, an asymptomatic tear and those with no rotator cuff tear. In the affected shoulders, the CSAs were compared in relation to the location and size of the rotator cuff tear. The mean CSA was 21.0 mm(2) (4 to 71) in those with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear, 19.9 mm(2) (4 to 75) in those with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear and 14.1 mm(2) (5 to 43) in those with no rotator cuff tear. The mean CSA in patients with both symptomatic and asymptomatic rotator cuff tears was significantly larger than in those with no rotator cuff tear (p < 0.001). In the affected shoulders, there were significant differences between patients with more than a medium sized posterosuperior cuff tear and those with an antero-superior cuff tear. Regardless of the symptoms, there was significant hypertrophy of the extra-articular LHB tendon in patients with a rotator cuff tear. The values were significantly related to the size of the tear. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:806-11. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  11. Triglycerides and total serum cholesterol in rotator cuff tears: do they matter?

    PubMed

    Longo, U G; Franceschi, F; Spiezia, F; Forriol, F; Maffulli, N; Denaro, V

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the serum triglycerides and total serum cholesterol levels in patients with rotator cuff tear were determined. Frequency-matched case-control study. Setting University teaching hospital. 240 individuals who were operated on at our institution were included in the study. 120 patients (45 men and 75 women; mean age 64.86 years, range 40 to 83 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear were included in group 1. 120 patients (45 men and 75 women; mean age 63.91 years, range 38 to 78 years) who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy for a meniscal tear and had no evidence of shoulder pathology were included in group 2 (control group). These patients were frequency-matched by age (within 3 years) and sex with patients of group 1. Measurement of serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations. When comparing the two groups, there was no difference either in serum triglyceride concentration or total serum cholesterol concentration. There appears to be no association between serum triglyceride concentration and total serum cholesterol concentration in rotator cuff tears.

  12. Stromal vascular stem cell treatment decreases muscle fibrosis following chronic rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Gumucio, Jonathan P; Flood, Michael D; Roche, Stuart M; Sugg, Kristoffer B; Momoh, Adeyiza O; Kosnik, Paul E; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    Rotator cuff injuries are associated with atrophy and fat infiltration into the muscle, commonly referred to as "fatty degeneration." As the poor function of chronically torn muscles may limit recovery after surgical repair, there is considerable interest in finding therapies to enhance muscle regeneration. Stromal vascular fraction stem cells (SVFCs) can improve muscle regeneration in other chronic injury states, and our objective was to evaluate the ability of SVFCs to reduce fibrosis and fat accumulation, and enhance muscle fibre specific force production after chronic rotator cuff tear. Chronic supraspinatus tears were induced in adult immunodeficient rats, and repaired one month following tear. Rats received vehicle control, or injections of 3 × 10(5) or 3 × 10(6) human SVFCs into supraspinatus muscles. Two weeks following repair, we detected donor human DNA and protein in SVFC treated muscles. There was a 40 % reduction in fibrosis in the treated groups compared to controls (p = 0.03 for 3 × 10(5), p = 0.04 for 3 × 10(6)), and no differences between groups for lipid content or force production were observed. As there has been much interest in the use of stem cell-based therapies in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine, the reduction in fibrosis and trend towards an improvement in single fiber contractility suggest that SVFCs may be beneficial to enhance the treatment and recovery of patients with chronic rotator cuff tears.

  13. Epigenetic regulation of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Caires Dos Santos, Leonardo; Martins de Oliveira, Adrielle; Santoro Belangero, Paulo; Antônio Figueiredo, Eduardo; Cohen, Carina; de Seixas Alves, Felipe; Hiromi Yanaguizawa, Wânia; Vicente Andreoli, Carlos; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno; Cardoso Smith, Marília; de Seixas Alves, Maria Teresa; Cohen, Moises

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tear is a common orthopedic condition. Metalloproteinases (MMP) and their inhibitors (TIMP) seem to play a role in the development of joint injuries and in the failure of tissue healing. However, the mechanisms of regulation of gene expression in tendons are still unknown. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and microRNAs regulation, are involved in the dynamic control of gene expression. Here, the mRNA expression and DNA methylation status of MMPs (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, MMP13, and MMP14) and TIMPs (TIMP1-3) and the expression of miR-29 family members in ruptured supraspinatus tendons were compared with non-injured tendons of individuals without this lesion. Additionally, the gene expression and methylation status at the edge of the ruptured tendon were compared with macroscopically non-injured rotator cuff tendon samples from the anterior and posterior regions of patients with tendon tears. Moreover, the possible associations between the molecular alterations and the clinical and histologic characteristics were investigated. Dysregulated expression and DNA methylation of MMP and TIMP genes were found across the rotator cuff tendon samples of patients with supraspinatus tears. These alterations were influenced at least in part by age at surgery, sex, smoking habit, tear size, and duration of symptoms. Alterations in the studied MMP and TIMP genes may contribute to the presence of microcysts, fissures, necrosis, and neovascularization in tendons and may thus be involved in the tendon healing process. In conclusion, MMPs and their inhibitors are regulated by epigenetic modifications and may play a role in rotator cuff tears.

  14. Epigenetic regulation of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Caires dos Santos, Leonardo; Martins de Oliveira, Adrielle; Santoro Belangero, Paulo; Antônio Figueiredo, Eduardo; Cohen, Carina; de Seixas Alves, Felipe; Hiromi Yanaguizawa, Wânia; Vicente Andreoli, Carlos; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno; Cardoso Smith, Marília; de Seixas Alves, Maria Teresa; Cohen, Moises

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tear is a common orthopedic condition. Metalloproteinases (MMP) and their inhibitors (TIMP) seem to play a role in the development of joint injuries and in the failure of tissue healing. However, the mechanisms of regulation of gene expression in tendons are still unknown. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and microRNAs regulation, are involved in the dynamic control of gene expression. Here, the mRNA expression and DNA methylation status of MMPs (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, MMP13, and MMP14) and TIMPs (TIMP1-3) and the expression of miR-29 family members in ruptured supraspinatus tendons were compared with non-injured tendons of individuals without this lesion. Additionally, the gene expression and methylation status at the edge of the ruptured tendon were compared with macroscopically non-injured rotator cuff tendon samples from the anterior and posterior regions of patients with tendon tears. Moreover, the possible associations between the molecular alterations and the clinical and histologic characteristics were investigated. Dysregulated expression and DNA methylation of MMP and TIMP genes were found across the rotator cuff tendon samples of patients with supraspinatus tears. These alterations were influenced at least in part by age at surgery, sex, smoking habit, tear size, and duration of symptoms. Alterations in the studied MMP and TIMP genes may contribute to the presence of microcysts, fissures, necrosis, and neovascularization in tendons and may thus be involved in the tendon healing process. In conclusion, MMPs and their inhibitors are regulated by epigenetic modifications and may play a role in rotator cuff tears. PMID:28902861

  15. Postoperative outcomes of arthroscopic subacromial decompression for rotator cuff tear with shoulder stiffness.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Shinichi; Otoshi, Kenichi; Konno, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    Some patients with rotator cuff tear have shoulder stiffness preoperatively. Concomitant preoperative shoulder stiffness may affect postoperative outcomes of arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) for rotator cuff tear. The purpose of this study was to compare postoperative outcomes for ASD between rotator cuff tear patients with and without preoperative shoulder stiffness and to analyze the serial change in functional scores, range of motion (ROM), and pain intensity of the 2 groups after operation. 60 shoulders of 58 patients who underwent ASD for rotator cuff tear were studied. Arthroscopic release was performed for the stiffness group. The results were assessed before surgery and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery, and the results in the stiffness group and non-stiffness group were compared. No differences in serial changes for postoperative outcomes of ASD were seen in terms of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association shoulder scoring system (JOA scores) and the visual analog scale (VAS scores) for pain at night and pain during motion between the stiffness group and non-stiffness group. However, compared to the non-stiffness group, forward flexion and abduction angles were significantly smaller for the stiffness group at 1 and 3 months after surgery. External rotation and internal rotation angles were significantly smaller at 1 month after surgery for the stiffness group than for the non-stiffness group. Preoperative shoulder stiffness does not affect improvement of postoperative JOA scores and VAS scores of ASD. When measured 6 months after surgery, ROM in the stiffness group and the non-stiffness group was similar.

  16. Interposition Dermal Matrix Xenografts: A Successful Alternative to Traditional Treatment of Massive Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Julie A; Zgonis, Miltiadis H; Rickert, Kathleen D; Bradley, Kendall E; Kremen, Thomas J; Boggess, Blake R; Toth, Alison P

    2017-05-01

    Management of massive rotator cuff tears in shoulders without glenohumeral arthritis remains problematic for surgeons. Repairs of massive rotator cuff tears have failure rates of 20% to 94% at 1 to 2 years postoperatively as demonstrated with arthrography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, inconsistent outcomes have been reported with debridement alone of massive rotator cuff tears, and limitations have been seen with other current methods of operative intervention, including arthroplasty and tendon transfers. The use of interposition porcine acellular dermal matrix xenograft in patients with massive rotator cuff tears will result in improved subjective outcomes, postoperative pain, function, range of motion, and strength. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Sixty patients (61 shoulders) were prospectively observed for a mean of 50.3 months (range, 24-63 months) after repair of massive rotator cuff tears with porcine acellular dermal matrix xenograft as an interposition graft. Subjective outcome data were obtained with visual analog scale for pain score (0-10, 0 = no pain) and Modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (MASES) score. Active range of motion in flexion, external rotation, and internal rotation were recorded. Strength in the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles was assessed manually on a 10-point scale and by handheld dynamometer. Ultrasound was used to assess the integrity of the repair during latest follow-up. Mean visual analog scale pain score decreased from 4.0 preoperatively to 1.0 postoperatively ( P < .001). Mean active forward flexion improved from 140.7° to 160.4° ( P < .001), external rotation at 0° of abduction from 55.6° to 70.1° ( P = .001), and internal rotation at 90° of abduction from 52.0° to 76.2° ( P < .001). Supraspinatus manual strength increased from 7.7 to 8.8 ( P < .001) and infraspinatus manual strength from 7.7 to 9.3 ( P < .001). Mean dynamometric strength in forward flexion was 77.7 N

  17. Tenocytes of chronic rotator cuff tendon tears can be stimulated by platelet-released growth factors.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Sven; Alini, Mauro; Benneker, Lorin M; Milz, Stefan; Boileau, Pascal; Zumstein, Matthias A

    2013-03-01

    Bone-to-tendon healing after rotator cuff repairs is mainly impaired by poor tissue quality. The tenocytes of chronic rotator cuff tendon tears are not able to synthesize normal fibrocartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM). We hypothesized that in the presence of platelet-released growth factors (PRGF), tenocytes from chronically retracted rotator cuff tendons proliferate and synthesize the appropriate ECM proteins. Tenocytes from 8 patients with chronic rotator cuff tears were cultured for 4 weeks in 2 different media: standard medium (Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media + 10% fetal calf serum + 1% nonessential amino acids + 0.5 μg/mL ascorbic acid) and media with an additional 10% PRGF. Cell proliferation was assessed at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Messenger (m)RNA levels of collagens I, II, and X, decorin, biglycan, and aggrecan were analyzed using real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunocytochemistry was also performed. The proliferation rate of tenocytes was significantly higher at all time points when cultured with PRGF. At 21 days, the mRNA levels for collagens I, II, and X, decorin, aggrecan, and biglycan were significantly higher in the PRGF group. The mRNA data were confirmed at protein level by immunocytochemistry. PRGFs enhance tenocyte proliferation in vitro and promote synthesis of ECM to levels similar to those found with insertion of the normal human rotator cuffs. Biologic augmentation of repaired rotator cuffs with PRGF may enhance the properties of the repair tissue. However, further studies are needed to determine if application of PRGF remains safe and effective in long-term clinical studies. Basic Science Study, Cell Biology. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic Degeneration Leads to Poor Healing of Repaired Massive Rotator Cuff Tears in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Killian, Megan L.; Cavinatto, Leonardo M.; Ward, Samuel R.; Havlioglu, Necat; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Galatz, Leesa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic rotator cuff tears present a clinical challenge, often with poor outcomes after surgical repair. Degenerative changes to the muscle, tendon, and bone are thought to hinder healing after surgical repair; additionally, the ability to overcome degenerative changes after surgical repair remains unclear. Purpose/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to evaluate healing outcomes of muscle, tendon, and bone after tendon repair in a model of chronic rotator cuff disease and to compare these outcomes to those of acute rotator cuff injuries and repair. The hypothesis was that degenerative rotator cuff changes associated with chronic multitendon tears and muscle unloading would lead to poor structural and mechanical outcomes after repair compared with acute injuries and repair. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Chronic rotator cuff injuries, induced via detachment of the supraspinatus (SS) and infraspinatus (IS) tendons and injection of botulinum toxin A into the SS and IS muscle bellies, were created in the shoulders of rats. After 8 weeks of injury, tendons were surgically reattached to the humeral head, and an acute, dual-tendon injury and repair was performed on the contralateral side. After 8 weeks of healing, muscles were examined histologically, and tendon-to-bone samples were examined microscopically, histologically, and biomechanically and via micro–computed tomography. Results All repairs were intact at the time of dissection, with no evidence of gapping or ruptures. Tendon-to-bone healing after repair in our chronic injury model led to reduced bone quality and morphological disorganization at the repair site compared with acute injuries and repair. SS and IS muscles were atrophic at 8 weeks after repair of chronic injuries, indicating incomplete recovery after repair, whereas SS and IS muscles exhibited less atrophy and degeneration in the acute injury group at 8 weeks after repair. After chronic injuries and repair, humeral

  19. Chronic Degeneration Leads to Poor Healing of Repaired Massive Rotator Cuff Tears in Rats.

    PubMed

    Killian, Megan L; Cavinatto, Leonardo M; Ward, Samuel R; Havlioglu, Necat; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Galatz, Leesa M

    2015-10-01

    Chronic rotator cuff tears present a clinical challenge, often with poor outcomes after surgical repair. Degenerative changes to the muscle, tendon, and bone are thought to hinder healing after surgical repair; additionally, the ability to overcome degenerative changes after surgical repair remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate healing outcomes of muscle, tendon, and bone after tendon repair in a model of chronic rotator cuff disease and to compare these outcomes to those of acute rotator cuff injuries and repair. The hypothesis was that degenerative rotator cuff changes associated with chronic multitendon tears and muscle unloading would lead to poor structural and mechanical outcomes after repair compared with acute injuries and repair. Controlled laboratory study. Chronic rotator cuff injuries, induced via detachment of the supraspinatus (SS) and infraspinatus (IS) tendons and injection of botulinum toxin A into the SS and IS muscle bellies, were created in the shoulders of rats. After 8 weeks of injury, tendons were surgically reattached to the humeral head, and an acute, dual-tendon injury and repair was performed on the contralateral side. After 8 weeks of healing, muscles were examined histologically, and tendon-to-bone samples were examined microscopically, histologically, and biomechanically and via micro-computed tomography. All repairs were intact at the time of dissection, with no evidence of gapping or ruptures. Tendon-to-bone healing after repair in our chronic injury model led to reduced bone quality and morphological disorganization at the repair site compared with acute injuries and repair. SS and IS muscles were atrophic at 8 weeks after repair of chronic injuries, indicating incomplete recovery after repair, whereas SS and IS muscles exhibited less atrophy and degeneration in the acute injury group at 8 weeks after repair. After chronic injuries and repair, humeral heads had decreased total mineral density and an altered

  20. Semitendinosus and gracilis free muscle-tendon graft for repair of massive rotator cuff tears: surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Antonio; Bottegoni, Carlo; Milano, Giuseppe; Riccio, Michele; Dei Giudici, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Massive rotator cuff tears are difficult to treat surgically due to retraction, degeneration and fraying of the ends of torn tendons, severe fatty infiltration and atrophy of the respective muscles. Procedures developed to close the gap between the rotator cuff and the greater tuberosity of the humerus, such as soft tissue release may be inadequate for large tears. Human or porcine dermal allografts still have uncertain benefits, and tendon transfers seem to be associated with poor outcomes, donor site morbidity and altered mechanics. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has limited durability and is not indicated in young patients with high functional demands. We developed a new technique for repairing massive rotator cuff tears by semitendinosus and gracilis myotendinous grafting. This novel therapeutic option allows massive rotator cuff tears to be repaired using autologous material that is adequate and adaptable, making it possible to cover any width of defect. The technique is low-invasive and not technically demanding, with minimal donor site morbidity.

  1. Association of suprascapular neuropathy with rotator cuff tendon tears and fatty degeneration.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lewis L; Boykin, Robert E; Lin, Albert; Warner, Jon J P

    2014-03-01

    The mutual influence of suprascapular neuropathy (SSN) and rotator cuff tendon tears on muscle pathology is unclear. Debate continues as to how retracted cuff tears can lead to SSN and whether SSN or tendon retraction causes muscle fatty degeneration. A cohort of 87 patients suspected of having SSN was identified from a prospectively collected registry. All underwent electromyography/nerve conduction velocity study (EMG/NCV) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their shoulders. EMG/NCVs were performed and interpreted by electrodiagnosticians, and MRI cuff tendon quality and muscle fatty degeneration were interpreted by two surgeons. Out of 87 patients, 32 patients had SSN on EMG/NCV, and 55 patients had normal suprascapular nerve. MRI showed that 59 of 87 supraspinatus had no fatty degeneration or mild fatty streaks (Goutallier grades 0 and 1), and 28 patients had significant fatty degeneration (grades 2-4); infraspinatus fatty degeneration was similar. Review of supraspinatus tendon showed 41 patients with intact tendons or partial tears, and 46 with full tears. Infraspinatus tendons pathology was similar. Tendon pathology and fatty degeneration were related (P-value<.001), with more severe tendon pathology leading to higher degree of fatty degeneration. Infraspinatus tendon tears were associated with SSN (P = .01), but SSN was not related to fatty degeneration of either supraspinatus or infraspinatus (P-values .65, .54). The exact association and etiology of SSN in patients with rotator cuff pathology remain unclear. SSN is correlated to tendon tear size, but it does not have significant influence on fatty degeneration of either supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Operative management of partial- and full-thickness rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Francesco; Papalia, Rocco; Palumbo, Alessio; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Repair of rotator cuff tears (RCT) is challenging. In RC tears, a partial (PTRCTs) or full (RCTs) discontinuation of one or more of the muscles or tendons and may occur as a result of traumatic injury or degeneration over a period of years. Many factors seem to contribute to the final outcome and a considerable number of variations during the decision-making process of patients with RCTs exist. Accurate diagnosis is fundamental to guide correct management, and the tear pattern should be carefully evaluated to plan the appropriate repair. Both non-operative and operative treatments are used to relieve pain and restore movement and function of the shoulder. Different surgical options are available. The present review describes the current evidence about diagnosis and management of partial and complete rotator tears.

  3. Performance After Rotator Cuff Tear and Operative Treatment: A Case-Control Study of Major League Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Namdari, Surena; Baldwin, Keith; Ahn, Albert; Huffman, G. Russell; Sennett, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Little is known about pitching performance or lack of it among Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who undergo operative treatment of rotator cuff tears. Objective: To assess pitching performance outcomes in MLB players who needed operative treatment of rotator cuff tears and to compare performance in these athletes with that in a control group of MLB players. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Publicly available player profiles, press releases, and team injury reports. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-three MLB pitchers with documented surgery to treat rotator cuff tears and 117 control pitchers who did not have documented rotator cuff tears were identified. Main Outcome Measure(s): Major League Baseball pitching attrition and performance variables. Results: Players who underwent rotator cuff surgery were no more likely not to play than control players. Performance variables of players who underwent surgery improved after surgery but never returned to baseline preoperative status. Players who needed rotator cuff surgery typically were more experienced and had better earned run averages than control players. Conclusions: Pitchers who had symptomatic rotator cuff tears that necessitated operative treatment tended to decline gradually in performance leading up to their operations and to improve gradually over the next 3 seasons. In contrast to what we expected, they did not have a greater attrition rate than their control counterparts; however, their performances did not return to preoperative levels over the course of the study. PMID:21669100

  4. Repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in patients aged younger than 55 years.

    PubMed

    MacKechnie, Michael A K; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Wasserstein, David; Theodoropoulos, John S; Henry, Patrick; Dwyer, Tim

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence regarding clinical outcomes after open or arthroscopic repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in young patients. Medline, PubMed, and Embase were reviewed to find all studies examining full-thickness rotator cuff repairs in patients aged younger than 55 years and with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up. We found 7 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The mean patient age was 41.7 years (range, 16.2 to 54 years), and the mean time from injury was 66.1 months. Eighty-one percent of the included patients had a traumatic tear. The rotator cuff repair was supplemented by acromioplasty in 96.6% of patients, distal clavicle resection in 34.6%, and biceps tenodesis in 16.1%. Postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment was the most commonly reported outcome score, with a mean postoperative score of 82.0 (4 studies). Improvement was shown in all studies that reported on postoperative strength. All studies that assessed pain showed an improvement in the postoperative setting. Overall, 82% of the shoulders had satisfactory results. Full-thickness rotator cuff tears in patients aged younger than 55 years are mostly traumatic in origin and respond well to open and arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, as shown by good patient-reported outcomes, significant pain relief, improvement in strength, and high satisfaction postoperatively. Level IV, systematic review of Level IV studies. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic Review: What Surgical Technique Provides the Best Outcome for Symptomatic Partial Articular-Sided Rotator Cuff Tears?

    PubMed Central

    Bollier, Matthew; Shea, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There is no consensus in the literature regarding the optimal surgical treatment of symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears. We attempted to determine the optimal surgical treatment for partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears through a systematic review of appropriate studies. Methods Medline®, PubMed, Ovid, and the cochrane register of controlled trials were searched for all studies published between January 1991 to March 2010 that used the key words “shoulder”, “partial rotator cuff tear”, “PASTA”, “articularsided rotator cuff tear”, “incomplete rotator cuff tear”, “arthroscopic” and “repair”. Inclusion criteria were studies (Level I to IV) that reported clinical outcomes in patients who had arthroscopic evaluation and arthroscopic or mini-open treatment of a symptomatic partial articular-sided rotator cuff tear. One of three surgical treatments was used: debridement with or without acromioplasty; transtendon arthroscopic repair; or tear completion with repair. Exclusion criteria included studies with over 50% overhead throwers or athletes, studies that involved an open approach to the rotator cuff without arthroscopy, and data presented in technical notes or review papers. Data abstracted from the studies included patient demographics, tear characteristics, surgical procedure(s), and clinical outcomes. Results Of 588 studies involving partial rotator cuff tears, 14 studies were identified which met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. All studies were Level IV retrospective case-series studies. Seven studies reported outcomes after rotator cuff debridement. Tear completion and repair was performed in three studies. Transtendon repair of a partial articular-sided rotator cuff tear was performed in three studies. Although different outcome measures were used, each study reported subjective and objective improvement postoperatively. One study compared outcomes in patients who underwent arthroscopic debridement versus another

  6. The effect of tear size and nerve injury on rotator cuff muscle fatty degeneration in a rodent animal model.

    PubMed

    Kim, H Mike; Galatz, Leesa M; Lim, Chanteak; Havlioglu, Necat; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-07-01

    Irreversible muscle changes after rotator cuff tears is a well-known negative prognostic factor after shoulder surgery. Currently, little is known about the pathomechanism of fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles after chronic cuff tears. The purposes of this study were to (1) develop a rodent animal model of chronic rotator cuff tears that can reproduce fatty degeneration of the cuff muscles seen clinically, (2) describe the effects of tear size and concomitant nerve injury on muscle degeneration, and (3) evaluate the changes in gene expression of relevant myogenic and adipogenic factors after rotator cuff tears using the animal model. Rotator cuff tears were created in rodents with and without transection of the suprascapular nerve. The supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were examined at 2, 8, and 16 weeks after injury for histologic evidence of fatty degeneration and expression of myogenic and adipogenic genes. Histologic analysis revealed adipocytes, intramuscular fat globules, and intramyocellular fat droplets in the tenotomized and neurotomized supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. Changes increased with time and were most severe in the muscles with combined tenotomy and neurotomy. Adipogenic and myogenic transcription factors and markers were upregulated in muscles treated with tenotomy or tenotomy combined with neurotomy compared with normal muscles. The rodent animal model described in this study produces fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles similar to human muscles after chronic cuff tears. The severity of changes was associated with tear size and concomitant nerve injury. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of the Postoperative Appearance of the Rotator Cuff Tendon Using Serial Sonography After Arthroscopic Repair of a Rotator Cuff Tear.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Choi, Ja-Young; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kang, Yusuhn; Park, Jina; Kim, Sae Hoon; Kang, Heung Sik

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate serial changes in sonographic findings of a rotator cuff tendon after rotator cuff repair. Sixty-five arthroscopically repaired rotator cuff tears (43 full-thickness tears and 22 partial-thickness tears) were retrospectively included in this study. Serial sonographic examinations were performed at 5 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. The sonographic findings of the repaired tendon were assessed for a recurrent tear, tendon thickness, morphologic tendon characteristics, vascularity, and bursitis at each time point. Four recurrent tears occurred within 3 months of surgery. The postoperative tendon thickness decreased from 5 weeks to 6 months after surgery (P = .001). There were significant changes in the morphologic tendon characteristics, including the echo texture, fibrillar pattern, and surface irregularity of the repaired tendon, from 5 weeks to 6 months after surgery (P < .001). Additionally, subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis and the vascularity of the repaired tendon decreased postoperatively over time. Serial sonography after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was useful for monitoring the postoperative changes in a repaired tendon. The morphologic appearance of the repaired tendon and peritendinous soft tissue changes improved over time and nearly normalized within 6 months of surgery. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Gender, ethnicity and smoking affect pain and function in patients with rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Maher, Anthony; Leigh, Warren; Brick, Matt; Young, Simon; Millar, James; Walker, Cameron; Caughey, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This study is a collation of baseline demographic characteristics of those presenting for rotator cuff repair in New Zealand, and exploration of associations with preoperative function and pain. Data were obtained from the New Zealand Rotator Cuff Registry; a multicentre, nationwide prospective cohort of rotator cuff repairs undertaken from 1 March 2009 until 31 December 2010. A total of 1383 patients were included in the study. This required complete demographic information, preoperative Flex-SF (functional score) and pain scores. Following univariate analysis, a multivariate model was used. The average age was 58 years (69% males and 11% smokers). New Zealand Europeans made up 90% and Maori 5%. The average preoperative Flex-SF was significantly lower (poorer function) in those over 65 years, females, smokers and Maori, in the non-dominant patients, using a multivariate model. Average preoperative pain scores were significantly worse (higher scores) in females, Maori, Polynesians, smokers, using a multivariate model. This is the largest reported prospective cohort of patients presenting for rotator cuff surgery. Results can be used to understand the effect of rotator cuff tears on the different patients, for example Maori patients who are under-represented, present younger, with more pain and poorer function. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears Without Arthritis Treated With Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Mandeep S.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Irreparable rotator cuff (RC) tears without arthritis is a challenging clinical problem in young adults. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) has been proposed as one of the surgical treatment options for this condition. Methods: In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the role of RTSA for the management of irreparable RC tears without arthritis based on authors personal experience and available scientific literature. Results: Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) is a constrained arthroplasty system that can allow the deltoid and remaining rotator cuff to substitute for the lost function of irreparable RC. Furthermore, the pain relief is consistent with often a dramatic improvement in patient comfort, shoulder function and stability. In patients with pseudoparalysis of the shoulder without advanced arthritis, RTSA effectively restores forward elevation above the shoulder but may not dramatically improve external (ER) or internal rotation (IR). However, due to concerns over implant longevity, caution has to be exercised when using RTSA for symptomatic irreparable RC tears with preserved active forward elevation (AFE) and in patients less than 65 years of age. Conclusion: RTSA is a reasonable surgical option for irreparable rotator cuff repair without arthritis. However, caution should be exercised when offering RTSA to young patients and patient without pseudoparalysis because they can have a higher complication and dissatisfaction rate. In addition, longevity of RTSA and subsequent need for revision surgery remains a significant concern in this population. PMID:28539980

  10. Optimal shoulder immobilization postures following surgical repair of rotator cuff tears: a simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Monique; Tétreault, Patrice; Allard, Paul; Begon, Mickaël

    2013-08-01

    There is a high incidence of retear following surgical repair of rotator cuff tears. Postoperative shoulder immobilization is commonly prescribed to protect the repair; but there is no consensus on the best immobilization postures. A generic musculoskeletal model of the shoulder was used to simulate postoperative immobilization of full thickness rotator cuff tears involving the supraspinatus only and the supraspinatus concomitantly with the infraspinatus or subscapularis. Optimal immobilization postures, which simultaneously minimized the stresses in the repaired tendons and the angle of humerus elevation, were obtained. For isolated supraspinatus tears, elevation of the humerus in planes close to the scapular plane was suggested. When the infraspinatus was also involved, planes posterior to the scapular plane were suggested; while, if the subscapularis was also involved, planes anterior to the scapular plane and internal rotation were suggested. The required thoracohumeral elevation angles ranged from 58° to 109°, depending on the tear length and the muscles involved. The optimal postures reduced the stresses in the repaired tendons by between 29% and 90%. Prescription of immobilization posture for a patient should be based on the conditions of the tear repaired. Appropriate choice of immobilization posture will reduce the stress in the repair, and as such has the potential to reduce retear rates. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined arthroscopic tenodesis of the long head of biceps and rotator cuff repair in antero-superior cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Uschok, S; Herrmann, S; Pauly, S; Perka, C; Greiner, S

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the functional and cosmetic results following fixation of the long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon at the antero-medial footprint anchor of a rotator cuff reconstruction, using the "lasso-loop" technique. 39 patients with a mean age of 62 years with a rotator cuff tear and associated lesion of the LHB tendon were included in this study. Besides rotator cuff repair in an arthroscopic anchor technique, all patients received additional LHB tenodeses using the lasso-loop technique. Clinical follow-up consisted of the Constant score (CS), LHB score, DASH score, and WORC index. Relevant sub-items, such as elbow flexion strength and cosmesis, were compared to the contralateral arm. At an average follow-up of 22 months (11-39 months), the CS resulted in an average of 81 points. The biceps-specific LHB score showed a mean value of 89 points. The analysis of the DASH score showed an average of 16.9 points and the analysis of the WORC index showed an average result of 79.7 %. Distalization of the biceps muscle was objectively in three cases (7.7 %) (as observed by the examiner) and subjectively in one of those cases (as noted by the patient). There was a loss in elbow flexion strength compared to the contralateral side; however, this loss was not statistically significant and not associated with clinical apparent re-tear or insufficiency of the tenodesis. The arthroscopic lasso-loop tenodesis of the LHB tendon is a time and cost-efficient technique. No additional anchor is needed when included in the rotator cuff repair. Functional and cosmetical results as well as results from the biceps-specific LHB score were good to excellent. The loss in elbow flexion strength is most likely associated with concomitant rotator cuff lesion. The lasso-loop fixation technique of the LHB tendon using the antero-medial footprint anchor in rotator cuff tears is a reliable and cost-efficient procedure. III.

  12. Similar results comparing early and late surgery in open repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Zhaeentan, Soheila; Von Heijne, Anders; Stark, André; Hagert, Elisabet; Salomonsson, Björn

    2016-12-01

    The purpose was to investigate whether surgical repair earlier or later than 3 months after injury may result in similar outcomes and patient satisfaction. Seventy-three patients (75 shoulders, 58 males, mean age 59) who had undergone surgical intervention for traumatic rotator cuff tears from 1999 to 2011 were assessed by MRI, clinical examination and Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC) as a primary outcome measure and Oxford Shoulder score (OSS), Constant-Murley score (CS) and EQ-5D as secondary. The patients treated less than 3 months after injury (n = 39) were compared with patients treated more than 3 months after injury (n = 36). The average follow-up time was 56 months (range 14-149), and the average time from injury to repair for all patients was 16 weeks (range 3-104). A single senior radiologist performed a blinded evaluation of all the MRIs. Rotator cuff integrity, presence of arthritis, fatty degeneration and muscle atrophy were evaluated. No differences were found for any of the assessed outcomes (WORC, OSS, CS and EQ-5D) between the two groups. The mean WORC % was 77 % for both groups. Re-tear frequency was 24 %, nine in both groups. Patients with re-tear reported less satisfaction with their outcome. The surgical treatment of symptomatic traumatic rotator cuff tears repairable later than 3 months after injury yields a good functional outcome, a high level of subjective patient satisfaction, and at the same level for patients receiving earlier treatment. Based on our findings, surgical repair could be encouraged whenever technically possible. Retrospective Comparative Study, Level III.

  13. Intratendinous rotator cuff tears: prevalence and clinical and radiological outcomes of arthroscopically confirmed intratendinous tears at midterm follow-up.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Eun; Panchal, Karnav; Jeong, Jae-Jung; Kim, Young-Yul; Kim, Jong-Ho; Lee, Ju-Yeob; Ji, Jong-Hun

    2015-02-01

    Intratendinous tears of the rotator cuff are rare, and little has been written about them. To investigate the prevalence and clinical and radiological outcomes of arthroscopically confirmed intratendinous tears treated with transtendon suture bridge repair. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Included in the study were 33 patients (16 male, 17 female; mean age, 53.4 years) with arthroscopically confirmed intratendinous tears treated with transtendon suture bridge repair from March 2006 to July 2012. A history of trauma was found in 10 cases (30.3%). The dominant arm was involved in 26 cases (78.8%). The mean follow-up duration was 56 months. Preoperatively, a thorough physical examination was performed; at final follow-up, shoulder range of motion (ROM) in forward flexion, abduction, external rotation (ER) at the side, and internal rotation (IR) at the back was noted, and clinical outcomes (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons [ASES] score; University of California, Los Angeles [UCLA] score; visual analog scale [VAS] for pain; and Simple Shoulder Test [SST]) were recorded and compared with the preoperative data. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 6 months to investigate rotator cuff healing status and repair integrity. The prevalence of arthroscopically confirmed intratendinous tears was 4.7% among all arthroscopically treated partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. Impingement signs were positive in most of the patients (positive Hawkins-Kennedy test result in 78.8%, positive Neer sign in 66.7%, and either positive Hawkins-Kennedy test result or Neer sign in 84.8%). At final follow-up, mean ASES, UCLA, VAS, and SST scores improved significantly from a preoperative mean of 51.4, 18.9, 6.0, and 5.4, respectively, to a postoperative mean of 90.6, 32.9, 1.4, and 10.8, respectively (P < .001). According to the UCLA rating scale, outcomes were excellent in 17, good in 13, and fair in 3 cases. Shoulder ROM in forward flexion, abduction, ER at

  14. Arthroscopic modified Mason-Allen technique for large U- or L-shaped rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung-Weon; Kim, Dong-Hee; Kang, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Heon

    2017-07-01

    While a conventional single- or double-row repair technique could be applied for repair of C-shaped tears, a different surgical strategy should be considered for repair of U- or L-shaped tears because they typically have complex patterns with anterior, posterior, or both mobile leaves. This study was performed to examine the outcomes of the modified Mason-Allen technique for footprint restoration in the treatment of large U- or L-shaped rotator cuff tears. Thirty-two patients who underwent an arthroscopic modified Mason-Allen technique for large U- or L-shaped rotator cuff tears between January 2012 and December 2013 were included in this study. Margin convergence was first performed to reduce the tear gap and tension, and then, an arthroscopic Mason-Allen technique was performed to restore the rotator cuff footprint in a side-to-end repair fashion. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and for a minimum of 2 years of follow-up with a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, Constant score, and ultrasonography. There was significant improvement in all VAS and Constant scores compared with the preoperative values (P < 0.001). Functional results by Constant scores included 9 cases that were classified as excellent, 11 cases as good, 8 cases as fair, and 2 cases as poor. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that heavy work, pseudoparalysis, joint space narrowing, fatty degeneration of the SST and IST, and a positive tangent sign were found to significantly correlate with functional outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that only fatty degeneration of the SST was a risk factor for fair/poor clinical outcomes. Complications occurred in 5 of the 32 patients (15.6 %), and the reoperation rate due to complications was 6.3 % (2 of 32 patients). An arthroscopic modified Mason-Allen technique was sufficient to restore the footprint of the rotator cuff in our data. Overall satisfactory results were achieved in most patients, with the

  15. Arthroscopic Changes of the Biceps Pulley in Rotator Cuff Tear and Its Clinical Significance in Relation to Treatment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Hyuk; Kim, Se Sik; Kim, Seok Jun; Lee, Ju Hwan

    2015-09-01

    In the case of rotator cuff tears, the biceps pulley can be stressed by the unstable biceps tendon, and this can subsequently affect the stability of the subscapularis tendon. Therefore, it is important to distinguish between normal variations and lesions of the biceps pulley that affect anterosuperior lesions in cases of rotator cuff tears. From January 2002 through November 2010, we observed biceps pulley and associated anterosuperior lesions in 589 of 634 cases (93%) of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, including 72 cases (12.2%) of small tears, 219 cases (37.2%) of medium tears, 134 cases (22.8%) of large tears, and 164 cases (27.8%) of massive tears. We classified normal stretched biceps pulleys as type I, stretched biceps pulleys with mild changes as type II, those with a partial tear as type III, and torn pulleys as type IV. We were able to classify 589 cases of biceps pulleys as type I, II, III, or IV associated lesions in rotator cuff tears. Type I was seen in 91 cases (15.4%), type II in 216 cases (36.7%), type III in 157 cases (26.7%), and type IV in 101 cases (17.1%); unidentified cases numbered 24 (4.1%). Nearly three-quarters, 73.3%, of the cases (432/589) had associated anterosuperior lesions, and combined treatment for the associated lesions was administered in 29.2% (172/589) of cases. Biceps pulley lesions with more than partial tears were identified in 48% of rotator cuff tear cases. The incidence and severity of pulley lesions were related to the rotator cuff tear size, the status of the long head of the biceps tendon and subscapularis tendon lesion, and the treatment methods.

  16. [Surgical treatment of the impingement syndrome and of the rotator cuff tears: personal experience in 134 cases].

    PubMed

    Candiotto, S; Majoni, A; Londei, L; Rioda, A; Ostuni, P

    2002-01-01

    The time-course covered by the original definition of scapulo-humeral periarthritis suggested by Duplay through the more recent term of subacromial impingement syndrome coined by Neer, follows the identification of the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to chronic subacromial impingement and degenerative tears of the rotator cuff. The Authors recall the functional-anatomic development evolution of the shoulder and the disequilibrium between the depressor and the elevator muscles which may promote the chronic friction against the acromion. However, the actual pathogenesis of the impingement still remains controversial. We evaluated 134 patients (81F, 53M, mean age 56.4 years) with chronic subacromial impingement syndrome. In 92 cases (69%) non traumatic tears of the rotator cuff were also present as confirmed by ultrasonography in 94 cases, CT in18 cases and magnetic resonance in 102 cases. The different tear patterns of the rotator cuff were classified as suggested by Ellman (L shaped, L reverse, triangular, trapezoidal and massive with retraction) and clinical results were analyzed following Sahlstrand clinical criteria and Costant numerical scale. According to the anatomical damage, patients were divided into those with impingement without severe cuff tendinopathy (42 cases), those with rotator cuff tears without loss of motion of the shoulder (32 cases) and those with cuff tears and loss of active motion (60 cases). The different surgical techniques and rehabilitation procedures after surgery are also reported. After a mean follow-up of 1.3 years (range 8 months - 2 years), good or excellent results were obtained in 91% of the patients without rotator cuff tears, in 87% of the patients with tears but without loss of motion and in 75% of the cases with loss of active motion. Our data demonstrate that in the majority of patients with chronic impingement syndrome and rotator cuff tears, surgical treatment shows high success rates. When surgery is associated with a

  17. Functional status and failed rotator cuff repair predict outcomes after arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable massive rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Castricini, Roberto; De Benedetto, Massimo; Familiari, Filippo; De Gori, Marco; De Nardo, Pasquale; Orlando, Nicola; Gasparini, Giorgio; Galasso, Olimpio

    2016-04-01

    Arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (LDTT) has been recently introduced for treatment of irreparable, posterosuperior massive rotator cuff tears. We sought to evaluate the functional outcomes of this technique and to check for possible outcome predictors. The study reviewed 86 patients (aged 59.8 ± 5.9 years) who underwent an arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi tendon transfer after 36.4 ± 9 months of follow-up. Of these, 14 patients (16.3%) sustained an irreparable massive rotator cuff tear after a failed arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The Constant and Murley score (CMS) was used to assess patients' functionality preoperatively and at follow-up. As a group, the CMS improved with surgery from 35.5 ± 6.1 to 69.5 ± 12.3 (P < .001). A lower preoperative CMS and a previous failed rotator cuff repair resulted in lower postoperative range of motion (P = .044 and P = .007, respectively) and CMS (P = .042 and P = .018, respectively). A previous rotator cuff repair resulted in lower satisfaction with surgery (P = .009). Gender and age did not affect the clinical outcomes. Our results support the effectiveness of arthroscopic-assisted LDTT in the treatment of patients with an irreparable, posterosuperior massive rotator cuff tears in pain relief, functional recovery, and postoperative satisfaction. Patients with lower preoperative CMS and a history of failed rotator cuff repair have a greater likelihood of having a lower clinical result. However, the favorable values of summary postoperative scores do not exclude these patients as candidates for arthroscopic-assisted LDTT. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Posterior Displacement of Supraspinatus Central Tendon Observed on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Useful Preoperative Indicator of Rotator Cuff Tear Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Updegrove, Gary F; Armstrong, April D; Mosher, Timothy J; Kim, H Mike

    2015-11-01

    To characterize the orientation of the normal supraspinatus central tendon and describe the displacement patterns of the central tendon in rotator cuff tears using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method. We performed a retrospective MRI and chart review of 183 patients with a rotator cuff tear (cuff tear group), 52 with a labral tear but no rotator cuff tear (labral tear group), and 74 with a normal shoulder (normal group). The orientation of the supraspinatus central tendon relative to the bicipital groove was evaluated based on axial MRI and was numerically represented by the shortest distance from the lateral extension line of the central tendon to the bicipital groove. Tear size, fatty degeneration, and involvement of the anterior supraspinatus were evaluated to identify the factors associated with orientation changes. The mean distance from the bicipital groove to the central tendon line was 0.7 mm and 1.3 mm in the normal group and labral tear group, respectively. Full-thickness cuff tears involving the anterior supraspinatus showed a significantly greater distance (17.7 mm) than those sparing the anterior supraspinatus (4.9 mm, P = .001). Fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus was significantly correlated with the distance (P = .006). Disruption of the anterior supraspinatus and fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus were independent predictors of posterior displacement. The supraspinatus central tendon has a constant orientation toward the bicipital groove in normal shoulders, and the central tendon is frequently displaced posteriorly in full-thickness rotator cuff tears involving the anterior leading edge of the supraspinatus. The degree of posterior displacement is proportional to tear size and severity of fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus muscle. A simple and quick assessment of the central tendon orientation on preoperative MRI can be a useful indicator of tear characteristics, potentially providing insight into the intraoperative

  19. Clinical practice guidelines for the surgical management of rotator cuff tears in adults.

    PubMed

    Beaudreuil, J; Dhénain, M; Coudane, H; Mlika-Cabanne, N

    2010-04-01

    Rotator cuff tears are very common. In 2005, about 45 000 patients in France underwent surgery. Surgical techniques and indications have evolved over recent years with the development of arthroscopic procedures. The lack of visibility on current practice and a request by the French Ministry of Health to assess the fixation devices used in arthroscopic surgery prompted the drafting of these guidelines. To produce guidelines on the indications and limitations of open surgery and arthroscopic surgery. A systematic review of the literature (2000-2007) was performed. It was submitted to a multidisciplinary working group of experts in the field (n = 12) who drafted an evidence report and clinical practice guidelines, which were amended in the light of comments from 36 peer reviewers. (i) Medical treatment (oral medication, injections, physiotherapy) is always the first option in the management of degenerative tears of rotator cuff tendons. Surgery is a later option that depends on clinical and morphological factors, and patient characteristics.(ii) Surgery can be considered for the purpose of functional recovery in cases of a painful, weak or disabling shoulder refractory to medical treatment. (iii) Arthroscopy is indicated for nonreconstructive surgery or debridement, and for partial tear debridement or repair. (iv) Open surgery, mini-open surgery or arthroscopy can be used for a full-thickness tear accessible to direct repair by suture. (v) A humeral prosthesis or total reversed prosthesis is indicated for cuff tear arthropathy. (vi) The fixation devices used for bone reinsertion (anchors, screws, staples,and buttons) are indispensable for fully arthroscopic repair. No studies have determined the number of fixation devices to be used according to tear size. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypertrophic changes of the teres minor muscle in rotator cuff tears: quantitative evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kikukawa, Kenshi; Ide, Junji; Kikuchi, Ken; Morita, Makoto; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Ogata, Hiroomi

    2014-12-01

    Few reports have assessed the teres minor (TM) muscle in rotator cuff tears. This study aimed to quantitatively analyze the morphologic changes of the TM muscle in patients with or without rotator cuff tears by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study consisted of 279 subjects classified on the basis of interpretations of conventional MRI observations into 6 groups: no cuff tear; partial-thickness supraspinatus (SSP) tear; full-thickness SSP tear; SSP and subscapularis tears; SSP and infraspinatus (ISP) tears; and SSP, ISP, and subscapularis tears. With use of ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA) for oblique sagittal MRI, we measured the areas of ISP, TM, and anatomic external rotation (ISP + TM) muscles on the most lateral side in which the scapular spine was in contact with the scapular body. The occupational ratios of the TM muscle area to the anatomic external rotation muscle area were calculated. Ratios above the maximum of the 95% confidence intervals of the occupational ratio in the no-tear group were defined as hypertrophy of the TM muscle. Occupational ratios of the TM muscle in the no-tear group followed a normal distribution, and ratios >0.288 were defined as hypertrophic. Hypertrophic changes of the TM muscle were confirmed in rotator cuff tears involving the ISP tendon. A negative correlation was found between the occupational ratios of TM and ISP (P < .001). The TM muscle appeared hypertrophic in rotator cuff tears involving the ISP, and the progression of ISP muscle atrophy seemed to induce the development of this compensatory hypertrophy. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Do overhead sports increase risk for rotator cuff tears in wheelchair users?

    PubMed

    Akbar, Michael; Brunner, Manuela; Ewerbeck, Volker; Wiedenhöfer, Bernd; Grieser, Thomas; Bruckner, Thomas; Loew, Markus; Raiss, Patric

    2015-03-01

    To analyze whether frequent overhead-sports activity increases the risk for rotator cuff disease in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) who are wheelchair dependent. Cross-sectional study, risk analysis. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury. Patients (N=296) with SCI requiring the full-time use of a manual wheelchair were recruited for this study. The total population was divided into 2 groups (sports vs no sports), among them 103 patients playing overhead sports on a regular basis (at least 1-2 times/wk) and 193 patients involved in overhead sports less than once a week or in no sports activity at all. The mean age of the sports group was 49.1 years. The mean duration of wheelchair dependence was 26.5 years. The mean age of the no-sports group was 48 years. The mean duration of wheelchair dependence was 25.2 years. Each individual completed a questionnaire designed to identify overhead-sports activity on a regular basis and was asked about shoulder problems. Magnetic resonance imaging scans of both shoulders were performed in each patient and analyzed in a standardized fashion. None. Possible differences in continuous data between patients with and without rotator cuff tear were evaluated. The relative risk of suffering from a rotator cuff tear between patients playing overhead sports and those not playing overhead sports was calculated. One hundred three patients played overhead sports regularly and 193 did not. There was no difference between groups regarding age, sex, level of SCI, and duration of wheelchair dependence. The body mass index was significantly lower in the sports group than in the no-sports group (P<.0001). A rotator cuff tear was present in 75.7% of the patients in the sports group and in 36.3% of the patients in the no-sports group (P<.0001). Rotator cuff tears were symptomatic in 92.6% of the patients. The estimated risk increase for the sports group to develop rotator cuff tears was twice as high as

  2. PROSPECTIVE AND COMPARATIVE STUDY ON FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES AFTER OPEN AND ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR OF ROTATOR CUFF TEARS

    PubMed Central

    de Castro Veado, Marco Antônio; Castilho, Rodrigo Simões; Maia, Philipe Eduardo Carvalho; Rodrigues, Alessandro Ulhôa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively assess the surgical results from patients undergoing repairs to rotator cuff injuries via open and arthroscopic procedures, with regard to functional and clinical features, and by means of ultrasound examinations, and to compare occurrences of renewed tearing. Methods: Sixty patients underwent operations performed by the same surgeon (29 via open surgery and 31 via arthroscopy), to repair complete rotator cuff tears. The procedures were performed at Hospital Governor Israel Pinheiro (HGIP) and Mater Dei Hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, between August 2007 and February 2009. The patients were assessed functionally by means of the UCLA score before and after the operation, and magnetic resonance imaging was done before the operation. All the patients were reassessed at least 12 months after the operation, and an ultrasound examination was also performed at this time. Results: Out of the 29 patients who underwent open surgery, 27 (93.1%) presented good or excellent results, with a mean UCLA score of 32 after the operation. Their mean follow-up was 14 months. Three patients presented renewed tearing on ultrasound, of whom one remained asymptomatic. Out of the 31 patients who underwent arthroscopic procedures, 29 (93.5%) presented good or excellent results, with a mean UCLA score of 33 after the operation. Their mean follow-up was 19 months. Two patients presented renewed tearing, of whom one remained asymptomatic and one evolved with loosening of an anchor, with an unsatisfactory result. Conclusion: The repairs on rotator cuff injuries presented good results by means of both open surgery and arthroscopy, with similar functional results in the two groups and similar rates of renewed tearing. PMID:27027052

  3. Management of full-thickness rotator cuff tears: appropriate use criteria.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christopher C; Morrey, Bernard F

    2015-12-01

    The appropriate use criteria (AUC) were developed for full-thickness rotator cuff tears to determine when it is reasonable to recommend nonoperative care, partial repair/débridement, repair, reconstruction, or arthroplasty. The goal of this report was to interpret and summarize the results of the AUC process into clinically relevant terms. Using the results of the AUC methodology, we systematically interpreted the clinical importance attributed to the various patient and pathologic variables. We then assessed the combination of considerations that would justify the various treatment options using "preference tables." A nonoperative program was appropriate if the patient had a positive response to conservative care. However, a repair could be maybe appropriate was also accepted. Rotator cuff repair was appropriate when conservative treatment failed in symptomatic patients. Reconstructive measures were recognized primarily in those with chronic massive tears. Most found arthroplasty maybe appropriate only in healthy patients, pseudoparalysis, and chronic massive tears. Surprisingly, neither factors that decreased healing nor adversely affected outcome had a strong influence on the panel's treatment recommendations. The AUC process accounts for clinical experience and considers individual patient and pathologic characteristics of the condition. Overall, the outcome of this exercise does support the current practice for the management of rotator cuff tears (ie, repair of symptomatic tears). However, the minimal importance given to patient and pathologic considerations, well documented to influence outcome, prompts an ongoing effort to refine this important and clinically relevant process. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Amplitude and strength of muscle contraction are reduced in experimental tears of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Dominik C; Gerber, Christian; Von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Wirth, Stephan H; Farshad, Mazda

    2011-07-01

    Chronic tendon tears lead to retraction, fatty infiltration, and atrophy of the respective muscle. These muscle changes are decision-making criteria in rotator cuff tear management. To investigate the functional implications of these morphological changes in a sheep rotator cuff tear model. Controlled laboratory study. The authors established chronic retraction of the musculotendinous unit accompanied with fatty infiltration and atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle in 20 sheep. The contractile force and passive tension of the muscle as a function of its length were measured and the active work capacity determined. After tendon release and chronic retraction (by 5.7 ± 0.9 cm), fatty infiltrated and atrophied infraspinatus muscles (with a density of 22.4 ± 10.4 Hounsfield units [HU] and a cross-sectional area of 65% ± 16% of the contralateral control side) had a mean contractile amplitude and strength of 2.7 ± 0.4 cm and 235 ± 71 N compared with the contralateral control shoulder of 4.1 ± 0.7 cm and 485 ± 78 N (P < .05), respectively. The mean active work of the muscle was 2.8 ± 0.9 N·m for retracted and 8.8 ± 2.4 N·m for control muscles (P < .05). The correlation of total active work to fatty infiltration (r = 0.78, P < .001) was significant. Chronic tendon tears are associated not only with retraction, fatty infiltration, and atrophy but also with loss of strength and contractile amplitude. The functional changes can only indirectly and approximately be predicted by computed tomography imaging findings. The current criteria (atrophy, retraction, and fatty infiltration) may help to quantify the structural reparability of a chronically retracted musculotendinous unit after rotator cuff tendon tear but may only approximately predict the remaining function of the muscle.

  5. EXERCISE REHABILITATION IN THE NON-OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF ROTATOR CUFF TEARS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Peter; Ebert, Jay; Joss, Brendan; Bhabra, Gev; Ackland, Tim; Wang, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of rotator cuff tears increases with age, with full-thickness rotator cuff tears present in approximately 25% of individuals in their sixties, and more than 50% of those in their eighties. While surgery is considered an effective treatment, recurrent tears at the insertion site are common, especially with degenerative tears, which are frequent in the older population. More recently, there has been increasing interest in exercise rehabilitation and physical therapy as a means to manage partial and full thickness tears of the rotator cuff by addressing weakness and functional deficits. Recent studies have suggested that patients opting for physical therapy have demonstrated high satisfaction, an improvement in function, and success in avoiding surgery. When considering the increasing rate of shoulder surgery and the associated economic and social burden rotator cuff surgery places on both the patient and the health care system, non-surgical management such as physical therapy and exercise may, in selected cases, be a treatment alternative to surgical repair. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to provide an overview of rotator cuff pathology and pathogenesis, and to present an evidence-based case for the role of conservative rehabilitation in the management of rotator cuff injuries. Level of Evidence Level 5 PMID:27104061

  6. What factors are predictors of emotional health in patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears?

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jonathan D; Bishop, Julie Y; Dunn, Warren R; Kuhn, John E; Baumgarten, Keith M; Brophy, Robert H; Carey, James L; Holloway, Brian G; Jones, Grant L; Ma, Benjamin C; Marx, Robert G; McCarty, Eric C; Poddar, Sourav K.; Smith, Matthew V; Spencer, Edwin E; Vidal, Armando F; Wolf, Brian R; Wright, Rick W

    2016-11-01

    The importance of emotional and psychological factors in treatment of patients with rotator cuff disease has been recently emphasized. Our goal was to establish factors most predictive of poor emotional health in patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears (FTRCTs). In 2007, we began to prospectively collect data on patients with symptomatic, atraumatic FTRCTs. All patients completed a questionnaire collecting data on demographics, symptom characteristics, comorbidities, willingness to undergo surgery, and patient-related outcomes (12-Item Short Form Health Survey, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index [WORC], Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score, Shoulder Activity Scale). Physicians recorded physical examination and imaging data. To evaluate the predictors of lower WORC emotion scores, a linear multiple regression model was fit. Baseline data for 452 patients were used for analysis. In patients with symptomatic FTRCTs, the factors most predictive of worse WORC emotion scores were higher levels of pain (interquartile range odds ratio, -18.9; 95% confidence interval, -20.2 to -11.6; P < .0001) and lower Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores (rating of percentage normal that patients perceive their shoulder to be; interquartile range odds ratio, 6.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-9.95; P = .0012). Higher education (P = .006) and unemployment status (P = .0025) were associated with higher WORC emotion scores. Education level, employment status, pain levels, and patient perception of percentage of shoulder normalcy were most predictive of emotional health in patients with FTRCTs. Structural data, such astendon tear size, were not. Those with poor emotional health may perceive their shoulder to be worse than others and experience more pain. This may allow us to better optimize patient outcomes with nonoperative and operative treatment of rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder

  7. Deltoid muscle shape analysis with magnetic resonance imaging in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Dominik C; Rahm, Stefan; Farshad, Mazda; Lajtai, Georg; Wieser, Karl

    2013-08-19

    It seems appropriate to assume, that for a full and strong global shoulder function a normally innervated and active deltoid muscle is indispensable. We set out to analyse the size and shape of the deltoid muscle on MR-arthrographies, and analyse its influence on shoulder function and its adaption (i.e. atrophy) for reduced shoulder function. The fatty infiltration (Goutallier stages), atrophy (tangent sign) and selective myotendinous retraction of the rotator cuff, as well as the thickness and the area of seven anatomically defined segments of the deltoid muscle were measured on MR-arthrographies and correlated with shoulder function (i.e. active abduction). Included were 116 patients, suffering of a rotator cuff tear with shoulder mobility ranging from pseudoparalysis to free mobility. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine the distribution of the data before either Spearman or Pearson correlation and a multiple regression was applied to reveal the correlations. Our developed method for measuring deltoid area and thickness showed to be reproducible with excellent interobserver correlations (r = 0.814-0.982).The analysis of influencing factors on active abduction revealed a weak influence of the amount of SSP tendon (r = -0.25; p < 0.01) and muscle retraction (r = -0.27; p < 0.01) as well as the stage of fatty muscle infiltration (GFDI: r = -0.36; p < 0.01). Unexpectedly however, we were unable to detect a relation of the deltoid muscle shape with the degree of active glenohumeral abduction. Furthermore, long-standing rotator cuff tears did not appear to influence the deltoid shape, i.e. did not lead to muscle atrophy. Our data support that in chronic rotator cuff tears, there seems to be no disadvantage to exhausting conservative treatment and to delay implantation of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, as the shape of deltoid muscle seems only to be influenced by natural aging, but to be independent of reduced shoulder motion.

  8. Rotator cuff surgery in patients older than 75 years with large and massive tears.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hong Jun; Sim, Gyeong-Bo; Bae, Kun Hyung; Kekatpure, Aashay L; Chun, Jae-Myeung; Jeon, In-Ho

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether rotator cuff repair improves subjective and functional outcomes in patients aged ≥75 years. From May 2005 to March 2013, 121 elderly patients who underwent rotator cuff repair for large and massive rotator cuff tears were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system grade ≥4 were excluded. The patients were evaluated using visual analog scales, subjective satisfaction surveys, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores, and Constant scores. The Katz index of activity of daily living (ADL) and functional independence measure motor score were used to evaluate ADLs. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to investigate the structural integrity of repaired cuffs. In total, 64 patients were enrolled in the study; 80% were satisfied with their results. Visual analog scale scores improved from 6.4 to 2.3, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores from 42 to 84, and Constant scores from 42 to 76. Katz ADL scores improved from 3.4 to 5.0. Functional independence measure motor score improved from 22 to 51. Of the 64 patients, 46 underwent MRI 1 year postoperatively. Follow-up MRI revealed retears in 26% of patients. All patients with retears had improved subjective outcomes and functional scores. No patients died or experienced complications requiring intensive care or extended hospitalization. Surgical treatment for large to massive rotator cuff tears in elderly patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists grade <4 provides good functional outcomes without morbidity, even in those with retears. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of Rotator Cuff Tear Size and Repair Technique on the Creation and Management of Dog Ear Deformities in a Transosseous-Equivalent Rotator Cuff Repair Model

    PubMed Central

    Redler, Lauren H.; Byram, Ian R.; Luchetti, Timothy J.; Tsui, Ying Lai; Moen, Todd C.; Gardner, Thomas R.; Ahmad, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Redundancies in the rotator cuff tissue, commonly referred to as “dog ear” deformities, are frequently encountered during rotator cuff repair. Knowledge of how these deformities are created and their impact on rotator cuff footprint restoration is limited. Purpose: The goals of this study were to assess the impact of tear size and repair method on the creation and management of dog ear deformities in a human cadaveric model. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Crescent-shaped tears were systematically created in the supraspinatus tendon of 7 cadaveric shoulders with increasing medial to lateral widths (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm). Repair of the 1.5-cm tear was performed on each shoulder with 3 methods in a randomized order: suture bridge, double-row repair with 2-mm fiber tape, and fiber tape with peripheral No. 2 nonabsorbable looped sutures. Resulting dog ear deformities were injected with an acrylic resin mixture, digitized 3-dimensionally (3D), and photographed perpendicular to the footprint with calibration. The volume, height, and width of the rotator cuff tissue not in contact with the greater tuberosity footprint were calculated using the volume injected, 3D reconstructions, and calibrated photographs. Comparisons were made between tear size, dog ear measurement technique, and repair method utilizing 2-way analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple-comparison tests. Results: Utilizing 3D digitized and injection-derived volumes and dimensions, anterior dog ear volume, height, and width were significantly smaller for rotator cuff repair with peripheral looped sutures compared with a suture bridge (P < .05) or double-row repair with 2-mm fiber tape alone (P < .05). Similarly, posterior height and width were significantly smaller for repair with looped peripheral sutures compared with a suture bridge (P < .05). Dog ear volumes and heights trended larger for the 1.5-cm tear, but this was not statistically significant

  10. Use of cuff tear arthroplasty head prosthesis for rotator cuff arthropathy treatment in elderly patients with comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Cassiano Diniz; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical and functional behavior of patients undergoing cuff tear arthroplasty at different stages of the disease. Cuff tear arthroplasty hemiarthroplasties were performed in 34 patients with rotator cuff arthropathy and associated comorbidities, classified according to Seebauer. The mean age was 76.3 years, and the sample comprised 23 females (67.6%) and 11 males (32.4%). The mean follow-up period was 21.7 months, and evaluations were performed using the Visual Analog Scale for pain and the Constant scale. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean reduction in the Visual Analog Scale or in the Constant scale increase between the female and male groups. The variation between the pre- and postoperative Visual Analog Scale and Constant scale evaluations was significant. There was also no statistically significant difference between the Seebauer classification groups regarding the mean Visual Analog Scale reduction, or the mean Constant scale increase. Cuff tear arthroplasty shoulder hemiarthroplasty is a good option for rotator cuff arthropathy in patients with comorbidities. Avaliar o comportamento clínico e funcional dos pacientes submetidos à artroplastia do tipo cuff tear arthroplasty para o tratamento da artropatia do manguito rotador em diferentes estágios da afecção. Foram realizadas 34 hemiartroplastias do tipo cuff tear arthroplasty em 34 pacientes com artropatia do manguito rotador e comorbidades associadas, classificadas de acordo com Seebauer. A média de idade foi de 76,3 anos, sendo 23 pacientes do sexo feminino (67,6%) e 11 do sexo masculino (32,4%). O seguimento médio foi de 21,7 meses e a avaliação foi realizada por meio da Escala Visual Analógica da dor e pela escala de Constant. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos feminino e masculino, tanto nas médias de redução na Escala Visual Analógica quanto nas de aumento na escala de Constant. A variação entre as avalia

  11. Interobserver Agreement in the Classification of Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears Using the Snyder Classification System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher S; Davis, Shane M; Doremus, Brittany; Kouk, Shalen; Stetson, William B

    2016-09-01

    At present, there is no widely accepted classification system for partial-thickness rotator cuff tears, and as a result, optimal treatment remains controversial. To examine the interobserver reliability and accuracy of classifying partial rotator cuff tears using the Snyder classification system. We hypothesized that the Snyder classification would be reproducible with high reliability and accuracy. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Twenty-seven orthopaedic surgeons reviewed 10 video-recorded shoulder arthroscopies. Each surgeon was provided with a description of the Snyder classification system for partial-thickness rotator cuff tears and was then instructed to use this system to describe each tear. Interrater kappa statistics and percentage agreement between observers were calculated to measure the level of agreement. Surgeon experience as well as fellowship training was evaluated to determine possible correlations. A kappa coefficient of 0.512 indicated moderate reliability between surgeons using the Snyder classification to describe partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. The mean correct score was 80%, which indicated "very good" agreement. There was no correlation between the number of shoulder arthroscopies performed per year and fellowship training and the number of correct scores. The Snyder classification system is reproducible and can be used in future research studies in analyzing the treatment options of partial rotator cuff tears.

  12. Ultrasound and Functional Assessment of Transtendinous Repairs of Partial-Thickness Articular-Sided Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Roger V; Klauser, Jeffrey M; Menon, Sanjay; Hackel, Joshua G

    2017-03-01

    Partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears are a frequent source of shoulder pain. Despite conservative measures, some patients continue to be symptomatic and require surgical management. However, there is some controversy as to which surgical approach results in the best outcomes for grade 3 tears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate repair integrity and the clinical results of patients treated with transtendinous repair of high-grade partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears. Our hypothesis was that transtendinous repairs would result in reliable healing and acceptable functional outcomes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included in the study. All patients underwent arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears utilizing a transtendinous technique by a single surgeon. At latest follow-up, the repair integrity was evaluated using ultrasound imaging, and functional scores were calculated. Ultrasound evaluation demonstrated that 18 of 20 patients had complete healing with a normal-appearing rotator cuff. Two patients had a minor residual partial tear. Sixteen of 20 patients had no pain on visual analog scale. Four patients complained of mild intermittent residual pain. All patients were rated as "excellent" by both the University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Score and the Simple Shoulder Test. The transtendon technique for the repair of articular-sided high-grade partial rotator cuff tears results in reliable tendon healing and excellent functional outcomes.

  13. Structural Characteristics Are Not Associated With Pain and Function in Rotator Cuff Tears: The ROW Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth E; Dong, Yan; Higgins, Laurence D; Katz, Jeffrey N; Jain, Nitin B

    2015-05-01

    Structural characteristics of rotator cuff tears are used in surgical decision making. However, data on the association of tear size with patient-reported pain and function are sparse. To assess the association of tear size, fatty infiltration, and muscle atrophy with shoulder pain/function in patients with cuff tears undergoing operative and nonoperative treatment. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 67 patients with rotator cuff tears were recruited for this longitudinal cohort study. Patients were determined to have a cuff tear using clinical assessment and blinded magnetic resonance imaging review. The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) was used as a measure of shoulder pain and function. Tear size and thickness were not significantly associated with pain (SPADI pain score, 60.6 [95% CI, 49.8-71.5] for partial-thickness tear; 56.8 [95% CI, 42.8-70.7] for <2 cm full-thickness tear; 60.4 [95% CI, 51.7-69.0] for ≥2 cm full-thickness tear). Tear size and thickness were not associated with function (SPADI disability score, 42.7 [95% CI, 29.8-55.6] for partial-thickness tear; 37.6 [95% CI, 23.9-51.4] for <2 cm full-thickness tear; 45.1 [95% CI, 35.4-54.8] for ≥2 cm full-thickness tear). Fatty infiltration, muscle atrophy, and tendon retraction were also not significantly associated with SPADI pain and disability scores. A Mental Health Index score of <68 as well as age ≥60 years were significantly associated with a higher SPADI pain score. Female sex, increased number of comorbidities, Mental Health Index score of <68, and age <60 years were significantly associated with a higher SPADI disability score. In patients with rotator cuff tears undergoing operative and nonoperative treatment, pain and functional status were not associated with tear size and thickness, fatty infiltration, and muscle atrophy. Conversely, factors unrelated to cuff anatomy such as mental health, comorbidities, age, and sex were associated with pain

  14. Rotator cuff tear shape characterization: a comparison of two-dimensional imaging and three-dimensional magnetic resonance reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Beltran, Luis S; Gibbs, Kevin; Jazrawi, Laith; Berman, Phillip; Babb, James; Meislin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could improve our understanding of rotator cuff tendon tear shapes. We believed that 3D MRI would be more accurate than two-dimensional (2D) MRI for classifying tear shapes. We performed a retrospective review of MRI studies of patients with arthroscopically proven full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Two orthopedic surgeons reviewed the information for each case, including scope images, and characterized the shape of the cuff tear into crescent, longitudinal, U- or L-shaped longitudinal, and massive type. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the corresponding MRI studies independently and blind to the arthroscopic findings and characterized the shape on the basis of the tear's retraction and size using 2D MRI. The 3D reconstructions of each cuff tear were reviewed by each radiologist to characterize the shape. Statistical analysis included 95% confidence intervals and intraclass correlation coefficients. The study reviewed 34 patients. The accuracy for differentiating between crescent-shaped, longitudinal, and massive tears using measurements on 2D MRI was 70.6% for reader 1 and 67.6% for reader 2. The accuracy for tear shape characterization into crescent and longitudinal U- or L-shaped using 3D MRI was 97.1% for reader 1 and 82.4% for reader 2. When further characterizing the longitudinal tears as massive or not using 3D MRI, both readers had an accuracy of 76.9% (10 of 13). The overall accuracy of 3D MRI was 82.4% (56 of 68), significantly different (P = .021) from 2D MRI accuracy (64.7%). Our study has demonstrated that 3D MR reconstructions of the rotator cuff improve the accuracy of characterizing rotator cuff tear shapes compared with current 2D MRI-based techniques. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Traumatic full-thickness transtendinous rotator cuff tears: a case series.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Marie E; Daniels, Stephen D; Sinz, Nathan J; Field, Larry D; Higgins, Laurence D

    2017-01-01

    Our purpose was to describe an arthroscopic repair technique for and outcomes of traumatic transtendinous rotator cuff tears affecting the supraspinatus tendon. A retrospective review was performed on a series of patients between January 2009 and January 2012. Demographic data, as well as preoperative and postoperative clinical data including strength, visual analog scale pain score, Subjective Shoulder Value, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, and Simple Shoulder Test score, were obtained. Seven patients were identified with magnetic resonance imaging showing full-thickness, transtendon supraspinatus tears with extension into the infraspinatus, which were consistent with physical examination and arthroscopic findings. The mechanism of injury was traumatic in all cases, usually a fall with the arm abducted. The mean remaining stump of tendon measured 1.3 cm. All patients underwent open or arthroscopic repair by a side-to-side (tendon-to-tendon) technique with additional suture anchor augmentation. At an average follow-up of 41.5 months (range, 33-50 months), all patients had postoperative improvements in strength and visual analog scale pain scores (range, 0-1), as well as Subjective Shoulder Value, Simple Shoulder Test, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores greater than 90. We have described the occurrence of a rare rotator cuff tear in the purely tendinous portion of the muscle, leaving at least 1 cm of tendon attached to an intact footprint. We also have presented an arthroscopic side-to-side repair technique and postoperative outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the first article describing this uncommon rotator cuff tear. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Restoration of anterior-posterior rotator cuff force balance improves shoulder function in a rat model of chronic massive tears.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jason E; Reuther, Katherine E; Sarver, Joseph J; Lee, Chang Soo; Thomas, Stephen J; Glaser, David L; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2011-07-01

    The rotator cuff musculature imparts dynamic stability to the glenohumeral joint. In particular, the balance between the subscapularis anteriorly and the infraspinatus posteriorly, often referred to as the rotator cuff "force couple," is critical for concavity compression and concentric rotation of the humeral head. Restoration of this anterior-posterior force balance after chronic, massive rotator cuff tears may allow for deltoid compensation, but no in vivo studies have quantitatively demonstrated an improvement in shoulder function. Our goal was to determine if restoring this balance of forces improves shoulder function after two-tendon rotator cuff tears in a rat model. Forty-eight rats underwent detachment of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus. After four weeks, rats were randomly assigned to three groups: no repair, infraspinatus repair, and two-tendon repair. Quantitative ambulatory measures including medial/lateral forces, braking, propulsion, and step width were significantly different between the infraspinatus and no repair group and similar between the infraspinatus and two-tendon repair groups at almost all time points. These results suggest that repairing the infraspinatus back to its insertion site without repair of the supraspinatus can improve shoulder function to a level similar to repairing both the infraspinatus and supraspinatus tendons. Clinically, a partial repair of the posterior cuff after a two-tendon tear may be sufficient to restore adequate function. An in vivo model system for two-tendon repair of massive rotator cuff tears is presented. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  17. Restoration of Anterior-Posterior Rotator Cuff Force Balance Improves Shoulder Function in a Rat Model of Chronic Massive Tears

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jason E.; Reuther, Katherine E.; Sarver, Joseph J.; Lee, Chang Soo; Thomas, Stephen J.; Glaser, David L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    The rotator cuff musculature imparts dynamic stability to the glenohumeral joint. In particular, the balance between the subscapularis anteriorly and the infraspinatus posteriorly, often referred to as the rotator cuff “force couple,” is critical for concavity compression and concentric rotation of the humeral head. Restoration of this anterior-posterior force balance after chronic, massive rotator cuff tears may allow for deltoid compensation, but no in vivo studies have quantitatively demonstrated an improvement in shoulder function. Our goal was to determine if restoring this balance of forces improves shoulder function after two-tendon rotator cuff tears in a rat model. Forty-eight rats underwent detachment of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus. After four weeks, rats were randomly assigned to three groups: no repair, infraspinatus repair, and two-tendon repair. Quantitative ambulatory measures including medial/lateral forces, braking, propulsion, and step width were significantly different between the infraspinatus and no repair group and similar between the infraspinatus and two-tendon repair groups at almost all time points. These results suggest that repairing the infraspinatus back to its insertion site without repair of the supraspinatus can improve shoulder function to a level similar to repairing both the infraspinatus and supraspinatus tendons. Clinically, a partial repair of the posterior cuff after a two tendon tear may be sufficient to restore adequate function. An in vivo model system for two-tendon repair of massive rotator cuff tears is presented. PMID:21308755

  18. Shoulder Strength Requirements for Upper Limb Functional Tasks: Do age and Rotator Cuff Tear Status Matter?

    PubMed

    Santago, Anthony C; Vidt, Meghan E; Li, Xiaotong; Tuohy, Christopher J; Poehling, Gary G; Freehill, Michael T; Saul, Katherine R

    2017-07-17

    Understanding upper limb strength requirements for daily tasks is imperative for early detection of strength loss that may progress to disability due to age or rotator cuff tear. We quantified shoulder strength requirements for five upper limb tasks performed by three groups: uninjured young adults and older adults, and older adults with a degenerative supraspinatus tear prior to repair. Musculoskeletal models were developed for each group representing age, sex, and tear-related strength losses. Percentage of available strength used was quantified for the subset of tasks requiring the largest amount of shoulder strength. Significant differences in strength requirements existed across tasks: upward reach 105° required the largest average strength; axilla wash required the largest peak strength. However, there were limited differences across participant groups. Older adults with and without a tear used a larger percentage of their shoulder elevation (p<.001, p<.001) and external rotation (p<.001, p=.017) strength than the young adults respectively. Presence of a tear signficantly increased percentage of internal rotation strength compared to young (p<.001) and uninjured older adults (p=.008). Marked differences in strength demand across tasks indicate the need for evaluating a diversity of functional tasks to effectively detect early strength loss which may lead to disability.

  19. Low Serum Vitamin D Is Not Correlated With the Severity of a Rotator Cuff Tear or Retear After Arthroscopic Repair.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Keun Jung; Kim, Bang Hyun; Lee, Yohan; Dan, Jinmyoung; Kim, Jae Hwa

    2015-07-01

    Despite the essential role of vitamin D in muscle function, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported to be very high. Recently, low vitamin D level was found to correlate with fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff tendon in humans and to negatively affect early healing at the rotator cuff repair site in an animal study. However, the effects of vitamin D level on severity of rotator cuff tear and healing after surgical repair have not been documented. To evaluate (1) the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among patients who underwent arthroscopic repair for a full-thickness rotator cuff tear, (2) the relationship of vitamin D level with severity of the rotator cuff tear, and (3) surgical outcomes after repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A consecutive series of 91 patients (age, 50-65 years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for full-thickness, small-sized to massive tears were evaluated. Preoperative serum vitamin D levels (25-hydroxyvitamin) were analyzed to detect correlations with the features of a preoperative rotator cuff tear as well as postoperative structural and functional outcomes. All patients were followed clinically for a minimum of 1 year. Preoperative vitamin D levels were deficient (<20 ng/mL) in 80 subjects (88%), insufficient (20-30 ng/mL) in 8 subjects (9%), and normal (>30 ng/mL) in 3 subjects (3%). No correlation was found between preoperative tear size (P = .23), extent of retraction (P = .60), degree of fatty infiltration of each cuff muscle (P > .50 each), or the global fatty infiltration index (P = .32). Similarly, no correlations were detected between vitamin D level and postoperative Sugaya type (P = .66) or any of the functional outcome scores (P > .50 each). Low serum vitamin D level was not related to tear size, extent of retraction, or the degree of fatty infiltration in cuff muscles. It also had no significant relationships with postoperative structural integrity and functional outcomes after

  20. Inhibition of prolyl 4-hydroxylase decreases muscle fibrosis following chronic rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Gumucio, J. P.; Flood, M. D.; Bedi, A.; Kramer, H. F.; Russell, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Rotator cuff tears are among the most frequent upper extremity injuries. Current treatment strategies do not address the poor quality of the muscle and tendon following chronic rotator cuff tears. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that activates many genes that are important in skeletal muscle regeneration. HIF-1α is inhibited under normal physiological conditions by the HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases (PHDs). In this study, we used a pharmacological PHD inhibitor, GSK1120360A, to enhance the activity of HIF-1α following the repair of a chronic cuff tear, and measured muscle fibre contractility, fibrosis, gene expression, and enthesis mechanics. Methods Chronic supraspinatus tears were induced in adult rats, and repaired 28 days later. Rats received 0 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg GSK1120360A daily. Collagen content, contractility, fibre type distribution and size, the expression of genes involved in fibrosis, lipid accumulation, atrophy and inflammation, and the mechanical properties of the enthesis were then assessed two weeks following surgical repair. Results At two weeks following repair, treatment groups showed increased muscle mass but there was a 15% decrease in force production in the 10 mg/kg group from controls, and no difference between the 0 mg/kg and the 3 mg/kg groups. There was a decrease in the expression of several gene transcripts related to matrix accumulation and fibrosis, and a 50% decrease in collagen content in both treated groups compared with controls. Additionally, the expression of inflammatory genes was reduced in the treated groups compared with controls. Finally, PHD inhibition improved the maximum stress and displacement to failure in repaired tendons. Conclusions GSK1120360A resulted in improved enthesis mechanics with variable effects on muscle function. PHD inhibition may be beneficial for connective tissue injuries in which muscle atrophy has not occurred. Cite this article: J. P. Gumucio

  1. Inhibition of prolyl 4-hydroxylase decreases muscle fibrosis following chronic rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Gumucio, J P; Flood, M D; Bedi, A; Kramer, H F; Russell, A J; Mendias, C L

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are among the most frequent upper extremity injuries. Current treatment strategies do not address the poor quality of the muscle and tendon following chronic rotator cuff tears. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that activates many genes that are important in skeletal muscle regeneration. HIF-1α is inhibited under normal physiological conditions by the HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases (PHDs). In this study, we used a pharmacological PHD inhibitor, GSK1120360A, to enhance the activity of HIF-1α following the repair of a chronic cuff tear, and measured muscle fibre contractility, fibrosis, gene expression, and enthesis mechanics. Chronic supraspinatus tears were induced in adult rats, and repaired 28 days later. Rats received 0 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg GSK1120360A daily. Collagen content, contractility, fibre type distribution and size, the expression of genes involved in fibrosis, lipid accumulation, atrophy and inflammation, and the mechanical properties of the enthesis were then assessed two weeks following surgical repair. At two weeks following repair, treatment groups showed increased muscle mass but there was a 15% decrease in force production in the 10 mg/kg group from controls, and no difference between the 0 mg/kg and the 3 mg/kg groups. There was a decrease in the expression of several gene transcripts related to matrix accumulation and fibrosis, and a 50% decrease in collagen content in both treated groups compared with controls. Additionally, the expression of inflammatory genes was reduced in the treated groups compared with controls. Finally, PHD inhibition improved the maximum stress and displacement to failure in repaired tendons. GSK1120360A resulted in improved enthesis mechanics with variable effects on muscle function. PHD inhibition may be beneficial for connective tissue injuries in which muscle atrophy has not occurred.Cite this article: J. P. Gumucio, M. D. Flood, A. Bedi, H. F. Kramer, A. J

  2. Reporting rotator cuff tears on magnetic resonance arthrography using the Snyder’s arthroscopic classification

    PubMed Central

    Aliprandi, Alberto; Messina, Carmelo; Arrigoni, Paolo; Bandirali, Michele; Di Leo, Giovanni; Longo, Stefano; Magnani, Sandro; Mattiuz, Chiara; Randelli, Filippo; Sdao, Silvana; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Randelli, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) in evaluating rotator cuff tears (RCTs) using Snyder’s classification for reporting. METHODS One hundred and twenty-six patients (64 males, 62 females; median age 55 years) underwent shoulder MRA and arthroscopy, which represented our reference standard. Surgical arthroscopic reports were reviewed and the reported Snyder’s classification was recorded. MRA examinations were evaluated by two independent radiologists (14 and 5 years’ experience) using Snyder’s classification system, blinded to arthroscopy. Agreement between arthroscopy and MRA on partial- and full-thickness tears was calculated, first regardless of their extent. Then, analysis took into account also the extent of the tear. Interobserver agreement was also calculated the quadratically-weighted Cohen kappa statistics. RESULTS On arthroscopy, 71/126 patients (56%) had a full-thickness RCT. The remaining 55/126 patients (44%) had a partial-thickness RCT. Regardless of tear extent, out of 71 patients with arthroscopically-confirmed full-thickness RCTs, 66 (93%) were correctly scored by both readers. All 55 patients with arthroscopic diagnosis of partial-thickness RCT were correctly assigned as having a partial-thickness RCT at MRA by both readers. Interobserver reproducibility analysis showed total agreement between the two readers in distinguishing partial-thickness from full-thickness RCTs, regardless of tear extent (k = 1.000). With regard to tear extent, in patients in whom a complete tear was correctly diagnosed, correct tear extent was detected in 61/66 cases (92%); in the remaining 5/66 cases (8%), tear extent was underestimated. Agreement was k = 0.955. Interobserver agreement was total (k = 1.000). CONCLUSION MRA shows high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility in evaluating RCTs using the Snyder’s classification for reporting. Snyder’s classification may be adopted for routine reporting of MRA. PMID

  3. Return to Sport After Rotator Cuff Tear Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Klouche, Shahnaz; Lefevre, Nicolas; Herman, Serge; Gerometta, Antoine; Bohu, Yoann

    2016-07-01

    One of the most frequent demands from athletes after rotator cuff tear repair is to return to sport, if possible at the same level of play. The main goal of this study was to determine the rate of return to sport after treatment of rotator cuff tears. Meta-analysis and systematic review. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were followed to perform this systematic review and meta-analysis of the results in the literature, as well as for the presentation of results. A search of the literature was performed on the electronic databases MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. The quality of the included studies was evaluated according to the MINORS (Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies) checklist. Inclusion criteria were studies in English evaluating return to sport after treatment of traumatic, degenerative, partial or full-thickness rotator cuff tears in patients practicing a sport regularly, whatever the level, all ages and sports included. The main judgment criterion was the number of patients who returned to a sports activity after treatment of a rotator cuff tear. The criterion was analyzed in 2 ways: return to sport (yes/no) and the level of play (identical or higher/lower level). Twenty-five studies were reviewed, including 859 patients (683 athletes), all treated surgically after a mean follow-up of 3.4 years (range, 0.3-13.4 years). The level of sports was recorded in 23 studies or 635 (93%) athletes and included 286 competitive or professional athletes and 349 recreational athletes. The most commonly practiced sports were baseball (224 participants), tennis (104 participants), and golf (54 participants). The overall rate of return to sport was 84.7% (95% CI, 77.6%-89.8%), including 65.9% (95% CI, 54.9%-75.4%) at an equivalent level of play, after 4 to 17 months. Of the professional and competitive athletes, 49.9% (95% CI, 35.3-64.6%) returned to the same level of play. Most

  4. Arthroscopic Repair for Chronic Massive Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Henry, Patrick; Wasserstein, David; Park, Sam; Dwyer, Tim; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Slobogean, Gerard; Schemitsch, Emil

    2015-12-01

    To systematically review the available evidence for arthroscopic repair of chronic massive rotator cuff tears and identify patient demographics, pre- and post-operative functional limitations, reparability and repair techniques, and retear rates. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to identify all clinical papers describing arthroscopic repair of chronic massive rotator cuff tears. Papers were excluded if a definition of "massive" was not provided, if the definition of "massive" was considered inappropriate by agreement between the 2 reviewers, or if patients with smaller tears were also included in the study population. Study quality and clinical outcome data were pooled and summarized. There were 18 papers that met the eligibility criteria; they involved 954 patients with a mean age of 63 (range, 37 to 87), 48% of whom were female. There were 5 prospective and 13 retrospective study designs. The overall study quality was poor according to the Modified Coleman Methodology Score. Of the 954 repairs, 81% were complete repairs and 19% were partial repairs. The follow-up range was between 33 and 52 months, and the mean duration between symptom onset and surgery was 24 months. Single-row repairs were performed in 56% or patients, and double-row repairs were performed in 44%. A pooled analysis demonstrated an improvement in visual analog scale from 5.9 to 1.7, active range of motion from 125° to 169°, and the Constant-Murley score from 49 to 74. The pooled retear rate was 79%. Arthroscopic repair of chronic massive rotator cuff tears is associated with complete repair in the majority of cases and consistently improves pain, range of motion, and functional outcome scores; however, the retear rate is high. Existing research on massive rotator cuff repair is limited to poor- to fair-quality studies. Level IV, systematic review including Level IV studies. Copyright © 2015

  5. Suprascapular neuropathy in massive rotator cuff tears with severe fatty degeneration in the infraspinatus muscle.

    PubMed

    Kong, B Y; Kim, S H; Kim, D H; Joung, H Y; Jang, Y H; Oh, J H

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to describe the atypical pattern of increased fatty degeneration in the infraspinatus muscle compared with the supraspinatus in patients with a massive rotator cuff tear. We also wished to describe the nerve conduction and electromyography findings in these patients. A cohort of patients undergoing surgery for a massive rotator cuff tear was identified and their clinical records obtained. Their MRI images were reviewed to ascertain the degree of retraction of the torn infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles, and the degree of fatty degeneration in both muscles was recorded. Nerve conduction studies were also performed in those patients who showed more degeneration in the infraspinatus than in the supraspinatus. Out of a total of 396 patients who underwent surgery for a massive rotator cuff tear between 2006 and 2015, 35 who had more severe fatty degeneration in the infraspinatus than in the supraspinatus were identified. There were 13 men and 22 women. Their mean age was 67.2 years (56 to 81). A total of 20 (57%) had grade 4 fatty degeneration as classified by Fuchs et al, in the infraspinatus. Patte grade 3 muscle retraction was seen in 25 patients (71%). In all, eight patients (23%) had abnormal nerve conduction studies. The mean retraction of the infraspinatus was 3.6 cm (2.1 to 4.8) in patients with more severe fatty degeneration in the infraspinatus, versus 3.0 cm (1.7 to 5.5) in those with more severe degeneration in the supraspinatus (p = 0.003). The retraction ratios were 0.98 (0.61 to 1.57) and 0.77 (0.38 to 1.92), respectively (p < 0.001). Fatty degeneration affecting the infraspinatus more than the supraspinatus may be, in the context of a massive rotator cuff tear, due to entrapment of the suprascapular nerve at the spinoglenoid notch. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1505-9. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  6. Healing rates for challenging rotator cuff tears utilizing an acellular human dermal reinforcement graft

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents a retrospective case series of the clinical and structural outcomes (1.5 T MRI) of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with acellular human dermal graft reinforcement performed by a single surgeon in patients with large, massive, and previously repaired rotator cuff tears. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients with mean anterior to posterior tear size 3.87 ± 0.99 cm (median 4 cm, range 2.5–6 cm) were enrolled in the study and were evaluated for structural integrity using a high-field (1.5 T) MRI at an average of 16.8 months after surgery. The Constant-Murley scores, the Flexilevel Scale of Shoulder Function (Flex SF), scapular plane abduction, and strength were analyzed. Results: MRI results showed that the rotator cuff repair was intact in 85.7% (12/14) of the patients studied. Two patients had a Sugaya Type IV recurrent tear (2 of 14; 14.3%), which were both less than 1 cm. The Constant score increased from a preoperative mean of 49.72 (range 13–74) to a postoperative mean of 81.07 (range 45–92) (P value = 0.009). Flexilevel Scale of Shoulder Function (Flex SF) Score normalized to a 100-point scale improved from a preoperative mean of 53.69 to a postoperative mean of 79.71 (P value = 0.003). The Pain Score improved from a preoperative mean of 7.73 to a postoperative mean of 13.57 (P value = 0.008). Scapular plane abduction improved from a preoperative mean of 113.64° to a postoperative mean of 166.43° (P value = 0.010). The strength subset score improved from a preoperative mean of 1.73 kg to a postoperative mean of 7.52 kg (P value = 0.006). Conclusions: This study presents a safe and effective technique that may help improve the healing rates of large, massive, and revision rotator cuff tears with the use of an acellular human dermal allograft. This technique demonstrated favorable structural healing rates and statistically improved functional outcomes in the near term. Level of Evidence: 4. Retrospective case series. PMID

  7. Perivascular Stem Cells Diminish Muscle Atrophy Following Massive Rotator Cuff Tears in a Small Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Eliasberg, Claire D; Dar, Ayelet; Jensen, Andrew R; Murray, Iain R; Hardy, Winters R; Kowalski, Tomasz J; Garagozlo, Cameron A; Natsuhara, Kyle M; Khan, Adam Z; McBride, Owen J; Cha, Peter I; Kelley, Benjamin V; Evseenko, Denis; Feeley, Brian T; McAllister, David R; Péault, Bruno; Petrigliano, Frank A

    2017-02-15

    Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of shoulder pain and often necessitate operative repair. Muscle atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty infiltration can develop after rotator cuff tears, which may compromise surgical outcomes. This study investigated the regenerative potential of 2 human adipose-derived progenitor cell lineages in a murine model of massive rotator cuff tears. Ninety immunodeficient mice were used (15 groups of 6 mice). Mice were assigned to 1 of 3 surgical procedures: sham, supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon transection (TT), or TT and denervation via suprascapular nerve transection (TT + DN). Perivascular stem cells (PSCs) were harvested from human lipoaspirate and sorted using fluorescence-activated cell sorting into pericytes (CD146 CD34 CD45 CD31) and adventitial cells (CD146 CD34 CD45 CD31). Mice received no injection, injection with saline solution, or injection with pericytes or adventitial cells either at the time of the index procedure ("prophylactic") or at 2 weeks following the index surgery ("therapeutic"). Muscles were harvested 6 weeks following the index procedure. Wet muscle weight, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, fibrosis, and fatty infiltration were analyzed. PSC treatment after TT (prophylactic or therapeutic injections) and after TT + DN (therapeutic injections) resulted in less muscle weight loss and greater muscle fiber cross-sectional area than was demonstrated for controls (p < 0.05). The TT + DN groups treated with pericytes at either time point or with adventitial cells at 2 weeks postoperatively had less fibrosis than the TT + DN controls. There was less fatty infiltration in the TT groups treated with pericytes at either time point or with adventitial cells at the time of surgery compared with controls. Our findings demonstrated significantly less muscle atrophy in the groups treated with PSCs compared with controls. This suggests that the use of PSCs may have a role in the prevention of muscle atrophy without leading

  8. Effects of Rotator Cuff Pathology and Physical Therapy on In Vivo Shoulder Motion and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With a Symptomatic Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear.

    PubMed

    Baumer, Timothy G; Chan, Derek; Mende, Veronica; Dischler, Jack; Zauel, Roger; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Siegal, Daniel S; Divine, George; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Bey, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Physical therapy (PT) is often prescribed for patients with rotator cuff tears. The extent to which PT influences strength, range of motion (ROM), and patient-reported outcomes has been studied extensively, but the effect of PT on in vivo joint kinematics is not well understood. To assess the influence of symptomatic rotator cuff pathology and the effects of PT on shoulder motion, strength, and patient-reported outcomes. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear and 25 age-matched asymptomatic control subjects were recruited. Shoulder motion was measured using a biplane radiography imaging system, strength was assessed with a Biodex dynamometer, and patient-reported outcomes were assessed using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. Data were acquired from the patients before and after 8 weeks of physical therapy. Data were acquired at 1 time point for the control subjects. Compared with the control subjects, patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear had significantly worse pain/function scores (P < .01); less ROM (P < .01); lower abduction (ABD), external rotation (ER), and internal rotation (IR) strength (P < .01); less scapulothoracic posterior tilt (P = .05); and lower glenohumeral joint elevation (P < .01). Physical therapy resulted in improved pain/function scores (P < .01), increased ROM (P < .02), increased scapulothoracic posterior tilt (P = .05), increased glenohumeral joint elevation (P = .01), and decreased acromiohumeral distance (AHD) (P = .02). Compared with age-matched controls, patients had worse pain/function scores, less ROM, and lower ABD, ER, and IR strength. Patients also had less scapulothoracic anteroposterior tilt, less glenohumeral joint elevation, and an altered glenohumeral joint contact path. PT resulted in improved pain/function scores, increased ROM, greater posterior scapulothoracic tilt, increased glenohumeral joint elevation, an increased

  9. Effects of Rotator Cuff Pathology and Physical Therapy on In Vivo Shoulder Motion and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With a Symptomatic Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    Baumer, Timothy G.; Chan, Derek; Mende, Veronica; Dischler, Jack; Zauel, Roger; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Siegal, Daniel S.; Divine, George; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Bey, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical therapy (PT) is often prescribed for patients with rotator cuff tears. The extent to which PT influences strength, range of motion (ROM), and patient-reported outcomes has been studied extensively, but the effect of PT on in vivo joint kinematics is not well understood. Purpose: To assess the influence of symptomatic rotator cuff pathology and the effects of PT on shoulder motion, strength, and patient-reported outcomes. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twenty-five patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear and 25 age-matched asymptomatic control subjects were recruited. Shoulder motion was measured using a biplane radiography imaging system, strength was assessed with a Biodex dynamometer, and patient-reported outcomes were assessed using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. Data were acquired from the patients before and after 8 weeks of physical therapy. Data were acquired at 1 time point for the control subjects. Results: Compared with the control subjects, patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear had significantly worse pain/function scores (P < .01); less ROM (P < .01); lower abduction (ABD), external rotation (ER), and internal rotation (IR) strength (P < .01); less scapulothoracic posterior tilt (P = .05); and lower glenohumeral joint elevation (P < .01). Physical therapy resulted in improved pain/function scores (P < .01), increased ROM (P < .02), increased scapulothoracic posterior tilt (P = .05), increased glenohumeral joint elevation (P = .01), and decreased acromiohumeral distance (AHD) (P = .02). Conclusion: Compared with age-matched controls, patients had worse pain/function scores, less ROM, and lower ABD, ER, and IR strength. Patients also had less scapulothoracic anteroposterior tilt, less glenohumeral joint elevation, and an altered glenohumeral joint contact path. PT resulted in improved pain/function scores, increased ROM, greater posterior

  10. Limited diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and clinical tests for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Matthias; Schmitt, Cornelia; Haupert, Alexander; Kohn, Dieter; Lorbach, Olaf

    2017-09-23

    The reliable diagnosis of partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff is still elusive in clinical practise. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging and clinical tests for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff as well as the combination of these parameters. 334 consecutive shoulder arthroscopies for rotator cuff pathologies performed during the time period between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively for the findings of common clinical signs for rotator cuff lesions and preoperative MR imaging. These were compared with the intraoperative arthroscopic findings as "gold standard". The reports of the MR imaging were evaluated with regard to the integrity of the rotator cuff. The Ellman Classification was used to define partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff in accordance with the arthroscopic findings. Descriptive statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. MR imaging showed 80 partial-thickness and 70 full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. The arthroscopic examination confirmed 64 partial-thickness tears of which 52 needed debridement or refixation of the rotator cuff. Sensitivity for MR imaging to identify partial-thickness tears was 51.6%, specificity 77.2%, positive predictive value 41.3% and negative predictive value 83.7%. For the Jobe-test, sensitivity was 64.1%, specificity 43.2%, positive predictive value 25.9% and negative predictive value 79.5%. Sensitivity for the Impingement-sign was 76.7%, specificity 46.6%, positive predictive value 30.8% and negative predictive value 86.5%. For the combination of MR imaging, Jobe-test and Impingement-sign sensitivity was 46.9%, specificity 85.4%, positive predictive value 50% and negative predictive value 83.8%. The diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging and clinical tests (Jobe-test and Impingement-sign) alone is limited for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. Additionally

  11. Initial treatment of complete rotator cuff tear and transition to surgical treatment: systematic review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Wahab, Taiceer A.; Betancourt, Jean P.; Hassan, Fadi; Thani, Saeed Al.; Choueiri, Hened; Jain, Nitin B.; Malanga, Gerard A.; Murrell, William D.; Prasad, Anil; Verborgt, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background rotator cuff tear affects many people. Natural history, and evidence for non-operative treatment remains limited. Our objective is to assess evidence available for the efficacy and morbidity of commonly used systemic medications, physiotherapy, and injections alongside evaluating any negative long-term effects. Methods a systematic search was performed of PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE and CINAHL dates (1 January 1960 – 1 December 2014), search terms: ‘rotator cuff tear’, ‘natural history’, ‘atraumatic’, ‘injection’, ‘physiotherapy’ or ‘physical therapy’, ‘injection’, ‘corticosteroid’, ‘PRP‘, ‘MSC’, risk of conservative treatment’, and ‘surgical indication’. Results eleven studies were included. The mean Coleman Methodology Score modified for conservative therapy is 69.21 (range 88–44) (SD 12.31). This included 2 RCTs, 7 prospective, and 2 retrospective studies. Evidence suggests it is safe to monitor symptomatic rotator cuff tears, as tear size and symptoms are not correlated with pain, function, and/or ultimate outcome. Conclusions complete rotator cuff tears may be effectively treated with injections, exercise in the short and intermediate terms respectively. Negative effect of corticosteroids on rotator cuff tissue has not been demonstrated. Timing to end conservative treatment is unknown, but likely indicated when a patient demonstrates increased weakness and loss of function not recoverable by physiotherapy. PMID:27331030

  12. Arthroscopic repair of large U-shaped rotator cuff tears without margin convergence versus repair of crescent- or L-shaped tears.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Young; Jung, Seok Won; Jeon, Seung-Hyub; Cho, Hyoung-Weon; Choi, Jin-Ho; Oh, Kyung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    For large-sized tears of the rotator cuff, data according to the tear shape have not yet been reported for repair methodology, configuration, and subsequent integrity. The retear rate after the repair of large mobile tears, such as crescent- or L-shaped tears, is believed to be lower compared with retear rates after the repair of large U-shaped tears that are accompanied by anterior or posterior leaves of the rotator cuff. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were collected and analyzed from 95 consecutive patients with a large-sized rotator cuff tear who underwent arthroscopic suture-bridge repair. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those having crescent- or L-shaped tears (mobile tear group, 53 patients) and those having U-shaped tears (U-shaped tear group, 42 patients). The integrity of the repaired constructs was determined by ultrasonography at 4.5, 12, and 24 months. Moreover, clinical evaluations were performed by using the Constant score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and muscle strength at intervals of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. On ultrasonography at 4.5, 12, and 24 months, a retear was detected in 6, 2, and 1 patients in the mobile tear group and in 5, 2, and 1 patients in the U-shaped tear group, respectively. Significant differences in retear rates were not detected between the groups overall or at each time point. Moreover, clinical scores were similar between groups, except for the presence of a temporarily higher Constant score at 12 months in the mobile tear group. With regard to shoulder strength, between-group comparisons indicated no statistically significant difference, either in abduction or external rotation, except for the presence of temporarily higher external rotation strength at 3 months in the mobile tear group. Arthroscopic repair of large-sized rotator cuff tears yielded substantial improvements in shoulder function, regardless of tear retraction, during midterm follow-up. Moreover, the

  13. Deltoid muscle shape analysis with magnetic resonance imaging in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It seems appropriate to assume, that for a full and strong global shoulder function a normally innervated and active deltoid muscle is indispensable. We set out to analyse the size and shape of the deltoid muscle on MR-arthrographies, and analyse its influence on shoulder function and its adaption (i.e. atrophy) for reduced shoulder function. Methods The fatty infiltration (Goutallier stages), atrophy (tangent sign) and selective myotendinous retraction of the rotator cuff, as well as the thickness and the area of seven anatomically defined segments of the deltoid muscle were measured on MR-arthrographies and correlated with shoulder function (i.e. active abduction). Included were 116 patients, suffering of a rotator cuff tear with shoulder mobility ranging from pseudoparalysis to free mobility. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine the distribution of the data before either Spearman or Pearson correlation and a multiple regression was applied to reveal the correlations. Results Our developed method for measuring deltoid area and thickness showed to be reproducible with excellent interobserver correlations (r = 0.814–0.982). The analysis of influencing factors on active abduction revealed a weak influence of the amount of SSP tendon (r = −0.25; p < 0.01) and muscle retraction (r = −0.27; p < 0.01) as well as the stage of fatty muscle infiltration (GFDI: r = −0.36; p < 0.01). Unexpectedly however, we were unable to detect a relation of the deltoid muscle shape with the degree of active glenohumeral abduction. Furthermore, long-standing rotator cuff tears did not appear to influence the deltoid shape, i.e. did not lead to muscle atrophy. Conclusions Our data support that in chronic rotator cuff tears, there seems to be no disadvantage to exhausting conservative treatment and to delay implantation of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, as the shape of deltoid muscle seems only to be influenced by natural aging

  14. The role of tendon and subacromial bursa in rotator cuff tear pain: a clinical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Chillemi, Claudio; Petrozza, Vincenzo; Franceschini, Vincenzo; Garro, Luca; Pacchiarotti, Alberto; Porta, Natale; Cirenza, Mirko; Salate Santone, Francesco; Castagna, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate a possible association of shoulder pain with the clinical features and the histopathological changes occurring in the ruptured tendon and subacromial bursa of patients with rotator cuff tear. One hundred and eighty patients were clinically evaluated with the constant score and the visual analogue pain scale. Radiographs and MRI were performed. The chronology of the rupture, the muscle fatty degeneration according to Goutallier's scale and the tear size were evaluated. For each patient, a biopsy of the supraspinatus tendon and subacromial bursa was performed during arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair and the specimens were histopathologically analysed. Clinically, the shoulder was more painful in females, in the presence of a chronic cuff lesion and a low Goutallier's grade (P < 0.05). No association was found between pain and age of the patient and between pain and tear size. Histologically, hypertrophy and inflammation of the tendon and hypertrophy, inflammation, oedema and necrosis of the subacromial bursa were directly associated with pain (P < 0.05). Pain decreased significantly in the presence of fatty metaplasia and necrosis of the tendon (P < 0.05). This study defines the main clinical and histopathological features of painful rotator cuff tear. In particular, a greater association of pain was observed with the histopathological changes in the bursa compared with those in the rotator cuff. Considering that the bursa plays also an essential role during the healing process, this "new" role of the subacromial bursa as pain generator has important repercussions in both pharmacological and surgical treatments of rotator cuff tears. IV.

  15. Diagnostic shortcomings of magnetic resonance arthrography to evaluate partial rotator cuff tears in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Eric W; Eisner, Eric A; Kruk, Peter G; Roocroft, Joanna H; Dwek, Jerry D

    2015-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests an increase in the incidence of partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears in adolescent athletes, but the accuracy of diagnostic studies has not been previously assessed in this cohort. This study was performed to assess the ability of magnetic resonance imaging with arthrography (MRIa) to diagnose partial rotator cuff (PRC) pathology in the adolescent age group. All patients under the age of 19 years who underwent shoulder arthroscopy, between August 2008 and August 2010, were grouped based on the presence of a PRC tear diagnosed by either MRIa or arthroscopy. The control cohort included children without evidence of an intraoperative PRC. Surgical findings were then correlated with the preoperative MRIa findings and the accuracy of MRIa reading. Interclass coefficient was then determined for the MRIa reviewers. Thirty-one of 89 adolescents (mean age, 15.9 y; 36% girls and 64% boys) who underwent arthroscopic shoulder surgery were found to have radiographic or arthroscopic evidence of a PRC injury. There were 17 boys and 14 girls in the PRC group, with a mean age of 15.6 years. The PRC injuries involved either the supraspinatus tendon, infraspinatus tendon, or both. MRIa was 44% sensitive and 87% specific, with a positive predictive value of 64% and a negative predictive value of 74% with arthroscopic findings used as the gold standard. The ICC between reviewers was κ=0.57, with an absolute agreement of 84%. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the MRIa with regard to adolescent PRC injuries was 72%. MRIa was found to be specific, but not sensitive for the diagnosis of this pathology. The high false-negative rate seen in this adolescent cohort indicates that a PRC injury may be present even with a negative MRIa. Therefore, if clinical suspicion indicates a PRC injury, then the treating physician should consider management for rotator cuff pathology despite negative MRIa findings. Level III--retrospective cohort study.

  16. Arthroscopic treatment of rotator cuff disease.

    PubMed

    Gartsman, G M

    1995-01-01

    Rotator cuff disease represents a spectrum of tendon lesions including inflammation of an intrinsically normal tendon, tendon fibrosis, partial-thickness tears, complete tears, and cuff tear arthropathy. An in-depth analysis of the entire subject is beyond the scope of this article. This article will focus on the arthroscopic management of the spectrum of rotator cuff disease in an attempt to provide a timely summary of the present state of knowledge. Five stages of rotator cuff disease will be reviewed: stage 2 impingement, partial-thickness cuff tears, complete-thickness rotator cuff tears, irreparable rotator cuff tears, and cuff tear arthropathy. In preparing this article I have assumed that the reader is familiar with the diagnosis of rotator cuff lesions through the use of appropriate patient history, physical examination, and radiologic studies.

  17. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the shoulder associated with massive rotator cuff tear treated by arthroscopic synovectomy and debridement.

    PubMed

    Gumina, S; Carbone, S; Campagna, V; Castagna, A; Della Rocca, C; Rocca, C D; Giannicola, G

    2013-06-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare condition. Our purpose is to describe the largest series of patients with shoulder PVNS, massive irreparable rotator cuff tear, and glenohumeral osteoarthritis treated with arthroscopic debridement and synovectomy. We treated 9 patients with PVNS of the shoulder, irreparable rotator cuff tear, and slight glenohumeral arthropathy (group I). Patients underwent arthroscopic synovectomy and debridement. Results [constant score (CS) and subjective shoulder value (SSV)] were compared to those obtained from a control group (group II) of 20 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopic debridement for irreparable cuff tear associated with hemorrhagic synovitis with no or slight glenohumeral arthropathy. Histologic examination was obtained in all cases to obtain the correct diagnosis. The preoperative shoulder function in group I was reduced with respect to group II. Upon follow-up, CS and SSV were lower in group I. Preoperatively, the differences relating to the CS value and to each item of the score were always statistically significant; instead, at follow-up, significant differences emerged in the CS, ADL, and ROM. At follow-up, significant differences emerged between CS of group I and of group II without glenohumeral arthropathy. Differences using the SSV were always statistically significant. The poor functional outcome of patients affected by PVNS can be attributed to the coexistence of the irreparable cuff tear and to the glenohumeral arthropathy. All patients with PVNS had shoulder osteoarthritis; it cannot be simply attributed to natural history of massive irreparable cuff tears, but to the pigmented villonodular synovitis.

  18. Suprascapular neuropathy in the setting of rotator cuff tears: study protocol for a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sachinis, Nikolaos Platon; Boutsiadis, Achilleas; Papagiannopoulos, Sotirios; Ditsios, Konstantinos; Christodoulou, Anastasios; Papadopoulos, Pericles

    2016-11-22

    It has been indicated that rotator cuff tears, especially large or massive ones, can cause suprascapular neuropathy. When such a diagnosis has been established, it is still unknown whether an arthroscopic release of the superior transverse scapular ligament during cuff repair can change the course of this neuropathy. This is a single-center, double-blinded randomized controlled trial for which 42 patients with large or massive repairable rotator cuff tears and suprascapular neuropathy will be recruited and followed up at 6 and 12 months. Nerve function will be measured by nerve conduction and electromyography studies preoperatively and at the selected follow-up periods. Patients will be randomly divided into equally numbered groups, the first one being the control group. Patients of this group will undergo arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff without combined arthroscopic release of the superior transverse scapular ligament; in the second group the ligament will be released. The primary objective is to test the null hypothesis that arthroscopic repair of large/massive rotator cuff tears in patients with combined suprascapular neuropathy provides equivalent outcomes to one-stage arthroscopic cuff repair where the superior suprascapular ligament is additionally released. The secondary objective is to search for a relation between rotator cuff tear size and degree of suprascapular nerve recovery. The tertiary objective is to demonstrate any relation between rotator cuff muscle fatty infiltration grade and degree of suprascapular nerve function. Patients, clinicians during follow-up clinics and the neurologist will be blinded to the type of surgery performed. To the best of our knowledge, we are unaware of any prospective, randomized double-blinded studies with similar objectives. So far, the evidence suggests a positive correlation between massive rotator cuff tears and suprascapular neuropathy. However, there is mixed evidence suggesting that neuropathy can be

  19. Rotator cuff tear imaging in patients over 70 years: specific MRI findings?

    PubMed

    Kany, J; Flurin, P-H; Richardi, G; Hardy, P

    2013-12-01

    During the symposium held by the French Arthroscopy Society on rotator cuff tears in patients over 70 years of age, the absence of studies into potential specific pathological features in this age group was pointed out. Here, our main objective was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in this patient population. Tendons and muscles are smaller, lamellar dissection more prominent, and dystrophic changes more marked in patients over 70 years of age. We retrospectively studied 50 patients with isolated supraspinatus tears, including 25 younger than 50 and 25 older than 70 years of age. Tear size and retraction were evaluated according to Patte; tendon thickness, lamellar dissection, and fatty infiltration according to Goutallier; muscle size according to Thomazeau; and the tangent sign according to Zanetti. In contradiction to our study hypothesis, lateral tendon thickness was similar in the two age groups. Medial thickness of the tendon-muscle junction, however, was greater in the younger group. Lamellar dissection was more marked and fatty infiltration more severe in the older group. As expected, marked muscle wasting and a positive tangent sign were noted in over two-thirds of patients in the older group. This preliminary study in a small number of patients identified specific MRI features of supraspinatus tears in patients older than 70 years compared to younger patients. A larger study would be useful to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of serum fibrinogen levels in patients with rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Berton, Alessandra; Spiezia, Filippo; Loppini, Mattia; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Although rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy is a frequent pathology of the shoulder, the real understanding of its aetiopathogenesis is still unclear. Several studies showed that RC tendinopathy is more frequent in patients with hyperglycemia, diabetes, obesity, or metabolic syndrome. This paper aims to evaluate the serum concentration of fibrinogen in patients with RC tears. Metabolic disorders have been related to high concentration of serum fibrinogen and the activity of fibrinogen has been proven to be crucial in the development of microvascular damage. Thus, it may produce progression of RC degeneration by reducing the vascular supply of tendons. We report the results of a cross-sectional frequency-matched case-control study comparing the serum concentration of fibrinogen of patients with RC tears with that of a control group of patients without history of RC tears who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy. We choose to enrol in the control group patients with pathology of the lower limb with a likely mechanic, not metabolic, cause, different from tendon pathology. We found no statistically significant differences in serum concentration of fibrinogen when comparing patients with RC tears and patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy (P = 0.5). Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of fibrinogen in RC disease.

  1. Does autologous leukocyte-platelet-rich plasma improve tendon healing in arthroscopic repair of large or massive rotator cuff tears?

    PubMed

    Charousset, Christophe; Zaoui, Amine; Bellaïche, Laurence; Piterman, Michel

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with the use of leukocyte-platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) in patients with large or massive rotator cuff tears. A comparative cohort of patients with large or massive rotator cuff tears undergoing arthroscopic repair was studied. Two consecutive groups of patients were included: rotator cuff repairs with L-PRP injection (group 1, n = 35) and rotator cuff repairs without L-PRP injection (group 2, n = 35). A double-row cross-suture cuff repair was performed by a single surgeon with the same rehabilitation protocol. Patients were clinically evaluated with the Constant score; Simple Shoulder Test score; University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score; and strength measurements by use of a handheld dynamometer. Rotator cuff healing was evaluated by postoperative MRI using the Sugaya classification (type 1 to type 5). We prospectively evaluated the 2 groups at a minimum 2-year follow-up. The results did not show differences in cuff healing between the 2 groups (P = .16). The size of recurrent tears (type 4 v type 5), however, was significantly smaller in group 1 (P = .008). There was no statistically significant difference in the recurrent tear rate (types 4 and 5) between the 2 groups (P = .65). There was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2 in terms of University of California, Los Angeles score (29.1 and 30.3, respectively; P = .90); Simple Shoulder Test score (9.9 and 10.2, respectively; P = .94); Constant score (77.3 and 78.1, respectively; P = .82); and strength (7.5 and 7.0, respectively; P = .51). In our study the use of autologous L-PRP did not improve the quality of tendon healing in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of large or massive rotator cuff tears based on postoperative MRI evaluation. The only significant advantage was that the L-PRP patients had smaller iterative tears. However, the functional outcome was similar in

  2. Iatrogenic glenoid fracture after brisement manipulation for the stiffness of shoulder in patients with rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Kim, Jong Ho; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2013-11-01

    In combined stiffness with rotator cuff tear, the brisement manipulation with or without capsular release has been more common procedure prior to the rotator cuff repair. It is known to be relatively safe and easy procedure with rare complications. However, the present authors found the iatrogenic fracture of anteroinferior portion of glenoid after brisement manipulation during the arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The patient was followed up with the routine postoperative protocol for rotator cuff repair, which was composed of 4 weeks of protection with abduction brace, passive and active assisted range of motion exercise afterward, and progressive strengthening exercise. Two years after surgery, the patient showed improved clinical score and healing of fracture fragment. However, iatrogenic glenoid fracture should be kept in mind when the brisement manipulation is performed during arthroscopic surgery.

  3. Does Additional Biceps Augmentation Improve Rotator Cuff Healing and Clinical Outcomes in Anterior L-Shaped Rotator Cuff Tears? Clinical Comparisons With Arthroscopic Partial Repair.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon Sang; Lee, Juyeob; Kim, Rag Gyu; Ko, Young-Won; Shin, Sang-Jin

    2017-08-01

    The repair of anterior L-shaped tears is usually difficult because of the lack of anterior rotator cuff tendon to cover the footprint. The biceps tendon is usually exposed from the retracted anterolateral corner of the torn tendon and can be easily used to augment rotator cuff repair. Hypothesis/Purpose: This study compared the clinical outcomes of the biceps augmentation technique with those of partial tendon repair for the arthroscopic treatment of large anterior L-shaped rotator cuff tears to evaluate the role of additional biceps augmentation in tendon healing. We hypothesized that the biceps augmentation technique would lead to a lower rotator cuff tendon retear rate and provide satisfactory functional outcomes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. This study included 64 patients with anterior L-shaped rotator cuff tears who underwent arthroscopic repair. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A (31 patients) underwent repair of an anterior L-shaped tear combined with biceps augmentation, and group B (33 patients) had a partially repaired tendon whose footprint was exposed after repair without undue tension on the retracted tendon. Clinical evaluations were performed using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Constant score, muscle strength, visual analog scale for pain, and patient satisfaction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for tendon integrity at 6 months postoperatively. The mean period of follow-up was 29.1 ± 3.5 months (range, 24-40 months). The mean ASES and Constant scores significantly improved from 52.8 ± 10.6 and 43.2 ± 9.9 preoperatively to 88.2 ± 6.9 and 86.8 ± 6.2 at final follow-up in group A ( P < .001) and from 53.0 ± 11.8 and 44.3 ± 11.3 preoperatively to 87.4 ± 7.2 and 87.9 ± 7.3 at final follow-up in group B ( P < .001). Overall muscle strength (given as % of the other side's strength) significantly increased from preoperatively to final follow-up in group A (forward flexion [FF]: 62.0 ± 8

  4. Glenoid inclination: in vivo measures in rotator cuff tear patients and associations with superior glenohumeral joint translation.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jennifer L; Kline, Stephanie K; Aalderink, Kristopher J; Zauel, Roger; Bey, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Glenoid inclination has been associated with rotator cuff tears and superior humeral translation, but the relationship between glenoid inclination and superior humeral translation has not been assessed in vivo. This study compared glenoid inclination between repaired and contralateral shoulders in 21 unilateral rotator cuff repair patients. As a secondary analysis, we assessed the relationship between glenoid inclination and in vivo superior humeral translation. Glenoid inclination was measured from patient-specific, computed tomography-based bone models. Glenohumeral joint motion was measured from biplane radiographs collected during coronal-plane abductions. Glenoid inclination was significantly lower for the rotator cuff tear shoulders (90.7 degrees ) than the asymptomatic, contralateral shoulders (92.3 degrees , P = .04). No significant correlation existed between increased glenoid inclination and superior-inferior translation of the uninjured shoulder (P > .30). This study failed to support the theory that glenoid inclination is responsible for superior humeral translation and the development of subacromial impingement.

  5. Lattisimus Dorsi Transfer assisted by arthroscopy for the treatment of irreparable posterolateral Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Muiño, José María Silberberg; Gimenez, Martín Alejandro; Salvucci, Mauro Gabriel Maroa; Ferro, Diego; Rullan, Ramón Muiña

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate subjective and functional mid term results of patients treated by a lattisimus dorsi tendón transfer arthroscopically assisted for massive irreparable posterolateral injuries of the Rotator Cuff. Methods: Between 2009 and 2012, 17 Lattisimus Dorsi transfers (Paribelli technique) for irreparable posterolateral rotator cuff tears were performed. Distribution by sex: 12 men and 5 women with a mean age of 53 years old (range, 40-63). Thirteen right shoulders and 4 left shoulders. Average duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 8 months (range, 6-13 months). Mean follow-up was 28 months (range, 18-44). Patients were evaluated by the VAS, satisfaction rate, the Constant Modified Scale, postoperative range of motion and strength. Postoperative radiological studies included simple AP radiographs and MRI in order to measure AC distance and asses the integrity of the plasty. Results: Postoperative Constant Modified score averaged 63.54 points. (average increase of 13 points compared to preoperative score. (P ..05)). Active Mobility: a) Mean elevation: 142° postop vs. 119° preop (p <.001). b) Mean abduction: 138.24º postop vs. 112.35º preop (p <.001). c) Mean external rotation 40° postop vs. 20.29º preop (p <.004). Insert text. Conclusion: Lattisimus Dorsi transfer in patients with posterolateral massive irreparable injuries of the RC, is a highly demanding and palliative procedure for those cases with loss of active mobility, especially lifting and shoulder abduction.

  6. Semitendinosus and gracilis free muscle-tendon graft for repair of massive rotator cuff tears: surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    GIGANTE, ANTONIO; BOTTEGONI, CARLO; MILANO, GIUSEPPE; RICCIO, MICHELE; DEI GIUDICI, LUCA

    2016-01-01

    Massive rotator cuff tears are difficult to treat surgically due to retraction, degeneration and fraying of the ends of torn tendons, severe fatty infiltration and atrophy of the respective muscles. Procedures developed to close the gap between the rotator cuff and the greater tuberosity of the humerus, such as soft tissue release may be inadequate for large tears. Human or porcine dermal allografts still have uncertain benefits, and tendon transfers seem to be associated with poor outcomes, donor site morbidity and altered mechanics. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has limited durability and is not indicated in young patients with high functional demands. We developed a new technique for repairing massive rotator cuff tears by semitendinosus and gracilis myotendinous grafting. This novel therapeutic option allows massive rotator cuff tears to be repaired using autologous material that is adequate and adaptable, making it possible to cover any width of defect. The technique is low-invasive and not technically demanding, with minimal donor site morbidity. PMID:27900313

  7. Rotator cuff injuries.

    PubMed

    Crusher, R H

    2000-07-01

    Different types of rotator cuff injuries frequently present to Accident and Emergency departments and minor injury units but can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This brief case study describes the examination and diagnosis of related shoulder injuries, specifically rotator cuff tears/disruption and calcifying supraspinatus tendinitis. The relevant anatomy and current therapies for these injuries is also discussed to enable the emergency nurse practitioner to have a greater understanding of the theory surrounding their diagnosis and treatments.

  8. Is the arthroscopic suture bridge technique suitable for full-thickness rotator cuff tears of any size?

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Kim, Jeong Woo; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kweon, Seok Hyun; Kang, Hong Je; Kim, Se Jin; Park, Jin Sung

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare functional outcomes and tendon integrity between the suture bridge and modified tension band techniques for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. A consecutive series of 128 patients who underwent the modified tension band (MTB group; 69 patients) and suture bridge (SB group; 59 patients) techniques were enrolled. The pain visual analogue scale (VAS), Constant, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores were determined preoperatively and at the final follow-up. Rotator cuff hypotrophy was quantified by calculating the occupation ratio (OR). Rotator cuff integrity and the global fatty degeneration index were determined by using magnetic resonance imaging at 6 months postoperatively. The average VAS, Constant, and ASES scores improved significantly at the final follow-up in both groups (p < 0.05 for all scores). The retear rate of small-to-medium tears was similar in the modified tension band and suture bridge groups (7.0 vs. 6.8%, respectively; p = n.s.). The retear rate of large-to-massive tears was significantly lower in the suture bridge group than in the modified tension band group (33.3 vs. 70%; p = 0.035). Fatty infiltration (postoperative global fatty degeneration index, p = 0.022) and muscle hypotrophy (postoperative OR, p = 0.038) outcomes were significantly better with the suture bridge technique. The retear rate was lower with the suture bridge technique in the case of large-to-massive rotator cuff tears. Additionally, significant improvements in hypotrophy and fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff were obtained with the suture bridge technique, possibly resulting in better anatomical outcomes. The suture bridge technique was a more effective method for the repair of rotator cuff tears of all sizes as compared to the modified tension band technique. Retrospective Cohort Design, Treatment Study, level III.

  9. Transtendon arthroscopic repair of high grade partial-thickness articular surface tears of the rotator cuff with biceps tendon augmentation: technical note and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jong-Hun; Shafi, Mohamed; Jeong, Jae-Jung; Lee, Yeon Soo; McFarland, Edward G; Kim, Tae-Kwen; Chung, Jun-Young

    2012-03-01

    Partial articular surface of the rotator cuff tendon tears has been recognized as a source of treatable shoulder pain and a precursory pathology for full-thickness tendon tears. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a possible surgical method of treatment. Recent data have shown that the treating partial-thickness rotator cuff repairs with transtendon technique shows good clinical outcome. The use of this technique enables the reconstitution of the tendon with complete reconstruction of its footprint without damaging its intact bursal part. In cases of high grade partial articular-sided degenerative rotator cuff tears (involving >50% of the tendon) in older patients, there is a possibility of poor healing or re-tear of the rotator cuff repair, which may be associated with poor tendon quality and substantial thinning of the rotator cuff, subsequently revision surgery in these patients will be demanding. To mitigate these problems, we describe here a new arthroscopic transtendon repair technique with tenotomized long head biceps tendon augmentation for high grade partial articular rotator cuff tear with the goal of providing increase tendon healing, as well as to minimize the probability of failure of the construct and to improve the clinical outcomes. The clinical results of the first 39 consecutive patients are reported showing significant decrease in pain and improved shoulder scores, as well as the post-operative range of motion and with no cases of re-tear of the rotator cuff tendon.

  10. Arthroscopic suture bridge technique for intratendinous tear of rotator cuff in chronically painful calcific tendinitis of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jong-Hun; Shafi, Mohamed; Moon, Chang-Yun; Park, Sang-Eun; Kim, Yeon-Jun; Kim, Sung-Eun

    2013-11-01

    Arthroscopic removal, now the main treatment option, has almost replaced open surgery for treatment of resistant calcific tendinitis. In some cases of chronic calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, the calcific materials are hard and adherent to the tendon. Removal of these materials can cause significant intratendinous tears between the superficial and deep layers of the degenerated rotator cuff. Thus far, there are no established surgical techniques for removing the calcific materials while ensuring cuff integrity. Good clinical results for rotator cuff repair were achieved by using an arthroscopic suture bridge technique in patients with long-standing calcific tendinitis. Intact rotator cuff integrity and recovery of signal change on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans were confirmed. This is a technical note about a surgical technique and its clinical results with a review of relevant published reports. © 2013 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Symptoms of pain do not correlate with rotator cuff tear severity: a cross-sectional study of 393 patients with a symptomatic atraumatic full-thickness rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Warren R; Kuhn, John E; Sanders, Rosemary; An, Qi; Baumgarten, Keith M; Bishop, Julie Y; Brophy, Robert H; Carey, James L; Holloway, G Brian; Jones, Grant L; Ma, C Benjamin; Marx, Robert G; McCarty, Eric C; Poddar, Sourav K; Smith, Matthew V; Spencer, Edwin E; Vidal, Armando F; Wolf, Brian R; Wright, Rick W

    2014-05-21

    For many orthopaedic disorders, symptoms correlate with disease severity. The objective of this study was to determine if pain level is related to the severity of rotator cuff disorders. A cohort of 393 subjects with an atraumatic symptomatic full-thickness rotator-cuff tear treated with physical therapy was studied. Baseline pretreatment data were used to examine the relationship between the severity of rotator cuff disease and pain. Disease severity was determined by evaluating tear size, retraction, superior humeral head migration, and rotator cuff muscle atrophy. Pain was measured on the 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) in the patient-reported American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. A linear multiple regression model was constructed with use of the continuous VAS score as the dependent variable and measures of rotator cuff tear severity and other nonanatomic patient factors as the independent variables. Forty-eight percent of the patients were female, and the median age was sixty-one years. The dominant shoulder was involved in 69% of the patients. The duration of symptoms was less than one month for 8% of the patients, one to three months for 22%, four to six months for 20%, seven to twelve months for 15%, and more than a year for 36%. The tear involved only the supraspinatus in 72% of the patients; the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, with or without the teres minor, in 21%; and only the subscapularis in 7%. Humeral head migration was noted in 16%. Tendon retraction was minimal in 48%, midhumeral in 34%, glenohumeral in 13%, and to the glenoid in 5%. The median baseline VAS pain score was 4.4. Multivariable modeling, controlling for other baseline factors, identified increased comorbidities (p = 0.002), lower education level (p = 0.004), and race (p = 0.041) as the only significant factors associated with pain on presentation. No measure of rotator cuff tear severity correlated with pain (p > 0.25). Anatomic features defining the severity of

  12. Apoptosis and rotator cuff tears: scientific evidence from basic science to clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Buda, Matteo; Del Buono, Angelo; Osti, Raffaella; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    Excessive apoptosis has been hypothesized as possible cause of tendinopathy and tear in the tendons of the rotator cuff (RC). Different mechanisms and molecules play a key role in cell regulation. Biological interventions can affect the process of apoptosis to control the tendinopathy process, and may be useful to design new treatments. We identified basic science, in vitro and in vivo preclinical and clinical studies listed in the Pubmed Google Scholar, CINAHL, Cochrane Central and Embase Biomedical databases in English, Spanish, Italian and French concerning the effects of apoptosis on RC tendons. The homeostasis between the apoptotic and inflammatory processes is dynamic and controlled by pro- and anti-apoptotic mechanisms and signals, with variable balance in different areas of the RC tendons in human specimens. Apoptosis can be identified along the whole tendon, not only in the area of the lesion. Therefore, it is not necessary to undertake wide debridement of the torn edges of the tendon when undertaking a repair. The identification of the various factors that control apoptosis and its mechanisms can help to design new treatments and exert positive effects in the recovery from tendon tears. Further studies are needed to produce clear guidelines to determine how to balance the apoptosis process to reduce the failed healing response found in non-traumatic RC tears.

  13. Inhibition of PDGFR signaling prevents muscular fatty infiltration after rotator cuff tear in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Noboru; Shimoda, Masayuki; Oki, Satoshi; Yoda, Masaki; Tohmonda, Takahide; Kanai, Yae; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Horiuchi, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    Fatty infiltration in muscle is often observed in patients with sizable rotator cuff tear (RCT) and is thought to be an irreversible event that significantly compromises muscle plasticity and contraction strength. These changes in the mechanical properties of the affected muscle render surgical repair of RCT highly formidable. Therefore, it is important to learn more about the pathology of fatty infiltration to prevent this undesired condition. In the present study, we aimed to generate a mouse model that can reliably recapitulate some of the important characteristics of muscular fatty infiltration after RCT in humans. We found that fatty infiltration can be efficiently induced by a combination of the following procedures: denervation of the suprascapular nerve, transection of the rotator cuff tendon, and resection of the humeral head. Using this model, we found that platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα)-positive mesenchymal stem cells are induced after this intervention and that inhibition of PDGFR signaling by imatinib treatment can significantly suppress fatty infiltration. Taken together, the present study presents a reliable fatty infiltration mouse model and suggests a key role for PDGFRα-positive mesenchymal stem cells in the process of fatty infiltration after RCT in humans. PMID:28139720

  14. Inhibition of PDGFR signaling prevents muscular fatty infiltration after rotator cuff tear in mice.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Noboru; Shimoda, Masayuki; Oki, Satoshi; Yoda, Masaki; Tohmonda, Takahide; Kanai, Yae; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Horiuchi, Keisuke

    2017-01-31

    Fatty infiltration in muscle is often observed in patients with sizable rotator cuff tear (RCT) and is thought to be an irreversible event that significantly compromises muscle plasticity and contraction strength. These changes in the mechanical properties of the affected muscle render surgical repair of RCT highly formidable. Therefore, it is important to learn more about the pathology of fatty infiltration to prevent this undesired condition. In the present study, we aimed to generate a mouse model that can reliably recapitulate some of the important characteristics of muscular fatty infiltration after RCT in humans. We found that fatty infiltration can be efficiently induced by a combination of the following procedures: denervation of the suprascapular nerve, transection of the rotator cuff tendon, and resection of the humeral head. Using this model, we found that platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα)-positive mesenchymal stem cells are induced after this intervention and that inhibition of PDGFR signaling by imatinib treatment can significantly suppress fatty infiltration. Taken together, the present study presents a reliable fatty infiltration mouse model and suggests a key role for PDGFRα-positive mesenchymal stem cells in the process of fatty infiltration after RCT in humans.

  15. Results of surgical management of symptomatic shoulders with partial thickness tears of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Rocco; Franceschi, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The optimal management of partial thickness tears of the rotator cuff (PTRCT) is still controversial. A literature search, on PubMed, Cochrane and Google Scholar databases, identified 273 relevant abstracts of articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Twenty-three clinical studies reporting the outcomes of surgically treated patients affected by PTRCTs were selected. The different repair approaches results in variable functional outcomes. The Coleman Methodology Score (CMS) used to asses the quality of the studies showed great heterogeneity in study design, the sample, pre- and post-operative diagnostic assessments and the score used to evaluate outcomes. The mean CMS value was 67.95 (ranging from 30 to 82). The heterogeneity of the treatment options and of the outcome assessment methods makes it difficult to compare the results of the different studies. There is a need to use standardized pre- and post-operative assessment methods and functional outcome scores. To improve the diagnosis and to choose the best treatment, it may be useful to measure the thickness of the rotator cuff to ascertain whether the size correlates with outcome. There is a lack of scientifically based guidelines, probably a result of the relatively low levels of evidence of the studies. There is a need for adequately powered randomized clinical trials, using standard diagnostic assessment, common and validated scoring system comparing reported outcomes and duration of follow-up greater than 2 years.

  16. Physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) care pathways: "patients after rotator cuff tear surgery".

    PubMed

    Ribinik, P; Calmels, P; Barrois, B; Le Moine, F; Yelnik, A P

    2011-11-01

    This document is part of a series of documents designed by the French Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Society (Sofmer) and the French Federation of PRM (Fedmer). These documents describe the needs for or a specific type of patients; PRM care objectives, human and material resources to be implemented, chronology as well as expected outcomes. "Care pathways in PRM" is a short document designed to enable the reader (physicians, decision-maker, administrator, lawyer or finance manager) to quickly apprehend the needs of these patients and the available therapeutic care structures for proper organization and pricing of these activities. Patients after rotator cuff tear surgery are classified into four care sequences and two clinical categories, taking into account personal and environmental factors that could influence patients' needs, in accordance with the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) (WHO).

  17. The influence of simulated rotator cuff tears on the risk for impingement in handbike and handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Schlüssel, Matthias; Arnet, Ursina; Veeger, Dirkjan

    2013-06-01

    Rotator cuff tears strongly affect the biomechanics of the shoulder joint in their role to regulate the joint contact force needed to prevent the joint from dislocation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of simulated progressed rotator cuff tears on the (in)stability of the glenohumeral joint and the risk for impingement during wheelchair and handbike propulsion. The Delft Shoulder and Elbow Model was used to calculate the magnitude of the glenohumeral joint reaction force and the objective function J, which is an indication of the effort needed to complete the task. Full-thickness tears were simulated by virtually removing muscles from the model. With larger cuff tears the joint reaction force was higher and more superiorly directed. Also extra muscle force was necessary to balance the external force such that the glenohumeral joint did not dislocate. A tear of only the supraspinatus leads only to a minor increase in muscle forces and a minor shift of the force on the glenoid, indicating that it is possible to function well with a torn supraspinatus muscle. A massive tear shifts the direction of the joint reaction force to the superior border of the glenoid, increasing the risk for impingement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Scapulohumeral rhythm relative to active range of motion in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Robert-Lachaine, Xavier; Allard, Paul; Godbout, Véronique; Tétreault, Patrice; Begon, Mickael

    2016-10-01

    Some patients with rotator cuff tears feel pain without functional limitation, whereas others show a decrease in range of motion. To investigate this distinction, the scapulohumeral rhythm was used to conduct a functional evaluation of shoulder joints' coordination. The objective was to characterize patients according to their active range of motion without pain and their scapulohumeral rhythm compared with healthy individuals. Fourteen patients with rotator cuff tears and 14 healthy individuals were set up with 35 reflective markers on the trunk and upper limb tracked by an optoelectronic system to measure the scapulohumeral rhythm. Five scapular plane maximal arm elevations were executed without pain. Patients were separated by maximal arm elevation of 85° (category A) and 40° (category B). Three-way mixed-design analysis of variance with factors of group (patients and healthy), arm elevation, and motion direction was applied to the scapulohumeral rhythm. A main effect of group (P = .032) was observed in patients in category A, who showed inferior scapulohumeral rhythm. An interaction between group and arm elevation (P = .044) was observed for patients in category B, where their scapulohumeral rhythm increased more during arm elevation than in the healthy individuals. Patients who reached at least 85° compensated for the loss of glenohumeral motion by increased scapulothoracic contribution, suggesting that structural damage interferes with motion mechanics. In contrast, patients who reached less range of motion underused the scapulothoracic joint, which is likely to create subacromial impingement at low arm elevation. A patient's maximal range of motion without pain may indicate a pattern of scapulohumeral rhythm alteration. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The duration of symptoms does not correlate with rotator cuff tear severity or other patient-related features: a cross-sectional study of patients with atraumatic, full-thickness rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Kenneth P; Kuhn, John E; Sanders, Rosemary; An, Qi; Baumgarten, Keith M; Bishop, Julie Y; Brophy, Robert H; Carey, James L; Holloway, Brian G; Jones, Grant L; Ma, Benjamin C; Marx, Robert G; McCarty, Eric C; Poddar, Souray K; Smith, Matthew V; Spencer, Edwin E; Vidal, Armando F; Wolf, Brian R; Wright, Rick W; Dunn, Warren R

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to determine whether the duration of symptoms influences the features seen in patients with atraumatic, full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Our hypothesis is that an increasing duration of symptoms will correlate with more advanced findings of rotator cuff tear severity on magnetic resonance imaging, worse shoulder outcome scores, more pain, decreased range of motion, and less strength. We enrolled 450 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears in a prospective cohort study to assess the effectiveness of nonoperative treatment and factors predictive of success. The duration of patient symptoms was divided into 4 groups: 3 months or less, 4 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and greater than 12 months. Data collected at patient entry into the study included (1) demographic data, (2) history and physical examination data, (3) radiographic imaging data, and (4) validated patient-reported measures of shoulder status. Statistical analysis included a univariate analysis with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson test to identify statistically significant differences in these features for different durations of symptoms. A longer duration of symptoms does not correlate with more severe rotator cuff disease. The duration of symptoms was not related to weakness, limited range of motion, tear size, fatty atrophy, or validated patient-reported outcome measures. There is only a weak relationship between the duration of symptoms and features associated with rotator cuff disease. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biceps sheath fluid on shoulder ultrasound as a predictor of rotator cuff tear: analysis of a consecutive cohort.

    PubMed

    Hanusch, Birgit C; Makaram, Navnit; Utrillas-Compaired, Alfonso; Lawson-Smith, Matthew J; Rangan, Amar

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound provides evaluation of rotator cuff disease with accuracy comparable to that of magnetic resonance imaging. Fluid in the sheath of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHB), identified on ultrasound scan, has been associated with disease of the rotator cuff, LHB, and glenohumeral joint. Prior literature has compared ultrasound findings only with arthrography, and results have been conflicting. Arthroscopy remains the reference standard in assessing accuracy of imaging modalities. We present the first study investigating the significance of fluid in the LHB on ultrasound in predicting subsequent rotator cuff disease identified on arthroscopy. Records were reviewed of 175 patients undergoing ultrasound and subsequent arthroscopy under 1 shoulder surgeon. Experienced musculoskeletal radiologists and sonographers performed ultrasound. Ultrasound examination and operating records were collected and analyzed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation, and logistic regression modeling. Highly significant correlation (P < .001; ρ = 0.354) was found between fluid in the LHB sheath and rotator cuff tears on arthroscopy. Statistically significant but weak correlation (P < .05; rho = 0.187) was found between fluid in the LHB sheath and both biceps tendon disease and glenohumeral joint disease. Fluid around the LHB was shown to increase the likelihood of having rotator cuff tear (odds ratio, 2.641; 95% confidence interval, 1.229-5.674) and biceps tendon disease (odds ratio, 2.698; 95% confidence interval, 1.216-5.987). This is the first report identifying significant correlation between fluid in the LHB sheath identified on ultrasound and subsequent rotator cuff disease identified at arthroscopy. We recommend routine reporting of fluid in the LHB sheath as it is likely to improve the accuracy of detecting rotator cuff and biceps tendon diseases. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by

  1. Can Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predict the Reparability of Massive Rotator Cuff Tears?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Youn; Park, Ji Seon; Rhee, Yong Girl

    2017-06-01

    Numerous studies have shown preoperative fatty infiltration of rotator cuff muscles to be strongly negatively correlated with the successful repair of massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs). To assess the association between factors identified on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially infraspinatus fatty infiltration, and the reparability of massive RCTs. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. We analyzed a total of 105 patients with massive RCTs for whom MRI was performed ≤6 months before arthroscopic procedures. The mean age of the patients was 62.7 years (range, 46-83 years), and 46 were men. Among them, complete repair was possible in 50 patients (48%) and not possible in 55 patients (52%). The tangent sign, fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff, and Patte classification were evaluated as predictors of reparability. Using the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC), the prediction accuracy of each variable and combinations of variables were measured. Reparability was associated with fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus ( P = .0045) and infraspinatus ( P < .001) muscles, the tangent sign ( P = .0033), and the Patte classification ( P < .001) but not with fatty infiltration of the subscapularis and teres minor ( P = .425 and .132, respectively). The cut-off values for supraspinatus and infraspinatus fatty infiltration were grade >3 and grade >2, respectively. The examination of single variables revealed that infraspinatus fatty infiltration showed the highest AUC value (0.812; sensitivity: 0.86; specificity: 0.76), while the tangent sign showed the lowest AUC value (0.626; sensitivity: 0.38; specificity: 0.87). Among 2-variable combinations, the combination of infraspinatus fatty infiltration and the Patte classification showed the highest AUC value (0.874; sensitivity: 0.54; specificity: 0.96). The combination of 4 variables, that is, infraspinatus and supraspinatus fatty infiltration, the tangent sign

  2. The natural course of nonoperatively treated rotator cuff tears: an 8.8-year follow-up of tear anatomy and clinical outcome in 49 patients.

    PubMed

    Moosmayer, Stefan; Gärtner, Anne V; Tariq, Rana

    2017-04-01

    The natural course of nonoperatively treated rotator cuff tears is not fully understood. We explored the long-term development of tear anatomy and assessed functional outcomes. Eighty-nine small to medium-sized full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff, all primarily treated by physiotherapy, were identified retrospectively. Twenty-three tears needed surgical treatment later on, and 17 patients were unable to meet for follow-up. The remaining 49 still unrepaired tears were re-examined after 8.8 (8.2-11.0) years with sonography. Re-examination by magnetic resonance imaging was possible for 37 patients. Shoulder function was assessed with shoulder scores. Primary outcome measures were progression of tear size, muscle atrophy, and fatty degeneration and the Constant score (CS). Mean tear size increased by 8.3 mm in the anterior-posterior plane (P = .001) and by 4.5 mm in the medial-lateral plane (P = .001). Increase of tear size was -5 to +9.9 mm in 33 patients, 10 to 19.9 mm in 8 patients, and ≥20 mm in 8 patients. The CS was 81 points for tear increases <20 mm and 58.5 points for increases ≥20 mm (P = .008). Muscle atrophy and fatty degeneration progressed in 18 and 15 of the 37 patients, respectively. In tears with no progression of atrophy, the CS was 82 points compared with 75.5 points in tears with progression (P = .04). Anatomic tear deterioration was found in the majority of patients, but it was often moderate. Large tear size increases and progression of muscle atrophy were correlated to a poorer functional outcome. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of surgeon-sonographer interaction on ultrasound diagnosis of rotator cuff tears: a five-year cohort study in 775 shoulders.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Adrian Z; Kelly, Matthew J; Hackett, Lisa; Murrell, George A C

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears has been a topic of debate for years. The literature shows promising results for the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography for rotator cuff tears. This study assessed the effect of a surgeon-sonographer interaction on the ability of ultrasonography to predict the presence or absence of rotator cuff tears. This study was a temporal cohort analysis of 775 patients to detect the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography at predicting a rotator cuff tear. The surgeon-sonographer interaction had three components: (1) presence of an ultrasound machine and ultrasonographer within a shoulder clinic, (2) the ultrasonographer attends shoulder operations, (3) and the ultrasonographer reviews patients preoperatively and postoperatively. Comparisons of 2 variables-presence and size of a tear-were made between the preoperative ultrasonographic findings with arthroscopic findings (gold standard). The diagnostic utility for the detection of rotator cuff tears by ultrasonography at the start of the study was 93% sensitive and 68% specific, and at the end of the study was 99% sensitive and 93% specific. There was an improvement in the correlation of the ability to estimate the size of rotator cuff tears from ultrasonography to surgery in both full- and partial-thickness tears. The surgeon-sonographer interaction improved the diagnostic utility of an office-based ultrasonographer over time, particularly with respect to the overall accuracy of ultrasonography for the detection of rotator cuff tears and for the ability to predict the size of full- and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in arthroscopic repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, You-zhi; Zhang, Chi; Lin, Xiang-jin

    2015-12-01

    The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an innovative clinical therapy, especially in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical improvement and tendon-to-bone healing with and without PRP therapy in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. A systematic search was done in the major medical databases to evaluate the studies using PRP therapy (PRP+) or with no PRP (PRP-) for the treatment of patients with rotator cuff tears. We reviewed clinical scores such as the Constant score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Rating Scale, the Simple Shoulder Test, and the failure-to-heal rate by magnetic resonance imaging between PRP+ and PRP- groups. Five studies included in this review were used for a meta-analysis based on data availability. There were no statistically significant differences between PRP+ and PRP- groups for overall outcome scores (P > .05). However, the PRP+ group exhibited better healing rates postoperatively than the PRP- group (P = .03) in small/moderate full-thickness tears. The use of PRP therapy in full-thickness rotator cuff repairs showed no statistically significant difference compared with no PRP therapy in clinical outcome scores, but the failure-to-heal rate was significantly decreased when PRP was used for treatment of small-to-moderately sized tears. PRP therapy may improve tendon-to-bone healing in patients with small or moderate rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Not all ultrasounds are created equal: general sonography versus musculoskeletal sonography in the detection of rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Brandi; Twibill, Kristen; Lam, Patrick; Hackett, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional analytic diagnostic accuracy study was designed to compare the accuracy of ultrasound performed by general sonographers in local radiology practices with ultrasound performed by an experienced musculoskeletal sonographer for the detection of rotator cuff tears. Methods In total, 238 patients undergoing arthroscopy who had previously had an ultrasound performed by both a general sonographer and a specialist musculoskeletal sonographer made up the study cohort. Accuracy of diagnosis was compared with the findings at arthroscopy. Results When analyzed as all tears versus no tears, musculoskeletal sonography had an accuracy of 97%, a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 95%, whereas general sonography had an accuracy of 91%, a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 86%. When the partial tears were split with those ≥ 50% thickness in the tear group and those < 50% thickness in the no-tear group, musculoskeletal sonography had an accuracy of 97%, a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% and general sonography had an accuracy of 85%, a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 87%. Conclusions Ultrasound in the hands of an experienced musculoskeletal sonographer is highly accurate for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears. General sonography has improved subsequent to earlier studies but remains inferior to an ultrasound performed by a musculoskeletal sonographer. PMID:27660657

  6. Autologous blood products in rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Mei-Dan, Omer; Carmont, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    We review the management of rotator cuff tears, the mechanism of action of autologous blood products, principally platelet-rich plasma, and the current evidence for effective use of platelet-rich plasma, particularly in relation to the shoulder and chronic rotator cuff tears, for biological augmentation of rotator cuff repair.

  7. Association of Strength Measurement with Rotator Cuff Tear in Patients with Shoulder Pain: The ROW Study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jennifer Earle; Higgins, Laurence D.; Dong, Yan; Collins, Jamie E.; Bean, Jonathan F.; Seitz, Amee L.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Jain, Nitin B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examines the association between strength measurements and supraspinatus tear in patients with shoulder pain. This study characterized determinants of abduction strength among patients with tears. Design Two-hundred and eight patients with shoulder pain (69 with and 110 without tear) were recruited. Strength was tested using hand-held dynamometer. Supraspinatus tears were diagnosed by combination of clinical assessment and blinded MRI review. Associations of supraspinatus tear with patient characteristics and strength measurements (abduction, internal rotation and external rotation) were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Patients with supraspinatus tear had decreased abduction strength (p=0.02) and decreased external rotation strength (p<0.01). When adjusted for age, sex, tear laterality, and BMI, decreased abduction strength (OR= 1.18 per kg, 95% C.I.=1.06–1.32) and decreased external rotation strength (OR=1.29 per kg, 95% C.I.=1.14–1.48) were associated with supraspinatus tear. In patients with tear, age ≥60 years, female sex, and VAS pain score were significantly associated with decreased abduction strength but tear size, fatty infiltration, and atrophy were not. Conclusions Decreased abduction and external rotation strength were associated with supraspinatus tear in patients with shoulder pain. In this cohort, the abduction strength of patients with tears, was influenced by demographic factors but not tear characteristics. PMID:26098921

  8. Single-Row or Double-Row Fixation Technique for Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiaojiao; Yuan, Chaoqun; Chen, Kai; Cheng, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Background The single-row and double-row fixation techniques have been widely used for rotator cuff tears. However, whether the double-row technique produces superior clinical or anatomic outcomes is still considered controversial. This study aims to use meta-analysis to compare the clinical and anatomical outcomes between the two techniques. Methods The Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases were searched for relevant studies published before November 1, 2012. Studies clearly reporting a comparison of the single-row and double-row techniques were selected. The Constant, ASES, and UCLA scale systems and the rotator cuff integrity rate were evaluated. The weighted mean differences and relative risks were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Results Eight studies were included in this meta-analysis. The weighted mean differences of the ASES (−0.84; P = 0.04; I2 = 0%) and UCLA (−0.75; P = 0.007; I2 = 0%) scales were significantly low in the single-row group for full-thickness rotator cuff tears. For tear sizes smaller than 3 cm, no significant difference was found between the groups no matter in Constant (P = 0.95; I2 = 0%), ASES (P = 0.77; I2 = 0%), or UCLA (P = 0.24; I2 = 13%) scales. For tear sizes larger than 3 cm, the ASES (−1.95; P = 0.001; I2 = 49%) and UCLA (−1.17; P = 0.006; I2 = 0%) scales were markedly lower in the single-row group. The integrity of the rotator cuff (0.81; P = 0.0004; I2 = 10%) was greater and the partial thickness retear rate (1.93; P = 0.007; I2 = 10%) was less in the double-row group. Full-thickness retears showed no difference between the groups (P = 0.15; I2 = 0%). Conclusion The meta-analysis suggests that the double-row fixation technique increases post-operative rotator cuff integrity and improves the clinical outcomes, especially for full-thickness rotator cuff tears larger than 3 cm. For tear sizes smaller than 3 cm

  9. The use of an intra-articular depth guide in the measurement of partial thickness rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael J; More, Kristie D; Sohmer, Stephen; Nelson, Atiba A; Sciore, Paul; Boorman, Richard; Hollinshead, Robert; Lo, Ian K Y

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the conventional method for determining the percentage of partial thickness rotator cuff tears to a method using an intra-articular depth guide. The clinical utility of the intra-articular depth guide was also examined. Methods. Partial rotator cuff tears were created in cadaveric shoulders. Exposed footprint, total tendon thickness, and percentage of tendon thickness torn were determined using both techniques. The results from the conventional and intra-articular depth guide methods were correlated with the true anatomic measurements. Thirty-two patients were evaluated in the clinical study. Results. Estimates of total tendon thickness (r = 0.41, P = 0.31) or percentage of thickness tears (r = 0.67, P = 0.07) using the conventional method did not correlate well with true tendon thickness. Using the intra-articular depth guide, estimates of exposed footprint (r = 0.92, P = 0.001), total tendon thickness (r = 0.96, P = 0.0001), and percentage of tendon thickness torn (r = 0.88, P = 0.004) correlated with true anatomic measurements. Seven of 32 patients had their treatment plan altered based on the measurements made by the intra-articular depth guide. Conclusions. The intra-articular depth guide appeared to better correlate with true anatomic measurements. It may be useful during the evaluation and development of treatment plans for partial thickness articular surface rotator cuff tears.

  10. Significant association of full-thickness rotator cuff tears and estrogen-related receptor-β (ESRRB).

    PubMed

    Teerlink, Craig C; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2015-02-01

    The precise etiology of rotator cuff disease is unknown, but prior evidence suggests a role for genetic factors. Variants of estrogen-related receptor-β (ESRRB) have been previously associated with rotator cuff disease. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the association between multiple candidate genes, including ESRRB, and rotator cuff disease in an independent set of patients with rotator cuff tear. The Illumina 5M (Illumina Inc, San Diego, CA, USA) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) platform was used to genotype 175 patients with rotator cuff tear. Genotypes were used to select a set of 2595 genetically matched Caucasian controls available from the Illumina iControls database. Tests of association were performed with Genome-wide Efficient Mixed Model Association (GEMMA) software at 69 SNPs that fell within 20 kb of 6 candidate genes (DEFB1, DENND2C, ESRRB, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR1). Tests of association revealed 1 significantly associated SNP occurring in ESRRB (rs17583842; P = 4.4E-4). Another SNP within ESRRB (rs7157192) had a nominal P value of 7.8E-3. FastPHASE software estimated 2 frequent haplotypes among 54 individuals who carried both risk alleles at these 2 SNPs. The first haplotype had a frequency of 13.9% (n = 15) in risk-allele carriers and only 2.2% in controls (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.9-2.2). The second haplotype had a frequency of 12.9% in risk-allele carriers and only 2.7% in controls (odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-9.5). The significant association and the presence of high-risk haplotypes identified in the ESRRB gene confirm the association of variants in ESRRB and rotator cuff disease. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. All rights reserved.

  11. Trans-tendon arthroscopic repair for partial-thickness articular side tears of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young-Jin; Yoo, Yon-Sik; Kim, Do-Young; Noh, Kyu-Cheol; Shetty, Nagraj S; Lee, Jae-Hyung

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a modified trans-tendon method of repairing partial articular surface lesions, which restored the footprint of the rotator cuff anatomically. The 24 consecutive patients with modified trans-tendon method which allowed a wider pressurized contact area by use of additional knotless anchor were included in this study. All patients were evaluated with ASES score and visual analog scale (VAS) preoperatively, postoperative 3 and 12 months. The strength was measured using Isobex digital strength analyzer preoperatively and postoperative 12 months. The ASES scores significantly improved from preoperative 38 ± 13 to 63 ± 5 at 3 months, and 89 ± 5 at 12 months postoperatively. The VAS scores also significantly improved from preoperative 6.6 ± 1.1 to 2 ± 0.7 at 3 months, 0.6 ± 0.7 at 12 months. The strengths significantly increased postoperatively, and there were no significant differences between affected and unaffected shoulders at 12 months postoperatively (P > 0.05). The 22 of 24 patients were either satisfied or very satisfied with postoperative result at 12 months postoperatively. This arthroscopic-modified trans-tendon suture bridge technique for partial-thickness articular side tears of the rotator cuff has shown excellent functional results and very high satisfaction rate of patient during the 12-month follow-up period. Evidence therapeutic study, Level IV.

  12. Do Medical Comorbidities Affect Outcomes in Patients With Rotator Cuff Tears?

    PubMed Central

    Gagnier, Joel J.; Allen, Benjamin; Watson, Scott; Robbins, Christopher B.; Bedi, Asheesh; Carpenter, James E.; Miller, Bruce S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The effects of medical comorbidities on clinical outcomes in patients with rotator cuff tears (RCTs) have not been fully elucidated. This study investigates the association between medical comorbidities, as measured by the Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI), and clinical outcomes in patients treated surgically or nonsurgically for symptomatic, full-thickness RCTs. Hypothesis: Patients with RCTs who have more comorbidities will have worse outcome scores. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We collected the following outcome measures at baseline and at regular intervals up to 64 weeks in all patients: FCI, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC), and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. Changes in outcomes were compared separately for surgical and nonsurgical patients using paired t tests. The relationship of the FCI and all outcomes of interest at baseline, at 64-week follow-up, and for changes from baseline was explored using linear regression modeling. Results: Of the 222 study patients (133 males; mean age, 60.0 ± 9.6 years), 140 completed the 64-week WORC and 120 completed the 64-week ASES. Overall, 128 patients underwent RCT repair, and 94 patients were treated nonsurgically. Both treatment groups improved compared with baseline at 64 weeks on the ASES score and WORC. At 64 weeks, patients with higher baseline FCI scores had worse WORC score (by 74.5 points; P = .025) and ASES score (by 3.8 points; P < .01). A higher FCI score showed a trend toward predicting changes in the WORC and ASES scores at 64 weeks compared with baseline, but this did not reach statistical significance (WORC change, P = .15; ASES change, P = .07). Conclusion: Patients with higher FCI scores at baseline reported worse baseline functional scores and demonstrated less improvement with time. The magnitude of this change may not be clinically significant for single comorbidities. PMID:28856169

  13. Clinical Relevance of Classifying Massive Rotator Cuff Tears: Results Based on Functional and Radiological Findings After Arthroscopic Repair.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyun Soo; Kim, Byung Guk; Choi, Won Chul; Hong, Chul Gie; Kim, Jee Woong; Kim, Jae Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the results of arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears have reported widely varied prognoses. Among other factors, the sizable discrepancy can be attributable to the fact that the current definition of massive rotator cuff tears covers an extensive area of tendons. Functional and radiological results according to subgroups would show significant inter-subgroup differences preoperatively and postoperatively. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 104 patients who required arthroscopic repair for massive rotator cuff tears were prospectively evaluated. The patients were allocated into 3 groups according to tendon involvement as diagnosed by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging: group 1 (anterosuperior type involving the subscapularis and supraspinatus), group 2 (posterosuperior type involving the infraspinatus and supraspinatus), and group 3 (anteroposterior type involving the subscapularis, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus). We compared functional results (at 2 years postoperatively) and radiological findings (at 1 year postoperatively) for each group. There were 34 patients in group 1, 54 in group 2, and 16 in group 3. In all 3 groups, functional results significantly improved after surgery. There were no statistically significant intergroup differences in functional results among the 3 groups. On the radiological evaluations, each group (groups 1, 2, and 3) showed a significantly different result in the preoperative acromiohumeral distance (AHD) (7.19, 5.44, and 5.22 mm, respectively), tear size (38.8, 39.3, and 46.4 mm, respectively), extent of retraction (33.9, 40.0, and 41.4 mm, respectively), postoperative AHD (8.92, 7.37, and 6.71 mm, respectively), and retear rate (23.5%, 51.9%, and 56.2%, respectively) ( P < .001 for all). Massive rotator cuff tears can be divided into 3 types: anterosuperior (group 1), posterosuperior (group 2), and anteroposterior (group 3). Each group has distinctive characteristics and shows different

  14. Evaluation of functional results from shoulders after arthroscopic repair of complete rotator cuff tears associated with traumatic anterior dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Glaydson Gomes; Freitas, José Márcio Alves; de Oliveira França, Flávio; Santos, Flávio Márcio Lago; de Simoni, Leandro Furtado; Godinho, Pedro Couto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical outcome of arthroscopic rotator cuff fixation and, when present, simultaneous repair of the Bankart lesion caused by traumatic dislocation; and to assess whether the size of the rotator cuff injury caused by traumatic dislocation has any influence on the postoperative clinical outcomes. Methods Thirty-three patients with traumatic shoulder dislocation and complete rotator cuff injury, with at least two years of follow up, were retrospectively evaluated. For analysis purposes, the patients were divided into groups: presence of fixed Bankart lesion or absence of this lesion, and rotator cuff lesions smaller than 3.0 cm (group A) or greater than or equal to 3.0 cm (group B). All the patients underwent arthroscopic repair of the lesions and were evaluated postoperatively by means of the UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) score and strength measurements. Results The group with Bankart lesion repair had a postoperative UCLA score of 33.96, while the score of the group without Bankart lesion was 33.7, without statistical significance (p = 0.743). Group A had a postoperative UCLA score of 34.35 and group B, 33.15, without statistical significance (p = 0.416). Conclusion The functional outcomes of the patients who only presented complete rotator cuff tearing after traumatic shoulder dislocation, which underwent arthroscopic repair, were similar to the outcomes of those who presented an associated with a Bankart lesion that was corrected simultaneously with the rotator cuff injury. The extent of the original rotator cuff injury did not alter the functional results in the postoperative evaluation. PMID:27069884

  15. Glenoid Inclination: In-Vivo Measures in Rotator Cuff Tear Patients and Associations with Superior Glenohumeral Joint Translation

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Jennifer L.; Kline, Stephanie K.; Aalderink, Kristopher J.; Zauel, Roger; Bey, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Glenoid inclination has been associated with rotator cuff tears and superior humeral translation, but the relationship between glenoid inclination and superior humeral translation has not been assessed in-vivo. The objective of this study was to compare glenoid inclination between repaired and contralateral shoulders of unilateral rotator cuff repair patients. As a secondary analysis, we assessed the relationship between glenoid inclination and in-vivo superior humeral translation. Glenoid inclination was measured from patient-specific, CT-based bone models. Glenohumeral joint motion was measured from biplane x-ray images collected during coronal-plane abduction of 21 rotator cuff repair patients. Glenoid inclination was significantly lower for the rotator cuff tear shoulders (90.7°) than the asymptomatic, contralateral shoulders (92.3°, p=0.04). There was no significant correlation between increased glenoid inclination and superior/inferior translation of the uninjured shoulder (p>0.30). This study failed to support the theory that glenoid inclination is responsible for superior humeral translation and the development of subacromial impingement. PMID:19062313

  16. Mental Health Has a Stronger Association with Patient-Reported Shoulder Pain and Function Than Tear Size in Patients with Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Wylie, James D; Suter, Thomas; Potter, Michael Q; Granger, Erin K; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2016-02-17

    Patient-reported outcome measures have increasingly accompanied objective examination findings in the evaluation of orthopaedic interventions. Our objective was to determine whether a validated measure of mental health (Short Form-36 Mental Component Summary [SF-36 MCS]) or measures of tear severity on magnetic resonance imaging were more strongly associated with self-assessed shoulder pain and function in patients with symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears. One hundred and sixty-nine patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears were prospectively enrolled. Patients completed the Short Form-36, visual analog scales for shoulder pain and function, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST), and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) instrument at the time of diagnosis. Shoulder magnetic resonance imaging examinations were reviewed to document the number of tendons involved, tear size, tendon retraction, and tear surface area. Age, sex, body mass index, number of medical comorbidities, smoking status, and Workers' Compensation status were recorded. Bivariate correlations and multivariate regression models were calculated to identify associations with baseline shoulder scores. The SF-36 MCS had the strongest correlation with the visual analog scale for shoulder pain (Pearson correlation coefficient, -0.48; p < 0.001), the visual analog scale for shoulder function (Pearson correlation coefficient, -0.33; p < 0.001), the SST (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.37; p < 0.001), and the ASES score (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.51; p < 0.001). Tear severity only correlated with the visual analog scale for shoulder function; the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.19 for tear size (p = 0.018), 0.18 for tendon retraction (p = 0.025), 0.18 for tear area (p = 0.022), and 0.20 for the number of tendons involved (p = 0.011). Tear severity did not correlate with other scores in bivariate correlations (all p > 0.05). In all multivariate models, the SF-36 MCS had the

  17. FUNCTIONAL EVALUATION OF PATIENTS WHO HAVE UNDERGONE ARTHROSCOPIC DEBRIDEMENT TO TREAT MASSIVE AND IRREPARABLE TEARS OF THE ROTATOR CUFF

    PubMed Central

    Veado, Marco Antônio de Castro; Rodrigues, Alessandro Ulhôa

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the results from patients who underwent arthroscopic debridement of extensive irreparable rotator cuff injuries. Methods: 27 patients were operated between 2003 and 2007, and 22 of them were evaluated. The surgical procedure consisted of arthroscopic debridement of the stumps of the tendons involved, bursectomy, removal of acromial osteophytes and, possibly, biceps tenotomy and tuberoplasty. Results: All the patients showed involvement of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons at the preoperative stage. In the postoperative evaluation, 14 patients had a complete teres minor muscle, and three had partial tears of the subscapularis tendon. There was an improvement in the UCLA criteria, from 15 preoperatively to 31 postoperatively. There was no improvement in muscle strength, but there was a reduction in the pain. Conclusion: Arthroscopic debridement is a recommended procedure for elderly patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears, good range of motion and low functional demand, when the main objective is to diminish pain. PMID:27022590

  18. Autologous tenocyte implantation, a novel treatment for partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and tendinopathy in an elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Wang, Allan W; Bauer, Stefan; Goonatillake, Matthew; Breidahl, William; Zheng, Ming-Hao

    2013-01-11

    Tendinopathy and small partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff tendon are common presentations in sports medicine. No promising treatment has yet been established. Corticosteroid injections may improve symptoms in the short term but do not primarily treat the tendon pathology. Ultrasound-guided autologous tenocyte implantation (ATI) is a novel bioengineered treatment approach for treating tendinopathy. We report the first clinical case of ATI in a 20-year-old elite gymnast with a rotator cuff tendon injury. The patient presented with 12 months of increasing pain during gymnastics being unable to perform most skills. At 1 year after ATI the patient reported substantial improvement of clinical symptoms. Pretreatment and follow-up MRIs were reported and scored independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Tendinopathy was improved and the partial-thickness tear healed on 3 T MRI. The patient was able to return to national-level competition.

  19. Autologous tenocyte implantation, a novel treatment for partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and tendinopathy in an elite athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Allan W; Bauer, Stefan; Goonatillake, Matthew; Breidahl, William; Zheng, Ming-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Tendinopathy and small partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff tendon are common presentations in sports medicine. No promising treatment has yet been established. Corticosteroid injections may improve symptoms in the short term but do not primarily treat the tendon pathology. Ultrasound-guided autologous tenocyte implantation (ATI) is a novel bioengineered treatment approach for treating tendinopathy. We report the first clinical case of ATI in a 20-year-old elite gymnast with a rotator cuff tendon injury. The patient presented with 12 months of increasing pain during gymnastics being unable to perform most skills. At 1 year after ATI the patient reported substantial improvement of clinical symptoms. Pretreatment and follow-up MRIs were reported and scored independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Tendinopathy was improved and the partial-thickness tear healed on 3 T MRI. The patient was able to return to national-level competition. PMID:23314880

  20. Characteristics of small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears with and without disruption of the anterior supraspinatus tendon.

    PubMed

    Namdari, Surena; Donegan, Ryan P; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Galatz, Leesa M; Yamaguchi, Ken; Keener, Jay D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the baseline function and results of arthroscopic cuff repair in shoulders with small and medium-sized full-thickness cuff tears with complete supraspinatus disruption compared with those with an intact anterior supraspinatus tendon. The study evaluated 112 subjects with small and medium-sized cuff tears. Subjects were grouped according to anterior supraspinatus integrity (83 shoulders intact, group 1; and 29 shoulders with anterior supraspinatus tendon disruption, group 2). Functional assessments included visual analogue scale for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Simple Shoulder Test score, and Constant score. Repair integrity was assessed by ultrasound examination. Group 2 shoulders had greater mean tear width, length, and area (P < .0001) and greater supraspinatus muscle degenerative changes (P < .0001) compared with shoulders with an intact anterior supraspinatus tendon. There were no differences in demographics or baseline function (ASES score: 45 group 1 vs 46 group 2, P = .79; Constant score: 56 group 1 vs 52 group 2, P = .29) before surgery. There were no differences in any functional parameter (ASES score: 92 group 1 vs 93 group 2, P = .71; Constant score: 84 group 1 vs 85 group 2, P = .84) after surgery. There was no difference in tendon healing rates (93% group 1 vs 86% group 2; P = .26). In the setting of painful small and medium-sized rotator cuff tears, disruption of the anterior supraspinatus tendon was associated with greater tear size and more advanced supraspinatus muscle degeneration. However, anterior supraspinatus tendon integrity had no influence on the clinical presentation or the functional and structural results of cuff repair surgery. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Repair integrity and functional outcome after arthroscopic conversion to a full-thickness rotator cuff tear: articular- versus bursal-side partial tears.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Cheon; Shin, Hyun Dae; Cha, Soo Min; Park, Jun Yeong

    2014-02-01

    A few studies have compared high-grade partial-thickness articular- and bursal-side rotator cuff tears postoperatively. To compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears treated with arthroscopic conversion to full-thickness tears, followed by repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Forty-three consecutive shoulders with high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (20 articular- and 23 bursal-side lesions) treated with arthroscopic conversion to full-thickness tears, followed by repair using the suture-bridge technique, were evaluated. The final functional evaluation was conducted at a mean of 35.53 months (range, 24-54 months). Radiological outcomes were evaluated at a minimum of 1 year postoperatively. The following outcome measures were used in this study: the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Rating Scale, the Constant score, and range of motion. At the final follow-up, the mean ASES, UCLA, and Constant scores improved significantly to 91.80, 32.70, and 75.85, respectively, in the articular-side group (all P < .001). The mean ASES, UCLA, and Constant scores improved significantly to 90.80, 32.52, and 83.00, respectively, in the bursal-side group (all P < .001). The UCLA and ASES scores did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (P = .821 and .869, respectively), while the Constant scores did (P = .048). The retear rate was 0% in the articular-side group and 9.5% in the bursal-side group; this difference was not significant (P = .204). The arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness bursal-side tears resulted in comparable or superior postoperative functional outcomes compared with that of articular-side tears. However, the postoperative retear rate did not differ significantly between the 2 groups.

  2. Full thickness tears: retaining the cuff.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Rizzello, Giacomo; Panascì, Manlio; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    Repair of rotator cuff tears is technically challenging. Full thickness rotator cuff tears have no potential for spontaneous healing, no reliable tendons substitutes are available, and their management is only partially understood. Many factors seem to contribute to the final outcome, and considerable variations in the decision-making process exist. For these reasons, decisions are often taken on the basis of surgeon's clinical experience. Accurate and prompt diagnosis is fundamental to guide correct management, and the tear pattern should be carefully evaluated to planning the most appropriate repair.

  3. What is the Best Clinical Test for Assessment of the Teres Minor in Massive Rotator Cuff Tears?

    PubMed

    Collin, Philippe; Treseder, Thomas; Denard, Patrick J; Neyton, Lionel; Walch, Gilles; Lädermann, Alexandre

    2015-09-01

    Few studies define the clinical signs to evaluate the integrity of teres minor in patients with massive rotator cuff tears. CT and MRI, with or without an arthrogram, can be limited by image quality, soft tissue density, motion artifact, and interobserver reliability. Additionally, the ill-defined junction between the infraspinatus and teres minor and the larger muscle-to-tendon ratio of the teres minor can contribute to error. Therefore, we wished to determine the validity of clinical testing for teres minor tears. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of commonly used clinical signs (external rotation lag sign, drop sign, and the Patte test) for diagnosing the teres minor's integrity. We performed a prospective evaluation of patients referred to our shoulder clinic for massive rotator cuff tears determined by CT arthrograms. The posterosuperior rotator cuff was examined clinically and correlated with CT arthrograms. We assessed interobserver reliability for CT assessment and used three different clinical tests of teres minor function (the external rotation lag sign, drop sign, and the Patte test). One hundred patients with a mean age of 68 years were available for the analysis. The most accurate test for teres minor dysfunction was an external rotation lag sign greater than 40°, which had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 80%-100%) and a specificity of 92% (95% CI, 84%-96%). External rotation lag signs greater than 10° had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 80%-100%) and a specificity of 51% (95% CI, 40%-61%). The Patte sign had a sensitivity of 93% (95% CI, 70%-99%) and a specificity of 72% (95% CI, 61%-80%). The drop sign had a sensitivity of 87% (95% CI, 62%-96%) and a specificity of 88% (95% CI, 80%-93%). An external rotation lag sign greater than 40° was more specific than an external rotation lag sign greater than 10° (p < 0.001), and a Patte sign (p < 0.001), but was not more specific than the drop sign (p < 0.47). There was poor correlation

  4. Regeneration of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear After Ultrasound-Guided Injection With Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong Rak; Lee, Sang Chul

    2015-11-01

    Rotator cuff tendon tear is one of the most common causes of chronic shoulder pain and disability. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of ultrasound-guided human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection to regenerate a full-thickness subscapularis tendon tear in a rabbit model by evaluating the gross morphology and histology of the injected tendon and motion analysis of the rabbit's activity. At 4 weeks after ultrasound-guided UCB-derived MSC injection, 7 of the 10 full-thickness subscapularis tendon tears were only partial-thickness tears, and 3 remained full-thickness tendon tears. The tendon tear size and walking capacity at 4 weeks after UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance were significantly improved compared with the same parameters immediately after tendon tear. UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance without surgical repair or bioscaffold resulted in the partial healing of full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tears in a rabbit model. Histology revealed that UCB-derived MSCs induced regeneration of rotator cuff tendon tear and that the regenerated tissue was predominantly composed of type I collagens. In this study, ultrasound-guided injection of human UCB-derived MSCs contributed to regeneration of the full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear without surgical repair. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of local injection of MSCs into the rotator cuff tendon. The results of this study suggest that ultrasound-guided umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell injection may be a useful conservative treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear repair. ©AlphaMed Press.

  5. Regeneration of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear After Ultrasound-Guided Injection With Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gi-Young; Lee, Sang Chul

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tendon tear is one of the most common causes of chronic shoulder pain and disability. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of ultrasound-guided human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection to regenerate a full-thickness subscapularis tendon tear in a rabbit model by evaluating the gross morphology and histology of the injected tendon and motion analysis of the rabbit’s activity. At 4 weeks after ultrasound-guided UCB-derived MSC injection, 7 of the 10 full-thickness subscapularis tendon tears were only partial-thickness tears, and 3 remained full-thickness tendon tears. The tendon tear size and walking capacity at 4 weeks after UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance were significantly improved compared with the same parameters immediately after tendon tear. UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance without surgical repair or bioscaffold resulted in the partial healing of full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tears in a rabbit model. Histology revealed that UCB-derived MSCs induced regeneration of rotator cuff tendon tear and that the regenerated tissue was predominantly composed of type I collagens. In this study, ultrasound-guided injection of human UCB-derived MSCs contributed to regeneration of the full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear without surgical repair. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of local injection of MSCs into the rotator cuff tendon. Significance The results of this study suggest that ultrasound-guided umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell injection may be a useful conservative treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear repair. PMID:26371340

  6. Impact of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Arthroscopic Repair of Small- to Medium-Sized Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Holtby, Richard; Christakis, Monique; Maman, Eran; MacDermid, Joy C.; Dwyer, Tim; Athwal, George S.; Faber, Kenneth; Theodoropoulos, John; Woodhouse, Linda J.; Razmjou, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased interest in using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as an augment to rotator cuff repair warrants further investigation, particularly in smaller rotator cuff tears. Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of PRP application in improving perioperative pain and function and promoting healing at 6 months after arthroscopic repair of small- or medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: This was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial of patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of partial- or full-thickness rotator cuff tears of up to 3 cm who were observed for 6 months. Patients were randomized to either repair and PRP application (study group) or repair only (control group) groups. The patient-oriented outcome measures utilized were the visual analog scale (VAS), the Short Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (ShortWORC), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) form, and the Constant-Murley Score (CMS). Range of motion (ROM) and inflammatory and coagulation markers were measured before and after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging was used at 6 months to assess retear and fatty infiltration rate. Results: Eighty-two patients (41 males) with a mean age of 59 ± 8 years were enrolled; 41 patients were included in each group. Both the PRP and control groups showed a significant improvement in their pain level based on the VAS within the first 30 days (P < .0001), with the PRP group reporting less pain than the control group (P = .012), which was clinically significantly different from days 8 through 11. The PRP group reported taking less painkillers (P = .026) than the control group within the first 30 days. All outcome measure scores and ROM improved significantly after surgery (P < .0001), with no between-group differences. No differences were observed between groups in inflammatory or coagulation marker test results (P > .05), retear (14% vs 18% full retear; P = .44), or fatty

  7. The Effects of Posterior Rotator Cuff Cable Tears on Glenohumeral Biomechanics in a Cadaveric Model of the Throwing Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Photopoulos, Christos Demetris; ElAttrache, Neal S.; Doermann, Alex; Akeda, Masaki; McGarry, Michelle H.; Lee, Thay Q.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The rotator cuff cable has been postulated to be the primary load bearing substructure of the superior part of the rotator cuff. Tears of the posterior rotator cable are frequently seen in overhead throwing athletes. Although the biomechanical significance of the anterior rotator cable has been well described, our current understanding of the relevance of the posterior cable is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine how partial-thickness tears and full-thickness tears of the posterior rotator cable would alter glenohumeral biomechanics and kinematics in cadaveric shoulder models. Methods: Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulder specimens were prepared and tested. To simulate the sequence of glenohumeral positions during the throwing motion, specimens were mounted on a custom shoulder testing system with the humerus positioned at 90° of abduction (30° scapular upward rotation, 60° glenohumeral abduction) and tested at 30, 60, 90, and 120 degrees of external rotation. After a circumferential capsulotomy was performed, rotator cuff muscles were loaded based on physiologic cross-sectional area ratios, and testing for each specimen was performed on each the following three conditions: intact posterior cable, partial-thickness (50%) articular-sided posterior cable tear, and full-thickness posterior cable tear. Primary outcome measures tested for each condition under the various degrees of glenohumeral rotation were: 1) anterior and total glenohumeral translation after application of a 30N anterior force; 2) path of glenohumeral articulation; 3) glenohumeral joint force. Results: With a 30N anterior force at 120° of external rotation, there was a significant increase in anterior glenohumeral translation between intact and full-thickness tear specimens (7.28±2.00mm and 17.49±3.75mm, respectively; p<0.05). Similarly, total joint translation at 120° of external rotation significantly increased between intact and full-thickness tear specimens (10

  8. Tenotomy or tenodesis for long head biceps lesions in shoulders with reparable rotator cuff tears: a prospective randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhou, Jiaojiao; Ge, Heng'an; Cheng, Biao

    2015-02-01

    Tenotomy and tenodesis are both effective for the treatment of long head biceps lesions. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of the two procedures in patients older than 55 years of age affected by reparable rotator cuff tears with concomitant long head biceps pathologies. Patients older than 55 years of age with long head biceps lesions and reparable rotator cuff tears were selected for this study. A total of 151 patients were randomly assigned to the tenotomy group (77 patients) or the tenodesis group (74 patients). Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed in all the patients. Before surgery, physical and radiological examinations were performed; the constant score was measured as well. After the operation, the surgical time, cost, pain (VAS scores), Popeye sign, cramping pain, constant scores, satisfaction level and the elbow flexion and forearm supination strength indices were recorded. Patients were followed for an average of 24 months. No significant differences in the clinical results for the constant scores, the forearm supination and elbow flexion strength indices, Popeye sign, cramping pain and satisfaction level were found between the groups. However, tenotomy required a shorter surgical time (40.4 ± 4.0 vs. 50.4 ± 5.9 min, P < 0.001) and resulted in faster pain relief (3.1 ± 1.8 vs. 4.8 ± 1.9, P < 0.001). Both tenotomy and tenodesis are effective and equal for the treatment of long head biceps lesions. However, because tenotomy requires a shorter surgical time and results in faster pain relief, tenotomy may be more suitable for the treatment of long head biceps lesions in patients older than 55 years of age with reparable rotator cuff tears. Therapeutic studies, Level I.

  9. The role of pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles in a biomechanical model of massive rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sean T; Ecklund, Kier J; Chu, Eileen H; McGarry, Michelle H; Gupta, Ranjan; Lee, Thay Q

    2014-08-01

    Superior migration of the humeral head after massive rotator cuff tear (mRCT) is thought to lead to cuff tear arthropathy. Previous biomechanical studies have demonstrated the ability of the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi (PM/LD) muscles to resist this migration. This study examined the role of PM/LD muscles on glenohumeral joint forces and acromiohumeral contact pressures in a mRCT model. Six cadaveric shoulders were tested using a custom shoulder-testing system. Muscle insertions of the rotator cuff, deltoid, and PM/LD were preserved and used for muscle loading. Specimens were tested in 3 different humeral rotation positions at 0° abduction and 2 rotation positions at 60° abduction. Testing was performed for intact specimens, after supraspinatus removal, and after supraspinatus/infraspinatus/teres minor removal. PM/LD were loaded or unloaded to determine their effect. Humeral head kinematics, glenohumeral joint forces, and acromiohumeral contact area and pressure were measured. For the mRCT condition at 0° abduction, unloading the PM/LD resulted in superior shift of the humeral head. Acromiohumeral contact pressures were undetectable when the PM/LD were loaded but increased significantly after PM/LD unloading. After mRCT, superior joint forces were increased and compressive forces were decreased compared with intact; loading the PM/LD resolved these abnormal forces in some testing conditions. In mRCT, the PM and LD muscles are effective in improving glenohumeral kinematics and reducing acromiohumeral pressures. Strengthening or neuromuscular training of this musculature, or both, may delay the progression to cuff tear arthropathy. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. Lysophosphatidic acid-induced RhoA signaling and prolonged macrophage infiltration worsens fibrosis and fatty infiltration following rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael R; Lee, Lawrence; Feeley, Brian T; Kim, Hubert T; Liu, Xuhui

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested that macrophage-mediated chronic inflammation is involved in the development of rotator cuff muscle atrophy and degeneration following massive tendon tears. Increased RhoA signaling has been reported in chronic muscle degeneration, such as muscular dystrophy. However, the role of RhoA signaling in macrophage infiltration and rotator muscle degeneration remains unknown. Using a previously established rat model of massive rotator cuff tears, we found RhoA signaling is upregulated in rotator cuff muscle following a massive tendon-nerve injury. This increase in RhoA expression is greatly potentiated by the administration of a potent RhoA activator, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and is accompanied by increased TNFα and TGF-β1 expression in rotator cuff muscle. Boosting RhoA signaling with LPA significantly worsened rotator cuff muscle atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty infiltration, accompanied with massive monocytic infiltration of rotator cuff muscles. Co-staining of RhoA and the tissue macrophage marker CD68 showed that CD68+ tissue macrophages are the dominant cell source of increased RhoA signaling in rotator cuff muscles after tendon tears. Taken together, our findings suggest that LPA-mediated RhoA signaling in injured muscle worsens the outcomes of atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty infiltration by increasing macrophage infiltraion in rotator cuff muscle. Clinically, inhibiting RhoA signaling may represent a future direction for developing new treatments to improve muscle quality following massive rotator cuff tears. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1539-1547, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Evidence for an Environmental and Inherited Predisposition Contributing to the Risk for Global Tendinopathies or Compression Neuropathies in Patients With Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Farnham, James M; Granger, Erin K; Teerlink, Craig C; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2016-04-01

    Rotator cuff tearing has been found to be clinically associated with other tendinopathies and compression neuropathies; a significant excess of these phenotypes has been seen in patients with rotator cuff tears. It is unclear if the association is secondary to environmental or genetic influences. To examine population-based data for comorbid association of rotator cuff tearing and tendinopathies and compression neuropathies and to determine whether the association extends to relatives of patients with rotator cuff tears, which could suggest a genetic contribution. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The Utah Population Database (UPDB) contains health and genealogical data on over 2 million Utah residents. Current Procedural Terminology, Fourth Revision, codes (CPT 4) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes (ICD-9) entered in patient records were used to identify patients with rotator cuff tearing and with comorbid tendinopathies and compression neuropathies. We tested the hypothesis of excess familial clustering of these other phenotypes with rotator cuff tearing using a well-established method (estimation of relative risks) in the overall study group of rotator cuff patients (N = 1889). Significantly elevated risk for elbow, hand/wrist, foot/ankle, knee, and hip tendinopathies, as well as for all tendinopathies and compression neuropathies, was observed in rotator cuff tear cases themselves (P < 2.8e(-13)), in their spouses (P < .02), and in their first-degree relatives (P < 5.5e(-4)). A significant excess of elbow (P = .01), foot/ankle (P = .04), and all tendinopathies (P = 3.1e(-3)) was also observed in second-degree relatives, and a significant excess of compression neuropathies (P = .03) was observed in third-degree relatives. The current study shows strong evidence of familial clustering of rotator cuff tearing with other tendinopathies and with compression neuropathy. Observed increased risks in spouses and first

  12. Evidence for an Environmental and Inherited Predisposition Contributing to the Risk for Global Tendinopathies or Compression Neuropathies in Patients With Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Tashjian, Robert Z.; Farnham, James M.; Granger, Erin K.; Teerlink, Craig C.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff tearing has been found to be clinically associated with other tendinopathies and compression neuropathies; a significant excess of these phenotypes has been seen in patients with rotator cuff tears. It is unclear if the association is secondary to environmental or genetic influences. Purpose: To examine population-based data for comorbid association of rotator cuff tearing and tendinopathies and compression neuropathies and to determine whether the association extends to relatives of patients with rotator cuff tears, which could suggest a genetic contribution. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The Utah Population Database (UPDB) contains health and genealogical data on over 2 million Utah residents. Current Procedural Terminology, Fourth Revision, codes (CPT 4) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes (ICD-9) entered in patient records were used to identify patients with rotator cuff tearing and with comorbid tendinopathies and compression neuropathies. We tested the hypothesis of excess familial clustering of these other phenotypes with rotator cuff tearing using a well-established method (estimation of relative risks) in the overall study group of rotator cuff patients (N = 1889). Results: Significantly elevated risk for elbow, hand/wrist, foot/ankle, knee, and hip tendinopathies, as well as for all tendinopathies and compression neuropathies, was observed in rotator cuff tear cases themselves (P < 2.8e–13), in their spouses (P < .02), and in their first-degree relatives (P < 5.5e–4). A significant excess of elbow (P = .01), foot/ankle (P = .04), and all tendinopathies (P = 3.1e–3) was also observed in second-degree relatives, and a significant excess of compression neuropathies (P = .03) was observed in third-degree relatives. Conclusion: The current study shows strong evidence of familial clustering of rotator cuff tearing with other tendinopathies and with compression

  13. A prospective randomized controlled trial comparing occupational therapy with home-based exercises in conservative treatment of rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Krischak, Gert; Gebhard, Florian; Reichel, Heiko; Friemert, Benedikt; Schneider, Florian; Fisser, Christoph; Kaluscha, Rainer; Kraus, Michael

    2013-09-01

    This pilot study evaluates the outcome after occupational therapy, compared to home-based exercises in the conservative treatment of patients with full thickness rotator cuff tears. Forty-three adult subjects (range, 18-75 years), who had a full thickness rupture of the rotator cuff which was verified by magnetic imaging tomography, with clinical signs of a chronic rotator cuff impingement, and who were available for follow-up, were randomized to occupational therapy or to independent home-based exercises using a booklet. After drop-out, 38 patients were available for full examination at follow-up. Before therapy and after 2 months of conservative treatment, pain intensity, the Constant-Murley score, isokinetic strength testing in abduction and external rotation, functional limitation, clinical shoulder tests and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) were evaluated. Two-thirds of the patients improved in clinical shoulder tests, regardless of the therapy group. There were no significant differences between the groups with reference to pain, range of motion, maximum peak force (abduction, external rotation), the Constant-Murley score, and the EQ-5D index. The only significant difference observed was the improvement in the self-assessed health- related quality of life (EQ-5D VAS) favoring home-based exercises. Home-based exercise, on the basis of an illustrated booklet with exercises twice a day, supplies comparable results to formal occupational therapy in the conservative treatment of rotator cuff tears. The results of this pilot study suggest some potential advantages related to psychological benefits using home-based treatment. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pseudoparalysis From a Massive Rotator Cuff Tear Is Reliably Reversed With an Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair in Patients Without Preoperative Glenohumeral Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Denard, Patrick J; Lädermann, Alexandre; Brady, Paul C; Narbona, Pablo; Adams, Christopher R; Arrigoni, Paolo; Huberty, Dave; Zlatkin, Michael B; Sanders, Timothy G; Burkhart, Stephen S

    2015-10-01

    Pseudoparalysis is defined as active forward flexion less than 90° with full passive motion. There is controversy about the ideal surgical management of a massive rotator cuff tear with pseudoparalysis. The purpose of this study was to prospectively analyze the ability to reverse pseudoparalysis with an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR). The hypothesis was that in the absence of substantial glenohumeral arthritis, preoperative fatty infiltration of grade 3 or higher and an acromiohumeral interval (AHI) of less than 7 mm would not prevent reversal of pseudoparalysis with an ARCR. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A prospective multicenter study of ARCR performed for preoperative pseudoparalysis was conducted. The minimum follow-up was 1 year. The mean patient age was 63 years, and pseudoparalysis was present for a mean of 4.2 months preoperatively. Preoperative radiographic evaluation included plain film evaluation of the AHI and Hamada classification and MRI evaluation of fatty degeneration and rotator cuff retraction. Functional outcome was determined by the Simple Shoulder Test (SST), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Shoulder Score, visual analog scale (VAS), and subjective shoulder value (SSV). Of the 58 patients enrolled, 56 had at least 1 year of follow-up. Mean active forward flexion improved from 47° preoperatively to 159° postoperatively (P < .001). Statistically significant improvements were seen in the SST (from 2.8 preoperatively to 10.1 postoperatively), SSV (from 28 to 83), ASES Shoulder Score (from 37 to 88), and VAS (from 5.7 to 1.1) (P < .001). Pseudoparalysis was reversed in 53 of 56 patients (95%). There was no difference in the rate of reversal of pseudoparalysis between those patients with an AHI of less than 7 mm (88.2%) and those with an AHI of 7 mm or more (96.9%) (P =.289). Pseudoparalysis was reversed in all 8 of the patients with fatty degeneration of grade 3 or higher in 1 or more of the rotator cuff muscles. ARCR can

  15. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 3, and 9 in degenerated long head biceps tendon in the presence of rotator cuff tears: an immunohistological study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Long head biceps (LHB) degeneration, in combination with rotator cuff tears, can be a source of chronic shoulder pain. LHB tenotomy reduces pain and improves joint function although the pathophysiological context is not well understood. Tendon integrity depends on the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). It is unclear which of these enzymes contribute to LHB but we chose to study MMP 1, 3, and 9 and hypothesized that one or more of them may be altered in LHB, whether diagnosed preoperatively or intraoperatively. We compared expression of these MMPs in both LHB and healthy tendon samples. Methods LHB samples of 116 patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears were harvested during arthroscopic tenotomy. Patients were assigned to 4 groups (partial thickness tear, full thickness tear, cuff arthropathy, or control) based upon intraoperative findings. Partial and full thickness tears were graded according to Ellman and Bateman's classifications, respectively. MMP expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results MMP 1 and 9 expression was significantly higher in the presence of rotator cuff tears than in controls whereas MMP 3 expression was significantly decreased. MMP 1 and 9 expression was significantly higher in articular-sided than bursal-sided partial thickness tears. No significant association was found between MMP 1 and 9 expression and full thickness tears, and the extent of the cuff tear by Bateman's classification. Conclusion Increased MMP 1 and 9 expression, and decreased MMP 3 expression are found in LHB degeneration. There is a significant association between the size and location of a rotator cuff tear and MMP expression. PMID:21108787

  16. Quality of Life and Functional Results of Arthroscopic Partial Repair of Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Galasso, Olimpio; Riccelli, Daria Anna; De Gori, Marco; De Benedetto, Massimo; Orlando, Nicola; Gasparini, Giorgio; Castricini, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the minimum 2-year results and possible outcomes of arthroscopic partial repair in different patterns of irreparable rotator cuff tears (RCTs). Patients suffering from an irreparable supraspinatus and a reparable infraspinatus tendons who underwent arthroscopic partial repair with a minimum 24-month follow-up were included in this study. The Constant and Murley score (CMS) was used to assess patients' functionality pre- and postoperatively. Postoperative patient assessment included the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and the Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36). A postoperative range of motion, CMS, and strength were compared with the contralateral side. Postoperative SF-36 was compared with age- and sex-matched norms. Ninety patients (95 shoulders) were reviewed after a mean follow-up of 7 (range 2-12) years. The subscapularis tendon was intact in 80 shoulders and torn but completely reparable in the remaining 15 shoulders. The CMS improved from 39.1 ± 8.4 (10-61) to 76.3 ± 9.7 (32-93) (P < .001). The mean postoperative SST was 9.1 ± 2.2 (1-12). Although the patients had lower postoperative abduction and internal rotation, strength in abduction and CMS in comparison with the measurements from the contralateral side, the median postoperative SF-36 physical and mental component summaries were 98% and 100% of the matched norms. No significant differences were found in postoperative outcomes according to the RCT pattern. Males showed significantly higher strengths in abduction (B = -1.384, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.144 to -0.624, η(2) = 0.123, P < .001, 95% power), external rotation (B = -3.646, 95% CI -5.2 to -2.092, η(2) = 0.189, P < .001, 100% power), and internal rotation (B = -3.867, 95% CI -5.676 to -2.057, η(2) = 0.162, P < .001, 99% power) than females. Significantly higher ranges of abduction (η(2) = 0.431, P = .019, 98% power) and external rotation (η(2) = 0.417, P < .03, 97% power) were noted in younger

  17. A comparative analysis of fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears and suprascapular neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Beeler, Silvan; Ek, Eugene T H; Gerber, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Little is known of the mechanisms that lead to the muscle changes associated with rotator cuff disorders. We have observed that the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of fatty infiltration (FI) and muscle atrophy (MA) differ between chronic cuff tears and suprascapular neuropathy, suggesting different pathophysiology. This study compares the different MRI changes that occur in chronic cuff tears and suprascapular neuropathy. Two groups were retrospectively identified: (1) RCT group (20 shoulders): patients with chronic tears of the supraspinatus and/or infraspinatus without electromyographic (EMG) evidence of suprascapular neuropathy; (2) neuro group (17 shoulders): patients with EMG documented suprascapular nerve dysfunction and absence of a rotator cuff tear. Magnetic resonance arthrograms were analyzed for the degree of FI and MA, and the morphology of the muscle was assessed, in particular the muscle border, pattern of FI, and extent of involvement. The muscle changes that occur following chronic cuff tears differ from that following denervation secondary to suprascapular neuropathy, especially with respect to the muscle border, degree of perineural fat, and overall distribution of FI. Highly specific and characteristic morphological patterns of FI exist for both chronic cuff tears and suprascapular neuropathy. Chronic rotator cuff tendon tears and suprascapular neuropathy are both associated with FI and MA of the rotator cuff muscles. The pattern of FI is markedly different in the 2 situations. These findings have diagnostic potential and may serve as a basis for further research concerning type, severity, and evolution of FI under different conditions and after treatment. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Outcome and structural integrity of rotator cuff after arthroscopic treatment of large and massive tears with double row technique: a 2-year followup.

    PubMed

    Carbonel, Ignacio; Martínez, Angel A; Aldea, Elisa; Ripalda, Jorge; Herrera, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the tendon healing after arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears. Methods. 82 patients with a full-thickness large and massive rotator cuff tear underwent arthroscopic repair with double row technique. Results were evaluated by use of the UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires, the Shoulder Strength Index (SSI), and range of motion. Follow-up time was 2 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed on each shoulder preoperatively and 2 years after repair. Results. 100% of the patients were followed up. UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires showed significant improvement compared with preoperatively (P < 0.001). Range of motion and SSI in flexion, abduction, and internal and external rotation also showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). MRI studies showed 24 cases of tear after repair (29%). Only 8 cases were a full-thickness tear. Conclusions. At two years of followup, in large and massive rotator cuff tears, an arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair technique produces an excellent functional outcome and structural integrity.

  19. Outcome and Structural Integrity of Rotator Cuff after Arthroscopic Treatment of Large and Massive Tears with Double Row Technique: A 2-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Carbonel, Ignacio; Martínez, Angel A.; Aldea, Elisa; Ripalda, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the tendon healing after arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears. Methods. 82 patients with a full-thickness large and massive rotator cuff tear underwent arthroscopic repair with double row technique. Results were evaluated by use of the UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires, the Shoulder Strength Index (SSI), and range of motion. Follow-up time was 2 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed on each shoulder preoperatively and 2 years after repair. Results. 100% of the patients were followed up. UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires showed significant improvement compared with preoperatively (P < 0.001). Range of motion and SSI in flexion, abduction, and internal and external rotation also showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). MRI studies showed 24 cases of tear after repair (29%). Only 8 cases were a full-thickness tear. Conclusions. At two years of followup, in large and massive rotator cuff tears, an arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair technique produces an excellent functional outcome and structural integrity. PMID:23533788

  20. "Owl" Technique for All-Arthroscopic Augmentation of a Massive or Large Rotator Cuff Tear With Extracellular Matrix Graft.

    PubMed

    Narvani, A Ali; Consigliere, Paolo; Polyzois, Ioannis; Sarkhel, Tanaya; Gupta, Rohit; Levy, Ofer

    2016-08-01

    Despite the vast improvement in techniques and technology for arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery, repairs of massive and large tears remain challenging because they are associated with significantly high failure rates. In recent years, patch augmentation has gained popularity as a technique to decrease these high failure rates. Arthroscopic patch augmentation of rotator cuff repair, however, is technically difficult. The purpose of this report is to describe a simple and reproducible technique for all-arthroscopic extracellular matrix graft augmentation. With this technique, which we refer to as the "owl" technique because the prepared extracellular augment resembles an owl, there are relatively few suture ends involved; therefore, augment introduction is straightforward with a reduced risk of suture ends becoming tangled. In addition, the way in which our augmentation is prepared helps to prevent it from becoming bunched up when being secured.

  1. Critical shoulder angle: Measurement reproducibility and correlation with rotator cuff tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Cherchi, L; Ciornohac, J F; Godet, J; Clavert, P; Kempf, J-F

    2016-09-01

    Associations have been reported linking rotator cuff tears (RCTs) to both greater lateral extension of the acromion and greater inclination of the glenoid cavity. These two factors combined can be assessed using a recently introduced parameter, the critical shoulder angle (CSA). The primary objective of this study was to confirm the association linking a high CSA value to RCTs, and the secondary objective was to assess the reproducibility of CSA measurement using a goniometer. The null hypothesis was that the CSA value in a group of patients with RCTs was not significantly different from that in patients with anterior shoulder instability and a Bankart lesion, taken as the general population for this study. After a power estimation, we retrospectively included 28 patients with a mean age of 55.5 years who had surgery for RCTs and 27 patients with a mean age of 27.2 years who underwent anterior labral repair. Two surgeons used a goniometer to measure the CSA in each patient. Reproducibility was assessed based on Bland-Altman plots and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The mean CSA was significantly higher (P=0.02) in the RCT group (36.4°±4.4°; range: 30°-46°) than in the labral-repair group (33.3°±3.8°; range: 25°-41°). Intra-observer reproducibility was 96.7% and inter-observer reproducibility was 95.5%. Our results support previously published evidence that the CSA is significantly greater in patients with RCTs. Thus, an anatomical difference seems to exist between patients with RCTs and the general population. The CSA measured on a standard radiograph using a goniometer provides a reproducible assessment of this anatomical difference. IV, case-control epidemiological study with a power estimation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The results of arthroscopic versus mini-open repair for rotator cuff tears at mid-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pearsall, Albert W; Ibrahim, Khalid A; Madanagopal, Sudhakar G

    2007-01-01

    Background To prospectively evaluate patients who underwent a "mini-open" repair versus a completely arthroscopic technique for small to large size rotator cuff tears. Methods Fifty-two patients underwent "mini-open" or all arthroscopic repair of a full thickness tear of the rotator cuff. Patients who complained of shoulder pain and/or weakness and who had failed a minimum of 6 weeks of physical therapy and had at least one sub-acromial injection were surgical candidates. Pre and post-operative clinical evaluations included the following: 1) demographics; 2) Simple Shoulder Test (SST); 3) University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) rating scale; 4) visual analog pain assessment (VAS); and 5) pre-op SF12 assessment. Descriptive analysis was performed for patient demographics and for all variables. Pre and post outcome scores, range of motion and pain scale were compared using paired t-tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate any effect between dependent and independent variables. Significance was set at p is less than or equal to 0.05. Results There were 31 females and 21 males. The average follow-up was 50.6 months (27 – 84 months). The average age was similar between the two groups [arthroscopic x = 55 years/mini-open x = 58 years, p = 0.7]. Twenty-seven patients underwent arthroscopic repair and 25 underwent repair with a mini-open incision. The average rotator cuff tear size was 3.1 cm (range: 1–5 centimeters). There was no significant difference in tear size between the two groups (arthroscopic group = 2.9 cm/mini-open group = 3.2 cm, p = 0.3). Overall, there was a significant improvement from pre-operative status in shoulder pain, shoulder function as measured on the Simple Shoulder test and UCLA Shoulder Form. Visual analog pain improved, on average, 4.4 points and the most recent Short Shoulder Form and UCLA scores were 8 and 26 respectively. Both active and passive glenohumeral joint range of motion improved significantly from pre

  3. Arthroscopic proximal versus open subpectoral biceps tenodesis with arthroscopic repair of small- or medium-sized rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young; Lee, Jong-Myoung; Kwon, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jeong-Woo

    2016-12-01

    The study was aimed to compare arthroscopic proximal biceps tenodesis and open subpectoral biceps tenodesis in repair of small or medium rotator cuff tears. Eighty-five patients underwent biceps tenodesis with arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear, and 66 patients were followed for median of 26.8 (18-42) months with ultrasonography were reviewed. The arthroscopic biceps tenodesis group included 34 cases, and the open subpectoral biceps group included 32 cases. Patients were evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and constant scores. Rotator cuff repair and fixation of the biceps tendon were assessed by ultrasonography. Fixation failure and degree of deformity were evaluated by the pain in the bicipital groove and biceps apex distance (BAD). VAS score and tenderness at the bicipital groove decreased significantly in the open subpectoral group at 3 months postoperative. In both groups, the range of motion, ASES score, and constant score increased significantly (P < 0.05). Rotator cuff retear occurred in three cases (8.8 %) in the arthroscopic group and two cases in the open subpectoral group (6.2 %). There was no significant difference in BAD between the two groups. There was no difference between open subpectoral tenodesis and arthroscopic proximal tenodesis at the time of the final follow-up; however, open subpectoral tenodesis showed encouraging results at 3-month follow-up. This early result of subpectoral tenodesis was related to removing most part of biceps tendinitis and using intra-bicipital groove tenodesis technique. III.

  4. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for cuff tear arthropathy: the clinical effect of deltoid lengthening and center of rotation medialization.

    PubMed

    Jobin, Charles M; Brown, Gabriel D; Bahu, Maher J; Gardner, Thomas R; Bigliani, Louis U; Levine, William N; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2012-10-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) for cuff tear arthropathy improves shoulder function and reduces pain. Implant position and soft tissue balancing are important factors to optimize outcome. Tensioning the deltoid and increasing the deltoid moment arm by medializing the center of rotation are biomechanically advantageous. The purpose of this study was to correlate RSA functional outcomes with deltoid lengthening and center of rotation medialization. This prospective cohort study enrolled 49 consecutive patients who underwent RSA for cuff tear arthropathy. Preoperative and serial postoperative physical examinations, radiographs, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and Simple Shoulder Test scores were evaluated. Deltoid lengthening and medialization of the center of rotation were measured radiographically and correlated with functional outcome scores, range of motion, and complications. At final follow-up (average, 16 ± 10 months), 37 of 49 patients (76%) were available for analysis. Deltoid lengthening (average, 21 ± 10 mm) correlated significantly (P = .002) with superior active forward elevation (average, 144° ± 19°). Medialization of the center of rotation (average, 18 ± 8 mm) did not correlate with active forward elevation or subjective outcomes. Deltoid lengthening that achieved an acromion-greater tuberosity distance exceeding 38 mm had a 90% positive predictive value of obtaining 135° of active forward elevation. Two patients (4%) required revision surgery, and 68% of patients developed scapular notching (average grade, 1.3 ± 1.2) at final follow-up. Deltoid lengthening improves active forward elevation after RSA for cuff tear arthropathy. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Clinical and Radiological Results in the Arthroscopic Repair of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears With and Without the Anterior Attachment of the Rotator Cable.

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam Su; Moon, Seong Cheol; Hong, Se Jung; Bae, Seong Hae; Rhee, Yong Girl

    2017-09-01

    The anterior rotator cable is critical in force transmission of the rotator cuff. However, few clinical studies have examined the correlation between the integrity of the anterior supraspinatus tendon and surgical outcomes in patients with rotator cuff tears. To compare the clinical and structural outcomes of the arthroscopic repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears with and without anterior disruption of the supraspinatus tendon. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. One hundred eighty-one shoulders available for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at least 6 months after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, with a minimum 1-year follow-up, were enrolled. The anterior attachment of the rotator cable was disrupted in 113 shoulders (group A) and intact in 68 shoulders (group B). The mean age at the time of surgery in groups A and B was 59.6 and 59.2 years, respectively, and the mean follow-up period was 24.2 and 25.1 months, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the preoperative tear size and pattern and muscle fatty degeneration between the 2 groups ( P = .004, P = .008, and P < .001, respectively). At final follow-up, the mean visual analog scale (VAS) for pain score during motion was 1.31 ± 0.98 and 1.24 ± 0.90 in groups A and B, respectively ( P = .587). The mean Constant score was 77.5 ± 11.2 and 78.0 ± 11.9 points in groups A and B, respectively ( P = .875). The mean University of California, Los Angeles score was 30.5 ± 4.1 and 31.0 ± 3.0 points in groups A and B, respectively ( P = .652). In assessing the repair integrity on postoperative MRI, the retear rate was 23.9% and 14.7% in groups A and B, respectively ( P = .029). Irrespective of involvement in the anterior attachment of the rotator cable, the mean 24-month follow-up demonstrated excellent pain relief and improvement in the ability to perform activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. However, tears with anterior disruption of the rotator cable

  6. Patient self-assessed shoulder comfort and function and active motion are not closely related to surgically documented rotator cuff tear integrity.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jason E; Tang, Anna; Matsen, Frederick A

    2017-07-06

    The rationale for rotator cuff repair surgery is that better integrity of the cuff should be associated with better comfort and function. However, in patients with cuff disease, there is not good evidence that the degree of rotator cuff integrity is closely associated with the shoulder's comfort, function, or active motion. The goal of this study was to explore these relationships in shoulders with surgically documented cuff disease. In 55 shoulders having surgery for cuff-related symptoms, we correlated the preoperative Simple Shoulder Test score with the objectively measured preoperative active shoulder motion and with the integrity of the cuff observed at surgery. The 16 shoulders with tendinosis or partial-thickness tears had an average Simple Shoulder Test score of 3.7 ± 3.3, active abduction of 111° ± 38°, and active flexion of 115° ± 36°. The corresponding values were 3.6 ± 2.8, 94° ± 47°, and 94° ± 52° for the 22 full-thickness supraspinatus tears and 3.9 ± 2.7, 89° ± 39°, and 100° ± 39° for the 17 supraspinatus and infraspinatus tears. In this study, surgically observed cuff integrity was not strongly associated with the shoulder's comfort or function. Whereas surgeons often seek to improve the integrity of the rotator cuff, the management of patients with rotator cuff disorders needs to be informed by a better understanding of the factors other than cuff integrity that influence the comfort and functioning of shoulders with cuff disease. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rotator cuff tear state modulates self-renewal and differentiation capacity of human skeletal muscle progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kelsey A; Gibbons, Michael C; Lane, John G; Singh, Anshuman; Ward, Samuel R; Engler, Adam J

    2017-08-01

    Full thickness rotator cuff tendon (RCT) tears have long-term effects on RC muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration, with lasting damage even after surgical tendon repair. Skeletal muscle progenitor cells (SMPs) are critical for muscle repair in response to injury, but the inability of RC muscles to recover from chronic RCT tear indicates possible deficits in repair mechanisms. Here we investigated if muscle injury state was a crucial factor during human SMP expansion and differentiation ex vivo. SMPs were isolated from muscles in patients with no, partial-thickness (PT), or full-thickness (FT) RCT tears. Despite using growth factors, physiological niche stiffness, and muscle-mimetic extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, we found that SMPs isolated from human RC muscle with RCT tears proliferated slower but fused into myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotubes at higher rates than SMPs from untorn RCTs. Proteomic analysis of RC muscle tissue revealed shifts in muscle composition with pathology, as muscle from massive RCT tears had increased ECM deposition compared with no tear RC muscle. Together these data imply that the remodeled niche in a torn RCT primes SMPs not for expansion but for differentiation, thus limiting longer-term self-renewal necessary for regeneration after surgical repair. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1816-1823, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Subacromial injection of autologous platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid for the treatment of symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Shams, Ahmed; El-Sayed, Mohamed; Gamal, Osama; Ewes, Waled

    2016-12-01

    Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common causes of chronic shoulder pain and disability. They significantly affect the quality of life. Reduced pain and improved function are the goals of conventional therapy, which includes relative rest, pain therapy, physical therapy, corticosteroid injections and surgical intervention. Tendons have a relative avascular nature; hence, their regenerative potential is limited. There is some clinical evidence that the application of autologous platelets may help to revascularize the area of injury in rotator cuff pathologies. This prospective randomized controlled study was done to evaluate the results of subacromial injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) versus corticosteroid injection therapy in 40 patients with symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears. All patients were assessed before injection, 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months after injection, using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES), the Constant-Murley Score (CMS), the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain. An MRI was performed before and 6 months after the injection for all the included patients and was graded on 0-5 scale. Both injection groups showed statistically significantly better clinical outcomes over time compared with those before injection. There was a statistically significant difference between RPP group and corticosteroid group 12 weeks after injection, regarding VAS, ASES, CMS and SST in favor of the RPP group. MRI showed an overall slight nonsignificant improvement in grades of tendinopathy/tear in both groups, however, without statistically significant differences between the two groups. PRP injections showed earlier better results as compared to corticosteroid injections, although statistically significant better results after 6 months could not be found. Therefore, subacromial RPP injection could be considered as a good alternative to corticosteroid injection, especially in

  9. Effectiveness of Physical Therapy in Treating Atraumatic Full Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears. A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, John E.; Dunn, Warren R.; Sanders, Rosemary; An, Qi; Baumgarten, Keith M.; Bishop, Julie Y.; Brophy, Robert H.; Carey, James L.; Holloway, Brian G.; Jones, Grant L.; Ma, C. Benjamin; Marx, Robert G.; McCarty, Eric C.; Poddar, Sourav K.; Smith, Matthew V.; Spencer, Edwin E.; Vidal, Armando F.; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effectiveness of a specific non-operative physical therapy program in treating atraumatic full thickness rotator cuff tears using a multicenter prospective cohort study design. Methods Patients with atraumatic full thickness rotator cuff tears who consented to enroll provided data via questionnaire on demographics, symptom characteristics, co-morbidities, willingness to undergo surgery, and patient related outcome assessments (SF-12, ASES, WORC, SANE score, Shoulder Activity Scale). Physicians recorded physical examination and imaging data. Patients began a physical therapy program developed from a systematic review of the literature and returned for evaluation at 6 and 12 weeks. At those visits patients could chose one of three courses: 1.) Cured (no formal follow up scheduled), 2.) Improved (continue therapy with scheduled reassessment in 6 weeks), or 3.) No better (offered surgery). Patients were contacted by telephone at 1 and 2 years to determine if they had undergone surgery since their last visit. A Wilcoxon signed rank test with continuity correction was used to compare initial, 6 week, and 12 week outcome scores. Results The cohort consists of 452 patients. Patient reported outcomes improved significantly at 6 and 12 weeks. Patients elected to undergo surgery less than 25% of the time. Patients who decided to have surgery generally did so between 6 and 12 weeks, and few had surgery between 3 and 24 months. Conclusion Non-operative treatment using this physical therapy protocol is effective for treating atraumatic full thickness rotator cuff tears in approximately 75% of patients followed for two years. Level of evidence Level IV, Case Series, Treatment Study PMID:23540577

  10. Funnel tenotomy versus intracuff tenodesis for lesions of the long head of the biceps tendon associated with rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam Su; Cha, Sang Won; Rhee, Yong Girl

    2014-05-01

    There is no clear consensus regarding optimal management of lesions of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) associated with rotator cuff tears. To compare clinical outcome and cosmetic deformity of a funnel tenotomy versus intracuff tenodesis for concomitant LHBT lesion in patients with rotator cuff tears. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients who underwent surgical treatment for rotator cuff tears associated with LHBT lesions between March 2005 and February 2011 were enrolled in the study (N = 83). Forty-one underwent a funnel tenotomy (group A), and 42 underwent an intracuff tenodesis (group B). The mean age at the time of operation was 63.8 years in group A (range, 44-68 years) and 58.6 years in group B (range, 45-70 years). At the most recent follow-up, the mean University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) score in group A improved from a preoperative mean of 16.9 ± 3.6 to 30.6 ± 4.1 (P < .001), and the Constant score improved from 58.7 ± 14.2 to 73.8 ± 11.2 (P < .001). In group B, these scores improved from 18.1 ± 4.0 to 31.3 ± 3.0 (P < .001) and 53.6 ± 13.4 to 74.8 ± 11.9 (P < .001), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups (P = .43 for UCLA, P = .81 for Constant score). Popeye deformity was detected in 11 cases of group A (26.8%) and in 7 cases of group B (16.7%) (P = .06). For the treatment of concomitant LHBT lesions in patients with rotator cuff tears, both a funnel tenotomy and an intracuff tenodesis showed good clinical outcomes. Even though the incidence of Popeye deformity in the funnel tenotomy group tended to be higher, there was no significant difference in the overall incidence of cosmetic deformity between the 2 groups.

  11. Does the latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for massive rotator cuff tears remain active postoperatively and restore active external rotation?

    PubMed

    Henseler, Jan Ferdinand; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G H H; de Groot, Jurriaan H

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the muscle activity with surface electromyography (EMG) and the clinical outcome of the latissimus dorsi transfer. It remains unclear whether the clinical results of the latissimus dorsi transfer for massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tears are achieved either by active muscle contractions or by a passive tenodesis effect of the transfer. Eight patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 year (SD, 0.1) after the latissimus dorsi transfer. Clinical evaluation of outcomes included active range of motion, Constant score, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and activities of daily living (ADL). Muscle activity was recorded with EMG during directional isometric abduction and adduction tasks. The external rotation in adduction improved from 23° to 51° (P = .03). The external rotation in abduction improved from 10° to 70° (P = .02). The mean Constant score improved from 39 to 62 postoperatively (P = .01). The VAS for pain at rest improved from 3.3 preoperatively to 0.1 (P = .02). The VAS for ADL improved from 4.9 to 2.3 (P = .05). The transferred latissimus dorsi remained active in all cases, as reflected by increased latissimus dorsi EMG activity during abduction tasks. In addition, the latissimus dorsi EMG activity shifted from preoperative antagonistic co-activation in adduction to synergistic activation in abduction. The latissimus dorsi has synergistic muscle activity after transfer. Apart from a tenodesis effect, directional muscle activity seems relevant for improved clinical outcome and pain relief. A specific gain was observed for external rotation in elevated arm positions, a motion essential for ADL tasks. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The MRI geyser sign: acromioclavicular joint cysts in the setting of a chronic rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Cooper, H John; Milillo, Ralph; Klein, Devon A; DiFelice, Gregory S

    2011-06-01

    We present the case of a 71-year-old man with a large acromioclavicular (AC) joint cyst successfully managed with surgical excision. AC joint cysts are soft tissue masses generally signifying underlying rotator cuff pathology. Traditionally, these cysts were identified with shoulder arthrography as a "geyser" of fluid escaping through the AC joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is today's preferred imaging modality; we describe the MRI equivalent of the "geyser sign," signifying synovial fluid escaping through the cuff defect, across the subacromial bursa, and decompressing superiorly through a degenerated AC joint. Surgical management is preferred for symptomatic cysts. Based on a review of limited retrospective case series, recommendations for management of these lesions are as follows. Repair of the rotator cuff is preferable whenever possible. In the case of an irreparable defect, good results can be achieved through excisional AC joint arthroplasty and resection of the cyst base. Aspiration of these cysts should not be attempted, due to the high recurrence rate and potential for a draining sinus. Hemiarthroplasty also may be effective in indirectly decompressing these cysts; but given the invasive nature of this procedure, it should be reserved for patients who are also symptomatic from cuff arthropathy.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of the shoulder after subacromial injection with corticosteroids can mimic a rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Borick, Jay M; Kurzweil, Peter R

    2008-07-01

    Subacromial injections have been used to treat rotator cuff problems. Previous studies have noted the difficulty in performing accurate injections into this area. In addition, one must also question the effects that misplaced corticosteroids could have on the surrounding tissues. In this case, a 51-year-old woman presented with several weeks of left shoulder pain and was diagnosed with rotator cuff tendonitis. After a subacromial injection with betamethasone and lidocaine, the patient noted 3 weeks of near complete pain relief, followed by a return of her symptoms. A magnetic resonance imaging scan obtained 7 weeks after the injection showed a full-thickness tear of the supraspinatus tendon. Five weeks later, the patient underwent arthroscopic evaluation of the shoulder and subacromial decompression. The rotator cuff tendons were noted to be intact and normal in appearance. The patient eventually had full resolution of her symptoms. Six months postoperatively, she underwent a new scan that showed a normal supraspinatus tendon. Apparently, the subacromial injection penetrated the anterior half of the supraspinatus tendon, causing a transient effect and signal change. One should use caution in the interpretation of magnetic resonance imaging scans of the shoulder soon after the injection of corticosteroids.

  14. The effects of plane and arc of elevation on electromyography of shoulder musculature in patients with rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Alenabi, Talia; Dal Maso, Fabien; Tétreault, Patrice; Begon, Mickaël

    2016-02-01

    Arm elevations in different planes are commonly assessed in clinics and are included in rehabilitation protocols for patients with rotator cuff pathology. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of plane and angle of elevation on shoulder muscles activity in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tear to be used for rehabilitation purposes. Eight symptomatic patients with rotator cuff tears were assessed by using EMG (11 surface and 2 fine wire electrodes) synchronized with a motion analysis. The subjects completed five elevations in full can position (arm externally rotated and thumb up) in frontal, scapular and sagittal planes. Muscle activity in three elevation arcs of 20° (from 0° to 60°) was presented as the percentage of mean activity. Data were analyzed by mixed linear models (α=0.003), and Tuckey Post-hoc comparisons for significant effects (α=0.05). The effect of plane was significant for supraspinatus, middle trapezius, anterior, middle, and posterior deltoid, triceps, and pectoralis major (P<0.001). Supraspinatus was more active during abduction than scaption and flexion (P<0.05), and its activity did not increase significantly after 40° of elevation (P>0.05). Infraspinatus had similar activity pattern in the three planes of elevation (P>0.003) with increasing trend in accordance with the elevation angle. In any rehabilitation protocol, if less activity of supraspinatus is desired, active arm elevation should be directed toward flexion and scaption and postponed abduction to prevent high level of activity in this muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears: tendon quality as a prognostic factor for repair integrity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seok Won; Kim, Jae Yoon; Yoon, Jong Pil; Lyu, Seong Hwa; Rhee, Sung Min; Oh, Se Bong

    2015-03-01

    The healing failure rate is high for partial-thickness or small full-thickness rotator cuff tears. To retrospectively evaluate and compare outcomes after arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears and factors affecting rotator cuff healing. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Included in the study were 55 consecutive patients (mean age, 57.9 ± 7.2 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair for high-grade partial-thickness (n = 34) and small full-thickness (n = 21) rotator cuff tears. The study patients also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) preoperatively and computed tomography arthrography (CTA) at least 6 months postoperatively, and their functional outcomes were evaluated preoperatively and at the last follow-up (>24 months). All partial-thickness tears were repaired after being converted to full-thickness tears; thus, the repair process was almost the same as for small full-thickness tears. The tendinosis of the torn tendon was graded from the MRI images using a 4-point scale, and the reliabilities were assessed. The outcomes between high-grade partial-thickness tears that were converted to small full-thickness tears and initially small full-thickness tears were compared, and factors affecting outcomes were evaluated. The inter- and intraobserver reliabilities of the tendinosis grade were good (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.706 and 0.777, respectively). Failure to heal as determined by CTA was observed in 12 patients with a high-grade partial-thickness tear (35.3%; complete failure in 4 and partial failure in 8) and in 3 patients with a small full-thickness tear (14.3%; complete failure in 1 and partial failure in 2). The patients with high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears showed a higher tendinosis grade than did those with small full-thickness tears (P = .014), and the severity of the tendinosis was related to the failure to heal (P = .037). Tears with a higher tendinosis grade

  16. Healing disturbance with suture bridge configuration repair in rabbit rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae Hoon; Kim, Jangwoo; Choi, Young Eun; Lee, Hwa-Ryeong

    2016-03-01

    Medial row failure has been reported in the suture bridge technique of rotator cuff repair. This study compared the healing response of suture bridge configuration repair (SBCR) and parallel type transosseous repair (PTR). Acute rotator cuff repair was performed in 32 rabbits. Both shoulders were repaired using PTR or SBCR. In PTR, simple PTR was performed through 2 parallel transosseous tunnels created using a microdrill. In SBCR, 2 additional crisscross transosseous tunnels were added to mimic arthroscopic SBCR. At 1, 2, and 5 weeks postoperatively, comparative biomechanical testing was performed in 8 rabbits, and histologic analysis, including immunohistochemical staining for CD31, was performed in 4 rabbits. Failure loads at 1 week (38.12 ± 20.43 N vs 52.00 ± 27.23 N; P = .284) and 5 weeks (97.93 ± 48.35 N vs 119.60 ± 60.81 N; P = .218) were not statistically different between the SBCR and PTR groups, respectively, but were significantly lower in the SBCR group than in the PTR group (23.56 ± 13.56 N vs. 44.25 ± 12.53 N; P = .009), respectively, at 2 weeks. Markedly greater fibrinoid deposition was observed in the SBCR group than in the PTR group at 2 weeks. For vascularization, there was a tendency that more vessels could be observed in PTR than in SBCR at 2 weeks (15.9 vs 5.6, P = .068). In a rabbit acute rotator cuff repair model, SBCR exhibited inferior mechanical strength, and fewer blood vessels were observed at the healing site at 2 weeks postoperatively. Medial row tendon failure was more common in SBCR. Surgeons should consider the clinical effect of SBCR when performing rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Arthroscopic Management of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears in Major League Baseball Pitchers: The Lateralized Footprint Repair Technique.

    PubMed

    Dines, Joshua S; Jones, Kristofer; Maher, Patrick; Altchek, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of surgical management of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in professional baseball players have been uniformly poor. We conducted a study to investigate return-to-play data and functional performance using a novel arthroscopic repair technique. We hypothesized that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would result in a high rate of return to professional pitching and favorable functional outcomes. We identified 6 consecutive Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who underwent surgical repair of full-thickness rotator cuff injuries using the lateralized footprint repair technique. At most recent follow-up, patients were evaluated to determine their ability to return to athletic activity. Functional outcomes were also assessed using player performance statistics. By mean follow-up of 66.7 months (range, 23.2-94.6 months), 5 (83%) of the 6 pitchers had returned to their preinjury level of competition for at least 1 full season. Despite the high rate of return to MLB play, few pitchers resumed pitching productivity at their preoperative level; mean number of innings pitched decreased from 1806.5 to 183.7. A slight performance reduction was also found in a comparison of preoperative and postoperative pitching statistics. Of note, the return rate was higher for players over age 30 years than for those under 30 years. Overhead athletes require a delicate balance of shoulder mobility and stability to meet functional demands. Anatomical adaptations at the glenohumeral joint should be considered when performing rotator cuff repair in these patients in order to preserve peak functional performance. This novel repair technique affords a high rate of return to MLB play, though elite overhead throwers should be counseled that pitching productivity might decrease after surgery.

  18. Single-row repair versus double-row repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Prasathaporn, Niti; Kuptniratsaikul, Somsak; Kongrukgreatiyos, Kitiphong

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess whether there are differences in the outcomes between single-row and double-row rotator cuff repair. Using MEDLINE, SCOPUS, SCIRUS, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library, as well as a hand search, we searched for articles comparing single-row and double-row rotator cuff repair that were published before September 2009. The controlled clinical studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed for quality of methodology. Two of the authors performed this review and assessment. Any disagreements were resolved by the third author. Three randomized controlled studies and two controlled clinical cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies were assessed as having a moderate to high level of evidence. The results showed that double-row repair improved tendon healing and provided greater external rotation but with significantly increased operative time. Furthermore, this study found that double-row repair decreased the recurrence rate. However, there were no statistically significant differences found in shoulder function as assessed by Constant score; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score; University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score; Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score; muscle strength; forward flexion; internal rotation; patient satisfaction; return to work; and adverse events. Despite the fact that double-row repair shows a significantly higher rate of tendon healing and greater external rotation than does single-row repair, there is no significant improvement in shoulder function, muscle strength, forward flexion, internal rotation, patient satisfaction, or return to work. Level II, meta-analysis of Level I and Level II studies. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  19. Platelet-rich plasma for arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jo, Chris Hyunchul; Shin, Ji Sun; Shin, Won Hyoung; Lee, Seung Yeon; Yoon, Kang Sup; Shin, Sue

    2015-09-01

    Two main questions about the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for regeneration purposes are its effect on the speed of healing and the quality of healing. Despite recent numerous studies, evidence is still lacking in this area, especially in a representative patient population with medium to large rotator cuff tears. To assess the efficacy of PRP augmentation on the speed and quality of healing in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair for medium to large rotator cuff tears. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 74 patients scheduled for arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears were randomly assigned to undergo either PRP-augmented repair (PRP group) or conventional repair (conventional group). In the PRP group, 3 PRP gels (3 × 3 mL) were applied to each patient between the torn end and the greater tuberosity. The primary outcome was the Constant score at 3 months after surgery. Secondary outcome measures included the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, range of motion (ROM), muscle strength, overall satisfaction and function, functional scores, retear rate, and change in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the supraspinatus muscle. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the Constant score at 3 months (P > .05). The 2 groups had similar results on the VAS for pain, ROM, muscle strength, overall satisfaction and function, and other functional scores (all P > .05) except for the VAS for worst pain (P = .043). The retear rate of the PRP group (3.0%) was significantly lower than that of the conventional group (20.0%) (P = .032). The change in 1-year postoperative and immediately postoperative CSAs was significantly different between the 2 groups: -36.76 ± 45.31 mm(2) in the PRP group versus -67.47 ± 47.26 mm(2) in the conventional group (P = .014). Compared with repairs without PRP augmentation, the current PRP preparation and application methods for medium to large rotator cuff repairs significantly improved the

  20. Effect of Preoperative Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff Muscles on the Clinical Outcome of Patients With Intact Tendons After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair of Large/Massive Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Ohzono, Hiroki; Gotoh, Masafumi; Nakamura, Hidehiro; Honda, Hirokazu; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Okawa, Takahiro; Shiba, Naoto

    2017-09-01

    Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles is associated not only with postoperative retear but also with postoperative muscle weakness; therefore, fatty changes in the muscles may affect the clinical outcome even in patients with these tears who have intact tendons after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR). To evaluate the effect of fatty infiltration on the clinical outcome in patients with intact tendons after arthroscopic repair of large/massive cuff tears. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. One hundred fifty-five consecutive patients with large/massive rotator cuff tears underwent ARCR. Of these, 55 patients (mean ± SD age, 64.4 ± 9.1 years) in whom intact tendons after surgery were confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging at final follow-up (mean ± SD, 2.5 ± 1.4 years) were included in this study. Depending on their University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) score at the final follow-up, they were assigned to either the unsatisfactory group (score ≤27; n = 12) or the satisfactory group (score >27; n = 43). Various clinical parameters affecting the clinical outcome were examined through univariate and multivariate analyses. The UCLA score of all patients significantly improved from 18.1 ± 4.4 points preoperatively to 29.8 ± 4.5 points postoperatively ( P < .0001). The mean preoperative UCLA scores were not significantly different between the satisfactory and unsatisfactory groups ( P = .39). Multivariate analysis showed that the preoperative Goutallier stages of the infraspinatus (odds ratio [OR], 8.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-52.0; P = .016) and/or subscapularis (OR, 7.53; 95% CI, 1.58-35.9; P = .011) were significantly associated with outcome. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a cutoff value of Goutallier stage 1 in both muscles, with area under the curve values of 0.79 (sensitivity 91% and specificity 51%) and 0.84 (sensitivity 100% and specificity 54%) in the infraspinatus and subscapularis

  1. Influence of fixation point of latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tear on glenohumeral external rotation: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Bargoin, K; Boissard, M; Kany, J; Grimberg, J

    2016-12-01

    Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a surgical option for treating irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears, notably when attempting to reconstruct active external rotation. We hypothesized that the positioning of the transfer's point of fixation would differ depending on the desired elbow-to-body external rotation or external rotation with the elbow abducted. Seven shoulders from four whole frozen cadavers were used. We created two systems to install the subject in a semi-seated position to allow external rotation elbow to body and the arm abducted 90°. Traction sutures were positioned on the latissimus dorsi muscle and a massive tear of the rotator cuff was created. We tested six different transfer positions. Muscle contraction of the latissimus dorsi was stimulated using 10-N and 20-N suspended weights. The point of fixation of the latissimus dorsi on the humeral head had an influence on the elbow-to-body external rotation and with 90° abduction (P<0.001). The fixation point for a maximum external rotation with the elbow to the body was the anterolateral position (P<0.016). The fixation point for a maximum external rotation at 90° abduction was the position centered on the infraspinatus footprint (P<0.078). The optimal point of fixation differs depending on whether external rotation is restored at 0° or 90° abduction. Fundamental study, anatomic study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Partial-thickness articular surface rotator cuff tears in patients over the age of 35: Etiology and intra-articular associations.

    PubMed

    Modi, Chetan S; Smith, Christopher D; Drew, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears have a multifactorial etiology and are associated with degeneration of the tendon. They are often described as an injury of the young athlete, although they are also found in the older population. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and associations of partial-thickness articular-sided tears in patients over the age of 35 years. Retrospective A retrospective study of all arthroscopic procedures for rotator cuff pathology in patients over the age of 35 years over a 2-year period by a single surgeon was performed. The included patients were divided into two groups based on the arthroscopic findings: those with a partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tear and those with pure tendinopathy. The groups were then compared to identify the associated pathology with the rotator cuff lesions. 2×2 contingency table analysis and unpaired Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. One hundred patients were included in the study of whom 62 had a partial articular-sided tear. Those with a partial articular-sided tear were older (P=0.0001), were more commonly associated with a documented injury (P=0.03), and more commonly had biceps degeneration (P=0.001) and synovitis (P=0.02) within the joint. Partial-thickness articular-sided tears are a common occurrence in patients requiring arthroscopic surgery for rotator cuff pathology over the age of 35 years. This probably reflects an injury in an already degenerate cuff. This would support the theory of intrinsic degeneration of the tendon in this age group and probably represent a different etiology to those seen in the young athletes. Level 3.

  3. Partial-thickness articular surface rotator cuff tears in patients over the age of 35: Etiology and intra-articular associations

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Chetan S; Smith, Christopher D; Drew, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears have a multifactorial etiology and are associated with degeneration of the tendon. They are often described as an injury of the young athlete, although they are also found in the older population. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and associations of partial-thickness articular-sided tears in patients over the age of 35 years. Design: Retrospective Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of all arthroscopic procedures for rotator cuff pathology in patients over the age of 35 years over a 2-year period by a single surgeon was performed. The included patients were divided into two groups based on the arthroscopic findings: those with a partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tear and those with pure tendinopathy. The groups were then compared to identify the associated pathology with the rotator cuff lesions. 2×2 contingency table analysis and unpaired Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: One hundred patients were included in the study of whom 62 had a partial articular-sided tear. Those with a partial articular-sided tear were older (P=0.0001), were more commonly associated with a documented injury (P=0.03), and more commonly had biceps degeneration (P=0.001) and synovitis (P=0.02) within the joint. Conclusion: Partial-thickness articular-sided tears are a common occurrence in patients requiring arthroscopic surgery for rotator cuff pathology over the age of 35 years. This probably reflects an injury in an already degenerate cuff. This would support the theory of intrinsic degeneration of the tendon in this age group and probably represent a different etiology to those seen in the young athletes. Level of Evidence: Level 3 PMID:22518075

  4. Electromyographic Activity of Shoulder Girdle Muscles in Patients With Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Spall, Peter; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Sole, Gisela

    2016-09-01

    To compare electromyographic activity in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears with healthy controls or to those with asymptomatic cuff tears. TYPE: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, Scopus, Ovid Medline, and Web of Science were searched from inception to August 1, 2014, and a search update was performed on June 8, 2015. Case-control studies or intervention studies that had baseline comparisons for symptomatic versus healthy shoulders or those with asymptomatic rotator cuff tear were searched. Methodological quality was assessed with a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Programme score and meta-analyses were performed when 2 or more studies explored the same outcome measures. Nine studies were included, with the quality ranging from 1 to 3 (maximum 6). Electromyographic outcomes included amplitudes and ratios thereof, activity duration, and median frequency of shoulder girdle muscles during isometric contractions (4 studies) and functional tasks (5 studies). Longer activity duration was found for upper trapezius during glenohumeral movements, and greater fatigability of anterior and middle deltoids during isometric hand gripping for patients with rotator cuff tears compared to controls. The meta-analysis (3 studies) showed that patients with rotator cuff tears had lower activation ratios for latissimus dorsi during isometric abduction contraction compared to controls (P < .001), indicating greater co-contraction of adductors for the injured shoulders. Although various electromyographic domains were explored, these were generally limited to one publication or research group. Current evidence for muscle activity differences between the rotator cuff tear group and controls is thus limited. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Diagnosis of long head of biceps tendinopathy in rotator cuff tear patients: correlation of imaging and arthroscopy data.

    PubMed

    Rol, Morgane; Favard, Luc; Berhouet, Julien

    2017-08-25

    The goal of this prospective study was to assess the reliability of pre-operative cross-sectional imaging for the diagnosis of long head of biceps (LHB) tendinopathy in patients with a rotator cuff tear. Cross-sectional imaging with MRI or CT arthrography data from 25 patients operated upon because of a rotator cuff tear between 1 October 2015 and 1 April 2016 was analysed by one experienced orthopaedic surgeon, one experienced radiologist and one orthopaedic resident. The analysis consisted of determining whether the LHB was present, the extrinsic tendon abnormalities (dislocation, tendon coverage) and intrinsic abnormalities (fraying, inflammation, degeneration). These findings were then compared to intra-operative arthroscopy findings, which were used as the benchmark. The interobserver correlation between the three different examiners for the cross-sectional imaging analysis as well as the correlation between the imaging and arthroscopy data were determined. The correlation between the imaging and arthroscopy data was the highest (80%) for the determination of LHB dislocation from the bicipital groove. The other diagnostic elements (subluxation, coverage and tendon degeneration) were difficult to discern with preoperative imaging, and correlated poorly with the arthroscopy findings (45% to 65%). The interobserver correlation was moderate to strong for the diagnosis of extrinsic tendon abnormalities. It was low to moderate for intrinsic abnormalities. Except for LHB dislocation, pre-operative imaging is not sufficient to make a reliable diagnosis of LHB tendinopathy. Arthroscopy remains the gold standard for the management of LHB tendinopathy, as diagnosed intra-operatively.

  6. Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Transfer with GraftJacket® Augmentation to Increase Tendon Length for an Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Massive irreparable rotator cuff tears can be reconstructed with latissimus dorsi tendon transfers (LDTT). Although uncommon, the natural length of the latissimus dorsi tendon (LDT) could be insufficient for transfer even after adequate soft tissue releases. Descriptions of cases where grafts were needed to lengthen the LDT are therefore rare. We located only two reports of the use of an acellular dermal matrix to increase effective tendon length in tendon transfers about the shoulder: (1) GraftJacket patch for a pectoralis major tendon reconstruction and (2) ArthroFlex® patch for LDTT. Both of these brands of allograft patches are obtained from human cadavers. These products are usually used to cover soft tissue repairs and offer supplemental support rather than for increasing tendon length. Extending the LDTT with GraftJacket to achieve adequate length, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 50-year-old male who had a massive, irreparable left shoulder rotator cuff tear that was reconstructed with a LDTT. The natural length of his LDT was insufficient for transfer. This unexpected situation was rectified by sewing two patches of GraftJacket to the LDT. The patient had greatly improved shoulder function at two-year follow-up. PMID:28194290

  7. Diagnosis of rotator cuff tears using 3-Tesla MRI versus 3-Tesla MRA: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, Ciaran; Harb, Ziad; Smith, Christian; Houghton, Russell; Corbett, Steven; Ajuied, Adil

    2016-02-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 2-dimensional magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA) and 3-dimensional isotropic MRA in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears when performed exclusively at 3-T. A systematic review was undertaken of the Cochrane, MEDLINE and PubMed databases in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Studies comparing 3-T MRI or 3-T MRA (index tests) to arthroscopic surgical findings (reference test) were included. Methodological appraisal was performed using QUADAS 2. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were calculated and summary receiver-operating curves generated. Kappa coefficients quantified inter-observer reliability. Fourteen studies comprising 1332 patients were identified for inclusion. Twelve studies were retrospective and there were concerns regarding index test bias and applicability in nine and six studies respectively. Reference test bias was a concern in all studies. Both 3-T MRI and 3-T MRA showed similar excellent diagnostic accuracy for full-thickness supraspinatus tears. Concerning partial-thickness supraspinatus tears, 3-T 2D MRA was significantly more sensitive (86.6 vs. 80.5 %, p = 0.014) but significantly less specific (95.2 vs. 100 %, p < 0.001). There was a trend towards greater accuracy in the diagnosis of subscapularis tears with 3-T MRA. Three-Tesla 3D isotropic MRA showed similar accuracy to 3-T conventional 2D MRA. Three-Tesla MRI appeared equivalent to 3-T MRA in the diagnosis of full- and partial-thickness tears, although there was a trend towards greater accuracy in the diagnosis of subscapularis tears with 3-T MRA. Three-Tesla 3D isotropic MRA appears equivalent to 3-T 2D MRA for all types of tears.

  8. A prospective multi-site registry study of a specific protocol of autologous bone marrow concentrate for the treatment of shoulder rotator cuff tears and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Centeno, Christopher J; Al-Sayegh, Hasan; Bashir, Jamil; Goodyear, Shaun; Freeman, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint in the general population. Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injections offer promising potential as a minimally invasive approach for treatment of shoulder pain in degenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of the BMC injections for treatment of shoulder pain and disability due to osteoarthritis (OA) and rotator cuff tears in a treatment registry population. A total of 115 shoulders in 102 patients were treated with autologous BMC injections for symptomatic OA at the glenohumeral joint and/or rotator cuff tears. Data were collected for factors potentially influencing outcome, including age, sex, body mass index, and the type of condition treated (ie, OA or rotator cuff tear). Clinical outcomes were assessed serially over time using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand score (DASH), the numeric pain scale (NPS), and a subjective improvement rating scale. Baseline scores were compared to the most recent outcome scores at the time of the analysis and adjusted for demographic differences. We reported comparisons of pre- and post-treatment scores, the differences between osteoarthritis and rotator cuff groups, and the predictive effects on the clinical outcomes. At the most current follow-up assessment after treatment, the average DASH score decreased (improved) from 36.1 to 17.1 (P<0.001) and the average numeric pain scale value decreased (improved) from 4.3 to 2.4 (P<0.001). These changes were associated with an average subjective improvement of 48.8%. No differences were observed between outcomes among the shoulders treated for OA versus rotator cuff tears, nor did age, sex, or body mass index influence pain or functional outcomes. There were no significant treatment-related adverse events reported. We observed preliminarily encouraging results following BMC injections for shoulder OA and rotator cuff tears. These results serve as basis for the design of an adequately powered

  9. A prospective multi-site registry study of a specific protocol of autologous bone marrow concentrate for the treatment of shoulder rotator cuff tears and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Centeno, Christopher J; Al-Sayegh, Hasan; Bashir, Jamil; Goodyear, Shaun; Freeman, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint in the general population. Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injections offer promising potential as a minimally invasive approach for treatment of shoulder pain in degenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of the BMC injections for treatment of shoulder pain and disability due to osteoarthritis (OA) and rotator cuff tears in a treatment registry population. Methods A total of 115 shoulders in 102 patients were treated with autologous BMC injections for symptomatic OA at the glenohumeral joint and/or rotator cuff tears. Data were collected for factors potentially influencing outcome, including age, sex, body mass index, and the type of condition treated (ie, OA or rotator cuff tear). Clinical outcomes were assessed serially over time using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand score (DASH), the numeric pain scale (NPS), and a subjective improvement rating scale. Baseline scores were compared to the most recent outcome scores at the time of the analysis and adjusted for demographic differences. We reported comparisons of pre- and post-treatment scores, the differences between osteoarthritis and rotator cuff groups, and the predictive effects on the clinical outcomes. Results At the most current follow-up assessment after treatment, the average DASH score decreased (improved) from 36.1 to 17.1 (P<0.001) and the average numeric pain scale value decreased (improved) from 4.3 to 2.4 (P<0.001). These changes were associated with an average subjective improvement of 48.8%. No differences were observed between outcomes among the shoulders treated for OA versus rotator cuff tears, nor did age, sex, or body mass index influence pain or functional outcomes. There were no significant treatment-related adverse events reported. Discussion We observed preliminarily encouraging results following BMC injections for shoulder OA and rotator cuff tears. These results serve as basis

  10. A Prospective Comparative Study of High Resolution Ultrasound and MRI in the Diagnosis of Rotator Cuff Tears in a Tertiary Hospital of North India

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Ahluwalia, Ajay; Sharma, Yash Paul; Thakur, Lokesh

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background To evaluate the accuracy of high resolution ultrasound (USG) and MRI in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears (RCT) and to determine if high resolution USG compares favorably in sensitivity and specificity to MRI in the diagnosis of rotator cuff injury. Material/Methods In this prospective comparative study, 40 patients with clinically suspected rotator cuff tears underwent both ultrasound and MRI of the shoulder. Out of these 40 patients, 31 patients who had positive findings for rotator cuff tears on ultrasound and/or MRI were finally included in the study while the remaining 9 patients with negative or unrelated findings were excluded. The USG and MRI were interpreted by two radiologists experienced in musculoskeletal radiology and blinded to findings of each other. Comparison was done using MRI as a standard reference. Results The agreement between USG and MRI for diagnosis of RCTs was statistically excellent; USG showed a sensitivity of 86.7% and a specificity of 100% for full-thickness tears, and a sensitivity of 89.7% and a specificity of 98.8% for partial-thickness tears; observed accuracy for full thickness tears was 98.4% and 95.9% for partial thickness tears. The Kappa coefficient of association was 0.91 for full thickness tears and 0.90 for partial thickness tears. Conclusions Considering the comparable diagnostic accuracy of USG and MRI, the former modality can be used as a first-line investigation for diagnosis of RCT. MRI should be used secondarily as a problem-solving tool either following an equivocal shoulder USG or for delineation of anatomy in cases where surgical correction is needed. PMID:27800039

  11. [EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINED TENODESIS FOR PROXIMAL LESIONS OF BICEPS TENDON WITH MASSIVE ROTATOR CUFF TEAR BY ARTHROSCOPY].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianwu; Ye, Ruqing; Xu, Haiping; Lu, Jianmeng

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the combined tenodesis for proximal lesions of biceps tendon with massive rotator cuff tear by arthroscopy. Between January 2011 and June 2013, 48 patients with massive rotator cuff tear and proximal lesions of biceps tendon underwent combined tenodesis under arthroscopy, and the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Of 48 cases, 22 were male and 26 were female with an average age of 46 years (range, 35-59 years); 12 cases had clear history of trauma. The disease duration ranged from 1 to 57 months (mean, 4.6 months). All cases suffered from moderate to severe shoulder pain, the strength and the range of motion (ROM) declined when compared with those of the other side. According to Goutallier classification standard, 3 cases were rated as grade 0, 18 cases as grade 1, and 27 cases as grade 2. The operation time and complication were recorded. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score, ROM, the strength of flexed elevation and elbow flexion, Constant-Murley score, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS) were used to evaluate the effectiveness. The operations were performed successfully, and incisions healed primarily. The operation time was 120-160 minutes (mean, 135 minutes). One case had shoulder joint swelling with wound bleeding, which was cured after proper treatment. All 48 patients were followed up 12-18 months (mean, 13.9 months). The results of MRI showed good healing of tendon at 6 months after operation. When compared with preoperative values, VAS score was significantly decreased (P < 0.05); the ROM in forward flexion, external rotation, and internal rotation, and the strength of flexed elevation were significantly increased (P < 0.05); and ASES score, Constant- Murley score, and UCLA score were significantly improved at 12 months after operation (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in MEPS score and elbow

  12. Management of In-Season Concurrent Rotator Cuff Tear With Shoulder Instability in Professional Contact Football Athletes; Respect the Career Goals!

    PubMed

    Mueller, Maike; Hoy, Gregory; Branson, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    Professional sports injuries are usually all dealt with at one single operation to return the player to the sport after appropriate rehabilitation. We questioned the assumption that rotator cuff tears must be repaired concurrently with instability syndromes, and aimed to allow a professional rugby league player to achieve career goals by NOT correcting all pathology at one surgery. A professional rugby league player presented with acute shoulder instability on a setting of a chronic full thickness rotator cuff tear. We performed an "in season" arthroscopic stabilization on an elite rugby league player, leaving a previously diagnosed large full thickness rotator cuff tear untreated. This allowed aggressive rehabilitation and return to contact competition at 12 weeks post-surgery. The player achieved a long held career goal of winning a premiership ring before undertaking rotator cuff repair at the end of the season. Latest follow up at seven years (still at elite level) demonstrated an asymptomatic shoulder. The assumption that all pathology found at surgical exploration requires correction to play at elite level is not universally correct. We postulate that whilst rotator cuff deficiency has severe long-term sequelae, it is shoulder instability alone that prevents high level contact sports participation. Career goal management is an important part of managing elite level athletes. We have demonstrated that by careful management of the specific pathology preventing participation can allow elite athletes to achieve career goals without compromising long-term health.

  13. Management of In-Season Concurrent Rotator Cuff Tear With Shoulder Instability in Professional Contact Football Athletes; Respect the Career Goals!

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Maike; Hoy, Gregory; Branson, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Professional sports injuries are usually all dealt with at one single operation to return the player to the sport after appropriate rehabilitation. We questioned the assumption that rotator cuff tears must be repaired concurrently with instability syndromes, and aimed to allow a professional rugby league player to achieve career goals by NOT correcting all pathology at one surgery. Case Presentation A professional rugby league player presented with acute shoulder instability on a setting of a chronic full thickness rotator cuff tear. We performed an “in season” arthroscopic stabilization on an elite rugby league player, leaving a previously diagnosed large full thickness rotator cuff tear untreated. This allowed aggressive rehabilitation and return to contact competition at 12 weeks post-surgery. The player achieved a long held career goal of winning a premiership ring before undertaking rotator cuff repair at the end of the season. Latest follow up at seven years (still at elite level) demonstrated an asymptomatic shoulder. Conclusions The assumption that all pathology found at surgical exploration requires correction to play at elite level is not universally correct. We postulate that whilst rotator cuff deficiency has severe long-term sequelae, it is shoulder instability alone that prevents high level contact sports participation. Career goal management is an important part of managing elite level athletes. We have demonstrated that by careful management of the specific pathology preventing participation can allow elite athletes to achieve career goals without compromising long-term health. PMID:27217928

  14. Excellent healing rates and patient satisfaction after arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears with a single-row technique augmented with bone marrow vents.

    PubMed

    Dierckman, Brian D; Ni, Jake J; Karzel, Ronald P; Getelman, Mark H

    2017-06-24

    This study evaluated the repair integrity and patient clinical outcomes following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears using a single-row technique consisting of medially based, triple-loaded anchors augmented with bone marrow vents in the rotator cuff footprint lateral to the repair. This is a retrospective study of 52 patients (53 shoulders) comprising 36 males and 16 females with a median age of 62 (range 44-82) with more than 24-month follow-up, tears between 2 and 4 cm in the anterior-posterior dimension and utilizing triple-loaded anchors. Mann-Whitney test compared Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) outcome scores between patients with healed and re-torn cuff repairs. Multivariate logistic regression analysed association of variables with healing status and WORC score. Cuff integrity was assessed on MRI, read by a musculoskeletal fellowship-trained radiologist. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an intact repair in 48 of 53 shoulders (91%). The overall median WORC score was 95.7 (range 27.6-100.0). A significant difference in WORC scores were seen between patients with healed repairs 96.7 (range 56.7-100.0) compared with a re-tear 64.6 (27.6-73.8), p < 0.00056. Arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears using a triple-loaded single-row repair augmented with bone marrow vents resulted in a 91% healing rate by MRI and excellent patient reported clinical outcomes comparable to similar reported results in the literature. IV.

  15. Outcome of Large to Massive Rotator Cuff Tears Repaired With and Without Extracellular Matrix Augmentation: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Gilot, Gregory J; Alvarez-Pinzon, Andres M; Barcksdale, Leticia; Westerdahl, David; Krill, Michael; Peck, Evan

    2015-08-01

    To compare the results of arthroscopic repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs) with or without augmentation using an extracellular matrix (ECM) graft and to present ECM graft augmentation as a valuable surgical alternative used for biomechanical reinforcement in any RCT repair. We performed a prospective, blinded, single-center, comparative study of patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of a large to massive RCT with or without augmentation with ECM graft. The primary outcome was assessed by the presence or absence of a retear of the previously repaired rotator cuff, as noted on ultrasound examination. The secondary outcomes were patient satisfaction evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively using the 12-item Short Form Health Survey, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder outcome score, a visual analog scale score, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index, and a shoulder activity level survey. We enrolled 35 patients in the study: 20 in the ECM-augmented rotator cuff repair group and 15 in the control group. The follow-up period ranged from 22 to 26 months, with a mean of 24.9 months. There was a significant difference between the groups in terms of the incidence of retears: 26% (4 retears) in the control group and 10% (2 retears) in the ECM graft group (P = .0483). The mean pain level decreased from 6.9 to 4.1 in the control group and from 6.8 to 0.9 in the ECM graft group (P = .024). The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score improved from 62.1 to 72.6 points in the control group and from 63.8 to 88.9 points (P = .02) in the treatment group. The mean Short Form 12 scores improved in the 2 groups, with a statistically significant difference favoring graft augmentation (P = .031), and correspondingly, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index scores improved in both arms, favoring the treatment group (P = .0412). The use of ECM for augmentation of arthroscopic repairs of large to massive RCTs reduces the incidence of retears

  16. Are delayed operations effective for patients with rotator cuff tears and concomitant stiffness? An analysis of immediate versus delayed surgery on outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang-Soo; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Park, In; Im, Jin-Hyung; Park, Kwang-Sun; Lee, Seung-Bin

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of immediate rotator cuff repair with capsular release and those of rotator cuff repair after the stiffness was treated with rehabilitative therapy. Between June 2007 and December 2010, we recruited 63 patients with rotator cuff tears and stiffness. In 33 patients arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed with capsular release simultaneously (group I). In 30 patients arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed after 6 months of preoperative rehabilitation for stiffness (group II). The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Simple Shoulder Test score, Constant score, and visual analog scale score for pain and range of motion (ROM) were assessed at the start of the study; at 3, 6, and 12 months; and at the last visit. The postoperative cuff tendon integrity was assessed between 6 and 12 months using magnetic resonance or ultrasound images. There were no significant differences in preoperative demographic data between the groups (P > .05). The mean follow-up period was 21.54 months. After treatment, there was significant improvement in ROM and functional scores in both groups, as measured at the last follow-up (P < .05). No statistical differences were found in clinical scores and ROM at the last follow-up (P > .05). On assessment of the magnetic resonance or ultrasound images taken 6 to 12 months postoperatively, the retear rate for the repaired cuff tendon in each group was 12.1% in group I and 13.4% in group II. In the treatment of rotator cuff tears with stiffness, satisfactory results can be achieved either by repairing the tear with simultaneous capsular release or by waiting to perform the repair after preoperative rehabilitation for stiffness. Because a delayed rotator cuff repair after improving ROM offered no clear advantage over an immediate operation, we recommend surgically treating rotator cuff tears with concomitant stiffness early using a simultaneous capsular release method to

  17. Rehabilitation after Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidou, Ourania; Migkou, Stefania; Karampalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff tears are a very common condition that is often incapacitating. Whether non-surgical or surgical, successful management of rotator cuff disease is dependent on appropriate rehabilitation. If conservative management is insufficient, surgical repair is often indicated. Postsurgical outcomes for patients having had rotator cuff repair can be quite good. A successful outcome is much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. Numerous rehabilitation protocols for the management of rotator cuff disease are based primarily on clinical experience and expert opinion. This article describes the different rehabilitation protocols that aim to protect the repair in the immediate postoperative period, minimize postoperative stiffness and muscle atrophy. Methods: A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between a conservative and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol . Early passive range of motion (ROM) following arthroscopic cuff repair is thought to decrease postoperative stiffness and improve functionality. However, early aggressive rehabilitation may compromise repair integrity. Conclusion: The currently available literature did not identify any significant differences in functional outcomes and relative risks of re-tears between delayed and early motion in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs. A gentle rehabilitation protocol with limits in range of motion and exercise times after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would be better for tendon healing without taking any substantial risks. A close communication between the surgeon, the patient and the physical therapy team is important and should continue throughout the whole recovery process. PMID:28400883

  18. Rehabilitation after Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidou, Ourania; Migkou, Stefania; Karampalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a very common condition that is often incapacitating. Whether non-surgical or surgical, successful management of rotator cuff disease is dependent on appropriate rehabilitation. If conservative management is insufficient, surgical repair is often indicated. Postsurgical outcomes for patients having had rotator cuff repair can be quite good. A successful outcome is much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. Numerous rehabilitation protocols for the management of rotator cuff disease are based primarily on clinical experience and expert opinion. This article describes the different rehabilitation protocols that aim to protect the repair in the immediate postoperative period, minimize postoperative stiffness and muscle atrophy. A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. There were no statistically significant differences between a conservative and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol . Early passive range of motion (ROM) following arthroscopic cuff repair is thought to decrease postoperative stiffness and improve functionality. However, early aggressive rehabilitation may compromise repair integrity. The currently available literature did not identify any significant differences in functional outcomes and relative risks of re-tears between delayed and early motion in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs. A gentle rehabilitation protocol with limits in range of motion and exercise times after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would be better for tendon healing without taking any substantial risks. A close communication between the surgeon, the patient and the physical therapy team is important and should continue throughout the whole recovery process.

  19. Platelet-rich fibrin in arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears: a prospective randomized pilot clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Antuña, Samuel; Barco, Raúl; Martínez Diez, José M; Sánchez Márquez, José Miguel

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility of a large- scale project on the influence of local application of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) on the functional outcome and integrity of the arthroscopically repaired tendons in patients with massive tears of the rotator cuff. A prospective, randomized pilot clinical trial was performed on 28 patients (22 females, 6 males) with an average age of 65 years (range: 53 to 77) undergoing complete arthroscopic repair of a massive rotator cuff tear. After the repair was completed, 6 ml PRF (Vivostat) was locally applied to the repair site in 14 patients; no similar action was done in the other 14 patients. All patients underwent a clinical examination and an arthro-MRI to evaluate the integrity of the repair, one year after the operation. They were followed clinically for a minimum of 2 years. Functional outcome was evaluated with the Constant and DASH scores. There were no reported complications in either group. None of the patients was lost to follow-up. Globally, the Constant score improved from 45 preoperatively (range: 25 to 65) to 64 at one year (range: 20 to 79) (p < 0.001), with no significant change at two years (mean 63, range: 20 to 77). The VAS for pain improved from 5.6/10 preoperatively to 1.7/10 at the most recent examination (p < 0.001). All but two patients were satisfied. With the numbers of patients available, we could not detect a significant difference in the preoperative (46 vs. 43; p = 037) or postoperative Constant score (61 vs. 68; p = 0.125) between the control group and the PRF group. On arthro-MRI, 19 of the 28 patients (68%) were found to have a large re-tear : 10/14 in the PRF group and 9/14 in the control group. Local application of autologous PRF to the repair site of massive rotator cuffs fully reconstructed arthroscopically failed to improve the clinical outcome and the healing rate, compared with a standard repair. However, a large-scale study would be necessary to

  20. Rotator cuff muscles lose responsiveness to anabolic steroids after tendon tear and musculotendinous retraction: an experimental study in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Christian; Meyer, Dominik C; Von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Hoppeler, Hans; Frigg, Robert; Farshad, Mazda

    2012-11-01

    Long-standing rotator cuff tendon tearing is associated with retraction, loss of work capacity, irreversible fatty infiltration, and atrophy of the rotator cuff muscles. Although continuous musculotendinous relengthening can experimentally restore muscular architecture, restoration of atrophy and fatty infiltration is hitherto impossible. Continuous relengthening with pharmacological stimulation of muscle growth using an anabolic steroid or insulin-like growth factor (IGF) can reverse atrophy and fatty infiltration as well as improve the work capacity of chronically retracted rotator cuff muscles in sheep. Controlled laboratory study. Sixteen weeks after tenotomy of the infraspinatus (ISP) tendon, atrophy and fatty infiltration had developed in the retracted ISP muscle. The musculotendinous unit was continuously relengthened in 14 sheep during 6 weeks: Four sheep were treated without pharmacological stimulation, 4 with intramuscular administration of an anabolic steroid, and 6 with IGF before final repair and rehabilitation (12 weeks). Changes were documented by intraoperative measurements of muscle work capacity, histology, and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. Musculotendinous relengthening by continuous traction resulted in gains of length ranging from 0.7 cm in the IGF group to 1.3 cm in the control group. Fatty infiltration progressed in all groups, and the muscle's cross-sectional area ranged from 71% to 74% of the contralateral side at sacrifice and did not show any differences between groups in weight, volume, histological composition, or work capability of the muscle. The contralateral muscles in the anabolic steroid group, however, showed significantly higher (mean ± standard deviation) muscle work capacity of 10 ± 0.9 N·m than the contralateral muscles of the control group (6.8 ± 2.4 N·m) (P < .05). This was accompanied by an increased mean muscle fiber area as well as by an unusual gain in the animals' weight after injection of the

  1. Comparison between the patients with surgery and without surgery after recommendation of surgical repair for symptomatic rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Chul; Lim, Tae Kang; Kim, Dong Hyok; Koh, Kyoung-Hwan

    2017-10-08

    Symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff (RC) tears are often recommended for surgical repairs. However, some patients decide not to have surgery. The aim of this study was to see if there was any difference in preoperative variables between the two groups. 137 consecutive patients recommended for surgery due to symptomatic full-thickness RC tear were evaluated. At mean 58.1 months after surgery-recommendation, the patients were asked whether they had surgery and their clinical outcome was assessed. Variables at the time of surgery-recommendation including demographics, range-of-motion (ROM), tear size, and fatty infiltration on MRI, and clinical score were compared between the two groups. The 59 men and 78 women had a mean age of 64.4 years. Overall, 104 (75.9%) patients were treated with RC repair and 33 (24.1%) were not. The main three reasons for not having surgery were improvement of symptoms or minimal pain (55%), economic burden (12%), and concern for postoperative long rehabilitation (9%). Demography and ROM measured at the time of surgery-recommendation did not differ. All clinical scores at one year and final follow-up survey showed no difference between the two groups. The Constant and UCLA scores at the time of surgery-recommendation were significantly higher and tear size was smaller in the 'No-surgery' group. Fatty infiltration of supraspinatus (2.0 versus 1.2, p < 0.001) and global fatty degeneration index (1.4 versus 0.8, p = 0.011) were statistically lower in 'No-surgery' group as well. Patients with relatively preserved function and small size tear tend to select non-surgical treatment and lead to relatively good outcome. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The severity of the long head biceps tendinopathy in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears: macroscopic versus microscopic results.

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-Ting; Jou, I-Ming; Yang, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Chii-Jeng; Yang, Chyun-Yu; Su, Fong-Chin; Su, Wei-Ren

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the histopathology of the long head of biceps (LHB) tendon and correlated the findings with the macroscopic appearances of the LHB and the size of rotator cuff tears (RCTs) in patients with chronic RCTs. We compared biopsy specimens from LHBs in 34 patients with chronic RCTs and grossly normal LHBs in 8 patients undergoing shoulder hemiarthroplasty (controls). Duration of preoperative symptoms, the severity of RCTs, and macroscopic appearance of LHBs were recorded, classified, and compared with the histologic grading and apoptosis index of terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated biotin-deoxy uridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays of LHBs. In the RCT group, there were 8 partial-thickness tears with 5 macroscopic LHB lesions, 12 full-thickness tears with 8 macroscopic LHB lesions, and 14 massive tears with 13 macroscopic LHB lesions. There were 6 LHB subluxations. However, the macroscopic grading and the symptom duration were not correlated with the severity of the histology. In patients with massive tears, no matter what the macroscopic appearance of the LHB, the proportion of end-stage (grade 4) histologic LHB tendinopathy significantly increased (85.7%, P < .05) compared with patients with other types of RCTs. There was a consistently high incidence of advanced LHB histology (grade 3 or higher) in each classification of RCTs (75.0%-100.0%). The 8 patients in the control group showed milder histopathology (grade 1 or 2). The apoptosis index significantly increased as the tendinopathy progressed (P < .05). The macroscopic pathology of LHB may not fully reflect the severity of tendinopathy, and the coexisting size of RCTs plays a role in the severity of LHB tendinopathy. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A randomized clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of rotator cuff repair with or without augmentation using porcine small intestine submucosa for patients with moderate to large rotator cuff tears: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Dianne; Holtby, Richard; Willits, Kevin; Litchfield, Robert; Drosdowech, Darren; Spouge, Alison; White, David; Guyatt, Gordon

    2016-10-01

    The rate of rotator cuff repair failure is between 13% and 67%. Porcine small intestine submucosa (SIS) may be suitable to augment the repair. There were 62 patients with moderate and large cuff tears randomized to repair alone (control) or augmentation with SIS (Restore Orthobiologic Implant; DePuy, Warsaw, IN, USA). Primary outcome was repair failure using magnetic resonance arthrography. Randomization occurred on completion of the repair. Patients and assessors were blind to group. Assessments occurred preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 and 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. There were 62 patients randomized (34 SIS, 28 control). Patient demographics, rotator cuff tear characteristics, and repair details were similar between groups. At 1 year, risk of failure was 52.9% (18/34) in the SIS group and 65.4% (17/26) in the control group for a risk difference of 12% (80% confidence interval, -7% to 32%) or relative risk of 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.53-1.24, P = .33) in favor of SIS. At 1 and 2 years, the mean difference between groups for patient-reported outcomes was small and consistent with chance but did not exclude the possibility of a clinically important difference. There was no statistically significant difference (P = .50) between the SIS group (59.6 ± 38.9; range, 3-112) and the control group (52.7 ± 38.6; range, 5-112) in number of days to being narcotic and pain free (<20 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale). We found no evidence that SIS-augmented rotator cuff repair provides superior outcomes in patients with moderate rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proposal and Evaluation of a Telerehabilitation Platform Designed for Patients With Partial Rotator Cuff Tears: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To propose and evaluate the effectiveness of a telerehabilitation platform designed for patients with rotator cuff (RC) tears. Methods During the first study phase, a virtual service platform that included information on RC tear pathology, joint care, and a series of instructions regarding therapeutic exercise was designed and created. Subsequently, in the clinical phase, a quasi-experimental study was performed. The platform was tested on patients and evaluated at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months with respect to their pain levels and functionality on the Constant-Murley (CM) scale. Results Eleven patients were included, 5 women and 6 men, with a median age of 55 years (range, 42–68 years). Pain diminished from a baseline value of 64 mm (range, 40–80 mm) to 16 mm (range, 0–30 mm) at 6 months (p<0.001). Points on the CM scale rose from a baseline value of 54 points (range, 51–66 points) to 85 points (range, 70–100 points) at 6 months (p=0.001). Functionality in daily living and work activities, movement, and strength exhibited significant changes at 6 months (p<0.05). Conclusion Significant changes were observed in pain and functionality in this group of participants who used a telerehabilitation platform. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that included a specific program for RC tears. PMID:27606278

  5. Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: Indication and Technique.

    PubMed

    Gilotra, Mohit; O'Brien, Michael J; Savoie, Felix H

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy and rotator cuff repair techniques are frequently used by most practicing orthopaedic surgeons. A thorough patient history and physical examination can often confirm the presence of a rotator cuff tear, and imaging can be used to evaluate the extent of the injury. The indication for rotator cuff repair is a painful shoulder refractory to nonsurgical management. Arthroscopic techniques, including capsular and coracohumeral ligament releases to decrease tension on the repair, facilitate successful rotator cuff repair. Biomechanically, a double-row transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair provides excellent results for medium-size rotator cuff tears. Larger, retracted rotator cuff tears may be better repaired with oblique convergence sutures and a medial single-row rotator cuff repair. The biology of healing, the preservation of blood supply, and the trephination of the bony healing bed are essential parts of all rotator cuff repair procedures. Protection of the rotator cuff repair with an abduction sling for 4 to 8 weeks postoperatively and the delay of active motion until early healing has occurred will improve outcomes.

  6. [The Seebauer classification for the staging of arthropathy due to rotator cuff massive tear: intra- and interobserver concordance analysis].

    PubMed

    Guerra-Soriano, F; Ruiz-Suárez, M; Encalada-Díaz, M I; Pérez-Domenech, J; Moscona-Mishy, L; Valero-González, F S

    2010-01-01

    L. Seebauer developed a radiologic classification of arthropathy due to massive rotator cuff tear, based on the medial and/or proximal displacement of the humeral head as a result of disease progression. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an evaluation of the concordance of such classification. A group of 34 patients with massive rotator cuff lesion was created. Their X-rays were reviewed and classified by 5 independent observers. An inter- and intraobserver concordance analysis was carried out using the Kappa index, and the results were interpreted according to the Landis and Kock criteria. The intraobserver concordance determined for the 5 observers showed that the one with the greatest experience had an agreement close to 100%; the interobserver concordance found that only 2 of the 5 observers had moderate agreement and, finally, the interobserver concordance of the stages of classification 2A showed a substantial agreement, while a moderate agreement was found for IA and IB. An important variability was found in the intraobserver concordance, where the capacity to reproduce the same results depends on the observer's experience. The results of the interobserver concordance show that the criteria established by Seebauer are insufficient to be reproduced. Finally, in the concordance among the stages a moderate agreement was found in each of the stages. The results of this paper show that the Seebauer classification is experience-dependent, which hinders its routine use by orthopedists not sufficiently trained on shoulder surgery or by residents in training.

  7. Influence of psychomotor skills and innervation patterns on results of latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Werner, Clément M L; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Müller, Roland; Zanetti, Marco; Gerber, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was performed to analyze the influence of innervation and psychomotor skills on the outcome of latissimus dorsi transfer. Patients with the 10 best and 10 worst results after latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tears were selected. All patients meeting the inclusion criteria (n = 12) were subject to a psychomotor test battery (Motorische Leistungsserie) and electromyographic innervation assessment. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups preoperatively in terms of the commonly tested factors known to influence the results of this procedure adversely. There was a significant difference in both the pattern and selectivity of innervation in the group that had better clinical results. The psychomotor findings were negatively correlated with the range of motion and the strength of the operative shoulder. Function of the operative shoulder could also be predicted by psychomotor function of the uninjured contralateral side. Psychomotor skills testing appears to be a new, potential method by which to predict the outcome of latissimus dorsi transfer.

  8. Effect of Bone Mineral Density on Rotator Cuff Tear: An Osteoporotic Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaobin; Giambini, Hugo; Ben-Abraham, Ephraim; An, Kai-Nan; Nassr, Ahmad; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximity to tendon insertion can improve rotator cuff repair and healing. However, how a decrease of BMD in the humeral head affects the biomechanical properties of the rotator cuff tendon is still unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated ovariectomy in animals to lead to osteoporosis and decreased BMD, and Teriparatide (PTH) administration to improve BMD and strength of bone. This study aimed to explore the correlation between humeral head BMD and infraspinatus (ISP) tendon insertion strength, and if an increase in bone quantity of the humeral head can improve the strength of the rotator cuff. Materials and Methods Eighteen New England white rabbits were divided into the 3 groups: Control, Ovariectomy-Saline (OVX-Saline), and Ovariectomy-PTH (OVX-PTH). The OVX-Saline group and the OVX-PTH were administered daily saline and Teriparatide injections for 8 weeks starting at 17 weeks of OVX. BMD of the humeral head was measured, the ISP tendon failure load was tested and the failure stress was calculated. One specimen from each group was used for histological analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to derive equations for the BMD and failure stress. Results Significant differences were observed in the measured humeral head BMD of the Control and OVX-PTH groups compared to the OVX-Saline group (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0024, respectively). No significant difference was found in failure stress among the three groups, but an expected trend with the control group and OVX-PTH group presenting higher failure strength compared to the OVX-Saline group. BMD at the humeral head showed a positive linear correlation with stress (r2 = 0.54). Histology results showed the superiority in OVX-PTH group ISP enthesis compared to the OVX-Saline group. Conclusion Bone loss of the humeral head leads to decreased tendon/bone insertion strength of the infraspinatus tendon enthesis. Teriparatide administration can increase bone

  9. Effect of Bone Mineral Density on Rotator Cuff Tear: An Osteoporotic Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaobin; Giambini, Hugo; Ben-Abraham, Ephraim; An, Kai-Nan; Nassr, Ahmad; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-01-01

    An increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximity to tendon insertion can improve rotator cuff repair and healing. However, how a decrease of BMD in the humeral head affects the biomechanical properties of the rotator cuff tendon is still unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated ovariectomy in animals to lead to osteoporosis and decreased BMD, and Teriparatide (PTH) administration to improve BMD and strength of bone. This study aimed to explore the correlation between humeral head BMD and infraspinatus (ISP) tendon insertion strength, and if an increase in bone quantity of the humeral head can improve the strength of the rotator cuff. Eighteen New England white rabbits were divided into the 3 groups: Control, Ovariectomy-Saline (OVX-Saline), and Ovariectomy-PTH (OVX-PTH). The OVX-Saline group and the OVX-PTH were administered daily saline and Teriparatide injections for 8 weeks starting at 17 weeks of OVX. BMD of the humeral head was measured, the ISP tendon failure load was tested and the failure stress was calculated. One specimen from each group was used for histological analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to derive equations for the BMD and failure stress. Significant differences were observed in the measured humeral head BMD of the Control and OVX-PTH groups compared to the OVX-Saline group (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0024, respectively). No significant difference was found in failure stress among the three groups, but an expected trend with the control group and OVX-PTH group presenting higher failure strength compared to the OVX-Saline group. BMD at the humeral head showed a positive linear correlation with stress (r2 = 0.54). Histology results showed the superiority in OVX-PTH group ISP enthesis compared to the OVX-Saline group. Bone loss of the humeral head leads to decreased tendon/bone insertion strength of the infraspinatus tendon enthesis. Teriparatide administration can increase bone density of the humeral head and may improve the

  10. Clinical and radiologic results of arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with suture anchor in the setting of rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Il; Shon, Min Soo; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Lim, Tae Kang; Heo, Jaewon; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to report clinical and radiologic results of arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with 1 suture anchor in rotator cuff tear patients. During a 2-year period, 84 consecutive patients (45 men; 39 women) who underwent arthroscopic tenodesis were evaluated retrospectively. Mean age was 58 years. The primary indication for surgery was rotator cuff tear in 96.4%. Tenodesis was performed with 1 suture anchor placed in the bicipital groove with 2 knots, 1 lasso-type and 1 that pierced the tendon. At final follow-up at a mean of 33.2 months, visual analog scale pain (pain-VAS) score, shoulder scores (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons [ASES] and Constant score), Popeye deformity (PD), anterior arm pain, and elbow flexion power were evaluated. Postoperative magnetic resonance images were evaluated in 60 patients to determine the integrity of the tenodesis and the location of the suture anchor. The average pain-VAS decreased from 5.3 to 1.4 (P < .001). ASES and Constant scores significantly increased, from 42.9 and 56.2 to 85.2 and 82.5, respectively. PD occurred in 11 patients (12.9%), and 2 (2.3%) had self-consciousness; however, no patients complained about the deformity and the PD did not correlate with poorer clinical scores. Six patients (7.1%) complained of anterior cramping pain. Elbow flexion power was similar compared with the contralateral side. In postoperative magnetic resonance imagine analysis, 15 patients (25%) showed distal migration of tenodesed biceps tendon, although only 6 (7.1%) had clinical PD. Postoperative clinical outcomes were not influenced by the location of the suture anchor within the bicipital groove. Arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with 1 suture anchor resulted in good clinical outcomes at 2 years postoperatively. PD was seen in 12.9% of the patients. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of subacromial injections of autologous conditioned plasma versus cortisone for the treatment of symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    von Wehren, Lutz; Blanke, Fabian; Todorov, Atanas; Heisterbach, Patricia; Sailer, Jannis; Majewski, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common causes of shoulder malfunction and pain, which lead to a significant reduction in the quality of life. This present study investigated the effects of subacromial platelet-rich plasma injections [i.e. autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) injections] as compared to standard subacromial cortisone injection therapy in 50 patients with partial rotator cuff tears. Before injection, and 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months thereafter, the patients were assessed by the Constant-Murley score (CMS), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES), the simple shoulder test (SST) and a pain visual analogue scale (VAS). An MRI was also performed before and 6 months after injection. Both patient groups had statistically significant better shoulder score outcomes over time. ASES, SST and CMS outcomes after 12 versus 6 weeks were better in the ACP group as compared to the cortisone group. VAS, ASES and CMS outcomes after 12 weeks versus baseline in the ACP group were better as compared to the cortisone group. There was a statistically significant difference between ACP group and cortisone group 12 weeks after injection regarding VAS, ASES, SST and CMS in favour of the ACP group. The MRI showed an improvement in grade of tendinopathy in both groups, however, without statistically significant differences between the two groups. Compared with cortisone injections, ACP injections show earlier benefit as compared to cortisone injections although a statistically significant difference after 6 months could not be found. Therefore, subacromial ACP injections are a good alternative to subacromial cortisone injections, especially in patients with contraindication to cortisone. Therapeutic study, Level III.

  12. Compensatory hypertrophy of the teres minor muscle after large rotator cuff tear model in adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Shitara, Hitoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Iizuka, Haku; Koibuchi, Noriyuki; Takagishi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Rotator cuff tear (RCT) is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the elderly. The large RCT is often irreparable due to the retraction and degeneration of the rotator cuff muscle. The integrity of the teres minor (TM) muscle is thought to affect postoperative functional recovery in some surgical treatments. Hypertrophy of the TM is found in some patients with large RCTs; however, the process underlying this hypertrophy is still unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if compensatory hypertrophy of the TM muscle occurs in a large RCT rat model. Twelve Wistar rats underwent transection of the suprascapular nerve and the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons in the left shoulder. The rats were euthanized 4 weeks after the surgery, and the cuff muscles were collected and weighed. The cross-sectional area and the involvement of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling were examined in the remaining TM muscle. The weight and cross-sectional area of the TM muscle was higher in the operated-on side than in the control side. The phosphorylated Akt/Akt protein ratio was not significantly different between these sides. The phosphorylated-mTOR/mTOR protein ratio was significantly higher on the operated-on side. Transection of the suprascapular nerve and the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons activates mTOR signaling in the TM muscle, which results in muscle hypertrophy. The Akt-signaling pathway may not be involved in this process. Nevertheless, activation of mTOR signaling in the TM muscle after RCT may be an effective therapeutic target of a large RCT. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Initial medical management of rotator cuff tears: a demographic analysis of surgical and nonsurgical treatment in the United States Medicare population.

    PubMed

    Varkey, Dax T; Patterson, Brendan M; Creighton, R Alexander; Spang, Jeffrey T; Kamath, Ganesh V

    2016-12-01

    Rotator cuff tears have a lifetime incidence between 25% and 40% in the United States, but optimum treatment strategies and protocol have not yet been widely accepted. This study evaluated the proportions of patients treated with nonoperative and operative modalities and how this proportion has changed during an 8-year period (2005-2012) among patients with Medicare. Using the PearlDiver patient record database, we identified Medicare patients having been diagnosed with a rotator cuff tear. These patients were then stratified on the basis of treatment with physical therapy, subacromial/glenohumeral injection, or rotator cuff repair. We analyzed the data in regard to standard demographic information, comorbidities, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index. During the study period, 878,049 patients were identified and 397,116 patients had rotator cuff repair. The proportion of patients treated initially with physical therapy dropped from 30.0% in 2005 to 13.2% in 2012, and the subacromial/glenohumeral injection proportion decreased from 6.00% to 4.19% (P < .001). The proportion of patients who had rotator cuff repair increased from 33.8% to 40.4% from 2005 to 2012 (P < .001). Charlson Comorbidity Indexes were significantly lower in operative patients compared with each nonoperative treatment examined. This analysis demonstrates a significant decrease in the initial trial of nonoperative treatment and an increase in the rate of surgery. Patients undergoing rotator cuff repair had fewer comorbidities than those undergoing nonoperative treatments. It also demonstrates that patients who had a trial of injection had a higher incidence of eventual rotator cuff repair compared with the patients with an initial trial of physical therapy. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Does magnetic resonance imaging appearance of supraspinatus muscle atrophy change after repairing rotator cuff tears?

    PubMed

    Lhee, Sang-Hoon; Singh, Anant Kumar; Lee, Do Young

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether supraspinatus muscle atrophy appearance changes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and to quantify the change in appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), if any, based on age and tendon retraction. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and considered only 209 patients who had both preoperative and immediate postoperative MRI. Patients were grouped by age <60 years and >60 years. They were further subdivided into stage 1 (mild), stage 2 (moderate), and stage 3 (severe), depending on preoperative supraspinatus tendon retraction on the coronal view of MRI according to Patte classification. The postoperative occupancy ratio was compared with the preoperative occupancy ratio within the subgroups, and change in the occupancy ratio was used for comparison between the subgroups. There was a significant increase in the occupancy ratio in the mild (P =.001) and moderate-severe (P =.003) subgroup from their preoperative values. In the mild subgroup, the occupancy ratio was significantly greater in the group aged <60 years compared with the group aged >60 years (P =.010). But in the moderate subgroup there was no significant difference between the 2 age groups (P =.710). A significant change in supraspinatus muscle atrophy occurs in every patient, provided the patient has some tendon retraction preoperatively. The amount of change in supraspinatus muscle atrophy after surgery depends on the age to some extent, but tendon retraction is the most important thing that decides how much change in atrophy can occur postoperatively. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Arthroscopic Partial Repair of Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: Preoperative Factors Associated With Outcome Deterioration Over 2 Years.

    PubMed

    Shon, Min Soo; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Lim, Tae Kang; Kim, Won Ju; Kim, Kyung Cheon; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2015-08-01

    Arthroscopic partial repair is a treatment option in irreparable large-to-massive rotator cuff tears without arthritic changes. However, there are indications that arthroscopic partial repair does not yield satisfactory outcomes. To report the clinical and radiographic results of arthroscopic partial repairs in patients with irreparable large-to-massive cuff tears. In addition, an analysis was performed regarding preoperative factors that may influence patient outcomes and patient-rated satisfaction over time. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. From 2005 to 2011, a total of 31 patients who underwent arthroscopic partial repair for irreparable large-to-massive cuff tears were retrospectively evaluated. Partial repair was defined as posterior cuff tissue repair with or without subscapularis tendon repair to restore the transverse force couple of the cuff. Pain visual analog scale (PVAS), questionnaire results (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons [ASES] and Simple Shoulder Test [SST]), and radiographic changes (acromiohumeral distance and degenerative change) were assessed preoperatively, at first follow-up (roughly 1 year postoperatively), and at final follow-up (>2 years postoperatively). Patients rated their satisfaction level at each postoperative follow-up as well. Preoperative factors that might influence outcomes, such as patient demographics, tear size, and fatty infiltration, were investigated. The preoperative, first follow-up, and final follow-up results for mean PVAS (5.13, 2.13, and 3.16, respectively) and questionnaires (ASES: 41.97, 76.37, and 73.78; SST: 3.61, 6.33, and 6.07, respectively) improved significantly (all P < .05). Radiographic evaluation showed no difference compared with preoperative status. Nevertheless, patient-rated satisfaction at final evaluation was inferior: 16 good responses ("very satisfied" and "satisfied") and 15 poor responses ("rather the same" and "dissatisfied"). Despite initial improvements in both groups (P < .05

  16. [Nonoperative management of rotator cuff defects].

    PubMed

    Heers, H; Heers, G

    2007-09-01

    Rotator cuff defects are common disorders of the shoulder. Although the outcome of surgical treatment of rotator cuff tears is well documented in the literature, less is known about the efficacy of physical therapy for symptomatic rotator cuff tears. Clear therapeutic standards are still missing. This article presents the nonoperative treatment options as well as a literature review. The results of most studies show that patients with rotator cuff defects do benefit from both physical therapy and simple home exercises independent from the size of the defect. However, due to the heterogeneity of outcome measures used, it is difficult to compare the results published. There is still a need for well-planned randomised controlled studies investigating the efficacy of exercise in the management of rotator cuff tears.

  17. Conservative treatment of rotator cuff injuries.

    PubMed

    Bytomski, Jeffrey R; Black, Douglass

    2006-01-01

    Across all ages and activity levels, rotator cuff injuries are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain. The anatomy and biomechanics of the shoulder guide the history and physical exam toward the appropriate treatment of rotator cuff injuries. Rotator cuff tears are rare under the age of 40 unless accompanied by acute trauma. Throwing athletes are prone to rotator cuff injury from various causes of impingement (subacromial, internal, or secondary) and flexibility deficits, strength deficits, or both along the kinetic chain. Most rotator cuff injuries may be treated conservatively by using regimens of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroid injections, and functional rehabilitation therapy. Injury prevention programs are essential for the long-term care of patients with rotator cuff disease, for primary prevention, and for prevention of recurrent injuries, unless a traumatically torn rotator cuff is present. Surgical management is reserved for refractory cases that have exhausted conservative measures.

  18. Arthroscopic lateral acromion resection (ALAR) optimizes rotator cuff tear relevant scapula parameters.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Burak; Kääb, Max; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The acromion index (AI), critical shoulder angle (CSA) and lateral acromion angle (LAA) are predictive for degenerative rotatory cuff tears. Their unfavorable values are associated with a suboptimal deltoid force vector. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an optimization of the radiological parameters could be achieved through a specific arthroscopic lateral acromion resection (ALAR). The procedure was performed in eight fresh frozen cadaver shoulders. True a.p. and axial radiographs were taken before and after the intervention for radiological evaluation. The anterior and posterior acromion edges were marked with a spinal needle. Then 1 cm of the lateral acromion was resected with a 5.0 acromionizer (Arthrex Inc., Naples, FL, USA) beginning from the anterior aspect. The resection was completed over the total width of 1 cm from anterior to posterior. Finally the deltoid insertion was dissected via an open approach to ensure its integrity. The fluoroscopy images were evaluated regarding the pre- and postinterventional parameters AI, CSA and LAA. After the intervention, the mean AI could be significantly reduced from 0.62 ± 0.11 to 0.40 ± 0.15 (p = 0.012). Also the mean CSA was significantly reduced from 35.0° ± 7.65° to 25.12° ± 8.29° (p = 0.018). The LAA could not be significantly changed (76.5° ± 14.02° vs. 82.13 ± 8.93; p = 0.107). There was no injury to the deltoid insertion. The radiographic parameters AI und CSA can be optimized significantly by ALAR without macroscopic discontinuity of the deltoid insertion. Level IV, case series without comparison group.

  19. Partial rotator cuff repair and biceps tenotomy for the treatment of patients with massive cuff tears and retained overhead elevation: midterm outcomes with a minimum 5 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cuff, Derek J; Pupello, Derek R; Santoni, Brandon G

    2016-11-01

    A subset of patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears present with retained overhead elevation and pain as their primary complaint. Our aim was to evaluate the outcomes of partial arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with biceps tenotomy and to report the failure rate of this procedure for patients with >5 years of follow-up. Thirty-four patients underwent partial rotator cuff repair and biceps tenotomy for treatment of a massive rotator cuff tear. Patients had preoperative active forward elevation >120° and no radiographic evidence of glenohumeral arthritis. Patients were followed up clinically and radiographically, and 28 patients had a minimum of 5 years of follow-up. Failure was defined as an American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score of <70, loss of active elevation >90°, or revision to reverse shoulder arthroplasty during the study period. Patients demonstrated improvements in average preoperative to postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (46.6 to 79.3 [P < .001]) and Simple Shoulder Test scores (5.7 to 9.1 [P < .001]) along with decrease in visual analog scale for pain scores (6.9 to 1.9 [P < .001]). No significant change in forward elevation (168° to 154° [P = .07]), external rotation (38° to 39° [P = 1.0]), or internal rotation (84% to 80% [P = 1.0]) was identified; 36% of patients had progression of the Hamada stage. The failure rate was 29%; 75% of patients were satisfied with their index procedure. Partial rotator cuff repair and biceps tenotomy for patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears with retained overhead elevation and pain as the primary complaint produced reasonable outcomes at midterm follow-up of at least 5 years. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Arthroscopic repair of anterosuperior (supraspinatus/subscapularis) rotator cuff tears: a prospective cohort with 2- to 4-year follow-up. Classification of biceps subluxation/instability.

    PubMed

    Bennett, William F

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of anterosuperior rotator cuff tears. The null hypothesis, that there was no difference between preoperative scores and postoperative scores, was tested statistically. A cohort study. The preoperative and postoperative status of patients with anterosuperior rotator cuff tears was analyzed using the Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Society Index (ASES Index), a visual analog pain scale (VAS), a single question of percent function compared with the opposite unaffected extremity, and a single question reflecting satisfaction, "would you undergo the surgery and the postoperative rehabilitation to achieve the result you have today." There were also 2 groups compared: 1 that had a "tac" used for repair of the subscapularis tendon, and the other that used a "tie" technique for subscapularis repair. All supraspinatus tendon tears were complete and were repaired using a soft-tissue fixation device. There was a statistically significant difference for all outcome measures except for the objective Constant score of the tie group, P =.58. Follow-up was 2 to 4 years. There were no differences based on sex or type of fixation device used for repair of the subscapularis tendon. There were no reruptures, clinically. The arthroscopic repair of anterosuperior rotator cuff tears provides reliable expectation for improvement in function, decreases in pain, decreases in clinical findings of biceps subluxation and inflammation, improvement in shoulder scores, and the improvement of clinical findings of subscapularis insufficiency.

  1. Differences in muscle activities during shoulder elevation in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic rotator cuff tears: analysis by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Nobuhisa; Sano, Hirotaka; Omi, Rei; Kishimoto, Koshi N; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoi, Eiji

    2014-03-01

    Differences in muscle activity patterns between patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears have not yet been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the muscle activity pattern by use of positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic rotator cuff tears. Ten shoulders of 9 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears were divided into 2 groups by a numerical pain rating scale (0-10), symptomatic (≥2) and asymptomatic (0 or 1), with 5 shoulders each. Scaption exercise of bilateral arms (200 repetitions in 10 minutes) with a weight of 0.25 kg each was performed before and after injection of fluorodeoxyglucose. After PET examination, the standardized uptake value of each muscle was calculated to quantify its activity and compared between the two groups. The activity of the anterior and middle deltoid was significantly decreased in the symptomatic group compared with the asymptomatic group (anterior deltoid, P = .02; middle deltoid, P = .03). In contrast, the activity of the superior trapezius was significantly increased in the symptomatic group compared with the asymptomatic group (P = .02). In patients with a symptomatic tear, the deltoid activity was decreased and the trapezius activity was increased. It is likely that they might have moved the painful glenohumeral joint less and instead moved the painless scapulothoracic joint more during the prescribed exercise. We conclude that patients with painful rotator cuff tears use the parascapular muscles more than those without pain do during arm elevation. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Implementation of a Shoulder Soft Tissue Injury Triage Service in a UK NHS Teaching Hospital Improves Time to Surgery for Acute Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Marcus; Davies-Jones, Gareth; Tambe, Amol; Clark, David I

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder problems account for 2.4% of GP consultations in the United Kingdom and of those 70% are related to the rotator cuff. Many rotator cuff tears are of a degenerate nature but they can occur as a result of trauma in 8% of cases. Evidence suggests that patients with traumatic rotator cuff tears gain a better outcome in terms of pain and function if the tear is repaired early after injury. A specialist shoulder soft tissue injury clinic was set up in a large UK NHS teaching hospital with the primary purpose in the first year to halve the length of time patients with traumatic rotator cuff tears had to wait to consult a specialist and double the number of patients undergoing surgical repair within three months. The secondary purpose was to ensure that the new clinic was utilised to capacity by the end of the first year. The clinic was later expanded to manage patients with acute glenohumeral joint (GHJ) or acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocations and identify those patients requiring surgical stabilisation. The new service involved referral of all patients presenting to the Accident & Emergency department with recent shoulder trauma and either an inability to raise the arm over shoulder height with a normal set of radiographs, or a confirmed GHJ or ACJ dislocation; to a specialist clinic run by an experienced upper limb physiotherapist. Patients were reassessed and referred for further imaging if required. Those patients found to have traumatic rotator cuff tears or structural instability lesions were listed for expedited surgery. The clinic ran alongside a consultant-led fracture clinic giving fast access to surgical decision-making. The service was reviewed after 3, 6, and 12 months and findings compared to a sample of 30 consecutive patients having undergone rotator cuff repair surgery via the previous pathway. 144 patients were referred to the clinic in the first year: 62 with rotator cuff symptoms, 38 with GHJ instability, 13 with ACJ instability, and 33

  3. Treatment of non-traumatic rotator cuff tears: A randomised controlled trial with one-year clinical results.

    PubMed

    Kukkonen, J; Joukainen, A; Lehtinen, J; Mattila, K T; Tuominen, E K J; Kauko, T; Aärimaa, V

    2014-01-01

    We have compared three different methods of treating symptomatic non-traumatic tears of the supraspinatus tendon in patients above 55 years of age. A total of 180 shoulders (173 patients) with supraspinatus tendon tears were randomly allocated into one of three groups (each of 60 shoulders); physiotherapy (group 1), acromioplasty and physiotherapy (group 2) and rotator cuff repair, acromioplasty and physiotherapy (group 3). The Constant score was assessed and followed up by an independent observer pre-operatively and at three, six and twelve months after the intervention. Of these, 167 shoulders were available for assessment at one year (follow-up rate of 92.8%). There were 55 shoulders in group 1 (24 in males and 31 in females, mean age 65 years (55 to 79)), 57 in group 2 (29 male and 28 female, mean age 65 years (55 to 79)) and 55 shoulders in group 3 (26 male and 29 female, mean age 65 years (55 to 81)). There were no between-group differences in the Constant score at final follow-up: 74.1 (sd 14.2), 77.2 (sd 13.0) and 77.9 (sd 12.1) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p = 0.34). The mean change in the Constant score was 17.0, 17.5, and 19.8, respectively (p = 0.34). These results suggest that at one-year follow-up, operative treatment is no better than conservative treatment with regard to non-traumatic supraspinatus tears, and that conservative treatment should be considered as the primary method of treatment for this condition.

  4. Arthroscopic repair of anterosuperior rotator cuff tears: in-continuity technique vs. disruption of subscapularis-supraspinatus tear margin: comparison of clinical outcomes and structural integrity between the two techniques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Jung, Min; Lee, Jae-Hoo; Kim, Chul; Chun, Yong-Min

    2014-12-17

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes and structural integrity after two techniques of arthroscopic anterosuperior rotator cuff repair: in continuity and disruption of the tear margin. This study included fifty-nine patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of an anterosuperior rotator cuff tear that was done either by disrupting the margin between the subscapularis and supraspinatus tears (Group A) or by performing the repair in continuity without disrupting the margin (Group B). Clinical outcomes were assessed on the basis of a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, subjective shoulder value (SSV), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder score, and active range of motion of the shoulder. Subscapularis strength was assessed with use of the modified belly-press test. Magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) or computed tomographic arthrography (CTA) was performed at six months after surgery to assess the structural integrity of the repair. At the two-year follow-up evaluation, VAS pain scores, SSVs, ASES scores, UCLA shoulder scores, subscapularis strength, and active range of motion improved significantly in both groups compared with preoperatively (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between groups for any of these follow-up measurements. On follow-up MRA or CTA, the overall retear rate did not differ significantly different between Group A (22%; five of twenty-three) and Group B (19%; six of thirty-two). In conclusion, in patients treated with arthroscopic repair of anterosuperior full-thickness subscapularis and supraspinatus tears of the rotator cuff, the technique of in-continuity repair did not produce better clinical outcomes or structural integrity than the technique involving disruption of the tear margin. If the muscle in an anterosuperior rotator cuff tear is of good quality, it does not appear to matter whether the tear margin between the

  5. E