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Sample records for rough surface scattering

  1. Light Scattering from Rough Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-17

    us (V. Ruiz Cortes) was supported by a CONACYT and CICESE scholarship. 5. REFERENCES I.-K.A. O’Donnell and E.R. Mdndez, "Experimental study of...Calculated variation of scattenng for increasing roughness. The angle of incidence is 800. The solid line is (DAJA45-90-C-0026). VRC thanks CONACYT and for a

  2. Modeling surface roughness scattering in metallic nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Moors, Kristof; Sorée, Bart; Magnus, Wim

    2015-09-28

    Ando's model provides a rigorous quantum-mechanical framework for electron-surface roughness scattering, based on the detailed roughness structure. We apply this method to metallic nanowires and improve the model introducing surface roughness distribution functions on a finite domain with analytical expressions for the average surface roughness matrix elements. This approach is valid for any roughness size and extends beyond the commonly used Prange-Nee approximation. The resistivity scaling is obtained from the self-consistent relaxation time solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and is compared to Prange-Nee's approach and other known methods. The results show that a substantial drop in resistivity can be obtained for certain diameters by achieving a large momentum gap between Fermi level states with positive and negative momentum in the transport direction.

  3. Scattering of Light and Surface Plasmon Polaritons from Rough Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2013-0049 TR-2013-0049 SCATTERING OF LIGHT AND SURFACE PLASMON POLARITONS FROM ROUGH SURFACES Alexei A...2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Scattering of Light and Surface Plasmon Polaritons from Rough Surfaces 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-08-C-0230 5b...of several properties of surface plasmon polaritons on structured surfaces are described, together with results for the scattering of surface plasmon

  4. Modeling stray light from rough surfaces and subsurface scatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, James E.; Goshy, John J.; Pfisterer, Richard N.

    2014-09-01

    Over the years we have developed an adequate theory and understanding of surface scatter from smooth optical surfaces (Rayleigh-Rice), moderately rough surfaces with paraxial incident and scattered angles (Beckmann- Kirchhoff) and even for moderately rough surfaces with arbitrary incident and scattered angles where a linear systems formulation requiring a two-parameter family of surface transfer functions is required to characterize the surface scatter process (generalized Harvey-Shack). However, there is always some new material or surface manufacturing process that provides non-intuitive scatter behavior. The linear systems formulation of surface scatter is potentially useful even for these situations. In this paper we will present empirical models of several classes of rough surfaces or materials (subsurface scatter) that allow us to accurately model the scattering behavior at any incident angle from limited measured scatter data. In particular, scattered radiance appears to continue being the natural quantity that exhibits simple, elegant behavior only in direction cosine space.

  5. Composite electromagnetic scattering from an object situated above rough surface.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Guo, Lixin; Chai, Shuirong

    2014-12-10

    A highly efficient hybrid method combining physical optics (PO) with physical optics is adopted to analyze the electromagnetic (EM) scattering from a perfectly electric conducting object situated above the conducting rough surface. The PO method is applied to solve the scattering of an object and the underlying rough surface, respectively. And the Huygens equivalence principle and multipath scattering strategy are employed to deal with the mutual interactions between object and rough surface. To validate the efficiency of our present method, the EM scattering of the composite model by the hybrid PO-PO method for different polarizations is calculated and compared with those using the conventional method of moments as well as computational time and memory requirements. The distribution of induced surface currents on the object and rough surface are illustrated for different scattering paths. Finally, the influence of some parameters on the composite scattering is investigated and discussed in detail.

  6. Electromagnetic scattering and depolarization across rough surfaces: Full wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar, Ezekiel; Huang, Guorong; Lee, Bom Son

    1995-05-01

    Full wave solutions are derived for vertically and horizontally polarized waves diffusely scattered across an interface that is two-dimensionally rough separating two different propagating media. Since the normal to the rough surface is not restricted to the reference plane of incidence, the waves are depolarized upon scattering; and the single scattered radiation fields are expressed as integrals of a surface element transmission scattering matrix that also accounts for coupling between the vertically and horizontally polarized waves. The integrations are over the rough surface area as well as the complete two-dimensional wave spectra of the radiation fields. The full wave solutions satisfy the duality and reciprocity relationships in electromagnetic theory, and the surface element scattering matrix is invariant to coordinate transformations. It is shown that in the high-frequency limit the full wave solutions reduce to the physical optics solutions, while in the low-frequency limit (for small mean square heights and slopes) the full wave solutions reduce to Rice's (1951) small perturbation solutions. Thus, the full wave solution accounts for specular point scattering as well as diffuse, Bragg-type scattering in a unified, self-consistent manner. It is therefore not necessary to use hybrid, perturbation and physical optics approaches (based on two-scale models of composite surfaces with large and small roughness scales) to determine the like- and cross-polarized fields scattered across the rough surface.

  7. Surface roughness scattering of electrons in bulk mosfets

    SciTech Connect

    Zuverink, Amanda Renee

    2015-11-01

    Surface-roughness scattering of electrons at the Si-SiO2 interface is a very important consideration when analyzing Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Scattering reduces the mobility of the electrons and degrades the device performance. 250-nm and 50-nm bulk MOSFETs were simulated with varying device parameters and mesh sizes in order to compare the effects of surface-roughness scattering in multiple devices. The simulation framework includes the ensemble Monte Carlo method used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation coupled with a successive over-relaxation method used to solve the two-dimensional Poisson's equation. Four methods for simulating the surface-roughness scattering of electrons were implemented on both devices and compared: the constant specularity parameter, the momentum-dependent specularity parameter, and the real-space-roughness method with both uniform and varying electric fields. The specularity parameter is the probability of an electron scattering speculariy from a rough surface. It can be chosen as a constant, characterizing partially diffuse scattering of all electrons from the surface the same way, or it can be momentum dependent, where the size of rms roughness and the normal component of the electron wave number determine the probability of electron-momentum randomization. The real-space rough surface method uses the rms roughness height and correlation length of an actual MOSFET to simulate a rough interface. Due to their charge, electrons scatter from the electric field and not directly from the surface. If the electric field is kept uniform, the electrons do not perceive the roughness and scatter as if from a at surface. However, if the field is allowed to vary, the electrons scatter from the varying electric field as they would in a MOSFET. These methods were implemented for both the 50-nm and 250-nm MOSFETs, and using the rms roughness heights and correlation lengths for real devices. The

  8. Surface Roughness Metrology By Angular Distributions Of Scattered Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilsinn, David E.; Vorburger, Theodore V.; Teague, E. Clayton; MeLay, Michael J.; Giauque, Charles; Scire, Fredric E.

    1985-09-01

    On-line industrial inspection of batch manufactured parts requires fast measurement techniques for surface finish quality. In order to develop the measurement basis for these techniques, a system has been built to determine surface roughness by measuring the angular distributions of scattered light. The system incorporates data gathered from the angular distribution instrument and traditional surface stylus instruments. These data are used both as input and as comparison data in order to test various mathematical models of optical scattering phenomena. The object is to develop a mathematical model that uses the angular distribution of scattered light to deduce surface roughness parameters such as Ra and surface wavelength. This paper describes the results of an experiment in which angular scattered data from surfaces with sinusoidal profiles was used to compute the surface R and wavelength. Stylus measurements of these parameters were made separately. A comparative table is given of the computed and measured values. Estimates of uncertainties are also given.

  9. Electromagnetic scattering from rough surfaces covered with short branching vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Tsen-Chieh

    1998-11-01

    Retrieval of vegetation and underlying ground surface parameters has become one of the major applications of microwave remote sensing. To accomplish this task, a necessary step is to construct high-fidelity scattering models by which the relationship between all target parameters to the radar backscatter can be established. Many scattering models have been proposed for both rough surfaces and vegetation canopies. However, many important issues such as the dielectric inhomogeneity of the underlying rough surfaces, and the near-field scattering interaction among the vegetation particles and rough surfaces, have not been addressed yet. This dissertation provides electromagnetic scattering solutions for (1) slightly rough surfaces with inhomogeneous dielectric profiles and (2) rough surfaces covered with short branching vegetation. The rough surface scattering model presented in Chapter 2 is the first analytical model which includes surface scattering up to the second order and accounts for the dielectric inhomogeneity of dielectric medium. The scattering model for short branching vegetation is a polarimetric and fully coherent model which accounts for the near-field scattering interaction between vegetation particles and underlying rough surfaces (in Chapter 3) and among vegetation particles (in Chapter 4). The construction of the scattering model for short branching vegetation and the characterization of its performance are presented in Chapter 5. Soybean plants which possess the desired branching structure are chosen as the test targets. Realistic computer-generated vegetation structures, which are essential when considering the coherence effect of the vegetation structure and the scattering interaction among particles, are used in this model. The statistics of the polarimetric radar backscatter of vegetation medium is characterized by performing Monte-Carlo simulations. The scattering models developed for individual components and the overall scattering model have

  10. O the Theory of Ultrasonic Wave Scattering from Rough Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvy, Jill Audrey

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis contains a theoretical study of wave scattering by randomly rough surfaces. The work was undertaken to help understand the extent to which ultrasonic testing procedures are affected by roughness on the faces of real defects. The work concentrates on Kirchhoff theory as an approximate method of solution of the scattering problem. A literature review shows this approximation to be prevalent, applied mostly to monochromatic, acoustic wave scattering. Here such theory is extended to monochromatic elastic wave scattering. A calculation of the loss of the coherent field as roughness increases shows a clear analogy with the results of earlier acoustic theories, although mode-conversion effects are now also seen. A computer simulation technique is then presented. Individual surface realizations are generated and the scattering determined for each realization, using acoustic Kirchhoff theory. This gives explicit calculations of both the coherent and diffuse field and also allows for a study of time-dependent wave scattering. Mean signal amplitudes are calculated, as well as the expected statistical spread in amplitudes arising from differences between surface realizations. The thesis also includes a study of the accuracy of Kirchhoff theory. A stationary expression is obtained for a rough surface scattering coefficient, involving trial fields on the rough surface. Kirchhoff theory provides these trial fields and the scattering amplitude is compared with the amplitude using Kirchhoff theory in the Helmholtz scattering theorem. Predictions of the theory are compared with previously published experimental results. The greater probability of detecting small rough defects compared with small smooth defects, as sometimes seen in practice, is predicted by the theory. Also, comparison with experimentally determined backscattered signal amplitudes shows very good agreement and highlights the importance of taking

  11. Scattering of the electromagnetic waves from a rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, B. F.

    2012-10-01

    The electromagnetic field scattered by a rough surface of a semi-infinite body is computed up to the second order of a perturbation scheme with the surface roughness as a perturbation parameter. The calculations are based on the equation of motion of the polarization within the Lorentz-Drude (plasma) model of polarizable, non-magnetic, homogeneous matter. The surface roughness contributes both to the main (specularly) reflected and refracted fields and diffuse scattering, or gives rise to secondary (second-order) diffraction peaks for a regular grating. The calculations are performed both for the s- and p-waves. Two-dimensional modes, resonant at certain frequencies, are identified, confined to and propagating only on the surface, as a consequence of the surface roughness.

  12. Domain Derivatives in Dielectric Rough Surface Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Scattering. Springer, Berlin, 1992. [8] N . Dechamps, N . de Beaucoudrey, C . Bourlier, and S. Toutain. Fast numerical method for electromagnetic...objective function with respect to N number of unknown model parameters characterizing the scatterer. The minimization procedures are usually iterative...and require the gradient of the objective function in the unknown model parameter vector at each stage of iteration. For large N , finite

  13. Single and Multiple Scattering Components of the Surface Current for Rough Surface Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ernesto

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented for separating the single and multiple scattering contributions to the surface current which is valid up to the second order in perturbation theory. Using this method, numerical experiments are performed to determine the spectral characteristics of the surface current as a function of incidence angle and surface roughness for long random periodic gratings. It is shown that, as theincidence angle increases, the single scattering contribution shows a dependence on surface slope which is hot present in current perturbation theories.

  14. Depolarization of light by rough surface of scattering phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Markhvida, Igor; Lee, Tim K.; Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

    2013-02-01

    The growing interest in biomedical optics to the polarimetric methods push researchers to better understand of light depolarization during scattering in and on the surface of biological tissues. Here we study the depolarization of light propagated in silicone phantoms. The phantoms with variety of surface roughness and bulk optical properties are designed to imitate human skin. Free-space speckle patterns in parallel (III) and perpendicular (I⊥) direction in respect to incident polarization are used to get the depolarization ratio of backscattered light DR = (III - I⊥)/( III + I⊥). The Monte Carlo model developed in house is also applied to compare simulated DR with experimentally measured. DR dependence on roughness, concentration and size of scattering particles is analysed. A weak depolarization and negligible response to scattering of the medium are observed for phantoms with smooth surfaces, whereas for the surface roughness in order to the mean free path the depolarization ratio decreases and reveals dependence on the bulk scattering coefficient. In is shown that the surface roughness could be a key factor triggering the ability of tissues' characterization by depolarization ratio.

  15. Experimental Studies of Multiple Scattering by Rough Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knotts, Michael Eugene

    Experimental investigations were conducted to study the optical scattering properties of metallic rough surfaces with steep slopes and wavelength-sized structures that exhibit backscattering enhancement. Particular emphasis was placed on two kinds of surface with strictly one-dimensional roughness: random surfaces with Gaussian statistics and gratings consisting of deep, regularly spaced grooves that have been subjected to a random, groove-to-groove depth fluctuation. Methods for the fabrication of surfaces in photoresist and techniques for their characterization using a Talystep mechanical profilometer were developed. Normalized measurements of the angular dependence of the mean diffusely scattered intensities were obtained with the plane of incidence parallel to the axis of the surface height fluctuations. Using an incident wave polarized at 45^circ with respect to the plane of incidence, the Mueller matrix describing the complete polarization dependence of the mean scattered intensity was determined. It was shown that this matrix contains four distinct quantities corresponding to the second moments of scattered amplitudes, and that previous work presenting only the p- and s-polarized scattered intensities is therefore incomplete. Furthermore, it was shown that the four additional measured intensities required to determine the matrix elements can be used to isolate the backscattering enhancement and yield valuable physical insight. The results conclusively demonstrate that contributions arising from waves multiply scattered within valleys of the surface significantly affect the polarization dependence of the far-field scattered intensity and give rise to the observed backscattering enhancement.

  16. Distorted Wave Born Approximation for scattering from rough magnetic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osgood, Richard; Sinha, Sunil; Freeland, John W.; Nelson, Christie S.

    2000-03-01

    Resonant x-ray magnetic scattering has been used to elicit the magnetic properties of surfaces and multilayer interfaces. Recently, it was found that the magnetic roughness of a single Co layer was larger than its chemical roughness.^1,2 Calculations using first-order perturbation theory and the vector wave equation (the Born Approximation) found that, in the absence of any correlation between the magnetic and structural roughness, there is no contribution to the difference in the diffuse magnetic scattering from x-rays circularly polarized in opposite senses relative to the direction of magnetization.^3 The diffuse magnetic resonant x-ray scattering from Fe/Gd multilayers has been measured;^4 fits to the data (using the Born Approximation) result in longer correlation lengths for charge-magnetic roughness than for charge roughness. We go beyond the current model to the Distorted Wave Born Approximation and simulate the diffuse magnetic scattering from various experimental systems studied to date. ^1 J.F. MacKay, C. Teichert, D.E. Savage, M.G. Lagally, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3925 (1996). ^2 J.W. Freeland, K. Bussmann, Y.U. Idzerda, C.-C. Kao Phys. Rev. B 60, R9923 (1999). ^3 R.M. Osgood III, S.K. Sinha, J.W. Freeland, S.D. Bader, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4619 (1998). ^4 C.S. Nelson et al. Phys. Rev. B 60, 12234 (1999).

  17. Light scattering by conducting surfaces with one-dimensional roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Kevin A.; Knotts, Michael E.; Michel, T. R.

    1994-10-01

    We describe experimental measurements of the scattering properties of two conducting surfaces with 1D roughness. The surfaces have been fabricated in photoresist and have been characterized with a stylus that is small compared to the surface correlation length. In studies of diffuse scatter, we present measurements of the four unique elements of the Stokes matrix. Backscattering enhancement and associated polarization effects are observed for the rougher surface while behavior consistent with tangent plane models is seen for the smoother surface. The polarization-dependence of the coherent scatter is also investigated, and comparisons are made with the results calculated for a flat surface. Finally, we briefly present results for the angular correlation functions of intensity, where the coherent effects that produce backscattering enhancement are more directly observed.

  18. Rough surface scattering from moving ocean surfaces as an indicator of scattering mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ernesto; Kim, Yunjin

    1993-01-01

    Ever since Crombie used the Doppler spectrum of RF signals scattered from the ocean surface to provide conclusive evidence for Bragg resonant scattering, scattering from the ocean surface has served as a testing ground for the identification of governing scattering mechanisms in rough surface scattering. The moving ocean surface has the advantage for rough surface scattering that, being a dispersive medium, features with different spatial scales the tendency to travel at different speeds. Thus, by looking at the temporal signature of the scattered field, one can try to isolate the scattering mechanism. This feature has been exploited by various authors. To give a recent example, we cite the work of Plant, who examined the Doppler spectrum of the return signal to infer the presence of two-scale scattering in scattering at medium incidence angles. The problem with restricting oneself to the examination of the Doppler spectrum, as has been done traditionally, is that one restricts the phenomena under investigation to temporally homogeneous phenomena: transient phenomena, which are localized in time, are not localized in frequency space. There is increasing evidence that this type of phenomena, due to specular scattering or breaking waves, may also play an important role in determining the scattering mechanism in ocean-like surfaces. To overcome this problem, we introduce the use of the Wavelet Transform to study the frequency-temporal signatures of the scattered field from moving ocean waves. We calculate this signature using various analytic scattering theories and show that the Wavelet Transform provides a useful tool for separating the different scattering mechanisms operating in scattering in ocean-like surfaces. Next we simulate realistic nonlinear moving ocean waves and calculate the temporal scattered field signature by using the method of moments and the stop-start approximation: the surface is assumed stationary during a scattering event, but moves between

  19. Applications of Numerical Models for Rough Surface Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Joel Tidmore

    This thesis provides new computational models for electromagnetic surface scattering which allow large one and two dimensional problems to be considered through the use of efficient numerical algorithms and parallel computing techniques. This is in contrast with previous numerical studies that have been limited to relatively small surfaces rough in one dimension only. The new numerically exact models are applied to several problems of current interest, and allow studies of phenomena not predicted by any available analytical theories. In addition, comparisons are made with predictions of standard analytical models to obtain an assessment of their performance. A one dimensional model for VHF propagation is the first numerical model considered. Comparisons with measurement data show the model to produce accurate results, and conclusively demonstrate the importance of terrain measurements in propagation predictions. Comparisons with approximate models allow their appropriate regions of validity to be determined. Polarimetric thermal emission from two dimensional periodic surfaces is studied using an extended boundary condition (EBC) numerical solution. The model is applied to generate the only numerically exact results for two dimensional surface polarimetric thermal emission currently available, and demonstrates that properties of U _{B}, the third Stokes emission parameter, remain similar to those observed previously for one dimensional periodic surfaces. The response of U_{B} to level of medium anisotropy is also investigated. A Monte Carlo study of backscattering enhancement from two dimensional perfectly conducting random rough surfaces follows, using a recently developed more efficient version of the method of moments which allows the large two dimensional surfaces investigated to be treated. Comparisons with bistatic scattering data from machine fabricated random surfaces taken at the University of Washington illustrate the first such validation of a two

  20. Electromagnetic Scattering by an Exponentially Distributed Rough Surface with the Introduction of a Rough Surface Generation Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    60 3. Summary .................. ....................... 73 Part B . I. The Generation of Random Rough Surfaces (Background) 74 2. The RCS Program...A.1: Solution of Integrals from Appendix A ...... ... 108 Appendix B : A Closed Form Solution for the First Series of the Exponential Characteristic...of a surface represented by Pyati’s exponential jpdf using somewhat traditional rough surface scattering theory. Part B involves the development of an

  1. Rough surface scattering results based on bandpass autocorrelation forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Lee S.; Parsons, Chester L.

    1990-01-01

    Surface-height autocorrelation forms such as Gaussian and exponential are often used in studies of near-normal incidence rough-surface scattering. Such models require the existence of a constant, or DC, value in the spectrum. The consequences of autocorrelation forms that correspond to spectral processes that are essentially bandpass in nature are examined. One such process is that of ocean wind waves. In this case, the spectral components do not extend down to zero frequency. The physical optics backscatter theory is reexamined relative to such autocorrelation functions. Experimental results obtained from a wavetank are compared to the autocorrelation model used in the analysis. The analysis indicates that Gaussian correlation length or mean-square slope is not an appropriate parameter for narrowband conditions and that significant slope is a more relevant parameter. Inherent in the deep-phase assumption is some form of slope dependency. The analysis given (and variants thereof) can be used to provide insight into the physical effects of separate spectral components and of spectral directionality.

  2. Electromagnetic Scattering from Randomly Rough Surfaces with Hybrid FEM/BIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Guo, Li-Xin; He, Qiong; Wei, Bing

    2011-10-01

    The hybrid finite element method (FEM) together with the boundary integral equation (BIE) is firstly applied to scattering from a conducting rough surface. The BIE is used as the truncation boundary condition for the special unbounded half space, whereas the FEM is used to solve the governing equation in the region surrounded by a rough surface and artificial boundary. Tapered wave incidence is employed to cancel the so-called “edge effect". A hybrid FEM/BIE formulation for generalized one-dimensional conducting rough surface scattering is presented, as well as examples that evaluate its validity compared to the method of moments. The bistatic scattering coefficients of a Gaussian rough surface are calculated for transverse-magnetic wave incidence. Conclusions are reached after analyzing the scattering patterns of rough surfaces with different rms heights and correlation lengths

  3. Scattering of longitudinal waves (sound) by defects in fluids. Rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Bogdan

    2013-08-01

    The classical theory of scattering of longitudinal waves (sound) by small inhomogeneities (scatterers) in an ideal fluid is generalized to a distribution of scatterers and such as to include the effect of the inhomogeneities on the elastic properties of the fluid. The results are obtained by a new method of solving the wave equation with spatial restrictions (caused by the presence of the scatterers), which can also be applied to other types of inhomogeneities (like surface roughness, for instance). A coherent forward scattering is identified for a uniform distribution of scatterers (practically equivalent with a mean-field approach), which is due to the fact that our treatment does not include multiple scattering. The reflected wave is obtained for a half-space (semi-infinite fluid) of uniformly distributed scatterers, as well as the field diffracted by a perfect lattice of scatterers. The same method is applied to a (inhomogeneous) rough surface of a semi-infinite ideal fluid. A perturbation-theoretical scheme is devised, with the roughness function as a perturbation parameter, for computing the waves scattered by the surface roughness. The waves scattered by the rough surface are both waves localized (and propagating only) on the surface (two-dimensional waves) and waves reflected back in the fluid. They exhibit directional effects, slowness, attenuation or resonance phenomena, depending on the spatial characteristics of the roughness function. The reflection coefficients and the energy carried on by these waves are calculated both for fixed and free surfaces. In some cases, the surface roughness may generate waves confined to the surface (damped, rough-surface waves).

  4. 3-D Acoustic Scattering from 2-D Rough Surfaces Using A Parabolic Equation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    acoustic propagation signals, especially at mid- frequencies and higher (e.g., acoustic communications systems). For many years, the effects of rough...of the effect of surface scattering on 3-D propagation , which is critical in evaluating the variability in underwater acoustic propagation . Results...14. SUBJECT TERMS Acoustic Propagation , Acoustic Scattering, Sea Surface Perturbations, Split- Step Fourier Algorithm, Finite Difference Algorithm

  5. Electromagnetic Scattering and Inverse Scattering of Layered Media with a Slightly Rough Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhi-Wei; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Fang, Guang-You

    2011-01-01

    An electromagnetic (EM) scattering model for layered media covered by a 3D infinite rough surface and the corresponding inversion technique are investigated. The work aims at remote sensing the surface roughness and dielectric constant for different depths of bear soil through radar measurement data. The forward problem is carried out by the wave decomposition method. The small perturbation method (SPM) and EM boundary conditions are employed to solve the integral equations introduced by the wave decomposition method. The second-order SPM solution of the scattering field is involved in the computation of the forward problem for the first time. The backscattering coefficients of multiple frequencies, multiple angles and multiple polarizations are employed to create a nonlinear optimization problem. A genetic algorithm is introduced to help the inversion procedure approach to the global minimum of the cost function. Examples are carried out to validate the inversion technique. The inversion results show good agreement with the forward problem with given parameters and pose good tolerance to the input data with the additive white Gaussian noise.

  6. Surface roughness studies with DALLAS-detector array for laser light angular scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorburger, T. V.; Teague, E. C.; Scire, F. E.; Mclay, M. J.; Gilsinn, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to develop a better mathematical description of optical scattering phenomena, in order to construct an optical scattering apparatus for reliable and routine measurements of roughness parameters without resorting to comparator standards. After a brief outline of optical scattering theory, a description is presented of an experimental instrument for measuring surface roughness which incorporates optical scattering principles. The instrument has a He-Ne laser which illuminates the test surface at a variable angle of incidence. Scattered light distribution is detected by an array of 87 fiber-optic sensors positioned in a rotating semicircular yoke. The output from the detector is digitized and analyzed in a laboratory computer. For a comparison with experimental data, theoretical distributions are calculated by substituting the roughness profiles into the operand of and integral equation for electromagnetic scattering developed by Beckmann and Spizzichino (1963). A schematic diagram of the instrument is provided and the general implications of the experimental results are discussed.

  7. Analysis of photopolarimetric data of comets at small phase angles by rough surface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Mukai, T.

    1990-07-01

    A comparison of cometary rough surface scattering model calculation results with observations has indicated that negative polarization is produced, over a phase-angle range of less than 20 deg, by the variation of polarization angle of reflected light due to a contribution from (1) different sites on large, rough particles, and/or (2) multiple internal reflection within small dielectric particles. The opposition effect in cometary comas is caused by large, rough particle reflection. The mixing model for cometary grains, encompassing small particles and large rough ones composed in both cases of slightly absorbing material, is seen as explaining the photopolarimetric data of comets in the backward-scattering region.

  8. An iterative analytic—numerical method for scattering from a target buried beneath a rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Run-Wen; Guo, Li-Xin; Wang, Rui

    2014-11-01

    An efficiently iterative analytical—numerical method is proposed for two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic scattering from a perfectly electric conducting (PEC) target buried under a dielectric rough surface. The basic idea is to employ the Kirchhoff approximation (KA) to accelerate the boundary integral method (BIM). Below the rough surface, an iterative system is designed between the rough surface and the target. The KA is used to simulate the initial field on the rough surface based on the Fresnel theory, while the target is analyzed by the boundary integral method to obtain a precise result. The fields between the rough surface and the target can be linked by the boundary integral equations below the rough surface. The technique presented here is highly efficient in terms of computational memory, time, and versatility. Numerical simulations of two typical models are carried out to validate the method.

  9. On high-frequency radiation scattering sensitivity to surface roughness in particulate media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohdi, T. I.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sensitivity of high-frequency radiation scattering in particulate media, to particle surface roughness. Ray-tracing theory and computation are employed. Since the magnitude of the Poynting vector ray, the irradiance, is the appropriate quantity to be tracked, the behavior of the reflectance, which controls the ratio of the reflected and incident Poynting vector magnitudes, is of primary concern. The reflectance is a highly nonlinear function of the refractive indices and angle of incidence. The present work first addresses the relationship between a single scatterer's sensitivity to its surface roughness and then the response of a large number of scatterers to the surface roughness. The analysis indicates that, for a single scatterer, the sensitivity of the response to roughness decreases, up to a point, and then increases again, i.e., it is nonmonotone. However, for a system of multiple scatterers, this effect vanishes, due to multiple internal reflections which dominate the overall response characteristics. While it was relatively straightforward to compute the overall sensitivity of a single scattering body, for example a sphere, when multiple reflecting bodies are considered, numerical simulations are necessary because the reflected rays from one "rough" body will, in turn, be reflected to another "rough" body, etc. Examples are given for a system of randomly distributed scatterers.

  10. Analytic height correlation function of rough surfaces derived from light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, M.; Shafiei, F.; Fazeli, S. M.; Downer, M. C.; Jafari, G. R.

    2016-10-01

    We derive an analytic expression for the height correlation function of a homogeneous, isotropic rough surface based on the inverse wave scattering method of Kirchhoff theory. The expression directly relates the height correlation function to diffuse scattered intensity along a linear path at fixed polar angle. We test the solution by measuring the angular distribution of light scattered from rough silicon surfaces and comparing extracted height correlation functions to those derived from atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results agree closely with AFM over a wider range of roughness parameters than previous formulations of the inverse scattering problem, while relying less on large-angle scatter data. Our expression thus provides an accurate analytical equation for the height correlation function of a wide range of surfaces based on measurements using a simple, fast experimental procedure.

  11. Light scattering by irregular particles much larger than the wavelength with wavelength-scale surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Grynko, Yevgen; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Förstner, Jens

    2016-08-01

    We simulate light scattering by random irregular particles that have dimensions much larger than the wavelength of incident light at the size parameter of X=200 using the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method. A comparison of the DGTD solution for smoothly faceted particles with that obtained with a geometric optics model shows good agreement for the scattering angle curves of intensity and polarization. If a wavelength-scale surface roughness is introduced, diffuse scattering at rough interface results in smooth and featureless curves for all scattering matrix elements which is consistent with the laboratory measurements of real samples.

  12. Hybrid method of scattering from a dielectric target above a rough surface: TM case.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Dong, T L; Li, Q X

    2013-12-20

    A hybrid method, combining analytic Kirchhoff approximation (KA) and numerical method of moment (MoM), is developed to solve the 2D scattering problem of a dielectric target with arbitrary cross section above a moderate perfect electric conductor (PEC) rough surface under TM-polarized tapered wave incidence. Consider the target as the MoM region and the rough surface as the KA region, the induced current on the rough surface is obtained through the KA method, which depends on the incident tapered wave and the field illuminating by current distribution on the target, leaving only unknowns on the target region. In order to reduce the computational costs further, the rough surface is truncated to speed up computation of the scattering contribution from the rough surface to the target. Compared with the conventional MoM, the hybrid method is very efficient to solve the composite scattering problem of target above rough surface, especially for long underlying rough surface. Simulation results validate the effectiveness and accuracy of the hybrid method.

  13. A study of electromagnetic scattering from conducting targets above and below the dielectric rough surface.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lixin; Liang, Yu; Wu, Zhensen

    2011-03-28

    The composite scattering from the conducting targets above and below the dielectric rough surface using the extended Propagation-Inside-Layer Expansion (EPILE) combined with the Forward-Backward method (FBM) is studied. The established integral equations are approved by comparing with the related theory. The accuracy and efficiency of the EPILE + FBM are compared with the method of moments (MOM). The influences of target size, target height/depth, target position, and the rms height, the correlation length, as well as the incident angle on the bistatic scattering coefficient (BSC) for different polarizations are also investigated. The presented algorithm is of generality for the target-rough surface composite scattering problems.

  14. Effect of Periodic Roughness and Surface Defects on the Terahertz Scattering Behavior of Cylindrical Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-26

    demonstrated.2,3 However, in applications such as Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar ( ISAR ) imagery, the diffusely scattered radiation can cause unwanted...cylindrical objects by analyzing the objects ISAR imagery. Roughness can be broadly classified as either random or periodic in nature. In this...surfaces. In addition to periodic roughness, surface defects such as polished seams and unpolished grooves can also affect the ISAR imagery of an object

  15. Rough surface scattering from an elastic scale model of an ocean bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, Raymond J.; Gragg, Robert F.; Wiley, Robert W.; Inanli, Burcin

    2003-10-01

    Monostatic and bistatic scattering strength measurements with a rough PVC surface were collected during two experiments in an acoustic tank facility at the Allied Geophysical Laboratories in the University of Houston. The PVC surface was analogous to limestone ocean bottoms in its two-dimensional power-law roughness spectrum and its large dependence of scattering strength on the roughness parameters. The experiments represent an initial effort to use physical models with ground-truth measurements of roughness and compressional/shear speeds and attenuations to verify the predicted effects of interface scattering models, e.g., the small-slope model developed at the Naval Research Laboratory for elastic bottoms. Comparisons between the small-slope model, perturbation theory, and the observed data are shown for the various geometries using acoustic transmissions in the 100-400 kHz band. The success in obtaining a good model-data fit is shown to be directly related to the ensonification of an area that represents a sufficient statistical sample of the roughness. Plans for a series of tank experiments with physical models for verifying predictions of rough surface scattering theories and elastic PE are described. [Work supported by ONR.

  16. A study of scattering characteristics for micro-scale rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yonghee

    Defining the scatter characteristics of surfaces plays an important role in various technology industries such as the semiconductor, automobile, and military industries. Scattering can be used to inspect products for problems created during the manufacturing process and to generate the specifications for engineers. In particular, scattering measurement systems and models have been developed to define the surface properties of a wide variety of materials used in manufacturing. However, most previous research has been focused on very smooth surfaces as a nano-scale roughness. The research in this paper uses the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and focuses on defining the scattering properties of micro-scale rough and textured surfaces for three different incident angles. Also, the parameters of ABg and Harvey-Shack models are obtained for input into optical design software.

  17. Backscattering of linearly polarized light from turbid tissue-like scattering medium with rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronin, Alexander; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Markhvida, Igor; Lee, Tim K.; Meglinski, Igor

    2016-07-01

    In the framework of further development of a unified computational tool for the needs of biomedical optics, we introduce an electric field Monte Carlo (MC) model for simulation of backscattering of coherent linearly polarized light from a turbid tissue-like scattering medium with a rough surface. We consider the laser speckle patterns formation and the role of surface roughness in the depolarization of linearly polarized light backscattered from the medium. The mutual phase shifts due to the photons' pathlength difference within the medium and due to reflection/refraction on the rough surface of the medium are taken into account. The validation of the model includes the creation of the phantoms of various roughness and optical properties, measurements of co- and cross-polarized components of the backscattered/reflected light, its analysis and extensive computer modeling accelerated by parallel computing on the NVIDIA graphics processing units using compute unified device architecture (CUDA). The analysis of the spatial intensity distribution is based on second-order statistics that shows a strong correlation with the surface roughness, both with the results of modeling and experiment. The results of modeling show a good agreement with the results of experimental measurements on phantoms mimicking human skin. The developed MC approach can be used for the direct simulation of light scattered by the turbid scattering medium with various roughness of the surface.

  18. A numerical assessment of rough surface scattering theories. I - Horizontal polarization. II - Vertical polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ernesto; Kim, Yunjin; Durden, Stephen L.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical evaluation is presented of the regime of validity for various rough surface scattering theories against numerical results obtained by employing the method of moments. The contribution of each theory is considered up to second order in the perturbation expansion for the surface current. Considering both vertical and horizontal polarizations, the unified perturbation method provides best results among all theories weighed.

  19. Comparing 2-D screen projections to 1-D goniometric measurements in scattering studies of surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Laurel R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2009-02-01

    Video goniometry was used to study the angular dependence of scattering from tissues and test materials. Tissues and standard roughness samples (sandpaper) were placed vertically in front of a 543 nm He-Ne laser with the tissue surface normal at 45° from the incident beam. The scattered light patterns projected onto a screen that was photographed by a digital camera. The scatter pattern showed a specular peak centered at -45° which was described by a Henyey-Greenstein function. The pattern also presented a diffuse Lambertian pattern at 0° (normal to the tissue). The line between the peak specular and the peak Lambertian identified the scattering plane, despite any slight misalignment of the tissue. The analysis utilized a coordinate transform based on mathematics for mapping between a flat Mercator map and a spherical planetary surface. The system was used to study the surface roughness of muscle tissue samples (bovine striated muscle and chicken cardiac muscle).

  20. [Multiple scattering of visible and infrared light by sea fog over wind driving rough sea surface].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Hua; Lei, Cheng-Xin; Shen, Jin

    2013-08-01

    The present paper is concerned with computing the multiple scattering characteristics of a sea fog-sea surface couple system within this context. The single scattering characteristics of sea fog were studied by Mie theory, and the multiple scattering of sunlight by single sea fog layer was studied by radiative transfer theory. The reflection function of a statistically rough ocean surface was obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined sea fog and ocean surface were obtained employing the adding method, and the results indicated that the reflected light intensity of sea fog increased with the sea background.

  1. A high frequency correction to the Kirchhoff approximation, with application to rough surface EM wave scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    A high frequency correction to the Kirchhoff approximation is developed for application to rough surface scattering. An approximate solution to the magnetic field integral equation for perfect conductivity and plane wave excitation yields a perturbed surface current expressed as a linear function of the second derivatives of surface height. The corrected surface current vector is substituted into the far field Stratton-Chu integral and average backscattered powers for the four polarization combinations are computed on the assumption that the surface is describable as a stationary Gaussian random process. The strength of this scattering solution is that it can account for height curvature correlation without requiring small height and slope.

  2. Recovery of correlation function of internal random rough surfaces from diffusely scattered elastic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, F.; Lowe, M. J. S.; Craster, R. V.

    2017-02-01

    We propose an ultrasonic methodology to reconstruct the height correlation function of remotely inaccessible random rough surfaces in solids. The inverse method is based on the Kirchhoff approximation(KA), and it requires measuring the angular distribution of diffuse scattering intensities by sending in a narrow band incident pulse. Near field scattering effects are also included by considering the Fresnel assumption. The proposed approach is successfully verified by simulating the scattering from multiple realizations of rough surfaces whose correlation function is known, calculating the mean scattering intensities from these received signals, and then deploying the inverse method on these to reconstruct the original correlation function. Very good agreement between the reconstructed correlation function and the original is found, for a wide range of roughness parameters. In addition, the effect of reducing the number of realizations to approximate the mean intensity are investigated, providing confidence bounds for the experiment. An experiment on a corrugated rough surface is performed with a limited number of scans using a phased array, which further validates the proposed inversion algorithm.

  3. Light scattering by a rough surface of human skin. 2. Diffuse reflectance

    SciTech Connect

    Barun, V V; Ivanov, A P

    2013-10-31

    Based on the previously calculated luminance factors, we have investigated the integral characteristics of light reflection from a rough surface of the skin with large-scale inhomogeneities under various conditions of the skin illumination. Shadowing of incident and scattered beams by relief elements is taken into account. Diffuse reflectances by the Gaussian and the quasi-periodic surfaces are compared and, in general, both these roughness models are shown to give similar results. We have studied the effect of the angular structure of radiation multiply scattered deep in the tissue and the refraction of rays as they propagate from the dermis to the surface of the stratum corneum on the reflection characteristics of the skin surface. The importance of these factors is demonstrated. The algorithms constructed can be included in the schemes of calculation of the light fields inside and outside the medium in solving various direct and inverse problems of optics of biological tissues. (biophotonics)

  4. Light scattering by a rough surface of human skin. 2. Diffuse reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    Based on the previously calculated luminance factors, we have investigated the integral characteristics of light reflection from a rough surface of the skin with large-scale inhomogeneities under various conditions of the skin illumination. Shadowing of incident and scattered beams by relief elements is taken into account. Diffuse reflectances by the Gaussian and the quasi-periodic surfaces are compared and, in general, both these roughness models are shown to give similar results. We have studied the effect of the angular structure of radiation multiply scattered deep in the tissue and the refraction of rays as they propagate from the dermis to the surface of the stratum corneum on the reflection characteristics of the skin surface. The importance of these factors is demonstrated. The algorithms constructed can be included in the schemes of calculation of the light fields inside and outside the medium in solving various direct and inverse problems of optics of biological tissues.

  5. Assessment of surface roughness by use of soft x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yan-li; Wang, Yong-gang; Chen, Shu-yan; Chen, Bo

    2009-08-01

    A soft x-ray reflectometer with laser produced plasma source has been designed, which can work from wavelength 8nm to 30 nm and has high performance. Using the soft x-ray reflectometer above, the scattering light distribution of silicon and zerodur mirrors which have super-smooth surfaces could be measured at different incidence angle and different wavelength. The measurement when the incidence angle is 2 degree and the wavelength is 11nm has been given in this paper. A surface scattering theory of soft x-ray grazing incidence optics based on linear system theory and an inverse scattering mathematical model is introduced. The vector scattering theory of soft x-ray scattering also is stated in detail. The scattering data are analyzed by both the methods above respectively to give information about the surface profiles. On the other hand, both the two samples are measured by WYKO surface profiler, and the surface roughness of the silicon and zerodur mirror is 1.3 nm and 1.5nm respectively. The calculated results are in quantitative agreement with those measured by WYKO surface profiler, which indicates that soft x-ray scattering is a very useful tool for the evaluation of highly polished surfaces. But there still some difference among the results of different theory and WYKO, and the possible reasons of such difference have been discussed in detail.

  6. The scattering of torsional guided waves from Gaussian rough surfaces in pipework.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Jacob; Cawley, Peter

    2017-03-01

    In older sections of industrial pipework there are often regions of general corrosion that typically have a Gaussian thickness distribution. During guided wave inspection this corrosion causes an increase in the background noise and a significant attenuation of the inspection wave. These effects are investigated in this paper through finite element modelling of the interaction of torsional guided waves with rough surfaces in pipes. Pipes of different diameter and rough surface profile are modelled and it is found that the attenuation of waves is explained by significant mode conversion and scattering within the rough surface. This mode conversion is greatest when the non-axisymmetric modes to which energy is scattered are close to the cutoff frequency or when the ratio of surface correlation length to wavelength is around 0.2-0.25. Mode conversion increases with increasing surface roughness and is a strong function of frequency-diameter product, with larger pipes causing more mode conversion. When this mode conversion occurs the energy is lost mostly to those waves with a displacement profile closest to the original torsional inspection wave. Resulting attenuation of the inspection signal can be severe; for example a mean wall thickness loss of 28% can cause 2.7 dB/m attenuation in a pulse-echo configuration.

  7. Scattering by plasmon polaritons on a rough surface with a periodic component

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, T.R.; Knotts, M.E.; O`Donnell, K.A.

    1995-03-01

    We investigate the scattering properties of a metal surface composed of the sum of a sinusoidal component and a one-dimensional Gaussian random process. In experimental work, such surfaces are produced in gold-coated photoresist by combining speckle-scanning methods with holographic grating fabrication techniques. In the diffusely scattered light, light bands and related effects that arise from the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons are observed; the angular position of the diffuse light bands corresponds to the positions of the resonant absorption anomalies of the unperturbed periodic surface. It is also shown that the measurements are closely consistent with the predictions of rigorous numerical methods based on the reduced Rayleigh equations, in which the diffuse scatter is determined through an average over an ensemble of rough surfaces. With an analytical theoretical method that treats the grating exactly and the roughness as a perturbation, it is shown that an observed enhancement of a diffuse light band in the backscattering configuration results from the coherent interference of scattering contributions from counter-propagating surface plasmon polaritons. 21 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Scattering by plasmon polaritons on a rough surface with a periodic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, T. R.; Knotts, M. E.; O'Donnell, K. A.

    1995-03-01

    We investigate the scattering properties of a metal surface composed of the sum of a sinusoidal component and a one-dimensional Gaussian random process. In experimental work, such surfaces are produced in gold-coated photoresist by combining speckle-scanning methods with holographic grating fabrication techniques. In the diffusely scattered light, light bands and related effects that arise from the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons are observed; the angular position of the diffuse light bands corresponds to the positions of the resonant absorption anomalies of the unperturbed periodic surface. It is also shown that the measurements are closely consistent with the predictions of rigorous numerical methods based on the reduced Rayleigh equations, in which the diffuse scatter is determined through an average over an ensemble of rough surfaces. With an analytical theoretical method that treats the grating exactly and the roughness as a perturbation, it is shown that an observed enhancement of a diffuse light band in the backscattering configuration results from the coherent interference of scattering contributions from counterpropagating surface plasmon polaritons.

  9. Light scatter from polysilicon and aluminum surfaces and comparison with surface-roughness statistics by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bawolek, E J; Mohr, J B; Hirleman, E D; Majumdar, A

    1993-07-01

    Optical-scatter measurements from polysilicon and aluminum surfaces were performed by using 632.8-nm illumination at 45 deg and 488-nm illumination at 76.8 deg. Scatter was recorded up to 60 deg from the specular beam by using a concentric ring photodetector. The results are compared with surface statistics derived from atomic force microscopy. Quantitative predictions of the scatter were derived from power spectral density curves and angle-resolved-scattering theory. The agreement was fair for polysilicon samples with rms surface roughnesses of ~18 and 42 nm and aluminum with 17-nm rms roughness but poor for other samples. The discrepancy is attributed primarily to internal scatter within the measuring instrument.

  10. Spectroscopic Polarimetry of Light scattered by Surface Roughness and Textured Films in Nanotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrieu, F.

    2009-09-01

    The Effective Medium Approximation, (EMA), theory validate the thin films optical metrology in most cases when considering surface roughness. A scaling condition exist between the light wavelengths as compared to thin films roughness. In earlier papers, D. Ramsey and later P. I. Rovira and R. W. Collins, S. F. Nee, had shown however that poly crystaline and textured films could induce light scattering, affecting deeply the SE results. Exhaustives studies in the literature, detail the Mueller matrices properties through optical entropy and depolarization. It has been applied in rather different fields. The mathematical basis, describing depolarizing systems, developped by S. R. Cloude, are an important issue. In the visible range optics, complementary applications exist for thin grating films, surface scatterometry and biological turbid media The optical entropy provides a very powerful analysis technique yielding important surface parameters such as depolarization and roughness, differentiating roughness character, enabling even scatterer's classification. As first results presented here, in thin films characterization for nanotechnologies materials, spectroscopic polarimetry specifies surface properties and films textures through an entropy concept. An ultraviolet extended range of present polarimeters set up for imaging and quality control, should be a promising enhancement compare to the present bidirectionals reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and haze ultraviolet wafer analysis of wafer in conventional processes.

  11. Polarization dependence of light scattered from rough surfaces with steep slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Kevin A.; Knotts, Michael E.

    1991-11-01

    We discuss measurements of the infrared scattering properties of one- and two-dimensional conducting randomly rough surfaces. The surfaces are fabricated in photoresist and are checked with a stylus profilometer to verify that the surface statistics agree with the desired results. For surfaces that have steep slopes and lateral scale sizes comparable to the illumination wavelength, we observe strongly enhanced backscattering toward the source. These observations are shown to be strongly dependent on polarization. In the case of a one- dimensional surface, four distinct quantities appear in the Stokes scattering matrix, and examples of measurements of these quantities are presented. For the case of a two- dimensionally rough surface it is discussed that, even if the incident field is purely linearly polarized, the scattered light consists of both polarized and randomly polarized components. In the backscattering region, the polarized component contains linear, elliptical, and even nearly circular polarization states at various field angles. These data are interpreted and are consistent with the statistical isotropy of the surface.

  12. Phonon transport in silicon nanowires: The reduced group velocity and surface-roughness scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liyan; Li, Baowen; Li, Wu

    2016-09-01

    Using a linear-scaling Kubo simulation approach, we have quantitatively investigated the effects of confinement and surface roughness on phonon transport in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as thick as 55 nm in diameter R . The confinement effect leads to significant reduction of phonon group velocity v in SiNWs compared to bulk silicon except at extremely low phonon frequencies f , which very likely persists in SiNWs several hundreds of nanometers thick, suggesting the inapplicability of bulk properties, including anharmonic phonon scattering, to SiNWs. For instance, the velocity can be reduced by more than 30% for phonons with f >4.5 THz in 55-nm-thick nanowires. In rough SiNWs Casimir's limit, which is valid in confined macroscopic systems, can underestimate the surface scattering by more than one order of magnitude. For a roughness profile with Lorentzian correlation characterized by root-mean-square roughness σ and correlation length Lr, the frequency-dependent phonon diffusivity D follows power-law dependences D ∝Rασ-βLrγ , where α ˜2 and β ˜1 . On average, γ increases from 0 to 0.5 as R /σ increases. The mean free path and the phonon lifetime essentially follow the same power-law dependences. These dependences are in striking contrast to Casimir's limit, i.e., D ˜v R /3 , and manifest the dominant role of the change in the number of atoms due to roughness. The thermal conductivity κ can vary by one order of magnitude with varying σ and Lr in SiNWs, and increasing σ and shortening Lr can efficiently lower κ below Casimir's limit by one order of magnitude. Our work provides different insights to understand the ultralow thermal conductivity of SiNWs reported experimentally and guidance to manipulate κ via surface roughness engineering.

  13. Application of the extended boundary condition method to Monte Carlo simulations of scattering of waves by two-dimensional random rough surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Lou, S. H.; Chan, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    The extended boundary condition method is applied to Monte Carlo simulations of two-dimensional random rough surface scattering. The numerical results are compared with one-dimensional random rough surfaces obtained from the finite-element method. It is found that the mean scattered intensity from two-dimensional rough surfaces differs from that of one dimension for rough surfaces with large slopes.

  14. Application of the extended boundary condition method to Monte Carlo simulations of scattering of waves by two-dimensional random rough surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Lou, S. H.; Chan, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    The extended boundary condition method is applied to Monte Carlo simulations of two-dimensional random rough surface scattering. The numerical results are compared with one-dimensional random rough surfaces obtained from the finite-element method. It is found that the mean scattered intensity from two-dimensional rough surfaces differs from that of one dimension for rough surfaces with large slopes.

  15. Determination of volume and surface scattering from saline ice using ice sheets with precisely controlled roughness parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Bredow, J.W.; Porco, R.L.; Fung, A.K.; Tjuatja, S.; Jezek, K.C.; Gogineni, S.; Gow, A.J.

    1995-09-01

    Experiments were performed at the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) in Hanover, NH, to precisely determine the relative contributions of surface and volume scattering from saline ice that has well-known surface roughness characteristics. The ice growth phase of the experiment made use of two 6-ft diameter tanks and a 6-ft diameter mold with known roughness statistical parameters of rms height = 0.25 cm and Gaussian correlation (correlation length = 2.0 cm). One tank was used for growing a moderately thick saline ice sheet with very smooth surface, and the other was used for growing a thin layer of freshwater ice over the surface mold. The latter resulted in a layer with one statistically known rough boundary and one smooth boundary. Wide-bandwidth, multiple incidence angle backscattering measurements were performed, first on the bare saline ice sheet and then on the same sheet after the thin freshwater ice sheet was placed on top of it. Results indicate that the surface scattering dominates over saline ice volume scattering at all frequencies for low incidence angles for both the very smooth and Gaussian rough surfaces. The significance of volume scattering depends strongly on angle of incidence, frequency, volume scattering albedo, surface roughness, and surface correlation function.

  16. Lunar single-scattering, porosity, and surface-roughness properties with SMART-1/AMIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parviainen, H.; Muinonen, K.; Näränen, J.; Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Koschny, D.; Grieger, B.; Foing, B.

    2009-04-01

    We analyze the single-scattering albedo and phase function, local surface roughness and regolith porosity, and the coherent backscattering, single scattering, and shadowing contributions to the opposition effect for specific lunar mare regions imaged by the SMART-1/AMIE camera. We account for shadowing due to surface roughness and mutual shadowing among the regolith particles with ray-tracing computations for densely-packed particulate media with a fractional-Brownian-motion interface with free space. The shadowing modeling allows us to derive the hundred-micron-scale volume-element scattering phase function for the lunar mare regolith. We explain the volume-element phase function by a coherent-backscattering model, where the single scatterers are the submicron-to-micron-scale particle inhomogeneities and/or the smallest particles on the lunar surface. We express the single-scatterer phase function as a sum of three Henyey-Greenstein terms, accounting for increased backward scattering in both narrow and wide angular ranges. The Moon exhibits an opposition effect, that is, a nonlinear increase of disk-integrated brightness with decreasing solar phase angle, the angle between the Sun and the observer as seen from the object. Recently, the coherent-backscattering mechanism (CBM) has been introduced to explain the opposition effect. CBM is a multiple-scattering interference mechanism, where reciprocal waves propagating through the same scatterers in opposite directions always interfere constructively in the backward-scattering direction but with varying interference characteristics in other directions. In addition to CBM, mutual shadowing among regolith particles (SMp) and rough-surface shadowing (SMr) have their effect on the behavior of the observed lunar surface brightness. In order to accrue knowledge on the volume-element and, ultimately, single-scattering properties of the lunar regolith, both SMp and SMr need to be accurately accounted for. We included four

  17. An efficient hybrid method for scattering from arbitrary dielectric objects buried under a rough surface: TM case.

    PubMed

    Xu, Run-Wen; Guo, Li-Xin

    2014-03-24

    A hybrid method combining the finite element method (FEM) with the boundary integral equation (BIE) is presented in this paper to investigate two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic scattering properties of multiple dielectric objects buried beneath a dielectric rough ground for TM case. In traditional FEM simulation, the artificial boundaries, such as perfectly matched layer (PML) and the absorbing boundary conditions (ABC), are usually adopted as truncated boundaries to enclose the whole model. However, the enclosed computational domain increases quickly in size for a rough surface with a large scale, especially for the scattering model of objects away from the rough surface. In the hybrid FEM-BIE method, one boundary integral equation is adopt to depict the scattering above the rough surface based on Green's function. Based on the domain decomposition technique, the computational region below the rough ground is divided into multiple isolated interior regions containing each object and the exterior region. Finite element formulations are only applied inside interior regions to derive a set of linear systems, and another boundary integral formula is developed below the rough surface which also acts as the boundary constraint of the FEM region. Compared with traditional FEM, the hybrid technique presented here is highly efficient in terms of computational memory, time, and versatility. Numerical simulations are carried out based on hybrid FEM-BIE to study the scattering from multiple dielectric objects buried beneath a rough ground.

  18. Spectral Phonon Scattering from Sub-10 nm Surface Roughness Wavelengths in Metal-Assisted Chemically Etched Si Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ghossoub, MG; Valavala, KV; Seong, M; Azeredo, B; Hsu, K; Sadhu, JS; Singh, PK; Sinha, S

    2013-03-06

    Frequency dependence in phonon surface scattering is a debated topic in fundamental phonon physics. Recent experiments and theory suggest such a phenomenon, but an independent agreement between the two remains elusive. We report low-temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in silicon nanowires fabricated using a two-step, metal-assisted chemical etch. By reducing etch rates down to 0.5 nm/s from the typical >100 nm/s, we report controllable roughening of nanowire surfaces and selectively focus on moderate roughness scales rather than the extreme scales investigated previously. This critically enables direct comparison with perturbation-based spectral scattering theory. Using experimentally characterized surface roughness, we show that a multiple scattering theory provides excellent agreement and explanation of the observed low-temperature dependence of rough surface nanowires. The theory does not employ any fitting parameters. A 5-10 nm roughness correlation length is typical in metal-assisted chemical etching and resonantly scatters dominant phonons in silicon, leading to the observed similar to T1.6-2.4 behavior. Our work provides fundamental and quantitative insight into spectral phonon scattering from rough surfaces. This advances applications of nanowires in thermoelectric energy conversion.

  19. MOLA-derived Roughness Data Used to Predict Surface Scattering for Mars Subsurface Radar Sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, J. J.; Garneau, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Express orbiter, to be launched by the European Space Agency in 2003, will carry a low-frequency radar sounding instrument, MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding). The primary goal of MARSIS is to map the distribution of water, both solid and (if present) liquid, in the upper several km of the martian crust. Detecting discontinuities in the crust, such as an ice-water transition, presents many challenges for a Mars orbital radar sounder. One challenge that must be overcome is the presence of radar scattering (echoes) from the surface of Mars, expected to be detected by the sounder antennas at the same time as any echoes aris-ing from subsurface interfaces. As the transmitted spherical wavefront spreads within the crust of Mars,. it also interacts with surface topography at off-nadir positions, creating a "clutter" signal that can mask the subsurface echoes. The MARSIS instrument will utilize Doppler filtering to limit the off-nadir clutter in the along-track direction, and a nadir-null secondary antenna to identify strong off-nadir clutter from the cross-track direction. To evaluate the effects of off-nadir surface clutter and the capability of these schemes to reduce the clutter, it is necessary to predict the range of scattering behavior that may be expected from martian surface topography. In this paper, we utilize Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data from the current Mars Global Surveyor mission to characterize the topographic roughness of a variety of martian terrain types, at scales relevant to the MARSIS clutter problem. Segments of MOLA altimetry profiles are reduced to the topographic parameters rms slope and fractal dimension, which then are used as inputs to a near-nadir radar scattering model to predict the strength of the clutter signal. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Electromagnetic wave scattering at near-grazing incidence from a gently undulating, rough surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Sperley, E. J.; Zebker, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    Models to estimate the reflection coefficient of a statistically rough surface, for example the works of Beckmann, Smith, and Vesecky are discussed. Bistatic radar experiments carried out during the Apollo 16 mission provide a data set with which to compare theoretical models and experimental data. These bistatic S-band radar experiments provide experimental estimates of the Moon's bistatic, forward scatter, reflection coefficient for grazing angles of 2.5 to 78 deg. Theoretical expressions for the reflection coefficient are developed for comparison with these experimental data. At grazing angles below 10 deg the models of Smith and Vesecky compare favorably with the data. Beckmann's model falls significantly more rapidly with decreasing grazing angle than does the data.

  1. Electromagnetic wave scattering at near-grazing incidence from a gently undulating, rough surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Sperley, E. J.; Zebker, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    Models to estimate the reflection coefficient of a statistically rough surface, for example the works of Beckmann, Smith, and Vesecky are discussed. Bistatic radar experiments carried out during the Apollo 16 mission provide a data set with which to compare theoretical models and experimental data. These bistatic S-band radar experiments provide experimental estimates of the Moon's bistatic, forward scatter, reflection coefficient for grazing angles of 2.5 to 78 deg. Theoretical expressions for the reflection coefficient are developed for comparison with these experimental data. At grazing angles below 10 deg the models of Smith and Vesecky compare favorably with the data. Beckmann's model falls significantly more rapidly with decreasing grazing angle than does the data.

  2. Sound scattering from rough bubbly ocean surface based on modified sea surface acoustic simulator and consideration of various incident angles and sub-surface bubbles' radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolghasi, Alireza; Ghadimi, Parviz; Chekab, Mohammad A. Feizi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to improve the capabilities and precision of a recently introduced Sea Surface Acoustic Simulator (SSAS) developed based on optimization of the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff-Fresnel (HKF) method. The improved acoustic simulator, hereby known as the Modified SSAS (MSSAS), is capable of determining sound scattering from the sea surface and includes an extended Hall-Novarini model and optimized HKF method. The extended Hall-Novarini model is used for considering the effects of sub-surface bubbles over a wider range of radii of sub-surface bubbles compared to the previous SSAS version. Furthermore, MSSAS has the capability of making a three-dimensional simulation of scattered sound from the rough bubbly sea surface with less error than that of the Critical Sea Tests (CST) experiments. Also, it presents scattered pressure levels from the rough bubbly sea surface based on various incident angles of sound. Wind speed, frequency, incident angle, and pressure level of the sound source are considered as input data, and scattered pressure levels and scattering coefficients are provided. Finally, different parametric studies were conducted on wind speeds, frequencies, and incident angles to indicate that MSSAS is quite capable of simulating sound scattering from the rough bubbly sea surface, according to the scattering mechanisms determined by Ogden and Erskine. Therefore, it is concluded that MSSAS is valid for both scattering mechanisms and the transition region between them that are defined by Ogden and Erskine.

  3. The impact of surface-roughness scattering on the low-field electron mobility in nano-scale Si MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Gokula; Vasileska, Dragica

    2017-09-01

    A state-of-the-art simulator for the calculation of low-field mobility in inversion layers is presented in this work that accounts for the collisional broadening of the electronic states via the solution of the Dyson equation for the retarded Green's function. The self-consistent Born approximation is used for the calculation of the self-energy contributions due to Coulomb, surface-roughness, acoustic, and non-polar optical phonon scattering. The simulated mobility results for three generations of MOSFET devices are in agreement with the experimental data. At nanoscale dimensions, surface-roughness scattering dominates the collisional broadening of the states and the renormalization of the spectrum.

  4. A new approximate fast method of computing the scattering from multilayer rough surfaces based on the Kirchhoff approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jiasheng; Tong, Jian; Shi, Jian; Gui, Liangqi

    2017-02-01

    In this paper a new approximate fast method of calculating the bistatic-scattering coefficients of a multilayer structure with random rough interfaces was presented based on the Kirchhoff Approximation (KA) and the electromagnetic theory of stratified media. First, the electromagnetic scattering from a Gauss rough metal or dielectric surface was calculated by KA method and method of moment (MOM), and the effectiveness of KA method was confirmed and verified. Second, a new approximate fast method was presented to calculate electromagnetic scattering from a multilayer-random-rough surface based on electromagnetic reflection from multilayer parallel surfaces and KA. The calculated results by the new method were in good agreements with those by MOM, especially near the specular point. Finally, a comparison of the new method and MOM was carried out in consuming computing time, memory resources, and complexity. The comparison indicated that the new approximate method was faster by about 30-150 times than MOM. The new approximate fast method could avoid a large matrix inversion and greatly reduce the computation time and memory resources and thus improve the computational efficiency. It was an effective approximation fast analyzing method of electromagnetic scattering from multilayer rough surfaces.

  5. Elastic back-scattering patterns via particle surface roughness and orientation from single trapped airborne aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Richard; Wang, Chuji; Muñoz, Olga; Videen, Gorden; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Pan, Yong-Le

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for simultaneously measuring the back-scattering patterns and images of single laser-trapped airborne aerosol particles. This arrangement allows us to observe how the back-scattering patterns change with particle size, shape, surface roughness, orientation, etc. The recoded scattering patterns cover the angular ranges of θ=167.7-180° (including at 180° exactly) and ϕ=0-360° in spherical coordinates. The patterns show that the width of the average speckle intensity islands or rings is inversely proportional to particle size and how the shape of these intensity rings or islands also depends on the surface roughness. For an irregularly shaped particle with substantial roughness, the back-scattering patterns are formed with speckle intensity islands, the size and orientations of these islands depend more on the overall particle size and orientation, but have less relevance to the fine alteration of the surface structure and shapes. The back-scattering intensity at 180° is very sensitive to the particle parameters. It can change from a maximum to a minimum with a change of 0.1% in particle size or refractive index. The method has potential use in characterizing airborne aerosol particles, and may be used to provide back-scattering information for LIDAR applications.

  6. Numerical Solution of Light Scattered from and Transmitted through a Rough Dielectric Surface with Applications to Periodic Roughness and Isolated Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Wenbo; Videnn, Gorden; Lin, Bing; Hu, Yongxiang

    2007-01-01

    Light scattering and transmission by rough surfaces are of considerable interest in a variety of applications including remote sensing and characterization of surfaces. In this work, the finite-difference time domain technique is applied to calculate the scattered and transmitted electromagnetic fields of an infinite periodic rough surface. The elements of Mueller matrix for scattered light are calculated by an integral of the near fields over a significant number of periods of the surface. The normalized Mueller matrix elements of the scattered light and the spatial distribution of the transmitted flux for a monolayer of micron-sized dielectric spheres on a silicon substrate are presented. The numerical results show that the nonzero Mueller matrix elements of the system of the monolayer of dielectric spheres on a silicon substrate have specific maxima at some scattering angles. These maxima may be used in characterization of the feature of the system. For light transmitted through the monolayer of spheres, our results show that the transmitted energy focuses around the ray passing through centers of the spheres. At other locations, the transmitted flux is very small. The technique also may be used to calculate the perturbance of the electromagnetic field due to the presence of an isolated structure on the substrate.

  7. Investigation on wide-band scattering of a 2-D target above 1-D randomly rough surface by FDTD method.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Guo, Li-Xin; Jiao, Yong-Chang; Li, Ke

    2011-01-17

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with a pulse wave excitation is used to investigate the wide-band composite scattering from a two-dimensional(2-D) infinitely long target with arbitrary cross section located above a one-dimensional(1-D) randomly rough surface. The FDTD calculation is performed with a pulse wave incidence, and the 2-D representative time-domain scattered field in the far zone is obtained directly by extrapolating the currently calculated data on the output boundary. Then the 2-D wide-band scattering result is acquired by transforming the representative time-domain field to the frequency domain with a Fourier transform. Taking the composite scattering of an infinitely long cylinder above rough surface as an example, the wide-band response in the far zone by FDTD with the pulsed excitation is computed and it shows a good agreement with the numerical result by FDTD with the sinusoidal illumination. Finally, the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) from a 2-D target above 1-D rough surface versus the incident frequency, and the representative scattered fields in the far zone versus the time are analyzed in detail.

  8. Application of multiregion model to EM scattering from a dielectric target above or below a dielectric rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yiwen; Guo, Lixin

    2016-04-01

    This paper is aimed at applying the multiregion model to the composite EM scattering from a dielectric target and a dielectric rough surface. In the multiregion model, the rough surface is divided into multiple regions, the method of moment (MoM) is only adopted in the dominant region. Hence, this model can markedly reduce the number of unknowns. Firstly, we derived the single integral equation (SIE) in which the number of unknowns is half of those in the conventional MoM and the equations will be easier to deal with. Then the multiregion model is extended by SIE. With the multiregion model, one can obtain the accurate equivalent currents on the dominant region and accurate bistatic scattering coefficient in small and moderate scattering angles with much less time and memory requirement.

  9. Influence of skin surface roughness degree on energy characteristics of light scattered by a biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    We present the results of modelling of photometric characteristics of light in soft tissues illuminated by a parallel beam along the normal to the surface, obtained with allowance for the skin roughness parameters and the angular structure of radiation approaching the surface from within the tissue. The depth structure of the fluence rate and the spectra of the diffuse reflection of light by the tissue in the interval of wavelengths 300 - 1000 nm are considered. We discuss the influence of the tilt angle variance of rough surface microelements and light refraction on the studied characteristics. It is shown that these factors lead to the reduction of the radiation flux only in the near-surface tissue layer and practically do not affect the depth of light penetration into the tissue. On the other hand, the degree of the surface roughness and the conditions of its illumination from within the tissue essentially affect the coefficient of diffuse reflection of light and lead to its considerable growth compared to the cases of a smooth interface and completely diffuse illumination, often considered to simplify the theoretical problem solution. The role of the roughness of skin surface is assessed in application to the solution of different direct and inverse problems of biomedical optics.

  10. The relationship between radar scattering and surface roughness of lunar volcanic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawin, Erica R.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Bussey, D. Benjamin J.; Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Dyar, M. Darby; Lawrence, Samuel J.; Spudis, Paul D.

    2014-11-01

    Lunar roughness measurements derived from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter are compared to 12.6 cm wavelength radar data collected by the Miniature Radio Frequency instrument and 70 cm wavelength radar data collected by the Arecibo Observatory. These data are compared to assess how surface and subsurface roughness are correlated and affected by parameters including age and composition at length scales between 0.1 and 100 m. A range of features are analyzed including volcanic domes (Marius Hills, Rümker Hills, Gruithuisen, and Mairan Domes); mare (Imbrium, Serenitatis, and Oceanus Procellarum); pyroclastic dark mantle deposits (Sinus Aestuum, Sulpicius Gallus, and Mare Vaporum); and two young craters (Copernicus and Tycho). Statistically significant positive correlations exist between topographic roughness and both P- and S-band circular polarization ratios. The strongest correlation is observed at the longest length scales. Correlations weaken as length scales become less similar, potentially due to distinct processes controlling surface modification. Roughness is not significantly correlated with local slope. Although the Marius Hills are compositionally distinct from the Gruithuisen and Mairan domes, they are indistinguishable in roughness characteristics. Conversely, the Rümker Hills, mare, and dark mantle deposits are smoother at the length scales examined, possibly due to fine-grained mantling of regolith or pyroclastic deposits. The floor and ejecta of Tycho are the roughest surfaces measured in this study, while the floor and ejecta of Copernicus overlap the roughness distribution of the volcanic features. This study shows that many factors control the evolution of roughness over time on various length scales.

  11. A theoretical and numerical study of polarimetric scattering and emission from random rough surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, theoretical and numerical results of the polarimetric scattering and emission from random rough surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum are presented for the remote sensing of ocean and soil surfaces. The polarimetric scattered field for rough dielectric surfaces is derived to the second order by the small perturbation method (SPM). It is found that the second-order scattered field is coherent in nature, and its coefficients for different polarizations present the lowest-order corrections to the Fresnel reflection coefficients of the surfaces. In addition, the cross-polarized (HV and VH) components of the coherent fields are reciprocal and not zero for surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum when the azimuth angle of the incident direction is not aligned with the symmetry directions of surfaces. In order to verify the energy conservation condition of the theoretical results, which is important if the theory is to be applied to the passive polarimetry of rough surfaces, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to numerically calculate the polarimetric reflectivities of one-dimensional random rough surfaces which are generated with a prescribed power-law spectrum in the spectral domain and transformed to the spatial domain by the FFT. The surfaces simulated by this approach are periodic with the period corresponding to the low-wavenumber cutoff. To calculate the scattering from periodic dielectric surfaces, the authors present a new numerical technique which applies the Floquet theorem to reduce the problem to one period and does not require the evaluation of one-dimensional periodic Green's function used in the conventional method of moment formulation. Once the scattering coefficients are obtained, the polarimetric Stokes vectors for the emission from the random surfaces are then calculated according to the Kirchhoff's law and are illustrated as functions of relative azimuth observation and row directions. The second-order SPM is also

  12. Using waveguide scattering of laser radiation for determining the autocorrelation function of statistical surface roughness within a wide range of changes of the roughness correlation interval

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Alexander A

    2002-04-30

    An electrodynamic problem of laser radiation scattering in an integrated-optical waveguide containing small statistical irregularities (interface roughness and irregularities of the refractive indices of the waveguide-forming media) is considered. The possibility of using the waveguide scattering of laser radiation for extracting the information on the statistical properties of irregularities from noisy data of the scattering diagram in a far-field zone is shown. An algorithm for reconstructing the autocorrelation function of irregularities for the correlation interval changing within a wide range is described. The possibility of restoring a given Gaussian autocorrelation function that describes statistical irregularities of the waveguide substrate surface for a correlation interval changing between 10 nm and 10 {mu}m and a high-level additive white real noise is shown by computer simulation. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. Azimuthal-order variations of surface-roughness-induced mode splitting and scattering loss in high-Q microdisk resonators.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Eftekhar, Ali A; Xia, Zhixuan; Adibi, Ali

    2012-05-01

    We report an experimental observation of strong variations of quality factor and mode splitting among whispering-gallery modes with the same radial order and different azimuthal orders in a scattering-limited microdisk resonator. A theoretical analysis based on the statistical properties of the surface roughness reveals that mode splittings for different azimuthal orders are uncorrelated, and variations of mode splitting and quality factor among the same radial mode family are possible. Simulation results agree well with the experimental observations.

  14. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from two-dimensional rough surfaces with an impedance approximation.

    PubMed

    Soriano, G; Saillard, M

    2001-01-01

    The sparse-matrix-flat-surface iterative approach has been implemented for perfectly conducting surfaces and modified to enhance convergence stability and speed for very rough surfaces. Monte Carlo simulations of backscattering enhancement using a beam decomposition technique are compared with millimeter-wave laboratory experimental data. Strong but finite conductivity for metals or thin skin depth for dielectrics is simulated by an impedance approximation. This gives rise to a nonhypersingular integral equation derived from the magnetic field integral equation. The effect of finite conductivity for a metal at visible wavelengths is shown.

  15. Physical optics solution for the scattering of a partially-coherent wave from a statistically rough material surface.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Milo W; Basu, Santasri; Spencer, Mark F; Cusumano, Salvatore J; Fiorino, Steven T

    2013-03-25

    The scattering of a partially-coherent wave from a statistically rough material surface is investigated via derivation of the scattered field cross-spectral density function. Two forms of the cross-spectral density are derived using the physical optics approximation. The first is applicable to smooth-to-moderately rough surfaces and is a complicated expression of source and surface parameters. Physical insight is gleaned from its analytical form and presented in this work. The second form of the cross-spectral density function is applicable to very rough surfaces and is remarkably physical. Its form is discussed at length and closed-form expressions are derived for the angular spectral degree of coherence and spectral density radii. Furthermore, it is found that, under certain circumstances, the cross-spectral density function maintains a Gaussian Schell-model form. This is consistent with published results applicable only in the paraxial regime. Lastly, the closed-form cross-spectral density functions derived here are rigorously validated with scatterometer measurements and full-wave electromagnetic and physical optics simulations. Good agreement is noted between the analytical predictions and the measured and simulated results.

  16. Measurements of surface roughness: use of a CCD camera to correlate doubly scattered speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basano, Lorenzo; Leporatti, Stefano; Ottonello, Pasquale; Palestini, Valeria; Rolandi, Ranieri

    1995-11-01

    We describe an instrument, built around a commercial CCD camera and some fast image-processing boards, that evaluates roughness height by measuring the average size of doubly scattered speckle patterns. The device is a variant of a recent proposal that was based on the use of a spatial modulator to perform the Fourier transform of a speckle image. In the present setup, the Fourier transform is replaced by the direct evaluation of a second-order correlation function. Strictly speaking, the device proposed in this paper is not a real-time device but its response time (approximately 10 s) is sufficiently short to be of practical value for many applications. Updated CCD cameras that will significantly improve the performance of our prototype are already on the market.

  17. Measurements of surface roughness: use of a CCD camera to correlate doubly scattered speckle patterns.

    PubMed

    Basano, L; Leporatti, S; Ottonello, P; Palestini, V; Rolandi, R

    1995-11-01

    We describe an instrument, built around a commercial CCD camera and some fast image-processing boards, that evaluates roughness height by measuring the average size of doubly scattered speckle patterns. The device is a variant of a recent proposal that was based on the use of a spatial modulator to perform the Fourier transform of a speckle image. In the present setup, the Fourier transform is replaced by the direct evaluation of a second-order correlation function. Strictly speaking, the device proposed in this paper is not a real-time device but its response time (approximately 10 s) is sufficiently short to be of practical value for many applications. Updated CCD cameras that will significantly improve the performance of our prototype are already on the market.

  18. Examination of Surface Roughness on Light Scattering by Long Ice Columns by Use of a Two-Dimensional Finite-Difference Time-Domain Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, W.; Loeb, N. G.; Videen, G.; Fu, Q.

    2004-01-01

    Natural particles such as ice crystals in cirrus clouds generally are not pristine but have additional micro-roughness on their surfaces. A two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) program with a perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary condition is developed to calculate the effect of surface roughness on light scattering by long ice columns. When we use a spatial cell size of 1/120 incident wavelength for ice circular cylinders with size parameters of 6 and 24 at wavelengths of 0.55 and 10.8 mum, respectively, the errors in the FDTD results in the extinction, scattering, and absorption efficiencies are smaller than similar to 0.5%. The errors in the FDTD results in the asymmetry factor are smaller than similar to 0.05%. The errors in the FDTD results in the phase-matrix elements are smaller than similar to 5%. By adding a pseudorandom change as great as 10% of the radius of a cylinder, we calculate the scattering properties of randomly oriented rough-surfaced ice columns. We conclude that, although the effect of small surface roughness on light scattering is negligible, the scattering phase-matrix elements change significantly for particles with large surface roughness. The roughness on the particle surface can make the conventional phase function smooth. The most significant effect of the surface roughness is the decay of polarization of the scattered light.

  19. Examination of Surface Roughness on Light Scattering by Long Ice Columns by Use of a Two-Dimensional Finite-Difference Time-Domain Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, W.; Loeb, N. G.; Videen, G.; Fu, Q.

    2004-01-01

    Natural particles such as ice crystals in cirrus clouds generally are not pristine but have additional micro-roughness on their surfaces. A two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) program with a perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary condition is developed to calculate the effect of surface roughness on light scattering by long ice columns. When we use a spatial cell size of 1/120 incident wavelength for ice circular cylinders with size parameters of 6 and 24 at wavelengths of 0.55 and 10.8 mum, respectively, the errors in the FDTD results in the extinction, scattering, and absorption efficiencies are smaller than similar to 0.5%. The errors in the FDTD results in the asymmetry factor are smaller than similar to 0.05%. The errors in the FDTD results in the phase-matrix elements are smaller than similar to 5%. By adding a pseudorandom change as great as 10% of the radius of a cylinder, we calculate the scattering properties of randomly oriented rough-surfaced ice columns. We conclude that, although the effect of small surface roughness on light scattering is negligible, the scattering phase-matrix elements change significantly for particles with large surface roughness. The roughness on the particle surface can make the conventional phase function smooth. The most significant effect of the surface roughness is the decay of polarization of the scattered light.

  20. Scale Model Experiments on the Diffraction and Scattering of Sound by Geometrical Step Discontinuities and Curved Rough Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, James Patrick

    Two canonical problems of outdoor sound propagation have been studied in detail: (1) the propagation of sound over a rigid surface with a step discontinuity in height with the step height comparable to an acoustic wavelength and (2) the propagation of sound over a curved rough surface with a radius of curvature much greater than the acoustic wavelength and with a roughness scale smaller than the acoustic wavelength. For the first problem, it is shown that the Biot -Tolstoy-Medwin model for a rigid 90^circ wedge (H. Medwin, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 69(4) 1060-1064 (1981)) can be used to predict the acoustic field around the step discontinuity directly in the time domain. Experiments carried out with a transient acoustic spark source confirm that: (1) in the region where there are no reflected waves, diffracted waves combine with the diffracted-reflected waves to produce a smooth transition; (2) the acoustic field around the step discontinuity can be highly directional due to the interference of the direct, the reflected, the diffracted, and the diffracted-reflected waves; and (3) the acoustic field is essentially unchanged if the step discontinuity is replaced with a smooth edged step discontinuity whose radius of curvature is less than the characteristic wavelength of the incident sound. For the second problem, experiments show that the Biot-Tolstoy-Medwin model for flat rough surfaces (H. Medwin, G.L. D'Spain, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79(3) 657-665 (1986)), which is valid for densely packed, steep-sloped elements and at grazing sound incidence, describes qualitatively the two major effects associated with the diffraction and scattering of sound by a curved rough surface. The first effect is that surface roughness leads to the formation of a "boundary wave" in the fluid in a layer above the surface that channels more sound into the shadow zone behind the curved surface in the form of a "creeping boundary wave". The second important effect is that surface roughness also

  1. Influence of surface roughness on the elastic-light scattering patterns of micron-sized aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, J.-C.; Fernandes, G. E.; Aptowicz, K. B.; Pan, Y.-L.; Chang, R. K.

    2010-04-01

    The relation between the surface roughness of aerosol particles and the appearance of island-like features in their angle-resolved elastic-light scattering patterns is investigated both experimentally and with numerical simulation. Elastic scattering patterns of polystyrene spheres, Bacillus subtilis spores and cells, and NaCl crystals are measured and statistical properties of the island-like intensity features in their patterns are presented. The island-like features for each class of particle are found to be similar; however, principal-component analysis applied to extracted features is able to differentiate between some of the particle classes. Numerically calculated scattering patterns of Chebyshev particles and aggregates of spheres are analyzed and show qualitative agreement with experimental results.

  2. Light scattering by a rough surface of human skin. 1. The luminance factor of reflected light

    SciTech Connect

    Barun, V V; Ivanov, A P

    2013-08-31

    Based on the analytical solution of Maxwell's equations, we have studied the angular structure of the luminance factor of light reflected by the rough skin surface with large-scale relief elements, illuminated by a directed radiation beam incident at an arbitrary angle inside or outside the medium. The parameters of the surface inhomogeneities are typical of human skin. The calculated angular dependences are interpreted from the point of view of the angular distribution function of micro areas. The results obtained can be used for solving direct and inverse problems in biomedical optics, in particular for determining the depth of light penetration into a biological tissue, for studying the light action spectra on tissue chromophores under the in vivo conditions, for developing diagnostic methods of structural and biophysical parameters of a medium, and for optimising the mechanisms of interaction of light with biological tissues under their noninvasive irradiation through skin. (biomedical optics)

  3. Light scattering by a rough surface of human skin. 1. The luminance factor of reflected light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2013-08-01

    Based on the analytical solution of Maxwell's equations, we have studied the angular structure of the luminance factor of light reflected by the rough skin surface with large-scale relief elements, illuminated by a directed radiation beam incident at an arbitrary angle inside or outside the medium. The parameters of the surface inhomogeneities are typical of human skin. The calculated angular dependences are interpreted from the point of view of the angular distribution function of micro areas. The results obtained can be used for solving direct and inverse problems in biomedical optics, in particular for determining the depth of light penetration into a biological tissue, for studying the light action spectra on tissue chromophores under the in vivo conditions, for developing diagnostic methods of structural and biophysical parameters of a medium, and for optimising the mechanisms of interaction of light with biological tissues under their noninvasive irradiation through skin.

  4. Determination of the normalized surface height autocorrelation function of a two-dimensional randomly rough dielectric surface by the inversion of light scattering data in p-polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryvi, J. B.; Simonsen, I.; Maradudin, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The contribution to the mean differential reflection coefficient from the in-plane, co-polarized scattering of p- polarized light from a two-dimensional randomly rough dielectric surface is used to invert scattering data to obtain the normalized surface height autocorrelation function of the surface. Within phase perturbation theory this contribution to the mean differential reflection coefficient possesses singularities (poles) when the polar scattering angle θs equals +/-θB= +/- tan-1√E, where E is the dielectric constant of the dielectric medium and θB is the Brewster angle. Nevertheless, we show in this paper that if the mean differential reflection coefficient is measured only in the angular range |θs| < θB, these data can be inverted to yield accurate results for the normalized surface height correlation function for weakly rough surfaces. Several parameterized forms of this correlation function, and the minimization of a cost function with respect to the parameters defining these representations, are used in the inversion scheme. This approach also yields the rms height of the surface roughness, and the dielectric constant of the scattering medium if it is not known in advance. The input data used in this minimization procedure consist of computer simulation results for surfaces defined by exponential and Gaussian surface height correlation functions, without and with the addition of multiplicative noise. The proposed inversion scheme is computationally efficient.

  5. Fast Numerical Algorithms for 3-D Scattering from PEC and Dielectric Random Rough Surfaces in Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lisha

    We present fast and robust numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from perfectly electrical conducting (PEC) and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing. The Coifman wavelets or Coiflets are employed to implement Galerkin's procedure in the method of moments (MoM). Due to the high-precision one-point quadrature, the Coiflets yield fast evaluations of the most off-diagonal entries, reducing the matrix fill effort from O(N2) to O( N). The orthogonality and Riesz basis of the Coiflets generate well conditioned impedance matrix, with rapid convergence for the conjugate gradient solver. The resulting impedance matrix is further sparsified by the matrix-formed standard fast wavelet transform (SFWT). By properly selecting multiresolution levels of the total transformation matrix, the solution precision can be enhanced while matrix sparsity and memory consumption have not been noticeably sacrificed. The unified fast scattering algorithm for dielectric random rough surfaces can asymptotically reduce to the PEC case when the loss tangent grows extremely large. Numerical results demonstrate that the reduced PEC model does not suffer from ill-posed problems. Compared with previous publications and laboratory measurements, good agreement is observed.

  6. A laboratory study of the electromagnetic bias of rough surface scattering by water waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Chester L.; Miller, Lee S.

    1990-01-01

    The design, development, and use of a focused-beam radar to measure the electromagnetic bias introduced by the scattering of radar waves by a roughened water surface are discussed. The bias measurements were made over wide ranges of environmental conditions in a wavetank laboratory. Wave-elevation data were provided by standard laboratory capacitance probes. Backscattered radar power measurements coincident in time and space with the elevation data were produced by the radar. The two data sets are histogrammed to produce probability density functions for elevation and radar reflectivity, from which the electromagnetic bias is computed. The experimental results demonstrate that the electromagnetic bias is quite variable over the wide range of environmental conditions that can be produced in the laboratory. The data suggest that the bias is dependent upon the local wind field and on the amplitude and frequency of any background wave field that is present.

  7. Fast numerical method for electromagnetic scattering from an object above a large-scale layered rough surface at large incident angle: vertical polarization.

    PubMed

    Wang, A-Q; Guo, L-X; Chai, C

    2011-02-01

    A fast numerical method has been proposed in this paper for calculating the electromagnetic scattering from a perfectly electric conducting object above a two-layered dielectric rough surface. The focus in this study is large incidence. The parallel fast multipole method is combined with the method of moments for fast implementation of the scattering from this composite model. The biconjugate gradient method is adopted to solve the unsymmetrical matrix equation and parallelized. The simulating time and parallel speedup ratio with different processors are provided. Several numerical results are shown and analyzed to discuss the influences of the parameters of the rough surface, the object, and the intermediate medium on the bistatic scattering.

  8. The scattering of partially coherent electromagnetic beam illumination from a statistically rough surface modeled as a perfect electrical conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Mark F.; Hyde, Milo W.; Basu, Santasri; Marciniak, Michael A.

    2014-09-01

    When using active-illumination systems for directed-energy and remote-sensing applications, more often than not a highly coherent laser beam propagates from the source through the atmosphere resulting in partially coherent beam illumination on the target. Interestingly enough, not much literature exists pertaining to the scattering of partially coherent light from rough surfaces. In an effort to bridge this gap, this paper develops a wave-optics simulation approach to the problem at hand. Specifically, the analysis uses two separate phase screens. The first phase screen is located in the source plane and accounts for the size and coherence properties of the incident illumination. Through multiple phase-screen realizations and far field-field propagation from the source plane to the target plane, the first phase screen allows for the generation of spatially partially coherent beam illumination with a Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) form. The second phase screen is located in the target plane and accounts for the surface parameters, i.e., the surface height standard deviation and correlation length. Through multiple phase-screen realizations in the target plane and far field-field propagation to the observation plane, the second phase screen accounts for the interaction of the incident GSM beam with a perfectly reflecting rough surface. This allows for the formulation of the average scattered irradiance and normalized autocorrelation function in the far field. Initial results show that this wave-optics simulation approach compares well with a previously validated 2D scalar-equivalent solution [Hyde et al., Opt. Express 21, 6807 (2013)].

  9. Bistatic scattering from a three-dimensional object above a two-dimensional randomly rough surface modeled with the parallel FDTD approach.

    PubMed

    Guo, L-X; Li, J; Zeng, H

    2009-11-01

    We present an investigation of the electromagnetic scattering from a three-dimensional (3-D) object above a two-dimensional (2-D) randomly rough surface. A Message Passing Interface-based parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach is used, and the uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) medium is adopted for truncation of the FDTD lattices, in which the finite-difference equations can be used for the total computation domain by properly choosing the uniaxial parameters. This makes the parallel FDTD algorithm easier to implement. The parallel performance with different number of processors is illustrated for one rough surface realization and shows that the computation time of our parallel FDTD algorithm is dramatically reduced relative to a single-processor implementation. Finally, the composite scattering coefficients versus scattered and azimuthal angle are presented and analyzed for different conditions, including the surface roughness, the dielectric constants, the polarization, and the size of the 3-D object.

  10. Specular Scattering of Acoustic Waves from a Rough Surface in the Fraunhofer and Fresnel Approximations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-01-01

    REFERENCE SIGNA TYPE 564BADAS OSCILLOSCOPE AMLFE I TRIGGER KROHN-HIITE GENERAL RADIO CO. MODEL 4100 TYPE 1396-A OSCILLATOR TONE BURST GENE RATOR...parameter is less than one, C. Application of Model Studies to Ocean and Shallow Water Studies The slant line distance from the source to the scattering

  11. Surface Roughness Impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady

    2000-12-21

    The next generation of linac-based free electron lasers will use very short bunches with a large peak current. For such beams, the impedance caused by submicron imperfections in the vacuum beam tube may generate an additional energy spread within the bunch. A review of two mechanisms of the roughness impedance is given with the emphasis on the importance of the high-aspect ratio property of the real surface roughness.

  12. Numerical calculation of light scattering from metal and dielectric randomly rough Gaussian surfaces using microfacet slope probability density function based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shouyu; Xue, Liang; Yan, Keding

    2017-07-01

    Light scattering from randomly rough surfaces is of great significance in various fields such as remote sensing and target identification. As numerical methods can obtain scattering distributions without complex setups and complicated operations, they become important tools in light scattering study. However, most of them suffer from huge computing load and low operating efficiency, limiting their applications in dynamic measurements and high-speed detections. Here, to overcome these disadvantages, microfacet slope probability density function based method is presented, providing scattering information without computing ensemble average from numerous scattered fields, thus it can obtain light scattering distributions with extremely fast speed. Additionally, it can reach high-computing accuracy quantitatively certificated by mature light scattering computing algorithms. It is believed the provided approach is useful in light scattering study and offers potentiality for real-time detections.

  13. Study of electromagnetic scattering from randomly rough ocean-like surfaces using integral-equation-based numerical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toporkov, Jakov V.

    A numerical study of electromagnetic scattering by one-dimensional perfectly conducting randomly rough surfaces with an ocean-like Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum is presented. Simulations are based on solving the Magnetic Field Integral Equation (MFIE) using the numerical technique called the Method of Ordered Multiple Interactions (MOMI). The study focuses on the application and validation of this integral equation-based technique to scattering at low grazing angles and considers other aspects of numerical simulations crucial to obtaining correct results in the demanding low grazing angle regime. It was found that when the MFIE propagator matrix is used with zeros on its diagonal (as has often been the practice) the results appear to show an unexpected sensitivity to the sampling interval. This sensitivity is especially pronounced in the case of horizontal polarization and at low grazing angles. We show---both numerically and analytically---that the problem lies not with the particular numerical technique used (MOMI) but rather with how the MFIE is discretized. It is demonstrated that the inclusion of so-called "curvature terms" (terms that arise from a correct discretization procedure and are proportional to the second surface derivative) in the diagonal of the propagator matrix eliminates the problem completely. A criterion for the choice of the sampling interval used in discretizing the MFIE based on both electromagnetic wavelength and the surface spectral cutoff is established. The influence of the surface spectral cutoff value on the results of scattering simulations is investigated and a recommendation for the choice of this spectral cutoff for numerical simulation purposes is developed. Also studied is the applicability of the tapered incident field at low grazing incidence angles. It is found that when a Gaussian-like taper with fixed beam waist is used there is a characteristic pattern (anomalous jump) in the calculated average backscattered cross section at

  14. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Intensity Correlation Function of Light Scattering from a Weakly One-Dimensional Random Rough Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhen-Sen; Zhang, Geng

    2009-11-01

    Based on the Kirchhoff approximation and Gaussian moment theorem, we present a general expression of the intensity correlation scattered from a weakly one-dimensional rough surface, which is applicable to the cases by either two different wavelengths or two different angles of incidence. By using a Gaussian surface model, we give the numerical results for the intensity correlation function with two different wavelengths specially. The results show that with the increasing surface roughness and the decreasing surface correlation length, the correlation function decreases in specular direction and increases in other directions, which indicates that the study of the correlation of the intensities is helpful when investigating the statistical parameters of rough objects. Also the results show that the increase of rms roughness can result in the narrower correlation bandwidth.

  15. Light Scattering from Rough Surfaces. Appendix. Angular Correlation of Speckle Patterns. Draft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    image is beCtween 50000 anmd 650,00 (thme maxinnanin valuic attainable be-ing 05,535). Thtis mecans thai as the intensitIy chmaiigcs. over the range...length of tei gradients (found by Newton -Raphsoi. iteration), is approximately given by)_ Ts, .z 0.5110.1r (5.27) i.e., for a surface wvith a correlation

  16. Backscattering from a randomly rough dielectric surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Adrian K.; Li, Zongqian; Chen, K. S.

    1992-01-01

    A backscattering model for scattering from a randomly rough dielectric surface is developed based on an approximate solution of a pair of integral equations for the tangential surface fields. Both like and cross-polarized scattering coefficients are obtained. It is found that the like polarized scattering coefficients contain two types of terms: single scattering terms and multiple scattering terms. The single scattering terms in like polarized scattering are shown to reduce the first-order solutions derived from the small perturbation method when the roughness parameters satisfy the slightly rough conditions. When surface roughnesses are large but the surface slope is small, only a single scattering term corresponding to the standard Kirchhoff model is significant. If the surface slope is large, the multiple scattering term will also be significant. The cross-polarized backscattering coefficients satisfy reciprocity and contain only multiple scattering terms. The difference between vertical and horizontal scattering coefficients is found to increase with the dielectric constant and is generally smaller than that predicted by the first-order small perturbation model. Good agreements are obtained between this model and measurements from statistically known surfaces.

  17. Optical Roughness Measurements Of Industrial Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilsinn, David; Vorburger, Theodore; Cao, Lin-Xiang; Giauque, Charles; Scire, Fredric; Teague, E. Clayton

    1986-10-01

    This paper reviews our efforts to develop the theory and instrumentation needed to measure surface roughness of manufactured surfaces by optical scattering methods. We are addressing three key problems: developing a valid and sufficient optical scattering theory for this roughness range, applying appropriate mathematical inversion techniques so that practical roughness parameters can be calculated from scattering distributions, and finally evaluating a compact commercial instrument for a wide variety of problems. Recent results from our group suggest that the simple phase screen approximation model of optical scattering validly describes light scattering from machined metal surfaces with a predominant surface lay in the 0.01 pm R to 3.0 pm R range. A model for scattering in the entire farr-field hemisphere and obsera vations on our r approach to the inverse problem is given.

  18. A rough earth scattering model for multipath prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, L. J.; Chestnut, P. C.

    1970-01-01

    The most important phenomena to be considered in a model of radio wave communication between earth satellites are scattering from the surface of the earth. A model is derived and implemented on a computer to predict the field received after reflection from a rough, spherical earth. The scattering integrals are computed numerically; the domain of integration is the appropriate region on the surface of the earth. Calculations have been performed at VHF frequencies and for terrain which could be described as marshy land. Rough surface scattering calculations must be performed over a spherical earth when satellites are involved. There is a definite dependence on the values of the roughness, and the correlation length.

  19. Study of the blue-green laser scattering from the rough sea surface with foams by the improved two-scale method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangzhen; Qi, Xiao; Han, Xiang'e.

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of laser scattering from sea surface have a great influence on application performance, from submarine communication, laser detection to laser diffusion communication. Foams will appear when the wind speed exceeds a certain value, so the foam can be seen everywhere in the upper layer of the ocean. Aiming at the volume-surface composite model of rough sea surface with foam layer driven by wind, and the similarities and differences of scattering characteristics between blue-green laser and microwave, an improved two-scale method for blue-green laser to calculate the scattering coefficient is presented in this paper. Based on the improved two-scale rough surface scattering theory, MIE theory and VRT( vector radiative transfer ) theory, the relations between the foam coverage of the sea surface and wind speed and air-sea temperature difference are analyzed. Aiming at the Gauss sea surface in blue-green laser, the dependence of back- and bistatie-scattering coefficient on the incident and azimuth angle, the coverage of foams, as well as the wind speed are discussed in detail. The results of numerical simulations are compared and analyzed in this paper. It can be concluded that the foam layer has a considerable effect on the laser scattering with the increase of wind speed, especially for a large incident angle. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the improved two-scale method is reasonable and efficient.

  20. Surface roughness and runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Judit Alexandra; Szabó, Boglárka; Centeri, Csaba; Józsa, Sándor; Szalai, Zoltán; Jakab, Gergely

    2017-04-01

    Soil surface conditions changes dynamically during a precipitation event. The changes involve compaction, aggregate detachment and of course transportation by runoff or drop erosion. Those processes together have an effect on the transport process of the soil particles and aggregates, and influences the roughness of the soil surface as well. How does surface roughness have an effect on the aggregate and particle size distribution of the sediment? How does the sediment connectivity change from precipitation event to precipitation event? Beside the previous questions on of the main aim of the present research is to apply rainfall simulators for the built-up of a complex approach, rather than to concentrate only on one of two factors. Hence four types of sample were collected during the simulation experiment sequences: 1) photos were taken about the surface before and after the rain, in order to build digital surface models; 2) all the runoff and eroded sediment was collected; 3) soil loss due to drop erosion was also sampled separately; and 4) undisturbed crust samples were collected for thin section analyses. Though the runoff ratio was smaller than what, the preliminary results suggest that the sediment connectivity covered bigger area on crusty surface, than on a rough one. These ambiguous data may be connected to the soil crust development. J. A. Szabó wish to acknowledge the support of NTP-NFTÖ-16-0203. G. Jakab wish to acknowledge the support of János Bolyai Fellowship.

  1. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from 3D multilayer random rough surfaces based on the second-order small perturbation method: energy conservation, reflectivity, and emissivity.

    PubMed

    Sanamzadeh, Mohammadreza; Tsang, Leung; Johnson, Joel T; Burkholder, Robert J; Tan, Shurun

    2017-03-01

    A theoretical investigation of energy conservation, reflectivity, and emissivity in the scattering of electromagnetic waves from 3D multilayer media with random rough interfaces using the second-order small perturbation method (SPM2) is presented. The approach is based on the extinction theorem and develops integral equations for surface fields in the spectral domain. Using the SPM2, we calculate the scattered and transmitted coherent fields and incoherent fields. Reflected and transmitted powers are then found in the form of 2D integrations over wavenumber in the spectral domain. In the integrand, there is a summation over the spectral densities of each of the rough interfaces with each weighted by a corresponding kernel function. We show in this paper that there exists a "strong" condition of energy conservation in that the kernel functions multiplying the spectral density of each interface obey energy conservation exactly. This means that energy is conserved independent of the roughness spectral densities of the rough surfaces. Results of this strong condition are illustrated numerically for up to 50 rough interfaces without requiring specification of surface roughness properties. Two examples are illustrated. One is a multilayer configuration having weak contrasts between adjacent layers, random layer thicknesses, and randomly generated permittivity profiles. The second example is a photonic crystal of periodically alternating permittivities of larger dielectric contrast. The methodology is applied to study the effect of roughness on the brightness temperatures of the Antarctic ice sheet, which is characterized by layers of ice with permittivity fluctuations in addition to random rough interfaces. The results show that the influence of roughness can significantly increase horizontally polarized thermal emission while leaving vertically polarized emissions relatively unaffected.

  2. Polarimetric scattering behavior of rough dielectric materials at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digiovanni, David Anthony

    Technologies in the terahertz region of the spectrum are finding increased usage in areas such as communications, remote sensing, and imaging, For example, driven by the promise of greater data transfer rates, free-space communication that traditionally operate in the radio and microwave bands are being developed at terahertz frequencies. Successful transition of communication systems to higher frequencies, particularly for systems located in indoor or urban environments, will require a thorough understanding of the reflection, transmission, absorption, and scattering behavior of a wide variety of materials and surface types. Scattering properties of rough surfaces have been studied extensively at radio and microwave frequencies, however, such properties have only recently become of interest at higher frequencies. The goal of this thesis was to develop a better understanding of electromagnetic scattering from dielectric rough surfaces at millimeter wavelengths and terahertz frequencies. This goal was achieved by measuring the polarimetric scattering behavior of dielectric materials and comparing the measured data to predictions made by rough surface scattering theory. The dielectric properties and the roughness of the samples were tailored in order to provide a controlled parameter space to investigate. Fully polarimetric radar imagery of the rough surfaces were acquired at 160 GHz, 240 GHz, and 1.55 THz. The backscattering measurements were collected as a function of polarization, incident angle, and frequency. The applicability of various rough surface scattering theories was determined for the different roughness regimes studied.

  3. Polarized light diffusely scattered under smooth and rough interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germer, Thomas A.

    2003-12-01

    We develop models for light scattering appropriate for glossy and matte paints. Volume scattering is treated in the single scattering regime and the diffusive scattering regime. In the single scattering regime, scattering is treated in the Rayleigh-Gans approximation, using a Henyey-Greenstein phase function. Interaction of the light with the smooth or rough interface is treated in the facet approximation. The theory for transmissive light scattering by a rough interface in the facet approximation is presented. To treat volume scattering under a rough interface, a Monte Carlo approach is used, where light is allowed to interact with the surface twice, once upon entering the material and once upon exiting. We compare the polarization and intensity predicted by the models with experimental data from glossy and matte paint samples. The results indicate that the new models are an improvement over the Maxwell-Beard model.

  4. Reconstruction of scattering properties of rough air-dielectric boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V. G.; Zhdanov, D. D.; Potemin, I. S.; Garbul, A. A.; Voloboy, A. G.; Galaktionov, V. A.; Kirilov, N.

    2016-10-01

    The article is devoted to elaboration of the method of reconstruction of rough surface scattering properties. The object with rough surface is made of transparent dielectric material. Typically these properties are described with bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF). Direct measurement of such function is either impossible or very expensive. The suggested solution provides physically reasonable method for the rough surface BSDF reconstruction. The method is based on Monte-Carlo ray tracing simulation for BSDF calculation. Optimization technique is further applied to correctly reconstruct the BSDF. The results of the BSDF reconstruction together with measurement results are presented in the article as well.

  5. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements by Brian Stanton, William Coburn, and Thomas J. Pizzillo ARL-TR-3498 April 2005... Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements Brian Stanton, William Coburn and Thomas J. Pizzillo Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...October 2004 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  6. Reconstruction of the experimental autocorrelation function and determination of the parameters of the statistical roughness of a surface from laser radiation scattering in an integrated-optical waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Aleksei A

    2003-04-30

    The possibility of using the waveguide scattering of laser radiation for obtaining information on the statistical properties of irregularities from the noisy data obtained in the far-field zone is shown. A complex algorithm for reconstructing the experimental autocorrelation function of the surface roughness of an integrated-optical waveguide substrate is described. This algorithm is based on a combination of the classical regularisation and quasi-optimal filtering. (waveguides)

  7. Improved surface-roughness scattering and mobility models for multi-gate FETs with arbitrary cross-section and biasing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizzit, D.; Badami, O.; Specogna, R.; Esseni, D.

    2017-06-01

    We present a new model for surface roughness (SR) scattering in n-type multi-gate FETs (MuGFETs) and gate-all-around nanowire FETs with fairly arbitrary cross-sections, its implementation in a complete device simulator, and the validation against experimental electron mobility data. The model describes the SR scattering matrix elements as non-linear transformations of interface fluctuations, which strongly influences the root mean square value of the roughness required to reproduce experimental mobility data. Mobility simulations are performed via the deterministic solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for a 1D-electron gas and including the most relevant scattering mechanisms for electronic transport, such as acoustic, polar, and non-polar optical phonon scattering, Coulomb scattering, and SR scattering. Simulation results show the importance of accounting for arbitrary cross-sections and biasing conditions when compared to experimental data. We also discuss how mobility is affected by the shape of the cross-section as well as by its area in gate-all-around and tri-gate MuGFETs.

  8. Surface roughness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Thomas G.

    1994-10-01

    The Optics Division is currently in the research phase of producing grazing-incidence mirrors to be used in x-ray detector applications. The traditional method of construction involves labor-intensive glass grinding. This also culminates in a relatively heavy mirror. For lower resolution applications, the mirrors may be of a replicated design which involves milling a mandrel as a negative of the final shape and electroplating the cylindrical mirror onto it. The mirror is then separated from the mandrel by cooling. The mandrel will shrink more than the 'shell' (mirror) allowing it to be pulled from the mandrel. Ulmer (2) describes this technique and its variations in more detail. To date, several mirrors have been tested at MSFC by the Optical Fabrication Branch by focusing x-ray energy onto a detector with limited success. Little is known about the surface roughness of the actual mirror. Hence, the attempt to gather data on these surfaces. The test involves profiling the surface of a sample, replicating the surface as described above, and then profiling the replicated surface.

  9. Message-passing-interface-based parallel FDTD investigation on the EM scattering from a 1-D rough sea surface using uniaxial perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Guo, L-X; Zeng, H; Han, X-B

    2009-06-01

    A message-passing-interface (MPI)-based parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for the electromagnetic scattering from a 1-D randomly rough sea surface is presented. The uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) medium is adopted for truncation of FDTD lattices, in which the finite-difference equations can be used for the total computation domain by properly choosing the uniaxial parameters. This makes the parallel FDTD algorithm easier to implement. The parallel performance with different processors is illustrated for one sea surface realization, and the computation time of the parallel FDTD algorithm is dramatically reduced compared to a single-process implementation. Finally, some numerical results are shown, including the backscattering characteristics of sea surface for different polarization and the bistatic scattering from a sea surface with large incident angle and large wind speed.

  10. On the ability of rough surface scattering approximations to predict hydrodynamic modulation of the ocean radar cross section - A numerical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Vesecky, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Scattering from the ocean surface at microwave frequencies is often described by the Bragg scattering model or the two-scale model. Here, the ability of these models to predict cross section modulation is investigated by comparing Bragg and two-scale cross-sections with cross sections calculated by a numerical electromagnetic approach. The numerical method is used as the standard of comparison. For slightly rough surfaces, the Bragg model is found to be very accurate, but for much rougher surfaces, the two-scale model is superior and should be used for calculating both the absolute cross section and the change in cross section due to spatial or temporal modulation of the ocean wave height spectrum. These results are relevant to the interpretation of SAR images of ocean surface phenomena which perturb the wave height spectrum at ripple wavelengths.

  11. Surface roughness effects on aluminium-based ultraviolet plasmonic nanolasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yi-Cheng; Cheng, Pi-Ju; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Chou, Bo-Tsun; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Shih, Jheng-Hong; Lin, Sheng-Di; Lu, Tien-Chang; Lin, Tzy-Rong

    2017-01-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of ultraviolet zinc oxide plasmonic nanolasers fabricated on aluminium films with two different degrees of surface roughness. We demonstrate that the effective dielectric functions of aluminium interfaces with distinct roughness can be analysed from reflectivity measurements. By considering the scattering losses, including Rayleigh scattering, electron scattering, and grain boundary scattering, we adopt the modified Drude-Lorentz model to describe the scattering effect caused by surface roughness and obtain the effective dielectric functions of different Al samples. The sample with higher surface roughness induces more electron scattering and light scattering for SPP modes, leading to a higher threshold gain for the plasmonic nanolaser. By considering the pumping efficiency, our theoretical analysis shows that diminishing the detrimental optical losses caused by the roughness of the metallic interface could effectively lower (~33.1%) the pumping threshold of the plasmonic nanolasers, which is consistent with the experimental results.

  12. Surface roughness effects on aluminium-based ultraviolet plasmonic nanolasers

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yi-Cheng; Cheng, Pi-Ju; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Chou, Bo-Tsun; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Shih, Jheng-Hong; Lin, Sheng-Di; Lu, Tien-Chang; Lin, Tzy-Rong

    2017-01-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of ultraviolet zinc oxide plasmonic nanolasers fabricated on aluminium films with two different degrees of surface roughness. We demonstrate that the effective dielectric functions of aluminium interfaces with distinct roughness can be analysed from reflectivity measurements. By considering the scattering losses, including Rayleigh scattering, electron scattering, and grain boundary scattering, we adopt the modified Drude-Lorentz model to describe the scattering effect caused by surface roughness and obtain the effective dielectric functions of different Al samples. The sample with higher surface roughness induces more electron scattering and light scattering for SPP modes, leading to a higher threshold gain for the plasmonic nanolaser. By considering the pumping efficiency, our theoretical analysis shows that diminishing the detrimental optical losses caused by the roughness of the metallic interface could effectively lower (~33.1%) the pumping threshold of the plasmonic nanolasers, which is consistent with the experimental results. PMID:28045127

  13. Research of Surface Roughness Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulaha, N.; Rudzitis, J.; Lungevics, J.; Linins, O.; Krizbergs, J.

    2017-04-01

    The authors of the paper have investigated surfaces with irregular roughness for the purpose of determination of roughness spacing parameters perpendicularly to machining traces - RSm1 and parallel to them - RSm2, as well as checking the relationship between the surface anisotropy coefficient c and surface aspect ratio Str from the standard LVS EN ISO 25178-2. Surface roughness measurement experiments with 11 surfaces show that measuring equipment values of mean spacing of profile irregularities in the longitudinal direction are not reliable due to the divergence of surface mean plane and roughness profile mean line. After the additional calculations it was stated that parameter Str can be used for determination of parameter RSm2 and roughness anisotropy evaluation for grinded, polished, friction surfaces and other surfaces with similar characteristics.

  14. Effects of increased acoustic phonon deformation potential and surface roughness scattering on quasi-ballistic transport in ultrascaled Si-MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koba, Shunsuke; Ishida, Ryoma; Kubota, Yuko; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Kamakura, Yoshinari; Mori, Nobuya; Ogawa, Matsuto

    2014-11-01

    It is a common view that ballistic transport is enhanced by channel length scaling because of a decreased scattering number. On the other hand, the acoustic phonon (AP) scattering rate is higher in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFETs than in bulk Si-MOSFETs; moreover, surface roughness (SR) scattering caused by spatial fluctuation of quantized subbands emerges in extremely scaled SOI channels. Therefore, the influences of these scattering mechanisms on ballistic transport in ultrathin-body Si-MOSFETs are examined in this paper using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. First of all, the effect of increased AP scattering rate on the drain current and ballistic efficiency is found to be negligible. Furthermore, contrary to the common view, ballistic transport in double-gate MOSFETs is shown to be degraded when the channel length decreases to less than 10 nm, mainly owing to SR scattering intensified by the spatial fluctuation of quantized subbands. The gate and drain bias voltage dependencies of ballistic efficiency are also discussed.

  15. Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. I - The Rayleigh-scattering component. II - Error in the retrieved water-leaving radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Howard R.; Wang, Menghua

    1992-01-01

    The first step in the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) atmospheric-correction algorithm is the computation of the Rayleigh-scattering (RS) contribution, L sub r, to the radiance leaving the top of the atmosphere over the ocean. In the present algorithm, L sub r is computed by assuming that the ocean surface is flat. Calculations of the radiance leaving an RS atmosphere overlying a rough Fresnel-reflecting ocean are presented to evaluate the radiance error caused by the flat-ocean assumption. Simulations are carried out to evaluate the error incurred when the CZCS-type algorithm is applied to a realistic ocean in which the surface is roughened by the wind. In situations where there is no direct sun glitter, it is concluded that the error induced by ignoring the Rayleigh-aerosol interaction is usually larger than that caused by ignoring the surface roughness. This suggests that, in refining algorithms for future sensors, more effort should be focused on dealing with the Rayleigh-aerosol interaction than on the roughness of the sea surface.

  16. Size effects and charge transport in metals: Quantum theory of the resistivity of nanometric metallic structures arising from electron scattering by grain boundaries and by rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Raul C.; Arenas, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    We discuss recent progress regarding size effects and their incidence upon the coefficients describing charge transport (resistivity, magnetoresistance, and Hall effect) induced by electron scattering from disordered grain boundaries and from rough surfaces on metallic nanostructures; we review recent measurements of the magneto transport coefficients that elucidate the electron scattering mechanisms at work. We review as well theoretical developments regarding quantum transport theories that allow calculating the increase in resistivity induced by electron-rough surface scattering (in the absence of grain boundaries) from first principles—from the parameters that describe the surface roughness that can be measured with a Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM). We evaluate the predicting power of the quantum version of the Fuchs-Sondheimer theory and of the model proposed by Calecki, abandoning the method of parameter fitting used for decades, but comparing instead theoretical predictions with resistivity measured in thin films where surface roughness has also been measured with a STM, and where electron-grain boundary scattering can be neglected. We also review the theory of Mayadas and Shatzkes (MS) [Phys. Rev. B 1, 1382 (1970)] used for decades, and discuss its severe conceptual difficulties that arise out of the fact that: (i) MS employed plane waves to describe the electronic states within the metal sample having periodic grain boundaries, rather than the Bloch states known since the thirties to be the solutions of the Schrödinger equation describing electrons propagating through a Krönig-Penney [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 130, 499 (1931)] periodic potential; (ii) MS ignored the fact that the wave functions describing electrons propagating through a 1-D disordered potential are expected to decay exponentially with increasing distance, a fact known since the work of Anderson [Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 (1958)] in 1958 for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in

  17. Surface Roughness Lengths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    m trees 110 - 170 Thom 1972 Pine forest - 20 m trees 128 DeBruin and Moore 1985 Forested plateau, rolling 120 - 130 Ming et al. 1983 Rolling terrain...H. A. R., and C. J. Moore , 1985 , "Zero-Plane Displacement and Roughness Length for Tall Vegetation, Derived from a Simple Mass Conservation

  18. Does surface roughness amplify wetting?

    SciTech Connect

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-11-14

    Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their macroscopic territory.

  19. Measuring Roughnesses Of Optical Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Daniel R.; Al-Jumaily, Gahnim A.; Raouf, Nasrat A.; Anderson, Mark S.

    1994-01-01

    Report discusses use of scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy to measure roughnesses of optical surfaces. These techniques offer greater spatial resolution than other techniques. Report notes scanning tunneling microscopes and atomic force microscopes resolve down to 1 nm.

  20. Surface roughness of flat and curved optical surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, M. C.; Reddy, Bandi Jagannadha; Jagannath, H.; Perera, M.; Venkateswarlu, P.

    1989-01-01

    Surface roughness measurement has several applications. Even a few A roughness will cause scattered light in optical systems. Smooth surfaces are required in a wide variety of instruments. For example, the outputs of the high power lasers are limited by the surface roughness of mirrors and windows. Similarly, the information storage capacity of magnetic media is limited by the roughness of the surface. Roughness reduces the resolving power of optics and distorts images. The performance of certain thin film components in electronic industries is affected by the roughness on the film surface. X-ray astronomical telescopes require smooth curved surfaces. To improve the surface quality, super sensitive detection methods are required. Wide ranging measurement techniques are developed based on interferometry, electron microscopy, C-rays, ellipsometry, light scattering, and using mechanical stylus, etc. Though there are several techniques available for measurement and evaluation of the surfaces, no single technique is fully adequate. Also, the technique used should be nondestructive and highly sensitive. So, an optical heterodyne profilometer was fabricated. Its current sensitivity is much better than 10A rms. It is a noncontact and nondestructive technique. The instrument can be operated even by unskilled personnel for routine measurements.

  1. Determination of interfacial roughness using X-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Munkholm, Anneli

    1997-05-01

    Crystal truncation rod (CTR) scattering is shown to be a powerful technique for determining interfacial roughness non-destructively. By measuring the decay of scattering away from a Bragg reflection in the surface direction an rms roughness of the surface or interface can be extracted. The authors obtain rms roughness values with an accuracy of ± 0.1 Å. Sensitivity to lateral length scale roughness ranges from the wavelength of the x-rays to between 1,000--10,000 Å depending on the instrument function and the specific truncation rod. The influence of different cleans, as well as the thermal oxidation process, on the Si-SiO2 interface is investigated. A hot water treatment prior to the thermal oxidation is shown to roughen the Si-SiO2 interface. CTR scattering results also show a smoothing of the interface as a result of the oxidation process even for as little as 60 Å of thermal oxidation. Comparison between AFM and CTR scattering gives a consistent picture of the relative roughness of the wafers, although the absolute numbers do not agree. The differences in the absolute values can be explained by the lateral roughness scale that the two techniques measure, indicating that it is at periodicities below ~ 100 Å that the increased roughness observed by the x-ray is found. Crystal truncation rods are shown to be perpendicular to the surface and not along the crystallographic axes of a miscut crystal. It is shown that for a crystal terminated by a regular step array both an atomistic and a continuum description of CTR scattering give identical results. Furthermore, the atomistic approach is used to show that a diamond cubic surface with a miscut is inherently rough. Even for a small miscut the tilt of the CTR with respect to the crystallographic axes results in complications for measuring the rod intensity. The authors present schemes for determining the exact position of the CTR in reciprocal space and for measuring the miscut of a single

  2. Multistatic scattering of targets and rough interfaces in ocean waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaiyong

    1999-11-01

    The diffusive nature of shallow water environment limits the fidelity of high performance target sonar systems. The multi-layered ocean waveguide increases the reverberation and the stochastic nature of interface inhomogeneities distorts the target signal. In order to improve the performance in such an environment, an accurate description and a better understanding of background reverberant field are essential. As a theoretical approach, two numerical models have been developed in a consistent framework to simulate multi- static scattered fields produced by rough interfaces and targets in ocean waveguides. The first model describes a scattered field generated by interface roughness in a multi-layered medium. The strong interaction between seismo-acoustic waves and rough interfaces causes a significant amount of surface reverberation. A perturbational approach has been developed for the rough interface scattering. It was combined with 3-D OASES-a seismo-acoustic wave propagation model for a horizontally stratified medium, in order to express multi-layered media efficiently. The model is capable of producing random realizations and spatial statistics of scattered fields in a 3-D space with arbitrary horizontal stratification. Its deterministic scattering formulation for random roughness enables the use of a wide range of roughness types as well as experimental roughness data directly. The second model describes deterministic target scattering. It is based on the plane wave scattering functions of various targets in a free space and the single scattering approximation. As the target models, a rigid sphere, a pressure-release sphere, and a finite cylindrical elastic shell have been used. A scattering theory of finite cylindrical elastic shells has been chosen to investigate the 3-D effects caused by an aspect-dependent object. The plane wave scattering functions are incorporated with 3-D OASES to produce a unified target scattering model within multi-layered media

  3. Radiative Transfer Model for Contaminated Rough Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    transfer, reflectance, rough surface, BRDF, Kramers- Kronig , penetration depth, fill factor, infrared, LWIR, MWIR, absorption coefficient, scattering...can be obtained from the absorption coefficient via Equation 6 (below) and the real part may be obtained via Kramers- Kronig (KK) analysis,18 n = KK(k...expanded reference library with more than one reference spectrum per material. Kramers- Kronig Relations: The Kramers- Kronig relationship is a

  4. Measurement of roughness based on the Talbot effect in reflection from rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dashtdar, Masoomeh; Mohammadzade, Ali; Hosseini-Saber, S Mohammad-Ali

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, the Talbot effect of a square grating is analyzed when light is reflected from a rough surface. It is shown theoretically that the scattered light intensity in the Fresnel diffraction limit depends on statistical properties of the rough surface, the angle of incidence of the light, the grating period, and a geometric coefficient, related to the ratio of distance of the rough surface and the observation plane from the grating. At Talbot distances of the grating, the surface height difference function, in terms of multiplication of the Talbot number, the grating period, and the geometric coefficient is the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the scattering in reflection from the rough surface. If the argument of the height difference function is larger than twice the surface correlation length, the height difference function is constant for different spatial frequencies. Therefore, the square wave is reproduced with smaller contrast. The surface roughness can be obtained by measuring the contrast at different incident angles. It is also shown that the contrast measurements in both reflection and transmission, provide the refractive index of transparent samples with a rough surface. In experimental studies, the roughness of three metal standard rough surfaces are determined at different angles of incidence. Also, the refractive index of a sheet glass with a rough surface is obtained. The results are quite consistent.

  5. A Study of the Operator Expansion Method and its Application to Scattering from Randomly Rough Dirichlet Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    integrated optics [ Marcuse , 19821, as well as in ocean acoustics [DeSanto, 1979]. I Many applications emphasize the solution of the inverse problem: the...Berlin, 1980. Carsey, F. D. ed., Microwave Sensing of Sea Ice, Geophysical Monograph 68 , Amer- ican Geophysical Union, 1992. Chen, J. S., and A... Marcuse , D., Light Transmission Optics, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1982. 3 McDaniel, S.T., "Sea surface reverberation: A review," J. Acoust. Soc

  6. Deduction of static surface roughness from complex excess attenuation.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Andrew; Attenborough, Keith; Taherzadeh, Shahram

    2011-03-01

    Data for complex excess attenuation have been used to determine the effective surface admittance and hence characteristic roughness size of a surface comprising a random distribution of semi-cylindrical rods on an acoustically hard plane. The inversion for roughness size is based on a simplified boss model. The technique is shown to be effective to within 4%, up to a threshold roughness packing density of 32%, above which the interaction between scattering elements appears to exceed that allowed by the model.

  7. Investigation of interface roughness cross-correlation properties of optical thin films from total scattering losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yongqiang; Wu, Zhensen; Hang, Lingxia

    2010-03-01

    The interface roughness and interface roughness cross-correlation properties affect the scattering losses of high-quality optical thin films. In this paper, the theoretical models of light scattering induced by surface and interface roughness of optical thin films are concisely presented. Furthermore, influence of interface roughness cross-correlation properties to light scattering is analyzed by total scattering losses. Moreover, single-layer TiO 2 thin film thickness, substrate roughness of K9 glass and ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technique effect on interface roughness cross-correlation properties are studied by experiments, respectively. A 17-layer dielectric quarter-wave high reflection multilayer is analyzed by total scattering losses. The results show that the interface roughness cross-correlation properties depend on TiO 2 thin film thickness, substrate roughness and deposition technique. The interface roughness cross-correlation properties decrease with the increase of film thickness or the decrease of substrates roughness. Furthermore, ion beam assisted deposition technique can increase the interface roughness cross-correlation properties of optical thin films. The measured total scattering losses of 17-layer dielectric quarter-wave high reflection multilayer deposited with IBAD indicate that completely correlated interface model can be observed, when substrate roughness is about 2.84 nm.

  8. Monte Carlo simulations of electromagnetic wave scattering from a random rough surface with three-dimensional penetrable buried object: mine detection application using the steepest-descent fast multipole method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shenawee, Magda; Rappaport, Carey; Silevitch, Michael

    2001-12-01

    We present a statistical study of the electric field scattered from a three-dimensional penetrable object buried under a two-dimensional random rough surface. Monte Carlo simulations using the steepest-descent fast multipole method (SDFMM) are conducted to calculate the average and the standard deviation of the near-zone scattered fields. The SDFMM, originally developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, has been modified to calculate the unknown surface currents both on the rough ground and on the buried object that are due to excitation by a tapered Gaussian beam. The rough ground medium used is an experimentally measured typical dry Bosnian soil with 3.8% moisture, while the buried object represents a plastic land mine modeled as an oblate spheroid with dimensions and burial depth smaller than the free-space wavelength. Both vertical and horizontal polarizations for the incident waves are studied. The numerical results show that the TNT mine signature is almost 5% of the total field scattered from the ground. Moreover, relatively recognizable object signatures are observed even when the object is buried under the tail of the incident beam. Interestingly, even for the small surface roughness parameters considered, the standard deviation of the object signature is almost 30% of the signal itself, indicating significant clutter distortion that is due to the roughness of the ground.

  9. Modeling Radar Scatter from Icy and Young Rough Lunar Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas (Tommy); Ustinov, Eugene; Spudis, Paul; Fessler, Brian

    2012-01-01

    For lunar orbital synthetic aperture radars, such as the Chandrayaan Mini-RF operating at S- band (13-cm) wavelength and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini-RF operating at S- band and X-band (3-cm) wavelengths, it is important to understand the radar backscattering characteristics of the icy and young, rough craters. Assuming a mixing model consisting of diffuse and quasi-specular scattering components, we have modeled the opposite-sense circular (OC) and same-sense circular (SC) backscattering characteristics. The specular component, consisting of only OC echoes, represents the echoes from the surface and subsurface layers that are oriented perpendicular to the radar's line-of-sight. The diffuse component, consisting of both SC and OC echoes, represents the echoes associated with either rocks or ice. Also, diffuse echoes have backscatter that is proportional to the cosine of the incidence angle. We modeled how these two (specular and diffuse) radar scattering components could be modulated by factors such as surface roughness associated with young craters. We also modeled how ice radar scattering components could be modulated by a thin regolith covering, and/or by the situation where ice occupies small patches within a larger radar pixel. We tested this modeling by examining 4 nonpolar craters and 12 polar craters using LRO Mini-RF data. Results indicate that icy and young rough craters can be distinguished based upon their SC enhancements (Alpha) and OC enhancements (Gamma). In addition, we also examined the craters that have unusual circular polarization ratios (CPRs) that likely result from a double bounce mode of scattering. Blocky fresh craters, icy craters, and craters exhibiting double bounce scattering can be separated based on the values of Alpha, Gamma, the ratio of Alpha/Gamma and the weighted sum of Alpha and Gamma.

  10. Modeling Radar Scatter from Icy and Young Rough Lunar Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas (Tommy); Ustinov, Eugene; Spudis, Paul; Fessler, Brian

    2012-01-01

    For lunar orbital synthetic aperture radars, such as the Chandrayaan Mini-RF operating at S- band (13-cm) wavelength and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini-RF operating at S- band and X-band (3-cm) wavelengths, it is important to understand the radar backscattering characteristics of the icy and young, rough craters. Assuming a mixing model consisting of diffuse and quasi-specular scattering components, we have modeled the opposite-sense circular (OC) and same-sense circular (SC) backscattering characteristics. The specular component, consisting of only OC echoes, represents the echoes from the surface and subsurface layers that are oriented perpendicular to the radar's line-of-sight. The diffuse component, consisting of both SC and OC echoes, represents the echoes associated with either rocks or ice. Also, diffuse echoes have backscatter that is proportional to the cosine of the incidence angle. We modeled how these two (specular and diffuse) radar scattering components could be modulated by factors such as surface roughness associated with young craters. We also modeled how ice radar scattering components could be modulated by a thin regolith covering, and/or by the situation where ice occupies small patches within a larger radar pixel. We tested this modeling by examining 4 nonpolar craters and 12 polar craters using LRO Mini-RF data. Results indicate that icy and young rough craters can be distinguished based upon their SC enhancements (Alpha) and OC enhancements (Gamma). In addition, we also examined the craters that have unusual circular polarization ratios (CPRs) that likely result from a double bounce mode of scattering. Blocky fresh craters, icy craters, and craters exhibiting double bounce scattering can be separated based on the values of Alpha, Gamma, the ratio of Alpha/Gamma and the weighted sum of Alpha and Gamma.

  11. Extreme ultraviolet mask substrate surface roughness effects on lithography patterning

    SciTech Connect

    George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Salmassi, Farhad; Mochi, Iacopo; Gullikson, Eric; Goldberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Erik

    2010-06-21

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography exposure systems, mask substrate roughness induced scatter contributes to LER at the image plane. In this paper, the impact of mask substrate roughness on image plane speckle is explicitly evaluated. A programmed roughness mask was used to study the correlation between mask roughness metrics and wafer plane aerial image inspection. We find that the roughness measurements by top surface topography profile do not provide complete information on the scatter related speckle that leads to LER at the image plane. We suggest at wavelength characterization by imaging and/or scatter measurements into different frequencies as an alternative for a more comprehensive metrology of the mask substrate/multilayer roughness effects.

  12. General laws of X-ray reflection from rough surfaces: II. Conformal roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, I. V.

    2012-07-01

    Is shown that, if the expansions of the Debye-Waller formulas for the reflection and total scattering coefficients in the roughness height σ are limited to terms of order σ2, these expressions are valid for any layered inhomogeneous medium with conformal (depth-periodic) roughness and for any distribution function of the roughness heights if the roughness correlation length along the surface is sufficiently large. The advantages of measuring the total reflection coefficient, which characterizes the total intensity of radiation (both specularly reflected and diffusively scattered) directed by a rough surface back into vacuum, for solving the inverse problem of X-ray reflectometry (i.e., the reconstruction of the permittivity profile from a measured reflection curve) are discussed.

  13. Polarimetric thermal emission from rough surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. T.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.; Staelin, D. H.; Yueh, S. H.; Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Oneill, K.; Lohanick, A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical works have suggested the potential of passive polarimetry in the remote sensing of geophysical media. It was shown that the third Stokes parameter U of the thermal emission may become larger for azimuthally asymmetric fields of observation. In order to investigate the potential applicability of passive polarimetry to the remote sensing of ocean surface, measurements of the polarimetric thermal emission from a sinusoidal water surface and a numerical study of the polarimetric thermal emission from randomly rough ocean surfaces were performed. Measurements of sinusoidal water surface thermal emission were performed using a sinusoidal water surface which was created by placing a thin sheet of fiberglass with a sinusoidal profile in two dimensions extended infinitely in the third dimension onto a water surface. The theory of thermal emission from a 'two-layer' periodic surface is derived and the exact solution is performed using both the extended boundary condition method (EBC) and the method of moments (MOM). The theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results once the effects of the radiometer antenna pattern are included and the contribution of background noise to the measurements is modeled. The experimental results show that the U parameter indicates the direction of periodicity of the water surface and can approach values of up to 30 K for the surface observed. Next, a numerical study of polarimetric thermal emission from randomly rough surfaces was performed. A Monte Carlo technique utilizing an exact method for calculating thermal emission was chosen for the study to avoid any of the limitations of the commonly used approximate methods in rough surface scattering. In this Monte Carlo technique, a set of finite rough surface profiles in two dimensions with desired statistics was generated and extended periodically. The polarimetric thermal emission from each surface of the set was then calculated using

  14. Polarimetric thermal emission from rough surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. T.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.; Staelin, D. H.; Yueh, S. H.; Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Oneill, K.; Lohanick, A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical works have suggested the potential of passive polarimetry in the remote sensing of geophysical media. It was shown that the third Stokes parameter U of the thermal emission may become larger for azimuthally asymmetric fields of observation. In order to investigate the potential applicability of passive polarimetry to the remote sensing of ocean surface, measurements of the polarimetric thermal emission from a sinusoidal water surface and a numerical study of the polarimetric thermal emission from randomly rough ocean surfaces were performed. Measurements of sinusoidal water surface thermal emission were performed using a sinusoidal water surface which was created by placing a thin sheet of fiberglass with a sinusoidal profile in two dimensions extended infinitely in the third dimension onto a water surface. The theory of thermal emission from a 'two-layer' periodic surface is derived and the exact solution is performed using both the extended boundary condition method (EBC) and the method of moments (MOM). The theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results once the effects of the radiometer antenna pattern are included and the contribution of background noise to the measurements is modeled. The experimental results show that the U parameter indicates the direction of periodicity of the water surface and can approach values of up to 30 K for the surface observed. Next, a numerical study of polarimetric thermal emission from randomly rough surfaces was performed. A Monte Carlo technique utilizing an exact method for calculating thermal emission was chosen for the study to avoid any of the limitations of the commonly used approximate methods in rough surface scattering. In this Monte Carlo technique, a set of finite rough surface profiles in two dimensions with desired statistics was generated and extended periodically. The polarimetric thermal emission from each surface of the set was then calculated using

  15. Roughness effects on radiant heat transfer between interacting surfaces.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houchens, A. F.; Hering, R. G.; Savage, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The radiative transfer between interacting plates with rough surfaces is analyzed on the basis of Beckman's (1963) rough-surface bidirectional reflectance model and, for comparison, on the basis of a direction-dependent specular reflection property model and an approximate rough surface model which assumes a diffuse distribution of the scattered energy. It is found that the overall heat transfer obtained with the Beckman model is only slightly (1.5%) less than that obtained with the direction-dependent specular reflection model. Furthermore, constant property specular reflection analysis gave results within 3% of the rough surface values. The region of uncertainty for the rough surface flux increases, however, as optical roughness increases.

  16. The neutral surface layer above rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi; Sahlee, Erik

    2014-05-01

    It is generally accepted that turbulent fluxes (momentum and scalar fluxes) are approx. constant with height above horizontal surfaces with low roughness. But what will happen when the roughness sub-layer is large as found over cities, forests and rough seas? In a study of the kinematic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer, Högström, Hunt and Smedman, 2002, it was demonstrated that a model with detached eddies from above the surface layer impinging on to the surface (Hunt and Morison, 2000) could explain some of the observed features in the neutral atmospheric boundary layer. Thus the detached eddy model proved successful in explaining the dynamic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer, especially the shape of the spectra of the wind components and scalars and corresponding fluxes. Here we make the hypothesis that the detached-eddy model can also be used to explain the experimental results related to the 3-dimensional turbulence structure above rough surfaces. Measurements are taken both over land (grass and forest) and over sea (Baltic Sea and hurricane Fabian in the Atlantic) above the roughness sub-layer. Analysis of the turbulence structure shows a striking similarity between the different sites. Hunt, J.C.R and Morrison, J.F., 2000: Eddy structure in turbulent boundary layers, Euro. J. Mech. B-Fluids, 19, 673-694. Högström, U., Hunt, J.C.R., and Smedman, A., 2002: Theory and measurements for turbulence spectra and variances in the atmospheric neutral surface layer, Bound.-Layer Meteorol., 103,101-124.

  17. EM Bias-Correction for Ice Thickness and Surface Roughness Retrievals over Rough Deformed Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Gaiser, P. W.; Allard, R.; Posey, P. G.; Hebert, D. A.; Richter-Menge, J.; Polashenski, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    The very rough ridge sea ice accounts for significant percentage of total ice areas and even larger percentage of total volume. The commonly used Radar altimeter surface detection techniques are empirical in nature and work well only over level/smooth sea ice. Rough sea ice surfaces can modify the return waveforms, resulting in significant Electromagnetic (EM) bias in the estimated surface elevations, and thus large errors in the ice thickness retrievals. To understand and quantify such sea ice surface roughness effects, a combined EM rough surface and volume scattering model was developed to simulate radar returns from the rough sea ice `layer cake' structure. A waveform matching technique was also developed to fit observed waveforms to a physically-based waveform model and subsequently correct the roughness induced EM bias in the estimated freeboard. This new EM Bias Corrected (EMBC) algorithm was able to better retrieve surface elevations and estimate the surface roughness parameter simultaneously. In situ data from multi-instrument airborne and ground campaigns were used to validate the ice thickness and surface roughness retrievals. For the surface roughness retrievals, we applied this EMBC algorithm to co-incident LiDAR/Radar measurements collected during a Cryosat-2 under-flight by the NASA IceBridge missions. Results show that not only does the waveform model fit very well to the measured radar waveform, but also the roughness parameters derived independently from the LiDAR and radar data agree very well for both level and deformed sea ice. For sea ice thickness retrievals, validation based on in-situ data from the coordinated CRREL/NRL field campaign demonstrates that the physically-based EMBC algorithm performs fundamentally better than the empirical algorithm over very rough deformed sea ice, suggesting that sea ice surface roughness effects can be modeled and corrected based solely on the radar return waveforms.

  18. Wind tunnel model surface gauge for measuring roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorburger, T. V.; Gilsinn, D. E.; Teague, E. C.; Giauque, C. H. W.; Scire, F. E.; Cao, L. X.

    1987-01-01

    The optical inspection of surface roughness research has proceeded along two different lines. First, research into a quantitative understanding of light scattering from metal surfaces and into the appropriate models to describe the surfaces themselves. Second, the development of a practical instrument for the measurement of rms roughness of high performance wind tunnel models with smooth finishes. The research is summarized, with emphasis on the second avenue of research.

  19. Backscattering enhancement from a conducting surface with isotropic roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knotts, M. E.; O'Donnell, K. A.

    1993-05-01

    Measurements are presented of the angular distribution of scattered intensity associated with backscattering enhancement from a conducting surface with two-dimensional roughness. For a linearly polarized incident wave, the diffusely scattered intensity is found to be significantly polarization-dependent.

  20. The emission and scattering of L-band microwave radiation from rough ocean surfaces and wind speed measurements from the Aquarius sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank J.; Ricciardulli, Lucrezia

    2014-09-01

    In order to achieve the required accuracy in sea surface salinity (SSS) measurements from L-band radiometers such as the Aquarius/SAC-D or SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission, it is crucial to accurately correct the radiation that is emitted from the ocean surface for roughness effects. We derive a geophysical model function (GMF) for the emission and backscatter of L-band microwave radiation from rough ocean surfaces. The analysis is based on radiometer brightness temperature and scatterometer backscatter observations both taken on board Aquarius. The data are temporally and spatially collocated with wind speeds from WindSat and F17 SSMIS (Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder) and wind directions from NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) GDAS (Global Data Assimilation System). This GMF is the basis for retrieval of ocean surface wind speed combining L-band H-pol radiometer and HH-pol scatterometer observations. The accuracy of theses combined passive/active L-band wind speeds matches those of many other satellite microwave sensors. The L-band GMF together with the combined passive/active L-band wind speeds is utilized in the Aquarius SSS retrieval algorithm for the surface roughness correction. We demonstrate that using these L-band wind speeds instead of NCEP wind speeds leads to a significant improvement in the SSS accuracy. Further improvements in the roughness correction algorithm can be obtained by adding VV-pol scatterometer measurements and wave height (WH) data into the GMF.

  1. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, José; Duta, Alexandru; Lewis, Andrew; Gunn, Dave; Bartolo Picotto, Gian; Borovsky, Jiri; Nanits, Mats-Maidu; Mudronja, Vedran; Castellanos, Carlos Colin; Kornbilt, Fernando; Renegar, Brian; Motta de Souza, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    The key comparison EURAMET.L-K8.2009 on roughness was carried out in the framework of a EURAMET project starting in 2009 and ending in 2011. It involved the participation of 14 National Metrology Institutes from Europe, North America, Central America, South America and Africa representing three regional metrology organisations. Four surface texture standards of different type were circulated and on each of the standards several roughness parameters according to the standard ISO 4287 had to be determined. 27 out of 171 individual results were not consistent with the reference value. After some corrective actions the number of inconsistent results could be reduced to 24, which correspond to about 14% of the total. In addition to the material standards, two soft-gauges were circulated, which allow to test the software of the instruments used in the comparison. The comparison results help to support the calibraton and measurement capabilities (CMCs) of the laboratories involved in the CIPM MRA. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. Diffuse scattering from interface roughness in grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, S. A.; Kondrashkina, E. A.; Schmidbauer, M.; Köhler, R.; Pfeiffer, J.-U.; Jach, T.; Souvorov, A. Yu.

    1996-09-01

    A theory of x-ray diffuse scattering from interface roughness in grazing-incidence diffraction (GID) is presented. The theory assumes dynamical diffraction of x rays from perfect multilayers with the diffuse scattering from roughness calculated in the distorted-wave Born approximation. This permits the calculation of scattering due to roughness at all points on the diffraction curves, including the vicinity of the Bragg peaks. It is shown that the measurements of diffuse scattering in GID can provide information on atomic ordering at crystal interfaces which is not accessible by usual x-ray specular reflection and nonspecular x-ray scattering. The theory is found to be in good agreement to the two GID experiments carried out with an etched Ge surface and an AlAs/GaAs superlattice at the Cornell High-Energy Synchrotron Source and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, respectively. In the case of the etched Ge surface, an anti-Yoneda dip in the diffuse scattering pattern at the Bragg peak and two symmetrical shoulders on the Bragg curve wings have been found and explained. In the case of the AlAs/GaAs superlattice, the diffuse scattering has been separated from GID by means of high-resolution measurements. A comparison between diffuse scattering in GID and diffuse scattering in grazing incidence far from the diffraction conditions has shown that the atomic ordering was preserved in the interface roughness, while it was partially destroyed in the surface roughness.

  3. Influence of Nanoscale Surface Roughness on Colloidal Force Measurements.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; Jayasuriya, Sunil; Manke, Charles W; Mao, Guangzhao

    2015-09-29

    Forces between colloidal particles determine the performances of many industrial processes and products. Colloidal force measurements conducted between a colloidal particle AFM probe and particles immobilized on a flat substrate are valuable in selecting appropriate surfactants for colloidal stabilization. One of the features of inorganic fillers and extenders is the prevalence of rough surfaces-even the polymer latex particles, often used as model colloidal systems including the current study, have rough surfaces albeit at a much smaller scale. Surface roughness is frequently cited as the reason for disparity between experimental observations and theoretical treatment but seldom verified by direct evidence. This work reports the effect of nanoscale surface roughness on colloidal force measurements carried out in the presence of surfactants. We applied a heating method to reduce the mean surface roughness of commercial latex particles from 30 to 1 nm. We conducted force measurements using the two types of particles at various salt and surfactant concentrations. The surfactants used were pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, Pluronic F108, and a styrene/acrylic copolymer, Joncryl 60. In the absence of the surfactant, nanometer surface roughness affects colloidal forces only in high salt conditions when the Debye length becomes smaller than the surface roughness. The adhesion is stronger between colloids with higher surface roughness and requires a higher surfactant concentration to be eliminated. The effect of surface roughness on colloidal forces was also investigated as a function of the adsorbed surfactant layer structure characterized by AFM indentation and dynamic light scattering. We found that when the layer thickness exceeds the surface roughness, the colloidal adhesion is less influenced by surfactant concentration variation. This study demonstrates that surface roughness at the nanoscale can influence colloidal forces significantly and should be taken

  4. Wetting properties of molecularly rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, Martin; Malijevský, Alexandr; Lísal, Martin

    2015-09-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wettability of nanoscale rough surfaces in systems governed by Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions. We consider both smooth and molecularly rough planar surfaces. Solid substrates are modeled as a static collection of LJ particles arranged in a face-centered cubic lattice with the (100) surface exposed to the LJ fluid. Molecularly rough solid surfaces are prepared by removing several strips of LJ atoms from the external layers of the substrate, i.e., forming parallel nanogrooves on the surface. We vary the solid-fluid interactions to investigate strongly and weakly wettable surfaces. We determine the wetting properties by measuring the equilibrium droplet profiles that are in turn used to evaluate the contact angles. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to Wenzel's law, suggest that surface roughness always amplifies the wetting properties of a lyophilic surface. However, our results indicate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., surface roughness deteriorates the substrate wettability. Adding the roughness to a strongly wettable surface shrinks the surface area wet with the liquid, and it either increases or only marginally affects the contact angle, depending on the degree of liquid adsorption into the nanogrooves. For a weakly wettable surface, the roughness changes the surface character from lyophilic to lyophobic due to a weakening of the solid-fluid interactions by the presence of the nanogrooves and the weaker adsorption of the liquid into the nanogrooves.

  5. Wetting properties of molecularly rough surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, Martin; Lísal, Martin; Malijevský, Alexandr

    2015-09-14

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wettability of nanoscale rough surfaces in systems governed by Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions. We consider both smooth and molecularly rough planar surfaces. Solid substrates are modeled as a static collection of LJ particles arranged in a face-centered cubic lattice with the (100) surface exposed to the LJ fluid. Molecularly rough solid surfaces are prepared by removing several strips of LJ atoms from the external layers of the substrate, i.e., forming parallel nanogrooves on the surface. We vary the solid-fluid interactions to investigate strongly and weakly wettable surfaces. We determine the wetting properties by measuring the equilibrium droplet profiles that are in turn used to evaluate the contact angles. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to Wenzel’s law, suggest that surface roughness always amplifies the wetting properties of a lyophilic surface. However, our results indicate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., surface roughness deteriorates the substrate wettability. Adding the roughness to a strongly wettable surface shrinks the surface area wet with the liquid, and it either increases or only marginally affects the contact angle, depending on the degree of liquid adsorption into the nanogrooves. For a weakly wettable surface, the roughness changes the surface character from lyophilic to lyophobic due to a weakening of the solid-fluid interactions by the presence of the nanogrooves and the weaker adsorption of the liquid into the nanogrooves.

  6. Terahertz NDE for metallic surface roughness evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2006-03-01

    Metallic surface roughness in a nominally smooth surface is a potential indication of material degradation or damage. When the surface is coated or covered with an opaque dielectric material, such as paint or insulation, then inspecting for surface changes becomes almost impossible. Terahertz NDE is a method capable of penetrating the coating and inspecting the metallic surface. The terahertz frequency regime is between 100 GHz and 10 THz and has a free space wavelength of 300 micrometers at 1 THz. Pulsed terahertz radiation, can be generated and detected using optical excitation of biased semiconductors with femtosecond laser pulses. The resulting time domain signal is 320 picoseconds in duration. In this application, samples are inspected with a commercial terahertz NDE system that scans the sample and generates a set of time-domain signals that are a function of the signal reflected from the metallic surface. Post processing is then performed in the time and frequency domains to generate C-scan type images that show scattering effects due to surface non-uniformity.

  7. Terahertz NDE for Metallic Surface Roughness Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Anastasi, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    Metallic surface roughness in a nominally smooth surface is a potential indication of material degradation or damage. When the surface is coated or covered with an opaque dielectric material, such as paint or insulation, then inspecting for surface changes becomes almost impossible. Terahertz NDE is a method capable of penetrating the coating and inspecting the metallic surface. The terahertz frequency regime is between 100 GHz and 10 THz and has a free space wavelength of 300 micrometers at 1 THz. Pulsed terahertz radiation, can be generated and detected using optical excitation of biased semiconductors with femtosecond laser pulses. The resulting time domain signal is 320 picoseconds in duration. In this application, samples are inspected with a commercial terahertz NDE system that scans the sample and generates a set of time-domain signals that are a function of the backscatter from the metallic surface. Post processing is then performed in the time and frequency domains to generate C-scan type images that show scattering effects due to surface non-uniformity.

  8. Numerical and experimental investigation of microchannel flows with rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, T. C.; Duncan, J. A.; Nothnagel, S. L.; Gimelshein, S. F.; Gimelshein, N. E.; Ketsdever, A. D.; Wysong, I. J.

    2007-10-01

    A conical surface roughness model applicable to particle simulations has been developed. The model has been experimentally validated for channel flows using helium and nitrogen gases at Reynolds numbers from 0.01 to 10 based on inlet conditions. To efficiently simulate gas-surface interaction, molecular collisions with the actual rough surface are simulated by collisions with a randomly positioned conical hole having a fixed opening angle. This model requires only one surface parameter, average surface roughness angle. This model has also been linked to the Cercignani-Lampis scattering kernel as a required reference for use in deterministic kinetic solvers. Experiments were conducted on transitional flows through a 150μm tall, 1cm wide, 1.5cm long microchannel where the mean free path is on the order of the roughness size. The channel walls were made of silicon with: (i) polished smooth surfaces, (ii) regular triangular roughness, and (iii) regular square roughness with characteristic roughness scales of <1μm, 11μm, and 29μm, respectively. For the triangular roughness, mass flow reductions ranged from 6% at the higher stagnation pressures tested to 25% at the lower stagnation pressures tested when compared to the smooth channel.

  9. Measurement and modeling of rough surface effects on terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, S. C.; Schecklman, S.; Kniffin, G. P.; Zurk, L. M.; Chen, A.

    2010-02-01

    Recent improvements in sensing technology have driven new research areas within the terahertz (THz) portion of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. While there are several promising THz applications, several outstanding technical challenges need to be addressed before robust systems can be deployed. A particularly compelling application is the potential use of THz reflection spectroscopy for stand-off detection of drugs and explosives. A primary challenge for this application is to have sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to allow spectroscopic identification of the target material, and surface roughness can have an impact on identification. However, scattering from a rough surface may be observed at all angles, suggesting diffuse returns can be used in robust imaging of non-cooperative targets. Furthermore, the scattering physics can also distort the reflection spectra, complicating classification algorithms. In this work, rough surface scattering effects were first isolated by measuring diffuse scattering for gold-coated sandpaper of varying roughness. Secondly, we measured scattering returns from a rough sample with a spectral signature, namely α-lactose monohydrate mixed with Teflon and pressed with sandpaper to introduce controlled roughness. For both the specular and diffuse reflection measurements, the application of traditional spectroscopy techniques provided the ability to resolve the 0.54 THz absorption peak. These results are compared with results from a smooth surface. Implications of the results on the ability to detect explosives with THz reflection spectroscopy are presented and discussed. In addition, the Small Perturbation Method (SPM) is employed to predict backscatter from lactose with a small amount of roughness.

  10. Physically-based Ice Thickness and Surface Roughness Retrievals over Rough Deformed Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Gaiser, Peter; Allard, Richard; Posey, Pamela; Hebert, David; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline; Polashenski, Christopher; Claffey, Keran

    2016-04-01

    The observations of sea ice thickness and ice surface roughness are critical for our understanding of the state of the changing Arctic. Currently, the Radar and/or LiDAR data of sea ice freeboard are used to infer sea ice thickness via isostasy. The underlying assumption is that the LiDAR signal returns at the air/snow interface and radar signal at the snow/ice interface. The elevations of these interfaces are determined based on LiDAR/Radar return waveforms. However, the commonly used threshold-based surface detection techniques are empirical in nature and work well only over level/smooth sea ice. Rough sea ice surfaces can modify the return waveforms, resulting in significant Electromagnetic (EM) bias in the estimated surface elevations, and thus large errors in the ice thickness retrievals. To understand and quantify such sea ice surface roughness effects, a combined EM rough surface and volume scattering model was developed to simulate radar returns from the rough sea ice 'layer cake' structure. A waveform matching technique was also developed to fit observed waveforms to a physically-based waveform model and subsequently correct the roughness induced EM bias in the estimated freeboard. This new EM Bias Corrected (EMBC) algorithm was able to better retrieve surface elevations and estimate the surface roughness parameter simultaneously. Both the ice thickness and surface roughness retrievals are validated using in-situ data. For the surface roughness retrievals, we applied this EMBC algorithm to co-incident LiDAR/Radar measurements collected during a Cryosat-2 under-flight by the NASA IceBridge missions. Results show that not only does the waveform model fit very well to the measured radar waveform, but also the roughness parameters derived independently from the LiDAR and radar data agree very well for both level and deformed sea ice. For sea ice thickness retrievals, validation based on in-situ data from the coordinated CRREL/NRL field campaign demonstrates

  11. Rock discontinuity surface roughness variation with scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitenc, Maja; Kieffer, D. Scott; Khoshelham, Kourosh

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT: Rock discontinuity surface roughness refers to local departures of the discontinuity surface from planarity and is an important factor influencing the shear resistance. In practice, the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) roughness parameter is commonly relied upon and input to a shear strength criterion such as developed by Barton and Choubey [1977]. The estimation of roughness by JRC is hindered firstly by the subjective nature of visually comparing the joint profile to the ten standard profiles. Secondly, when correlating the standard JRC values and other objective measures of roughness, the roughness idealization is limited to a 2D profile of 10 cm length. With the advance of measuring technologies that provide accurate and high resolution 3D data of surface topography on different scales, new 3D roughness parameters have been developed. A desirable parameter is one that describes rock surface geometry as well as the direction and scale dependency of roughness. In this research a 3D roughness parameter developed by Grasselli [2001] and adapted by Tatone and Grasselli [2009] is adopted. It characterizes surface topography as the cumulative distribution of local apparent inclination of asperities with respect to the shear strength (analysis) direction. Thus, the 3D roughness parameter describes the roughness amplitude and anisotropy (direction dependency), but does not capture the scale properties. In different studies the roughness scale-dependency has been attributed to data resolution or size of the surface joint (see a summary of researches in [Tatone and Grasselli, 2012]). Clearly, the lower resolution results in lower roughness. On the other hand, have the investigations of surface size effect produced conflicting results. While some studies have shown a decrease in roughness with increasing discontinuity size (negative scale effect), others have shown the existence of positive scale effects, or both positive and negative scale effects. We

  12. ANALYZING SURFACE ROUGHNESS DEPENDENCE OF LINEAR RF LOSSES

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.; Xu, Chen

    2012-09-01

    Topographic structure on Superconductivity Radio Frequency (SRF) surfaces can contribute additional cavity RF losses describable in terms of surface RF reflectivity and absorption indices of wave scattering theory. At isotropic homogeneous extent, Power Spectrum Density (PSD) of roughness is introduced and quantifies the random surface topographic structure. PSD obtained from different surface treatments of niobium, such Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP), Electropolishing (EP), Nano-Mechanical Polishing (NMP) and Barrel Centrifugal Polishing (CBP) are compared. A perturbation model is utilized to calculate the additional rough surface RF losses based on PSD statistical analysis. This model will not consider that superconductor becomes normal conducting at fields higher than transition field. One can calculate the RF power dissipation ratio between rough surface and ideal smooth surface within this field range from linear loss mechanisms.

  13. Anisotropy in the wetting of rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; He, Bo; Lee, Junghoon; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2005-01-15

    Surface roughness amplifies the water-repellency of hydrophobic materials. If the roughness geometry is, on average, isotropic then the shape of a sessile drop is almost spherical and the apparent contact angle of the drop on the rough surface is nearly uniform along the contact line. If the roughness geometry is not isotropic, e.g., parallel grooves, then the apparent contact angle is no longer uniform along the contact line. The apparent contact angles observed perpendicular and parallel to the direction of the grooves are different. A better understanding of this problem is critical in designing rough superhydrophobic surfaces. The primary objective of this work is to determine the mechanism of anisotropic wetting and to propose a methodology to quantify the apparent contact angles and the drop shape. We report a theoretical and an experimental study of wetting of surfaces with parallel groove geometry.

  14. The Effect of Roughness Model on Scattering Properties of Ice Crystals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan

    2016-01-01

    We compare stochastic models of microscale surface roughness assuming uniform and Weibull distributions of crystal facet tilt angles to calculate scattering by roughened hexagonal ice crystals using the geometric optics (GO) approximation. Both distributions are determined by similar roughness parameters, while the Weibull model depends on the additional shape parameter. Calculations were performed for two visible wavelengths (864 nm and 410 nm) for roughness values between 0.2 and 0.7 and Weibull shape parameters between 0 and 1.0 for crystals with aspect ratios of 0.21, 1 and 4.8. For this range of parameters we find that, for a given roughness level, varying the Weibull shape parameter can change the asymmetry parameter by up to about 0.05. The largest effect of the shape parameter variation on the phase function is found in the backscattering region, while the degree of linear polarization is most affected at the side-scattering angles. For high roughness, scattering properties calculated using the uniform and Weibull models are in relatively close agreement for a given roughness parameter, especially when a Weibull shape parameter of 0.75 is used. For smaller roughness values, a shape parameter close to unity provides a better agreement. Notable differences are observed in the phase function over the scattering angle range from 5deg to 20deg, where the uniform roughness model produces a plateau while the Weibull model does not.

  15. Investigation on Surface Roughness in Cylindrical Grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudrapati, Ramesh; Bandyopadhyay, Asish; Pal, Pradip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrical grinding is a complex machining process. And surface roughness is often a key factor in any machining process while considering the machine tool or machining performance. Further, surface roughness is one of the measures of the technological quality of the product and is a factor that greatly influences cost and quality. The present work is related to some aspects of surface finish in the context of traverse-cut cylindrical grinding. The parameters considered have been: infeed, longitudinal feed and work speed. Taguchi quality design is used to design the experiments and to identify the significantly import parameter(s) affecting the surface roughness. By utilization of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), second order differential equation has been developed and attempts have also been made for optimization of the process in the context of surface roughness by using C- programming.

  16. Surface roughness effects on bidirectional reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T. F.; Hering, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental study of surface roughness effects on bidirectional reflectance of metallic surfaces is presented. A facility capable of irradiating a sample from normal to grazing incidence and recording plane of incidence bidirectional reflectance measurements was developed. Samples consisting of glass, aluminum alloy, and stainless steel materials were selected for examination. Samples were roughened using standard grinding techniques and coated with a radiatively opaque layer of pure aluminum. Mechanical surface roughness parameters, rms heights and rms slopes, evaluated from digitized surface profile measurements are less than 1.0 micrometers and 0.28, respectively. Rough surface specular, bidirectional, and directional reflectance measurements for selected values of polar angle of incidence and wavelength of incident energy within the spectral range of 1 to 14 micrometers are reported. The Beckmann bidirectional reflectance model is compared with reflectance measurements to establish its usefulness in describing the magnitude and spatial distribution of energy reflected from rough surfaces.

  17. Effects of surface roughness on shear viscosity.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Michail; Frank, Michael; Drikakis, Dimitris

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the effect of surface roughness on fluid viscosity using molecular dynamics simulations. The three-dimensional model consists of liquid argon flowing between two solid walls whose surface roughness was modeled using fractal theory. In tandem with previously published experimental work, our results show that, while the viscosity in smooth channels remains constant across the channel width, in the presence of surface roughness it increases close to the walls. The increase of the boundary viscosity is further accentuated by an increase in the depth of surface roughness. We attribute this behavior to the increased momentum transfer at the boundary, a result of the irregular distribution of fluid particles near rough surfaces. Furthermore, although the viscosity in smooth channels has previously been shown to be independent of the strength of the solid-liquid interaction, here we show that in the presence of surface roughness, the boundary viscosity increases with the solid's wettability. The paper concludes with an analytical description of the viscosity as a function of the distance from the channel walls, the walls' surface roughness, and the solid's wetting properties. The relation can potentially be used to adjust the fluid dynamics equations for a more accurate description of microfluidic systems.

  18. Effects of surface roughness on shear viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolaou, Michail; Frank, Michael; Drikakis, Dimitris

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the effect of surface roughness on fluid viscosity using molecular dynamics simulations. The three-dimensional model consists of liquid argon flowing between two solid walls whose surface roughness was modeled using fractal theory. In tandem with previously published experimental work, our results show that, while the viscosity in smooth channels remains constant across the channel width, in the presence of surface roughness it increases close to the walls. The increase of the boundary viscosity is further accentuated by an increase in the depth of surface roughness. We attribute this behavior to the increased momentum transfer at the boundary, a result of the irregular distribution of fluid particles near rough surfaces. Furthermore, although the viscosity in smooth channels has previously been shown to be independent of the strength of the solid-liquid interaction, here we show that in the presence of surface roughness, the boundary viscosity increases with the solid's wettability. The paper concludes with an analytical description of the viscosity as a function of the distance from the channel walls, the walls' surface roughness, and the solid's wetting properties. The relation can potentially be used to adjust the fluid dynamics equations for a more accurate description of microfluidic systems.

  19. Replicated mask surface roughness effects on EUV lithographic pattering and line edge roughness

    SciTech Connect

    George, Simi A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Mochi, Iacopo; Salmassi, Farhad; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik H.

    2011-03-11

    To quantify the roughness contributions to speckle, a programmed roughness substrate was fabricated with a number of areas having different roughness magnitudes. The substrate was then multilayer coated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface maps were collected before and after multilayer deposition. At-wavelength reflectance and total integrated scattering measurements were also completed. Angle resolved scattering based power spectral densities are directly compared to the AFM based power spectra. We show that AFM overpredicts the roughness in the picometer measurements range. The mask was then imaged at-wavelength for the direct characterization of the aerial image speckle using the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT). Modeling was used to test the effectiveness of the different metrologies in predicting the measured aerial-image speckle. AIT measured contrast values are 25% or more than the calculated image contrast values obtained using the measured rms roughness input. The extent to which the various metrologies can be utilized for specifying tolerable roughness limits on EUV masks is still to be determined. Further modeling and measurements are being planned.

  20. Surface Roughness from Point Clouds - A Multi-Scale Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenković, Milutin; Ressl, Camillo; Hollaus, Markus; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2013-04-01

    Roughness is a physical parameter of surfaces which should include the surface complexity in geophysical models. In hydrodynamic modeling, e.g., roughness should estimate the resistance caused by the surface on the flow, or in remote sensing, how the signal is scattered. Roughness needs to be estimated as a parameter of the model. This has been identified as main source of the uncertainties in model prediction, mainly due to the errors that follow a traditional roughness estimation, e.g. from surface profiles, or by a visual interpretation and manual delineation from aerial photos. Currently, roughness estimation is shifting towards point clouds of surfaces, which primarily come from laser scanning and image matching techniques. However, those data sets are also not free of errors and may affect roughness estimation. Our study focusses on the estimation of roughness indices from different point clouds, and the uncertainties that follow such a procedure. The analysis is performed on a graveled surface of a river bed in Eastern Austria, using point clouds acquired by a triangulating laser scanner (Minolta Vivid 910), photogrammetry (DSLR camera), and terrestrial laser scanner (Riegl FWF scanner). To enable their comparison, all the point clouds are transformed to a superior coordinate system. Then, different roughness indices are calculated and compared at different scales, including stochastic and features-based indices like RMS of elevation, std.dev., Peak to Valley height, openness. The analysis is additionally supported with the spectral signatures (frequency domain) of the different point clouds. The selected techniques provide point clouds of different resolution (0.1-10cm) and coverage (0.3-10m), which also justifies the multi-scale roughness analysis. By doing this, it becomes possible to differentiate between the measurement errors and the roughness of the object at the resolutions of the point clouds. Parts of this study have been funded by the project

  1. Specular Reflection from Rough Surfaces Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Kensei; Kim, Alvin; Cho, Hayley; Timofejev, Timofej; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Klep, James; Edelson, Amy S.; Walecki, Abigail S.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.

    2016-10-01

    In his beautiful paper, Hasan Fakhruddin reported observations of mirror-like reflections in the rough surface of a ground glass plate. Similar effects have been recently employed for metrology of the roughness of optical diffusers used in modern light emitting device illumination systems. We report the observations of specular reflection in nontransparent rough surfaces at oblique angles, where roughness was treated as a variable. We present a simple trigonometry-based model explaining the observed phenomenon, which we experimentally validated using aluminum surfaces that have controlled roughness. The reported demonstration requires no special equipment, other than cellphone cameras, dielectric or metal plate, and sandpaper, and serves as an introduction to wave optics. This activity can be used to get further insight into everyday applications of wave optics for students already familiar with wave optics fundamentals.

  2. Role of surface roughness in superlubricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglino, U.; Samoilov, V. N.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2006-05-01

    We study the sliding of elastic solids in adhesive contact with flat and rough interfaces. We consider the dependence of the sliding friction on the elastic modulus of the solids. For elastically hard solids with planar surfaces with incommensurate surface structures we observe extremely low friction (superlubricity), which very abruptly increases as the elastic modulus decreases. We show that even a relatively small surface roughness may completely kill the superlubricity state.

  3. Role of surface roughness in superlubricity.

    PubMed

    Tartaglino, U; Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J

    2006-05-03

    We study the sliding of elastic solids in adhesive contact with flat and rough interfaces. We consider the dependence of the sliding friction on the elastic modulus of the solids. For elastically hard solids with planar surfaces with incommensurate surface structures we observe extremely low friction (superlubricity), which very abruptly increases as the elastic modulus decreases. We show that even a relatively small surface roughness may completely kill the superlubricity state.

  4. Roughness Perception of Haptically Displayed Fractal Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Michael A.; Cutkosky, Mark R.; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Surface profiles were generated by a fractal algorithm and haptically rendered on a force feedback joystick, Subjects were asked to use the joystick to explore pairs of surfaces and report to the experimenter which of the surfaces they felt was rougher. Surfaces were characterized by their root mean square (RMS) amplitude and their fractal dimension. The most important factor affecting the perceived roughness of the fractal surfaces was the RMS amplitude of the surface. When comparing surfaces of fractal dimension 1.2-1.35 it was found that the fractal dimension was negatively correlated with perceived roughness.

  5. Specular Reflection from Rough Surfaces Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Kensei; Kim, Alvin; Cho, Hayley; Timofejev, Timofej; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Klep, James; Edelson, Amy S.; Walecki, Abigail S.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    In his beautiful paper, Hasan Fakhruddin reported observations of mirror-like reflections in the rough surface of a ground glass plate. Similar effects have been recently employed for metrology of the roughness of optical diffusers used in modern light emitting device illumination systems. We report the observations of specular reflection in…

  6. Specular Reflection from Rough Surfaces Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Kensei; Kim, Alvin; Cho, Hayley; Timofejev, Timofej; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Klep, James; Edelson, Amy S.; Walecki, Abigail S.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    In his beautiful paper, Hasan Fakhruddin reported observations of mirror-like reflections in the rough surface of a ground glass plate. Similar effects have been recently employed for metrology of the roughness of optical diffusers used in modern light emitting device illumination systems. We report the observations of specular reflection in…

  7. Rough surface reconstruction for ultrasonic NDE simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Wonjae; Shi, Fan; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Skelton, Elizabeth A.; Craster, Richard V.

    2014-02-18

    The reflection of ultrasound from rough surfaces is an important topic for the NDE of safety-critical components, such as pressure-containing components in power stations. The specular reflection from a rough surface of a defect is normally lower than it would be from a flat surface, so it is typical to apply a safety factor in order that justification cases for inspection planning are conservative. The study of the statistics of the rough surfaces that might be expected in candidate defects according to materials and loading, and the reflections from them, can be useful to develop arguments for realistic safety factors. This paper presents a study of real rough crack surfaces that are representative of the potential defects in pressure-containing power plant. Two-dimensional (area) values of the height of the roughness have been measured and their statistics analysed. Then a means to reconstruct model cases with similar statistics, so as to enable the creation of multiple realistic realizations of the surfaces, has been investigated, using random field theory. Rough surfaces are reconstructed, based on a real surface, and results for these two-dimensional descriptions of the original surface have been compared with those from the conventional model based on a one-dimensional correlation coefficient function. In addition, ultrasonic reflections from them are simulated using a finite element method.

  8. Dentine roughness after different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Mohsen, M M; Shabka, A A

    1993-01-01

    Surface roughness is one of the most influential criteria affecting the durability and strength of the adhesive restorative materials to the dentine. This study was carried out to investigate the roughness of the dentine surface after some of the modalities proposed for its treatment prior to application of the DBA. Dentine surface roughness of the sixty teeth divided into 12 groups were tested where the dentine surfaces were denuded and were brought to a similar 600 grit surface roughness then different treatments were carried out using H2O2, CO2 gas laser at 30 and 48 J/cm2 energy densities, EDTA and polyacrylic acid treatments. The dentine surface roughness was determined using a profilometer and the results were digitized and plotted using an AUTO-CAD software and Rolland plotter to compare the effects of the different treatments on the dentine surface roughness of the tested samples. Results revealed that the laser treatment left smooth dentine surface and added further evidences to the simplicity and reliability of the conventional use of EDTA and the polyacrylic acid according to the type of adhesive to be used.

  9. Investigating the Surface Roughness of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susorney, H. C. M.; Barnouin, O. S.; Ernst, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on the MErcury, Surface, Space ENviorment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has acquired high-resolution topographic measurements of Mercury's northern hemisphere. These measurements permit the quantification of surface roughness on Mercury over baselines between 500 m and 200 km. In contrast to previous studies of Mercury's surface roughness, which have employed median differential surface slope, we calculate surface roughness as the root mean square (RMS) deviation of the difference in height. If the topography is self-affine or fractal, a power law can be fit to the RMS deviation as a function of baseline length. The exponent of this fit is called the Hurst exponent. This Hurst exponent describes whether or not a surface is self-affine, which occurs when processes produce a surface roughness that is inherently random. The surface roughness of Mercury's northern hemisphere reflects the observed bimodal nature of Mercury: the northern smooth plains have lower roughness values than the rougher heavily cratered terrain and intercrater plains. The relationship between RMS height and baseline length on Mercury shows two fractal sections, one between lengths of 500 m and 1 km, and another between lengths of 1 km and 20 km. We also find that the northern rise is indistinguishable from the surrounding smooth plains across all measured baselines, implying that the rise did not alter its surface topography at the baselines used in this study. Craters that host radar-bright deposits have similar roughness values to craters that do not host such deposits. Finally, fresh crater ejecta within the smooth plains have similar roughness values (particularly at the 1 km baseline) to the intercrater plains, supporting the interpretation that the intercrater plains may result from the modification of volcanic plains via cratering.

  10. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-08-07

    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s(-1). In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s(-1) (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties.

  11. Anatomy of the Ocean Surface Roughness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    with Theory,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 13, 1505-1518, 1983. Tang, S. and O.H. Shemdin , “Measurement of High Frequency Waves Using a Wave Follower ,” J...SAR 45 Paul A. Hwang 228-688-4708 Ocean surface roughness can be decomposed into an ambient component, surface wave geometric contribution (the mean...square slope), and breaking wave contribution (the breaking roughness). Only the last two components can be attributed to local wind conditions for

  12. Simplified Approach to Predicting Rough Surface Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Stripf, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Turbine vane heat transfer predictions are given for smooth and rough vanes where the experimental data show transition moving forward on the vane as the surface roughness physical height increases. Consiste nt with smooth vane heat transfer, the transition moves forward for a fixed roughness height as the Reynolds number increases. Comparison s are presented with published experimental data. Some of the data ar e for a regular roughness geometry with a range of roughness heights, Reynolds numbers, and inlet turbulence intensities. The approach ta ken in this analysis is to treat the roughness in a statistical sense , consistent with what would be obtained from blades measured after e xposure to actual engine environments. An approach is given to determ ine the equivalent sand grain roughness from the statistics of the re gular geometry. This approach is guided by the experimental data. A roughness transition criterion is developed, and comparisons are made with experimental data over the entire range of experimental test co nditions. Additional comparisons are made with experimental heat tran sfer data, where the roughness geometries are both regular as well a s statistical. Using the developed analysis, heat transfer calculatio ns are presented for the second stage vane of a high pressure turbine at hypothetical engine conditions.

  13. Simplified Approach to Predicting Rough Surface Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Stripf, M.

    2009-01-01

    Turbine vane heat transfer predictions are given for smooth and rough vanes where the experimental data show transition moving forward on the vane as the surface roughness physical height increases. Consistent with smooth vane heat transfer, the transition moves forward for a fixed roughness height as the Reynolds number increases. Comparisons are presented with published experimental data. Some of the data are for a regular roughness geometry with a range of roughness heights, Reynolds numbers, and inlet turbulence intensities. The approach taken in this analysis is to treat the roughness in a statistical sense, consistent with what would be obtained from blades measured after exposure to actual engine environments. An approach is given to determine the equivalent sand grain roughness from the statistics of the regular geometry. This approach is guided by the experimental data. A roughness transition criterion is developed, and comparisons are made with experimental data over the entire range of experimental test conditions. Additional comparisons are made with experimental heat transfer data, where the roughness geometries are both regular and statistical. Using the developed analysis, heat transfer calculations are presented for the second stage vane of a high pressure turbine at hypothetical engine conditions.

  14. Simplified Approach to Predicting Rough Surface Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Stripf, M.

    2009-01-01

    Turbine vane heat transfer predictions are given for smooth and rough vanes where the experimental data show transition moving forward on the vane as the surface roughness physical height increases. Consistent with smooth vane heat transfer, the transition moves forward for a fixed roughness height as the Reynolds number increases. Comparisons are presented with published experimental data. Some of the data are for a regular roughness geometry with a range of roughness heights, Reynolds numbers, and inlet turbulence intensities. The approach taken in this analysis is to treat the roughness in a statistical sense, consistent with what would be obtained from blades measured after exposure to actual engine environments. An approach is given to determine the equivalent sand grain roughness from the statistics of the regular geometry. This approach is guided by the experimental data. A roughness transition criterion is developed, and comparisons are made with experimental data over the entire range of experimental test conditions. Additional comparisons are made with experimental heat transfer data, where the roughness geometries are both regular and statistical. Using the developed analysis, heat transfer calculations are presented for the second stage vane of a high pressure turbine at hypothetical engine conditions.

  15. Ghost imaging for a reflected object with a rough surface

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chunfang; Zhang Dawei; Chen Bin; Bai Yanfeng

    2010-12-15

    Ghost imaging for the reflected object with rough surface is investigated. The surface height variance {sigma}{sub h}{sup 2} and the correlation length l{sub c} have been introduced to characterize the rough surface. Based on a simple scattering model, we derive the analytical expressions which are used to describe the effects of {sigma}{sub h}{sup 2} and l{sub c} on ghost imaging. The results show that both {sigma}{sub h}{sup 2} and l{sub c} have no influence on the image resolution, while the convergence of the correlation decreases as {sigma}{sub h}{sup 2} increases. Additionally, the bucket detector used in the test arm can dramatically improve the visibility of ghost images. The results are backed up by numerical simulations, in which a Monte Carlo approach to generate a rough surface has been used.

  16. Calculations of microwave brightness temperature of rough soil surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, T.; Schmugge, T. J.; Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for simulating the brightness temperatures of soils with rough surfaces is developed. The surface emissivity of the soil media is obtained by the integration of the bistatic scattering coefficients for rough surfaces. The roughness of a soil surface is characterized by two parameters, the surface height standard deviation sigma and its horizontal correlation length l. The model calculations are compared to the measured angular variations of the polarized brightness temperatures at both 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequencies. A nonlinear least-squares fitting method is used to obtain the values of delta and l that best characterize the surface roughness. The effect of shadowing is incorporated by introducing a function S(theta), which represents the probability that a point on a rough surface is not shadowed by other parts of the surface. The model results for the horizontal polarization are in excellent agreement with the data. However, for the vertical polarization, some discrepancies exist between the calculations and data, particularly at the 1.4 GHz frequency. Possible causes of the discrepancy are discussed.

  17. Ellipsometric analysis for surface roughness and texture.

    PubMed

    Nee, S M

    1988-07-15

    A 2-D symmetric model is incorporated into the calculation of the ellipsometric parameters Psi and Delta for surface roughness and texture characterization based on the effective medium theory. The least-squares fits of the experimental data at a 5-microm IR wavelength for rough fused silica samples at multiple angles of incidence give the standard deviations of Psi and Delta of about twice the instrumental errors. The effective thickness and the depolarization factor obtained by ellipsometry agree with the roughness and average height-to-halfwidth ratio of voids obtained by stylus profilometry. The surface texture can be characterized by the fit depolarization factors set. The excellent agreement between theory and experiments indicates that ellipsometry can be a promising nondestructive technique for rough-surface evaluation.

  18. Thermal smoothing of rough surfaces in vacuo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahl, G.

    1986-01-01

    The derivation of equations governing the smoothing of rough surfaces, based on Mullins' (1957, 1960, and 1963) theories of thermal grooving and of capillarity-governed solid surface morphology is presented. As an example, the smoothing of a one-dimensional sine-shaped surface is discussed.

  19. Optics of Solids (Surface Related) and Effect of Surface Roughness on MOS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-20

    Excitons; Resonance Scattering; Goos - Hanchen Effect; Giant Lateral Displacement; Non-linear Optical Susceptibility; Surface Roughness Effect on...identify by block n bs..r) Major results of these contracts inclued: 1) New predictions of giant enhanced Goos - Hanchen shift at resonance in...displacement ( Goos - Hanchen Effect) on a surface was predicted. This effect can be a highly sensitive tool to probe surface roughness and other irregularities

  20. Surface Roughness Effects on Light Propagation in Optical Light Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngjin

    Solid- and hollow-core light pipes are commonly employed to shape the intensity profile of high power lasers for applications in various technology industries such as the automobile, medical, and communications. There are several loss mechanisms present in solid-core glass and polymer light pipes, including absorption, bulk scattering in the material, surface scattering at the material-air interface, and Fresnel Loss at the material-air interface. Fresnel reflection and surface scattering losses typically dominate over other loss mechanisms in solid-core light pipes made of high quality optical materials. In order to analyze the losses in the light pipe, an approximate model is developed and tested using glass and polymer light pipes. The experiements in this thesis focus on analysis of the scattering loss in several optical light pipes configurations. From this analysis, the surface roughness parameters can be determined based on models and comparing with other measurements.

  1. Identifying Changes in Snowpack Surface Roughness Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassnacht, S. R.; Corrao, M. V.; Deems, J. S.; Stednick, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    The flow of air over a surface is influenced by its roughness. The surface of a snowpack is smooth relative to the underlying ground surface. The relative roughness of the snowpack surface changes directionally, spatially, and temporally, due to deposition, erosion, and melt. To examine these changes in snowpack surface roughness at the microtopographic scale for a Northern Colorado site, the surface was photographed using a darker-coloured roughness board that was inserted into the snowpack so that a black (board) versus white (snow) contrast existed along the entire length of the board. The board was 1-m long and was inserted 11 times at 10-cm intervals to create a 1-m by 1-m mesh. The orientation of the boards was rotated 90 degrees to provide finer resolution data in perpendicular directions. For the 1-m boards, the pixel resolution was approximately 0.4 mm. To measure the snow grain scale, a crystal card was photographed and yielded a pixel resolution of approximately 0.1 mm. Incorporating image processing issues such as image contrast and brightness, the digital images were translated into individual lines. These lines were used to compute semi- variograms in log-log space, from which the magnitude of semi-variance, the fractal dimensions, and the scale break were computed. The semi-variogram characteristics were used to illustrate directional, spatial, and temporal changes in snowpack surface roughness.

  2. Fluid wetting on molecularly rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, James Z.; Harris, Jonathan G.

    1995-11-01

    We examine the effects of structural changes of solid surfaces on fluid wetting by performing molecular dynamics simulations on a model system. The system consists of a Lennard-Jones fluid confined between two identical solid surfaces under conditions that induce the formation of both a liquid and vapor region. The smooth surface is three layers of solid particles arranged in a perfect fcc lattice. We represent a molecularly rough surface by adding to the smooth surface a fourth layer consisting of less than a full monolayer of solid particles. This model corresponds to some physical situations where there is surface irregularity, such as surface defects due to vacancies or surface structures caused by adsorption of foreign particles onto a perfect surface. The fluid density profiles near the rough surfaces are different from those near the smooth surface and reflect the detailed molecular structure of the surfaces. More importantly, the changes in surface structure alter significantly the contact angle between the liquid-vapor interface and the solid surface, which is determined by measuring the interfacial tensions between liquid, vapor, and solid phases. The wetting transition on molecularly rough surfaces occurs at a higher value of the liquid-solid interaction strength than that for a smooth surface.

  3. The Surface Roughness of Terrains on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deal, K. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Neumann, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    The RMS roughness measurements produced by Neumann et al. from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data provide unique information about surface height variations at an effective length scale of < 75 m. Roughness at this scale is important not only for landing site safety considerations, but also for assessment of landscape evolution, which depends on emplacement mechanisms and erosional/depositional processes. Here we present an examination of the global surface roughness map with discussion of terrain types and potential formation and/or alteration mechanisms. Spatially coherent terrain types were identified based on inspection of the roughness map. These terrains were further characterized through analysis of morphology and geology using MOLA topography, MOC wide-angle, and MOC narrow-angle images as well as the geologic maps produced by Scott & Tanaka and Greeley & Guest. All of these data were used to explore potential formation and modification processes.

  4. The Surface Roughness of Terrains on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deal, K. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Neumann, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    The RMS roughness measurements produced by Neumann et al. from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data provide unique information about surface height variations at an effective length scale of < 75 m. Roughness at this scale is important not only for landing site safety considerations, but also for assessment of landscape evolution, which depends on emplacement mechanisms and erosional/depositional processes. Here we present an examination of the global surface roughness map with discussion of terrain types and potential formation and/or alteration mechanisms. Spatially coherent terrain types were identified based on inspection of the roughness map. These terrains were further characterized through analysis of morphology and geology using MOLA topography, MOC wide-angle, and MOC narrow-angle images as well as the geologic maps produced by Scott & Tanaka and Greeley & Guest. All of these data were used to explore potential formation and modification processes.

  5. A rough-surface thermophysical model for airless planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, John R.

    1990-01-01

    A model for determining diurnal temperatures in spherical-section depressions and which encompasses both subsurface heat-flow and direct and scattered sunlight effects is presently applied to the disk-integrated thermal emission of a rough planetary surface with nonzero thermal inertia. Attention is given to the variation with roughness and thermal inertia of the beaming parameter eta, which characterizes zero-phase thermal emission by comparison with a smooth, nonrotating body and is almost independent of albedo for a given surface roughness. The thermal phase curve of Ceres is noted to be well matched by the model features of (1) prograde rotation, (2) 44-deg rms surface slope, and (3) a thermal inertia that is 30 percent of the lunar value.

  6. Degree of Ice Particle Surface Roughness Inferred from Polarimetric Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hioki, Souichiro; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.; Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry G.; King, Michael D.; Riedi, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    The degree of surface roughness of ice particles within thick, cold ice clouds is inferred from multidirectional, multi-spectral satellite polarimetric observations over oceans, assuming a column-aggregate particle habit. An improved roughness inference scheme is employed that provides a more noise-resilient roughness estimate than the conventional best-fit approach. The improvements include the introduction of a quantitative roughness parameter based on empirical orthogonal function analysis and proper treatment of polarization due to atmospheric scattering above clouds. A global 1-month data sample supports the use of a severely roughened ice habit to simulate the polarized reflectivity associated with ice clouds over ocean. The density distribution of the roughness parameter inferred from the global 1- month data sample and further analyses of a few case studies demonstrate the significant variability of ice cloud single-scattering properties. However, the present theoretical results do not agree with observations in the tropics. In the extra-tropics, the roughness parameter is inferred but 74% of the sample is out of the expected parameter range. Potential improvements are discussed to enhance the depiction of the natural variability on a global scale.

  7. A measuring system for surface roughness parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jinhong; Wang, Yunkai; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2006-11-01

    We designed a measurement and control system which can measure the surface roughness parameters with a Single Chip Micyoco (SCM) as its kernel. It uses an inductive transducer to pick up the data. The instrumental structure and the working principle are also introduced in this paper. The integrated hardware and software systems have been designed and improved. The prototype model was calibrated and the instrumental precision was analysed according to the measured data. In this system the surface roughness parameters can automatically be measured and controlled, such as data processing, determination of the reference line, disposal of the surface profile informations, display and print of the results etc.

  8. Surface roughness measurement with laser triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Fuzhong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Tian, Chaoping

    2016-09-01

    A surface roughness measurement method is introduced in the paper, which is based on laser triangulation and digital image processing technique. In the measuring system, we use the line-structured light as light source, microscope lens and high-accuracy CCD sensor as displacement sensor as well. In addition, the working angle corresponding to the optimal sensitivity is considered in the optical structure design to improve the measuring accuracy. Through necessary image processing operation for the light strip image, such as center-line extraction with the barycenter algorithm, Gaussian filtering, the value of roughness is calculated. A standard planing surface is measured experimentally with the proposed method and the stylus method (Mitutoyo SJ-410) respectively. The profilograms of surface appearance are greatly similar in the shape and the amplitude to two methods. Also, the roughness statistics values are close. The results indicate that the laser triangulation with the line-structured light can be applied to measure the surface roughness with the advantages of rapid measurement and visualized display of surface roughness profile.

  9. Creation of superwetting surfaces with roughness structures.

    PubMed

    Garg, Varun; Qiao, Lei; Sarwate, Prasha; Luo, Cheng

    2014-12-09

    In this work, we explored the possibility of creating superwetting surfaces, which are defined here as those with apparent contact angles of <5°, using roughness structures for the purpose of eliminating the surface tension effect on a floating small plate, which is denser than the surrounding liquid. The roughness ratio is often thought to play a critical role in generating superwetting surfaces. However, we found that the top surface ratio had more influence on apparent contact angles. When this ratio was <0.013, the resulting apparent contact angle might be less than 5°, when the intrinsic contact angle was ≥40°. Accordingly, hybrid micro- and nanostructures, which had such a small ratio, were chosen to create the superwetting surfaces. These surfaces were subsequently applied to eliminate the surface tension effect on a small plate. As a result of this elimination, the small plate sank down to the bottom of the liquid.

  10. Surface Roughness and Snow Accumulation in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scambos, T. A.; Vornberger, P. L.; Bohlander, J. A.; Das, I.; Klinger, M.; Pope, A.; Lenaerts, J.; Fahnestock, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    A complex relationship exists between snow accumulation (e.g., net surface mass balance) and meter-scale surface roughness as represented by sastrugi and erosional structures over the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). The morphology of the ice sheet at this scale is a result of a complex interaction between katabatic winds, synoptic storms, and the slope of the surface, all driving local patterns of snow accretion and sublimation. In megadune regions, the accumulation, surface slope, and surface roughness are highly correlated with slope. Smooth glazed surfaces are present on the steeper leeward wind-faces, and much rougher snow-accreting megadunes are present on the windward (depositional) slope. However, the highest elevation areas near the ridge crest of the EAIS (above ~3200 m) have a converse relationship between roughness and accumulation. Here, very low wind ridge crest areas are smooth and have higher accumulation than adjacent, slightly steeper regions that exhibit a slight increase in roughness. Below the main regions of megadunes (<~2000 m) wind glaze areas gradually become rougher as wind scouring and erosion dominate locally steeper regions. In coastal areas (<~1000), roughness is highly variable, and is tied to frequent synoptic storm deposition. We compare roughness data derived from MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) and Landsat 8 acquisitions with available wind and accumulation data from climate model results and field measurements. Roughness is determined by sunlight scattering relative to viewing geometry (MISR) or from the amplitude of textural characteristics tied to surface sastrugi (Landsat 8). Both are validated by comparison with meter-scale images (WorldView-1) and field observations. MISR roughness mapping shows persistent qualitative patterns of surface roughness across the EAIS, but an absolute roughness scale mapping is difficult to generate because of complex viewing, illumination, and bi-directional reflectance variations

  11. Venus surface roughness and Magellan stereo data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurice, Kelly E.; Leberl, Franz W.; Norikane, L.; Hensley, Scott

    1994-01-01

    Presented are results of some studies to develop tools useful for the analysis of Venus surface shape and its roughness. Actual work was focused on Maxwell Montes. The analyses employ data acquired by means of NASA's Magellan satellite. The work is primarily concerned with deriving measurements of the Venusian surface using Magellan stereo SAR. Roughness was considered by means of a theoretical analyses based on digital elevation models (DEM's), on single Magellan radar images combined with radiometer data, and on the use of multiple overlapping Magellan radar images from cycles 1, 2, and 3, again combined with collateral radiometer data.

  12. Surface roughness modulations by submesoscale currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascle, Nicolas; Chapron, Bertrand; Nouguier, Frederic; Ponte, Aurelien; Mouche, Alexis; Molemaker, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    At times, high resolution images of sea surface roughness can provide stunning details of submesoscale upper ocean dynamics. As interpreted, transformations of short scale wind waves by horizontal current gradients are responsible for those spectacular observations. Here we present two major advances towards the quantitative interpretation of those observations. First, we show that surface roughness variations mainly trace two particular characteristics of the current gradient tensor, the divergence and the strain in the wind direction. Local vorticity and shear in the wind direction should not affect short scale roughness distribution and would not be detectable. Second, we discuss the effect of the viewing direction using sets of quasi-simultaneous sun glitter images, taken from different satellites to provide different viewing configurations. We show that upwind and crosswind viewing observations can be markedly different. As further confirmed with idealized numerical simulations, this anisotropy well traces surface current strain area, while more isotropic contrasts likely trace areas dominated by surface divergence conditions. These findings suggest the potential to directly observe surface currents at submesoscale by using surface roughness observations at multiple azimuth viewing angles. They also pave the way towards a better understanding of the coupling between ocean, waves and atmosphere at high resolution.

  13. Poly-Gaussian model of randomly rough surface in rarefied gas flow

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenova, Olga A.; Khalidov, Iskander A.

    2014-12-09

    Surface roughness is simulated by the model of non-Gaussian random process. Our results for the scattering of rarefied gas atoms from a rough surface using modified approach to the DSMC calculation of rarefied gas flow near a rough surface are developed and generalized applying the poly-Gaussian model representing probability density as the mixture of Gaussian densities. The transformation of the scattering function due to the roughness is characterized by the roughness operator. Simulating rough surface of the walls by the poly-Gaussian random field expressed as integrated Wiener process, we derive a representation of the roughness operator that can be applied in numerical DSMC methods as well as in analytical investigations.

  14. Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Drew F. Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J.

    2014-04-28

    A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of surface forces is presented. The model contains two chief elements. First, surface roughness is represented as a probability distribution of surface heights around an average surface height. A roughness-averaged force is determined by taking an average of the classic flat-surface force, weighing all possible separation distances against the probability distributions of surface heights. Second the model adds a repulsive contact force due to the elastic contact of asperities. We derive a simple analytic expression for the contact force. The general impact of roughness is to amplify the long range behaviour of noncontact (DLVO) forces. The impact of the elastic contact force is to provide a repulsive wall which is felt at a separation between surfaces that scales with the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the surfaces. The model therefore provides a means of distinguishing between “true zero,” where the separation between the average centres of each surface is zero, and “apparent zero,” defined by the onset of the repulsive contact wall. A normal distribution may be assumed for the surface probability distribution, characterised by the RMS roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alternatively the probability distribution may be defined by the histogram of heights measured by AFM. Both methods of treating surface roughness are compared against the classic smooth surface calculation and experimental AFM measurement.

  15. How to make a soft, rough surface transparent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helseth, L. E.

    2017-09-01

    A transparent elastomer is made opaque by making one of its surfaces rough. By squeezing the rough surface against a piece of glass, the roughness is smoothed out and the elastomer becomes transparent.

  16. Study of the Effects of Surface Roughness and Ti Diffusion on In-Plane Scattering in Ti-LiNbO sub 3 Waveguides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-31

    68 Figure 26. Least Squares Analysis of Scattering Data Presented in Figure 24. +, Prism separation of I mm; o, Prism separa- tion of 52 mm...rived by Marcuse , and we will later show its appropriateness using a some- what different analysis. For Rayleigh scattering, the form of the...scattering centers of uniform size. (3)Following a more general statistical analysis by Marcuse , the formula - 41 N(koa2Sn)(z) L(ka), scat 0 (37) L(kaO

  17. Surface-plasmon mode on a random rough metal surface: Enhanced backscattering and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, H.; Wang, Z. L.

    1996-04-01

    The scattering of light by a silver film with a random rough surface and the excitation of surface-plasmon modes at the metal surface are studied by means of the stochastic functional approach, assuming that the random surface is a homogeneous Gaussian random field. The stochastic wave fields are represented in terms of the Wiener-Hermite orthogonal functionals, and the approximate solutions are obtained for the Wiener kernels. For the attenuated total reflection configuration considered in the paper, the angular distributions of incoherent scattering into both crystal and air are numerically calculated by using first- and second-order Wiener kernels for various combinations of the parameters. In the angular distributions of incoherent scattering into crystal, strong peaks can be observed corresponding to the excitation of forward- and backward-traveling plasmon modes, which are mainly described by the first-order Wiener kernel, and an enhanced scattering peak appears in the backward direction. In the angular distributions of incoherent scattering into air, an enhanced scattering peak also appears in a certain direction, related to the incident angle on the crystal side. The random wave fields at the resonant scattering on the surface of a random rough grating are also numerically calculated from the higher Wiener kernels with an iterative procedure. Localized modes can be clearly observed in the spatial distribution of the random wave fields. The enhanced scattering comes from the second-order Wiener kernel that describes the ``double-scattering'' processes of the ``dressed'' plasmon modes, and is due to the interference of the two double-scattering processes in the reciprocal directions, where the strongly excited plasmon modes take part in the intermediate scattering processes, while the wave localization is a result of ``multiple'' scattering of strongly excited dressed plasmon waves traveling in the ``random media'' created by the surface roughness.

  18. Influence of surface roughness on dispersion forces.

    PubMed

    Svetovoy, V B; Palasantzas, G

    2015-02-01

    Surface roughness occurs in a wide variety of processes where it is both difficult to avoid and control. When two bodies are separated by a small distance the roughness starts to play an important role in the interaction between the bodies, their adhesion, and friction. Control of this short-distance interaction is crucial for micro and nanoelectromechanical devices, microfluidics, and for micro and nanotechnology. An important short-distance interaction is the dispersion forces, which are omnipresent due to their quantum origin. These forces between flat bodies can be described by the Lifshitz theory that takes into account the actual optical properties of interacting materials. However, this theory cannot describe rough bodies. The problem is complicated by the nonadditivity of the dispersion forces. Evaluation of the roughness effect becomes extremely difficult when roughness is comparable with the distance between bodies. In this paper we review the current state of the problem. Introduction for non-experts to physical origin of the dispersion forces is given in the paper. Critical experiments demonstrating the nonadditivity of the forces and strong influence of roughness on the interaction between bodies are reviewed. We also describe existing theoretical approaches to the problem. Recent advances in understanding the role of high asperities on the forces at distances close to contact are emphasized. Finally, some opinions about currently unsolved problems are also presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulation studies on sputtering in rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmotsu, T.; Yamamura, Y.; Muramoto, T.; Hirotani, N.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a surface roughness on sputtering is studied using a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT. In order to estimate this influence in ACAT calculation, the ACAT code is modified. The two-dimensional fractal surface model is applied to the ACAT code and a surface binding energy of a target material is estimated by a many-body tight-binding potential. Simulation results calculated with the modified ACAT are compared with experimental data and the standard planar ACAT on sputtering yields of a Mo surface irradiated with 2 keV D+ ions. The modified ACAT code predicts well experimental data from rough surfaces compared with the standard planar ACAT code.

  20. Effective impedance of surfaces with porous roughness: Models and data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Patrice; Attenborough, Keith; Qin, Qin

    2005-03-01

    A ``boss'' formulation by Twersky [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 73, 85-94 (1983)] enables prediction of the plane wave reflection coefficient from a surface composed of rigid-porous roughness elements embedded in an acoustically hard plane where the roughness elements and their mean spacing are small compared with the incident wavelengths. Predictions for air-filled porous roughness elements on a hard ground plane are compared with effective impedance spectra obtained from laboratory measurements over random distributions of polystyrene hemi-spheres, polyurethane pyramids, and sand hemispheroids on glass plates. Overall the predictions agree well with these data. To enable prediction of the effective admittance of rough porous surfaces, Twersky's original formulation is extended heuristically. The resulting theory is compared with a previous model [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 949-956 (2000)], which is a heuristic extension of Tolstoy's theory [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72, 960-972 (1982)] to include nonspecular scattering. The theories are found to give different predictions for relatively large bosses. The modified Twersky theory gives relatively good predictions of the effective impedance spectra obtained from complex sound pressure level measurements over sand surfaces containing semielliptical roughness elements and over uncultivated soil. .

  1. ROUGHNESS ANALYSIS OF VARIOUSLY POLISHED NIOBIUM SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeill, G.; Reece, C.

    2008-01-01

    Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities have gained widespread use in accelerator systems. It has been shown that surface roughness is a determining factor in the cavities’ effi ciency and maximum accelerating potential achievable through this technology. Irregularities in the surface can lead to spot heating, undesirable local electrical fi eld enhancement and electron multipacting. Surface quality is typically ensured through the use of acid etching in a Buffered Chemical Polish (BCP) bath and electropolishing (EP). In this study, the effects of these techniques on surface morphology have been investigated in depth. The surface of niobium samples polished using different combinations of these techniques has been characterized through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and stylus profi lometry across a range of length scales. The surface morphology was analyzed using spectral techniques to determine roughness and characteristic dimensions. Experimentation has shown that this method is a valuable tool that provides quantitative information about surface roughness at different length scales. It has demonstrated that light BCP pretreatment and lower electrolyte temperature favors a smoother electropolish. These results will allow for the design of a superior polishing process for niobium SRF cavities and therefore increased accelerator operating effi ciency and power.

  2. Surface Roughness Reduction on Divinylbenzene Foam Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit, Jon; Karnes, John; Motta, Brian; Petta, Nicole

    2009-11-01

    Inertial fusion energy targets for the Naval Research Laboratory's High Average Power Laser Program require millimeter-scale, low density foam capsules with a gas permeation barrier and an outer surface roughness less than 50 nm RMS. Divinylbenzene (DVB) foam is a candidate for the capsule wall material, but its porous, open celled surface has been both too rough and difficult to seal. To overcome this difficulty we have repurposed a previously reported dual stage initiator emulsion microencapsulation method, adding an additional step that enhances the surface of the foam capsules. Using both low and high temperature initiators allows the DVB foam to gel in the low temperature stage and a water soluble monomer to be added and polymerized during the high temperature stage without breaking down the emulsion. This method forms a submicron skin that covers the open celled DVB foam surface, resulting in a superior substrate for gas permeation barrier deposition.

  3. Rough and Steep Terrain Lunar Surface Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In the summer of 2004, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate conducted an open call for projects relevant to human and robotic exploration of the Earth-Moon and Mars systems. A project entitled 'Rough and Steep Terrain Lunar Surface Mobility' was submitted by JPL and accepted by NASA. The principal investigator of this project describes the robotic vehicle being developed for this effort, which includes six 'wheels-on-legs' so that it can roll efficiently on relatively smooth terrain but walk (using locked wheels as footpads) when "the going gets rough".

  4. Surface roughness effects in elastohydrodynamic contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, J. H.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    Surface roughness effects in full-film EHL contacts were studied. A flow factor modification to the Reynolds equation was applied to piezoviscous-elastic line contacts. Results for ensemble-averaged film shape, pressure distribution, and other mechanical quantities were obtained. Asperities elongated in the flow direction by a factor exceeding two decreased both film shape and pressure extrema at constant load; isotropic or transverse asperities increased these extrema. The largest effects are displayed by traction, which increased by over 5% for isotropic or transverse asperities and by slightly less for longitudinal roughness.

  5. Rough and Steep Terrain Lunar Surface Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In the summer of 2004, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate conducted an open call for projects relevant to human and robotic exploration of the Earth-Moon and Mars systems. A project entitled 'Rough and Steep Terrain Lunar Surface Mobility' was submitted by JPL and accepted by NASA. The principal investigator of this project describes the robotic vehicle being developed for this effort, which includes six 'wheels-on-legs' so that it can roll efficiently on relatively smooth terrain but walk (using locked wheels as footpads) when "the going gets rough".

  6. Uncertainty of scattered light roughness measurements based on speckle correlation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Stefan; Stöbener, Dirk; Ströbel, Gerald; Fischer, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Surface micro topography measurement (e.g., form, waviness, roughness) is a precondition to assess the surface quality of technical components with regard to their applications. Well defined, standardized measuring devices measure and specify geometrical surface textures only under laboratory conditions. Laser speckle-based roughness measurement is a parametric optical scattered light measuring technique that overcomes this confinement. Field of view dimensions of some square millimeters and measuring frequencies in the kHz domain enable in-process roughness characterization of even moving part surfaces. However, camera exposure times of microseconds or less and a high detector pixel density mean less light energy per pixel due to the limited laser power. This affects the achievable measurement uncertainty according to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The influence of fundamental, inevitable noise sources such as the laser shot noise and the detector noise is not quantified yet. Therefore, the uncertainty for speckle roughness measurements is analytically estimated. The result confirms the expected inverse proportionality of the measurement uncertainty to the square root of the illuminating light power and the direct proportionality to the detector readout noise, quantization noise and dark current noise, respectively. For the first time it is possible to quantify the achievable measurement uncertainty u(Sa) < 1 nm for the scattered light measuring system. The low uncertainty offers ideal preconditions for in-process roughness measurements in an industrial environment with an aspired resolution of 1 nm.

  7. A Simulation of Surface Roughness in Hot Strip Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianning; Tieu, A. Kiet; Jiang, Zhengyi

    2004-06-01

    In hot strip rolling the temperature range is 800-1000 °C where an oxide scale layer is formed on the steel surface. In this paper, the authors consider a model of surface roughness based on Gaussian distribution function, where a rough surface profile or surface section profile with specified roughness parameters can be generated easily and analysed. The effect of roughness parameters on the change of surface roughness is also considered. The aim of this study is to determine the surface roughness and the asperity deformation at the scale-steel interface and the final roughness profile of the rolled strip after the hot finishing mill. Based on the MSC-MARC package, a finite element method (FEM) model is used to simulate the hot strip rolling asperity deformation and surface roughness transfer of the oxide scale and the steel surface roughness. The generated profile of surface roughness is verified by the scanned surface profile of the oxidized hot strip.

  8. Wenzel Wetting on Slippery Rough Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stogin, Birgitt; Dai, Xianming; Wong, Tak-Sing

    2015-11-01

    Liquid repellency is an important surface property used in a wide range of applications including self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-biofouling, and condensation heat transfer, and is characterized by apparent contact angle (θ*) and contact angle hysteresis (Δθ*). The Wenzel equation (1936) predicts θ* of liquids in the Wenzel state, and is one of the most fundamental equations in the wetting field. However, droplets in the Wenzel state on conventional rough surfaces exhibit large Δθ* , making it difficult to experimentally verify the model with precision. As a result, precise verification of the Wenzel wetting model has remained an open scientific question for the past 79 years. Here we introduce a new class of liquid-infused surfaces called slippery rough surfaces -- surfaces with significantly reduced Δθ* compared to conventional rough surfaces--and use them to experimentally assess the Wenzel equation with the highest precision to date. We acknowledge the funding support by National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER Award #: 1351462 and Office of Navy Research MURI Award #: N00014-12-1-0875. Stogin acknowledges the support from the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship (Grant No. DGE1255832).

  9. Soil Surface Roughness through Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquis, A. M.; Saa-Requejo, A.; Valencia, J. L.; Moratiel, R.; Paz-Gonzalez, A.; Agro-Environmental Modeling

    2011-12-01

    Soil erosion is a complex phenomenon involving the detachment and transport of soil particles, storage and runoff of rainwater, and infiltration. The relative magnitude and importance of these processes depends on several factors being one of them surface micro-topography, usually quantified trough soil surface roughness (SSR). SSR greatly affects surface sealing and runoff generation, yet little information is available about the effect of roughness on the spatial distribution of runoff and on flow concentration. The methods commonly used to measure SSR involve measuring point elevation using a pin roughness meter or laser, both of which are labor intensive and expensive. Lately a simple and inexpensive technique based on percentage of shadow in soil surface image has been developed to determine SSR in the field in order to obtain measurement for wide spread application. One of the first steps in this technique is image de-noising and thresholding to estimate the percentage of black pixels in the studied area. In this work, a series of soil surface images have been analyzed applying several de-noising wavelet analysis and thresholding algorithms to study the variation in percentage of shadows and the shadows size distribution. Funding provided by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010- 21501/AGR and by Xunta de Galicia through project no INCITE08PXIB1621 are greatly appreciated.

  10. Studies on argon collisions with smooth and rough tungsten surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ozhgibesov, M S; Leu, T S; Cheng, C H; Utkin, A V

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate argon scattering behaviors on the smooth and rough tungsten surfaces. Current work deals with numerical simulation of nanoscale heat transfer process accompanying with rarefied gas-solid substrate interactions using molecular dynamics (MD) method. Taking into account that this method is very time consuming, MD simulation using CUDA capable Graphic Cards is implemented. The results found that imperfection of the surface significantly influences on gas atom's momentum change upon collision. However, the energy exchange rate remains unchanged regardless to the surface roughness. This finding is in contrast with the results in extant literatures. We believed the results found in this paper are important for both numerical and theoretical analyses of rarefied gas flow in micro- and nano-systems where the choice of boundary conditions significantly influences flow. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Wetting failure of hydrophilic surfaces promoted by surface roughness

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Meng-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Wetting failure is of vital importance to many physical phenomena, such as industrial coating and drop emission. Here we show when and how the surface roughness promotes the destabilization of a moving contact line on a hydrophilic surface. Beyond the balance of the driving force and viscous resistance where a stable wetting interface is sustained, wetting failure occurs and is modified by the roughness of the surface. The promoting effect arises only when the wetting velocity is high enough to create a gas-liquid-solid composite interface in the vicinity of the moving contact line, and it is a function of the intrinsic contact angle and proportion of solid tops. We propose a model to explain splashes of rough solid spheres impacting into liquids. It reveals a novel concept that dynamic wetting on hydrophilic rough surfaces can be similar to that on hydrophobic surfaces, and brings a new way to design surfaces with specific wetting properties. PMID:24948390

  12. Enhancing capillary rise on a rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Melissa; Wexler, Jason; Jacobi, Ian; Stone, Howard

    2014-11-01

    Liquid-infused surfaces have been proposed as a robust alternative to traditional air-cushioned superhydrophobic surfaces. However, if these surfaces are held vertically the lubricating oil can drain from the surface, and cause the surface to lose its novel properties. To examine this failure mode, we measure the drainage from a surface with model roughness that is scaled-up to allow for detailed measurements. We confirm that the bulk fluid drains from the surface until it reaches the level of the capillary rise height, although the detailed dynamics vary even in simple surface geometries. We then test different substrate architectures to explore how the roughness can be designed to retain greater amounts of oil. Supported under MRSEC NSF DMR 0819860 (PI: Prof. N. Phuan Ong) REU Site Grant: NSF DMR-1156422 (PI: Prof. Mikko Haataja), PREM CSUN Prime # NSF 1205734 and ONR MURI Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (Program Manager Dr. Ki-Han Kim).

  13. Albedo over rough snow and ice surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhermitte, Stef; Abermann, Jakob; Kinnard, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Surface albedo determines the shortwave radiation balance, arguably the largest energy balance component of snow and ice surfaces. Consequently, incorporation of the spatio-temporal variability of albedo is essential when assessing the surface energy balance of snow and ice surfaces. This can be done by using ground-based measurements or albedo data derived from remote sensing, or by modelling albedo based on radiative transfer models or empirically based parameterizations. One decisive factor when incorporating albedo data is the representativeness of surface albedo, certainly over rough surfaces where albedo measurements at a specific location (i.e., apparent albedo) can differ strongly from the material albedo or the true albedo (i.e., effective albedo) depending on the position of the sun/sensor and the surface roughness. This stresses the need for a comprehensive understanding of the effect of surface roughness on albedo and its impact when using albedo data for validation of remote sensing imagery, interpretation of automated weather station (AWS) radiation data or incorporation in energy balance models. To assess the effect of surface roughness on albedo an intra-surface radiative transfer (ISRT) model was combined with albedo measurements on a penitente field on Glaciar Tapado in the semi-arid Andes of Northern Chile. The ISRT model shows albedo reductions between 0.06 and 0.35 relative to flat surfaces with a uniform material albedo. The magnitude of these reductions primarily depends on the penitente geometry, but the shape and spatial variability of the material albedo also play a major role. Secondly, the ISRT model was used to reveal the effect of using apparent albedo to infer the effective albedo over a rough surface. This effect is especially strong for narrow penitentes, resulting in sampling biases up to ±0.05. The sampling biases are more pronounced when the sensor is low above the surface, but remain relatively constant throughout the day

  14. Effects of surface roughness and absorption on light propagation in graded-profile waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Danilenko, S S; Osovitskii, A N

    2011-06-30

    This paper examines the effects of surface roughness and absorption on laser light propagation in graded-profile waveguiding structures. We derive analytical expressions for the scattering and absorption coefficients of guided waves and analyse these coefficients in relation to parameters of the waveguiding structure and the roughness of its boundary. A new approach is proposed to measuring roughness parameters of precision dielectric surfaces. Experimental evidence is presented which supports the main conclusions of the theory. (integraled-optical waweguides)

  15. Flow over a Biomimetic Surface Roughness Microgeometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warncke Lang, Amy; Hidalgo, Pablo; Westcott, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Certain species of sharks (e.g. shortfin mako and common hammerhead) have a skin structure that could result in a bristling of their denticles (scales) during increased swimming speeds (Bechert, D. W., Bruse, M., Hage, W. and Meyer, R. 2000, Fluid mechanics of biological surfaces and their technological application. Naturwissenschaften 80:157-171). This unique surface geometry results in a three-dimensional array of cavities* (d-type roughness geometry) forming within the surface and has been given the acronym MAKO (Micro-roughness Array for Kinematic Optimization). Possible mechanisms leading to drag reduction over the shark's body by this unique roughness geometry include separation control thereby reducing pressure drag, skin friction reduction (via the `micro-air bearing' effect first proposed by Bushnell (AIAA 83-0227)), as well as possible transition delay in the boundary layer. Initial work is confined to scaling up the geometry from 0.2 mm on the shark skin to 2 cm, with a scaling down in characteristic velocity from 10 - 20 m/s to 10 - 20 cm/s for laminar flow boundary layer water tunnel studies. Support for this research by NSF SGER grant CTS-0630489 and a University of Alabama RAC grant is gratefully acknowledged. * Patent pending.

  16. Quantifying surface roughness over debris covered ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quincey, Duncan; Rounce, David; Ross, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic roughness length (z0) remains a major uncertainty when determining turbulent heat fluxes over glacier surfaces, and can vary by an order of magnitude even within a small area and through the melt season. Defining z0 over debris-covered ice is particularly complex, because the surface may comprise clasts of greatly varying size, and the broader-scale surface relief can be similarly heterogeneous. Several recent studies have used Structure from Motion to data model debris-covered surfaces at the centimetric scale and calculate z0 based on measurements of surface microtopography. However, few have validated these measurements with independent vertical wind profile measurements, or considered how the measurements vary over a range of different surface types or scales of analysis. Here, we present the results of a field investigation conducted on the debris covered Khumbu Glacier during the post-monsoon season of 2015. We focus on two sites. The first is characterised by gravels and cobbles supported by a fine sandy matrix. The second comprises cobbles and boulders separated by voids. Vertical profiles of wind speed measured over both sites enable us to derive measurements of aerodynamic roughness that are similar in magnitude, with z0 at the second site exceeding that at the first by < 1 cm. During our observation period, snow covered the second site for three days, but the impact on z0 is small, implying that roughness is predominantly determined by major rock size obstacles rather than the general form of the surface. To complement these aerodynamic measurements we also conducted a Structure from Motion survey across each patch and calculated z0 using microtopographic methods published in a range of recent studies. We compare the outputs of each of these algorithms with each other and with the aerodynamic measurements, assess how they perform over a range of scales, and evaluate the validity of using microtopographic methods where aerodynamic measurements

  17. Speckle size of light scattered from 3D rough objects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geng; Wu, Zhensen; Li, Yanhui

    2012-02-13

    From scalar Helmholtz integral relation and by coordinate system transformation, this paper begins with a derivation of the far-zone speckle field in the observation plane perpendicular to the scattering direction from an arbitrarily shaped conducting rough object illuminated by a plane wave illumination, followed by the spatial correlation function of the speckle intensity to obtain the speckle size from the objects. Especially, the specific expressions for the speckle sizes of light backscattered from spheres, cylinders and cones are obtained in detail showing that the speckle size along one direction in the observation plane is proportional to the incident wavelength and the distance between the object and the observation plane, and is inverse proportional to the maximal illuminated dimension of the object parallel to the direction. In addition, the shapes of the speckle of the rough objects with different shapes are different. The investigation on the speckle size in this paper will be useful for the statistical properties of speckle from complicated rough objects and the speckle imaging to target detection and identification.

  18. Inspecting wood surface roughness using computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuezeng

    1995-01-01

    Wood surface roughness is one of the important indexes of manufactured wood products. This paper presents an attempt to develop a new method to evaluate manufactured wood surface roughness through the utilization of imaging processing and pattern recognition techniques. In this paper a collimated plane of light or a laser is directed onto the inspected wood surface at a sharp angle of incidence. An optics system that consists of lens focuses the image of the surface onto the objective of a CCD camera, the CCD camera captures the image of the surface and using a CA6300 board digitizes the image. The digitized image is transmitted into a microcomputer. Through the use of the methodology presented in this paper, the computer filters the noise and wood anatomical grain and gives an evaluation of the nature of the manufactured wood surface. The preliminary results indicated that the method has the advantages of non-contact, 3D, high-speed. This method can be used in classification and in- time measurement of manufactured wood products.

  19. Optical Interactions at Randomly Rough Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-10

    problem in a formal way, by considering first the scattering of a scalar wave from a two-dimensional random surface that is de- fined by the equation x3...the resulting expressions for 1~q1uk1! and I2~q2uk2! are formally identical for the two independent directions, we focus our attention on integrals...

  20. Contact angle measurement on rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Meiron, Tammar S; Marmur, Abraham; Saguy, I Sam

    2004-06-15

    A new method for the measurement of apparent contact angles at the global energy minimum on real surfaces has been developed. The method consists of vibrating the surface, taking top-view pictures of the drop, monitoring the drop roundness, and calculating the contact angle from the drop diameter and weight. The use of the new method has been demonstrated for various rough surfaces, all having the same surface chemistry. In order to establish the optimal vibration conditions, the proper ranges for the system parameters (i.e., drop volume, vibration time, frequency of vibration, and amplitude of vibration) were determined. The reliability of the method has been demonstrated by the fact that the ideal contact angles of all surfaces, as calculated from the Wenzel equation using the measured apparent contact angles, came out to be practically identical. This ideal contact angle has been compared with three methods of calculation from values of advancing and receding contact angles.

  1. Contact angle hysteresis on randomly rough surfaces: a computational study.

    PubMed

    David, Robert; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2013-04-09

    Wetting is important in many applications, and the solid surfaces being wet invariably feature some amount of surface roughness. A free energy-based computational simulation is used to study the effect of roughness on wetting and especially contact angle hysteresis. On randomly rough, self-affine surfaces, it is found that hysteresis depends primarily on the value of the Wenzel roughness parameter r, increasing in proportion with r - 1. Micrometer-level roughness causes hysteresis of a few degrees.

  2. Scattering from Superquadric Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    for any purpose other than in connection with a definitely related Government procurement operation, the United States Government thereby incurs no...Clomparative C’PU times in VPU (VAX 780 Processing Units ) 44 3 I I I I I I I I I I * Chapter 1 | INTRODUCTION I The electromagnetic scattering from a...in the Shadow region (2.4) where ft is the unit normal to the surface. Physical Optics is useful because the form of the assumed currents is 3 simple

  3. Robust surface roughness indices and morphological interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Geostatistical-based image/surface texture indices based on variogram (Atkison and Lewis, 2000; Herzfeld and Higginson, 1996; Trevisani et al., 2012) and on its robust variant MAD (median absolute differences, Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) offer powerful tools for the analysis and interpretation of surface morphology (potentially not limited to solid earth). In particular, the proposed robust index (Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) with its implementation based on local kernels permits the derivation of a wide set of robust and customizable geomorphometric indices capable to outline specific aspects of surface texture. The stability of MAD in presence of signal noise and abrupt changes in spatial variability is well suited for the analysis of high-resolution digital terrain models. Moreover, the implementation of MAD by means of a pixel-centered perspective based on local kernels, with some analogies to the local binary pattern approach (Lucieer and Stein, 2005; Ojala et al., 2002), permits to create custom roughness indices capable to outline different aspects of surface roughness (Grohmann et al., 2011; Smith, 2015). In the proposed poster, some potentialities of the new indices in the context of geomorphometry and landscape analysis will be presented. At same time, challenges and future developments related to the proposed indices will be outlined. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Grohmann, C.H., Smith, M.J., Riccomini, C., 2011. Multiscale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 1220-1213. Herzfeld, U.C., Higginson, C.A., 1996. Automated geostatistical seafloor classification - Principles, parameters, feature vectors, and discrimination criteria. Computers and Geosciences, 22 (1), pp. 35-52. Lucieer, A., Stein, A., 2005. Texture-based landform segmentation of LiDAR imagery

  4. Statistical properties of spontaneous emission from atoms near a rough surface

    SciTech Connect

    Biehs, S.-A.; Greffet, J.-J.

    2011-11-15

    We study the lifetime of the excited state of an atom or molecule near a plane surface with a given random surface roughness. In particular, we discuss the impact of the scattering of surface modes within the rough surface. Our study is completed by considering the lateral correlation length of the decay rate and the variance discussing its relation to the C{sub 0} correlation.

  5. Inverse Smith-Purcell effect near rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorkian, Zh S.; Gasparian, V.

    2013-09-01

    Absorption of a photon by an electron moving parallel to a rough surface is studied. In the weak scattering regime we have evaluated the absorption probability of absorption of a single photon of energy ω. It is shown that the absorption probability with diffusional contribution becomes large by a lin/l ≫ 1 factor compared to the analogous result with the single scattering contribution. The maximum of probability takes place for the infrared wavelengths and strongly depends on the particle energy. We also discuss the case of two-dimensional periodical surface profile and indicate optimal conditions for maximal absorption probability. The results can be used in electron energy gain spectroscopy and in laser-driven acceleration.

  6. Full-wave Characterization of Rough Terrain Surface Effects for Forward-looking Radar Applications: A Scattering and Imaging Study from the Electromagnetic Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    transformed into a matrix system with Gauss -Legendre quadrature as the underlying quadrature rule of the LCN method. In the present formulation, the far...1234–1237. 30. Johnson, J. T. A Numerical Study of Low-Grazing Angle Backscatter From Ocean-Like Impedance Surfaces With the Canonical Grid...Using the Physics-Based Two-Grid Method and the Canonical -Grid method,‖ IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. April 1999, 47 (4), 752–763. 33. Chan, C. H

  7. Ultrasonic wall loss monitoring of rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacsi, Attila; Cegla, Frederic

    2015-03-01

    Permanently installed ultrasonic thickness monitoring techniques have been shown to be capable of achieving below 100 nanometre standard deviation repeatability under laboratory conditions, far exceeding that of conventional manual ultrasonic inspection techniques. However, it has also been shown that uneven surface conditions that reflect the ultrasonic waves (internal wall roughness) may limit the accuracy of monitoring in practice. Previous studies have reported the uncertainty of ultrasonic measurements taken on different independent realisations of rough surfaces with the same statistical properties. While this is indicative of potential uncertainties, it is important to recognise that real life defect growth (such as corrosion) does not occur in independent instances, but it manifests itself by small random perturbations of the same under-lying surface. Furthermore, in real life applications the accuracy of trend prediction is often more important than thickness accuracy. This paper therefore introduces a new model for simulating the evolution of gradual backwall morphology changes (as would be encountered due to corrosion processes). This model is used to simulate ultrasonic signals for a large number of changing backwall surfaces. The thickness and thickness trend is then extracted from these signals using a number of common signal processing methods. The mean thickness slope and uncertainty in the extracted slope is then evaluated and compared to the actual values. A new signal processing method is also proposed, which is shown to be an order of magnitude more accurate in estimating wall loss trends than any other evaluated method.

  8. Collective Theory for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Vidal, F. J.; Pendry, J. B.

    1996-08-01

    We present an implementation of Maxwell's equations on adaptive meshes in order to study interaction of light with metal surfaces. For the first time it is possible to handle surfaces consisting of complex particles close enough to interact strongly. A fully retarded implementation allows treatment of large particles as well as small. By way of example we model a rough silver surface as an array of half-cylinders embedded in a silver surface. Very localized plasmon modes, created by strong electromagnetic coupling between touching metallic objects, dominate the surface enhanced Raman scattering response.

  9. Effect of surface treatment on enamel surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Ersahan, Seyda; Alakus Sabuncuoglu, Fidan

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effects of different methods of surface treatment on enamel roughness. Ninety human maxillary first premolars were randomly divided into three groups (n=30) according to type of enamel surface treatment: I, acid etching; II, Er:YAG laser; III, Nd:YAG laser. The surface roughness of enamel was measured with a noncontact optical profilometer. For each enamel sample, two readings were taken across the sample-before enamel surface treatment (T1) and after enamel surface treatment (T2). The roughness parameter analyzed was the average roughness (Ra). Statistical analysis was performed using a Paired sample t test and the post-hoc Mann- Whitney U test, with the significance level set at 0.05. The highest Ra (average roughness) values were observed for Group II, with a significant difference with Groups I and III (P<0.001). Ra values for the acid etching group (Group I) were significantly lower than other groups (P<0.001). Surface treatment of enamel with Er:YAG laser and Nd:YAG laser results in significantly higher Ra than acid-etching. Both Er:YAG laser or Nd:YAG laser can be recommended as viable treatment alternatives to acid etching.

  10. Understanding EUV mask blank surface roughness induced LWR and associated roughness requirement

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Pei-Yang; Zhang, Guojing; Gullickson, Eric M.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Benk, Markus P.

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) mask multi-layer (ML) blank surface roughness specification historically comes from blank defect inspection tool requirement. Later, new concerns on ML surface roughness induced wafer pattern line width roughness (LWR) arise. In this paper, we have studied wafer level pattern LWR as a function of EUVL mask surface roughness via High-NA Actinic Reticle Review Tool. We found that the blank surface roughness induced LWR at current blank roughness level is in the order of 0.5nm 3σ for NA=0.42 at the best focus. At defocus of ±40nm, the corresponding LWR will be 0.2nm higher. Further reducing EUVL mask blank surface roughness will increase the blank cost with limited benefit in improving the pattern LWR, provided that the intrinsic resist LWR is in the order of 1nm and above.

  11. Surface roughness of Titan's hydrocarbon seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grima, Cyril; Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Hayes, Alexander G.; Wall, Stephen D.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Hofgartner, Jason D.; Stiles, Bryan; Elachi, Charles; Cassini Radar Team

    2017-09-01

    We derive fields of solutions for the surface properties (roughness and permittivity) of the liquid hydrocarbon bodies Ligeia, Kraken and Punga Mare on Titan by applying the Radar Statistical Reconnaissance (RSR) technique to the Cassini RADAR observations in altimeter mode during the northern early summer. At the time of observation, Kraken and Ligeia were confined within root-mean-square heights of 1.5-2.5 mm (similar to wave heights of 6-10 mm), correlation lengths of 45-115 mm, and corresponding to effective slopes of 1.1-2.4°. The latter extends up to 3.6-4.9° if the rougher Punga is included. The lower bound of those ranges has to be considered if the composition of the seas is methane-dominant. These are the first measurements to simultaneously constrain both the vertical and horizontal roughness parameters of Titan's seas from the same observations. Our results are representative for the global properties of the sea-scaled portion of the studied tracks and suggest that quiet surfaces are a dominant trend over the seas during the northern early summer. Fields of rougher textures, if existent, might develop mainly over local patches and/or might not be sustained over significant periods of time.

  12. A comparison between backscattering models for rough surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K. S.; Fung, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    The ease of applicability of three scattering models is examined. This is accomplished by considering the time taken to numerically evaluate these models and by comparing their predictions as a function of surface roughness, frequency, incident angle and polarization with the moment-method solution in two dimensions. The complexity of the analytic models in three dimensions and their analytic reduction to high- and low-frequency regions are also compared. The selected models are an integral equation model (IEM), a full wave model (FWM), and the phase perturbation model (PPM). It is noted that in three dimensions, the full-wave model requires an evaluation of a tenfold integral and the phase perturbation model requires a fourfold and a twofold integral, whereas the integral equation model is an algebraic equation in like polarization under single scattering conditions. It is found that both the IEM and PPM agree with the moment-method solution from low to high frequencies numerically.

  13. Speckle pattern texture analysis method to measure surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, I.; Sadovoy, A.; Doronin, A.; Meglinski, I.

    2013-02-01

    Speckle pattern texture analysis method is applied to measure surface roughness of human skin. The method is based on analyzing of a gray level co-occurrence matrix occurred from a speckle image of a rough surface. Paper with different surface roughness is used as a skin phantom. The roughness is controlled by profilometry measurements. The developed methodology could find wide application in dermatology and tissue diagnostics.

  14. Rough surface scattering based on facet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khamsi, H. R.; Fung, A. K.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1974-01-01

    A model for the radar return from bare ground was developed to calculate the radar cross section of bare ground and the effect of the frequency averaging on the reduction of the variance of the return. It is shown that, by assuming that the distribution of the slope to be Gaussian and that the distribution of the length of the facet to be in the form of the positive side of a Gaussian distribution, the results are in good agreement with experimental data collected by an 8- to 18-GHz radar spectrometer system. It is also shown that information on the exact correlation length of the small structure on the ground is not necessary; an effective correlation length may be calculated based on the facet model and the wavelength of the incident wave.

  15. Adhesive contact of randomly rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastewka, Lars; Robbins, Mark

    2012-02-01

    The contact area, stiffness and adhesion between rigid, randomly rough surfaces and elastic substrates is studied using molecular statics and continuum simulations. The surfaces are self-affine with Hurst exponent 0.3 to 0.8 and different short λs and long λL wavelength cutoffs. The rms surface slope and the range and strength of the adhesive potential are also varied. For parameters typical of most solids, the effect of adhesion decreases as the ratio λL/λs increases. In particular, the pull-off force decreases to zero and the area of contact Ac becomes linear in the applied load L. A simple scaling argument is developed that describes the increase in the ratio Ac/L with increasing adhesion and a corresponding increase in the contact stiffness [1]. The argument also predicts a crossover to finite contact area at zero load when surfaces are exceptionally smooth or the ratio of surface tension to bulk modulus is unusually large, as for elastomers. Results that test this prediction will be presented and related to the Maugis-Dugdale [2] theories for individual asperities and the more recent scaling theory of Persson [3]. [1] Akarapu, Sharp, Robbins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 204301 (2011) [2] Maugis, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 150, 243 (1992) [3] Persson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 75420 (2006)

  16. Capillary trapping on a rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wexler, Jason; Jacobi, Ian; Chow, Melissa; Stone, Howard

    2014-11-01

    Recent research has shown that rough or patterned surfaces infused with a lubricating liquid can display superhydrophobic properties. However, if such a surface is exposed to external flow, the shear induced by the outer fluid can drain the lubricating layer, causing regions of the surface to transition to a hydrophilic Wenzel state. In addition, the high specific gravity of lubricating liquids means that this loss can be driven by gravity alone, in the absence of flow. We examine the shear- and gravity-driven failure modes of liquid-infused patterned surfaces experimentally, and develop a unified model to predict the dynamics of drainage via these two types of forcing. We find that the dynamic evolution of the two drainage mechanisms takes on a single functional form. Under the influence of gravity, we show that a finite length of the surface will remain filled indefinitely; this is a variant of the familiar capillary rise height. Under the influence of external shear, the steady-state liquid retention depends on the outer flow velocity field. This work was supported under ONR MURI Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (Program Manager Dr. Ki-Han Kim).

  17. Interfaces roughness cross correlation properties and light scattering of optical thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yong-qiang; Wu, Zhen-sen; Hang, Ling-xia

    2009-05-01

    In order to study optical thin films interfaces roughness cross correlation properties and light scattering, theoretical models of optical thin films interfaces roughness light scattering are concisely presented. Furthermore, influence of interfaces roughness cross-correlation properties to light scattering was analyzed by total backscattering. Moreover, TiO2 single optical films thickness, substrate roughness of K9 glass and ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technique effect on interface roughness cross correlation properties were studied by experiments, respectively. The results showed that theoretical results obtained by integrating vector light scattering were agreed well with experimental results. The interfaces roughness cross-correlation decrease with the increase of films thickness or with the decrease of substrates roughness. When ion beam assisted deposition was used, a high degree of cross-correlated can be obtained.

  18. Rough SERS substrate based on gold coated porous silicon layer prepared on the silicon backside surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dridi, H.; Haji, L.; Moadhen, A.

    2017-04-01

    We report in this paper a novel method to elaborate rough Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrate. A single layer of porous silicon was formed on the silicon backside surface. Morphological characteristics of the porous silicon layer before and after gold deposition were influenced by the rough character (gold size). The reflectance measurements showed a dependence of the gold nano-grains size on the surface nature, through the Localized Surface Plasmon (LSP) band properties. SERS signal of Rhodamine 6G used as a model analyte, adsorbed on the rough porous silicon layer revealed a marked enhancement of its vibrational modes intensities.

  19. Surface roughness rather than surface chemistry essentially affects insect adhesion

    PubMed Central

    England, Matt W; Sato, Tomoya; Yagihashi, Makoto; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-01-01

    Summary The attachment ability of ladybird beetles Coccinella septempunctata was systematically investigated on eight types of surface, each with different chemical and topographical properties. The results of traction force tests clearly demonstrated that chemical surface properties, such as static/dynamic de-wettability of water and oil caused by specific chemical compositions, had no significant effect on the attachment of the beetles. Surface roughness was found to be the dominant factor, strongly affecting the attachment ability of the beetles. PMID:27826522

  20. Surface roughness rather than surface chemistry essentially affects insect adhesion.

    PubMed

    England, Matt W; Sato, Tomoya; Yagihashi, Makoto; Hozumi, Atsushi; Gorb, Stanislav N; Gorb, Elena V

    2016-01-01

    The attachment ability of ladybird beetles Coccinella septempunctata was systematically investigated on eight types of surface, each with different chemical and topographical properties. The results of traction force tests clearly demonstrated that chemical surface properties, such as static/dynamic de-wettability of water and oil caused by specific chemical compositions, had no significant effect on the attachment of the beetles. Surface roughness was found to be the dominant factor, strongly affecting the attachment ability of the beetles.

  1. Thermodynamics of capillary adhesion between rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    de Boer, M P; de Boer, P C T

    2007-07-01

    According to the Dupré equation, the work of adhesion is equal to the surface energy difference in the separated versus the joined materials minus an interfacial energy term. However, if a liquid is at the interface between two solid materials, evaporation or condensation takes place under equilibrium conditions. The resulting matter exchange is accompanied by heat flow, and can reduce or increase the work of adhesion. Accounting for the energies requires an open-system control volume analysis based on the first law of thermodynamics. Depending on whether evaporation or condensation occurs during separation, a work term that is negative or positive must be added to the surface energy term to calculate the work of adhesion. We develop and apply this energy balance to several different interface geometries and compare the work of adhesion to the surface energy created. The model geometries include a sphere on a flat with limiting approximations and also with an exact solution, a circular disc, and a combination of these representing a rough interface. For the sphere on a flat, the work of adhesion is one half the surface energy created if equilibrium is maintained during the pull-off process.

  2. Theory of adhesion: Role of surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, B. N. J.; Scaraggi, M.

    2014-09-01

    We discuss how surface roughness influences the adhesion between elastic solids. We introduce a Tabor number which depends on the length scale or magnification, and which gives information about the nature of the adhesion at different length scales. We consider two limiting cases relevant for (a) elastically hard solids with weak (or long ranged) adhesive interaction (DMT-limit) and (b) elastically soft solids with strong (or short ranged) adhesive interaction (JKR-limit). For the former cases we study the nature of the adhesion using different adhesive force laws (F ˜ u-n, n = 1.5-4, where u is the wall-wall separation). In general, adhesion may switch from DMT-like at short length scales to JKR-like at large (macroscopic) length scale. We compare the theory predictions to results of exact numerical simulations and find good agreement between theory and simulation results.

  3. Theory of adhesion: role of surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J; Scaraggi, M

    2014-09-28

    We discuss how surface roughness influences the adhesion between elastic solids. We introduce a Tabor number which depends on the length scale or magnification, and which gives information about the nature of the adhesion at different length scales. We consider two limiting cases relevant for (a) elastically hard solids with weak (or long ranged) adhesive interaction (DMT-limit) and (b) elastically soft solids with strong (or short ranged) adhesive interaction (JKR-limit). For the former cases we study the nature of the adhesion using different adhesive force laws (F ∼ u(-n), n = 1.5-4, where u is the wall-wall separation). In general, adhesion may switch from DMT-like at short length scales to JKR-like at large (macroscopic) length scale. We compare the theory predictions to results of exact numerical simulations and find good agreement between theory and simulation results.

  4. Incorporating Skew into RMS Surface Roughness Probability Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, Mark T.; Stahl, H. Philip.

    2013-01-01

    The standard treatment of RMS surface roughness data is the application of a Gaussian probability distribution. This handling of surface roughness ignores the skew present in the surface and overestimates the most probable RMS of the surface, the mode. Using experimental data we confirm the Gaussian distribution overestimates the mode and application of an asymmetric distribution provides a better fit. Implementing the proposed asymmetric distribution into the optical manufacturing process would reduce the polishing time required to meet surface roughness specifications.

  5. The roughness of the Martian surface: A scale dependent model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, M. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    In the coming decade, several lander missions to Mars are planned (e.g., MESUR Pathfinder, MESUR). One of the dangers facing planners of these missions is the rough topography observed at both Viking Lander sites. Both landing sites are ubiquitously covered with meter-scale boulders. Objects of this size pose obvious threats to soft landers, especially at Mars where the distance from Earth causes prohibitive time lags between the transmission of commands and feedback from the spacecraft. An obvious solution is to scout for a 'smooth' site prior to the landing. However, the best resolutions realizable on current and future missions (i.e., Mars Observer) are on the order of several meters. Even at this scale, boulders of 1-2 meters in size are unresolvable. Additionally, the amount of time and spacecraft resources required to search even a small area of the planet are unrealistic given other mission objectives. An alternative is to determine the 'roughness' of the surface at a subpixel scale using bidirectional reflectance observations. Much larger areas of the planet can be searched, and much of the search can easily be automated. The morphology of the martian plains observed by the Viking Landers is physically simple. The surface is covered with a layer (approximately flat lying) of aeolian sediment from which numerous outcrops of bedrock and boulders protrude. This morphology, while simple, will be difficult to characterize from orbit using traditional bidirectional reflectance models for two reasons. First, modeling the surface as facets with Gaussian or exponential slope distributions is not realistic given the morphology described above. Second, the roughness parameter is an 'average' of the roughness at scales ranging from the wavelength of light being scattered to the pixel size of the observation. Thus, there is no definite scale of roughness that can be extracted from the Hapke roughness parameter. Using the concepts of geometric and boolean models

  6. Influence of surface roughness on the adhesion of elastic films.

    PubMed

    Palasantzas, G; De Hosson, J Th M

    2003-02-01

    It is shown that a self-affine roughness at the junction of an elastic film and a hard solid substrate influences considerably the adhesion of the elastic film, especially for small roughness exponents H (H<0.5) and/or large long wavelength roughness ratios w/xi with w being the rms roughness amplitude and xi being the in-plane roughness correlation length. Analytical calculations of the local surface slope allows an estimate of the roughness effects on the adhesion energy more precisely than those presented in earlier works (especially for roughness exponents H<0.5). For weak surface roughness the elastic energy contribution is significant on the film effective surface energy deltagamma(eff) and on pull-off force for elastic modulus E in the range of GPa. Moreover, in the case of partial contact an estimation of the pull-off force shows that it strongly decreases with reducing contact area due to surface.

  7. Surface roughness retrieval by inversion of the Hapke model: A multiscale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labarre, S.; Ferrari, C.; Jacquemoud, S.

    2017-07-01

    Surface roughness is a key property of soils that controls many surface processes and influences the scattering of incident electromagnetic waves at a wide range of scales. Hapke (2012b) designed a photometric model providing an approximate analytical solution of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of a particulate medium: he introduced the effect of surface roughness as a correction factor of the BRDF of a smooth surface. This photometric roughness is defined as the mean slope angle of the facets composing the surface, integrated over all scales from the grain size to the local topography. Yet its physical meaning is still a question at issue, as the scale at which it occurs is not clearly defined. This work aims at better understanding the relative influence of roughness scales on soil BRDF and to test the ability of the Hapke model to retrieve a roughness that depicts effectively the ground truth. We apply a wavelet transform on millimeter digital terrain models (DTM) acquired over volcanic terrains. This method allows splitting the frequency band of a signal in several sub-bands, each corresponding to a spatial scale. We demonstrate that sub-centimeter surface features dominate both the integrated roughness and the BRDF shape. We investigate the suitability of the Hapke model for surface roughness retrieval by inversion on optical data. A global sensitivity analysis of the model shows that soil BRDF is very sensitive to surface roughness, nearly as much as the single scattering albedo according to the phase angle, but also that these two parameters are strongly correlated. Based on these results, a simplified two-parameter model depending on surface albedo and roughness is proposed. Inversion of this model on BRDF data simulated by a ray-tracing code over natural targets shows a good estimation of surface roughness when the assumptions of the model are verified, with a priori knowledge on surface albedo.

  8. Surface activity of solid particles with extremely rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nonomura, Yoshimune; Komura, Shigeyuki

    2008-01-15

    The solid particles are adsorbed at liquid-liquid interfaces and form self-assembled structures when the particles have suitable wettability to both liquids. Here, we show theoretically how the extreme roughness on the particle surface affects their adsorption properties. In our previous work, we discussed the adsorption behavior of the solid particles with microstructured surfaces using the so-called Wenzel model [Y. Nonomura et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006) 13124]. In the present study, the wettability and the adsorbed position of the particles with extremely rough surfaces are studied based on the Cassie-Baxter model. We predict that the adsorbed position and the interfacial energy depend on the interfacial tensions between the solid and liquid phases, the radius of the particle, and the fraction of the particle surface area that is in contact with the external liquid phase. Interestingly, the initial state of the system governs whether the particle is adsorbed at the interface or not. The shape of the particle is also an important factor which governs the adsorbed position. The disk-shaped particle and the spherical particle which is partially covered with the extremely rough surface, i.e. Janus particle, are adsorbed at the liquid-liquid interface in an oriented state. We should consider not only the interfacial tensions, but also the surface structure and the particle shape to control the adsorption behavior of the particle.

  9. Interfacial contact stiffness of fractal rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dayi; Xia, Ying; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Hong, Jie; Ma, Yanhong

    2017-10-09

    In this work we describe a theoretical model that predicts the interfacial contact stiffness of fractal rough surfaces by considering the effects of elastic and plastic deformations of the fractal asperities. We also develop an original test rig that simulates dovetail joints for turbo machinery blades, which can fine tune the normal contact load existing between the contacting surfaces of the blade root. The interfacial contact stiffness is obtained through an inverse identification method in which finite element simulations are fitted to the experimental results. Excellent agreement is observed between the contact stiffness predicted by the theoretical model and by the analogous experimental results. We demonstrate that the contact stiffness is a power law function of the normal contact load with an exponent α within the whole range of fractal dimension D(1 < D < 2). We also show that for 1 < D < 1.5 the Pohrt-Popov behavior (α = 1/(3 - D)) is valid, however for 1.5 < D < 2, the exponent α is different and equal to 2(D - 1)/D. The diversity between the model developed in the work and the Pohrt-Popov one is explained in detail.

  10. Interactions of light with rough dielectric surfaces - Spectral reflectance and polarimetric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yon, S. A.; Pieters, C. M.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the interactions of visible and NIR radiation with the surfaces of rock and mineral samples was investigated by measuring the reflectance and the polarization properties of scattered and reflected light for slab samples of obsidian and fine-grained basalt, prepared to controlled surface roughness. It is shown that the degree to which radiation can penetrate a surface and then scatter back out, an essential criterion for mineralogic determinations based on reflectance spectra, depends not only upon the composition of the material, but also on its physical condition such as sample grain size and surface roughness. Comparison of the experimentally measured reflectance and polarization from smooth and rough slab materials with the predicted models indicates that single Fresnel reflections are responsible for the largest part of the reflected intensity resulting from interactions with the surfaces of dielectric materials; multiple Fresnel reflections are much less important for such surfaces.

  11. Interactions of light with rough dielectric surfaces - Spectral reflectance and polarimetric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yon, S. A.; Pieters, C. M.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the interactions of visible and NIR radiation with the surfaces of rock and mineral samples was investigated by measuring the reflectance and the polarization properties of scattered and reflected light for slab samples of obsidian and fine-grained basalt, prepared to controlled surface roughness. It is shown that the degree to which radiation can penetrate a surface and then scatter back out, an essential criterion for mineralogic determinations based on reflectance spectra, depends not only upon the composition of the material, but also on its physical condition such as sample grain size and surface roughness. Comparison of the experimentally measured reflectance and polarization from smooth and rough slab materials with the predicted models indicates that single Fresnel reflections are responsible for the largest part of the reflected intensity resulting from interactions with the surfaces of dielectric materials; multiple Fresnel reflections are much less important for such surfaces.

  12. Scattering effects of glass-embedded microstructures by roughness controlled fs-laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Turco, Sara; Di Donato, Andrea; Criante, Luigino

    2017-06-01

    We report a full roughness analysis carried out upon the internal walls of fs-fabricated micro-structures embedded in fused silica glass. In addition to the standard mapping methods based on RMS evaluation, we performed a spectral analysis to compare different types of surface morphology. In detail, introducing the correlation length L c as a key parameter to describe the profile periodicity, we highlight that the bottom- top- and side-wall of a square micro-channel show a different surface order and differently affect the light scattering. This is further validated by fast Fourier transform calculations and supported by beam transmission holograms. Here we suggest that proper beam shaping could ensure uniform energy distribution and low scattering effects.

  13. Diffusely scattered and transmitted elastic waves by random rough solid-solid interfaces using an elastodynamic Kirchhoff approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fan; Lowe, Mike; Craster, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Elastic waves scattered by random rough interfaces separating two distinct media play an important role in modeling phonon scattering and impact upon thermal transport models, and are also integral to ultrasonic inspection. We introduce theoretical formulas for the diffuse field of elastic waves scattered by, and transmitted across, random rough solid-solid interfaces using the elastodynamic Kirchhoff approximation. The new formulas are validated by comparison with numerical Monte Carlo simulations, for a wide range of roughness (rms σ ≤λ /3 , correlation length λ0≥ wavelength λ ), demonstrating a significant improvement over the widely used small-perturbation approach, which is valid only for surfaces with small rms values. Physical analysis using the theoretical formulas derived here demonstrates that increasing the rms value leads to a considerable change of the scattering patterns for each mode. The roughness has different effects on the reflection and the transmission, with a strong dependence on the material properties. In the special case of a perfect match of the wave speed of the two solid media, the transmission is the same as the case for a flat interface. We pay particular attention to scattering in the specular direction, often used as an observable quantity, in terms of the roughness parameters, showing a peak at an intermediate value of rms; this rms value coincides with that predicted by the Rayleigh parameter.

  14. Analysis of Pad Surface Roughness on Copper Chemical Mechanical Planarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Yoshiyuki; Hirao, Takashi; Kinoshita, Masaharu

    2008-04-01

    For Cu high removal rate (RR) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), the effect of pad surface roughness on Cu RR was investigated. Because surface roughness measured by the stylus profiler and the laser microscope (optical) profiler includes various topographies, it is difficult to conclude which effective roughness parameter affects Cu RR. Accordingly, the measured surface roughness was classified into two types of roughness scales. One is the topography by pores, and the other one is the micro roughness caused by conditioner. These were divided by a wavelength of surface profile. In this result, a stylus profile could not precisely trace two types of roughness scales. On the other hand, an optical magnification of 400 could trace the change in topography by micropores. And an optical magnification of 1000 could trace the change in micro roughness caused by conditioning. In the evaluation of Cu RR and the classified roughness, micro roughness measured by the optical magnification of 1000 was strongly correlated with Cu RR. It is concluded that Cu RR is affected by micro roughness caused by conditioner, and also its roughness is necessary to be measured by an optical profiler at high magnification.

  15. Exploiting surface plasmon scattering on optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klantsataya, Elizaveta; François, Alexandre; Sciacca, Beniamino; Zuber, Agnieszka; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Hoffmann, Peter; Monro, Tanya M.

    2016-12-01

    For decades Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) has been one of the corner stones of label free biosensing with a wide range of architectures including optical fiber based SPR. Traditionally, the resonance is monitored through reflectivity measurements at a single wavelength as a function of the incident angle in a standard Kretschmann configuration, or transmission of broadband light through an optical fiber. In both cases, SPR is inferred through optical losses. An alternative approach is to use SPR scattering induced by rough metallic coatings, enabling to turn an intrinsically nonradiative process into a radiative one. As a result, the SPR signal corresponding to the resonance can be seen as light at specific wavelengths being re-emitted by the rough metallic coating. Here, we present results we have achieved using SPR scattering as an alternative approach for optical fiber based plasmonic sensors. Although the use of a rough metallic coating induces some inherent limitations, such as a lower resolution, the architectural advantages and simplicity of the approach offer additional opportunities, such as multiplexing and self-referencing, which are not possible otherwise with a single fiber SPR sensor. A way to overcome the lower resolution that involves the use of microstructured optical fibers, as well as a new perspective on a complementary application, such as Metal Enhanced Fluorescence, which greatly benefits from SPR scattering, will be presented.

  16. Backscatter from a periodic rough surface at near grazing incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominek, A. K.; Shamansky, H. T.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of periodic surface roughness on the radar cross section (RCS) was studied. The surface roughness was formed by a small sinusoidal variation in a planar surface. RCS measurements were obtained for two different sinusoidal variations near grazing incidence for both principle polarizations. Significant grating lobes were observed in the measurements which directly correspond to the roughness characteristics. A physical optics solution was generated and compared to the measurements with reasonable agreement.

  17. Soil surface roughness characterization for microwave remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzahn, P.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-04-01

    With this poster we present a simple and efficient method to measure soil surface roughness in an agricultural environment. Micro scale soil surface roughness is a crucial parameter in many environmental applications. In recent studies it is strongly recognized that soil surface roughness significantly influences the backscatter of agricultural surface, especially on bare fields. Indeed, while different roughness indices depend on their measurement length, no satisfying roughness parametrization and measurement technique has been found yet, introducing large uncertainty in the interpretation of the radar backscattering. In this study, we introduce a photogrammetric system which consists of a customized consumer grade Canon EOS 5d camera and a reference frame providing ground control points. With the system one can generate digital surface models (DSM) with a minimum size of 1 x 2.5 m2, extendable to any desired size, with a ground x,y- resolution of 2 mm. Using this approach, we generated a set of DSM with sizes ranging from 2.5 m2 to 22 m2, acquired over different roughness conditions representing ploughed, harrowed as well as crusted fields on different test sites. For roughness characterization we calculated in microwave remote sensing common roughness indices such as the RMS- height s and the autocorrelation length l. In an extensive statistical investigation we show the behavior of the roughness indices for different acquisition sizes of the proposed method. Results indicate, compared to results from profiles generated out of the dataset, that using a three dimensional measuring device, the calculated roughness indices are more robust in their estimation. In addition, a strong directional dependency of the proposed roughness indices was observed which could be related to the orientation of the seedbed rows to the acqusition direction. In a geostatistical analysis, we decomposed the acquired roughness indices into different scales, yielding a roughness quantity

  18. Quantification of soil surface roughness evolution under simulated rainfall

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil surface roughness is commonly identified as one of the dominant factors governing runoff and interrill erosion. The objective of this study was to compare several existing soil surface roughness indices and to test the Revised Triangular Prism surface area Method (RTPM) as a new approach to cal...

  19. Surface roughness as a calibrated proxy for dating alluvial surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushkin, A.; Sagy, A.; Trabelci, E.

    2012-12-01

    Determining the age of alluvial deposits, which often constitute effective recorders of tectonic and climatic signals, is a pivotal component in many quantitative studies of recent tectonic activity, past climatic variations and landscape evolution processes. In arid to semi-arid desert environments the scarcity in suitable materials for dating commonly implies that numerical dating of alluvial surfaces remains a challenging and fairly expensive task, carried out on an opportunistic basis and typically requiring substantial commitment of resources. With the goal of addressing this problem, we present a new and widely applicable surface dating technique that builds on surface roughness as a quantitative calibrated proxy for the age of alluvial surfaces in desert environments. The well-studied development of reg soils provides the physical basis for the approach, and recent technological advances in the form of portable ground-based laser scanners (LiDAR), facilitate its application by allowing quantitative high resolution (~several millimeters) 3D characterization of the roughness of alluvial chronosequences as they mature into smooth and stable desert pavements. We construct regional age-roughness calibration curves using 'conventional' numerical dating techniques and LiDAR to quantitatively characterize the evolution trends and time-scales associated with roughness changes of reg soils through time. Here, we present results from two previously dated late Quaternary alluvial chronosequences along the Dead Sea Transform in the hyper-arid Negev desert of southern Israel. LiDAR scanning was applied on representative areas (~30-50 m2) of 10 separate terraces ranging from rough (active surfaces) to fairly smooth surfaces with well-developed pavements displaying an OSL age of 87 kyr. Power spectral density (PSD) analysis was used to characterize the roughness evolution trend of these terraces: We find typical and recurring time-dependent changes in the offset as well as

  20. Surface roughness studies for wind tunnel models used in high Reynolds number testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorburger, T. V.; Mclay, M. J.; Scire, F. E.; Gilsinn, D. E.; Giauque, C. H. W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper focuses on stylus and optical techniques for the measurement of surface roughness in wind tunnel models. The stylus instruments provide detailed information, such as surface profiles and area maps, that may then be used either to calculate statistical properties (i.e., the rms surface roughness) or to study individual surface peaks or other features. By contrast, certain optical techniques yield area-averaged statistical properties of the surface roughness directly. Two instruments that use the technique of optical angular scattering are compared. One is a research instrument that has been developed to study the basic scattering phenomena by testing the optical theories and surface models used in inverse calculations of statistical roughness parameters. The second instrument is more compact and is under development as a hand held, on-line device to be used during manufacture of wind tunnel models for the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley Research Center. The scattering geometries for the two instruments are compared and results from these instruments and the stylus technique are shown for roughness specimens that are typical of the surface finish of wind tunnel models.

  1. An Integrated Assessment of Basal Scattering and Topographic Roughness Information Derived from Greenland Radar-Sounding Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet-chaulet, F.; Jordan, T.; Cooper, M.; Bamber, J. L.; Schroeder, D. M.; Williams, C.; Paden, J. D.; Siegert, M. J.; Huybrechts, P.; Gagliardini, O.; Price, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the basal roughness of ice sheets is important for understanding and constraining the role of basal traction on ice dynamics. Numerical model simulations demonstrate high sensitivity to the parametrisation of the lower boundary condition, which is governed by both basal roughness and the thermal state of the bed. In terms of ice dynamics history, basal roughness can reveal aspects of past behaviour as well as provide insight towards more recent flow distribution of marine sediments. Basal roughness information, defined here in general terms as the irregularity of the basal interface relative to a reference surface, can be obtained from radar-sounding data in two physically different ways. Firstly, via the statistical properties of along-track topography (e.g. from spectral analysis); and secondly via the electromagnetic scattering properties of the radar pulse (e.g. by quantifying the spread of the distribution of scattered energy). In general, the basal roughness of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been little studied, and the vast increase in recent Operation Ice Bridge radar-sounding data presents an opportunity for comprehensive, quantitative ice-sheet-wide analysis. Here we present a synthesis of basal scattering and topographic based roughness information for the Greenland Ice Sheet, along with a comparison to present day numerical model output including ice velocity, basal traction, and basal temperature. One central topic which we address is the scale dependence of basal roughness information that is inferred from both analysis methods, and the relationship with basal sliding physics. Consideration of scale is important since basal sliding is primarily controlled by higher frequency roughness. The other topic that we consider is identifying whether there are any defined and unambiguous roughness characteristics in regions where there is suspected to be a thawed basal interface. An overall goal of this work is to integrate basal roughness information

  2. Drag force and surface roughness measurements on freshwater biofouled surfaces.

    PubMed

    Andrewartha, J; Perkins, K; Sargison, J; Osborn, J; Walker, G; Henderson, A; Hallegraeff, G

    2010-05-01

    The detrimental effect of biofilms on skin friction for near wall flows is well known. The diatom genera Gomphonema and Tabellaria dominated the biofilm mat in the freshwater open channels of the Tarraleah Hydropower Scheme in Tasmania, Australia. A multi-faceted approach was adopted to investigate the drag penalty for biofouled 1.0 m x 0.6 m test plates which incorporated species identification, drag measurement in a recirculating water tunnel and surface characterisation using close-range photogrammetry. Increases in total drag coefficient of up to 99% were measured over clean surface values for biofouled test plates incubated under flow conditions in a hydropower canal. The effective roughness of the biofouled surfaces was found to be larger than the physical roughness; the additional energy dissipation was caused in part by the vibration of the biofilms in three-dimensions under flow conditions. The data indicate that there was a roughly linear relationship between the maximum peak-to-valley height of a biofilm and the total drag coefficient.

  3. Effect of surface roughness pattern on transient mixed elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabi, Amir; Akbarzadeh, Saleh; Salimpour, Mohammad Reza; Taei, Morteza

    2016-03-01

    Besides the surface roughness of two contacting surfaces, the surface roughness pattern i.e. longitudinal, transverse and isotropic significantly influences the tribological performance of the mechanical element. Their impression is more pronounced under the mixed elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication condition. The cam and flat follower mechanism is a typical sample in which adverse tribological conditions, including direct boundary interactions occurs. In this paper, the effect of surface roughness pattern on the film thickness and friction coefficient in a cam follower mechanism is investigated. Asperity interaction and friction coefficient analysis is conducted based on a novel elasto-plastic model. The lubrication model is qualitatively compared with the experimental results obtained from the pin on disk experiments for various surface roughness orientations. The results of transient lubrication analysis for a cam and follower lubrication problem are presented. It is shown that the longitudinal surface roughness pattern has a more desirable tribological performance than transverse surface pattern.

  4. Effects of ice crystal surface roughness and air bubble inclusions on cirrus cloud radiative properties from remote sensing perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guanglin; Panetta, R. Lee; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2017-07-01

    We study the combined effects of surface roughness and inhomogeneity on the optical scattering properties of ice crystals and explore the consequent implications to remote sensing of cirrus cloud properties. Specifically, surface roughness and inhomogeneity are added to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 (MC6) cirrus cloud particle habit model. Light scattering properties of the new habit model are simulated using a modified version of the Improved Geometric Optics Method (IGOM). Both inhomogeneity and surface roughness affect the single scattering properties significantly. In visible bands, inhomogeneity and surface roughness both tend to smooth the phase function and eliminate halos and the backscattering peak. The asymmetry parameter varies with the degree of surface roughness following a U shape - decreases and then increases - with a minimum at around 0.15, whereas it decreases monotonically with the air bubble volume fraction. Air bubble inclusions significantly increase phase matrix element -P12 for scattering angles between 20°-120°, whereas surface roughness has a much weaker effect, increasing -P12 slightly from 60°-120°. Radiative transfer simulations and cirrus cloud property retrievals are conducted by including both the factors. In terms of surface roughness and air bubble volume fraction, retrievals of cirrus cloud optical thickness or the asymmetry parameter using solar bands show similar patterns of variation. Polarimetric simulations using the MC6 cirrus cloud particle habit model are shown to be more consistent with observations when both surface roughness and inhomogeneity are simultaneously considered.

  5. Ground based scatterometer measurements of periodic surface roughness and correlation length for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D.; Singh, K.; Herlin, I.

    Retrieving the desired surface parameter of the soil is a matter of increasing interest in the application of microwave remote sensing. For the past several years, the problem of soil surface scattering has been of theoretical and practical interest. Several types of agricultural crops are commonly planted in parallel rows either in a rectangular format or in concentric rings. Therefore, it is the point of research to know the individual effect of periodic surface roughness and correlation length of bare soil on the scattering co-efficient ( 0 ). The scattering co-efficient of a surface is governed by both the dielectric properties and the roughness parameter of that surface. The roughness of the surface with one dimensional surface height profile h (x) can be characterized in terms of the standard deviation of surface height (h rms ) and the surface correlation length ( {}). So, in this paper, it is attempted to highlight these surface parameter effect on the0 at X- band ( 9.5 GHz) frequency. The angular and polarization dependence of roughness and correlation length has also been observed at X- band. For this purpose, an out door observation has been carried out by X- band scatterometer for various periodic surface roughness and correlation length. In this study, we have taken soil moisture as a constant. Experimentally observed data was utilized to provide a composite0 equation model accounting for individual effect in regression analysis. Experimentally observed co-polarized ratio (p= H H 0 / VV0 ) is compared with empirically obtained co-polarized ratio . A good agreement has been observed between experimentally observed p and empirically obtained p. The multiple and partial regression analyses have also been carried out for predicting the dependence of0 on h rms and {}more accurately. It was found that dependence of surface roughness is much more significant in comparison to correlation length at higher incidence angle for both like polarization and

  6. Characteristics of surface roughness associated with leading edge ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon

    1994-01-01

    Detailed size measurements of surface roughness associated with leading edge ice accretions are presented to provide information on characteristics of roughness and trends of roughness development with various icing parameters. Data was obtained from icing tests conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) using a NACA 0012 airfoil. Measurements include diameters, heights, and spacing of roughness elements along with chordwise icing limits. Results confirm the existence of smooth and rough ice zones and that the boundary between the two zones (surface roughness transition region) moves upstream towards stagnation region with time. The height of roughness grows as the air temperature and the liquid water content increase, however, the airspeed has little effect on the roughness height. Results also show that the roughness in the surface roughness transition region grows during a very early stage of accretion but reaches a critical height and then remains fairly constant. Results also indicate that a uniformly distributed roughness model is only valid at a very initial stage of the ice accretion process.

  7. Comparing Vesta's Surface Roughness to the Moon Using Bistatic Radar Observations by the Dawn Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, E. M.; Heggy, E.; Kofman, W. W.; Moghaddam, M.

    2015-12-01

    The first orbital bistatic radar (BSR) observations of a small body have been conducted opportunistically by NASA's Dawn spacecraft at Asteroid Vesta using the telecommunications antenna aboard Dawn to transmit and the Deep Space Network 70-meter antennas on Earth to receive. Dawn's high-gain communications antenna continuously transmitted right-hand circularly polarized radio waves (4-cm wavelength), and due to the opportunistic nature of the experiment, remained in a fixed orientation pointed toward Earth throughout each BSR observation. As a consequence, Dawn's transmitted radio waves scattered from Vesta's surface just before and after each occultation of the Dawn spacecraft behind Vesta, resulting in surface echoes at highly oblique incidence angles of greater than 85 degrees, and a small Doppler shift of ~2 Hz between the carrier signal and surface echoes from Vesta. We analyze the power and Doppler spreading of Vesta's surface echoes to assess surface roughness, and find that Vesta's area-normalized radar cross section ranges from -8 to -17 dB, which is notably much stronger than backscatter radar cross section values reported for the Moon's limbs (-20 to -35 dB). However, our measurements correspond to the forward scattering regime--such that at high incidence, radar waves are expected to scatter more weakly from a rough surface in the backscatter direction than that which is scattered forward. Using scattering models of rough surfaces observed at high incidence, we report on the relative roughness of Vesta's surface as compared to the Moon and icy Galilean satellites. Through this, we assess the dominant processes that have influenced Vesta's surface roughness at centimeter and decimeter scales, which are in turn applicable to assisting future landing, sampling and orbital missions of other small bodies.

  8. Experimental study of the surface roughness in metals with different surface finishing by two-dimensional correlation of speckle pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmad, Miguel; Baldwin, Guillermo; Maczeyzik, Cordula; Mendoza, Fernando; Perez-Lopez, Carlos

    2005-02-01

    In this work we use an experimental set-up implemented in the Optical Physics Laboratory of PUCP, in order to study and to measure the roughness of different surfaces. The surfaces have different finishing obtained in different mechanic process (milling, turning, etc). The measurement method is based on a two-dimensional scan of scattered light from a rough metal surface illuminated by laser light. The light is scattered as speckle pattern and it is captured by the CCD of a digital camera in two different configurations, with and without an imaging lens and under different angles of illumination. Using two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform it has been possible to compute the angular correlation between speckle pattern images and find out the relationship between surface roughness and speckle patterns decorrelation for different metal surface finishing.

  9. Current-induced surface roughness reduction in conducting thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Lin; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-01

    Thin film surface roughness is responsible for various materials reliability problems in microelectronics and nanofabrication technologies, which requires the development of surface roughness reduction strategies. Toward this end, we report modeling results that establish the electrical surface treatment of conducting thin films as a physical processing strategy for surface roughness reduction. We develop a continuum model of surface morphological evolution that accounts for the residual stress in the film, surface diffusional anisotropy and film texture, film's wetting of the layer that is deposited on, and surface electromigration. Supported by linear stability theory, self-consistent dynamical simulations based on the model demonstrate that the action over several hours of a sufficiently strong and properly directed electric field on a conducting thin film can reduce its surface roughness and lead to a smooth planar film surface. The modeling predictions are in agreement with experimental measurements on copper thin films deposited on silicon nitride layers.

  10. Counterintuitive MCNPX Results for Scintillator Surface Roughness Effect

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-12

    We have reported on our recent MCNPX simulation results of energy deposition for a group of 8 scintillation detectors, coupled with various rough surface patterns. The MCNPX results generally favored the detectors with various rough surface patterns. The observed MCNPX results are not fully explained by this work.

  11. Rough surface interferometry at 10.6 microm.

    PubMed

    Kwon, O; Wyant, J C; Hayslett, C R

    1980-06-01

    An IR Twyman-Green interferometer is described. It uses a cw CO(2) laser as a light source operating at a 10.6-microm wavelength. Theoretical analysis and experimental measurements of the relationship between the contrast of the interference fringes and the rms roughness of test surfaces are discussed. Interferometric testing results and special alignment methods are shown for rough surface optics.

  12. Surface roughness evolution of nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Turkin, A. A.; Pei, Y. T.; Shaha, K. P.; Chen, C. Q.; Vainshtein, D. I.; Hosson, J. Th. M. de

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of dynamic roughening and smoothening mechanisms of thin films grown with pulsed-dc magnetron sputtering is presented. The roughness evolution has been described by a linear stochastic equation, which contains the second- and fourth-order gradient terms. Dynamic smoothening of the growing interface is explained by ballistic effects resulting from impingements of ions to the growing thin film. These ballistic effects are sensitive to the flux and energy of impinging ions. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data, and it is concluded that the thin film roughness can be further controlled by adjusting waveform, frequency, and width of dc pulses.

  13. Ethene stabilization on Cu(111) by surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skibbe, Olaf; Vogel, Diana; Binder, Martin; Pucci, Annemarie; Kravchuk, Tatyana; Vattuone, Luca; Venugopal, Vinay; Kokalj, Anton; Rocca, Mario

    2009-07-01

    The molecular vibrations of ethene adsorbed on roughened Cu(111) surfaces have been investigated with high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy and density-functional-theory calculations. The roughness was introduced by sputtering or evaporation of copper, respectively, on the cooled surface. We found stabilization of the ethene layer compared to ethene adsorbed on pristine Cu(111). Furthermore, two new vibrational features observed on the rough surface can be assigned to frustrated translations and rotations of the ethene molecule on surface defects and are indicative of a different binding on the rough surface.

  14. Scatter of X-rays on polished surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasinger, G.

    1981-01-01

    In investigating the dispersion properties of telescope mirrors used in X-ray astronomy, the slight scattering characteristics of X-ray radiation by statistically rough surfaces were examined. The mathematics and geometry of scattering theory are described. The measurement test assembly is described and results of measurements on samples of plane mirrors are given. Measurement results are evaluated. The direct beam, the convolution of the direct beam and the scattering halo, curve fitting by the method of least squares, various autocorrelation functions, results of the fitting procedure for small scattering, and deviations in the kernel of the scattering distribution are presented. A procedure for quality testing of mirror systems through diagnosis of rough surfaces is described.

  15. Determining Surface Roughness in Urban Areas Using Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Donald

    2009-01-01

    An automated procedure has been developed to derive relevant factors, which can increase the ability to produce objective, repeatable methods for determining aerodynamic surface roughness. Aerodynamic surface roughness is used for many applications, like atmospheric dispersive models and wind-damage models. For this technique, existing lidar data was used that was originally collected for terrain analysis, and demonstrated that surface roughness values can be automatically derived, and then subsequently utilized in disaster-management and homeland security models. The developed lidar-processing algorithm effectively distinguishes buildings from trees and characterizes their size, density, orientation, and spacing (see figure); all of these variables are parameters that are required to calculate the estimated surface roughness for a specified area. By using this algorithm, aerodynamic surface roughness values in urban areas can then be extracted automatically. The user can also adjust the algorithm for local conditions and lidar characteristics, like summer/winter vegetation and dense/sparse lidar point spacing. Additionally, the user can also survey variations in surface roughness that occurs due to wind direction; for example, during a hurricane, when wind direction can change dramatically, this variable can be extremely significant. In its current state, the algorithm calculates an estimated surface roughness for a square kilometer area; techniques using the lidar data to calculate the surface roughness for a point, whereby only roughness elements that are upstream from the point of interest are used and the wind direction is a vital concern, are being investigated. This technological advancement will improve the reliability and accuracy of models that use and incorporate surface roughness.

  16. Surface roughness prediction model and experimental results based on multi-wavelength fiber optic sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Nan-Nan; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-31

    The surface roughness prediction model based on a support vector machine was proposed and the multi-wavelength fiber optic sensor was established. The specimens with different surface roughness selected as the test samples were analyzed by using the prediction model when the incident wavelengths were 650 nm and 1310 nm, respectively. The working distance of 2.5 mm ~3.5 mm was chosen as the optimum measurement distance. The experimental results indicate that the error range of surface roughness is 0.74% ~7.56% at 650 nm, and the error range of surface roughness is 1.03% ~5.92% at 1310 nm. The average relative error is about 2.669% at 650 nm, while it is about 2.431% at 1310 nm. The error of roughness measurement is less than 3% by using the model, which is acceptable. The error of surface roughness based on the prediction model is smaller than that by using the characteristic curves between surface roughness and the scattering intensity ratio.

  17. Effect of surface roughness on the microwave emission from soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Schmugge, T. J.; Newton, R. W.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of surface roughness on the brightness temperature of a moist terrain was studied through the modification of Fresnel reflection coefficient and using the radiative transfer equation. The modification involves introduction of a single parameter to characterize the roughness. It is shown that this parameter depends on both the surface height variance and the horizontal scale of the roughness. Model calculations are in good quantitative agreement with the observed dependence of the brightness temperature on the moisture content in the surface layer. Data from truck mounted and airborne radiometers are presented for comparison. The results indicate that the roughness effects are greatest for wet soils where the difference between smooth and rough surfaces can be as great as 50K.

  18. Characteristics of ocean-reflected short radar pulses with application to altimetry and surface roughness determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L. S.; Hayne, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Current work related to geodetic altimetry is summarized. Special emphasis is placed on the effects of pulse length on both altimetry and sea-state estimation. Some discussion is also given of system tradeoff parameters and sea truth requirements to support scattering studies. The problem of analyzing signal characteristics and altimeter waveforms arising from rough surface backscattering is also considered.

  19. Roughness evolution and scatter losses of multilayers for 193 nm optics.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Sven; Duparré, Angela; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    Optical scattering arising from interface roughness and interference effects is a dominant loss mechanism of thin film coatings for 193 nm. A procedure is presented where at-wavelength scatter measurements in combination with atomic force microscopy are used as a tool for the in-depth characterization of the origins of scattering. For highly reflective coatings, the influence of the substrate roughness on the growth properties is analyzed. Moreover, the effects of interface roughness and optical thickness deviations on the scattering properties are separated. Furthermore, the procedure was used to investigate scattering properties of coatings at 45 degrees incidence and of coatings applied in immersion fluid that so far could not be accessed by direct measurement.

  20. Evaluating grain size in polycrystals with rough surfaces by corrected ultrasonic attenuation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiongbing; Han, Xiaoqin; Arguelles, Andrea P; Song, Yongfeng; Hu, Hongwei

    2017-02-27

    Surface roughness of a sample has a great effect on the calculated grain size when measurements are based on ultrasonic attenuation. Combining modified transmission and reflection coefficients at the rough interface with a Multi-Gaussian beam model of the transducer, a comprehensive correction scheme for the attenuation coefficient is developed. An approximate inverse model of the calculated attenuation, based on Weaver's diffuse scattering theory, is established to evaluate grain size in polycrystals. The experimental results showed that for samples with varying surface roughness and matching microstructures, the fluctuation of evaluated average grain size was ±1.17μm. For polished samples with different microstructures, the relative errors to optical microscopy were no more than ±3.61%. The presented method provides an effective nondestructive tool for evaluating the grain size in metals with rough surfaces.

  1. Surface roughness effect on finite oil journal bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, B. C.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical study of the performance of finite oil journal bearings is made, considering the surface roughness effect. The total load supporting ability under such a condition derives from the hydrodynamic as well as asperity contact pressure. These two components of load are calculated separately. The average Reynolds equation for partially lubricated surfaces is used to evaluate hydrodynamic pressure. An analytical expression for average film thickness is obtained and introduced to modify the average Reynolds equation. The resulting differential equation is then solved numerically by finite difference methods for mean hydrodynamic pressure, which in turn gives the hydrodynamic load. Assuming the surface height distribution as Gaussian, the asperity contact pressure is found. The effect of surface roughness parameter, surface pattern, eccentricity ratio, and length to diameter ratio on hydrodynamic load and on side leakage is investigated. It is shown that hydrodynamic load increases with increasing surface roughness when both journal and bearing surfaces have identical roughness structures or when the journal only has a rough surface. The trend of hydrodynamic load is reversed if the journal surface is smooth and the bearing surface is rough.

  2. Application of Air-Coupled Ultrasound to Noncontact Evaluation of Paper Surface Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saniman, M. N. F.; Ihara, I.

    2014-06-01

    An approach for characterizing paper surface quality by ultrasound as an alternative non-contact method is presented. In this work, an air-coupled ultrasound at frequency range from 0.3 MHz to 4.2 MHz has been applied to surface roughness characterization, where a series of sandpapers and pure papers having random and relatively wide range of root-mean-square of roughness Rq from 2.0 to 92.8 are employed as specimens. The amplitude of reflected wave from each specimen is measured with pulse-echo configuration at normal incidence. A Kirchhoff-based scattering model is used to express the scattering phenomena from random rough surfaces and the relations between the normalized amplitude of the reflected wave and surface roughness parameters are then examined. It has been shown through the experiments that high frequency air-coupled ultrasound up to 4 MHz is useful to characterize surface roughness in the order of few microns of Rq. In addition, it has been suggested that an irregularity of paper surface geometry such as skewness could be characterized from the deviation of the normalized amplitude.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Scattering from Randomly Rough Plastic Cylinders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    fluid, here following the form from Morse and Ingard [20] and Skudrzyk [21]. First, the adiabatic equation of state relating the pressure, p, and...wavelength, we get the standard relation between the particle velocity and the pressure u = -VP. (2.6) Rayleigh [19] and Morse and Ingard [20] derive the...the internal and scattered fields, Rayleigh [191 and Morse and Ingard [20] solve for the scattered field from an infinitely long circular cylinder by

  4. Estimating aerodynamic resistance of rough surfaces from angular reflectance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current wind erosion and dust emission models neglect the heterogeneous nature of surface roughness and its geometric anisotropic effect on aerodynamic resistance, and over-estimate the erodible area by assuming it is not covered by roughness elements. We address these shortfalls with a new model wh...

  5. Method for computing a roughness factor for veneer surfaces

    Treesearch

    C. -Y. Hse

    1972-01-01

    Equations for determining the roughness factor (ratio of true surface to apparent area) of rotary-cut veneer were derived from an assumed tracheid model. With data measured on southern pine veneers, the equations indicated that the roughness factor of latewood was near unity, whereas that of earlywood was about 2.

  6. Numerical simulations of flow over realistic rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Junlin; Piomelli, Ugo

    2013-11-01

    Large-eddy simulations are carried out on open-channel flows over multiple types of rough surfaces occurring in hydraulic turbine in both transitionally and fully rough regimes with the Kármán number ranging from 400 to 1000. The roughness imposed using an immersed boundary method is spatially resolved by the grid. The roughness functions are used to test several correlations proposed in the literature to relate surface parameters to the equivalent sand-grain height; agreement is obtained with experimental results on gas turbine roughness, despite slight differences in model coefficients. For relatively sparse distributions, the realistic roughness yields a higher drag compared to modeled roughness. The mean-flow ejecting and sweeping motions as part of the channeling phenomenon contribute to vertical momentum transports and correlate closely to regions of positive surface slope. It is observed that a stronger mean flow effect corresponds to higher frequency of relatively strong bursting events in the near-wall region, while the average size of these events is controlled by roughness length scales that are separated from the ones determining the event frequency. Further discussions will be given on possible indications of important surface parameters.

  7. Thermodynamic modeling of contact angles on rough, heterogeneous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Long, J; Hyder, M N; Huang, R Y M; Chen, P

    2005-12-30

    Theoretical modelling for contact angle hysteresis carried out to date has been mostly limited to several idealized surface configurations, either rough or heterogeneous surfaces. This paper presents a preliminary study on the thermodynamics of contact angles on rough and heterogeneous surfaces by employing the principle of minimum free energy and the concept of liquid front. Based on a two-dimensional regular model surface, a set of relations were obtained, which correlate advancing, receding and system equilibrium contact angles to surface topography, roughness and heterogeneity. It was found that system equilibrium contact angles (theta(ES)) can be expressed as a function of surface roughness factor (delta) and the Cassie contact angle (theta(C)): costheta(ES) = deltacostheta(C). This expression can be reduced to the classical Wenzel equation.: theta(ES) = theta(W) for rough but homogeneous surfaces, and the classical Cassie equation theta(ES) = theta(C) for heterogeneous but smooth surfaces. A non-dimensional parameter called surface feature factor (omega) was proposed to classify surfaces into three categories (types): roughness-dominated, heterogeneity-dominated and mixed-rough-heterogeneous. The prediction of advancing and receding contact angles of a surface is dependent on which category the surface belongs to. The thermodynamic analysis of contact angle hysteresis was further extended from the regular model surface to irregular surfaces; consistent results were obtained. The current model not only agrees well with the models previously studied by other researchers for idealized surfaces, but also explores more possibilities to explain the reported experimental results/observations that most existing theories could not explain.

  8. The roughness surface expressed by the mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macurova, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The work investigates the effect of some characteristics of a cut surface and studies roughness of the cutting process. There is elaborated theoretical information and new aspects on calculation of the theoretical values of the roughness of the cut surface for the chosen materials are formulated. In the area of the experimental investigation, results on characteristics of the chosen materials are formulated in this work. Obtained results are fundamental for the mathematical modulation and mathematical analysis for the investigated dependencies for the cut surfaces. The mathematical model also represents the specific dependencies of the technological process. The characteristics of the observed parameters are approximated by characteristics of the quasi-linear models. The solution of this model offers acceptable results. The mathematical models of the roughness of the cut surface are a mathematical description of the dependency of the maximum roughness of the cut surface of the feed represented by the differential equation and by the integral curves.

  9. Drop impact upon superhydrophobic surfaces with regular and hierarchical roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Cunjing; Hao, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiwen; He, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that roughness and morphologies of the textures play essential roles on the dynamics of water drop impacting onto superhydrophobic substrates. Particularly, significant reduction of contact time has greatly attracted people's attention. We experimentally investigate drop impact dynamics onto three types of superhydrophobic surfaces, consisting of regular micropillars, two-tier textures with nano/micro-scale roughness, and hierarchical textures with random roughness. It shows that the contact time is controlled by the Weber number and the roughness of the surface. Compared with drop impact on regular micropillared surfaces, the contact time can be finely reduced by increasing the Weber number on surfaces with two-tier textures, but can be remarkably reduced on surfaces with hierarchical textures resulting from the prompt splash and fragmentation of liquid lamellae. Our study may shed lights on textured materials fabrication, allowing a rapid drop detachment to realize broad applications.

  10. Roughness parameters and surface deformation measured by coherence radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettl, Peter; Schmidt, Berthold E.; Schenk, M.; Laszlo, Ildiko; Haeusler, Gerd

    1998-09-01

    The 'coherence radar' was introduced as a method to measure the topology of optically rough surfaces. The basic principle is white light interferometry in individual speckles. We will discuss the potentials and limitations of the coherence radar to measure the microtopology, the roughness parameters, and the out of plane deformation of smooth and rough object surfaces. We have to distinguish objects with optically smooth (polished) surfaces and with optically rough surfaces. Measurements at polished surfaces with simple shapes (flats, spheres) are the domain of classical interferometry. We demonstrate new methods to evaluate white light interferograms and compare them to the standard Fourier evaluation. We achieve standard deviations of the measured signals of a few nanometers. We further demonstrate that we can determine the roughness parameters of a surface by the coherence radar. We use principally two approaches: with very high aperture the surface topology is laterally resolved. From the data we determine the roughness parameters according to standardized evaluation procedures, and compare them with mechanically acquired data. The second approach is by low aperture observation (unresolved topology). Here the coherence radar supplies a statistical distance signal from which we can determine the standard deviation of the surface height variations. We will further discuss a new method to measure the deformation of optically rough surfaces, based on the coherence radar. Unless than with standard speckle interferometry, the new method displays absolute deformation. For small out-of-plane deformation (correlated speckle), the potential sensitivity is in the nanometer regime. Large deformations (uncorrelated speckle) can be measured with an uncertainty equal to the surface roughness.

  11. Modeling of surface roughness effects on glaze ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Yamaguchi, Keiko; Berkowitz, Brian M.; Potapczuk, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A series of experimental investigations focused on studying the cause and effect of roughness on accreting glaze ice surfaces were conducted. Detailed microvideo observations were made of glaze ice accretions on 1 to 4 inch diameter cylinders in three icing wind tunnels (the Data Products of New England six inch test facility, the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel, and the B. F. Goodrich Ice Protection Research Facility). Infrared thermal video recordings were made of accreting ice surfaces in the Goodrich facility. Distinct zones of surface water behavior were observed; a smooth wet zone in the stagnation region with a uniform water film; a rough zone where surface tension effects caused coalescence of surface water into stationary beads; a horn zone where roughness elements grow into horn shapes; a runback zone where surface water ran back as rivulets; and a dry zone where rime feathers formed. The location of the transition from the smooth to the rough zone was found to migrate with time towards the stagnation point. The behavior of the transition appeared to be controlled by boundary layer transition and bead formation mechanisms at the interface between the smooth and rough zones. Regions of wet ice growth and enhanced heat transfer were clearly visible in the infrared video recordings of glaze ice surfaces. A simple multi-zone modification to the current glaze ice accretion model was proposed to include spatial variability in surface roughness.

  12. Effects of interface roughness scattering on device performance of indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasem Razavipour, Seyed; Dupont, Emmanuel; Wasilewski, Zbig R.; Ban, Dayan

    2015-06-01

    The impacts of interface roughness (IR) scattering on device performance of indirectly-pumped (IDP) terahertz quantum cascade lasers are studied. Three different active region designs with almost the same lasing frequency at threshold and comparable oscillator strength are experimentally investigated and the measurement data are analyzed and compared with numerical simulation. The simulation results show that all structures suffer from the detrimental effect of intersubband roughness scattering in terms of threshold current density, and probably operating temperature. The intrasubband IR scattering time could also to be a limiting factor in the IDP structures due to the employed high energetic barrier.

  13. Wear and surface roughness of bovine enamel submitted to bleaching.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Azevedo, Juliana Felippi David E Góes De; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi; Mondelli, José

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated surface roughness and wear of bovine enamel following three different bleaching techniques and simulated brushing. Initial surface roughness (Ra) was evaluated and teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10): Group 1, control; Group 2, 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) activated by a hybrid light; Group 3, 35% HP activated by a halogen light; and Group 4, 16% carbamide peroxide. After bleaching, surface roughness was measured and teeth were subjected to 100,000 cycles of simulated brushing. After brushing, the final roughness and wear was determined. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences among groups comparing initial and postbleaching roughness. After brushing, significant differences were found between the control and experimental groups. Group 4 showed a significant increase in roughness values compared with Group 2. The control group showed significantly less wear than other groups. Bleaching techniques promoted increased roughness and wear of bovine enamel, when submitted to simulated brushing. Tooth enamel after bleaching can present a larger alteration in the amount of roughness due to brushing.

  14. Improved detection of rough defects for ultrasonic NDE inspections based on finite element modeling of elastic wave scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, J. R.; Walker, A.; Lowe, M. J. S.

    2014-02-18

    Defects which posses rough surfaces greatly affect ultrasonic wave scattering behaviour, often reducing the magnitude of reflected signals. Ultrasonic inspections rely upon this response for detecting and sizing flaws. For safety critical components reliable characterisation is crucial. Therefore, providing an accurate means to predict reductions in signal amplitude is essential. An extension of Kirchhoff theory has formed the basis for the UK power industry inspection justifications. However, it is widely recognised that these predictions are pessimistic owing to analytical approximations. A numerical full field modelling approach does not fall victim to such limitations. Here, a Finite Element model is used to aid in setting a non-conservative reporting threshold during the inspection of a large pressure vessel forging that might contain embedded rough defects. The ultrasonic response from multiple rough surfaces defined by the same statistical class is calculated for normal incident compression waves. The approach is validated by comparing coherent scattering with predictions made by Kirchhoff theory. At lower levels of roughness excellent agreement is observed, whilst higher values confirm the pessimism of Kirchhoff theory. Furthermore, the mean amplitude in the specular direction is calculated. This represents the information obtained during an inspection, indicating that reductions due to increasing roughness are significantly less than the coherent component currently being used.

  15. Simultaneous Testing Of The Form And The Roughness Of The Diamond Turned Optical Aspheric Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiming

    1988-08-01

    As a result of air bearing and CNC technique, the diamond turning machine can cut the optical surfaces in very high accuracy ( e.g. the iiSG-325 Jiamond Turning Lathe can cut the surfaces with form accuracy in the range of o.5 o.25 micrometer, and finish 20 -- l0 nm ). Naturally it is very important to test the form and the roughness of the diamond turned surfaces. however almost all of the current methods for testing form and routhress of surfaces are difficult to test form and roughness simultaneously, and uneasy to be used as an on-line testing method. In this paper the author developes a simultaneous method for testing the form and the roughness of the diamond turned surfaces. A laser beam is used to scann over the surface under test, the angular distribution of the scattered light is received by a CCD array. The direction of the specular reflective light gives out the slope of the surface under test, and the scattering spectrum gives out the roughness of the surface. Moreover this method can be used as a fast automated on-line monitoring and diagnosing of the diamond turning machine.

  16. Counterintuitive MCNPX Results for Scintillator Surface Roughness Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Ding; Guss, Paul

    2012-10-01

    We performed a number of comparative MCNPX simulations of gamma energy depositions of scintillation crystals with smooth and rough surfaces. In the study, nine surface patterns (8 micro-roughness + 1 smooth) were coupled with eight common scintillation crystals for a total of 72 possible combinations. Although this was a preliminary study, the outcome was counterintuitive; results generally favored surfaces with micro-roughness over a conventional smooth surface as measured in terms of average energy depositions. The advantage gained through surface roughness is less significant for CdSe and LaCl3, but is most significant for the common NaI and the glass-like SiO2 scintillators. Based on the results of the 64 rough-surface coupled MCNPX simulations, 57 of the 64 (~89%) simulations showed some improvement in energy deposition. The mean improvement in energy deposition was 2.52%. The maximum improvement was about 8.75%, which was achieved when roughening the surface of a SiO2 scintillator using a micro cutting pattern. Further, for a conventional NaI scintillator, MCNPX results suggest that any roughness pattern would improve the energy deposition, with an average improvement of 3.83%. Although the likely causes remain unclear, we intend to focus on presenting simulation results instead of offering a sound explanation of the underlying physics.

  17. Ice friction: The effects of surface roughness, structure, and hydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kietzig, Anne-Marie; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.; Englezos, Peter

    2009-07-15

    The effect of surface roughness, structure, and hydrophobicity on ice friction is studied systematically over a wide range of temperature and sliding speeds using several metallic interfaces. Hydrophobicity in combination with controlled roughness at the nanoscale is achieved by femtosecond laser irradiation to mimic the lotus effect on the slider's surface. The controlled roughness significantly increases the coefficient of friction at low sliding speeds and temperatures well below the ice melting point. However, at temperatures close to the melting point and relatively higher speeds, roughness and hydrophobicity significantly decrease ice friction. This decrease in friction is mainly due to the suppression of capillary bridges in spite of the presence of surface asperities that facilitate their formation. Finally, grooves oriented in the sliding direction also significantly decrease friction in the low velocity range compared to scratches and grooves randomly distributed over a surface.

  18. Effects of bleaching agents on surface roughness of filling materials.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Ljubisa; Jordan, Rainer Andreas; Glasser, Marie-Claire; Arnold, Wolfgang Hermann; Nebel, Jan; Tillmann, Wolfgang; Ostermann, Thomas; Zimmer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use a non-tactile optical measurement system to assess the effects of three bleaching agents' concentrations on the surface roughness of dental restoration materials. Two composites (Grandio, Venus) and one glass ionomer cement (Ketac Fil Plus) were used in this in vitro study. Specimens were treated with three different bleaching agents (16% and 22% carbamide peroxide (Polanight) and 38% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Boost)). Surface roughness was measured with an optical profilometer (Infinite Focus G3) before and after the bleaching treatment. Surface roughness increased in all tested specimens after bleaching treatment (p<0.05). Our in vitro study showed that dental bleaching agents influenced the surface roughness of different restoration materials, and the restoration material itself was shown to have an impact on alteration susceptibility. There seemed to be no clinical relevance in case of an optimal finish.

  19. Surface roughness measurement on a wing aircraft by speckle correlation.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Félix; Barrientos, Alberto

    2013-09-05

    The study of the damage of aeronautical materials is important because it may change the microscopic surface structure profiles. The modification of geometrical surface properties can cause small instabilities and then a displacement of the boundary layer. One of the irregularities we can often find is surface roughness. Due to an increase of roughness and other effects, there may be extra momentum losses in the boundary layer and a modification in the parasite drag. In this paper we present a speckle method for measuring the surface roughness on an actual unmanned aircraft wing. The results show an inhomogeneous roughness distribution on the wing, as expected according to the anisotropic influence of the winds over the entire wing geometry. A calculation of the uncertainty of the technique is given.

  20. Surface Roughness Measurement on a Wing Aircraft by Speckle Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Félix; Barrientos, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The study of the damage of aeronautical materials is important because it may change the microscopic surface structure profiles. The modification of geometrical surface properties can cause small instabilities and then a displacement of the boundary layer. One of the irregularities we can often find is surface roughness. Due to an increase of roughness and other effects, there may be extra momentum losses in the boundary layer and a modification in the parasite drag. In this paper we present a speckle method for measuring the surface roughness on an actual unmanned aircraft wing. The results show an inhomogeneous roughness distribution on the wing, as expected according to the anisotropic influence of the winds over the entire wing geometry. A calculation of the uncertainty of the technique is given. PMID:24013488

  1. Effects of Nanoscale Surface Roughness on Colloid Detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmuson, J. A.; Johnson, W. P.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in colloid transport science have demonstrated the importance of surface roughness on colloid attachment; however, few studies have investigated the influence of nano-scale roughness on colloid detachment. This study explores the effects of flow perturbations on a variety of mineral surfaces, as well as NaOH treated (i.e. rough, Figure 1a) and untreated (i.e. smooth, Figure 1b) surfaces for colloids of various sizes attached in an impinging jet system under flowing and stagnant conditions. These experiments showed minimal detachment from the roughened surfaces (treated glass) and significant detachment from the smooth surfaces (untreated glass and mica). A correlation between residence time and attachment irreversibility was also revealed, indicating that the particles that spent the longest time attached to the surface developed the strongest adhesion. The representative surface-heterogeneity model developed by Pazmino et al. (2014) was used to conduct detachment simulations under similar geochemical and flow conditions. While simulated results show qualitative agreement with experimental results, they tend to over-predict detachment, highlighting differences among simulated versus real surfaces, which may be related to surface roughness. These results suggest that more sophisticated models that incorporate surface roughness and time-based adhesion are needed to accurately predict colloid detachment in environmental systems.

  2. Surface Roughness Parameter Uncertainties on Radar Based Soil Moisture Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, A. T.; vanderVelde, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Lang, R.; Su, Z.; Gish, T.

    2012-01-01

    Surface roughness variations are often assumed to be negligible for the retrieval of sol moisture. Although previous investigations have suggested that this assumption is reasonable for natural vegetation covers (i.e. Moran et al. 2002), in-situ measurements over plowed agricultural fields (i.e. Callens et al. 2006) have shown that the soil surface roughness can change considerably due to weathering induced by rain.

  3. A possibility of avoiding surface roughness due to insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortmann, F. X.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of a method for eliminating turbulence caused by the formation of insect roughness upon the leading edges and fuselage, particularly in aircraft using BLC. The proposed technique foresees the use of elastic surfaces on which insect roughness cannot form. The operational characteristics of highly elastic rubber surface fastened to the wing leading edges and fuselage edges are examined. Some preliminary test results are presented. The technique is seen to be advantageous primarily for short-haul operations.

  4. The propagation of a scattered acoustic boundary wave over a rough wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, S. J.

    1980-12-01

    The theory for the generation of a scattered acoustic boundary wave over a slightly rough planar surface was developed by I. Tolstoy and experimentally verified by Medwin et al., propagation of the boundary wave over a wedge is studied. It is found that the boundary wave and the geometrically spreading volume wave diffract from the crest in the same manner. The amplitude ratio of the boundary wave to the diffracted volume wave, where the growth of the boundary wave from the crest is due to a phased line source at the crest caused by the diffracting volume wave, was found to have an average frequency dependence, sq f, and an average range dependence, E to the 0.5 power. The amplitude ratio of boundary wave to diffracted volume wave due to propagation over the rough wedge gave an average frequency dependence of sq f and an average range dependence of R to the 0.3 power. Low wave number grazing propagation over a wedge produces a boundary wave whose amplitude can be many times that of a diffracted volume wave for a smooth surfaced wedge.

  5. Self-affine subglacial roughness: consequences for radar scattering and basal water discrimination in northern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Thomas M.; Cooper, Michael A.; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Williams, Christopher N.; Paden, John D.; Siegert, Martin J.; Bamber, Jonathan L.

    2017-05-01

    Subglacial roughness can be determined at a variety of length scales from radio-echo sounding (RES) data either via statistical analysis of topography or inferred from basal radar scattering. Past studies have demonstrated that subglacial terrain exhibits self-affine (power law) roughness scaling behaviour, but existing radar scattering models do not take this into account. Here, using RES data from northern Greenland, we introduce a self-affine statistical framework that enables a consistent integration of topographic-scale roughness with the electromagnetic theory of radar scattering. We demonstrate that the degree of radar scattering, quantified using the waveform abruptness (pulse peakiness), is topographically controlled by the Hurst (roughness power law) exponent. Notably, specular bed reflections are associated with a lower Hurst exponent, with diffuse scattering associated with a higher Hurst exponent. Abrupt waveforms (specular reflections) have previously been used as a RES diagnostic for basal water, and to test this assumption we compare our radar scattering map with a recent prediction for the basal thermal state. We demonstrate that the majority of thawed regions (above pressure melting point) exhibit a diffuse scattering signature, which is in contradiction to the prior approach. Self-affine statistics provide a generalised model for subglacial terrain and can improve our understanding of the relationship between basal properties and ice-sheet dynamics.

  6. Heat Transfer Variation on Protuberances and Surface Roughness Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Robert C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of surface irregularities on local convective heat transfer, the variation in heat transfer coefficients on small (2-6 mm diam) hemispherical roughness elements on a flat plate has been studied in a wind funnel using IR techniques. Heat transfer enhancement was observed to vary over the roughness elements with the maximum heat transfer on the upstream face. This heat transfer enhancement increased strongly with roughness size and velocity when there was a laminar boundary layer on the plate. For a turbulent boundary layer, the heat transfer enhancement was relatively constant with velocity, but did increase with element size. When multiple roughness elements were studied, no influence of adjacent roughness elements on heat transfer was observed if the roughness separation was greater than approximately one roughness element radius. As roughness separation was reduced, less variation in heat transfer was observed on the downstream elements. Implications of the observed roughness enhanced heat transfer on ice accretion modeling are discussed.

  7. Nanopatterning on rough surfaces using optically trapped microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Y.-C.; Fardel, R.; Arnold, C. B.

    2011-06-01

    While nanofabricated structures find an increasingly large number of applications, few techniques are able to pattern rough or uneven surfaces, or surfaces with pre-existing structure. In this letter we show that optical trap assisted nanopatterning (OTAN), a near-field laser based technique, is able to produce nanoscale features on surfaces with large roughness but without the need for focus adjustment. Patterning on model surfaces of polyimide with vertical steps greater than 0.5 μm shows a high degree of uniformity, demonstrating that OTAN is a suitable technique to pattern nontraditional surfaces for emerging technologies.

  8. Temporal speckle method for measuring three-dimensional surface of large-sized rough glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhou, Changhe; Wang, Shaoqing; Fan, Xin; Yang, Boquan; Lu, Yancong; Li, Hao; Liu, Zhao

    2016-10-01

    To provide accurate three-dimensional (3-D) data for production and processing, 3-D surface measurement is always an essential step to the production of glass. Profilometry and Interferometry are traditional measurement apparatus, referring to different procedures. Although more precise, Interferometry cannot be used in milling procedure, owing to the scattering property of rough glass. While as a widely used Profilometry, Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) employs a probe for measuring by contacting surface directly. It should be noted that such a time-consuming machine is not practical for measuring large-sized rough glass, so a novel designed method called temporal speckle is introduced to a non-contact binocular 3-D measurement system for measuring. Specifically, N band-limited binary patterns are sequentially projected to rough glass from a pattern generation device, such patterns have been proved to depress scattering properties of rough surface. The whole binocular 3-D measurement system can finish a single measurement in one second with a standard deviation less than 73.44um. This system performs fast and accurate 3-D surface measurement for large-sized rough glass block.

  9. The effect of toothbrush bristle stiffness on nanohybrid surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zairani, O.; Irawan, B.; Damiyanti, M.

    2017-08-01

    The surface of a restoration can be affected by toothpaste containing abrasive agents and the stiffness of toothbrush bristles. Objective: To identify the effect of toothbrush bristle stiffness on nanohybrid surface roughness. Methods: Sixteen nanohybrid specimens were separated into two groups. The first group was brushed using soft-bristle toothbrushes, and the second group was brushed using medium-bristle toothbrushes. Media such as aqua bides was used for brushing in both groups. Brushing was done 3 times for 5 minutes. Surface roughness was measured initially and at 5, 10, and 15 minutes using a surface roughness tester. Results: The results, tested with One-Way ANOVA and Independent Samples t Test, demonstrated that after brushing for 15 minutes, the soft-bristle toothbrush group showed a significantly different value (p < 0.05) of nanohybrid surface roughness. The group using medium-bristle toothbrushes showed the value of nano hybrid surface roughness significant difference after brushing for 10 minutes. Conclusion: Roughness occurs more rapidly when brushing with medium-bristle tooth brushes than when brushing with soft-bristle toothbrushes.

  10. Characteristics of density currents over regular and irregular rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaganagar, K.

    2013-12-01

    Direct numerical simulation is used as a tool to understand the effect of surface roughness on the propagation of density currents. Simulations have been performed for lock-exchange flow with gate separating the dense and the lighter fluid. As the lock is released the dense fluid collapses with the lighter fluid on the top, resulting in formation of horizontally evolving density current. The talk will focus on the fundamental differences between the propagation of the density current over regular and irregular rough surfaces. The flow statistics and the flow structures are discussed. The results have revealed the spacing between the roughness elements is an important factor in classifying the density currents. The empirical relations of the front velocity and location for the dense and sparse roughness have been evaluated in terms of the roughness height, spacing between the elements and the initial amount of lock fluid. DNS results for a dense current flowing over a (a) smooth and (b) rough bottom with egg-carton roughness elements in a regular configuration. In these simulations the lock-exchange box is located in the middle of the channel and has two gates which allow two dense currents to be generated, one moving to the right and one to the left side of the channel. Note how the dense current interface presents smaller structures when over a rough bottom (right).

  11. Backscattering from a statistically rough 2-D surface: Diffraction corrections to geometrical optics cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, Iosif M.

    2007-12-01

    Diffraction corrections (up to terms ˜1/k2) to the geometric optics backscattering cross sections from a statistically rough 2-D perfectly conducting surface were derived for TE- and TM-polarized electromagnetic waves based on the high-frequency asymptotic expansions of electric and magnetic fields at the surface obtained by Fuks (2004). It was shown that at steep incident angles, where the specular reflections play the main part in scattering, diffraction results can be interpreted as scattering by a fictitious surface, the roughness of which is gentler that the real surface at HH polarization and steeper at VV polarization. The HH/VV polarization ratio (dB), being positive at steep incident angles, gradually decreases as the incident angle increases, and it becomes negative for moderate incident angles.

  12. Near grazing scattering from non-Gaussian ocean surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yunjin; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of the scattered electromagnetic waves from non-Gaussian ocean surfaces at near grazing incidence. Even though the scattering mechanisms at moderate incidence angles are relatively well understood, the same is not true for near grazing rough surface scattering. However, from the experimental ocean scattering data, it has been observed that the backscattering cross section of a horizontally polarized wave can be as large as the vertical counterpart at near grazing incidence. In addition, these returns are highly intermittent in time. There have been some suggestions that these unexpected effects may come from shadowing or feature scattering. Using numerical scattering simulations, it can be shown that the horizontal backscattering cannot be larger than the vertical one for the Gaussian surfaces. Our main objective of this study is to gain a clear understanding of scattering mechanisms underlying the near grazing ocean scattering. In order to evaluate the backscattering cross section from ocean surfaces at near grazing incidence, both the hydrodynamic modeling of ocean surfaces and an accurate near grazing scattering theory are required. For the surface modeling, we generate Gaussian surfaces from the ocean surface power spectrum which is derived using several experimental data. Then, weakly nonlinear large scale ocean surfaces are generated following Longuet-Higgins. In addition, the modulation of small waves by large waves is included using the conservation of wave action. For surface scattering, we use MOM (Method of Moments) to calculate the backscattering from scattering patches with the two scale shadowing approximation. The differences between Gaussian and non-Gaussian surface scattering at near grazing incidence are presented.

  13. Near grazing scattering from non-Gaussian ocean surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yunjin; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of the scattered electromagnetic waves from non-Gaussian ocean surfaces at near grazing incidence. Even though the scattering mechanisms at moderate incidence angles are relatively well understood, the same is not true for near grazing rough surface scattering. However, from the experimental ocean scattering data, it has been observed that the backscattering cross section of a horizontally polarized wave can be as large as the vertical counterpart at near grazing incidence. In addition, these returns are highly intermittent in time. There have been some suggestions that these unexpected effects may come from shadowing or feature scattering. Using numerical scattering simulations, it can be shown that the horizontal backscattering cannot be larger than the vertical one for the Gaussian surfaces. Our main objective of this study is to gain a clear understanding of scattering mechanisms underlying the near grazing ocean scattering. In order to evaluate the backscattering cross section from ocean surfaces at near grazing incidence, both the hydrodynamic modeling of ocean surfaces and an accurate near grazing scattering theory are required. For the surface modeling, we generate Gaussian surfaces from the ocean surface power spectrum which is derived using several experimental data. Then, weakly nonlinear large scale ocean surfaces are generated following Longuet-Higgins. In addition, the modulation of small waves by large waves is included using the conservation of wave action. For surface scattering, we use MOM (Method of Moments) to calculate the backscattering from scattering patches with the two scale shadowing approximation. The differences between Gaussian and non-Gaussian surface scattering at near grazing incidence are presented.

  14. The effect of surface roughness on the resistivity increase in nanometric dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marom, H.; Eizenberg, M.

    2006-06-01

    Materials with nanometric dimensions exhibit higher electrical resistivity due to additional scattering centers for the conduction electrons, mainly from surfaces and grain boundaries. In this study we focus on the effect of surfaces by implementing an experimental technique in which the resistivity of thin films is measured during and after etching them inside a solution. This technique enables to analyze the contribution of surfaces to the resistivity and gives a unique insight as for the effect of surface roughness. It is shown that the scattering of electrons from annealed copper films with smooth enough surfaces is mostly specular and that the resistivity in this case is dominated by the effect of grain boundaries. However, when the roughness of the surface becomes larger than the de Broglie wavelength of the electrons, a substantial increase in resistivity occurs. This roughness-induced resistivity is analyzed and shown to be much larger in certain cases than the resistivity predicted for a flat surface, even when all electron scatterings are assumed to be completely diffused.

  15. Surface roughness dependence of the electrical resistivity of W(001) layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, P. Y.; Zhou, T.; Engler, B. J.; Chawla, J. S.; Hull, R.; Gall, D.

    2017-09-01

    The resistivity ρ of epitaxial W(001) layers grown on MgO(001) at 900 °C increases from 5.63 ± 0.05 to 27.6 ± 0.6 μΩ-cm with decreasing thickness d = 390 to 4.5 nm. This increase is due to electron-surface scattering but is less pronounced after in situ annealing at 1050 °C, leading to a 7%-13% lower ρ for d < 20 nm. The ρ(d) data from in situ and ex situ transport measurements at 295 and 77 K cannot be satisfactorily described using the existing Fuchs-Sondheimer (FS) model for surface scattering, as ρ for d < 9 nm is larger than the FS prediction and the annealing effects are inconsistent with a change in either the bulk mean free path or the surface scattering specularity. In contrast, introducing an additive resistivity term ρmound which accounts for surface roughness resolves both shortcomings. The new term is due to electron reflection at surface mounds and is, therefore, proportional to the ballistic resistance times the average surface roughness slope, divided by the layer thickness. This is confirmed by a measured linear relationship between ρmound and σ/(Ld), where the root-mean-square roughness σ and the lateral correlation length L of the surfaces are directly measured using atomic force microscopy and X-ray reflectivity.

  16. Calculations of microwave brightness temperature of rough soil surfaces: Bare field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, T.; Schmugge, T. J.; Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for simulating the brightness temperatures of soils with rough surfaces is developed. The surface emissivity of the soil media is obtained by the integration of the bistatic scattering coefficients for rough surfaces. The roughness of a soil surface is characterized by two parameters, the surface height standard deviation sigma and its horizontal correlation length l. The model calculations are compared to the measured angular variations of the polarized brightness temperatures at both 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequences. A nonlinear least-squares fitting method is used to obtain the values of delta and l that best characterize the surface roughness. The effect of shadowing is incorporated by introducing a function S(theta), which represents the probability that a point on a rough surface is not shadowed by other parts of the surface. The model results for the horizontal polarization are in excellent agreement with the data. However, for the vertical polarization, some discrepancies exist between the calculations and data, particularly at the 1.4 GHz frequency. Possible causes of the discrepancy are discussed.

  17. Reflection of polarized light by rough surfaces: Monte Carlo modeling compared to measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirado, Daniel; Marcos Sanz, Juan; María Saiz, José; Muñoz, Olga; Stam, Daphne M.

    2013-04-01

    A Monte Carlo model of light scattering in a dense medium was developed in order to simulate the reflection of polarized light by rough surfaces [1]. This model calculates all four Stokes parameters of light scattered in all directions by a surface made of any material. Although multiple scattering is allowed, there is a limitation in the packing density of the medium, as independent scattering is assumed. The model can be applied to the study of light scattering by fluffy icy/dusty surfaces, e.g., various types of planetary or lunar regolith-type surfaces, icy moons or comets. The main goal of this work is to test the model by comparing scattering matrix elements calculated with the Monte Carlo model to experimentally measured scattering matrix elements as functions of the phase angle. We use a Sahara sand surface for this. The experimental scattering matrix is measured at the new apparatus developed at the University of Cantabria (Spain) [2]. Sample surfaces are prepared by putting together dust grains with a water-diluted glue coating. A surface's top layer was made with pure sand, to preserve the air-sand refractive index ratio. Calibration measurements have already been carried out successfully by using Spectralon as a Lambertian surface. After calibration, measurements of a surface made of Sahara sand were performed. In such measurements, deviations from Lambertian behavior were found, as well as a very prominent forward peak in the (1,1)-element of the matrix for grazing illumination angles. The values of I and -Q/I calculated by the model for the vertical scattering plane and non-polarized incident light were compared to the measured F11 and -F21/F11 elements for several incident directions. A good agreement between measurements and calculations was achieved. The forward-scattering peak of the (1,1)-element can be interpreted as a result of single scattering of horizontally incident light by the small features of the non-flat surface. In this case, light

  18. Improved detection of rough defects for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation inspections based on finite element modeling of elastic wave scattering.

    PubMed

    Pettit, James R; Walker, Anthony E; Lowe, Michael J S

    2015-10-01

    Defects which possess rough surfaces greatly affect ultrasonic wave scattering behavior, usually reducing the magnitude of reflected signals. Understanding and accurately predicting the influence of roughness on signal amplitudes is crucial, especially in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for the inspection of safety-critical components. An extension of Kirchhoff theory has formed the basis for many practical applications; however, it is widely recognized that these predictions are pessimistic because of analytical approximations. A numerical full-field modeling approach does not fall victim to such limitations. Here, a finite element (FE) modeling approach is used to develop a realistic methodology for the prediction of expected backscattering from rough defects. The ultrasonic backscatter from multiple rough surfaces defined by the same statistical class is calculated for normal and oblique incidence. Results from FE models are compared with Kirchhoff theory predictions and experimental measurements to establish confidence in the new approach. At lower levels of roughness, excellent agreement is observed between Kirchhoff theory, FE, and experimental data, whereas at higher values, the pessimism of Kirchhoff theory is confirmed. An important distinction is made between the total, coherent, and diffuse signals and it is observed, significantly, that the total signal amplitude is representative of the information obtained during an inspection. This analysis provides a robust basis for a less sensitive, yet safe, threshold for inspection of rough defects.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation of nanobubble nucleation on rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yawei; Zhang, Xianren

    2017-04-01

    Here, we study how nanobubbles nucleate on rough hydrophobic surfaces, using long-time standard simulations to directly observe the kinetic pathways and using constrained simulations combined with the thermodynamic integration approach to quantitatively evaluate the corresponding free energy changes. Both methods demonstrate that a two-step nucleation route involving the formation of an intermediate state is thermodynamically favorable: at first, the system transforms from the Wenzel state (liquid being in full contact with the solid surface) to the Cassie state (liquid being in contact with the peaks of the rough surface) after gas cavities occur in the grooves (i.e., the Wenzel-to-Cassie transition); then, the gas cavities coalesce and form a stable surface nanobubble with pinned contact lines (i.e., the Cassie-to-nanobubble transition). Additionally, the free energy barriers for the two transitions show opposing dependencies on the degree of surface roughness, indicating that the surfaces with moderate roughness are favorable for forming stable surface nanobubbles. Moreover, the simulation results also reveal the coexistence and transition between the Wenzel, Cassie, and nanobubble states on rough surfaces.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of nanobubble nucleation on rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yawei; Zhang, Xianren

    2017-04-28

    Here, we study how nanobubbles nucleate on rough hydrophobic surfaces, using long-time standard simulations to directly observe the kinetic pathways and using constrained simulations combined with the thermodynamic integration approach to quantitatively evaluate the corresponding free energy changes. Both methods demonstrate that a two-step nucleation route involving the formation of an intermediate state is thermodynamically favorable: at first, the system transforms from the Wenzel state (liquid being in full contact with the solid surface) to the Cassie state (liquid being in contact with the peaks of the rough surface) after gas cavities occur in the grooves (i.e., the Wenzel-to-Cassie transition); then, the gas cavities coalesce and form a stable surface nanobubble with pinned contact lines (i.e., the Cassie-to-nanobubble transition). Additionally, the free energy barriers for the two transitions show opposing dependencies on the degree of surface roughness, indicating that the surfaces with moderate roughness are favorable for forming stable surface nanobubbles. Moreover, the simulation results also reveal the coexistence and transition between the Wenzel, Cassie, and nanobubble states on rough surfaces.

  1. Surface texture characterization by angular distributions of scattered light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilsinn, D. E.; Vorburger, T. V.; Scire, F. E.; Teague, E. C.; Mclay, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Work at the National Bureau of Standards to develop an on-line optical measurement device and attendant algorithms for automated optical scattering measurements of machined metal surfaces are described. The surfaces could be milled, ground or lapped, and the system is intended to categorize the resulting surface characteristics. The optical device consists of a He-Ne laser which is shone on a surface. The scattered light is captured by a semicircular array of 87 detector elements rotated over the scanned area. The light signals are processed through a digital voltmeter and then an A/D converter. The signals are then stored for later comparisons with optical scattering data obtained by optical instruments used with stylus instruments for characterizing surface topographies. A theoretical model has been defined which relates light scattering and the characteristics of the surface roughness. Initial experimental results with a sinusoidal surface have indicated that although the system can follow the trend of the roughness, the roughness amplitude is as yet uncertainly defined and the computations require excessive time.

  2. Interfacial thermodynamics of confined water near molecularly rough surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Jeetain; Hummer, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of nanoscopic roughness on the interfacial free energy of water confined between solid surfaces. SPC/E water is simulated in confinement between two infinite planar surfaces that differ in their physical topology: one is smooth and the other one is physically rough on a nanometer length scale. The two thermodynamic ensembles considered, with constant pressure either normal or parallel to the walls, correspond to different experimental conditions. We find that molecular-scale surface roughness significantly increases the solid-liquid interfacial free energy compared to the smooth surface. For our surfaces with a water-wall interaction energy minimum of −1.2 kcal/mol, we observe a transition from a hydrophilic surface to a hydrophobic surface at a roughness amplitude of about 3 Å and a wave length of 11.6 Å, with the interfacial free energy changing sign from negative to positive. In agreement with previous studies of water near hydrophobic surfaces, we find an increase in the isothermal compressibility of water with increasing surface roughness. Interestingly, average measures of the water density and hydrogen-bond number do not contain distinct signatures of increased hydrophobicity. In contrast, a local analysis indicates transient dewetting of water in the valleys of the rough surface, together with a significant loss of hydrogen bonds, and a change in the dipole orientation toward the surface. These microscopic changes in the density, hydrogen bonding, and water orientation contribute to the large increase in the interfacial free energy, and the change from a hydrophilic to a hydrophobic character of the surface. PMID:21043431

  3. Effect of surface morphology on drag and roughness sublayer in flows over regular roughness elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placidi, Marco; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2014-11-01

    The effects of systematically varied roughness morphology on bulk drag and on the spatial structure of turbulent boundary layers are examined by performing a series of wind tunnel experiments. In this study, rough surfaces consisting of regularly and uniformly distributed LEGO™ bricks are employed. Twelve different patterns are adopted in order to methodically examine the individual effects of frontal solidity (λF, frontal area of the roughness elements per unit wall-parallel area) and plan solidity (λP, plan area of roughness elements per unit wall-parallel area), on both the bulk drag and the turbulence structure. A floating element friction balance based on Krogstad & Efros (2010) was designed and manufactured to measure the drag generated by the different surfaces. In parallel, high resolution planar and stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was applied to investigate the flow features. This talk will focus on the effects of each solidity parameter on the bulk drag and attempt to relate the observed trends to the flow structures in the roughness sublayer. Currently at City University London.

  4. Effect of surface roughness on characteristics of spherical shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Paul W; Mcfarland, Donald R

    1955-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted on a small-scale test layout in which direct observation of the shock wave movement with time could be made in order to determine the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of spherical shock waves. Data were obtained with 15-gram pentolite charges at four heights of burst, both for a smooth surface and for a surface completely covered with pyramid-shaped roughness elements. The observations resulted in determinations of shock peak overpressure and Mach stem height as a function of distance for each test. Comparison of the smooth-surface data with those obtained for the extremely rough condition showed a small net effort of roughness on the shock peak overpressures at the surface for all burst heights, the effect being to lower the overpressures. The effect of surface roughness on the Mach stem formation and growth was to delay the formation at the greatest charge height and to lower the height of the Mach stem for all heights.Comparison of the free-air shock peak overpressures with larger scale data showed good similarity of the overpressure-distance relationships. The data did not fit a geometrical similarity parameter for the path of the triple point at different heights of burst suggested by other investigators. A simple similarity parameter (relating the horizontal distance to the theoretical point of Mach formation) was found which showed only a small influence of burst height on the path of the triple point. While the data presented provide knowledge of the effect of many surface-roughness elements on the overall shock characteristics, the data do not provide insight into the details of the air-flow characteristics along the surface, nor the relative contribution of individual roughness elements to the results obtained.

  5. Effects of plaque lengths on stent surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Syaifudin, Achmad; Takeda, Ryo; Sasaki, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of the stent surface influence the effectiveness of vascular disease treatment after stent deployment. During the expanding process, the stent acquires high-level deformation that could alter either its microstructure or the magnitude of surface roughness. This paper constructed a finite element simulation to observe the changes in surface roughness during the stenting process. Structural transient dynamic analysis was performed using ANSYS, to identify the deformation after the stent is placed in a blood vessel. Two types of bare metal stents are studied: a Palmaz type and a Sinusoidal type. The relationship between plaque length and the changes in surface roughness was investigated by utilizing three different length of plaque; plaque length longer than the stent, shorter than the stent and the same length as the stent. In order to reduce computational time, 3D cyclical and translational symmetry was implemented into the FE model. The material models used was defined as a multilinear isotropic for stent and hyperelastic for the balloon, plaque and vessel wall. The correlation between the plastic deformation and the changes in surface roughness was obtained by intermittent pure tensile test using specimen whose chemical composition was similar to that of actual stent material. As the plastic strain is achieved from FE simulation, the surface roughness can be assessed thoroughly. The study found that the plaque size relative to stent length significantly influenced the critical changes in surface roughness. It was found that the length of stent which is equal to the plaque length was preferable due to the fact that it generated only moderate change in surface roughness. This effect was less influential to the Sinusoidal stent.

  6. Mechanical interactions of rough surfaces. Project status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This project addresses a number of unresolved issues which impact the design of mechanical systems in which surface microtopography per se or events which occur on the microgeometric scale play a critical role. The project is an experimental/analytical investigation to: (1) explore the behavior of lubricated concentrated contacts involving microscopically rough surfaces under conditions of combined rolling, sliding and spinning with and without the presence of contaminating particles; and (2) develop processing principles and techniques for the analysis of digitized rough surface profiles to yield surface descriptors that are predictive of functional performance and which have acceptable systematic and random error.

  7. Roughness and waviness requirements for laminar flow surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obara, Clifford J.; Holmes, Bruce J.

    1986-01-01

    Many modern metal and composite airframe manufacturing techniques can provide surface smoothness which is compatible with natural laminar flow (NLF) requirements. An important consideration is manufacturing roughness of the surface in the form of steps and gaps perpendicular to the freestream. The principal challenge to the design and manufacture of laminar flow surfaces today appears to be in the installation of leading-edge panels on wing, nacelle, and empennage surfaces. A similar challenge is in the installation of access panels, doors, windows, fuselage noses, and engine nacelles. Past work on roughness and waviness manufacturing tolerances and comparisons with more recent experiments are reviewed.

  8. Site-specific retention of colloids at rough rock surfaces.

    PubMed

    Darbha, Gopala Krishna; Fischer, Cornelius; Luetzenkirchen, Johannes; Schäfer, Thorsten

    2012-09-04

    The spatial deposition of polystyrene latex colloids (d = 1 μm) at rough mineral and rock surfaces was investigated quantitatively as a function of Eu(III) concentration. Granodiorite samples from Grimsel test site (GTS), Switzerland, were used as collector surfaces for sorption experiments. At a scan area of 300 × 300 μm(2), the surface roughness (rms roughness, Rq) range was 100-2000 nm, including roughness contribution from asperities of several tens of nanometers in height to the sample topography. Although, an increase in both roughness and [Eu(III)] resulted in enhanced colloid deposition on granodiorite surfaces, surface roughness governs colloid deposition mainly at low Eu(III) concentrations (≤5 × 10(-7) M). Highest deposition efficiency on granodiorite has been found at walls of intergranular pores at surface sections with roughness Rq = 500-2000 nm. An about 2 orders of magnitude lower colloid deposition has been observed at granodiorite sections with low surface roughness (Rq < 500 nm), such as large and smooth feldspar or quartz crystal surface sections as well as intragranular pores. The site-specific deposition of colloids at intergranular pores is induced by small scale protrusions (mean height = 0.5 ± 0.3 μm). These protrusions diminish locally the overall DLVO interaction energy at the interface. The protrusions prevent further rolling over the surface by increasing the hydrodynamic drag required for detachment. Moreover, colloid sorption is favored at surface sections with high density of small protrusions (density (D) = 2.6 ± 0.55 μm(-1), asperity diameter (φ) = 0.6 ± 0.2 μm, height (h) = 0.4 ± 0.1 μm) in contrast to surface sections with larger asperities and lower asperity density (D = 1.2 ± 0.6 μm(-1), φ = 1.4 ± 0.4 μm, h = 0.6 ± 0.2 μm). The study elucidates the importance to include surface roughness parameters into predictive colloid-borne contaminant migration calculations.

  9. Investigation Into the Accuracy of 3D Surface Roughness Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumermanis, M.; Rudzitis, J.; Mozga, N.; Ancans, A.; Grislis, A.

    2014-04-01

    The existing standards for surface roughness cover only two dimensions, while in reality this is three-dimensional (3D). In particular, the 3D surface roughness parameters are important for solving the contact surface mechanics problems as related to the accuracy of 3D surface roughness characteristics. One of the most important factors for determination of 3D characteristics is the number of data points (NDP) on the x- and y-axes (i.e. in cut-off length). The NDP has a profound effect on the accuracy of measurement results, measuring time and volume of the output data (especially along the y-axis, where the NDP is identical to the number of parallel profiles). At a too small NDP the results will be incorrect and with too broad scatter, while a too large NDP - though not enlarging the range of basic information - considerably increases the measuring time. Therefore, the aim of the work was to find the optimal NDP for such surface processing methods as grinding, spark erosion and shot methods of surface treatment. Eksistējošie virsmas raupjuma standarti apskata virsmas raupjumu tikai divās dimensijās. Tomēr reālais virsmas raupjums pēc savas dabas ir trīsdimensiju (3D) objekts. Līdz ar to virsmas raupjums ir jāraksturo ar 3D parametriem. Un no šo parametru noteikšanas precizitātes ir atkarīgi tālākie virsmas aprēķini, piemēram, virsmu kontaktēšanās process. Viens no svarīgākajiem faktoriem, raksturojot virsmas raupjumu 3D, pielietojot kontakta tipa mēriekārtas, ir datu punktu skaits pa abām mērīšanas asīm x un y. Ar datu punktu skaitu mēs saprotam to skaitu mērīšanas bāzes garumā. Datu punktu skaits būtiski ietekmē sagaidāmo mērījumu rezultātu precizitāti, mērīšanai nepieciešamo laiku un izejas datu faila izmērus (sevišķi y-ass virzienā, kur katrs datu punkts ir paralēls profils). Datu punktu skaitam ir jābūt optimālam. Pārāk mazs punktu skaits noved pie neprecīziem rezultātiem un lielas to izkliedes, savuk

  10. Surface roughness measurements of micromachined polycrystalline silicon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phinney, L. M.; Lin, G.; Wellman, J.; Garcia, A.

    2004-07-01

    The characteristics of the materials and surfaces in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microsystems technology (MST) profoundly affect the performance, reliability, and wear of MEMS and MST devices. It is critical to measure the properties of surfaces that are in contact during microstructure movement, such as the underside of a MEMS gear and the underlying substrate. However, contacting surfaces are usually inaccessible unless the MEMS device is broken and removed from the substrate. This paper presents a nondestructive method for characterizing commercially fabricated surface micromachined polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) devices. Microhinged flaps were designed that enable access to the upper surface, the part of a structural layer deposited last; the lower surface, the part of a structural layer deposited first; and the underlying substrate. Due to the susceptibility of surface-micromachined MEMS to adhesion failures, the surface roughness is a key parameter for predicting device behavior. Using the microhinged flaps, the RMS surface roughness for polycrystalline surfaces was measured and indicated that the upper surfaces were 3.5-6.4 times rougher than the lower surfaces. The difference in the surface roughness for the upper surface, which is easily accessed and the one most commonly characterized, and that for the lower surface reveals the importance of characterizing contacting surfaces in MEMS and MST devices.

  11. Surface roughness and wear of resin cements after toothbrush abrasion.

    PubMed

    Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi; Ordoñéz-Aguilera, Juan Fernando; Maenosono, Rafael Massunari; Volú, Fernanda Lessa Amaral; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2015-01-01

    Increased surface roughness and wear of resin cements may cause failure of indirect restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the surface roughness change and the vertical wear of four resin cements subjected to mechanical toothbrushing abrasion. Ten rectangular specimens (15 × 5 × 4 mm) were fabricated according to manufacturer instructions for each group (n = 10): Nexus 3, Kerr (NX3); RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE (ARC); RelyX U100, 3M ESPE (U100); and Variolink II, Ivoclar/Vivadent (VL2). Initial roughness (Ra, µm) was obtained through 5 readings with a roughness meter. Specimens were then subjected to toothbrushing abrasion (100,000 cycles), and further evaluation was conducted for final roughness. Vertical wear (µm) was quantified by 3 readings of the real profile between control and brushed surfaces. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The Pearson correlation test was performed between the surface roughness change and wear (p < 0.05). The mean values of initial/final roughness (Ra, µm)/wear (µm) were as follows: NX3 (0.078/0.127/23.175); ARC (0.086/0.246/20.263); U100 (0.296/0.589/16.952); and VL2 (0.313/0.512/22.876). Toothbrushing abrasion increased surface roughness and wear of all resin cements tested, although no correlation was found between those variables. Vertical wear was similar among groups; however, it was considered high and may lead to gap formation in indirect restorations.

  12. Drug release from slabs and the effects of surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Kalosakas, George; Martini, Dimitra

    2015-12-30

    We discuss diffusion-controlled drug release from slabs or thin films. Analytical and numerical results are presented for slabs with flat surfaces, having a uniform thickness. Then, considering slabs with rough surfaces, the influence of a non-uniform slab thickness on release kinetics is numerically investigated. The numerical release profiles are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations. Release kinetics is quantified through the stretched exponential (or Weibull) function and the resulting dependence of the two parameters of this function on the thickness of the slab, for flat surfaces, and the amplitude of surface fluctuations (or the degree of thickness variability) in case of roughness. We find that a higher surface roughness leads to a faster drug release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rigorous and asymptotic models of coherent scattering from random rough layers with applications to roadways and geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinel, Nicolas; Bourlier, Christophe; Le Bastard, Cédric

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the rigorous efficient PILE (Propagation-Inside-Layer Expansion) numerical method [1] and an extension of the Ament model [2] to calculate the field scattered by three homogeneous media separated by two random rough surfaces. Here, the study is applied to ground penetrating radar (GPR) (nadir angle, wide band) for nondestructive survey by taking the roughness of the surfaces into account and by calculating the contribution of each echo coming from the multiple scattering inside the layer. Applications to roadways and geoscience are investigated. The PILE method starts from the Method of Moments (MoM), and the impedance matrix is inverted by blocks from the Taylor series expansion of the inverse of the Schur complement. Its great advantage is that it is rigorous, with a simple formulation and has a straightforward physical interpretation. Actually, this last property relies on the fact that each block of the impedance matrix is linked to a particular and quasi-independent physical process occurring during the multiple scattering between the two rough surfaces. Furthermore, the PILE method allows us to use any acceleration algorithm (MLFMM, BMIA/CAG, Forward-Backward with or without Spectral Acceleration, etc.) developed for a single interface. In addition, an asymptotic approach is extended to rough layered media: the scalar Kirchhoff-tangent plane approximation (SKA), for calculating the coherent scattering from the rough layer. The numerical rigorous PILE method is used as a reference to validate this asymptotic model. The study focuses on 2D problems with so-called 1D surfaces, for computational ease of the reference numerical method. Nevertheless, it must be highlighted that the SKA approach can readily be applied to 3D problems. This approach is applied to rough layers with two slightly rough surfaces characterized by either Gaussian or exponential correlation functions. The height probability density function (PDF) is assumed to be Gaussian

  14. A Numerical Simulation of Scattering from One-Dimensional Inhomogeneous Dielectric Random Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarabandi, Kamal; Oh, Yisok; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient numerical solution for the scattering problem of inhomogeneous dielectric rough surfaces is presented. The inhomogeneous dielectric random surface represents a bare soil surface and is considered to be comprised of a large number of randomly positioned dielectric humps of different sizes, shapes, and dielectric constants above an impedance surface. Clods with nonuniform moisture content and rocks are modeled by inhomogeneous dielectric humps and the underlying smooth wet soil surface is modeled by an impedance surface. In this technique, an efficient numerical solution for the constituent dielectric humps over an impedance surface is obtained using Green's function derived by the exact image theory in conjunction with the method of moments. The scattered field from a sample of the rough surface is obtained by summing the scattered fields from all the individual humps of the surface coherently ignoring the effect of multiple scattering between the humps. The statistical behavior of the scattering coefficient sigma(sup 0) is obtained from the calculation of scattered fields of many different realizations of the surface. Numerical results are presented for several different roughnesses and dielectric constants of the random surfaces. The numerical technique is verified by comparing the numerical solution with the solution based on the small perturbation method and the physical optics model for homogeneous rough surfaces. This technique can be used to study the behavior of scattering coefficient and phase difference statistics of rough soil surfaces for which no analytical solution exists.

  15. An extension of the IEM/IEMM surface scattering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Pérez, José L.

    2001-07-01

    The integral equation model (IEM) has been developed over the last decade and, since its first presentation by Fung and Pan (1986 Proc. Int. Symp. on Multiple Scattering of Waves in Random Media and Random Surface (PA: Pennsylvania State University Press) pp 701-14), it has become one of the theoretical models most widely used for rough surface scattering in microwave remote sensing. The aim of this model was the study of the scattering by random rough surfaces under more general conditions than the Kirchhoff or the small-perturbation approximations. Furthermore, the IEM was meant to include multiple-scattering effects at second order. The IEM has been gradually corrected in two later releases by its original authors (Hsieh C-Y et al 1997 IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 35 901-9, Chen et al 2000 IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 38 249-56). However, the model still presents several theoretical hiatuses in its current formulation which call for a new revision. Most importantly, the IEM in its current form does not reduce in the general bistatic context to the small-perturbation method (SPM) when the scattering surface is slightly rough. A good description of multiple-scattering mechanisms implies that the single scattering is correctly described. This condition is not met by IEM as given hitherto. In the work presented here, a corrected version of IEM reproducing SPM for small roughness is proposed. Since it is also compliant with the physical and geometrical optics results, this new integral equation model is an appropriate candidate to bridge the gap between the Kirchhoff approximation and the SPM.

  16. Thermal transport across a substrate-thin-film interface: effects of film thickness and surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhi; Sasikumar, Kiran; Keblinski, Pawel

    2014-08-08

    Using molecular dynamics simulations and a model AlN-GaN interface, we demonstrate that the interfacial thermal resistance R(K) (Kapitza resistance) between a substrate and thin film depends on the thickness of the film and the film surface roughness when the phonon mean free path is larger than film thickness. In particular, when the film (external) surface is atomistically smooth, phonons transmitted from the substrate can travel ballistically in the thin film, be scattered specularly at the surface, and return to the substrate without energy transfer. If the external surface scatters phonons diffusely, which is characteristic of rough surfaces, R(K) is independent of film thickness and is the same as R(K) that characterizes smooth surfaces in the limit of large film thickness. At interfaces where phonon transmission coefficients are low, the thickness dependence is greatly diminished regardless of the nature of surface scattering. The film thickness dependence of R(K) is analogous to the well-known fact of lateral thermal conductivity thickness dependence in thin films. The difference is that phonon-boundary scattering lowers the in-plane thermal transport in thin films, but it facilitates thermal transport from the substrate to the thin film.

  17. Enamel surface roughness of preferred debonding and polishing protocols.

    PubMed

    Webb, Brian J; Koch, Jacob; Hagan, Joseph L; Ballard, Richard W; Armbruster, Paul C

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the surface roughness of enamel after debonding and instrumentation with commonly used methods. Part I: a survey was sent to active members of the American Association of Orthodontists to determine popular bonding, debonding, and polishing protocols. Part II: brackets were bonded to the buccal surface of 30 extracted human premolar teeth. After debonding, residual adhesive was removed with 12-, 16-, and 20-fluted titanium carbide burs as based upon the survey results. The teeth were scanned with a surface profilometer for surface roughness. Part III: the teeth were further polished using a Reliance Renew polishing point or a prophy cup with pumice and rescanned for surface roughness. Part I: the majority of respondents used a generic bracket-removing plier to remove fixed appliances (53%) and a high-speed handpiece for adhesive removal (85%). The most popular bur was a 12-fluted carbide bur without water spray. The majority of respondents used pumice paste and/or Reliance Renew points after adhesive removal. Part II: there was a significant difference in enamel surface roughness when 12-, 16-, and 20-fluted carbide burs were compared via surface profilometry. Part III: further polishing with a Reliance Renew point or a prophy cup and pumice did not provide a significantly smoother surface. The results show large variation in debonding and polishing techniques. Creating a smooth enamel surface is equally possible with 12- or 20-fluted carbide burs. Further polishing with pumice and prophy cup or Renew point does not provide an enamel smoother surface.

  18. Controlling adhesion force by means of nanoscale surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N; Clasohm, Lucy Y; Rao, Akshata; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2011-08-16

    Control of adhesion is a crucial aspect in the design of microelectromechanical and nanoelectromechanical devices. To understand the dependence of adhesion on nanometer-scale surface roughness, a roughness gradient has been employed. Monomodal roughness gradients were fabricated by means of silica nanoparticles (diameter ∼12 nm) to produce substrates with varying nanoparticle density. Pull-off force measurements on the gradients were performed using (polyethylene) colloidal-probe microscopy under perfluorodecalin, in order to restrict interactions to van der Waals forces. The influence of normal load on pull-off forces was studied and the measured forces compared with existing Hamaker-approximation-based models. We observe that adhesion force reaches a minimum value at an optimum particle density on the gradient sample, where the mean particle spacing becomes comparable with the diameter of the contact area with the polyethylene sphere. We also observe that the effect on adhesion of increasing the normal load depends on the roughness of the surface.

  19. Coherent light scattering of heterogeneous randomly rough films and effective medium in the theory of electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Berginc, G

    2013-11-30

    We have developed a general formalism based on Green's functions to calculate the coherent electromagnetic field scattered by a random medium with rough boundaries. The approximate expression derived makes it possible to determine the effective permittivity, which is generalised for a layer of an inhomogeneous random medium with different types of particles and bounded with randomly rough interfaces. This effective permittivity describes the coherent propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a random medium with randomly rough boundaries. We have obtained an expression, which contains the Maxwell – Garnett formula at the low-frequency limit, and the Keller formula; the latter has been proved to be in good agreement with experiments for particles whose dimensions are larger than a wavelength. (coherent light scattering)

  20. Interaction of fast charges with a rough metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Keenan; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Mišković, Z. L.; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian

    2015-09-01

    We use the Green function formulation of a dielectric response formalism to study the dynamic polarization of a rough metal surface by a single charged particle and by a pair of charged particles that move parallel to the surface. While the surface roughness is treated nonperturbatively, the plasmon excitation of the metal electron gas is described locally. We find that the magnitudes of both the image potential and the stopping power of a single particle are increased by the increasing roughness and decreasing correlation length of the surface. On the other hand, both the long-range wake potential of a single charged particle and the interaction potential between two particles are weakly affected by the surface roughness. However, the strongest effects of the surface roughness are seen in the correlated stopping power of two charged particles, giving rise to oscillations in the dependence of the stopping ratio on their distance, both when the interparticle axis is perpendicular to their direction of motion and when the wake-related oscillations are damped by adiabatic suppression of plasmon excitations at low particle speeds.

  1. Correlation between frictional force and surface roughness of orthodontic archwires.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samjin; Hwang, Eun-Young; Park, Hun-Kuk; Park, Young-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Lateral force microscopy measures the lateral bending of the cantilever depending on the frictional force acting between the tip and surface. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the relationship between the surface roughness and frictional resistance of four archwire and bracket combinations consisting of the 0.016-inch NiTi and 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwires interacting clinically with two representative self-ligating brackets, active-type Clippy-C(®) ceramic self-ligating brackets, and passive-type Damon(®) stainless steel self-ligating brackets, using the lateral force microscopy technique. A 0.016-inch NiTi archwire interacting with passive-type Damon(®) stainless steel self-ligating brackets showed the smoothest surface roughness and the lowest frictional resistance compared to other combinations. The archwires interacting with passive-type Damon(®) stainless steel self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower surface roughness and frictional resistance than those interacting with active-type Clippy-C(®) ceramic self-ligating brackets. The frictional force in the in vivo archwire and bracket system increased with increasing surface roughness of the archwire. This positive correlation suggests that surface roughness can be used as an evaluating marker for estimating the efficiency of orthodontic treatment, rather than the direct measurement of frictional force. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Sloan J.; Hobler, Gerhard; Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew

    2017-02-01

    It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield - especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the "density gradient model") which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target's atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient - leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.

  3. Structural contribution to the roughness of supersmooth crystal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Butashin, A. V.; Muslimov, A. E. Kanevsky, V. M.; Deryabin, A. N.; Pavlov, V. A.; Asadchikov, V. E.

    2013-05-15

    Technological advances in processing crystals (Si, sapphire {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiC, GaN, LiNbO{sub 3}, SrTiO{sub 3}, etc.) of substrate materials and X-ray optics elements make it possible to obtain supersmooth surfaces with a periodicity characteristic of the crystal structure. These periodic structures are formed by atomically smooth terraces and steps of nano- and subnanometer sizes, respectively. A model surface with such nanostructures is proposed, and the relations between its roughness parameters and the height of atomic steps are determined. The roughness parameters calculated from these relations almost coincide with the experimental atomic force microscopy (AFM) data obtained from 1 Multiplication-Sign 1 and 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 {mu}m areas on the surface of sapphire plates with steps. The minimum roughness parameters for vicinal crystal surfaces, which are due to the structural contribution, are calculated based on the approach proposed. A comparative analysis of the relief and roughness parameters of sapphire plate surfaces with different degrees of polishing is performed. A size effect is established: the relief height distribution changes from stochastic to regular with a decrease in the surface roughness.

  4. PREFACE: Atom-surface scattering Atom-surface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2010-08-01

    It has been a privilege and a real pleasure to organize this special issue or festschrift in the general field of atom-surface scattering (and its interaction) in honor of J R Manson. This is a good opportunity and an ideal place to express our deep gratitude to one of the leaders in this field for his fundamental and outstanding scientific contributions. J R Manson, or Dick to his friends and colleagues, is one of the founding fathers, together with N Cabrera and V Celli, of the 'Theory of surface scattering and detection of surface phonons'. This is the title of the very well-known first theoretical paper by Dick published in Physical Review Letters in 1969. My first meeting with Dick was around twenty years ago in Saclay. J Lapujoulade organized a small group seminar about selective adsorption resonances in metal vicinal surfaces. We discussed this important issue in surface physics and many other things as if we had always known each other. This familiarity and warm welcome struck me from the very beginning. During the coming years, I found this to be a very attractive aspect of his personality. During my stays in Göttingen, we had the opportunity to talk widely about science and life at lunch or dinner time, walking or cycling. During these nice meetings, he showed, with humility, an impressive cultural background. It is quite clear that his personal opinions about history, religion, politics, music, etc, come from considering and analyzing them as 'open dynamical systems'. In particular, with good food and better wine in a restaurant or at home, a happy cheerful soirée is guaranteed with him, or even with only a good beer or espresso, and an interesting conversation arises naturally. He likes to listen before speaking. Probably not many people know his interest in tractors. He has an incredible collection of very old tractors at home. In one of my visits to Clemson, he showed me the collection, explaining to me in great detail, their technical properties

  5. Effect of smokeless tobacco on surface roughness of dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Shani O; Griffin, Gerald D; Meyer, Nicole; Pelaez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Surface alterations of dental restorations can result in increased plaque biofilm. This leads to increased risk of premature restoration failure. Smokeless tobacco, in common use by some US military personnel, represents a potential source for surface alteration. If smokeless tobacco causes an untoward effect, selection of a more resistant restorative material could increase restoration longevity, thus minimizing lost work time and costs associated with replacement of failed restorations. Comparatively assess the effect of smokeless tobacco/salivary substitute mixture on altering surface roughness of amalgam, composite resin, and resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) restorations. Sixty cubic restorations (3 groups of 20) were fabricated using a 4 mm by 3 mm Teflon mold. One examiner assessed the restorations at time points representing zero days, one day, one week, 2 weeks, one month, and 3 months. The data obtained were collected using a surface profilometer, measured in micrometers. Data were statistically analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. A difference was significant if P< .05. Confidence levels with a 95% overall rating received a clinically acceptable classification. The 2-way ANOVA test detected significant differences between baseline, one day, one week, 2 weeks, one month, and 3-month data for surface roughness (P<.05). With respect to time and restoration type, results proved statistically significant with P<.0001. All restorations were statistically significant with respect to change in surface roughness with RMGIs showing the greatest surface roughness alteration. Smokeless tobacco mixed with a salivary substitute altered restoration surface roughness over time. Resin-modified glass isonomer restorations demonstrate the greatest alteration of surface roughness, with amalgam restorations showing the least. Amalgam remains the preferential restorative material in patients who use smokeless tobacco.

  6. Thermal Hydraulic Effect of Fuel Plate Surface Roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen; Timothy S. Yoder

    2008-09-01

    This study presents surface roughness measurements characteristic of the pre-film layer applied to a typical Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel plate. This data is used to estimate the friction factor for thermal hydraulic flow calculations of a Gas Test Loop (GTL) system proposed for incorporation into ATR to provide a fast neutron flux environment for the testing of nuclear fuels and materials. To attain the required neutron flux, the design includes booster fuel plates clad with the same aluminum alloy as the ATR driver fuel and cooled with water supplied by the ATR primary coolant pumps. The objectives of this study are to: (1) determine the surface roughness of the protective boehmite layer applied to the ATR driver fuel prior to reactor operations in order to specify the machining tolerances for the surface finish on simulated booster fuel plates in a GTL hydraulic flow test model, and (2) assess the consequent thermal hydraulic impact due to surface roughness on the coolability of the booster fuel with a similar pre-film layer applied. While the maximum roughness of this coating is specified to be 1.6 µm (63 microinches), no precise data on the actual roughness were available. A representative sample coupon autoclaved with the ATR driver fuel to produce the pre-film coating was analyzed using optical profilometry. Measurements yielded a mean surface roughness of 0.53 µm (21 microinches). Results from a sensitivity study show that a ±15% deviation from the mean measured surface finish would have a minimal effect on coolant temperature, coolant flow rate, and fuel temperature. However, frictional losses from roughnesses greater than 1.5 µm (~60 microinches) produce a marked decrease in flow rate, causing fuel and coolant temperatures to rise sharply.

  7. X-ray reflectivity and surface roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Ocko, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Since the advent of high brightness synchrotron radiation sources there has been a phenomenal growth in the use of x-rays as a probe of surface structure. The technique of x-ray reflectivity is particularly relevant to electrochemists since it is capable of probing the structure normal to an electrode surface in situ. In this paper the theoretical framework for x-ray reflectivity is reviewed and the results from previous non-electrochemistry measurements are summarized. These measurements are from the liquid/air interface (CCl/sub 4/), the metal crystal vacuum interface (Au(100)), and from the liquid/solid interface(liquid crystal/silicon). 34 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Roughness Length Variability over Heterogeneous Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    travel several tens of kilometers inland and trigger numerous showers and thunderstorms over the Peninsula. Numerous studies of coastal wind...Structures, Heathrow, 7–21. Charnock, H., 1955: Wind stress on a water surface. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor . Soc., 81, 639–640. Computer Sciences Raytheon... Meteor ., 1, 363– 372. Garratt, J. R., 1992: The Atmospheric Boundary Layer, Cambridge University Press, 316 pp. Holton, J. R., 1992: An Introduction

  9. Multipoint contact modeling of nanoparticle manipulation on rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakeri, M.; Faraji, J.; Kharazmi, M.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based 2-D pushing of nano/microparticles investigated on rough substrate by assuming a multipoint contact model. First, a new contact model was extracted and presented based on the geometrical profiles of Rumpf, Rabinovich and George models and the contact mechanics theories of JKR and Schwartz, to model the adhesion forces and the deformations in the multipoint contact of rough surfaces. The geometry of a rough surface was defined by two main parameters of asperity height (size of roughness) and asperity wavelength (compactness of asperities distribution). Then, the dynamic behaviors of nano/microparticles with radiuses in range of 50-500 nm studied during their pushing on rough substrate with a hexagonal or square arrangement of asperities. Dynamic behavior of particles were simulated and compared by assuming multipoint and single-point contact schemes. The simulation results show that the assumption of multipoint contact has a considerable influence on determining the critical manipulation force. Additionally, the assumption of smooth surfaces or single-point contact leads to large error in the obtained results. According to the results of previous research, it anticipated that a particles with the radius less than about 550 nm start to slide on smooth substrate; but by using multipoint contact model, the predicted behavior changed, and particles with radii of smaller than 400 nm begin to slide on rough substrate for different height of asperities, at first.

  10. Response Ant Colony Optimization of End Milling Surface Roughness

    PubMed Central

    Kadirgama, K.; Noor, M. M.; Abd Alla, Ahmed N.

    2010-01-01

    Metal cutting processes are important due to increased consumer demands for quality metal cutting related products (more precise tolerances and better product surface roughness) that has driven the metal cutting industry to continuously improve quality control of metal cutting processes. This paper presents optimum surface roughness by using milling mould aluminium alloys (AA6061-T6) with Response Ant Colony Optimization (RACO). The approach is based on Response Surface Method (RSM) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). The main objectives to find the optimized parameters and the most dominant variables (cutting speed, feedrate, axial depth and radial depth). The first order model indicates that the feedrate is the most significant factor affecting surface roughness. PMID:22294914

  11. Thermal slip for liquids at rough solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengbin; Chen, Yongping; Peterson, G. P.

    2014-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to examine the thermal slip of liquids at rough solid surfaces as characterized by fractal Cantor structures. The temperature profiles, potential energy distributions, thermal slip, and interfacial thermal resistance are investigated and evaluated for a variety of surface topographies. In addition, the effects of liquid-solid interaction, surface stiffness, and boundary condition on thermal slip length are presented. Our results indicate that the presence of roughness expands the low potential energy regions in adjacent liquids, enhances the energy transfer at liquid-solid interface, and decreases the thermal slip. Interestingly, the thermal slip length and thermal resistance for liquids in contact with solid surfaces depends not only on the statistical roughness height, but also on the fractal dimension (i.e., topographical spectrum).

  12. How surface roughness affects chemical transfer from soil to surface runoff?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil surface roughness affects transport processes, e.g., runoff generation, infiltration, sediment detachment, etc., occurring on the surface. Nevertheless, how soil roughness affects chemical transport is less known. In this study, we partitioned roughness elements into mounds which diverge water ...

  13. Photodissociation near a rough metal surface: Effect of reaction fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Purna C.; Puri, Ashok; George, Thomas F.

    1990-12-01

    The modification of the photochemical dissociation rate of molecules in the presence of a rough metal surface is explored. Classical electromagnetic calculations are presented for the photodissociation rate of a point dipole near a rough surface modeled as a hemispheroidal bump on a semi-infinite flat plane. A correction is introduced by accounting for the reaction fields due to the dipole-substrate system radiating photons and coupling to delocalized surface plasmons. The effects of the shape and size of the bump, and the separation of the molecule from the bump on the rate of photodissociation of the molecule, are studied numerically.

  14. Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

  15. Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

  16. Surface roughness monitoring by singular spectrum analysis of vibration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Plaza, E.; Núñez López, P. J.

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed two methods for enhanced surface roughness (Ra) monitoring based on the application of singular spectrum analysis (SSA) to vibrations signals generated in workpiece-cutting tool interaction in CNC finish turning operations i.e., the individual analysis of principal components (I-SSA), and the grouping analysis of correlated principal components (G-SSA). Singular spectrum analysis is a non-parametric technique of time series analysis that decomposes a signal into a set of independent additive time series referred to as principal components. A number of experiments with different cutting conditions were performed to assess surface roughness monitoring using both of these methods. The results show that singular spectrum analysis of vibration signal processing discriminated the frequency ranges effective for predicting surface roughness. Grouping analysis of correlated principal components (G-SSA) proved to be the most efficient method for monitoring surface roughness, with optimum prediction and reliability results at a lower analytical-computational cost. Finally, the results show that singular spectrum analysis is an ideal method for analyzing vibration signals applied to the on-line monitoring of surface roughness.

  17. Simulation Study of the Flow Boundary Condition for Rough Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang; Robbins, Mark O.

    2001-03-01

    In order to solve a flow problem with the continuum Navier-Stokes equation, a boundary condition must be assumed. In most cases, a no-slip condition is used, i.e. the velocity of the fluid is set equal to that of a bounding solid at their interface. Deviations from this condition can be quantified by a slip length S that represents the additional width of fluid that would be needed to accomodate any velocity difference at the interface. Previous simulations with atomically flat surfaces show that S can be very large in certain limits. (P. A. Thompson and M. O. Robbins, Phys. Rev. A, 41), 6830(1990). ( J.-L. Barrat and L. Bocquet, Phys. Rev. Lett., 82), 4671(1999). A dramatic divergence with S as shear rate increases has also been seen.( P. A. Thompson and S. M. Troian, Nature, 389), 360(1997) We have extended these simulations to surfaces with random roughness, steps, and angled facets typical of twin boundaries. In all cases, S decreases rapidly as the roughness increases. When peak-to-peak roughness is only two atomic diameters, values of S have dropped from more than 20 diameters to only one or two. In addition, the non-linear regime where S diverges with shear rate is supressed by surface roughness. These results suggest that the experimental behavior of atomically flat surfaces such as mica may be very different than that of more typical rough surfaces.

  18. Controlling cellular activity by manipulating silicone surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Babu R; Brook, Michael A; Smith, Terry; Zhao, Shigui; Chen, Yang; Sheardown, Heather; D'souza, Renita; Rochev, Yuri

    2010-07-01

    Silicone elastomers exhibit a broad range of beneficial properties that are exploited in biomaterials. In some cases, however, problems can arise at silicone elastomer interfaces. With breast implants, for example, the fibrous capsule that forms at the silicone interface can undergo contracture, which can lead to the need for revision surgery. The relationship between surface topography and wound healing--which could impact on the degree of contracture--has not been examined in detail. To address this, we prepared silicone elastomer samples with rms surface roughnesses varying from 88 to 650 nm and examined the growth of 3T3 fibroblasts on these surfaces. The PicoGreen assay demonstrated that fibroblast growth decreased with increases in surface roughness. Relatively smooth (approximately 88 nm) PDMS samples had ca. twice as much fibroblast DNA per unit area than the 'bumpy' (approximately 378 nm) and very rough (approximately 604 and approximately 650 nm) PDMS samples. While the PDMS sample with roughness of approximately 650 nm had significantly fewer fibroblasts at 24h than the TCP control, fibroblasts on the smooth silicone surprisingly reached confluence much more rapidly than on TCP, the gold standard for cell culture. Thus, increasing the surface roughness at the sub-micron scale could be a strategy worthy of consideration to help mitigate fibroblast growth and control fibrous capsule formation on silicone elastomer implants.

  19. Studies of the 3D surface roughness height

    SciTech Connect

    Avisane, Anita; Rudzitis, Janis; Kumermanis, Maris

    2013-12-16

    Nowadays nano-coatings occupy more and more significant place in technology. Innovative, functional coatings acquire new aspects from the point of view of modern technologies, considering the aggregate of physical properties that can be achieved manipulating in the production process with the properties of coatings’ surfaces on micro- and nano-level. Nano-coatings are applied on machine parts, friction surfaces, contacting parts, corrosion surfaces, transparent conducting films (TCF), etc. The equipment available at present for the production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with highest quality is based on expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) material; therefore cheaper alternatives are being searched for. One such offered alternative is zink oxide (ZnO) nano-coatings. Evaluating the TCF physical and mechanical properties and in view of the new ISO standard (EN ISO 25178) on the introduction of surface texture (3D surface roughness) in the engineering calculations, it is necessary to examine the height of 3D surface roughness, which is one of the most significant roughness parameters. The given paper studies the average values of 3D surface roughness height and the most often applied distribution laws are as follows: the normal distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The 3D surface is simulated by a normal random field.

  20. Small-slope scattering from rough elastic ocean floors: general theory and computational algorithm.

    PubMed

    Gragg, R F; Wurmser, D; Gauss, R C

    2001-12-01

    In this article acoustic scattering by a random rough interface that separates a fluid incident medium from an underlying uniform scattering medium, either fluid or elastic solid, in cases for which the Bragg scale lies within the power-law tail of the roughness spectrum is dealt with. The physical foundation is an inherently reciprocity-preserving, local small-slope theory. A fully bistatic formulation is developed for the scattering strength, together with a robust numerical implementation that allows a wide range of spectral exponent values. The practical result for ocean acoustics is a significantly improved description of the interface component of sea floor scattering. Calculations are presented to demonstrate the advantage of this approach over perturbation theory, and to illustrate its dependence on frequency and environmental parameters as well as its operation in bistatic geometries.

  1. Emissivity as a Function of Surface Roughness: A Computer Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-29

    dependance on surface roughness sheds some light on ship wake measurements (8] , and corrects some of the analysis of spatial sea surface temperature...variation recently reported in (6) . The wind wave spectral dependance of surface emissivity also indicates that shorter wavelengths, such as...definition, a power spectrum contains no phase dependance . Therefore, in order to create a reasonable model of the surface elevation, we assume that the

  2. Simulation of synthetic gecko arrays shearing on rough surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, Andrew G.; Fearing, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the role of surface roughness and tip geometry in the adhesion of gecko synthetic adhesives, a model is developed that attempts to uncover the relationship between surface feature size and the adhesive terminal feature shape. This model is the first to predict the adhesive behaviour of a plurality of hairs acting in shear on simulated rough surfaces using analytically derived contact models. The models showed that the nanoscale geometry of the tip shape alters the macroscale adhesion of the array of fibres by nearly an order of magnitude, and that on sinusoidal surfaces with amplitudes much larger than the nanoscale features, spatula-shaped features can increase adhesive forces by 2.5 times on smooth surfaces and 10 times on rough surfaces. Interestingly, the summation of the fibres acting in concert shows behaviour much more complex that what could be predicted with the pull-off model of a single fibre. Both the Johnson–Kendall–Roberts and Kendall peel models can explain the experimentally observed frictional adhesion effect previously described in the literature. Similar to experimental results recently reported on the macroscale features of the gecko adhesive system, adhesion drops dramatically when surface roughness exceeds the size and spacing of the adhesive fibrillar features. PMID:24694893

  3. Simulation of synthetic gecko arrays shearing on rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Andrew G; Fearing, Ronald S

    2014-06-06

    To better understand the role of surface roughness and tip geometry in the adhesion of gecko synthetic adhesives, a model is developed that attempts to uncover the relationship between surface feature size and the adhesive terminal feature shape. This model is the first to predict the adhesive behaviour of a plurality of hairs acting in shear on simulated rough surfaces using analytically derived contact models. The models showed that the nanoscale geometry of the tip shape alters the macroscale adhesion of the array of fibres by nearly an order of magnitude, and that on sinusoidal surfaces with amplitudes much larger than the nanoscale features, spatula-shaped features can increase adhesive forces by 2.5 times on smooth surfaces and 10 times on rough surfaces. Interestingly, the summation of the fibres acting in concert shows behaviour much more complex that what could be predicted with the pull-off model of a single fibre. Both the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts and Kendall peel models can explain the experimentally observed frictional adhesion effect previously described in the literature. Similar to experimental results recently reported on the macroscale features of the gecko adhesive system, adhesion drops dramatically when surface roughness exceeds the size and spacing of the adhesive fibrillar features.

  4. How Direction of Illumination Affects Visually Perceived Surface Roughness

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yun-Xian; Landy, Michael S.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2009-01-01

    We examined visual estimation of surface roughness using random computer-generated three-dimensional (3D) surfaces rendered under a mixture of diffuse lighting and a punctate source. The angle between the tangent to the plane containing the surface texture and the direction to the punctate source was varied from 50 to 70 degrees across lighting conditions. Observers were presented with pairs of surfaces under different lighting conditions and indicated which 3D surface appeared rougher. Surfaces were viewed either in isolation or in scenes with added objects whose shading, cast shadows and specular highlights provided information about the spatial distribution of illumination. All observers perceived surfaces to be markedly rougher with decreasing illuminant angle. Performance in scenes with added objects was no closer to constant than that in scenes without added objects. We identified four novel cues that are valid cues to roughness under any single lighting condition but that are not invariant under changes in lighting condition. We modeled observers’ deviations from roughness constancy as a weighted linear combination of these “pseudo-cues” and found that they account for a substantial amount of observers’ systematic deviations from roughness constancy with changes in lighting condition. PMID:16881794

  5. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils as Affected by Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HOCKER RAY W

    1933-01-01

    The effect on airfoil characteristics of surface roughness of varying degrees and types at different locations on an airfoil was investigated at high values of the Reynolds number in a variable density wind tunnel. Tests were made on a number of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil models on which the nature of the surface was varied from a rough to a very smooth finish. The effect on the airfoil characteristics of varying the location of a rough area in the region of the leading edge was also investigated. Airfoils with surfaces simulating lap joints were also tested. Measurable adverse effects were found to be caused by small irregularities in airfoil surfaces which might ordinarily be overlooked. The flow is sensitive to small irregularities of approximately 0.0002c in depth near the leading edge. The tests made on the surfaces simulating lap joints indicated that such surfaces cause small adverse effects. Additional data from earlier tests of another symmetrical airfoil are also included to indicate the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with the Reynolds number for an airfoil with a polished surface and with a very rough one.

  6. Research on the illumination model based on light scattering properties of steel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanjiong; Kong, Jianyi; Xu, Pan; Liu, Cancan; Zheng, Guo

    2015-12-01

    Experimental scheme was designed based on the steel production process, surface optical characteristics and BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) illumination model theory. The relationship between the light incidence angle, surface roughness and laws of light scattering under a particular light-source conditions were found through a series of light scattering characteristics experiments for different steel plate surface. The results showed that there was an apparent specular reflection peak on steel surface. surface light scattering was influenced greatly by light incidence angle and surface roughness, and it showed the law of exponential distribution functions. Thus the improved semi-empirical light scattering mathematical model which based on roughness factor and surface Gaussian distribution of micro-plane components has been formed through non-linear model fitting and optimization. The surface illumination model has been proposed to accurately describe the light intensity distribution of steel plate surface and provide a theoretical method for the design of optimal imaging system.

  7. Scaling of surface roughness in perfectly plastic disordered media.

    PubMed

    Barai, Pallab; Sampath, Rahul; Nukala, Phani Kumar V V; Simunović, Srđan

    2010-11-01

    This paper investigates surface roughness characteristics of localized plastic yield surface in a perfectly plastic disordered material. We model the plastic disordered material using perfectly plastic random spring model. Our results indicate that plasticity in a disordered material evolves in a diffusive manner until macroscopic yielding, which is in contrast to the localized failure observed in brittle fracture of disordered materials. On the other hand, the height-height fluctuations of the plastic yield surfaces generated by the spring model exhibit roughness exponents similar to those obtained in the brittle fracture of disordered materials, albeit anomalous scaling of plastic surface roughness is not observed. The local and global roughness exponents (ζ(loc) and ζ, respectively) are equal to each other, and the two-dimensional crack roughness exponent is estimated to be ζ(loc)=ζ=0.67±0.03. The probability density distribution p[Δh(ℓ)] of the height differences Δh(ℓ)=[h(x+ℓ)-h(x)] of the crack profile follows a Gaussian distribution.

  8. On the Effects of Surface Roughness on Boundary Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Edwards, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Surface roughness can influence laminar-turbulent transition in many different ways. This paper outlines selected analyses performed at the NASA Langley Research Center, ranging in speed from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers and highlighting the beneficial as well as adverse roles of the surface roughness in technological applications. The first theme pertains to boundary-layer tripping on the forebody of a hypersonic airbreathing configuration via a spanwise periodic array of trip elements, with the goal of understanding the physical mechanisms underlying roughness-induced transition in a high-speed boundary layer. The effect of an isolated, finite amplitude roughness element on a supersonic boundary layer is considered next. The other set of flow configurations examined herein corresponds to roughness based laminar flow control in subsonic and supersonic swept wing boundary layers. A common theme to all of the above configurations is the need to apply higher fidelity, physics based techniques to develop reliable predictions of roughness effects on laminar-turbulent transition.

  9. Process entanglement as a neuronal anchorage mechanism to rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorkin, Raya; Greenbaum, Alon; David-Pur, Moshe; Anava, Sarit; Ayali, Amir; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Hanein, Yael

    2009-01-01

    The organization of neurons and glia cells on substrates composed of pristine carbon nanotube islands was investigated using high resolution scanning electron microscopy, immunostaining and confocal microscopy. Neurons were found bound and preferentially anchored to the rough surfaces; moreover, the morphology of the neuronal processes on the small, isolated islands of high density carbon nanotubes was found to be conspicuously curled and entangled. We further demonstrate that the roughness of the surface must match the diameter of the neuronal processes in order to allow them to bind. The results presented here suggest that entanglement, a mechanical effect, may constitute an additional mechanism by which neurons (and possibly other cell types) anchor themselves to rough surfaces. Understanding the nature of the interface between neurons and carbon nanotubes is essential to effectively harness carbon nanotube technology in neurological applications such as neuro-prosthetic and retinal electrodes.

  10. Noise reduction in tunnels by hard rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Law, Ming Kan; Li, Kai Ming; Leung, Chun Wah

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using two-dimensional hard rough surfaces to reduce noise levels in traffic tunnels with perfectly reflecting boundaries. First, the Twersky boss model is used to estimate the acoustic impedance of a hard rough surface. Second, an image source model is then used to compute the propagation of sound in a long rectangular enclosure with finite impedance. The total sound fields are calculated by summing the contributions from all image sources coherently. Two model tunnels are built to validate the proposed model experimentally. Finally, a case study for a realistic geometrical configuration is presented to explore the use of hard rough surfaces for reducing traffic noise in a tunnel which is constructed with hard boundaries.

  11. Surface roughness of composite resins subjected to hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Roque, Ana Carolina Cabral; Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima; de Godoi, Ana Paula Terossi; Colucci, Vivian; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Catirse, Alma Blásida Concepción Elizaur Benitez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of hydrochloric acid on surface roughness of composite resins subjected to brushing. Sixty samples measuring 2 mm thick x 6 mm diameter were prepared and used as experimental units. The study presented a 3x2 factorial design, in which the factors were composite resin (n=20), at 3 levels: microhybrid composite (Z100), nanofilled composite (FiltekTM Supreme), nanohybrid composite (Ice), and acid challenge (n=10) at 2 levels: absence and presence. Acid challenge was performed by immersion of specimens in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) for 1 min, 4 times per day for 7 days. The specimens not subjected to acid challenge were stored in 15 mL of artificial saliva at 37 oC. Afterwards, all specimens were submitted to abrasive challenge by a brushing cycle performed with a 200 g weight at a speed of 356 rpm, totaling 17.8 cycles. Surface roughness measurements (Ra) were performed and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p≤0.05). Surface roughness values were higher in the presence (1.07±0.24) as compared with the absence of hydrochloric acid (0.72±0.04). Surface roughness values were higher for microhybrid (1.01±0.27) compared with nanofilled (0.68 ±0.09) and nanohybrid (0.48±0.15) composites when the specimens were not subjects to acid challenge. In the presence of hydrochloric acid, microhybrid (1.26±0.28) and nanofilled (1.18±0,30) composites presents higher surface roughness values compared with nanohybrid (0.77±0.15). The hydrochloric acid affected the surface roughness of composite resin subjected to brushing.

  12. Effect of esthetic coating on surface roughness of orthodontic archwires.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Shamohammadi, Milad; Rastegaar, Zahra; Skini, Masoumeh; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2017-09-01

    Esthetic wires are commonly used in orthodontic treatments. Surface roughness is an important factor in the friction and bacterial adhesion in these wires. Surface roughness of esthetic wires has not been assessed, except in a few recent (mostly qualitative esthetics) studies. The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare the surface roughness of 4 coated esthetic wires with that of a conventional orthodontic wire. In this in vitro trial, 25 coated and uncoated orthodontic archwires were studied, including: NiTi Memory wire (American Orthodontics, USA) as a control group; Orthocosmetic Elastinol (Ortho Organizers, USA); Perfect (Hubit, Korea); Imagination (Gestenco, Sweden); EverWhite (American Orthodontics, USA). All were .016×.022" rectangular maxillary wires. Fifteen millimeters of wire was cut off at the posterior end and a surface area of 2000×2000nm was probed using a Scanning Probe Microscope (DS95-50E/DME, Denmark) to determine the surface roughness values. The roughness parameters of Sa, Sdq, Sv and Sy were measured and statistically compared by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The average range of the 4 parameters was the highest for the uncoated Ni-Ti Memory wire (control group) while the Perfect coated wire showed the lowest values. The differences were significant for parameters Sa and Sy (P<0.02 and P<0.023) and non-significant for Sv and Sdq. Significant differences existed between uncoated and coated wires regarding Sa and Sy values (P<0.01), being higher for the uncoated wires. Taking into account the study limitations, the surface roughness values of NiTi uncoated archwires were significantly higher than those of the coated wires. Copyright © 2017 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface roughness of orthodontic band cements with different compositions

    PubMed Central

    van de SANDE, Françoise Hélène; da SILVA, Adriana Fernandes; MICHELON, Douver; PIVA, Evandro; CENCI, Maximiliano Sérgio; DEMARCO, Flávio Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The present study evaluated comparatively the surface roughness of four orthodontic band cements after storage in various solutions. Material and Methods eight standardized cylinders were made from 4 materials: zinc phosphate cement (ZP), compomer (C), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and resin cement (RC). Specimens were stored for 24 h in deionized water and immersed in saline (pH 7.0) or 0.1 M lactic acid solution (pH 4.0) for 15 days. Surface roughness readings were taken with a profilometer (Surfcorder SE1200) before and after the storage period. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (comparison among cements and storage solutions) or paired t-test (comparison before and after the storage period) at 5% significance level. Results The values for average surface roughness were statistically different (p<0.001) among cements at both baseline and after storage. The roughness values of cements in a decreasing order were ZP>RMGIC>C>R (p<0.001). After 15 days, immersion in lactic acid solution resulted in the highest surface roughness for all cements (p<0.05), except for the RC group (p>0.05). Compared to the current threshold (0.2 µm) related to biofilm accumulation, both RC and C remained below the threshold, even after acidic challenge by immersion in lactic acid solution. Conclusions Storage time and immersion in lactic acid solution increased the surface roughness of the majority of the tested cements. RC presented the smoothest surface and it was not influenced by storage conditions. PMID:21625737

  14. TLS - a tool for channel bed surface roughness determination?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baewert, Henning; Morche, David

    2013-04-01

    Channel bed surface roughness has a significant influence on flow characteristics of a stream. Since decades roughness coefficient determination is an integral part of fluvial geomorphological research. The methods used to directly measure channel bed roughness often require an exact knowledge of grain size distributions of a given stream reach. In some cases this method is impractical, especially for large catchments and systems involving a large degree of form roughness. In this context, the determination of bed surface roughness using Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) provides new possibilities. The application of laser scanning has been increasingly used recently for channel morphology research (Heritage & Hetherington 2007, Milan et al. 2007, Hodge et al. 2009). However, the use of TLS data to quantify bed surface roughness leads to new methodological problems. One of these problems is known as the 'Shading Effect'. Because of this, portions of the channel surface situated behind a large obstacle cannot be surveyed. Hence, the first goal of this study is to determine the minimum number of scanning positions to accurately characterize channel bed roughness. For roughness calculation, the investigation area is divided into an orthogonal grid. The question about this is: Which grid cell size should be chosen? In general, the cell size is defined by the largest particle in the test area. This requires sediment sampling and leads to additional field work. To avoid this, this study further assesses the importance of grid cell size on bed roughness calculation. The ultimate goal of this study is to improve the application of TLS for roughness calculation in gravel-bed rivers. For this purpose several channel reaches in two different study sites were surveyed with an ILRIS 36D. One investigation area is situated in the Reintal valley located in the northern limestone Alps (Wettersteingebirge) Bavaria/Germany. The other one is situated in the proglacial area of the

  15. Anisotropy and edge roughness scattering in the thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksamija, Zlatan; Knezevic, Irena

    2011-03-01

    We present a calculation of the thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons, based on solving the Boltzmann transport equation with the full phonon dispersions, a momentum-dependent model for edge roughness scattering, as well as three-phonon and isotope scattering. The interplay between strong edge roughness scattering and the anisotropy of the phonon dispersions results in thermal conduction that strongly depends on the chiral angle of the nanoribbon. A minimum occurs in the armchair direction and a maximum is attained in zig-zag nanoribbons. We also show that both the thermal conductivity and the amount of armchair/zig-zag anisotropy depend strongly on the width of the nanoribbon and the rms height of the edge roughness, with smallest and most anisotropic thermal conductivities occuring in narrow GNRs with rough edges. We conclude that physical width of the nanoribbon and the rms roughness of its line edges can be used along with angular direction as parameters to tailor the value of the thermal conductivity. This work has been supported by the Computing Innovation Fellows Project (NSF award No. 0937060 to the Computing Research Association, sub-award CIF-146 to the University of Wisconsin) and by the AFOSR YIP program (award No. FA9550-09-1-0230).

  16. Effect of Surface Roughness on Characteristics of Spherical Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Paul W.; McFarland, Donald R.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of peak overpressure and Mach stem height were made at four burst heights. Data were obtained with instrumentation capable of directly observing the variation of shock wave movement with time. Good similarity of free air shock peak overpressure with larger scale data was found to exist. The net effect of surface roughness on shock peak overpressures slightly. Surface roughness delayed the Mach stem formation at the greatest charge height and lowered the growth at all burst heights. A similarity parameter was found which approximately correlates the triple point path at different burst heights.

  17. Characterising soil surface roughness with a frequency modulated polarimetric radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel; Gronz, Oliver; Beiske, Joshua; Klein, Tobias

    2014-05-01

    Soil surface roughness is considered crucial for soil erosion as it determines the effective surface exposed to the raindrop impact. It regulates surface runoff velocity and it causes runoff concentration. But a comprehensive characterisation of the shape of the soils' surface is still difficult to achieve. Photographic systems and terrestrial laser-scanning are nowadays able to generate high resolution DEMs, but the derivation of roughness parameters is still not clear. Spaceborne radar systems are used for about 3 decades for earth survey. Spatial soil moisture distribution, ice sheet monitoring and earth-wide topographic survey are the main objectives of these radar systems, working generally with frequencies <10 GHz. Contrasting with this, technologies emitting frequencies up to 77 GHz are generally used for object tracking purposes. But it is known, that the reflection characteristics, such as intensity and polarisation, strongly depend on the properties of the target object. A new design of a frequency modulated continuous wave radar, emitting a right hand shaped circular polarization and receiving both polarization directions, right and left-hand shaped, is tested here for its ability to detect and quantify different surface roughness. The reflection characteristics of 4 different materials 1) steel, 2) sand (0,5-1 mm), 3) fine (2-4 mm) and 4) coarse (15-30 mm) rock-fragments and different roughness as well as moisture content are analysed. In addition, the signals are taken at 2 different angles to the soil's surface (90° and 70°). For quantification of the roughness, a photographic method (Structure-from-Motion) is applied to generate a detailed DEM and random roughness (RR) is calculated. To characterise the radar signal, different ratios of the reflected channels and polarisations are calculated. The signals show differences for all substrates, also clearly visible between sand and fine rock fragments, despite a wavelength of 1 cm of the

  18. Adhesion: role of bulk viscoelasticity and surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, B.; Krick, B. A.; Mulakaluri, N.; Smolyakova, M.; Dieluweit, S.; Sawyer, W. G.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2013-06-01

    We study the adhesion between smooth polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rubber balls and smooth and rough poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surfaces, and between smooth silicon nitride balls and smooth PDMS surfaces. From the measured viscoelastic modulus of the PDMS rubber we calculate the viscoelastic contribution to the crack-opening propagation energy γeff(v,T) for a wide range of crack tip velocities v and for several temperatures T. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) contact mechanics theory is used to analyze the ball pull-off force data, and γeff(v,T) is obtained for smooth and rough surfaces. We conclude that γeff(v,T) has contributions of similar magnitude from both the bulk viscoelastic energy dissipation close to the crack tip, and from the bond-breaking process at the crack tip. The pull-off force on the rough surfaces is strongly reduced compared to that of the flat surface, which we attribute mainly to the decrease in the area of contact on the rough surfaces.

  19. Adhesion: role of bulk viscoelasticity and surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, B; Krick, B A; Mulakaluri, N; Smolyakova, M; Dieluweit, S; Sawyer, W G; Persson, B N J

    2013-06-05

    We study the adhesion between smooth polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rubber balls and smooth and rough poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surfaces, and between smooth silicon nitride balls and smooth PDMS surfaces. From the measured viscoelastic modulus of the PDMS rubber we calculate the viscoelastic contribution to the crack-opening propagation energy γeff(v,T) for a wide range of crack tip velocities v and for several temperatures T. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) contact mechanics theory is used to analyze the ball pull-off force data, and γeff(v,T) is obtained for smooth and rough surfaces. We conclude that γeff(v,T) has contributions of similar magnitude from both the bulk viscoelastic energy dissipation close to the crack tip, and from the bond-breaking process at the crack tip. The pull-off force on the rough surfaces is strongly reduced compared to that of the flat surface, which we attribute mainly to the decrease in the area of contact on the rough surfaces.

  20. Global boundary flattening transforms for acoustic propagation under rough sea surfaces.

    PubMed

    Oba, Roger M

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces a conformal transform of an acoustic domain under a one-dimensional, rough sea surface onto a domain with a flat top. This non-perturbative transform can include many hundreds of wavelengths of the surface variation. The resulting two-dimensional, flat-topped domain allows direct application of any existing, acoustic propagation model of the Helmholtz or wave equation using transformed sound speeds. Such a transform-model combination applies where the surface particle velocity is much slower than sound speed, such that the boundary motion can be neglected. Once the acoustic field is computed, the bijective (one-to-one and onto) mapping permits the field interpolation in terms of the original coordinates. The Bergstrom method for inverse Riemann maps determines the transform by iterated solution of an integral equation for a surface matching term. Rough sea surface forward scatter test cases provide verification of the method using a particular parabolic equation model of the Helmholtz equation.

  1. Roughness and fibre reinforcement effect onto wettability of composite surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénard, Quentin; Fois, Magali; Grisel, Michel

    2007-03-01

    Wettability of glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy composites materials has been determined via sessile drop technique. Good-Van Oss approach has been used to evaluate surface free energy parameters of smooth and rough surfaces. Results obtained point out the influence of fibre reinforcement on surface free energy of composite materials. In addition, the interest of surface treatment to increase surface roughness has been discussed in terms of wettability. To sum up, results obtained clearly demonstrate the necessity of considering properties of a given composite surface not only as a polymer but a fibre/polymer couple. The drawn conclusions are of great interest as it may have numerous consequences in applications such as adhesion.

  2. Light depolarization in off-specular reflection on submicro rough metal surfaces with imperfectly random roughness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linsheng; Li, Xuefeng; Nonaka, Kazuhiro

    2015-02-01

    Depolarization at a rough surface relates to its roughness and irregularity (e.g., sags and crests) besides the material property. However, there is still lack of general theory to clearly describe the relationship between depolarization ratios and surface conditions, and one important reason is that the mechanism of depolarization relates to geometric parameters such as microcosmic height/particle distributions of sub-micro to nm levels. To study the mechanism in more detail, a compact laser instrument is developed, and depolarization information of a linearly polarized incident light is used for analyzing the roughness, during which a He-Ne laser source (λ = 632.8 nm) is used. Three nickel specimens with RMS roughness (Rq) less than λ/4 are fabricated and tested. Six different areas in each specimen are characterized in detail using an AFM. Rq are in the range of 34.1-155.0 nm, and the heights are non-Gaussian distribution in the first specimen and near-Gaussian distribution in the others. Off-specular inspection is carried out exactly on these 18 characterized areas, and results show that the cross-polarization ratios match quite well with Rq values of the first sample that has Rq ≤ λ/10 (or Rt ≤ λ), while they match well with maximum height, Rt, values of the other two that have Rt > λ (the maximum derivation is 11%). In addition, since this instrument is simple, portable, stable, and low-cost, it has great potential for practical online roughness testing after a linear calibration.

  3. The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. 3; Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Manley J.

    1938-01-01

    Tests have been made in the N.A.C.A. 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel of the drag caused by roughness on the surface of an airfoil of N.A.C.A. 23012 section and 5-foot chord. The tests were made at speeds from 80 t o 500 miles per hour at lift coefficients from 0 to 0.30. For conditions corresponding to high-speed flight, the increase in the drag was 30 percent of the profile drag of the smooth airfoil for the roughness produced by spray painting and 63 percent for the roughness produced. by 0.0037-inch carborundum grains. About one-half the drag increase was caused by the roughness on the forward one-fourth of the airfoil. Sandpapering the painted surface with No. 400 sandpaper made it sufficiently smooth that the drag was no greater than when the surface was polished. In the lower part of the range investigated the drag due to roughness increased rapidly with Reynolds Number.

  4. Elastic guided waves in plates with surface roughness. II. Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lobkis, O.I.; Chimenti, D.E.

    1997-07-01

    In this artice are reported fundamental experimental measurements on guided waves in plates with surface roughness; the experimental data are critically compared to theoretical calculations presented in Part I. All experiments, in either immersion or contact coupling mode, are modeled by the theory developed in I that exploits the phase-screen approximation. In this theory the effect of the rough surface on the received signal, on a local scale, is assumed to be restricted to the signal phase. The comparisons between experiment and predictions show good agreement in most regimes, despite the rather simplifying approximations contained in the calculation. The model is shown to fail only when the guided wave vector is close to a branch point, that is when the guided wave phase velocity approaches the compressional or shear wavespeeds of the plate. Near these values the internal partial waves comprising the guided wave strike the surfaces at grazing incidence or are evanescent, and a simple phase-screen model cannot account for this behavior. Elsewhere in the guided wave spectrum, agreement is quite good. Of practical significance is the finding that the rough-surface damping contrast can be maximized by configuring the experimental conditions to measure just below and well above the compressional critical angle. Aluminum samples, prepared by indenting or sandblasting and independently profiled to determine rms roughness, are measured in immersion and in contact transduction, the latter with wedge couplers and line sources. The influence of the roughness in immersion experiments is strongly affected by whether the upper or lower plate surface is rough, but only in the interaction zone between specular and nonspecular reflection components. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  5. Soil surface roughness and porosity under different tillage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, J.; Saa-Requejo, A.; Gómez, J. A.; Valencia, J. L.; Zarco, P.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Both soil porosity and surface elevation can be altered by tillage operation. Even though the surface porosity is an important parameter of a tilled field, however, no practical technique for rapid and non-contact measurement of surface porosity has been developed yet. On the contrary, the surface elevation of tilled soil can be quickly determined with a laser profiler. Working under the assumption that the surface elevation of a tilled field is a complicated superposition of the soil terrain profile at a larger-scale and the roughness at a fine-scale, this study included three aspects: (i) to establish an index (Roughness Index, RI) at a fine-scale to associate the surface roughness with porosity; (ii) to examine the correlation between surface porosity and the proposed RI by three types of tillage treatment in the field; and (iii) to check the scaling/multiscaling behavior among different grid sizes of calculating RI on predicting surface porosity. Consequently, the statistical results from each tilled plot show a strong correlation between the surface porosity and the defined RI in an early stage (ca. 2 days) after tillage. Acknowledgements Funding provided by CEIGRAM (Research Centre for the Management of Agricultural and Environmental Risks)and Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

  6. Temperature dependence in atom-surface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollak, Eli; Manson, J. R.

    2012-03-01

    It is shown that a straightforward measure of the temperature dependence of energy resolved atom-surface scattering spectra measured under classical conditions can be related to the strength of the surface corrugation. Using classical perturbation theory combined with a Langevin bath formalism for describing energy transfer, explicit expressions for the scattering probabilities are obtained for both two-dimensional, in-plane scattering and full three-dimensional scattering. For strong surface corrugations results expressed as analytic closed-form equations for the scattering probability are derived which demonstrate that the temperature dependence of the scattering probability weakens with increasing corrugation strength. The relationship to the inelastic rainbow is briefly discussed.

  7. Surface topography analysis with application of roughness area dependence method.

    PubMed

    Szyszka, Adam; Wośko, Mateusz; Szymański, Tomasz; Paszkiewicz, Regina

    2016-11-01

    At the moment the root mean square roughness (Rq) is the most commonly used parameter for quantitative description of surface properties. However, this parameter has one main disadvantage: for its calculation only height variations of surface profile are used which are then represented by a single number. To eliminate this restriction authors of the paper have developed a surface analysis method which is based on roughness calculation in the function of gradually increasing dimensions of a sampling area. By setting proper measurement parameters and further data processing, from Rq dependence on sampling area plot size there is a possibility to obtain more useful, additional information about specific surface properties than using the single roughness value. Roughness area dependence plots, obtained from AFM images, were analyzed to study the influence of different growth parameters on surface properties of GaN layers and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown on sapphire and silicon substrates by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOVPE) epitaxy. Although the method was used to characterize the semiconductor material in micrometer range, it can be applied also for any topography imaging technique in wide scale ranges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Observing submesoscale currents from high resolution surface roughness images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascle, N.; Chapron, B.; Nouguier, F.; Mouche, A.; Ponte, A.

    2015-12-01

    At times, high resolution sea surface roughness variations can provide stunning details of submesoscale upper ocean dynamics. As interpreted, transformations of short scale wind waves by horizontal current gradients are responsible for those spectacular observations. Here we present tow major advances towards the quantitative interpretation of those observations. First, we show that surface roughness variations mainly trace two particular characteristics of the current gradient tensor, the divergence and the strain in the wind direction. Local vorticity and shear in the wind direction should not affect short scale roughness distribution and would not be detectable. Second, we discuss the effect of the viewing direction using sets of quasi-simultaneous sun glitter images, taken from different satellites to provide different viewing configurations. We show that upwind and crosswind viewing observations can be markedly different. As further confirmed with idealized numerical simulations, this anisotropy well traces surface current strain area, while more isotropic contrasts likely trace areas dominated by surface divergence conditions. These findings suggest the potential to directly observe surface currents at submesoscale by using high resolution roughness observations at multiple azimuth viewing angles.

  9. Contact between rough surfaces and a criterion for macroscopic adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Pastewka, Lars; Robbins, Mark O.

    2014-01-01

    At the molecular scale, there are strong attractive interactions between surfaces, yet few macroscopic surfaces are sticky. Extensive simulations of contact by adhesive surfaces with roughness on nanometer to micrometer scales are used to determine how roughness reduces the area where atoms contact and thus weakens adhesion. The material properties, adhesive strength, and roughness parameters are varied by orders of magnitude. In all cases, the area of atomic contact is initially proportional to the load. The prefactor rises linearly with adhesive strength for weak attractions. Above a threshold adhesive strength, the prefactor changes sign, the surfaces become sticky, and a finite force is required to separate them. A parameter-free analytic theory is presented that describes changes in these numerical results over up to five orders of magnitude in load. It relates the threshold adhesive strength to roughness and material properties, explaining why most macroscopic surfaces do not stick. The numerical results are qualitatively and quantitatively inconsistent with classical theories based on the Greenwood−Williamson approach that neglect the range of adhesion and do not include asperity interactions. PMID:24550489

  10. The Impedance Due to the Roughness of Metallic Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl L.F.; Chao, Alex W.; Ng, Cho-K.; /SLAC

    2011-08-26

    In some future accelerator designs, such as that of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the bunch is very short, with an rms length on the order of 10's of microns, and the effective skin depth of the vacuum chamber walls can be very small compared to 1 micron. If the skin depth is small compared to the scale of the surface roughness then the wakefield due to the walls will be dominated by the roughness, and not by the wall resistance. To estimate the wakefields of a rough, metallic surface we begin with a simple, analytical model. Then we apply the MAFIA 3-dimensional, time-domain computer module, T3 to check and find the correct coefficient for the model.

  11. The Impedance Due to the Roughness of Metallic Surface.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, Karl L. F.; Chao, Alex W.; Ng, Cho-K.

    1997-05-01

    In some future accelerator designs, such as that of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the bunch is very short, with an rms length on the order of 10's of microns, and the effective skin depth of the vacuum chamber walls can be very small compared to 1 micron. If the skin depth is small compared to the scale of the surface roughness then the wakefield due to the walls will be dominated by the roughness, and not by the wall resistance. To estimate the wakefields of a rough, metallic surface we begin with a simple, analytical model. Then we apply the MAFIA 3-dimensional, time-domain computer module, T3 to check and find the correct coefficient for the model.

  12. Adhesion of echinoderm tube feet to rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Santos, Romana; Gorb, Stanislav; Jamar, Valérie; Flammang, Patrick

    2005-07-01

    Echinoderms attach strongly and temporarily to the substratum by means of specialized organs, the podia or tube feet. The latter consist of a basal extensible cylinder, the stem, which bears an apical flattened disc. The disc repeatedly attaches to and detaches from the substratum through adhesive and de-adhesive secretions. In their activities, echinoderms have to cope with substrata of varying degrees of roughness as well as with changing hydrodynamic conditions, and therefore their tube feet must adapt their attachment strength to these environmental constraints. This study is the first attempt to evaluate the influence of substratum roughness on the temporary adhesion of echinoderm tube feet and to investigate the material properties of their contact surface. It was demonstrated that tube foot discs are very soft (E-modulus of 6.0 and 8.1 kPa for sea stars and sea urchins, respectively), have viscoelastic properties and adapt their surface to the substratum profile. They also show increased adhesion on a rough substratum in comparison to its smooth counterpart, which is due mostly to an increase in the geometrical area of contact between the disc and the surface. Tenacity (force per unit area) increases with roughness [e.g. 0.18 and 0.34 MPa on smooth polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA), 0.21 and 0.47 MPa on rough PMMA for sea stars and sea urchins, respectively] if only the projected surface area of the adhesive footprint is considered. However, if this tenacity is corrected to take into account the actual substratum 3-D profile, surface roughness no longer influences significantly the corrected adhesion strength (e.g. 0.18 and 0.34 MPa on smooth PMMA, 0.19 and 0.42 MPa on rough PMMA for sea stars and sea urchins, respectively). It can be hypothesized that, under slow self-imposed forces, disc material behaves viscously to adapt to substratum roughness while the adhesive fills out only very small surface irregularities (in the nanometer range). It is deposited as a

  13. Determination of thickness, refractive index, and spectral scattering of an inhomogeneous thin film with rough interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pradeep, J. Anto; Agarwal, Pratima

    2010-08-15

    The magnitude of spectral transmittance and reflectance is affected by the presence of inhomogeneity and interfacial roughness. Therefore, the methods, based on the magnitude of spectral transmittance and reflectance, are not adequate for the determination of thickness and optical constants of films with inhomogeneity and interfacial roughness. The present article proposes a method for the determination of thickness and refractive index using only the positions of the interference fringes in spectral transmittance and reflectance at two different angles of incidence. The proposed method is verified through numerical simulations, which result in <1% error for the film thickness. The complete parametrical dependence of spectral transmittance and reflectance of inhomogeneous film with rough interfaces on a substrate have been worked out for the film on transparent and opaque substrates, respectively. The spectrum envelopes have been solved simultaneously and the mathematical formulae are given for the determination of spectral scattering due to inhomogeneity and interfacial roughness for both transmittance and reflectance cases.

  14. Coherent light scattering of heterogeneous randomly rough films and effective medium in the theory of electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berginc, G.

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a general formalism based on Green's functions to calculate the coherent electromagnetic field scattered by a random medium with rough boundaries. The approximate expression derived makes it possible to determine the effective permittivity, which is generalised for a layer of an inhomogeneous random medium with different types of particles and bounded with randomly rough interfaces. This effective permittivity describes the coherent propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a random medium with randomly rough boundaries. We have obtained an expression, which contains the Maxwell - Garnett formula at the low-frequency limit, and the Keller formula; the latter has been proved to be in good agreement with experiments for particles whose dimensions are larger than a wavelength.

  15. Effect of surface roughness on helicopter main rotor blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohizan, W. N. W.; Rafie, A. S. M.; Harmin, M. Y.; Ciang, C. C.

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the effect of surface roughness when applied on helicopter main rotor blade. The aim is to prove that surface roughness can be used as a simple and inexpensive method to achieve better flight performance such as enhanced thrust and/or reduced power requirement. The research was done experimentally, using scaled model of Eurocopter AS350 Ecureuil. Smooth profile of the main rotor blade was modified by applying surface roughness on the upper and lower camber in transition and turbulent boundary layer region, starting from 25% of chord length and extending up to the trailing edge (TE). This study was conducted with the conditions of a vertical flight (particularly in hover condition) since this is a high powerconsuming flight regime for helicopter. The experiment resulted in lower power requirement but at the expense of reduced thrust at the middle collective pitch level. At upper range of the collective pitch level, surface roughness was seen to delay the stall angle as well as increase the lift in the stall region. Meanwhile, at lower pitch level, there was an increase in thrust-to-power ratio.

  16. Partial-slip frictional response of rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Paggi, Marco; Pohrt, Roman; Popov, Valentin L

    2014-06-05

    If two elastic bodies with rough surfaces are first pressed against each other and then loaded tangentially, sliding will occur at the boundary of the contact area while the inner parts may still stick. With increasing tangential force, the sliding parts will expand while the sticking parts shrink and finally vanish. In this paper, we study the fractions of the contact area, tangential force and tangential stiffness, associated with the sticking portion of the contact area, as a function of the total applied tangential force up to the onset of full sliding. For the numerical analysis randomly rough, fractal surfaces are used, with the Hurst exponent H ranging from 0.1 to 0.9. Numerical simulations by boundary element method are compared with an analytical analysis in the framework of the Greenwood and Williamson (GW) model. In both cases, a universal linear dependency between the real contact area fraction in stick condition and the applied tangential force is found, regardless of the Hurst exponent of the rough surfaces. Regarding the dependence of the differential tangential stiffness on the tangential force, a linear relation is found in the GW case. For randomly rough surfaces, a nonlinear relation depending on H is derived.

  17. Characterization of the anisotropy of rough surfaces: Crossing statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi Nezhadhaghighi, M.; Movahed, S. M. S.; Yasseri, T.; Vaez Allaei, S. Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of crossing statistics and its generalizations as a new framework to characterize the anisotropy of a 2D rough surface. The proposed method is expandable to higher dimensions. By measuring the number of up-crossing, ν+ [crossing points with a positive slope at a given threshold of height (α)], and the generalized roughness function, Ntot, it is possible to characterize the nature of an anisotropy, rotational invariance, and Gaussianity of any given surface. In the case of anisotropic correlated self- or multi-affine surfaces, even with different correlation lengths in different directions and/or directional scaling exponents, we examine the relationship between ν+ and Ntot, and corresponding scaling parameters analytically. The method identifies the direction of anisotropy through the systematic use of P-value statistics. After applying the common methods in determining the corresponding scaling exponents in the identified anisotropic directions, we are able to determine the type and the ratio of the involved correlation lengths. To demonstrate capability and accuracy of the method, as well as to validate the analytical calculations, we apply the proposed measures on synthetic stochastic rough interfaces and rough interfaces generated from the simulation of ion etching. There is a good agreement between analytical results and the outcomes of the numerical models. The proposed algorithm can be implemented through a simple software in various instruments, such as AFM and STM, for surface analysis and characterization.

  18. Wane detection on rough lumber using surface approximation

    Treesearch

    Sang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2000-01-01

    The initial breakdown of hardwood logs into lumber produces boards with rough surfaces. These boards contain wane (missing wood due to the curved log exterior) that is removed by edge and trim cuts prior to sale. Because hardwood lumber value is determined using a combination of board size and quality, knowledge of wane position and defects is essential for selecting...

  19. Surface shape analysis of rough lumber for wane detection

    Treesearch

    Sang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2003-01-01

    The initial breakdown of hardwood logs into lumber produces boards with rough surfaces. These boards contain wane (missing wood that emanates from the log exterior, often containing residual bark) that is removed by edge and trim cuts prior to sale. Because hardwood lumber value is determined based on board size and quality, knowledge of wane position and defects is...

  20. Effect of various fire retardants on surface roughness of plywood

    Treesearch

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Suleyman Korkut; Ercan Tanritanir; Jerrold E. Winandy; Salim Hiziroglu

    2006-01-01

    In this study the surface roughness of plywood treated with various fire retardants was investigated. Commercially manufactured veneer of Akaba wood (Tetraberlinia bifoliolata) was treated with borax, boric acid, monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate, then experimental plywood panels were made from these veneer sheets. A stylus method was employed to evaluate...

  1. Influence of surface roughness on nonlinear flow behaviors in 3D self-affine rough fractures: Lattice Boltzmann simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Chen, Yi-Feng; Ma, Guo-Wei; Zhou, Jia-Qing; Zhou, Chuang-Bing

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the impacts of surface roughness on the nonlinear fluid flow through three-dimensional (3D) self-affine rock fractures, whose original surface roughness is decomposed into primary roughness (i.e. the large-scale waviness of the fracture morphology) and secondary roughness (i.e. the small-scale unevenness) with a wavelet analysis technique. A 3D Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is adopted to predict the flow physics in rock fractures numerically created with and without consideration of the secondary roughness, respectively. The simulation results show that the primary roughness mostly controls the pressure distribution and fracture flow paths at a large scale, whereas the secondary roughness determines the nonlinear properties of the fluid flow at a local scale. As the pressure gradient increases, the secondary roughness enhances the local complexity of velocity distribution by generating and expanding the eddy flow and back flow regions in the vicinity of asperities. It was found that the Forchheimer's law characterizes well the nonlinear flow behavior in fractures of varying roughness. The inertial effects induced by the primary roughness differ only marginally in fractures with the roughness exponent varying from 0.5 to 0.8, and it is the secondary roughness that significantly enhances the nonlinear flow and leads to earlier onset of nonlinearity. Further examined were the effects of surface roughness on the transmissivity, hydraulic aperture and the tortuosity of flow paths, demonstrating again the dominant role of the secondary roughness, especially for the apparent transmissivity and the equivalent hydraulic aperture at high pressure gradient or high Reynolds number. The results may enhance our understanding of the role of surface roughness in the nonlinear flow behaviors in natural rock fractures.

  2. Effect of three prophylaxis methods on surface roughness of giomer.

    PubMed

    Kimyai, Soodabeh; Savadi-Oskoee, Siavash; Ajami, Amir-Ahmad; Sadr, Alireza; Asdagh, Saeedeh

    2011-01-01

    Plaque and stains are removed by prophylaxis methods from tooth surfaces. Since prophylaxis methods can have a detrimental effect on the surface finish of restorations, the aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of three prophylaxis methods, including pumice with rubber cup, pumice with brush, and air-powder polishing device (APD) on the surface roughness of giomer. Sixty four cylindrical giomer (Beautifil II, Shofu) samples with a diameter of 6 mm and a height of 2 mm were used. Subsequent to a 3-month period of storage in distilled water at 37°C, the samples were randomly divided into four groups of 16. In group 1 (control), no prophylaxis procedure was carried out. In groups 2 to 4 the samples were exposed to pumice with rubber cup, pumice with brush, and APD prophylaxis methods, respectively. The surface roughness of the samples was measured using a profilometer and the effect of different prophylaxis methods on surface topography was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). All data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Duncan's post hoc test at a significance level of P < 0.05. There were statistically significant differences in surface roughness among the groups (P < 0.0005). Furthermore, in pairwise comparisons there were statistically significant differences between all the groups (P < 0.05). The roughest surfaces, in descending order, were observed with the use of APD, pumice with brush, and pumice with rubber cup. The use of different prophylaxis methods resulted in an increased surface roughness of giomer compared with the control group. APD prophylaxis exerted the most detrimental effects on the surface of giomer.

  3. Specification of Surface Roughness for Hydraulic Flow Test Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen; Timothy S. Yoder

    2006-05-01

    A study was performed to determine the surface roughness of the corrosion layer on aluminum clad booster fuel plates for the proposed Gas Test Loop (GTL) system to be incorporated into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. A layer of boehmite (a crystalline, non-porous gamma-alumina hydrate) is typically pre-formed on the surface of the fuel cladding prior to exposure to reactor operation to prevent the uncontrolled buildup of corrosion product on the surface. A representative sample coupon autoclaved with the ATR driver fuel to produce the boehmite layer was analyzed using optical profilometry to determine the mean surface roughness, a parameter that can have significant impact on the coolant flow past the fuel plates. This information was used to specify the surface finish of mockup fuel plates for a hydraulic flow test model. The purpose of the flow test is to obtain loss coefficients describing the resistance of the coolant flow paths, which are necessary for accurate thermal hydraulic analyses of the water-cooled booster fuel assembly. It is recommended that the surface roughness of the boehmite layer on the fuel cladding be replicated for the flow test. While it is very important to know the order of magnitude of the surface roughness, this value does not need to be matched exactly. Maintaining a reasonable dimensional tolerance for the surface finish on each side of the 12 mockup fuel plates would ensure relative uniformity in the flow among the four coolant channels. Results obtained from thermal hydraulic analyses indicate that ±15% deviation from a surface finish (i.e., Ra) of 0.53 ìm would have a minimal effect on coolant temperature, coolant flow rate, and fuel temperature.

  4. Decoupling single nanowire mobilities limited by surface scattering and bulk impurity scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Khanal, D. R.; Levander, A. X.; Wu, J.; Yu, K. M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Walukiewicz, W.; Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate the isolation of two free carrier scattering mechanisms as a function of radial band bending in InN nanowires via universal mobility analysis, where effective carrier mobility is measured as a function of effective electric field in a nanowire field-effect transistor. Our results show that Coulomb scattering limits effective mobility at most effective fields, while surface roughness scattering only limits mobility under very high internal electric fields. High-energy {alpha} particle irradiation is used to vary the ionized donor concentration, and the observed decrease in mobility and increase in donor concentration are compared to Hall effect results of high-quality InN thin films. Our results show that for nanowires with relatively high doping and large diameters, controlling Coulomb scattering from ionized dopants should be given precedence over surface engineering when seeking to maximize nanowire mobility.

  5. Real-time studies of surface roughness development and reticulation mechanism of advanced photoresist materials during plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, A. R.; Bruce, R. L.; Weilnboeck, F.; Engelmann, S.; Lin, T.; Kuo, M.-S.; Phaneuf, R.; Oehrlein, G. S.

    2009-01-01

    Surface roughness development of photoresist (PR) films during low pressure plasma etching has been studied using real-time laser light scattering from photoresist materials along with ellipsometric and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization. We show that evolution of the intensity of light scattered from a film surface can be used to study the development of surface roughness for a wide range of roughness starting from subnanometer to few hundred nanometers. Laser light scattering in combination with ellipsometry and AFM is also used to study the reticulation mechanism of 193 and 248 nm PRs during argon plasma processing. We employ a three-layer model (modified layer, rough layer, and bulk film) of the modified PR surface (193 and 248 nm PRs) to simulate and understand the behavior of ellipsometric Ψ-Δ trajectories. Bruggeman's effective medium approximation is employed to study the roughness that develops on the surface after reticulation. When the glass transition temperature of the organic materials is reached during Ar plasma processing, the PR films reticulate and roughness develops rapidly. Roughness development is more pronounced for 248 nm PR than for 193 nm PR. Simulation of Ψ-Δ shows that the growth of roughness is accompanied by strong expansion in the materials, which is stronger for 248 nm PR than 193 nm PR. The leading factors responsible for reticulation are found to be compressive stress that develops in the modified surface layer as it is created along with strong molecular chain motion and expansion of the material when the temperature is increased past the glass transition temperature. Reticulation leads to a significantly different surface morphology for 248 nm PR as compared to 193 nm PR and can be related to differences in molecular structure and composition leading to different responses when a modified surface layer is formed by ion bombardment accompanying plasma etching.

  6. Cleanliness evaluation of rough surfaces with diffuse IR reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, L. H.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination on bonding surfaces has been determined to be a primary cause for degraded bond strength in certain solid rocket motor bondlines. Hydrocarbon and silicone based organic contaminants that are airborne or directly introduced to a surface are a significant source of contamination. Diffuse infrared (IR) reflectance has historically been used as an effective technique for detection of organic contaminants, however, common laboratory methods involving the use of a Fourier transform IR spectrometer (FTIR) are impractical for inspecting the large bonding surface areas found on solid rocket motors. Optical methods involving the use of acousto-optic tunable filters and fixed bandpass optical filters are recommended for increased data acquisition speed. Testing and signal analysis methods are presented which provide for simultaneous measurement of contamination concentration and roughness level on rough metal surfaces contaminated with hydrocarbons.

  7. Influence of roughness on capillary forces between hydrophilic surfaces.

    PubMed

    van Zwol, P J; Palasantzas, G; De Hosson, J Th M

    2008-09-01

    Capillary forces have been measured by atomic force microscopy in the plate-sphere setup between gold, borosilicate glass, GeSbTe, titanium, and UV-irradiated amorphous titanium-dioxide surfaces. The force measurements were performed as a function contact time and surface roughness in the range 0.2-15 nm rms and relative humidity ranging between 2% and 40%. It is found that even for the lowest attainable relative humidity ( approximately 2%+/-1%) very large capillary forces are still present. The latter suggests the persistence of a nanometers-thick adsorbed water layer that acts as a capillary bridge between contacting surfaces. Moreover, we found a significantly different scaling behavior of the force with rms roughness for materials with different hydrophilicity as compared to gold-gold surfaces.

  8. Adhesion as an interplay between particle size and surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Katainen, J; Paajanen, M; Ahtola, E; Pore, V; Lahtinen, J

    2006-12-15

    Surface roughness plays an important role in the adhesion of small particles. In this paper we have investigated adhesion as a geometrical effect taking into account both the particle size and the size of the surface features. Adhesion is studied using blunt model particles on surfaces up to 10 nm root-mean-square (RMS) roughness. Measurements with particles both smaller and larger than surface features are presented. Results indicate different behavior in these areas. Adhesion of particles smaller than or similar in size to the asperities depend mainly on the size and shape of the asperities and only weakly on the size of the particle. For large particles also the particle size has a significant effect on the adhesion. A new model, which takes the relative size of particles and asperities into account, is also derived and compared to the experimental data. The proposed model predicts adhesion well over a wide range of particle/asperity length scales.

  9. Abrasive wear and surface roughness of contemporary dental composite resin.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-min; Zhang, Hongyu; Choe, Hyo-Sun; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Hong, Guang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the abrasive wear and surface roughness of 20 currently available commercial dental composite resins, including nanofilled, supra-nanofilled, nanohybrid and microhybrid composite resins. The volume loss, maximum vertical loss, surface roughness (R(a)) and surface morphology [Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)] were determined after wear. The inorganic filler content was determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The result showed that the volume loss and vertical loss varied among the materials. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) of wear volume loss and filler content (wt%) was 0.283. SEM micrographs revealed nanofilled composites displayed a relatively uniform wear surfaces with nanoclusters protrusion, while the performance of nanohybrid composites varied. The abrasive wear resistance of contemporary dental composite resins is material-dependent and cannot be deduced from its category, filler loading and composite matrix; The abrasive wear resistance of some flowable composites is comparable to the universal/posterior composite resins.

  10. Measuring skew in average surface roughness as a function of surface preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Mark T.

    2015-08-01

    Characterizing surface roughness is important for predicting optical performance. Better measurement of surface roughness reduces polishing time, saves money and allows the science requirements to be better defined. This study characterized statistics of average surface roughness as a function of polishing time. Average surface roughness was measured at 81 locations using a Zygo® white light interferometer at regular intervals during the polishing process. Each data set was fit to a normal and Largest Extreme Value (LEV) distribution; then tested for goodness of fit. We show that the skew in the average data changes as a function of polishing time.

  11. Measuring Skew in Average Surface Roughness as a Function of Surface Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing surface roughness is important for predicting optical performance. Better measurement of surface roughness reduces polishing time, saves money and allows the science requirements to be better defined. This study characterized statistics of average surface roughness as a function of polishing time. Average surface roughness was measured at 81 locations using a Zygo white light interferometer at regular intervals during the polishing process. Each data set was fit to a normal and Largest Extreme Value (LEV) distribution; then tested for goodness of fit. We show that the skew in the average data changes as a function of polishing time.

  12. Estimation of Bare Surface Soil Moisture and Surface Roughness Parameter Using L-Band SAR Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jian-Cheng; Wang, James; Hsu, Ann Y.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Engman, Edwin T.

    1997-01-01

    An algorithm based on a fit of the single-scattering Integral Equation Method (IEM) was developed to provide estimation of soil moisture and surface roughness parameter (a combination of rms roughness height and surface power spectrum) from quad-polarized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements. This algorithm was applied to a series of measurements acquired at L-band (1.25 GHz) from both AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and SIR-C (Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C) over a well- managed watershed in southwest Oklahoma. Prior to its application for soil moisture inversion, a good agreement was found between the single-scattering IEM simulations and the L band measurements of SIR-C and AIRSAR over a wide range of soil moisture and surface roughness conditions. The sensitivity of soil moisture variation to the co-polarized signals were then examined under the consideration of the calibration accuracy of various components of SAR measurements. It was found that the two co-polarized backscattering coefficients and their combinations would provide the best input to the algorithm for estimation of soil moisture and roughness parameter. Application of the inversion algorithm to the co-polarized measurements of both AIRSAR and SIR-C resulted in estimated values of soil moisture and roughness parameter for bare and short-vegetated fields that compared favorably with those sampled on the ground. The root-mean-square (rms) errors of the comparison were found to be 3.4% and 1.9 dB for soil moisture and surface roughness parameter, respectively.

  13. Surface roughness evaluation on mandrels and mirror shells for future X-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, Giorgia; Spiga, D.

    2008-07-01

    More X-ray missions that will be operating in near future, like particular SIMBOL-X, e-Rosita, Con-X/HXT, SVOM/XIAO and Polar-X, will be based on focusing optics manufactured by means of the Ni electroforming replication technique. This production method has already been successfully exploited for SAX, XMM and Swift-XRT. Optical surfaces for X-ray reflection have to be as smooth as possible also at high spatial frequencies. Hence it will be crucial to take under control microroughness in order to reduce the scattering effects. A high rms microroughness would cause the degradation of the angular resolution and loss of effective area. Stringent requirements have therefore to be fixed for mirror shells surface roughness depending on the specific energy range investigated, and roughness evolution has to be carefully monitored during the subsequent steps of the mirror-shells realization. This means to study the roughness evolution in the chain mandrel, mirror shells, multilayer deposition and also the degradation of mandrel roughness following iterated replicas. Such a study allows inferring which phases of production are the major responsible of the roughness growth and could help to find solutions optimizing the involved processes. The exposed study is carried out in the context of the technological consolidation related to SIMBOL-X, along with a systematic metrological study of mandrels and mirror shells. To monitor the roughness increase following each replica, a multiinstrumental approach was adopted: microprofiles were analysed by means of their Power Spectral Density (PSD) in the spatial frequency range 1000-0.01 μm. This enables the direct comparison of roughness data taken with instruments characterized by different operative ranges of frequencies, and in particular optical interferometers and Atomic Force Microscopes. The performed analysis allowed us to set realistic specifications on the mandrel roughness to be achieved, and to suggest a limit for the

  14. Coupling of surface roughness to the performance of computer-generated holograms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping; Burge, Jim

    2007-09-10

    Computer-generated holograms (CGHs), such as those used in optical testing, are created by etching patterns into an optical substrate. Imperfections in the etching can cause small scale surface roughness that varies across the pattern. The variation in this roughness affects the phase and amplitude of the wavefronts in the various diffraction orders. A simplified model is developed and validated that treats the scattering loss from the roughness as an amplitude effect. We demonstrate the use of this model for engineering analysis and provide a graphical method for understanding the application. Furthermore, we investigate the magnitude of this effect for the application of optical testing and show that the effect on measurement accuracy is limited to 1 nm for typical CGHs.

  15. Assessment of hair surface roughness using quantitative image analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, K H; Kim, H J; Oh, B; Lee, E; Ha, J

    2017-07-19

    Focus on the hair and hair cuticle is increasing. The hair cuticle is the first layer to be exposed to damage and the area of primary protection. For such reasons, hair product manufacturers consider cuticle protection important. However, previous studies used only visual assessment to examine the cuticle. This study aimed to obtain the changes in cuticles and measure hair roughness using a HIROX microscope. A total of 23 female subjects used the same products daily for 4 weeks. Three hair samples per subject were collected from three different areas of the head. Measurements were taken before and after 4 weeks of daily product use. The hair surface changes were clearly observed on the captured images. Moreover, hair surface roughness was observed using various parameters on HIROX software. After 4 weeks of daily product use, the roughness parameter value of the hair surface was significantly decreased. Our result suggests that the hair roughness analytical method using HIROX can be a new paradigm for high-quality quantitative analysis of the hair cuticle. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Surface roughness stabilizes the clustering of self-propelled triangles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilse, Sven Erik; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost

    2016-10-01

    Self-propelled particles can spontaneously form dense phases from a dilute suspension in a process referred to as motility-induced phase separation. The properties of the out-of-equilibrium structures that are formed are governed by the specifics of the particle interactions and the strength of the activity. Thus far, most studies into the formation of these structures have focused on spherical colloids, dumbbells, and rod-like particles endowed with various interaction potentials. Only a few studies have examined the collective behavior of more complex particle shapes. Here, we increase the geometric complexity and use molecular dynamics simulations to consider the structures formed by triangular self-propelled particles with surface roughness. These triangles either move towards their apex or towards their base, i.e., they possess a polarity. We find that apex-directed triangles cluster more readily, more stably, and have a smoother cluster interface than their base-directed counterparts. A difference between the two polarities is in line with the results of Wensink et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 010302 (2014)]; however, we obtain the reversed result when it comes to clustering, namely, that apex-directed triangles cluster more successfully. We further show that reducing the surface roughness negatively impacts the stability of the base-directed structures, suggesting that their formation is in large part due to surface roughness. Our results lay a solid foundation for future experimental and computational studies into the effect of roughness on the collective dynamics of swimmers.

  17. A Numerical Modeling Approach to Cometary Nucleus Surface Roughness Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfner, S.; Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Blum, J.

    2013-09-01

    Activity of cometary nuclei is closely linked with thermophysical processes. Main catalyst to activity is the diurnal temperature wave induced by solar heating. Highly resolved comet nucleus geometric models are used to model temperatures with flat surfacial facets taken from shape modeling approaches [1, 3]. Recent analyses of Groussin et al. [4] and Davidsson et al. [2] compared thermal inertia and surface temperatures of Tempel 1 and Hartley 2 synthetic models to those derived from spectral images. They outlined that applying beaming factors and radiative self-heating is not sufficient to understand the thermal behaviour of the nucleus surface. Regions with large incidence angles (e.g. at the morning terminator) distinctively deviate from predicted temperatures. One of the main contributions to this deviation is the effect of surface roughness with scals that are considerably smaller than the model facets. Combined with a relatively low thermal inertia, temperatures cover a wide range of values even at closest neighbourhood to each other. The radiative measurement for a distant observer unveils a smearing effect that indicates higher temperatures compared to average. The authors follow two numerical approaches to model small-scale surface roughness: (A) by using randomly generated fractal surfaces and (B) by downscaling groups of facets originating from larger shape models of Tempel 1. We apply a model that accounts for both radiative heat exchange for all facets and shadowing effects due to incoming solar radiation. These values are calculated in a thermal model. The revealed temperatures are analyzed with respect to average large-scale surface temperatures. Hence, they are compared to deviating temperatures that are measured by a distant observer that is unable to resolve sub-structure surface patterns. A parametric study varying thermal inertia and the degree of surface roughness then outlines a bandwidth of feasible surface structures and relates them to

  18. The role of the roughness spectral breadth in elastic contact of rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yastrebov, Vladislav A.; Anciaux, Guillaume; Molinari, Jean-François

    2017-10-01

    We study frictionless and non-adhesive contact between elastic half-spaces with self-affine surfaces. Using a recently suggested corrective technique, we ensure an unprecedented accuracy in computation of the true contact area evolution under increasing pressure. This accuracy enables us to draw conclusions on the role of the surface's spectrum breadth (Nayak parameter) in the contact area evolution. We show that for a given normalized pressure, the contact area decreases logarithmically with the Nayak parameter. By linking the Nayak parameter with the Hurst exponent (or fractal dimension), we show the effect of the latter on the true contact area. This effect, undetectable for surfaces with poor spectral content, is quite strong for surfaces with rich spectra. Numerical results are compared with analytical models and other available numerical results. A phenomenological equation for the contact area growth is suggested with coefficients depending on the Nayak parameter. Using this equation, the pressure-dependent friction coefficient is deduced based on the adhesive theory of friction. Some observations on Persson's model of rough contact, whose prediction does not depend on Nayak parameter, are reported. Overall, the paper provides a unifying picture of rough elastic contact and clarifies discrepancies between preceding results.

  19. Surface roughness measurement using spatial-average analysis of objective speckle pattern in specular direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuezeng; Gao, Zhao

    2009-11-01

    The speckle contrast method (SCM) and the light scattering method (LSM) are two of the most promising optical techniques for on-line surface roughness measurement of slightly-rough surface. However, due to the lack of capability in eliminating the influence from the diffuse component of scattered light, SCM and LSM are both sensitive to the variations of surface correlation length. Additionally, for LSM, the presence of speckle noise leads to fluctuations in the measuring results. To solve these problems, an approach based on the spatial-average analysis of the objective speckle pattern in the specular direction, simply called spatial-average method (SAM), is proposed. The SAM establishes the quantitative relationship between a new characteristic parameter extracted from the recorded speckle image and the rms surface roughness, eliminates to a large extent the influence of diffuse light component on the measuring results, and immunizes itself from the speckle noise. The theoretical foundation of SAM is given in details. A computer simulation is then performed to make comparisons among these three methods. Finally an experiment is presented.

  20. Delayed lubricant depletion on liquid-infused randomly rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, pressure drops on liquid-infused superhydrophobic surfaces were measured through a microchannel. A number of different superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared and tested. These surfaces included several PDMS surfaces containing precisely patterned microposts and microridges as well as a number of PTFE surfaces with random surface roughness created by sanding the PTFE with different sandpapers. Silicone oil was selected as the lubricant fluid and infused into the microstructures of the superhydrophobic surfaces. Several aqueous glycerin solutions with different viscosities were used as working fluids so that the viscosity ratio between the lubricant and the working fluid could be varied. The lubricant layer trapped within the precisely patterned superhydrophobic PDMS surfaces was found to be easily depleted over a short period of time even in limit of low flow rates and capillary numbers. On the other hand, the randomly rough superhydrophobic PTFE surfaces tested were found to maintain the layer of lubricant oil even at moderately high capillary numbers resulting in drag reduction that was found to increase with increasing viscosity ratio. The pressure drops on the liquid-infused PTFE surfaces were measured over time to determine the longevity of the lubricant layer. The pressure drops for the randomly rough PTFE surfaces were found to initially diminish with time before reaching a short-time plateau which is equivalent to maximum drag reduction. This minimum pressure drop was maintained for at least three hours in all cases regardless of feature size. However, as the depletion of the oil from the lubricant layer was initiated, the pressure drop was observed to grow slowly before reaching a second long-time asymptote which was equivalent to a Wenzel state.

  1. Roughness Scaling of Fracture Surfaces in Polycrystalline Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Seppala, E; Reed, B; Kumar, M; Minich, R; Rudd, R

    2004-04-26

    The roughness scaling of fracture surfaces in two-dimensional grain boundary networks is studied numerically. Grain boundary networks are created using a Metropolis method in order to mimic the triple junction distributions from experiments. Fracture surfaces through these grain boundary networks are predicted using a combinatorial optimization method of maximum flow - minimum cut type. We have preliminary results from system sizes up to N = 22500 grains suggesting that the roughness scaling of these surfaces follows a random elastic manifold scaling exponent {zeta} = 2/3. We propose a strong dependence between the energy needed to create a crack and the special boundary fraction. Also the special boundaries at the crack and elsewhere in the system can be tracked.

  2. Hot-rolling nanowire transparent electrodes for surface roughness minimization.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh Khaligh, Hadi; Goldthorpe, Irene A

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanowire transparent electrodes are a promising alternative to transparent conductive oxides. However, their surface roughness presents a problem for their integration into devices with thin layers such as organic electronic devices. In this paper, hot rollers are used to soften plastic substrates with heat and mechanically press the nanowires into the substrate surface. By doing so, the root-mean-square surface roughness is reduced to 7 nm and the maximum peak-to-valley value is 30 nm, making the electrodes suitable for typical organic devices. This simple process requires no additional materials, which results in a higher transparency, and is compatible with roll-to-roll fabrication processes. In addition, the adhesion of the nanowires to the substrate significantly increases.

  3. Heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Volokitin, A I; Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J

    2010-01-01

    We study the heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces.We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and the heat transfer between the surfaces in the non-contact regions.We apply a recently developed contact mechanics theory, which accounts for the hierarchical nature of the contact between solids with roughness on many different length scales. For elastic contact, at the highest (atomic) resolution the area of real contact typically consists of atomic (nanometer) sized regions, and we discuss the implications of this for the heat transfer. For solids with very smooth surfaces, as is typical in many modern engineering applications, the interfacial separation in the non-contact regions will be very small, and for this case we show the importance of the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies.

  4. Surface Roughness Instability Simulations of Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlinchey, Kristopher; Niasse, Nicolas; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Understanding hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by the inherit roughness on a capsule's surface is critical in quantifying an implosion's performance. Combined with instabilities on the ice-gas interface during the deceleration phase, their growth can lead to inhomogeneity in the shell's areal density. Recent work carried out at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) on surface roughness Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) growth rates show larger amplitudes in experiment as compared to simulation, even with a deliberately roughened surface. We report on simulations of ICF experiments occurring at NIF using the Chimera code developed at Imperial College. Chimera is a fully explicit, Eulerian 3D multi-group radiation-hydrodynamics code utilising P1/3 automatic flux limiting radiation transport with opacity data from a non-LTE atomic model also developed at Imperial College. One-dimensional simulations are briefly presented to highlight that proper shock timing and stagnation properties have been achieved as are 2D harmonic perturbation simulations to benchmark their growth rates. Surface roughness implosions (initialised from metrology data) were then simulated for: shot N120321, a low-foot implosion with large surface perturbations and shot N130927, a high-foot implosion. Synthetic radiographs of these implosions were constructed at low convergence ratio (3-4) for comparison to experiment and at higher convergence to investigate what will be observable by new diagnostics in development at NIF.

  5. Dependence of metal-enhanced fluorescence on surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, Alexandre; Sciacca, Beniamino; Zuber, Agnieszka; Klantsataya, Elizaveta; Monro, Tanya M.

    2014-03-01

    Metal Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF) takes advantage of the coupling between surface plasmons, in either a metallic thin film or metallic nanoparticles, and fluorophores located in proximity of the metal, yielding an increase of the fluorophore emission. While MEF has been widely studied on metallic nanoparticles with the emphasis on creating brighter fluorescent labels, planar surfaces have not benefitted from the same attention. Here we investigate the influence of the surface roughness of a thin metallic film on the fluorescence enhancement. 50nm thick silver films were deposited on glass slides using either thermal evaporation with different evaporation currents or an electroless plating method based on the Tollens reaction to vary the surface roughness. Multiple layers of positively and negatively charged polyelectrolytes were deposited on top of the metallic coating to map out the enhancement factor as function of the gap between the metallic coating and fluorophore molecules covalently bound to the last polyelectrolyte layer. We show that fluorescence is enhanced by the presence of the metallic film, and in particular that the enhancement increases by a factor 3 to 40 for roughness ranging from 3 nm to 8 nm. Although these enhancement factors are modest compared to the enhancement produced by complex metallic nanoparticles or nano-patterned metallic thin films, the thin films used here are capable of supporting a plasmonic wave and offer the possibility of combining different techniques, such as surface plasmon resonance (with its higher refractive index sensitivity compared to localized plasmons) and MEF within a single device.

  6. Data fusion for accurate microscopic rough surface metrology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhang

    2016-06-01

    Data fusion for rough surface measurement and evaluation was analyzed on simulated datasets, one with higher density (HD) but lower accuracy and the other with lower density (LD) but higher accuracy. Experimental verifications were then performed on laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations of surface areal roughness artifacts. The results demonstrated that the fusion based on Gaussian process models is effective and robust under different measurement biases and noise strengths. All the amplitude, height distribution, and spatial characteristics of the original sample structure can be precisely recovered, with better metrological performance than any individual measurements. As for the influencing factors, the HD noise has a relatively weaker effect as compared with the LD noise. Furthermore, to enable an accurate fusion, the ratio of LD sampling interval to surface autocorrelation length should be smaller than a critical threshold. In general, data fusion is capable of enhancing the nanometrology of rough surfaces by combining efficient LSM measurement and down-sampled fast AFM scan. The accuracy, resolution, spatial coverage and efficiency can all be significantly improved. It is thus expected to have potential applications in development of hybrid microscopy and in surface metrology.

  7. Finishing systems on the final surface roughness of composites.

    PubMed

    Koh, Richard; Neiva, Gisele; Dennison, Joseph; Yaman, Peter

    2008-02-01

    This study evaluated differences in surface roughness of a microhybrid (Gradia Direct, GC America) and a nanofil (Filtek Supreme, 3M ESPE) composite using four polishing systems: PoGo/Enhance (DENTSPLY/Caulk), Sof-Lex (3M ESPE), Astropol (Ivoclar Vivadent), and Optidisc (KerrHawe). An aluminum mold was used to prepare 2 X 60 composite disks (10 mm X 2 mm). Composite was packed into the mold, placed between two glass slabs, and polymerized for 40 seconds from the top and bottom surfaces. Specimens were finished to a standard rough surface using Moore's disks with six brushing strokes. Specimens were rinsed and stored in artificial saliva in individual plastic bags at 36 degrees C for 24 hours prior to testing. Specimens were randomly assigned to one of the four polishing systems and were polished for 30 seconds (10 seconds per grit) with brushing strokes according to the manufacturer's instructions. Mean surface roughness (Ra) was recorded with a surface-analyzer 24 hours after storage in artificial saliva, both before and after polishing. Means were analyzed using two-way and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey multiple comparison tests at p < 0.05. There was a statistically significant difference for baseline measures between Filtek and Gradia (p=0.0338). For Filtek, Sof-Lex provided a significantly smoother surface (Ra=0.80 +/- 0.21) than Optidisc (Ra=0.93 +/- 0.28), Astropol (Ra=1.15 +/- 0.24), and Pogo/Enhance (Ra=1.39 +/- 0.39). For Gradia, Sof-Lex provided a significantly smoother surface (Ra=0.47 +/- 0.09) and Astropol provided a significantly rougher surface (Ra=1.39 +/- 0.19) than Pogo/Enhance (Ra=1.11 +/- 0.20) and Optidisc (Ra=1.15 +/- 0.18). There was no significant difference in roughness between composites for individual polishing systems (p=0.3991). Filtek specimens were smoother than Gradia specimens after baseline roughening. Sof-Lex provided the smoothest final surface when used with either composite. Astropol provided a rough surface

  8. Friction and roughness of a melting rock surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S.; di Toro, G.; Griffith, W. A.

    2010-07-01

    Under extreme conditions like those encountered during earthquake slip, frictional melt is likely to occur. It has been observed on ancient faults that the melt is mostly extruded toward local extensional jogs or lateral tension cracks. In the case of laboratory experiments with a rotary shear apparatus, melt is extruded from the sample borders. When this happens, a thin and irregular melt layer is formed whereby the normal load is still in part supported by contact asperities under an incipient yield condition (as in dry friction models), but also, in the interstices between asperities, by the pressure of the viscous fluid wetting the interface. In addition, roughness of the surface is dynamically reshaped by the melting process of an inhomogeneous material (polymineralic rock). In particular, we argue that the roughness of the melting surface decreases with melting rate and temperature gradient perpendicular to the fault. Taking into account the above conditions, we obtain an expression for the average melt layer thickness and viscous pressure that may be used in estimates of friction in the presence of melt. We argue that the ratio of melt thickness to roughness depends on sliding velocity; such a ratio may be used as a gauge of slip-rate during fossil earthquakes on faults bearing pseudotachylite (solidified melt). Finally, we derive an improved analytical solution for friction in the presence of melt including the effect of roughness evolution.

  9. Experimental research of surface roughness and surface texture after laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przestacki, Damian; Majchrowski, Radomir; Marciniak-Podsadna, Lidia

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the investigation was to identify surface integrity of machined parts after laser cladding. Surface analysis was made by using novel metrology methods: auto correlation and gradient distributions. An Infinite Focus Measurement Machine (IFM) has been used for the surface texture analysis. The study has been performed within a production facility during the prototyping process of new products. There are many methods available for geometric and surface topography measurements: contact and non-contact, micro and nanoscale approaches. An optical method based on the measurement of light reflected or scattered from the surface of an examined object can be used for this purpose. We have tested the application of an advanced 3D scanner for this purpose - optical scanner ATOS II. The scanner ATOS II represents the optical method, i.e. the digital light projection (DLP) method. The system consists of a projector and two digital cameras capable of supplying 1.4 million of measuring points per second. This method enables to scan elements from a few millimeters to a several dozen of meters in size. The roughness analysis is based on 2D measurements, which gave two-dimensional characteristics of the surface. In last decades, the metrology of the surface layer notes dynamical development as a science. During the last decades, many scientists and constructors became convinced that the third dimension should be added to the surface analysis. At present, 3D analysis of the surface geometry is widely accepted. In order to complete the topography analysis of the surface texture after laser cladding, our team worked out original program for 2D and 3D surface analysis. It was called TAS (topography analysis and simulation) and was based on Matlab software. Four modules were developed: the initial data processing module, basic parameters calculating module, data visualization module, and digital filtration module.

  10. Secondary Emission from Non-spherical Dust Grains with Rough Surfaces: Application to Lunar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richterová, I.; Němeček, Z.; Beránek, M.; Šafránková, J.; Pavlů, J.

    2012-12-01

    Electrons impinging on a target can release secondary electrons and/or they can be scattered out of the target. It is well established that the number of escaping electrons per primary electron depends on the target composition and dimensions, the energy, and incidence angle of the primary electrons, but there are suggestions that the target's shape and surface roughness also influence the secondary emission. We present a further modification of the model of secondary electron emission from dust grains which is applied to non-spherical grains and grains with defined surface roughness. It is shown that the non-spherical grains give rise to a larger secondary electron yield, whereas the surface roughness leads to a decrease in the yield. Moreover, these effects can be distinguished: the shape effect is prominent for high primary energies, whereas the surface roughness predominantly affects the yield at the low-energy range. The calculations use the Lunar Highlands Type NU-LHT-2M simulant as a grain material and the results are compared with previously published laboratory and in situ measurements.

  11. SECONDARY EMISSION FROM NON-SPHERICAL DUST GRAINS WITH ROUGH SURFACES: APPLICATION TO LUNAR DUST

    SciTech Connect

    Richterova, I.; Nemecek, Z.; Beranek, M.; Safrankova, J.; Pavlu, J.

    2012-12-20

    Electrons impinging on a target can release secondary electrons and/or they can be scattered out of the target. It is well established that the number of escaping electrons per primary electron depends on the target composition and dimensions, the energy, and incidence angle of the primary electrons, but there are suggestions that the target's shape and surface roughness also influence the secondary emission. We present a further modification of the model of secondary electron emission from dust grains which is applied to non-spherical grains and grains with defined surface roughness. It is shown that the non-spherical grains give rise to a larger secondary electron yield, whereas the surface roughness leads to a decrease in the yield. Moreover, these effects can be distinguished: the shape effect is prominent for high primary energies, whereas the surface roughness predominantly affects the yield at the low-energy range. The calculations use the Lunar Highlands Type NU-LHT-2M simulant as a grain material and the results are compared with previously published laboratory and in situ measurements.

  12. Estimation of Bare Surface Soil Moisture and Surface Roughness Parameter Using L-Band SAR Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jian-Cheng; Wang, James; Hsu, Ann; ONeill, Peggy; Engman, Edwin T.

    1997-01-01

    An algorithm based on a fit of the single-scattering Integral Equation Method (IEM) was developed to provide estimation of soil moisture and surface roughness parameter (a combination of rms roughness height and surface power spectrum) from quasi-polarized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements. This algorithm was applied to a series of measurements acquired at L-band (1.25 GHz) from both AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar operated by Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and SIR-C (Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C) over a well-managed watershed in southwest Oklahoma. It was found that the two co-polarized backscattering coefficients and their combinations would provide the best input to the algorithm for estimation of soil moisture and roughness parameter. Application of the inversion algorithm to the co-polarized measurements of both AIRSAR and SIR-C resulted in estimated values of soil moisture and roughness parameter for bare and short-vegetated fields that compared favorably with those sampled on the ground. The root-mean-square (rms) errors of the comparison were found to be 3.4% and 1.9 dB for soil moisture and surface roughness parameter, respectively.

  13. Optimum surface roughness prediction for titanium alloy by adopting response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Aimin; Han, Yang; Pan, Yuhang; Xing, Hongwei; Li, Jinze

    Titanium alloy has been widely applied in industrial engineering products due to its advantages of great corrosion resistance and high specific strength. This paper investigated the processing parameters for finish turning of titanium alloy TC11. Firstly, a three-factor central composite design of experiment, considering the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, are conducted in titanium alloy TC11 and the corresponding surface roughness are obtained. Then a mathematic model is constructed by the response surface methodology to fit the relationship between the process parameters and the surface roughness. The prediction accuracy was verified by the one-way ANOVA. Finally, the contour line of the surface roughness under different combination of process parameters are obtained and used for the optimum surface roughness prediction. Verification experimental results demonstrated that material removal rate (MRR) at the obtained optimum can be significantly improved without sacrificing the surface roughness.

  14. Exploring the Surface Roughness of Asteroid Vesta using Bistatic Radar Observations by the Dawn Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Elizabeth Marie; Heggy, Essam; Kofman, Wlodek

    2015-08-01

    NASA’s Dawn spacecraft conducted an opportunistic bistatic radar (BSR) experiment at asteroid Vesta using its communications antennas to transmit, and the 70-m DSN antennas on Earth to receive. Dawn’s high-gain antenna continuously transmitted right-hand circularly polarized radio waves (4-cm wavelength) while pointed toward Earth. This configuration results in high grazing incidence angles of scatter from Vesta’s surface as Dawn passes behind Vesta (entering occultation) and again as Dawn re-emerges from behind Vesta (exiting occultation). This leads to a small Doppler shift of only ~2 Hz between the directly transmitted signal and surface echoes from Vesta given a small relative velocity between the spacecraft’s orbit and the asteroid’s rotation. We calculated power spectra from the received radar scatter using a frequency resolution of 0.5 Hz, and a temporal resolution of 5 seconds, and have detected 20 cases of surface echoes at mid-latitudes. Surface echoes detected during occultation entry exhibit a negative Doppler shift relative to the direct signal, while echoes detected during occultation exit exhibit a positive Doppler shift. We then compare Vesta’s surface roughness with that of the Moon by analyzing the power and Doppler spreading of Vesta’s surface echoes, and correcting for shadowing effects inherent at high-incidence angle observations. We expect the Vestan surface to exhibit greater roughness at centimeter scales based on previous Earth-based radar studies.

  15. Biofilm retention on surfaces with variable roughness and hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lone; Pillai, Saju; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Schramm, Andreas; Bischoff, Claus; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms on food processing equipment cause food spoilage and pose a hazard to consumers. The bacterial community on steel surfaces in a butcher's shop was characterized, and bacteria representative of this community enriched from minced pork were used to study biofilm retention. Stainless steel (SS) was compared to two novel nanostructured sol-gel coatings with differing hydrophobicity. Surfaces were characterized with respect to roughness, hydrophobicity, protein adsorption, biofilm retention, and community composition of the retained bacteria. Fewer bacteria were retained on the sol-gel coated surfaces compared to the rougher SS. However, the two sol-gel coatings did not differ in either protein adsorption, biofilm retention, or microbial community composition. When polished to a roughness similar to sol-gel, the SS was colonized by the same amount of bacteria as the sol-gel, but the bacterial community contained fewer Pseudomonas cells. In conclusion, biofilm retention was affected more by surface roughness than chemical composition under the condition described in this study.

  16. Some properties of unstable slip on rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spetzler, Hartmut; Sobolev, Guennadi; Koltsov, Anatoli; Zang, Arno; Getting, Ivan C.

    1991-03-01

    In this paper we report results obtained from various friction experiments under direct and oblique shear loading conditions. We used four rock types of varying brittleness (quartzite, anhydrite, limestone, pyrophyllite) with different surface roughness. The observations concentrate on the time span several milliseconds before dynamic failure occurs. During this period a premonitory, unstable phase of slip (slip 2) occurs. This differs importantly from a premonitory, stable process (slip 1) with durations of hundreds of seconds. On smooth surfaces slip 2 is usually observed with ductile rocks and less reliably with brittle rocks. Slip 2 is mostly accompanied by acoustic emissions, which increase in rate of occurrence and in magnitude until the stick-slip event. Foreshocks are observed during approximately 50% of the slip 2 events on rough surfaces. Foreshocks far exceed the “acoustic noise level”, which is also prevalent before stick-slip events on rough surfaces. In the direct shear experiment, where two faults are being loaded simultaneously, in about 20% of the cases precursory slip 2 was observed on the opposite side on which the final stick-slip event occurred.

  17. Effective macroscopic adhesive contact behavior induced by small surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesari, Haneesh; Lew, Adrian J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we study a model contact problem involving adhesive elastic frictionless contact between rough surfaces. The problem's most notable feature is that it captures the phenomenon of depth-dependent-hysteresis (DDH) (e.g., see Kesari et al., 2010), which refers to the observation of different contact forces during the loading and unloading stages of a contact experiment. We specifically study contact between a rigid axi-symmetric punch and an elastic half-space. The roughness is represented as arbitrary periodic undulations in the punch's radial profile. These undulations induce multiple equilibrium contact regions between the bodies at each indentation-depth. Assuming that the system evolves so as to minimize its potential energy, we show that different equilibrium contact regions are selected during the loading and unloading stages at each indentation-depth, giving rise to DDH. When the period and amplitude of our model's roughness is reduced, we show that the evolution of the contact force and radius with the indentation-depth can be approximated with simpler curves, the effective macroscopic behavior, which we compute. Remarkably, the effective behavior depends solely on the amplitude and period of the model's roughness. The effective behavior is useful for estimating material properties from contact experiments displaying DDH. We show one such example here. Using the effective behavior for a particular roughness model (sinusoidal) we analyze the energy loss during a loading/unloading cycle, finding that roughness can toughen the interface. We also estimate the energy barriers between the different equilibrium contact regions at a fixed indentation-depth, which can be used to assess the importance of ambient energy fluctuations on DDH.

  18. Ptychographic coherent x-ray surface scattering imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Jiang, Zhang; Sun, Tao; Wang, Jin

    Lensless x-ray coherent diffraction imaging enables the determination of nano-scaled structures in physical and biological sciences. Several coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) methods have been developed in both transmission and reflection modes such as Bragg CDI, plane-wave CDI, Fresnel CDI, coherent surface scattering imaging (CSSI) and so on. The grazing-incidence coherent surface scattering (CSSI) technique, which is recently developed by T. Sun et al., takes advantage of enhanced x-ray surface scattering and interference near total external reflection, and thereby overcomes some limitations that the transmission mode have. However, the sample size can be investigated is limited by x-ray beam size because the sample is supposed to be isolated. We incorporated ptychographic algorithm with coherent surface scattering imaging to overcome this limitation and make it more useful and applicable. The ptychographic coherent surface scattering imaging technique enables us to measure 2D roughness of the flat surface such as thin film and silicon wafer regardless of the surface area. LDRD.

  19. Modeling Surface Roughness to Estimate Surface Moisture Using Radarsat-2 Quad Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurtyawan, R.; Saepuloh, A.; Budiharto, A.; Wikantika, K.

    2016-08-01

    Microwave backscattering from the earth's surface depends on several parameters such as surface roughness and dielectric constant of surface materials. The two parameters related to water content and porosity are crucial for estimating soil moisture. The soil moisture is an important parameter for ecological study and also a factor to maintain energy balance of land surface and atmosphere. Direct roughness measurements to a large area require extra time and cost. Heterogeneity roughness scale for some applications such as hydrology, climate, and ecology is a problem which could lead to inaccuracies of modeling. In this study, we modeled surface roughness using Radasat-2 quad Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data. The statistical approaches to field roughness measurements were used to generate an appropriate roughness model. This modeling uses a physical SAR approach to predicts radar backscattering coefficient in the parameter of radar configuration (wavelength, polarization, and incidence angle) and soil parameters (surface roughness and dielectric constant). Surface roughness value is calculated using a modified Campbell and Shepard model in 1996. The modification was applied by incorporating the backscattering coefficient (σ°) of quad polarization HH, HV and VV. To obtain empirical surface roughness model from SAR backscattering intensity, we used forty-five sample points from field roughness measurements. We selected paddy field in Indramayu district, West Java, Indonesia as the study area. This area was selected due to intensive decreasing of rice productivity in the Northern Coast region of West Java. Third degree polynomial is the most suitable data fitting with coefficient of determination R2 and RMSE are about 0.82 and 1.18 cm, respectively. Therefore, this model is used as basis to generate the map of surface roughness.

  20. Surface roughness of optical quartz substrate by chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Duan; Jianwei, Zhou; Yuling, Liu; Mingbin, Sun; Yufeng, Zhang

    2014-11-01

    In order to achieve a high-quality quartz glass substrate and to improve the performance of TiO2 anti-reflection coating, chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) method was used. During CMP process, some process parameters including pressure, polishing head speed, platen speed, slurry flow rate, polishing time, and slurry temperature were optimized to obtain lower quartz surface roughness. According to the experiment results, when pressure was 0.75 psi, polishing head speed was 65 rpm, platen speed was 60 rpm, slurry flow rate 150 mL/min, slurry temperature 20 °C, and polishing time was 60 s, the material removal rate (MRR) was 56.8 nm/min and the surface roughness (Ra) was 1.93 Å (the scanned area was 10 × 10 μm2). These results were suitable for the industrial production requirements.

  1. Survey of surface roughness properties of synchrotron radiation optics

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Colbert, J.; Church, E.L.

    1986-03-01

    Measurements of surface roughness were made on a large number of grazing incidence mirrors delivered for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The measurements were made with a WYKO optical profiler using a 2.5X and a 10X objective and analyzed with our PROFILE code to generate an average periodogram representation for each surface. The data is presented in the form of representative profiles with all of the periodogram curves arranged according to figure type. Analysis of the periodograms allows one to compute bandwidth-limited values for RMS roughness and slope, to provide valuable feedback information to manufacturers regarding compliance with specifications, and to predict the performance of the optic at x-ray wavelengths.

  2. Multiscale roughness in optical multilayers: atomic force microscopy and light scattering.

    PubMed

    Deumié, C; Richier, R; Dumas, P; Amra, C

    1996-10-01

    We have previously shown that macroscopic roughness spectra measured with light scattering at visible wavelengths were perfectly extrapolated at high spatial frequencies by microscopic roughness spectra measured with atomic force microscopy [Europhys. Lett. 22, 717 (1993); Proc. SPIE 2253, 614 (1994)]. These results have been confirmed by numerous experiments [Proc. SPIE 2253, 614 (1994)] and allow us today to characterize thin films microstructure from a macroscopic to a microscopic scale. In the first step the comparison of light scattering and atomic force microscopy is completed by optical measurements at UV wavelengths that allow us to superimpose (and no longer extrapolate) the spectra measured by the two techniques. In the second step we extract multiscale parameters that describe the action of thin-film coatings on substrate roughness in all bandwidths. The results obviously depend on materials and substrates and deposition techniques. Electron-beam evaporation, ion-assisted deposition, and ion plating are compared, and the conclusions are discussed in regard to the deposition parameters. Finally, special attention is given to the limits and performances of the two characterization techniques (light scattering and atomic force microscopy) that may be sensitive to different phenomena.

  3. The Influence of Roughness on Gear Surface Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Gear working surfaces are subjected to repeated rolling and sliding contacts, and often designs require loads sufficient to cause eventual fatigue of the surface. This research provides experimental data and analytical tools to further the understanding of the causal relationship of gear surface roughness to surface fatigue. The research included evaluations and developments of statistical tools for gear fatigue data, experimental evaluation of the surface fatigue lives of superfinished gears with a near-mirror quality, and evaluations of the experiments by analytical methods and surface inspections. Alternative statistical methods were evaluated using Monte Carlo studies leading to a final recommendation to describe gear fatigue data using a Weibull distribution, maximum likelihood estimates of shape and scale parameters, and a presumed zero-valued location parameter. A new method was developed for comparing two datasets by extending the current methods of likelihood-ratio based statistics. The surface fatigue lives of superfinished gears were evaluated by carefully controlled experiments, and it is shown conclusively that superfinishing of gears can provide for significantly greater lives relative to ground gears. The measured life improvement was approximately a factor of five. To assist with application of this finding to products, the experimental condition was evaluated. The fatigue life results were expressed in terms of specific film thickness and shown to be consistent with bearing data. Elastohydrodynamic and stress analyses were completed to relate the stress condition to fatigue. Smooth-surface models do not adequately explain the improved fatigue lives. Based on analyses using a rough surface model, it is concluded that the improved fatigue lives of superfinished gears is due to a reduced rate of near-surface micropitting fatigue processes, not due to any reduced rate of spalling (sub-surface) fatigue processes. To complete the evaluations, surface

  4. Role of Preload in Adhesion of Rough Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorogin, L.; Tiwari, A.; Rotella, C.; Mangiagalli, P.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2017-06-01

    Adhesion between glass and bromobutyl and polydimethylsiloxane elastomers is investigated. We show that viscoelastic energy dissipation close to the opening (or closing) crack tip, and surface roughness, strongly affect the work of adhesion. We observe strong adhesion hysteresis and we show, in contrast to the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory prediction for elastic solids, that this results in a pull-off force, and effective work of adhesion to be dependent on the maximum loading force.

  5. Lunar surface roughness derived from LRO Diviner Radiometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandfield, Joshua L.; Hayne, Paul O.; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.

    2015-03-01

    Sunlit and shaded slopes have a variety of temperatures based on their orientation with respect to the Sun. Generally, greater slope angles lead to higher anisothermality within the field of view. This anisothermality is detected by measuring changing emitted radiance as a function of viewing angle or by measuring the difference in brightness temperatures with respect to observation wavelength. Thermal infrared measurements from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Radiometer were used to derive lunar surface roughness via two observation types: (1) nadir multispectral observations with full diurnal coverage and (2) multiple emission angle targeted observations. Measurements were compared to simulated radiance from a radiative equilibrium thermal model and Gaussian slope distribution model. Nadir observations most closely match a 20° RMS slope distribution, and multiple emission angle observations can be modeled using 20-35° RMS slope distributions. Limited sampling of the lunar surface did not show any clear variation in roughness among surface units. Two-dimensional modeling shows that surfaces separated by distances greater than 0.5-5 mm can remain thermally isolated in the lunar environment, indicating the length scale of the roughness features. Non-equilibrium conditions are prevalent at night and near sunrise and sunset, preventing the use of the equilibrium thermal model for roughness derivations using data acquired at these local times. Multiple emission angle observations also show a significant decrease in radiance at high emission angles in both daytime and nighttime observations, and hemispherical emissivity is lower than is apparent from nadir observations. These observations and models serve as a basis for comparison with similar measurements of other airless bodies and as an initial template for the interpretation of TIR measurements acquired under a variety of geometric conditions.

  6. Progress in understanding wetting transitions on rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bormashenko, Edward

    2015-08-01

    The abrupt change in the apparent contact angle occurring on a rough surface is called wetting transition. This change may be spontaneous or promoted by external stimuli such as pressure or vibration. Understanding the physical mechanism of wetting transitions is crucial for the design of highly stable superhydrophobic and omniphobic materials. Wetting regimes occurring on rough surfaces are introduced. Experimental methods of study of wetting transitions are reviewed. Physical mechanisms of wetting transitions on rough surfaces are discussed. Time and energy scaling of wetting transitions are addressed. The problem of the stability of Cassie wetting on inherently hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces is discussed. The origin and value of a barrier separating the Cassie and Wenzel wetting states are treated in detail. Hierarchical roughness increases the value of the energy barrier. The stability of Cassie wetting observed on re-entrant topographies is explained. The irreversibility of wetting transitions is explained, based on the asymmetry of the energy barrier, which is low from the side of the metastable (higher-energy) state and high from the side of the stable state. The critical pressure necessary for a wetting transition is introduced. The problem of "dimension" of wetting transition is discussed. Reducing the micro-structural scales enlarges the threshold pressure of a wetting transition. The roles of gravity and air compressibility in wetting transitions are treated. The dynamics of wetting transitions is reviewed. The results of molecular simulations of wetting transitions are presented. The trends of future investigations are envisaged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Classical And Quantum Rainbow Scattering From Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, H.; Schueller, A.; Busch, M.; Seifert, J.; Wethekam, S.

    2011-06-01

    The structure of clean and adsorbate covered surfaces as well as of ultrathin films can be investigated by grazing scattering of fast atoms. We present two recent experimental techniques which allow one to study the structure of ordered arrangements of surface atoms in detail. (1) Rainbow scattering under axial surface channeling conditions, and (2) fast atom diffraction. Our examples demonstrate the attractive features of grazing fast atom scattering as a powerful analytical tool in studies on the structure of surfaces. We will concentrate our discussion on the structure of ultrathin silica films on a Mo(112) surface and of adsorbed oxygen atoms on a Fe(110) surface.

  8. Correlation Between Eddy Current Signal Noise and Peened Surface Roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, S. E.; Hentscher, S. R.; Raithel, D. C.; Nakagawa, N.

    2007-03-21

    For advanced uses of eddy current (EC) NDE models in, e.g., model-assisted POD, there is a need to understand the origin of EC noise sources so that noise estimations can be made for a given set of inspection conditions, in addition to defect signal predictions. This paper focuses on the material-oriented noise sources that exhibit some universality when isolated from electrical and mechanical noises. Specifically, we report on experimental measurements that show explicit correlations between surface roughness and EC noise as seen in post-peen EC measurements of shot-peened roughness specimens. The samples are 3''-by-3'' Inconel 718 and Ti-6A1-4V blocks, pre-polished and shot-peened at Almen intensities ranging from a low of 4N to as high as 16A, created by smaller ({approx}350 {mu}m) and larger ({approx}1 mm) diameter zirconium oxide shots. Strong correlations are observed between the Almen intensities and the measured surface roughness. The EC noise correlates equally strongly with the Almen intensities for the superalloy specimens. The correlation for the Ti-alloy samples is only apparent at higher intensities, while being weak for lower intensities, indicating the grain noise dominance for smoother surfaces.

  9. Multiresolution mesh segmentation based on surface roughness and wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roudet, Céline; Dupont, Florent; Baskurt, Atilla

    2007-01-01

    During the last decades, the three-dimensional objects have begun to compete with traditional multimedia (images, sounds and videos) and have been used by more and more applications. The common model used to represent them is a surfacic mesh due to its intrinsic simplicity and efficacity. In this paper, we present a new algorithm for the segmentation of semi-regular triangle meshes, via multiresolution analysis. Our method uses several measures which reflect the roughness of the surface for all meshes resulting from the decomposition of the initial model into different fine-to-coarse multiresolution meshes. The geometric data decomposition is based on the lifting scheme. Using that formulation, we have compared various interpolant prediction operators, associated or not with an update step. For each resolution level, the resulting approximation mesh is then partitioned into classes having almost constant roughness thanks to a clustering algorithm. Resulting classes gather regions having the same visual appearance in term of roughness. The last step consists in decomposing the mesh into connex groups of triangles using region growing ang merging algorithms. These connex surface patches are of particular interest for adaptive mesh compression, visualisation, indexation or watermarking.

  10. Friction and roughness of a melting rock surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Stefan; di Toro, Giulio; Griffith, Ashley

    2010-05-01

    Under extreme conditions like those encountered during earthquake slip, frictional melt is likely to occur. It has been observed on fossil faults that the melt is mostly extruded toward local extensional jogs or lateral tension cracks. A similar condition is reproduced in laboratory experiments with a rotary shear apparatus. When this happens, a thin and irregular melt layer is formed whereby the normal load is still in part supported by contact asperities under an incipient yield condition (as in dry friction models), but also, in the interstices between asperities, by the pressure of the viscous fluid wetting the interface. In addition, roughness of the surface is dynamically reshaped by the melting process of an inhomogeneous material (polymineral rock). In particular, we argue that the roughness decreases with temperature gradient and the melting rate. Taking into account the above conditions, we obtain an expression for the average melt layer thickness and viscous pressure that may be used in estimates of friction in the presence of melt. We argue that the ratio of melt thickness to roughness depends on sliding velocity; such a ratio may be used as a gauge of slip-rate during fossil earthquakes on faults bearing pseudotachylite (solidified melt). Finally, we derive an improved analytical solution for friction in the presence of melt including the effect of roughness evolution.

  11. Radiometric Trouble with Rough Surfaces? ... The von Neumann Series can Help!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. B.

    2004-05-01

    Operational retrieval methods used in surface remote sensing will generally assume that the interrogated terrain is uniform as well as flat (if not outright horizontal) at least at sub-pixel scales. Both assumptions are highly questionable. There are spectral techniques (linear un-mixing, end-members, etc.) designed to address the non-uniformity issue and adjacency effects (nonlinear mixing) near large gradients in surface albedo can be unraveled with techniques using the Green function of the aerosol atmosphere. But strong deviations from local flatness define a challenging problem in three-dimensional radiative transfer; this is especially true when the terrain has a very rough fractal shape with height variability over a wide range of scales. The source of the problem is the multiple reflections between surface elements in view of each other and is mathematically akin to the problem of multiple scattering in heterogeneous turbid media like clouds. The fundamental solution to the multiple scattering/reflection problem in transport theory is called ``successive orders-of-scattering/reflection'' by physicists and a ``von Neumann expansion'' by mathematicians. I have applied this method to the analysis of two remote sensing problems that appear to be vastly different: (1) angular dependence of effective emissivity in thermal remote sensing, and (2) biases in fine laser altimetry (such as attempted by NASA's present GLAS mission which focuses on polar ice caps). The thermal problem can be reduced to a question of mean aspect ratio in the macro-roughness of the surface. The altimetry problem calls furthermore for a roughness scale. In both cases, corrections can be made to obtain the surface property of interest: actual emissivity, and actual altitude. In both cases, Monte Carlo simulation ---another seminal contribution of John von Neumann, with others--- was the key to first inspiring and then validating the proposed analytical models with one or two free parameters

  12. A general rough-surface inversion algorithm: Theory and application to SAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam, M.

    1993-01-01

    Rough-surface inversion has significant applications in interpretation of SAR data obtained over bare soil surfaces and agricultural lands. Due to the sparsity of data and the large pixel size in SAR applications, it is not feasible to carry out inversions based on numerical scattering models. The alternative is to use parameter estimation techniques based on approximate analytical or empirical models. Hence, there are two issues to be addressed, namely, what model to choose and what estimation algorithm to apply. Here, a small perturbation model (SPM) is used to express the backscattering coefficients of the rough surface in terms of three surface parameters. The algorithm used to estimate these parameters is based on a nonlinear least-squares criterion. The least-squares optimization methods are widely used in estimation theory, but the distinguishing factor for SAR applications is incorporating the stochastic nature of both the unknown parameters and the data into formulation, which will be discussed in detail. The algorithm is tested with synthetic data, and several Newton-type least-squares minimization methods are discussed to compare their convergence characteristics. Finally, the algorithm is applied to multifrequency polarimetric SAR data obtained over some bare soil and agricultural fields. Results will be shown and compared to ground-truth measurements obtained from these areas. The strength of this general approach to inversion of SAR data is that it can be easily modified for use with any scattering model without changing any of the inversion steps. Note also that, for the same reason it is not limited to inversion of rough surfaces, and can be applied to any parameterized scattering process.

  13. Profiling and light scattering studies of Si surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.; Stover, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    There is great interest in the semiconductor industry in developing light-scattering techniques for detecting ``killer particles`` on Si wafer surfaces. The surface power spectral density (PSD) is important since it determines the intensity and angular dependence of the background scattering; understanding it will lead to a deeper understanding of finishing processes. Scattering measurements showed that Si wafer surfaces have the radiation-wavelength and angular dependences expected for weak topographic scattering. The data and independent profile measurements were used to deduce consistent values of the surface PSDs over the wavelength range 50 nm to 1 mm. The profile PSDs were found to consist of a sum of inverse power-law components, i.e., the surfaces are fractal-like. There is an analogy between the results and spontaneous thermodynamic roughening of solid surfaces: Below the critical roughening temperature, the surface topography is determined by the underlying crystal structure, while above it, the surface ``melts`` and the roughness is determined by capillary-wave excitations of the surface. Capillary waves have the well-known 1/f{sub x} profile power spectrum.

  14. Improvement of PET surface hydrophilicity and roughness through blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolahchi, Ahmad Rezaei; Ajji, Abdellah; Carreau, Pierre. J.

    2015-05-01

    Controlling the adhesion of the polymer surface is a key issue in surface science, since polymers have been a commonly used material for many years. The surface modification in this study includes two different aspects. One is to enhance the hydrophilicity and the other is to create the roughness on the PET film surface. In this study we developed a novel and simple approach to modify polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface through polymer blending in twin-screw extruder. One example described in the study uses polyethylene glycol (PEG) in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) host to modify a PET film surface. Low content of polystyrene (PS) as a third component was used in the system to increase the rate of migration of PEG to the surface of the film. Surface enrichment of PEG was observed at the polymer/air interface of the polymer film containing PET-PEG-PS whereas for the PET-PEG binary blend more PEG was distributed within the bulk of the sample. Furthermore, a novel method to create roughness at the PET film surface was proposed. In order to roughen the surface of PET film, a small amount of PKHH phenoxy resin to change PS/PET interfacial tension was used. The compatibility effect of PKHH causes the formation of smaller PS droplets, which were able to migrate more easily through PET matrix. Consequently, resulting in a locally elevated concentration of PS near the surface of the film. The local concentration of PS eventually reached a level where a co-continuous morphology occurred, resulting in theinstabilities on the surface of the film.

  15. Improvement of PET surface hydrophilicity and roughness through blending

    SciTech Connect

    Kolahchi, Ahmad Rezaei; Ajji, Abdellah; Carreau, Pierre J.

    2015-05-22

    Controlling the adhesion of the polymer surface is a key issue in surface science, since polymers have been a commonly used material for many years. The surface modification in this study includes two different aspects. One is to enhance the hydrophilicity and the other is to create the roughness on the PET film surface. In this study we developed a novel and simple approach to modify polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface through polymer blending in twin-screw extruder. One example described in the study uses polyethylene glycol (PEG) in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) host to modify a PET film surface. Low content of polystyrene (PS) as a third component was used in the system to increase the rate of migration of PEG to the surface of the film. Surface enrichment of PEG was observed at the polymer/air interface of the polymer film containing PET-PEG-PS whereas for the PET-PEG binary blend more PEG was distributed within the bulk of the sample. Furthermore, a novel method to create roughness at the PET film surface was proposed. In order to roughen the surface of PET film, a small amount of PKHH phenoxy resin to change PS/PET interfacial tension was used. The compatibility effect of PKHH causes the formation of smaller PS droplets, which were able to migrate more easily through PET matrix. Consequently, resulting in a locally elevated concentration of PS near the surface of the film. The local concentration of PS eventually reached a level where a co-continuous morphology occurred, resulting in theinstabilities on the surface of the film.

  16. Analytic model of the effect of poly-Gaussian roughness on rarefied gas flow near the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenova, Olga A.; Khalidov, Iskander A.

    2016-11-01

    The dependence of the macro-parameters of the flow on surface roughness of the walls and on geometrical shape of the surface is investigated asymptotically and numerically in a rarefied gas molecular flow at high Knudsen numbers. Surface roughness is approximated in statistical simulation by the model of poly-Gaussian (with probability density as the mixture of Gaussian densities [1]) random process. Substantial difference is detected for considered models of the roughness (Gaussian, poly-Gaussian and simple models applied by other researchers), as well in asymptotical expressions [3], as in numerical results. For instance, the influence of surface roughness on momentum and energy exchange coefficients increases noticeably for poly-Gaussian model compared to Gaussian one (although the main properties of poly-Gaussian random processes and fields are similar to corresponding properties of Gaussian processes and fields). Main advantage of the model is based on relative simple relations between the parameters of the model and the basic statistical characteristics of random field. Considered statistical approach permits to apply not only diffuse-specular model of the local scattering function V0 of reflected gas atoms, but also Cercignani-Lampis scattering kernel or phenomenological models of scattering function. Thus, the comparison between poly-Gaussian and Gaussian models shows more significant effect of roughness in aerodynamic values for poly-Gaussian model.

  17. Monostatic and bistatic scattering from a density contrast surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillade, C.; Clay, C. S.

    2002-11-01

    Chu's formalism for the impulse response of a point source to a density contrast isovelocity wedge [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 1883-1896 (1989)] is of significant practical importance, since it facilitates the extension of wedge diffraction boundary scattering models to rough penetrable surfaces. The method is used here to study scattering from an experimental surface described by Li et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 3715-3720 (1994)]. The geometry contains both interior and exterior wedges, and allows the diffracted scattering component to be studied independently of the reflected component. For density contrast values which emulate rigid boundary conditions, the formalism correctly models the experimental results, and duplicates predictions of the Biot-Tolstoy solution for a rigid wedge [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 29, 381-391 (1957)]. The formalism is then used to investigate an assumption commonly made in boundary scattering work, i.e., that scattering levels can be effectively estimated by scaling the predictions of a rigid surface scattering model by the reflectivity of the surface. The results suggest that the assymption is most valid for monostatic (backscattering) configurations, and less good for bistatic cases, with increasing differences occurring between interior and exterior wedge geometries. [Work supported by ONR.

  18. Surface roughness of aesthetic restorative materials: an in vitro comparison.

    PubMed

    Rosen, M; Grossman, E S; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Volchansky, A

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the surface roughness of three types of aesthetic restorative material. Six standard samples of two brands of each type of material were prepared namely: hybrid composites (Prodigy, Z100), compomers (Compoglass F, Hytac Aplitip) and glass ionomer cements (Photac-Fil, Vitremer) in a perspex mould (N = 36). Upper and lower surfaces were covered with Mylar strips which, in turn, were covered with glass slides and compressed to express excess material. After light curing, specimens were stored in distilled water for 14 days. Thereafter, one side of each specimen was polished sequentially with medium, fine and super fine Soflex discs (treatment). Untreated surfaces served as controls. All surfaces were examined with Talysurf and the surface roughness (Ra) of each specimen was recorded. Three measurements were made of each specimen. A 4-way ANOVA and Tukey's Studentised range test were used to analyse the data. Statistically significant effects were found for both type of material (P = 0.0001) and for treatment process (P = 0.0065). Among unpolished specimens: Compoglass F is significantly rougher than Vitremer, Z100, Prodigy and Hytac Aplitip, and compomers are significantly rougher than hybrids. Among polished specimens: Photac-Fil is significantly rougher than Z100 but does not differ from Compoglass F, Vitremer, Prodigy and Hytac Aplitip, and glass ionomers are also significantly rougher than hybrids. The smoothest surface is obtained when curing materials against a Mylar strip.

  19. Characterizing developing adverse pressure gradient flows subject to surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzek, Brian; Chao, Donald; Turan, Özden; Castillo, Luciano

    2010-04-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of surface roughness and adverse pressure gradient (APG) on the development of a turbulent boundary layer. Hot-wire anemometry measurements were carried out using single and X-wire probes in all regions of a developing APG flow in an open return wind tunnel test section. The same experimental conditions (i.e., T ∞, U ref, and C p) were maintained for smooth, k + = 0, and rough, k + = 41-60, surfaces with Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, 3,000 < Re θ < 40,000. The experiment was carefully designed such that the x-dependence in the flow field was known. Despite this fact, only a very small region of the boundary layer showed a balance of the various terms in the integrated boundary layer equation. The skin friction computed from this technique showed up to a 58% increase due to the surface roughness. Various equilibrium parameters were studied and the effect of roughness was investigated. The generated flow was not in equilibrium according to the Clauser (J Aero Sci 21:91-108, 1954) definition due to its developing nature. After a development region, the flow reached the equilibrium condition as defined by Castillo and George (2001), where Λ = const, is the pressure gradient parameter. Moreover, it was found that this equilibrium condition can be used to classify developing APG flows. Furthermore, the Zagarola and Smits (J Fluid Mech 373:33-79, 1998a) scaling of the mean velocity deficit, U ∞δ*/δ, can also be used as a criteria to classify developing APG flows which supports the equilibrium condition of Castillo and George (2001). With this information a ‘full APG region’ was defined.

  20. A numerical study of electromagnetic scattering from ocean like surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentz, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The integral equations describing electromagnetic scattering from one dimensional conducting surfaces are formulated and numerical results are presented. The results are compared with those obtained using approximate methods such as physical optics, geometrical optics, and perturbation theory. The integral equation solutions show that the surface radius of curvature must be greater than 2.5 wavelengths for either the physical optics or geometric optics to give satisfactory results. It has also been shown that perturbation theory agrees with the exact fields as long as the root mean square surface roughness is less than one-tenth of a wavelength.

  1. Bistatic Clutter RCS Simulation Using Scale Model Rough Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    remove these sharp edges, the surfaces were electropolished , removing approximately 1 micron of material from the upper surface. Statistical data is...60 29 Mumznum Wire data (Plots are in Laboratory Angles) 140 Scattering froms 25 volcrom dML mieW wirs IMe 0 0 10 312 4 0 8 70 lab aspect agle...Consequently, the samples were electropolished to remove these sharp features as has been the practice of other researchers in the fieldII 2 . The

  2. The use of new index for surface roughness of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konda, Asako; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Kajiwara, Koji; Honda, Yoshiaki

    2005-01-01

    Propose of a new Vegetation Index is purposes. Ordinal vegetation Index can show intensity of vegetation on the ground. It can not show structure of vegetation surface or texture. Proposed vegetation index utilizes BRF property. It is generated from data from 2 orbit of satellite and be able to show structure of vegetation surface or texture. Principles of this index is coming from field observation using RC helicopter. Each vegetation canopy has different texture and roughness. New index, named BSI (Bi-directional reflectance Structure Index) shows difference of vegetation canopy. It is calculated by using the data of NOAA/AVHRR, ADEOS OCTS. ADEOS-II GLI can derive BSI.

  3. Measurement of defects by measuring of light scattering from surfaces using focused illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, O.; Bruce, Neil C.

    2016-04-01

    Light scattering has been used as a method of characterizing material or surface roughness in different areas of the science and technology, usually the surface is illuminated with light and the pattern of scattering is measured above the surface. In the literature, the scattered light has been measured using an incident beam with a diameter on the order of a few cm for surfaces with roughness scales of the order of microns, mainly to avoid problems with the speckle pattern of light. However, this kind of measurement does not give information on local variations in roughness or defects present in the sample. Also, it has been reported in many studies that the polarization of the scattered light is affected by the surface material and roughness. In this paper we present a novel experimental device used to identify local defects on surfaces by the measurement of the scattered light pattern using laser light focused onto the surface. We present results of experimental measurements for two surfaces with roughness and defects of the order of 6 to 60 microns using sizes of incident beam of the same order and we compare the results of experimental cases with results of numerical calculation based on the Kirchhoff Approximation of light scattering by rough surfaces. We include preliminary results from the effect on the pattern of light scattering as a function of the polarization state by using focused light to illuminate the surface, we calculate the Mueller matrix for the equivalent period of the surface micro-manufactured experimentally. Finally we conclude about the validity of the method.

  4. Surface roughness effects on a blunt hypersonic cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Nicole; Hofferth, Jerrod; White, Edward

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms through which distributed surface roughness produces boundary-layer disturbances in hypersonic flow are poorly understood. Previous work by Reshotko (AIAA 2008-4294) suggests that transient growth, resulting from the superposition of decaying non-orthogonal modes, may be responsible. The present study examines transient growth experimentally using a smooth 5-degree half-angle conic frustum paired with blunted nosetips with and without quasi-random distributed roughness. Hotwire anemometry in the low-disturbance Texas A&M Mach 6 Quiet Tunnel shows a slight growth of fluctuations as well as vertical offset due to surface roughness at a range of unit Reynolds numbers. Spectral measurements indicate that the model is subcritical with respect to second mode growth, and azimuthal measurements are used to examine the high- and low-speed streaks characteristic of transient growth of stationary disturbances. Support from the AFOSR/NASA National Center for Hypersonic Research in Laminar-Turbulent Transition through Grant FA9550-09-1-0341 is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Influence of Roughness Surface In Hydrological Response of Semiarid Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, A.; Noto, L.; Aronica, G.

    Here, an investigation has been carried out in order to understand the influence of the variation of the surface roughness in the definition of the hydrological response of semiarid catchments. In the original version of TOPMODEL the convolution rout- ing procedure used takes in account the distribution of predicted inflow with distance along the channel network from the outflow, considering the distributed nature of the channel network, but does not allow for the routing on the hillslopes. This type of approach is appropriate for humid basins but not for semiarid catchments which are mainly characterised by steep and straight hillslopes. In previous studies, same au- thors proposed a modified version of TOPMODEL in which the convolution routing procedure has been extended to the hillslopes by specifying the routing velocity for each pixel of the watershed. These velocities have been linked to the watershed land use because the different surface roughness whose coefficients has been derived on the basis of Engman's table. In this new study, roughness coefficients distribution are expressed as function of a unique value treated as a calibration parameter. The original and modified versions of TOPMODEL have been applied for the simulation of flood events in a Sicilian catchment.

  6. Rough spacecraft surfaces -a threat to Planetary Protection issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Alexander; Facius, Rainer; Wirth, Reinhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    Inadvertent introduction of terrestrial microorganisms to foreign solar bodies could compromise the integrity of present and future life detection missions. For Planetary Protection purposes space agencies measure the aerobic, mesophilic spore load of a spacecraft as a proxy indicator in order to determine its bioload. Emerging novel hardware in space science implicates novel surface structures and materials that need to be controlled with regard to contaminations. For instance (roughened) carbon fiber reinforced plastic and Vectran fabric for construction of landing platforms and airbags, respectively, have been used in some Mars exploration missions. These materials have different levels of roughness and their potential risk to retain spores for insufficient sampling success has never been in scope of investigation. In this comprehensive study we evaluated ESA's novel nylon flocked swab protocol on stainless steel and other tech-nical surfaces with regard to Bacillus spore recovery. Low recovery efficiencies of the ESA standard wipe assay for large surface sampling were demonstrated with regard to Bacillus at-rophaeus spore detection. Therefore another protocol designed for rough surface sampling was evaluated on Vectran fabric and (roughened) carbon fiber reinforced plastic. Moreover, scan-ning electron micrographs of the technical surfaces studied allowed a more detailed view on their properties. The evaluated sampling protocols and the corresponding results are of high interest for future life detection missions in order to preserve their scientific integrity throughout spacecraft assembly.

  7. Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering in a twofold rough-interface medium: a new theoretical approach using the q-eigenwave formalism.

    PubMed

    Chukhovskii, F N; Roshchin, B S

    2015-11-01

    Based on the rigorous Green function formalism to describe the grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) problem, a system of two linked integral equations is derived with respect to amplitudes of the reflected and transmitted plane q-eigenwaves (eigenstate functions) propagating through two homogeneous media separated from each other by a rough surface interface. To build up the coupled solutions of these basic equations beyond the perturbation theory constraint 2kσθ0 < 1, a simple iteration procedure is proposed as opposed to the self-consistent wave approach [Chukhovskii (2011). Acta Cryst. A67, 200-209; Chukhovski (2012). Acta Cryst. A68, 505-512]. Using the first-order iteration, analytical expressions for the averaged specular and non-specular scattering intensity distributions have been obtained. These expressions are further analysed in terms of the GISAXS parameters {k, θ, θ0} and surface finish ones {σ, l, h}, where θ and θ0 are the scattering and incidence angles of the X-rays, respectively, σ is the root-mean-square roughness, l is the correlation length, h is the fractal surface model index, k = 2π/λ, and λ is the X-ray wavelength. A direct way to determine the surface finish parameters from the experimental specular and diffuse scattering indicatrix scan data is discussed for an example of GISAXS measurements from rough surfaces of α-quartz and CdTe samples.

  8. Aerodynamic Properties of Rough Surfaces with High Aspect-Ratio Roughness Elements: Effect of Aspect Ratio and Arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang I. A.; Meneveau, Charles; Mittal, Rajat

    2017-05-01

    We examine the effect of varying roughness-element aspect ratio on the mean velocity distributions of turbulent flow over arrays of rectangular-prism-shaped elements. Large-eddy simulations (LES) in conjunction with a sharp-interface immersed boundary method are used to simulate spatially-growing turbulent boundary layers over these rough surfaces. Arrays of aligned and staggered rectangular roughness elements with aspect ratio >1 are considered. First the temporally- and spatially-averaged velocity profiles are used to illustrate the aspect-ratio effects. For aligned prisms, the roughness length (z_o) and the friction velocity (u_*) increase initially with an increase in the roughness-element aspect ratio, until the values reach a plateau at a particular aspect ratio. The exact value of this aspect ratio depends on the coverage density. Further increase in the aspect ratio changes neither z_o, u_* nor the bulk flow above the roughness elements. For the staggered cases, z_o and u_* continue to increase for the surface coverage density and the aspect ratios investigated. To model the flow response to variations in roughness aspect ratio, we turn to a previously developed phenomenological volumetric sheltering model (Yang et al., in J Fluid Mech 789:127-165, 2016), which was intended for low to moderate aspect-ratio roughness elements. Here, we extend this model to account for high aspect-ratio roughness elements. We find that for aligned cases, the model predicts strong mutual sheltering among the roughness elements, while the effect is much weaker for staggered cases. The model-predicted z_o and u_* agree well with the LES results. Results show that the model, which takes explicit account of the mutual sheltering effects, provides a rapid and reliable prediction method of roughness effects in turbulent boundary-layer flows over arrays of rectangular-prism roughness elements.

  9. Aerodynamic Properties of Rough Surfaces with High Aspect-Ratio Roughness Elements: Effect of Aspect Ratio and Arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang I. A.; Meneveau, Charles; Mittal, Rajat

    2016-12-01

    We examine the effect of varying roughness-element aspect ratio on the mean velocity distributions of turbulent flow over arrays of rectangular-prism-shaped elements. Large-eddy simulations (LES) in conjunction with a sharp-interface immersed boundary method are used to simulate spatially-growing turbulent boundary layers over these rough surfaces. Arrays of aligned and staggered rectangular roughness elements with aspect ratio >1 are considered. First the temporally- and spatially-averaged velocity profiles are used to illustrate the aspect-ratio effects. For aligned prisms, the roughness length (z_o ) and the friction velocity (u_* ) increase initially with an increase in the roughness-element aspect ratio, until the values reach a plateau at a particular aspect ratio. The exact value of this aspect ratio depends on the coverage density. Further increase in the aspect ratio changes neither z_o , u_* nor the bulk flow above the roughness elements. For the staggered cases, z_o and u_* continue to increase for the surface coverage density and the aspect ratios investigated. To model the flow response to variations in roughness aspect ratio, we turn to a previously developed phenomenological volumetric sheltering model (Yang et al., in J Fluid Mech 789:127-165, 2016), which was intended for low to moderate aspect-ratio roughness elements. Here, we extend this model to account for high aspect-ratio roughness elements. We find that for aligned cases, the model predicts strong mutual sheltering among the roughness elements, while the effect is much weaker for staggered cases. The model-predicted z_o and u_* agree well with the LES results. Results show that the model, which takes explicit account of the mutual sheltering effects, provides a rapid and reliable prediction method of roughness effects in turbulent boundary-layer flows over arrays of rectangular-prism roughness elements.

  10. Subsurface Sounding of Mars: The Effects of Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, J. J.; Jordan, R.; Safaeinili, A.; Safaenelli, A.; Seu, R.; Orosei, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) will conduct a global survey of Mars from the Mars Express Orbiter starting in 2004. The primary objective of the subsurface observations is to detect material interfaces in the upper several kilometers of the crust of Mars, with a particular emphasis on mapping the 3D distribution of water and ice in that portion of the crust. In order to detect subsurface interfaces, the returned echo from the subsurface must be distinguished from noise and clutter, which can arise from a variety of sources. One source of clutter is surface topography that generates backscattered energy at the same time delay as the subsurface region of interest. Surface topography can affect the detectability of subsurface features in several other ways. Surface roughness at scales comparable or somewhat smaller than the radar wavelength reduces the coherency of the wave as it passes the upper interface. Also, surface slope (tilt) at scales of the radar footprint and larger (> 5 km) affects the apparent Doppler signature of the echoes, and effectively disperses the wave transmitted into the subsurface, making processing and interpretation difficult. In this paper, we report on the roughness characteristics of Mars at these various scales as measured by the Mars Global Surveyor Laser Altimeter (MOLA), and consider the implications for achieving the subsurface sounding goals of MARSIS. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Shape of a large drop on a rough hydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joonsik; Park, Jaebum; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Ho-Young

    2013-02-01

    Large drops on solid surfaces tend to flatten due to gravitational effect. Their shapes can be predicted by solving the Young-Laplace equation when their apparent contact angles are precisely given. However, for large drops sitting on rough surfaces, the apparent contact angles are often unavailable a priori and hard to define. Here we develop a model to predict the shape of a given volume of large drop placed on a rough hydrophobic surface using an overlapping geometry of double spheroids and the free energy minimization principle. The drop shape depends on the wetting state, thus our model can be used not only to predict the shape of a drop but also to infer the wetting state of a large drop through the comparison of theory and experiment. The experimental measurements of the shape of large water drops on various micropillar arrays agree well with the model predictions. Our theoretical model is particularly useful in predicting and controlling shapes of large drops on surfaces artificially patterned in microscopic scales, which are frequently used in microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technology.

  12. Comparison of finite source and plane wave scattering from corrugated surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    The choice of a plane wave to represent incident radiation in the analysis of scatter from corrugated surfaces was examined. The physical optics solution obtained for the scattered fields due to an incident plane wave was compared with the solution obtained when the incident radiation is produced by a source of finite size and finite distance from the surface. The two solutions are equivalent if the observer is in the far field of the scatterer and the distance from observer to scatterer is large compared to the radius of curvature at the scatter points, condition not easily satisfied with extended scatterers such as rough surfaces. In general, the two solutions have essential differences such as in the location of the scatter points and the dependence of the scattered fields on the surface properties. The implication of these differences to the definition of a meaningful radar cross section was examined.

  13. Modeling of scattering from ice surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlberg, Michael Ross

    Theoretical research is proposed to study electromagnetic wave scattering from ice surfaces. A mathematical formulation that is more representative of the electromagnetic scattering from ice, with volume mechanisms included, and capable of handling multiple scattering effects is developed. This research is essential to advancing the field of environmental science and engineering by enabling more accurate inversion of remote sensing data. The results of this research contributed towards a more accurate representation of the scattering from ice surfaces, that is computationally more efficient and that can be applied to many remote-sensing applications.

  14. Measuring Skew in Average Surface Roughness as a Function of Surface Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing surface roughness is important for predicting optical performance. Better measurement of surface roughness reduces grinding saving both time and money and allows the science requirements to be better defined. In this study various materials are polished from a fine grind to a fine polish. Each sample's RMS surface roughness is measured at 81 locations in a 9x9 square grid using a Zygo white light interferometer at regular intervals during the polishing process. Each data set is fit with various standard distributions and tested for goodness of fit. We show that the skew in the RMS data changes as a function of pol