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Sample records for roughened silver electrodes

  1. Surface-enhanced Raman difference between bombesin and its modified analogues on the colloidal and electrochemically roughen silver surfaces.

    PubMed

    Podstawka, Edyta; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2008-10-01

    In this article, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of bombesin (BN) and its six modified analogues ([D-Phe(12)]BN, [Tyr(4)]BN, [Tyr(4),D-Phe(12)]BN, [D-Phe(12),Leu(14)]BN, [Leu(13)-(R)-Leu(14)]BN, and [Lys(3)]BN) on a colloidal silver surface are reported and compared with SERS spectra of these species immobilized onto an ellectrochemically roughen silver electrode. Changes in enhancement and wavenumber of proper bands upon adsorption on different silver surfaces are consistent with BN and its analogues adsorption primarily through Trp(8). Slightly different adsorption states of these molecules are observed depending upon natural amino acids substitution. For example, the indole ring in all the peptides interacts with silver nanoparticles in a edge-on orientation. It is additionally coordinated to the silver through the N(1)--H bond for all the peptides, except [Phe(12)]BN. This is in contrary to the results obtained for the silver roughen electrode that show direct but not strong N(1)--H/Ag interaction for all peptides except [D-Phe(12),Leu(14)]BN and [Leu(13)-(R)-Leu(14)]BN. For BN only C==O is not involved in the chemical coordination with the colloidal surface. [Lys(3)]BN and BN also adsorb with the C--N bond of NH(2) group normal and horizontal, respectively, to the colloidal surface, whereas C--NH(2) in other peptides is tilted to this surface. Also, the Trp(8) --CH(2)-- moiety of only [Tyr(4)]BN, [Lys(3)]BN, and [Tyr(4),D-Phe(12)]BN coordinates to Ag, whereas the Phe(12) ring of [Phe(12)]BN, [Tyr(4),D-Phe(12)]BN, and [D-Phe(12),Leu(14)]BN assists in the peptides binding only on the colloidal silver.

  2. Piperidine adsorption on two different silver electrodes: A combined surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yanling; Fang, Yan

    2007-10-01

    The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of piperidine in silver colloid solution, on roughened silver electrode and on roughened silver electrode modified with silver nanoparticles were studied, and the high-quality SERS spectra of piperidine on roughened silver electrode modified with silver nanoparticles were obtained for the first time. Surface selection rules derived from the EM enhancement model were employed to deduce piperidine orientations on the different surfaces. On the basis of this, two models of piperidine adsorbed on the surface of the silver nanoparticles were built, and DFT-B3PW91/LanL2dz was applied to calculate the Raman frequencies. It proves that, at higher potential values, the piperidine is perpendicularly standing on the roughened silver electrode surface though its lone-electron pair, but in silver colloid solution and on the silver nanoparticles modified silver electrode the piperidine molecular lies flat on the silver surface. In the meantime, the potential dependent SERS of piperidine on the modified electrode were studied.

  3. Large-scale controlled fabrication of highly roughened flower-like silver nanostructures in liquid crystalline phase

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chengliang; Xiang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Zenghui; Cao, Zhaoliang; Wang, Junlin; Xuan, Li

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale controllable fabrication of highly roughened flower-like silver nanostructures is demonstrated experimentally via electrodeposition in the liquid crystalline phase. Different sizes of silver flowers are fabricated by adjusting the deposition time and the concentration of the silver nitrate solution. The density of the silver flowers in the sample is also controllable in this work. The flower-like silver nanostructures can serve as effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced fluorescence substrates because of their local surface plasmon resonance, and they may have applications in photoluminescence and catalysis. This liquid crystalline phase is used as a soft template for fabricating flower-like silver nanostructures for the first time, and this approach is suitable for large-scale uniform fabrication up to several centimetres. PMID:26216669

  4. Silicon micropowder negative electrode endures more than 1000 cycles when a surface-roughened clad current collector is used

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Riki; Oda, Yoshimitsu; Inoue, Ryouji; Kawasaki, Norioki; Takeichi, Nobuhiko; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

    2017-04-01

    A surface-roughened clad (S-clad) current collector significantly extends the cycle-life of the lithium ion negative electrode composed of a silicon micropowder and an aqueous binder. The high tensile strength of the S-clad is also proved to be important for improving the battery performance of the electrode by comparison to a surface-roughened pure Cu current collector. Moreover, adding 10 vol.% fluoroethylene carbonate to the electrolyte further extends the cycle-life of the Si electrode. The synergic effect of the high adhesive and tensile strength of the S-clad current collector as well as the electrolyte additive results in maintaining the reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g-1 for more than 1000 cycles, in which 1.0-1.2 mg cm-2 of the active material is loaded on the electrode.

  5. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering from methylviologen at a silver electrode: Evidence for two distinct adsorption interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Qiao; Yue, W.; Cotton, T.M. )

    1990-03-08

    The electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra of methylviologen radical cation (MV{sup {sm bullet}+}) and fully reduced methylviologen (MV{sup 0}) have been characterized. The enhancement of Raman and resonance Raman (RR) scattering from the dication and its reduction products at polished and roughened silver electrodes was also investigated.

  6. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  7. Highly effective surface-enhanced fluorescence substrates with roughened 3D flowerlike silver nanostructures fabricated in liquid crystalline phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Chengliang; Xiang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Peiguang; Peng, Zenghui; Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li

    2017-04-01

    Highly effective surface-enhanced fluorescence substrates with roughened 3D flowerlike silver nanostructures were fabricated by electrodeposition in liquid crystalline template which is simple and controllable. Due to the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructures, the substrates were used as surface enhanced fluorescence substrates. The morphology and optical properties of the substrates were studied. The fluorescence experiments of the Rhodamine 6G on the substrates for different growth times were carried out and the best enhancement factor of 181 was achieved. Eight substrates with the same growth conditions were used to study the reproducibility of the substrate which shows that the fluctuations are within 9%. This substrate was used in organic distributed feedback lasers and the amplified spontaneous emission of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2‧-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) was enhanced dramatically which means the reduced threshold and improved slope efficiency. Such easily fabricated flower-like silver nanostructure substrates with strong surface enhanced fluorescence effect and good reproducibility are good candidate for potential applications in optical imaging, biotechnology and material detections.

  8. Chemically Roughened Solid Silver: A Simple, Robust and Broadband SERS Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Wijesuriya, Shavini; Burugapalli, Krishna; Mackay, Ruth; Ajaezi, Godwin Chukwuebuka; Balachandran, Wamadeva

    2016-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates manufactured using complex nano-patterning techniques have become the norm. However, their cost of manufacture makes them unaffordable to incorporate into most biosensors. The technique shown in this paper is low-cost, reliable and highly sensitive. Chemical etching of solid Ag metal was used to produce simple, yet robust SERS substrates with broadband characteristics. Etching with ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and nitric acid (HNO3) helped obtain roughened Ag SERS substrates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and interferometry were used to visualize and quantify surface roughness. Flattened Ag wires had inherent, but non-uniform roughness having peaks and valleys in the microscale. NH4OH treatment removed dirt and smoothened the surface, while HNO3 treatment produced a flake-like morphology with visibly more surface roughness features on Ag metal. SERS efficacy was tested using 4-methylbenzenethiol (MBT). The best SERS enhancement for 1 mM MBT was observed for Ag metal etched for 30 s in NH4OH followed by 10 s in HNO3. Further, MBT could be quantified with detection limits of 1 pM and 100 µM, respectively, using 514 nm and 1064 nm Raman spectrometers. Thus, a rapid and less energy intensive method for producing solid Ag SERS substrate and its efficacy in analyte sensing was demonstrated. PMID:27775581

  9. Silver-functionalized carbon nanofiber composite electrodes for ibuprofen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Florica; Motoc, Sorina; Pop, Aniela; Remes, Adriana; Schoonman, Joop

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize two types of silver-functionalized carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite electrodes, i.e., silver-decorated CNF-epoxy and silver-modified natural zeolite-CNF-epoxy composite electrodes suitable for ibuprofen detection in aqueous solution. Ag carbon nanotube composite electrode exhibited the best electroanalytical parameters through applying preconcentration/differential-pulsed voltammetry scheme.

  10. Preparation of thin film silver fluoride electrodes from constituent elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of preparing thin-film metal fluoride electrodes from the elemental constituents has been demonstrated. Silver fluoride cathodes were prepared by deposition of silver on a conducting graphite substrate followed by fluorination under controlled conditions using elemental fluorine. The resulting electrodes were of high purity, and the variables such as size, shape, and thickness were easily controlled.

  11. Ion-selective electrodes for gold and silver determination.

    PubMed

    Petrukhin, O M; Avdeeva, E N; Shavnya, Y V; Yankauskas, V P; Kazlauskas, R M; Bychkov, A S; Zolotov, Y A

    1987-01-01

    Some new ion-selective electrodes for silver and gold are described. They are based on the ion-associate species formed by the cyanide, chloride or thiourea complexes of the metals, with hydrophobic anions or cations, as appropriate. The electrodes have been applied to the determination of gold and silver in various technological process solutions in industry.

  12. Life capability of the silver electrode in alkaline electrochemical cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of silver electrode degradation rates were made by comparing the recently measured capacities with the reported early life capacities. Chemical analyses were carried out to determine the extent of silver loss from the electrode and its distribution throughout the cell components. The results established that the silver electrode is very stable when stored at reduced temperatures in the range of 0 to -51 C, in which it exhibits a permanent degradation in capacity of 0.5%/year. The results also indicated that the silver electrode is not quite as stable when operated and stored at room temperature, where it exhibits permanent degradation in the range of 3% to 14%/year. These results were employed in predicting the life capability of the proposed new Ag-H2 cell and also in assessing the merits of employing silver electrodes in long-life probe batteries.

  13. Electrocatalytic dechlorination of chloroacetic acids on silver nanodendrites electrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benzhi; Ding, Cheng; Xiao, Bo; Cui, Liqiang; Wang, Min

    2014-04-01

    Silver nanodendrites were successfully prepared by electrodeposition on the glassy carbon electrode. The effects of synthesis parameters such as concentrations of reagents and applied potentials on the morphology and structure of silver nanodendrites have been investigated. Electrochemical experiments showed that silver nanodendrites electrode had extraordinary electrocatalytic activity toward the dechlorination of chloroacetic acids. The electrocatalytic hydrogenolysis mechanism was the main pathway for the dechlorination of chloroacetic acids.

  14. A nano-silver enzyme electrode for organophosphorus pesticide detection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiqi; Yu, Yonghua; Fan, Kai; Ji, Feng; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin

    2016-08-01

    A nano-silver electrode immobilizing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) for the detection of organophosphorus (OPPs) pesticides is reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface structure of two kinds of electrodes fabricated with different sizes of silver powders and the interface between chitosan layer and nano-silver powder layer. Cyclic voltammetry was carried out to characterize the response of silver/chitosan electrode in the absence and in the presence of thiocholine (TCh). It was also used to evaluate the insulativity of the chitosan layer. An amperometric method was performed to measure the response of the electrode to TCh, which is the product of the enzymatic reaction for detecting organophosphorus pesticides indirectly. Although there are many kinds of nanoparticles, silver was chosen for its internal advantage in detecting TCh at low potential without further modification. The result shows nano-silver powder has better performance than usual silver powder, and the limit of detection of paraoxon is 4 ppb under optimized conditions. One percent (w/v) chitosan solution was used as binder for the immobilization of nano-silver powder and AChE, which made it possible for independent electrode fabrication at room temperature, whereas 3% (w/v) chitosan solution was used as insulating compound for controlling the electrode area. Unlike traditional organic insulating ink, chitosan is safe and environmentally friendly, and it is used as insulating material for the first time. The flexible nano-silver/AChE/chitosan electrode was evaluated in Chinese chives and cabbage, and the recoveries of standard addition were 105.11 and 96.41%, respectively. Owing to the antibacterial property of nano-silver and the biocompatibility, safety, and biodegradability of chitosan, the proposed method is safe, facile, environmentally friendly, and has great potential in organophosphorus pesticide detection for food safety. Graphical Abstract Current

  15. Rolling silver nanowire electrodes: simultaneously addressing adhesion, roughness, and conductivity.

    PubMed

    Hauger, Tate C; Al-Rafia, S M Ibrahim; Buriak, Jillian M

    2013-12-11

    Silver nanowire mesh electrodes represent a possible mass-manufacturable route toward transparent and flexible electrodes for plastic-based electronics such as organic photovoltaics (OPVs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and others. Here we describe a route that is based upon spray-coated silver nanowire meshes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets that are treated with a straightforward combination of heat and pressure to generate electrodes that have low sheet resistance, good optical transmission, that are topologically flat, and adhere well to the PET substrate. The silver nanowire meshes were prepared by spray-coating a solution of silver nanowires onto PET, in air at slightly elevated temperatures. The as-prepared silver nanowire electrodes are highly resistive due to the poor contact between the individual silver nanowires. Light pressure applied with a stainless steel rod, rolled over the as-sprayed silver nanowire meshes on PET with a speed of 10 cm s(-1) and a pressure of 50 psi, results in silver nanowire mesh arrays with sheet resistances of less than 20 Ω/□. Bending of these rolled nanowire meshes on PET with different radii of curvature, from 50 to 0.625 mm, showed no degradation of the conductivity of the electrodes, as shown by the constant sheet resistance before and after bending. Repeated bending (100 times) around a rod with a radius of curvature of 1 mm also showed no increase in the sheet resistance, demonstrating good adherence and no signs of delamination of the nanowire mesh array. The diffuse and direct transmittance of the silver nanowires (both rolled and as-sprayed) was measured for wavelengths from 350 to 1200 nm, and the diffuse transmission was similar to that of the PET substrate; the direct transmission decreases by about 7-8%. The silver nanowires were then incorporated into OPV devices with the following architecture: transparent electrode/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PC61BM/LiF/Al. While slightly lower in efficiency than the

  16. Aging in chemically prepared divalent silver oxide electrodes for silver/zinc reserve batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David F.; Brown, Curtis

    The instability of silver(II) oxide electrodes used in silver/zinc reserve batteries is the well known cause of capacity loss and delayed activation in reserve batteries after they are stored in the dry, unactivated state for extended periods of time. Metal contaminants in sintered/electroformed electrodes destabilize the oxide and the solid state reaction between AgO and elemental silver results in the formation of the lower capacity monovalent oxide Ag 2O. Chemically prepared (CP) AgO can be used to avoid the metal contaminants and to minimize the interfacial contact area between AgO and Ag, thus minimizing the affects of aging on the electrodes. Electrodes were fabricated with CP AgO and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder and expanded silver metal current collectors. Experimentally, both electrode active material compacts (AgO and binder only) and electrodes complete with AgO/binder and silver current collector were tested to evaluate the influence of the current collector on aging. The electrode samples were discharged at a constant rate of 50 mA cm -2 before and after storage at 60°C for 21 days as well as after storage at room ambient temperature conditions for 91 months. The results indicate that the affects of aging upon the AgO/binder compacts are insignificant for long term storage at room temperature. However, thermally accelerated aging at high temperature (60°C) affects both transient and stabilized load voltage as well as capacity. In terms of capacity, the AgO/binder mix itself looses about 5% capacity after 21 days dry storage at 60°C while electrodes complete with current collector loose about 8%. The 60% increase in capacity loss is attributed to the solid state reaction between AgO and elemental silver.

  17. Selective growth and integration of silver nanoparticles on silver nanowires at room conditions for transparent nano-network electrode.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haifei; Zhang, Di; Ren, Xingang; Liu, Jian; Choy, Wallace C H

    2014-10-28

    Recently, metal nanowires have received great research interests due to their potential as next-generation flexible transparent electrodes. While great efforts have been devoted to develop enabling nanowire electrodes, reduced contact resistance of the metal nanowires and improved electrical stability under continuous bias operation are key issues for practical applications. Here, we propose and demonstrate an approach through a low-cost, robust, room temperature and room atmosphere process to fabricate a conductive silver nano-network comprising silver nanowires and silver nanoparticles. To be more specific, silver nanoparticles are selectively grown and chemically integrated in situ at the junction where silver nanowires meet. The site-selective growth of silver nanoparticles is achieved by a plasmon-induced chemical reaction using a simple light source at very low optical power density. Compared to silver nanowire electrodes without chemical treatment, we observe tremendous conductivity improvement in our silver nano-networks, while the loss in optical transmission is negligible. Furthermore, the silver nano-networks exhibit superior electrical stability under continuous bias operation compared to silver nanowire electrodes formed by thermal annealing. Interestingly, our silver nano-network is readily peeled off in water, which can be easily transferred to other substrates and devices for versatile applications. We demonstrate the feasibly transferrable silver conductive nano-network as the top electrode in organic solar cells. Consequently, the transparent and conductive silver nano-networks formed by our approach would be an excellent candidate for various applications in optoelectronics and electronics.

  18. Silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes for use in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    Electrochemical properties of silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes for lead-acid batteries are described, and the following possible applications discussed: Determination of individual capacities of positive and negative plates. Monitoring individual electrode behavior during deep discharge and cell reversal. Optimization charge or discharge parameters, by controlling the current such that pre-determined limits of positive or negative half-cell potential are respected. Observation of acid concentration differences, for example due to acid stratification, by measuring diffusion potentials (concentration-cell voltages). Detection of defective cells, and defective plate sets, in a string of cells, at the end of their service life. Silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes, permanently installed in lead-acid cells, may be a means to improve battery management, and therewith to improve reliability and service life. In vented batteries, reference electrodes may be used to limit positive plate polarization during charge, or float-charge. Limiting the positive half-cell potential to an upper, pre-set value would permit to keep anodic corrosion as low as possible. During cycling, discharge could be terminated when the half-cell potential of the positive electrode has dropped to a pre-set limit. This would prevent excessive discharge of the positive electrodes, which could result in an improvement of cycle life. In valve-regulated batteries, reference electrodes may be used to adjust float-charge conditions such as to assure sufficient cathodic polarization of the negative electrodes, in order to avoid sulfation. The use of such reference electrodes could be beneficial particularly in multi-cell batteries, with overall voltages above 12 V, operated in a partial-state-of-charge.

  19. Adsorbed States of phosphonate derivatives of N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds, imidazole, thiazole, and pyridine on colloidal silver: comparison with a silver electrode.

    PubMed

    Podstawka, Edyta; Olszewski, Tomasz K; Boduszek, Bogdan; Proniewicz, Leonard M

    2009-09-03

    Here, we report a systematic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) study of the structures of phosphonate derivatives of the N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds imidazole (ImMeP ([hydroxy(1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]phosphonic acid) and (ImMe)(2)P (bis[hydroxy-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)-methyl]phosphinic acid)), thiazole (BAThMeP (butylaminothiazol-2-yl-methyl)phosphonic acid) and BzAThMeP (benzylaminothiazol-2-yl-methyl)phosphonic acid)), and pyridine ((PyMe)(2)P (bis[(hydroxypyridin-3-yl-methyl)]phosphinic acid)) adsorbed on nanometer-sized colloidal particles. We compared these structures to those on a roughened silver electrode surface to determine the relationship between the adsorption strength and the geometry. For example, we showed that all of these biomolecules interact with the colloidal surface through aromatic rings. However, for BzAThMeP, a preferential interaction between the benzene ring and the colloidal silver surface is observed more so than that between the thiazole ring and this substrate. The PC(OH)C fragment does not take part in the adsorption process, and the phosphonate moiety of ImMeP and (ImMe)(2)P, being removed from the surface, only assists in this process.

  20. Synthetic silver oxide and mercury-free zinc electrodes for silver-zinc reserve batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David F.; Gucinski, James A.

    Reserve activated silver oxide-zinc cells were constructed with synthetic silver oxide (Ag 2O) electrodes with Pb-treated zinc electrodes produced by a non-electrolytic process. The cells were tested before and after thermally accelerated aging. At discharge rates up to 80 mA cm -2, the discharge was limited by the Ag 2O electrode, with a coulombic efficiency between 89-99%. At higher rates, the cells are apparently zinc-limited. Test cells were artificially aged at 90°C for 19 h and discharged at 21°C at 80 mA cm -2. No capacity loss was measured, but a delayed activation rise time was noted (192 ms fresh vs. 567 ms aged). The delay is thought to be caused by zinc passivation due to the outgassing of cell materials.

  1. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of single-walled carbon nanotubes on modified silver electrode.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaomiao; Fang, Yan

    2008-04-01

    A roughed silver electrode modified with gold/silver nanoparticles is used as a substrate, on which high quality SERS of SWCNTs are obtained, indicating that the modified silver electrode is a high-quality SERS-active substrate for SWCNTs. Some new bands that indicate the structure of SWCNTs were obtained. The gold/silver nanoparticles modified on the roughed silver electrode surface can not only make sure the strong adsorption of SWCNTs in this system but also play an important role in magnifying the surface local electric field near the silver electrode surface through resonant surface plasmon excitation. From the rich information on the modified silver electrode obtained from the SERS and the potential dependent SERS, we may deduce the probable SERS mechanism in the process. The theory and experiment results indicate that it is can be used as a new technique for monitoring synthesis quality of SWCNTs. The probable reasons are given.

  2. Removable Large-Area Ultrasmooth Silver Nanowire Transparent Composite Electrode.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yunxia; Wang, Kaiqing; Cheng, Yuanrong; Pei, Qibing; Xu, Yuxi; Xiao, Fei

    2017-02-08

    In this work, a composite silver nanowire (AgNW) transparent electrode that is large-area ultrasmooth without conductivity or transmittance scarifice, removable but with good resistance to both water and organic solvent, is reported. Via a simple low-temperature solution process without complicated transfer steps or additional pressure pressing, a new kind of AgNWs composite with biocompatible and patternable chitosan polymer complex demonstrates a quite low root-mean-square roughness ∼7 nm at a largest reported scan size of 50 μm × 50 μm, which is among the best flat surface. After long-term exposure to both water and organic solvent, it still shows strong adhesion, unchanged transparency, and no obvious conductivity reduction, suggesting a good stability staying on the substrate. Meanwhile, the polymer and silver nanowire in the composite electrode can be damaged via the same process through concentrated acid or base etching to leave off the substrate, allowing a simple patterning technology. Besides, the imported insulating polymer does not lower down the opto-electrical performance, and a high figure of merit close to 300 is obtained for the composite electrode, significantly outperforming the optoelectronic performance of indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated plastics (∼100) and comparable to ITO-coated glass. It shows great advantage to replace ITO as a promising transparent electrode.

  3. Silver/silver chloride electrodes for measurement of potential difference in human bronchi

    PubMed Central

    Fajac, I.; Lacronique, J.; Lockhart, A.; Dall'Ava-Santucci, J.; Dusser, D.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—An easy and reliable method to measure potential difference (PD) in the lower airways would be of interest in the field of cystic fibrosis. We have developed silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes to measure PD in the lower airways.
METHODS—To validate this technique the nasal PD measured with Ag/AgCl electrodes and with conventional perfused electrodes was compared in 16 patients. The range of PD measured with Ag/AgCl electrodes in the lower airways during fibreoptic bronchoscopy was determined in 14 adult patients and in nine the reproducibility of this technique was examined.
RESULTS—Nasal PD values measured with Ag/AgCl and perfused electrodes were highly correlated (r = 0.985, p<0.0001) and the limits of agreement (mean ±2SD of the difference) between the two methods were -1.91 mV and 1.53 mV. In the lower airways a progressive and slight decrease in PD values with decreasing airway diameter was observed in most patients. The mean (2SD) of the differences between the two tracheal measurements was 0.21 (1.73) mV.
CONCLUSIONS—The use of Ag/AgCl electrodes gives a reliable and reproducible measurement of PD in the lower airways in humans.

 PMID:10193377

  4. Use of a silver ion selective electrode to assess mechanisms responsible for biological effects of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Marcus; Kiefer, Silke; Cavelius, Christian; Kraegeloh, Annette

    2012-02-01

    For a detailed analysis of the biological effects of silver nanoparticles, discrimination between effects related to the nano-scale size of the particles and effects of released silver ions is required. Silver ions are either present in the initial particle dispersion or released by the nanoparticles over time. The aim of this study is to monitor the free silver ion activity {Ag+} in the presence of silver nanoparticles using a silver ion selective electrode. Therefore, silver in the form of silver nanoparticles, 4.2 ± 1.4 nm and 2-30 nm in size, or silver nitrate was added to cell culture media in the absence or presence of A549 cells as a model for human type II alveolar epithelial cells. The free silver ion activity measured after the addition of silver nanoparticles was determined by the initial ionic silver content. The p {Ag+} values indicated that the cell culture media decrease the free silver ion activity due to binding of silver ions by constituents of the media. In the presence of A549 cells, the free silver ion activity was further reduced. The morphology of A549 cells, cultivated in DME medium containing 9.1% (v/v) FBS, was affected by adding AgNO3 at concentrations of ≥30 μM after 24 h. In comparison, silver nanoparticles up to a concentration of 200 μM Ag did not affect cellular morphology. Our experiments indicate that the effect of silver nanoparticles is mainly mediated by silver ions. An effect of silver on cellular morphology was observed at p {Ag+} ≤ 9.2.

  5. Variable angle transmittance of silver grid transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2016-10-01

    We focus on investigating the optical transmittance of silver grid transparent electrodes (SGTEs) in variable angle view theoretically and experimentally, rather than the optical transmittance under the normal incidence. The variable angle transmittance (VAT) values of SGTEs are measured on a home-made experimental setup. The experimental results about difference of the transmittance difference under different angles are small and negligible, although the measured angle is changed. Theoretically, the physical mechanism on nearly constant transmittance for different angle view can be well explained according to the theory of geometrical optics. This study provides an approach for investigating the VAT values of SGTEs in a controllable fashion and the influence of viewing angle of the touch screen.

  6. Modified silver nanowire transparent electrodes with exceptional stability against oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idier, J.; Neri, W.; Labrugère, C.; Ly, I.; Poulin, P.; Backov, R.

    2016-03-01

    We report an easy method to prepare thin, flexible and transparent electrodes that show enhanced inertness toward oxidation using modified silver nanowires (Ag NWs). Stabilization is achieved through the adsorption of triphenylphosphine (PPh3) onto the Ag NW hybrid dispersions prior to their 2D organization as transparent electrodes on polyethylene terephtalate (PET) films. After 110 days in air (20 °C) under atmospheric conditions, the transmittance of the PET/Ag NW/PPh3 based films is nearly unchanged, while the transmittance of the PET/Ag NW-based films decreases by about 5%. The sheet resistance increases for both materials as time elapses, but the rate of increase is more than four times slower for films stabilized by PPh3. The improved transmittance and conductivity results in a significantly enhanced stability for the figure of merit σ dc/σ op. This phenomenon is highlighted in highly oxidative nitric acid vapor. The tested stabilized films in such conditions exhibit a decrease to σ dc/σ op of only 38% after 75 min, whereas conventional materials exhibit a relative loss of 71%. In addition, by contrast to other classes of stabilizers, such as polymer or graphene-based encapsulants, PPh3 does not alter the transparency or conductivity of the modified films. While the present films are made by membrane filtration, the stabilization method could be implemented directly in other liquid processes, including industrially scalable ones.

  7. Screen printed silver top electrode for efficient inverted organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Junwoo; Duraisamy, Navaneethan; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Inyoung; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Screen printing of silver pattern. • X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face centered cubic structure of silver. • Uniform surface morphology of silver pattern with sheet resistance of 0.06 Ω/sq. • The power conversion efficiency of fabricated solar cell is found to be 2.58%. - Abstract: The present work is mainly focused on replacement of the vacuum process for top electrode fabrication in organic solar cells. Silver top electrode deposited through solution based screen printing on pre-deposited polymeric thin film. The solution based printing technology provides uniform top electrode without damaging the underlying organic layers. The surface crystallinity and surface morphology of silver top electrode are examined through X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The purity of silver is examined through X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The top electrode exhibits face centered cubic structure with homogeneous morphology. The sheet resistance of top electrode is found to be 0.06 Ω/sq and an average pattern thickness of ∼15 μm. The power conversion efficiency is 2.58%. Our work demonstrates that the solution based screen printing is a significant role in the replacement of vacuum process for the fabrication of top electrode in organic solar cells.

  8. A Comparative Electrochemical Behaviour Study and Analytical Detection of the p-Nitrophenol Using Silver Solid Amalgam, Mercury, and Silver Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Djenaine; Mascaro, Lucia H.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    This work reports a comparative electrochemical behaviour study and p-nitrophenol analytical detection using silver solid amalgam, hanging dropping mercury, and silver electrodes. For this, square wave voltammetry was employed, where the analytical responses and the redox mechanisms could be compared for reduction processes of 4-nitrophenol by analysis of the voltammetric responses. The analytical performance of the electrode was evaluated and detection and quantification limits, recovery percentages, repeatability, and reproducibility for the silver solid amalgam and hanging dropping mercury electrodes presented similar values; the results presented for the silver electrode indicated worse analytical parameters than the other electrodes. The results indicate that the silver solid amalgam electrode can be considered a suitable tool and an interesting alternative for the analytical determination of 4-nitrophenol, as well as for the determination of other biological and environmentally interesting compounds that present analytical responses on mercury surfaces. PMID:21647286

  9. Electrochemical reclamation of silver from silver-plating wastewater using static cylinder electrodes and a pulsed electric field.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuan-Bo; Li, Qing-Biao; Wang, Yuan-Peng; Wang, Hai-Tao; Huang, Jia-le; Yang, Xin

    2009-10-30

    Silver was reclaimed from silver-plating wastewater by using a pulsed electric field (PEF) combined with static cylinder electrodes (SCE). The conditions that produced the maximal silver recovery rate (RR(Ag)) (99%) were as follows: average retention time of 10 min, interelectrode gap of 50mm, solution pH of 9.0, temperature of 45 degrees C, initial Ag(I) concentration of 1000 mg L(-1), PEF pulse frequency of 1200 Hz, current density of 5.0 A m(-2) and a pulse duty cycle of 60%. Compared with the conventional direct current (DC) technology, the PEF process exhibited improvements in the silver recovery rate (RR(Ag)), total energy consumption (TEC) and physical properties of the silver deposits, especially for low Ag(I) concentrations, for example, from 500 to 1000 mg L(-1). For an initial Ag(I) concentration of 500 mg L(-1), the PEF process produced an RR(Ag) of up to 99%, and the TEC was 4.56 kWh (kg Ag)(-1). In comparison, the RR(Ag) and TEC were 90% and 5.66 kWh (kg Ag)(-1), respectively, in the DC process. The results of SEM observation and XRD analysis indicated that the silver deposits formed by the PEF process were smaller, denser, and of a higher purity than those produced by the DC process. Therefore, the presented method was effective for reclaiming silver from silver-plating wastewater.

  10. Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhibin; Zhang, Qingwu; Li, Lu; Chen, Qi; Niu, Xiaofan; Liu, Jun; Pei, Qibing

    2011-02-01

    Shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) using a new silver nanowire/polymer electrode are reported. The electrode can be stretched by up to 16% with only a small increase in sheet resistance. Large deformation shape change and recovery of the PLEDs to various bistable curvatures result in minimal loss of electroluminescence performance.

  11. Fully solution processed PEDOT:PSS and silver nanowire semitransparent electrodes for thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaagensmith, Bjorn

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), such as semitransparent organic solar cells (OSC) for power generating windows, is a promising method for implementing renewable energy under the looming threat of depleting fossil fuels. OSC require a solution processed transparent electrode to be cost effective; but typically employ a non-solution processed indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrode. PEDOT:PSS and silver nanowire transparent electrodes have emerged as a promising alternative to ITO and are solution processed compatible. However, PEDOT:PSS requires a strong acid treatment, which is incompatible with high throughput solution processed fabrication techniques. Silver nanowires suffer from a short lifetime when subject to electrical stress. The goals of this work were to fabricate a PEDOT:PSS electrodes without using strong acids, a silver nanowire electrode with a lifetime that can exceed 6000 hours of constant electrical stress, and use these two electrodes to fabricate a semitransparent OSC. Exploring optimal solvent blend additives in conjunction with solvent bend post treatments for PEDOT:PSS electrodes could provide an acid free method that results in comparable sheet resistance and transmittance of ITO electrodes. Silver nanowires fail under electrical stress due to sulfur corrosion and Joule heating (which melts and breaks apart electrical contact). A silver oxide layer coating the nanowires could hinder sulfur corrosion and help redistribute heat. Moreover, nanowires with thicker diameters could also exhibit higher heat tolerance and take longer to corrode. Four layer PEDOT:PSS electrodes with optimal solvent blend additives and post treatments were fabricated by spin coating. Silver nanowire electrodes of varying nanowire diameter with and without UV-ozone treatment were fabricated by spray coating and subject to electrical stress of 20 mA/cm2 constant current density. PEDOT:PSS electrodes exhibited a sheet resistance of 80 O/□ and average

  12. Reductive-oxidation electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) generation at a transparent silver nanowire electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Hill, Caleb M; Pan, Shanlin

    2011-03-15

    We present the fabrication of a conductive, transparent electrode composed of Ag nanowires (NW) for spectroelectrochemical studies. Reductive-oxidation electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of Ru(bpy)3(2+) is generated at the Ag NW electrode in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and collected through the new transparent electrode. The ECL performance at the new nanostructured electrode is compared with several other electrodes, including bulk silver wire, glassy carbon disk, and thermally reduced transparent graphene oxide (tr-GO) electrodes. The Ag NW electrode is found to be the best electrode for the reductive-oxidation ECL generation because of its catalytic properties with respect to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and its high surface area.

  13. Improved thermal oxidation stability of solution-processable silver nanowire transparent electrode by reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yumi; Jeong, Youngjun; Lee, Youngu

    2012-12-01

    Solution-processable silver nanowire-reduced graphene oxide (AgNW-rGO) hybrid transparent electrode was prepared in order to replace conventional ITO transparent electrode. AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode exhibited high optical transmittance and low sheet resistance, which is comparable to ITO transparent electrode. In addition, it was found that AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode exhibited highly enhanced thermal oxidation and chemical stabilities due to excellent gas-barrier property of rGO passivation layer onto AgNW film. Furthermore, the organic solar cells with AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode showed good photovoltaic behavior as much as solar cells with AgNW transparent electrode. It is expected that AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode can be used as a key component in various optoelectronic application such as display panels, touch screen panels, and solar cells.

  14. Embroidered Electrode with Silver/Titanium Coating for Long-Term ECG Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Weder, Markus; Hegemann, Dirk; Amberg, Martin; Hess, Markus; Boesel, Luciano F.; Abächerli, Roger; Meyer, Veronika R.; Rossi, René M.

    2015-01-01

    For the long-time monitoring of electrocardiograms, electrodes must be skin-friendly and non-irritating, but in addition they must deliver leads without artifacts even if the skin is dry and the body is moving. Today's adhesive conducting gel electrodes are not suitable for such applications. We have developed an embroidered textile electrode from polyethylene terephthalate yarn which is plasma-coated with silver for electrical conductivity and with an ultra-thin titanium layer on top for passivation. Two of these electrodes are embedded into a breast belt. They are moisturized with a very low amount of water vapor from an integrated reservoir. The combination of silver, titanium and water vapor results in an excellent electrode chemistry. With this belt the long-time monitoring of electrocardiography (ECG) is possible at rest as well as when the patient is moving. PMID:25599424

  15. Flow Synthesis of Silver Nanowires for Semitransparent Solar Cell Electrodes: A Life Cycle Perspective.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Nieves; Søndergaard, Roar R; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2016-04-21

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) were prepared on a 5 g scale using either the well-known batch synthesis following the polyol method or a new flow synthesis method. The AgNWs were employed as semitransparent electrode materials in organic photovoltaics and compared to traditional printed silver electrodes based on micron sized silver flakes using life cycle analysis and environmental impact analysis methods. The life cycle analysis of AgNWs confirms that they provide an avenue to low-impact semitransparent electrodes. We find that the benefit of AgNWs in terms of embodied energy is less pronounced than generally assumed but that the toxicological and environmental benefits are significant.

  16. The Effects of Organic Adsorbates on the Underpotential Deposition of Silver on Pt(111) Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    CV) The Effects of Organic Adsorbates on the Underpotential Deposition W.0 of Silver on Pt(111) Electrodes _• D. L. Taylor and H. D. Abruxla* D TIC...to determine the effects of competing organic adsorbates on the underpotential deposition of silver on Pt(111). The adsorbates studied are known to...hcis )n appive tor pubic release and sal Its distribution is unlimited. fu .. 93-12456 INTRODUCTION The process of underpotential deposition (UPD) of

  17. Silver nanowire catalysts on carbon nanotubes-incorporated bacterial cellulose membrane electrodes for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bona; Choi, Youngeun; Cho, Se Youn; Yun, Young Soo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2013-11-01

    Silver nanowires have unique electrical, thermal and optical properties, which support their potential application in numerous fields including catalysis, electronics, optoelectronics, sensing, and surface-enhanced spectroscopy. Especially, their application such as catalysts for alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) have attracted much interest because of their superior electrical conductivity over that of any metal and their lower cost compared to Pt. In this study, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-incorporated bacterial cellulose (BC) membrane electrode with silver nanowire catalyst was prepared. First, acid-treated MWCNTs were incorporated into BC membranes and then freeze-dried after solvent exchange to tert-butanol in order to maintain the 3D-network macroporous structure. Second, silver nanowires synthesized by polyol process were introduced onto the surface of the MWCNTs-incorporated BC membrane through easy vacuum filtration. Finally, thermal treatment was carried out to confirm the effect of the PVP on the silver nanowire catalysts toward oxygen reduction reaction. The electrode with thermally treated silver nanowire had great electrocatalytic activity compared with non-treated one. These results suggest that the MWCNTs-incorporated BC electrode with silver nanowire catalysts after thermal treatment could be potentially used in cathodes of AFCs.

  18. Adsorption of acridine on silver electrode: SERS spectra potential dependence as a probe of adsorbate state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyeva, Elena V.; Myund, Liubov A.; Dem'yanchuk, Evgeniya M.; Makarov, Artiom A.; Denisova, Anna S.

    2013-02-01

    This work investigates acridine adsorption on the silver electrode surface. The dependence of the acridine SERS spectra on the electrode potential proved to be quite different for azaheterocycle molecules, while the pH effect as expected. The changes in the acridine SERS spectrum caused by the double electric layer (DEL) rearrangement can be explained by sorption/desorption rather than the adsorbate molecule reorientation. The presence of chloride anions close to the silver surface is important not only for the SERS-active properties but for the formation of the stabilised surface complexes of the protonated acridine as well.

  19. Laser-Direct Writing of Silver Metal Electrodes on Transparent Flexible Substrates with High-Bonding Strength.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiping; Bai, Shi; Ma, Ying; Ma, Delong; Hou, Tingxiu; Shi, Xiaomin; Hu, Anming

    2016-09-21

    We demonstrate a novel approach to rapidly fabricate conductive silver electrodes on transparent flexible substrates with high-bonding strength by laser-direct writing. A new type of silver ink composed of silver nitrate, sodium citrate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared in this work. The role of PVP was elucidated for improving the quality of silver electrodes. Silver nanoparticles and sintered microstructures were simultaneously synthesized and patterned on a substrate using a focused 405 nm continuous wave laser. The writing was completed through the transparent flexible substrate with a programmed 2D scanning sample stage. Silver electrodes fabricated by this approach exhibit a remarkable bonding strength, which can withstand an adhesive tape test at least 50 times. After a 1500 time bending test, the resistance only increased 5.2%. With laser-induced in-situ synthesis, sintering, and simultaneous patterning of silver nanoparticles, this technology is promising for the facile fabrication of conducting electronic devices on flexible substrates.

  20. Effect of fractal silver electrodes on charge collection and light distribution in semiconducting organic polymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Chamousis, RL; Chang, LL; Watterson, WJ; Montgomery, RD; Taylor, RP; Moule, AJ; Shaheen, SE; Ilan, B; van de Lagemaat, J; Osterloh, FE

    2014-08-21

    Living organisms use fractal structures to optimize material and energy transport across regions of differing size scales. Here we test the effect of fractal silver electrodes on light distribution and charge collection in organic semiconducting polymer films made of P3HT and PCBM. The semiconducting polymers were deposited onto electrochemically grown fractal silver structures (5000 nm x 500 nm; fractal dimension of 1.71) with PEDOT:PSS as hole-selective interlayer. The fractal silver electrodes appear black due to increased horizontal light scattering, which is shown to improve light absorption in the polymer. According to surface photovoltage spectroscopy, fractal silver electrodes outperform the flat electrodes when the BHJ film thickness is large (>400 nm, 0.4 V photovoltage). Photocurrents of up to 200 microamperes cm(-2) are generated from the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photoelectrodes under 435 nm LED (10-20 mW cm(-2)) illumination in acetonitrile solution containing 0.005 M ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate as the electron acceptor. The low IPCE values (0.3-0.7%) are due to slow electron transfer to ferrocenium ion and due to shunting along the large metal-polymer interface. Overall, this work provides an initial assessment of the potential of fractal electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells.

  1. Compliant silver nanowire-polymer composite electrodes for bistable large strain actuation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sungryul; Niu, Xiaofan; Yu, Zhibin; Hu, Weili; Brochu, Paul; Pei, Qibing

    2012-03-08

    A new compliant electrode-based on silver nanowire-polymer composite has been developed. The composite electrode has low sheet resistance (as low as 10 Ω/sq), remains conductive (10(2) -10(3) Ω/sq) at strains as high as 140%, and can support Joule heating. The combination of the composite and a bistable electroactive polymer produces electrically-induced, large-strain actuation and relaxation, reversibly without the need of mechanical programming.

  2. Facile green synthesis of silver nanodendrite/cellulose acetate thin film electrodes for flexible supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Devarayan, Kesavan; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we present a highly efficient and economical solution called as 'in situ hydrogenation' for preparation of highly conductive thin film electrode based on silver nanodendrites. The silver nanodendrite (AgND)/cellulose acetate (CA) thin film electrodes exhibited sheet resistance ranging from 0.32ohm/sq to 122.1ohm/sq which could be controlled by changing the concentration of both silver and polymer. In addition, these electrodes exhibited outstanding toughness during the bending test. Further, these thin film electrodes have great potential for scale-up with an average weight of 3mg/cm(2) and can be also combined with active nanomaterials such as multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to fabricate AgND/CA/MWCNTs thin film for high-performance flexible supercapacitor electrode. The AgND/CA/MWCNTs electrodes exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 237F/g at a current density of 0.3A/g. After 1000 cycles, the AgND/MWCNT/CA exhibited a decrease of 16.0% of specific capacitance.

  3. Nanoparticle-electrode collision processes: The electroplating of bulk cadmium on impacting silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi-Ge; Rees, Neil V.; Compton, Richard G.

    2011-08-01

    We report, for the first time, the bulk deposition (electroplating) of a metal onto nanoparticles during collisions with an inert electrode surface. Experiments show that for silver nanoparticles, multiple layers of Cd atoms can be electroplated onto the AgNPs from aqueous Cd 2+ during collisions with a glassy carbon electrode held at a suitably reducing potential, and an average of 19 atomic layers of cadmium are found to be deposited in the few milliseconds that the NP is in contact with the electrode. For comparison, results are also presented for the underpotential deposition of Cd onto AgNPs under similar conditions.

  4. Enhancement of electrical conductivity of thick silver electrode using a tailored amorphous alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo Jee, Sang; Yun Kim, Se; Jun Kim, Suk; Man Park, Jin; Hyoung Lee, Kyu; Ho Lee, Jun; Hwan Park, Keum; Na Heo, Jung; Mock Lee, Sang; Taek Han, In; Ram Lim, Ka; Tae Kim, Won; Hyang Kim, Do; Lee, Eun-Sung

    2012-08-01

    Metallic glass (MG) can be a promising additive for the screen-printed silver electrode, when the composition of MG is properly tailored. When Cu-Zr-Al MG is used as an additive, the contact resistance between the Ag electrode and the Si emitter significantly decreases down to 5.39 mΩ cm2 on 100 Ω/sq of emitter, while when Cu-Zr Mg is used, the contact resistance is 31.28 mΩ cm2. Wider supercooled-liquid region and high reactivity with silver of Cu-Zr-Al MG lead to wider contact area of the Ag electrode and higher density of Ag crystallites, resulting in such a low contact resistance.

  5. Sampling for silver nanoparticles in aqueous media using a rotating disk electrode: evidence for selective sampling of silver nanoparticles in the presence of ionic silver.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Spencer; Hodge, Vernon; Schumacher, Brian; Sovocool, Wayne

    2017-03-01

    Amendment of a carbon paste electrode consisting of graphite and Nujol®, with a variety of organic and inorganic materials, allows direct adsorption of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from aqueous solution in either open or close circuit modes. The adsorbed AgNPs are detected by stripping voltammetry. Detection limits of less than 1 ppb Ag are achievable with a rotating disk system. More than one silver peak was apparent in many of the stripping voltammograms. The appearance of multiple peaks could be due to different species of silver formed upon stripping or variation in the state of aggregation or size of nanoparticles. With most of these packing materials, dissolved Ag(+) was also extracted from aqueous solution, but, with a packing material made with Fe(II,III) oxide nanoparticles, only AgNPs were extracted. Therefore, it is the best candidate for determination of metallic AgNPs in aqueous environmental samples without interference from Ag(+).

  6. Hybrid transparent electrodes of silver nanowires and carbon nanotubes: a low-temperature solution process.

    PubMed

    Tokuno, Takehiro; Nogi, Masaya; Jiu, Jinting; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2012-05-31

    Hybrid transparent electrodes with silver nanowires (AgNWs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were fabricated on plastic films by a low-temperature solution process. The hybrid transparent electrodes exhibited a sheet resistance of 29.2 Ω/sq with a transparency of 80% when 6 wt.% of SWCNTs was mixed with AgNWs. This sheet resistance was less than one-fourth that of the AgNW transparent electrodes that were prepared using the same method. This reduction in sheet resistance is because the SWCNTs formed bridges between the AgNWs, thus, resulting in high conductivity of the hybrid transparent electrodes. The hybrid electrodes formed on plastic films exhibited high conductivity as well as excellent stability in sheet resistance when tested using a repeated bending test.PACS: 62.23.Hj; 61.48.De; 81.15.-z.

  7. Experimental and DFT theoretical studies of surface enhanced Raman scattering effect on the silver nano arrays modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lisheng; Fang, Yan; Wang, Peijie

    2012-07-01

    Well-ordered silver nano arrays, prepared using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by laser molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE) method, were adhered to the work electrode using conductive adhesive to be a Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. Variable SERS signals of paranitrobenzoic acid (PNA) on the electrode modified with silver nano arrays were recorded with electric potential ranging from 0.1 to -0.5 V. The SERS spectra of PNA using DFT-B3PW91 with lanl2dz based on two models were calculated. It indicate that the adsorption orientation of probe molecules on the silver nano arrays with potential change of the electrode.

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering studies on the interaction of phosphonate derivatives of imidazole, thiazole, and pyridine with a silver electrode in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Podstawka, Edyta; Kudelski, Andrzej; Olszewski, Tomasz K; Boduszek, Bogdan

    2009-07-23

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra from phosphonate derivatives of N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds immobilized on an electrochemically roughened silver electrode surface are reported and compared to Raman spectra of the corresponding solid species. The tested compounds contain imidazole [ImMeP ([hydroxy-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)-methyl]-phosphonic acid) and (ImMe)2P (bis[hydroxy-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)-methyl]-phosphinic acid)]; thiazole [BAThMeP ((butylamino-thiazol-2-yl-methyl)-phosphonic acid) and BzAThMeP ((benzylamino-thiazol-2-yl-methyl)-phosphonic acid)]; and pyridine ((PyMe)2P (bis[(hydroxy-pyridin-3-yl-methyl)]-phosphinic acid) aromatic rings. Changes in wavenumber, broadness, and the enhancement of N-heterocyclic aromatic ring bands upon adsorption are consistent with the adsorption primarily occurring through the N lone pair of electrons with the ring arranged in a largely edge-on manner for ImMeP and BzAThMeP or in a slightly inclined orientation to the silver electrode surface at an intermediate angle from the surface normal for (ImMe)2P, BAThMeP, and (PyMe)2P. A strong enhancement of a roughly 1500 cm(-1) SERS signal for ImMeP and (PyMe)2P is also observed. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of a localized C=C bond, which is accompanied by a decrease in the ring-surface pi-electrons' overlap. In addition, more intense SERS bands due to the benzene ring in BzAThMeP are observed than those observed for the thiazole ring, which suggests a preferential adsorption of benzene. Some interaction of a phosphonate unit is also suggested but with moderate strength between biomolecules. The strength of the P=O coordination to the silver electrode is highest for ImMeP but lowest for BzAThMeP. For all studied biomolecules, the contribution of the structural components to their ability to interact with their receptors was correlated with the SERS patterns.

  9. Laser Processed Silver Nanowire Network Transparent Electrodes for Novel Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spechler, Joshua Allen

    Silver nanowire network transparent conducting layers are poised to make headway into a space previously dominated by transparent conducting oxides due to the promise of a flexible, scaleable, lab-atmosphere processable alternative. However, there are many challenges standing in the way between research scale use and consumer technology scale adaptation of this technology. In this thesis we will explore many, and overcome a few of these challenges. We will address the poor conductivity at the narrow nanowire-nanowire junction points in the network by developing a laser based process to weld nanowires together on a microscopic scale. We address the need for a comparative metric for transparent conductors in general, by taking a device level rather than a component level view of these layers. We also address the mechanical, physical, and thermal limitations to the silver nanowire networks by making composites from materials including a colorless polyimide and titania sol-gel. Additionally, we verify our findings by integrating these processes into devices. Studying a hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunction photovoltaic device we show the benefits of a laser processed electrode. Green phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes fabricated on a solution phase processed silver nanowire based electrode show favorable device metrics compared to a conductive oxide electrode based control. The work in this thesis is intended to push the adoption of silver nanowire networks to further allow new device architectures, and thereby new device applications.

  10. Chip-on-foil devices for DNA analysis based on inkjet-printed silver electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wünscher, Sebastian; Seise, Barbara; Pretzel, David; Pollok, Sibyll; Perelaer, Jolke; Weber, Karina; Popp, Jürgen; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2014-01-21

    For a rapid on-site diagnosis of pathogens, low-cost chip-based devices are of great interest. Here, we report the successful fabrication of inkjet printed silver electrodes on polymer foils as disposable chips for molecular DNA analytics. In order to manufacture these electrode structures, silver nanoparticle inks were inkjet printed onto planar polypropylene substrates. Due to the low thermal stability of the foils, substrate preserving sintering techniques, including low temperature thermal sintering and low pressure argon plasma sintering, were implemented. Thus, sufficient electrical conductance of the printed structures at processing temperatures ≤100 °C was achieved. To test the applicability of the manufactured chips, specific capture DNA was immobilized within the gaps of the conductive electrode paths and hybridized in the next step with biotin-labeled target DNA. Subsequently, an enzymatically generated silver nanoparticle deposition was induced that bridges the electrode gap. This enabled both conductance measurement and gray value analysis as a fast, simple and robust electrical and optical read-out system. The proof-of-principle experiments successfully demonstrated the applicability of these convenient chip-on-foil devices for nucleic acid based pathogen detection.

  11. Embedded silver PDMS electrodes for single cell electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuan; Xu, Zhensong; Cachia, Mark A.; Nguyen, John; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device with wide channels and embedded AgPDMS electrodes for measuring the electrical properties of single cells. The work demonstrates the feasibility of using a large channel design and embedded electrodes for impedance spectroscopy to circumvent issues such as channel clogging and limited device re-usability. AgPDMS electrodes were formed on channel sidewalls for impedance detection and cell electrical properties measurement. Equivalent circuit models were used to interpret multi-frequency impedance data to quantify each cell’s cytoplasm conductivity and specific membrane capacitance. T24 cells were tested to validate the microfluidic system and modeling results. Comparisons were then made by measuring two leukemia cell lines (AML-2 and HL-60) which were found to have different cytoplasm conductivity values (0.29  ±  0.15 S m-1 versus 0.47  ±  0.20 S m-1) and specific membrane capacitance values (41  ±  25 mF m-2 versus 55  ±  26 mF m-2) when the cells were flown through the wide channel and measured by the AgPDMS electrodes.

  12. Planar silver nanowire, carbon nanotube and PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Andrew J; Yambem, Soniya D; Johns, Ashley H; Afre, Rakesh A; Ellis, Amanda V; Shapter, Joe G; Andersson, Gunther G; Quinton, Jamie S; Burn, Paul L; Meredith, Paul; Lewis, David A

    2015-04-01

    Highly conductive, transparent and flexible planar electrodes were fabricated using interwoven silver nanowires and single-walled carbon nanotubes (AgNW:SWCNT) in a PEDOT:PSS matrix via an epoxy transfer method from a silicon template. The planar electrodes achieved a sheet resistance of 6.6 ± 0.0 Ω/□ and an average transmission of 86% between 400 and 800 nm. A high figure of merit of 367 Ω(-1) is reported for the electrodes, which is much higher than that measured for indium tin oxide and reported for other AgNW composites. The AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode was used to fabricate low temperature (annealing free) devices demonstrating their potential to function with a range of organic semiconducting polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction blend systems.

  13. Planar silver nanowire, carbon nanotube and PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, Andrew J.; Yambem, Soniya D.; Johns, Ashley H.; Afre, Rakesh A.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Shapter, Joe G.; Andersson, Gunther G.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul; Lewis, David A.

    2015-04-01

    Highly conductive, transparent and flexible planar electrodes were fabricated using interwoven silver nanowires and single-walled carbon nanotubes (AgNW:SWCNT) in a PEDOT:PSS matrix via an epoxy transfer method from a silicon template. The planar electrodes achieved a sheet resistance of 6.6 ± 0.0 Ω/□ and an average transmission of 86% between 400 and 800 nm. A high figure of merit of 367 Ω-1 is reported for the electrodes, which is much higher than that measured for indium tin oxide and reported for other AgNW composites. The AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode was used to fabricate low temperature (annealing free) devices demonstrating their potential to function with a range of organic semiconducting polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction blend systems.

  14. Planar silver nanowire, carbon nanotube and PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite transparent electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Andrew J; Yambem, Soniya D; Johns, Ashley H; Afre, Rakesh A; Ellis, Amanda V; Shapter, Joe G; Andersson, Gunther G; Quinton, Jamie S; Burn, Paul L; Meredith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Highly conductive, transparent and flexible planar electrodes were fabricated using interwoven silver nanowires and single-walled carbon nanotubes (AgNW:SWCNT) in a PEDOT:PSS matrix via an epoxy transfer method from a silicon template. The planar electrodes achieved a sheet resistance of 6.6 ± 0.0 Ω/□ and an average transmission of 86% between 400 and 800 nm. A high figure of merit of 367 Ω−1 is reported for the electrodes, which is much higher than that measured for indium tin oxide and reported for other AgNW composites. The AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode was used to fabricate low temperature (annealing free) devices demonstrating their potential to function with a range of organic semiconducting polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction blend systems. PMID:27877771

  15. The Effects of Organic Adsorbates on the Underpotential and Bulk Deposition of Silver on Polycrystalline Platinum Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-14

    the Underpotential and Bulk Deposition of Silver on Polycrystalline Platinum Electrodes S.H. Harford, D.L. Taylor, and H.D. Abrufia Department of...Arlington, VA 22217 i1 iTITLE (Irlude Security Cla$slficatIon) The Effects of Organic Adsorbates on the Underpotential and Bulk Deposition of Silver on...through a nitrogen hetero-atom significantly hinder both the silver underpotential (UPD) and bulk deposition processes. The existence of a Pt/Ag

  16. Electro-active Polymer Actuator Based on Sulfonated Polyimide with Highly Conductive Silver Electrodes Via Self-metallization.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiangxuan; Jeon, Jin-Han; Oh, Il-Kwon; Park, K C

    2011-10-04

    We report here a facile synthesis of high performance electro-active polymer actuator based on a sulfonated polyimide with well-defined silver electrodes via self-metallization. The proposed method greatly reduces fabrication time and cost, and obviates a cation exchange process required in the fabrication of ionic polymer-metal composite actuators. Also, the self-metallized silver electrodes exhibit outstanding metal-polymer adhesion with high conductivity, resulting in substantially larger tip displacements compared with Nafion-based actuators.

  17. Large Pulsed Electron Beam Welded Percolation Networks of Silver Nanowires for Transparent and Flexible Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisoo; Nam, Yun Seok; Song, Myoung Hoon; Park, Hyung Wook

    2016-08-17

    Mechanical properties of transparent electrodes, including flexibility, are important in flexible electronics for sustaining electrical conductivity under bending with small radius of curvature. Low contact resistance of junctions in metal nanowire percolation networks is the most important factor to produce electrodes with excellent optical, electrical and mechanical performance. Here, we report the fabrication of welded silver nanowire percolation networks using large pulsed electron beam (LPEB) irradiation as a welding process of silver nanowires (AgNWs). It results in modification of electrical and mechanical properties because of the low contact resistance at welded junctions. Consequently, the flexible and transparent AgNW electrodes fabricated by LPEB irradiation showed lower sheet resistance of 12.63 Ω sq(-1) at high transmittance of 93% (at 550 nm), and superb mechanical flexibility, compared with other AgNW electrodes prepared by thermal treatement and without any treatment. Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) using AgNWs by LPEB irradiation were fabricated to confirm that the AgNW electrode by LPEB irradiation was able to become alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) and they showed good device performance as a maximum luminous efficiency of 7.37 cd A(-1), and excellent mechanical flexibility under bending with small radius of curvature.

  18. Photochemical charge transfer excitation of trans-4-stilbazole at a silver electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, John J.; Gergel, Thomas J.; Otterson, David M.; McMahon, Caitlin R.; Kabbani, Raifah M.

    1999-10-01

    When adsorbed at the surface of a polycrystalline silver electrode, trans-4-stilbazole photoreacts, in the presence of dissolved oxygen, to form trans-4'-hydroxy-4-stilbazole. The structure of the photoproduct is confirmed by (1) a comparison of the surface Raman results with the normal Raman of trans-4'-hydroxy-4-stilbazole, and by (2) by ex-situ analysis of the irradiated electrode surface using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The surface photochemistry appears to be a one-photon process whose threshold wavelength lies in the middle of the visible range though neat trans-4-stilbazole absorbs only in the ultraviolet. The surface Raman intensity of the photoproduct increases synchronously with the Faradaic current of oxygen reduction. Attendant incorporation of oxygen exclusively at the 4' position of end-on trans-4-stilbazole evidences a photo-initiated electron transfer from the electrode to oxygen reducing at the other end of the molecule. Scattering from stilbazole adsorbed at two different surface sites is evident in the surface Raman spectrum: charged (Ag +) sites and more neutral surface sites. We assign excitation profile maxima for stilbazole at Ag + sites and the photochemical initiation to a silver-to-stilbazole charge transfer at those sites. Ab-initio molecular orbital calculations on a model composed of a ground state Li 0- trans-4-stilbazole and the anion radical excited state Li +- trans-4-stilbazole - reveal a low-energy transition that supports assignment of the visible excitation to a silver-to-stilbazole electron transfer.

  19. Silver nanowire/polyaniline composite transparent electrode with improved surface properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.B.V. Kiran; Jiang, Jianwei; Bae, Chang Wan; Seo, Dong Min; Piao, Longhai Kim, Sang-Ho

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • AgNWs/PANI transparent electrode was prepared by layer-by-layer coating method. • The surface roughness of the electrode reached to 6.5 nm (root mean square). • The electrode had reasonable sheet resistance (25 Ω/□) and transmittance (83.5%). - Abstract: Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are as potential candidates to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in transparent electrodes because of their preferred conducting and optical properties. However, their rough surface properties are not favorable for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices, such as displays and thin-film solar cells. In the present investigation, AgNWs/polyaniline composite transparent electrodes with better surface properties were successfully prepared. AgNWs were incorporated into polyaniline:polystyrene sulfonate (PANI:PSS) by layer-by-layer coating and mechanical pressing. PANI:PSS decreased the surface roughness of the AgNWs electrode by filling the gap of the random AgNWs network. The transparent composite electrode had decreased surface roughness (root mean square 6.5 nm) with reasonable sheet resistance (25 Ω/□) and transmittance (83.5%)

  20. A Flexible and Thin Graphene/Silver Nanowires/Polymer Hybrid Transparent Electrode for Optoelectronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hua; Wu, Zhaoxin; Jiang, Yaqiu; Liu, Weihua; Li, Xin; Jiao, Bo; Abbas, Waseem; Hou, Xun

    2016-11-16

    A typical thin and fully flexible hybrid electrode was developed by integrating the encapsulation of silver nanowires (AgNWs) network between a monolayer graphene and polymer film as a sandwich structure. Compared with the reported flexible electrodes based on PET or PEN substrate, this unique electrode exhibits the superior optoelectronic characteristics (sheet resistance of 8.06 Ω/□ at 88.3% light transmittance). Meanwhile, the specific up-to-bottom fabrication process could achieve the superflat surface (RMS = 2.58 nm), superthin thickness (∼8 μm thickness), high mechanical robustness, and lightweight. In addition, the strong corrosion resistance and stability for the hybrid electrode were proved. With these advantages, we employ this electrode to fabricate the simple flexible organic light-emitting device (OLED) and perovskite solar cell device (PSC), which exhibit the considerable performance (best PCE of OLED = 2.11 cd/A(2); best PCE of PSC = 10.419%). All the characteristics of the unique hybrid electrode demonstrate its potential as a high-performance transparent electrode candidate for flexible optoelectronics.

  1. Impact electrochemistry on screen-printed electrodes for the detection of monodispersed silver nanoparticles of sizes 10-107 nm.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Muhammad Zafir Mohamad; Pumera, Martin

    2016-10-12

    Impact electrochemistry provides a useful alternative technique for the detection of silver nanoparticles in solutions. The combined use of impact electrochemistry on screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) for the successful detection of silver nanoparticles provides an avenue for future on-site, point-of-care detection devices to be made for environmental, medicinal and biological uses. Here we discuss the use of screen-printed electrodes for the detection of well-defined monodispersed silver nanoparticles of sizes 10, 20, 40, 80, and 107 nm.

  2. Electric detection of DNA with PDMS microgap electrodes and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ziyin; Qiang, Weibing; Li, Hui; Hao, Nan; Xu, Danke; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2011-02-07

    In this work a novel microdevice sensor has been developed by plating gold on the PDMS surface to generate a sandwich-type gap electrode for DNA detection. The microdevice utilizes a gold band electrode-PDMS-gold band electrode configuration and the minimum detectable volume could be as low as 5 μL. The 20 μm PDMS-based gap was chemically modified with DNA capture probes and DNA sandwich hybrids were formed with the addition of DNA target and silver nanoparticle probes. To increase detection sensitivity, parallel detection zones have been developed in which the relevant resistances decrease substantially upon hybridyzation. By measuring the change in electrical conductivity, the DNA target in the concentration range of 1000-0.1 nM can be assayed and the limit of lowest detectable concentration was achieved at 0.01 nM.

  3. Flexible, silver nanowire network nickel hydroxide core-shell electrodes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuksel, Recep; Coskun, Sahin; Kalay, Yunus Eren; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel one-dimensional coaxial architecture composed of silver nanowire (Ag NW) network core and nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2) shell for the realization of coaxial nanocomposite electrode materials for supercapacitors. Ag NWs are formed conductive networks via spray coating onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and Ni(OH)2 is gradually electrodeposited onto the Ag NW network to fabricate core-shell electrodes for supercapacitors. Synergy of highly conductive Ag NWs and high capacitive Ni(OH)2 facilitate ion and electron transport, enhance electrochemical properties and result in a specific capacitance of 1165.2 F g-1 at a current density of 3 A g-1. After 3000 cycles, fabricated nanocomposite electrodes show 93% capacity retention. The rational design explored in this study points out the potential of nanowire based coaxial energy storage devices.

  4. Determination of serotonin on platinum electrode modified with carbon nanotubes/polypyrrole/silver nanoparticles nanohybrid.

    PubMed

    Cesarino, Ivana; Galesco, Heloisa V; Machado, Sergio A S

    2014-07-01

    A new sensor has been developed by a simple electrodeposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), polypyrrole (PPy) and colloidal silver nanoparticles on the platinum (Pt) electrode surface. The Pt/MWCNT/PPy/AgNPs electrode was applied to the detection of serotonin in plasmatic serum samples using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The synergistic effect of MWCNT/PPy/AgNPs nanohybrid formed yielded a LOD of 0.15 μmol L(-1) (26.4 μg L(-1)). Reproducibility and repeatability values of 2.2% and 1.7%, respectively, were obtained compared to the conventional procedure. The proposed electrode can be an effective material to be used in biological analysis.

  5. Detection of lead ions in picomolar concentration range using underpotential deposition on silver nanoparticles-deposited glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramanian, R; Sangaranarayanan, M V

    2011-09-30

    The efficacy of silver-deposited glassy carbon electrode for the determination of lead ions at the sub-nanomolar concentration ranges is investigated. The silver nanoparticles are electrodeposited on glassy carbon electrode using chronoamperometry and the electrode surface is characterized using SEM. Lead ions are detected in the region of underpotential deposition. The analysis is performed in square wave mode in the stripping voltammetry without the removal of oxygen. The detection limit of 10 pM has been obtained with a constant potential of -0.7 V during the electrodeposition step for a period of 50s. The interference of surfactants in the detection of lead ions is also studied.

  6. Determination of lead and cadmium in seawater using a vibrating silver amalgam microwire electrode.

    PubMed

    Bi, Zhaoshun; Salaün, Pascal; van den Berg, Constant M G

    2013-03-26

    Silver amalgamated electrodes are a good substrate to determine lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in seawater because they have properties similar to mercury but without the free mercury (Hg). Here a silver amalgamated microwire (SAM) electrode is optimised for the determination of Pb and Cd in coastal waters and uncontaminated ocean waters. The SAM was vibrated during the deposition step to increase the sensitivity, and electroanalytical parameters were optimised. The Hg coating required plating from a relatively concentrated (millimolar) solution, much greater (500×) than used for instance to coat glassy carbon electrodes. However, the coating on the ex situ amalgamated electrode was found to be stable and could be used for up to a week to determine trace levels of Pb in seawater of natural pH. The limit of detection square-wave ASV (50 Hz) using the pre-plated SAM electrode was 8 pM Pb using a 1-min plating time at pH 4.5. The limit of detection in pH 2 seawater was 4 pM using a 5-min plating time, and it was 12 pM using a 10-min plating time at natural pH in the presence of air, using a square-wave frequency of 700 Hz. The vibrating SAM electrode was tested on the determination of Pb in reference seawater samples from the open Atlantic (at the 20 pM level), Pacific, and used for a study of Pb in samples collected over 24 h in Liverpool Bay (Irish Sea).

  7. Silver nanoparticle-modified electrode for the determination of nitro compound-containing pesticides.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Camila Alves; Santana, Edson Roberto; Piovesan, Jamille Valéria; Spinelli, Almir

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports the electroanalytical determination of pendimethalin and ethyl parathion by square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry using a material comprised of chitosan-stabilized silver nanoparticles to modify a glassy carbon electrode. Under optimized experimental conditions, the peak current was found to vary linearly with the concentration of pendimethalin in the range of 70 to 2000 nmol L(-1) and with concentration of ethyl parathion in the range of 40 to 8000 nmol L(-1). Detection limits of 36 and 40 nmol L(-1) were obtained for pendimethalin and ethyl parathion, respectively. The silver - nanoparticle-modified electrode was successfully employed for the analysis of pesticides in tap and mineral water (pendimethalin) and in lettuce and honey (ethyl parathion) samples. Pendimethalin recovery was between 94 and 100 %, and ethyl parathion recovery was between 97 and 101 %, indicating no significant matrix interference effects on the analytical results. The accuracy of the electroanalytical methodology using the proposed modified electrode was also compared to that of the UV-vis spectrophotometric method.

  8. High Rate Performance Nanocomposite Electrode of Mesoporous Manganese Dioxide/Silver Nanowires in KI Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanhua; Cui, Xiuguo; Zu, Lei; Hu, Zhongkai; Gan, Jing; Lian, Huiqin; Liu, Yang; Xing, Guangjian

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, manganese dioxide has become a research hotspot as an electrode material because of its low price. However, it has also become an obstacle to industrialization due to its low ratio of capacitance and the low rate performance which is caused by the poor electrical conductivity. In this study, a KI solution with electrochemical activity was innovatively applied to the electrolyte, and we systematically investigated the rate performance of the mesoporous manganese dioxide and the composite electrode with silver nanowires in supercapacitors. The results showed that when mesoporous manganese dioxide and mesoporous manganese dioxide/silver nanowires composite were used as electrodes, the strength of the current was amplified five times (from 0.1 to 0.5 A/g), the remaining rates of specific capacitance were 95% (from 205.5 down to 197.1 F/g) and 92% (from 208.1 down to 191.7 F/g) in the KI electrolyte, and the rate performance was much higher than which in an Na2SO4 electrolyte with a remaining rate of 25% (from 200.3 down to 49.1 F/g) and 60% (from 187.2 down to 113.1 F/g). The morphology and detail structure were investigated by Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The electrochemical performance was assessed by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. PMID:28347086

  9. Tailored silver grid as transparent electrodes directly written by femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Jin, Feng; Liu, Jie; Ren, Xue-Liang; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    We present the design and realization of silver grid transparent electrodes (SGTEs) easily fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of silver aqueous solution. The fabricated SGTEs with a sheet resistance down to 47 Ω/□ and optical transmittance up to 93% are demonstrated. These sheet resistance and transmittance values are comparable to commercially available indium tin oxide. High uniform morphology of the directly written SGTEs results in the ultra-stable tailored performance parameter at electronic and optical fields. The sheet resistance and transmittance can be tailored precisely by manipulating the filling fraction of the uniform SGTEs. This study provides an approach for creating SGTEs in a controllable fashion, and the SGTEs exhibit high transmittance and low sheet resistance, which could open up new avenues towards widespread application in electronics, photovoltaics, and optoelectronics.

  10. Failure criterion of silver nanowire electrodes on a polymer substrate for highly flexible devices

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donggyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Jong Hak; Lee, Jae-Chul; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Kim, Sang Woo

    2017-01-01

    Nanomechanical characteristics of standalone silver nanowires (Ag NWs) are a key issue for providing a failure criterion of advanced flexible electrodes that are trending towards smaller radius of curvatures (ROCs). Through in-situ tensile and buckling tests of pentagonal Ag NWs, we demonstrated that the intrinsic fracture strain provides a significant criterion to predict the mechanical and electrical failure of Ag NW electrodes under various strain modes, because the decrease in fracture strain limits figure of merit of flexible devices. The Ag NW electrodes on a polymer substrate exhibited a strain-dependent electrical failure owing to the unique deformation characteristics with a size-dependent brittle-to-ductile transition of the five-fold twinned Ag NWs. All the Ag NWs greater than approximately 40 nm in diameter exhibited brittle fracture with a size-independent stress-strain response under tensile and buckling modes, which leads to the electrical failure of flexible electrodes at the almost same threshold ROC. Meanwhile, the higher ductility of Ag NWs less than 40 nm in diameter resulted in much smaller threshold ROCs of the electrodes due to the highly extended fracture strains, which can afford a high degree of freedom for highly flexible devices. PMID:28378763

  11. Failure criterion of silver nanowire electrodes on a polymer substrate for highly flexible devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donggyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Jong Hak; Lee, Jae-Chul; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Kim, Sang Woo

    2017-04-05

    Nanomechanical characteristics of standalone silver nanowires (Ag NWs) are a key issue for providing a failure criterion of advanced flexible electrodes that are trending towards smaller radius of curvatures (ROCs). Through in-situ tensile and buckling tests of pentagonal Ag NWs, we demonstrated that the intrinsic fracture strain provides a significant criterion to predict the mechanical and electrical failure of Ag NW electrodes under various strain modes, because the decrease in fracture strain limits figure of merit of flexible devices. The Ag NW electrodes on a polymer substrate exhibited a strain-dependent electrical failure owing to the unique deformation characteristics with a size-dependent brittle-to-ductile transition of the five-fold twinned Ag NWs. All the Ag NWs greater than approximately 40 nm in diameter exhibited brittle fracture with a size-independent stress-strain response under tensile and buckling modes, which leads to the electrical failure of flexible electrodes at the almost same threshold ROC. Meanwhile, the higher ductility of Ag NWs less than 40 nm in diameter resulted in much smaller threshold ROCs of the electrodes due to the highly extended fracture strains, which can afford a high degree of freedom for highly flexible devices.

  12. Silver Nanowire Top Electrodes in Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells using Titanium Metal as Substrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minoh; Ko, Yohan; Min, Byoung Koun; Jun, Yongseok

    2016-01-08

    Flexible perovskite solar cells (FPSCs) have various applications such as wearable electronic textiles and portable devices. In this work, we demonstrate FPSCs on a titanium metal substrate employing solution-processed silver nanowires (Ag NWs) as the top electrode. The Ag NW electrodes were deposited on top of the spiro-MeOTAD hole transport layer by a carefully controlled spray-coating method at moderate temperatures. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) reached 7.45 % under AM 1.5 100 mW cm(-2) illumination. Moreover, the efficiency for titanium-based FPSCs decreased only slightly (by 2.6 % of the initial value) after the devices were bent 100 times. With this and other advances, fully solution-based indium-free flexible photovoltaics, advantageous in terms of price and processing, have the potential to be scaled into commercial production.

  13. High-performance semitransparent perovskite solar cells with solution-processed silver nanowires as top electrodes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Azimi, Hamed; Hou, Yi; Przybilla, Thomas; Hu, Mengyao; Bronnbauer, Carina; Langner, Stefan; Spiecker, Erdmann; Forberich, Karen; Brabec, Christoph J

    2015-02-07

    In this work, we report efficient semitransparent perovskite solar cells using solution-processed silver nanowires (AgNWs) as top electrodes. A thin layer of zinc oxide nanoparticles is introduced beneath the AgNWs, which fulfills two essential functionalities: it ensures ohmic contact between the PC60BM and the AgNWs and it serves as a physical foundation that enables the solution-deposition of AgNWs without causing damage to the underlying perovskite. The as-fabricated semitransparent perovskite cells show a high fill factor of 66.8%, Voc = 0.964 V, Jsc = 13.18 mA cm(-2), yielding an overall efficiency of 8.49% which corresponds to 80% of the reference devices with reflective opaque electrodes.

  14. All-solution processed semi-transparent perovskite solar cells with silver nanowires electrode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kaiyu; Li, Fushan; Zhang, Jianhua; Veeramalai, Chandrasekar Perumal; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-03-04

    In this work, we report an all-solution route to produce semi-transparent high efficiency perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Instead of an energy-consuming vacuum process with metal deposition, the top electrode is simply deposited by spray-coating silver nanowires (AgNWs) under room temperature using fabrication conditions and solvents that do not damage or dissolve the underlying PSC. The as-fabricated semi-transparent perovskite solar cell shows a photovoltaic output with dual side illuminations due to the transparency of the AgNWs. With a back cover electrode, the open circuit voltage increases significantly from 1.01 to 1.16 V, yielding high power conversion efficiency from 7.98 to 10.64%.

  15. All-solution processed semi-transparent perovskite solar cells with silver nanowires electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kaiyu; Li, Fushan; Zhang, Jianhua; Perumal Veeramalai, Chandrasekar; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we report an all-solution route to produce semi-transparent high efficiency perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Instead of an energy-consuming vacuum process with metal deposition, the top electrode is simply deposited by spray-coating silver nanowires (AgNWs) under room temperature using fabrication conditions and solvents that do not damage or dissolve the underlying PSC. The as-fabricated semi-transparent perovskite solar cell shows a photovoltaic output with dual side illuminations due to the transparency of the AgNWs. With a back cover electrode, the open circuit voltage increases significantly from 1.01 to 1.16 V, yielding high power conversion efficiency from 7.98 to 10.64%.

  16. Patterned transparent electrode with a continuous distribution of silver nanowires produced by an etching-free patterning method

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kwonwoo; Park, Ji Sun; Han, Jong Hun; Choi, Yunsu; Chung, Dae Sung; Kim, Se Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The outstanding electrical, optical, and mechanical properties of silver nanowire transparent electrodes are attractive for use in many optoelectronic devices, and the recent developments related to these electrodes have led to their commercialization. To more fully utilize the advantages of this technology, developing new process technologies in addition to performance improvements is important. In this report, we propose a novel ultra-simple patterning technology to generate a silver nanowire transparent layer and a unique patterned structure with continuously distributed silver nanowires without any etched areas. The patterning is conducted by exposure to ultraviolet light and rinsing. The exposed and unexposed regions of the resulting layer have dramatically different electrical conductivities, which produces an electrical pathway without using any etching or lift-off processes. The unique patterned structure produced by this etching-free method creates hardly any optical difference between the two regions and results in excellent visibility of the patterned transparent electrode layer. PMID:28198798

  17. Patterned transparent electrode with a continuous distribution of silver nanowires produced by an etching-free patterning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kwonwoo; Park, Ji Sun; Han, Jong Hun; Choi, Yunsu; Chung, Dae Sung; Kim, Se Hyun

    2017-02-01

    The outstanding electrical, optical, and mechanical properties of silver nanowire transparent electrodes are attractive for use in many optoelectronic devices, and the recent developments related to these electrodes have led to their commercialization. To more fully utilize the advantages of this technology, developing new process technologies in addition to performance improvements is important. In this report, we propose a novel ultra-simple patterning technology to generate a silver nanowire transparent layer and a unique patterned structure with continuously distributed silver nanowires without any etched areas. The patterning is conducted by exposure to ultraviolet light and rinsing. The exposed and unexposed regions of the resulting layer have dramatically different electrical conductivities, which produces an electrical pathway without using any etching or lift-off processes. The unique patterned structure produced by this etching-free method creates hardly any optical difference between the two regions and results in excellent visibility of the patterned transparent electrode layer.

  18. Patterned transparent electrode with a continuous distribution of silver nanowires produced by an etching-free patterning method.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kwonwoo; Park, Ji Sun; Han, Jong Hun; Choi, Yunsu; Chung, Dae Sung; Kim, Se Hyun

    2017-02-13

    The outstanding electrical, optical, and mechanical properties of silver nanowire transparent electrodes are attractive for use in many optoelectronic devices, and the recent developments related to these electrodes have led to their commercialization. To more fully utilize the advantages of this technology, developing new process technologies in addition to performance improvements is important. In this report, we propose a novel ultra-simple patterning technology to generate a silver nanowire transparent layer and a unique patterned structure with continuously distributed silver nanowires without any etched areas. The patterning is conducted by exposure to ultraviolet light and rinsing. The exposed and unexposed regions of the resulting layer have dramatically different electrical conductivities, which produces an electrical pathway without using any etching or lift-off processes. The unique patterned structure produced by this etching-free method creates hardly any optical difference between the two regions and results in excellent visibility of the patterned transparent electrode layer.

  19. Highly sensitive determination of iodide by ion chromatography with amperometric detection at a silver-based carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Malongo, Trésor Kimbeni; Patris, Stéphanie; Macours, Pascale; Cotton, Frédéric; Nsangu, Jean; Kauffmann, Jean-Michel

    2008-07-30

    A silver-based solid carbon paste electrode was developed for use as a detector in ion chromatography (IC) for the sensitive determination of iodide in real samples. Micro- and nano-particles of silver were investigated for the fabrication of different electrodes. The iodide assay was based on IC with amperometric detection (IC-AD) at a silver composite electrode polarized at +0.080 V versus Ag/AgCl. Free iodide and organoiodide compounds were studied. The detection process was characterized by studying the redox behavior of iodide ions at both silver and silver composite electrodes by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The presence of iodide ions in solution was found to considerably facilitate metallic silver oxidation, with response currents directly related to iodide concentration. The calibration curve at the selected silver carbon paste electrode was linear in the concentration range comprised between 0.635 microg/L and 63.5 microg/L iodide. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for successive injections was below 3% for all iodide standard solutions investigated. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.47 microg/L (3.7 nmol/L) for an injection volume of 20 microL, i.e. 74 fmol injected. The IC-AD method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide in complex real samples such as table salts, sea products and iodide bound drug compounds. The analytical accuracy was verified by the assay of iodide in milk powder from an iodide certified reference material (CRM) Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) 150.

  20. ATR-SEIRAS study of the adsorption of acetate anions at chemically deposited silver thin film electrodes.

    PubMed

    Delgado, José Manuel; Orts, José Manuel; Rodes, Antonio

    2005-09-13

    The adsorption of acetate anions at silver thin film electrodes has been studied by in-situ infrared spectroscopy experiments with a Kretschmann internal reflection configuration. Stable silver thin films were chemically deposited on germanium substrates. Ex-situ STM images show mean grain sizes ranging from ca. 20 to 90 nm for deposition times between 2 and 20 min, respectively. The thickness of the silver film, measured by AFM, is typically around 10 nm for a deposition time of 10 min and increases up to 50 nm for a deposition time of 20 min. Roughness factors around 2.3 have been obtained for the silver films from the charge involved in lead underpotential deposition (UPD). A noticeable enhancement of the infrared absorption of adsorbed species (SEIRA effect) is observed when the silver films are used as electrodes under internal total reflection conditions. Maximum intensities of the adsorbate bands were observed for a deposition time of 10 min and an angle of incidence around 65 degrees . The potential-dependent infrared spectra of acetate and interfacial water are consistent with previously proposed models involving the existence of weakly hydrogen-bonded water molecules at potentials below the potential of zero charge and the reorientation of water molecules at potentials above the potential of zero charge. Results reported in this work suggest a weak interaction between acetate and water molecules adsorbed at the silver thin film electrodes.

  1. Silver nanowire/optical adhesive coatings as transparent electrodes for flexible electronics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael S; O'Kane, Jessica C; Niec, Adrian; Carmichael, R Stephen; Carmichael, Tricia Breen

    2013-10-23

    We present new flexible, transparent, and conductive coatings composed of an annealed silver nanowire network embedded in a polyurethane optical adhesive. These coatings can be applied to rigid glass substrates as well as to flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic and elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates to produce highly flexible transparent conductive electrodes. The coatings are as conductive and transparent as indium tin oxide (ITO) films on glass, but they remain conductive at high bending strains and are more durable to marring and scratching than ITO. Coatings on PDMS withstand up to 76% tensile strain and 250 bending cycles of 15% strain with a negligible increase in electrical resistance. Since the silver nanowire network is embedded at the surface of the optical adhesive, these coatings also provide a smooth surface (root mean squared surface roughness<10 nm), making them suitable as transparent conducting electrodes in flexible light-emitting electrochemical cells. These devices continue to emit light even while being bent to radii as low as 1.5 mm and perform as well as unstrained devices after 20 bending cycles of 25% tensile strain.

  2. Optical properties and electrochemical dealloying of Gold-Silver alloy nanoparticles immobilized on composite thin-film electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Christopher A.

    Gold-silver alloy nanoparticles (NPs) capped with adenosine 5'-triphosphate were synthesized by borohydride reduction of dilute aqueous metal precursors. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed the as-synthesized particles to be spherical with average diameters ~4 nm. Optical properties were measured by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and the formation of alloy NPs was verified across all gold:silver ratios by a linear shift in the plasmon band maxima against alloy composition. The molar absorptivities of the NPs decreased non-linearly with increasing gold content from 2.0 x 108 M-1 cm-1 (lambdamax = 404 nm) for pure silver to 4.1 x 107 M-1 cm -1 (lambdamax = 511 nm) for pure gold. The NPs were immobilized onto transparent indium-tin oxide composite electrodes using layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition with poly(diallyldimethylammonium) acting as a cationic binder. The UV-Vis absorbance of the LbL film was used to calculate the surface coverage of alloy NPs on the electrode. Typical preparations had average NP surface coverages of 2.8 x 10-13 mol NPs/cm2 (~5% of cubic closest packing) with saturated films reaching ~20% of ccp for single-layer preparations (1.0 ~ 10-12 mol NPs/cm2). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of alloy NPs in the LbL film and showed silver enrichment of the NP surfaces by ~9%. Irreversible oxidative dissolution (dealloying) of the less noble silver atoms from the NPs on LbL electrodes was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in sulfuric acid. Alloy NPs with higher gold content required larger overpotentials for silver dealloying. Dealloying of the more-noble gold atoms from the alloy NPs was also achieved by CV in sodium chloride. The silver was oxidized first to cohesive silver chloride, and then gold dealloyed to soluble HAuCl 4- at higher potentials. Silver oxidation was inhibited during the first oxidative scan, but subsequent cycles showed typical, reversible silver-to-silver chloride voltammetry. The

  3. Aligned silver nanowire-based transparent electrodes for engineering polarisation-selective optoelectronics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoungchoo; Bae, In-Gon; Huh, Yoon Ho

    2016-01-01

    We herein report on a remarkably simple, fast, and economic way of fabricating homogeneous and well oriented silver nanowires (AgNWs) that exhibit strong in-plane electrical and optical anisotropies. Using a small quantity of AgNW suspension, the horizontal-dip (H-dip) coating method was applied, in which highly oriented AgNWs were deposited unidirectionally along the direction of coating over centimetre-scale lengths very rapidly. In applying the H-dip-coating method, we adjusted the shear strain rate of the capillary flow in the Landau-Levich meniscus of the AgNW suspension, which induced a high degree of uniaxial orientational ordering (0.37–0.43) of the AgNWs, comparable with the ordering seen in archetypal nematic liquid crystal (LC) materials. These AgNWs could be used to fabricate not only transparent electrodes, but also LC-alignment electrodes for LC devices and/or polarising electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices, having the potential to revolutionise the architectures of a number of polarisation-selective opto-electronic devices for use in printed/organic electronics. PMID:26778621

  4. Silver nanowire based flexible electrodes with improved properties: High conductivity, transparency, adhesion and low haze

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran Kumar, A.B.V.; Wan Bae, Chang; Piao, Longhai Kim, Sang-Ho

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: This graphical abstract illustrates the schematic representation of the main drawbacks and rectifications for AgNWs based transparent electrodes. - Highlights: • Films exhibited low sheet resistance and optical properties with R{sub s} ≤ 30 Ω/□ and T ≥ 90%. • We decreased haze to 2% by controlling AgNWs length, diameter, and concentration. • We achieved good adhesion for AgNWs on PET film. • There is no significant change in resistance in the bending angle from 0° to 180°, and on twisting. - Abstract: Recent work has been focusing on solution processable transparent electrodes for various applications including solar cells and displays. As well as, the research aims majorly at silver nanowires (AgNWs) to replace ITO. We enhance the transparent electrode performance as a function of optical and mechanical properties with low sheet resistance, by controlling the AgNWs accept ratios, ink composition, and processing conditions. The nanowire network of transparent films agrees with the 2D percolation law. The film transmittance values at 550 nm are coping with a reference ITO film. Sheet resistance and haze values are suitable for flexible electronic applications. We fabricate transparent flexible film using a low-cost processing technique.

  5. Performance improvement in flexible polymer solar cells based on modified silver nanowire electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Danbei; Zhou, Weixin; Liu, Huan; Ma, Yanwen; Zhang, Hongmei

    2016-08-01

    In this work, an efficient flexible polymer solar cell was achieved by controlling the UV-ozone treatment time of silver nanowires (Ag NWs) used in the electrode and combined with other modification materials. Through optimizing the time of UV-ozone treatment, it is shown that Ag NWs electrode treated by UV-ozone for 10 s improves the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device based on the blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT): [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) from 0.76% to 1.34%. After treatment by UV-ozone, Ag NWs electrodes exhibit several promising characteristics, including high optical transparency, low sheet resistance and superior surface work function. As a consequence, the performance of devices utilizing 10 s UV-ozone-treated Ag NWs with PEDOT:PSS or MoO3 as composite anode showed higher PCEs of 2.77% (2.73%) compared with that for Ag NW electrodes without UV-ozone treatment. In addition, a PCE of 5.97% in flexible polymer solar cells based on poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b0]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl](PBDTTT-EFT):[6, 6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as a photoactive layer was obtained.

  6. Direct stamping of silver nanoparticles toward residue-free thick electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiseok; Wubs, Kevin; Bae, Byeong-Soo; Kim, Woo Soo

    2012-06-01

    Direct stamping of functional materials has been developed for cost-effective and process-effective manufacturing of nano/micro patterns. However, there remain several challenging issues like the perfect removal of the residual layer and realization of high aspect ratio. We have demonstrated facile fabrication of flexible strain sensors that have microscale thick interdigitated capacitors with no residual layer by a simple direct stamping with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Polyurethane (PU) prepolymer was utilized as an adhesive layer to transfer AgNPs more efficiently during the separation step of the flexible stamp from directly stamped AgNPs. Scanning electron microscopy images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed residue-free transfer of microscale thick interdigitated electrodes onto two different flexible substrates (elastomeric and brittle) for the application to highly sensitive strain sensors.

  7. Low temperature processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells employing silver nanowires as top electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Fushan; Yang, Kaiyu; Veeramalai, Chandrasekar Perumal; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we reported a low temperature processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell employing silver nanowires as the top electrode and ZnO nanoparticles as the electron transport layer. The CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite was grown as the light absorber via two-step spin-coating technique. The as-fabricated perovskite solar cell exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 9.21% with short circuit current density of 19.75 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage of 1.02, and fill factor value of 0.457. The solar cell's performance showed negligible difference between the forward and reverse bias scan. This work paves a way for realizing low cost solution processable solar cells.

  8. Solution-processed parallel tandem polymer solar cells using silver nanowires as intermediate electrode.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Kubis, Peter; Li, Ning; Przybilla, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard; Stubhan, Tobias; Ameri, Tayebeh; Butz, Benjamin; Spiecker, Erdmann; Forberich, Karen; Brabec, Christoph J

    2014-12-23

    Tandem architecture is the most relevant concept to overcome the efficiency limit of single-junction photovoltaic solar cells. Series-connected tandem polymer solar cells (PSCs) have advanced rapidly during the past decade. In contrast, the development of parallel-connected tandem cells is lagging far behind due to the big challenge in establishing an efficient interlayer with high transparency and high in-plane conductivity. Here, we report all-solution fabrication of parallel tandem PSCs using silver nanowires as intermediate charge collecting electrode. Through a rational interface design, a robust interlayer is established, enabling the efficient extraction and transport of electrons from subcells. The resulting parallel tandem cells exhibit high fill factors of ∼60% and enhanced current densities which are identical to the sum of the current densities of the subcells. These results suggest that solution-processed parallel tandem configuration provides an alternative avenue toward high performance photovoltaic devices.

  9. Intrinsically stretchable transparent electrodes based on silver-nanowire-crosslinked-polyacrylate composites.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weili; Niu, Xiaofan; Li, Lu; Yun, Sungryul; Yu, Zhibin; Pei, Qibing

    2012-08-31

    Stretchable transparent composites have been synthesized consisting of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network embedded in the surface layer of a crosslinked poly(acrylate) matrix. The interpenetrating networks of AgNWs and the crosslinked polymer matrix lead to high surface conductivity, high transparency, and rubbery elasticity. The presence of carboxylic acid groups on the polymer chains enhances the bonding between AgNWs and the polymer matrix, and further increases the stretchability of the composites. The sheet resistance of the composite electrode increases by only 2.3 times at 50% strain. Repeated stretching to 50% strain and relaxation only causes a small increase of the sheet resistance after 600 cycles. The morphology of the composites during reversible stretching and relaxation has been investigated to expound the conductivity changes.

  10. Intrinsically stretchable transparent electrodes based on silver-nanowire-crosslinked-polyacrylate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weili; Niu, Xiaofan; Li, Lu; Yun, Sungryul; Yu, Zhibin; Pei, Qibing

    2012-08-01

    Stretchable transparent composites have been synthesized consisting of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network embedded in the surface layer of a crosslinked poly(acrylate) matrix. The interpenetrating networks of AgNWs and the crosslinked polymer matrix lead to high surface conductivity, high transparency, and rubbery elasticity. The presence of carboxylic acid groups on the polymer chains enhances the bonding between AgNWs and the polymer matrix, and further increases the stretchability of the composites. The sheet resistance of the composite electrode increases by only 2.3 times at 50% strain. Repeated stretching to 50% strain and relaxation only causes a small increase of the sheet resistance after 600 cycles. The morphology of the composites during reversible stretching and relaxation has been investigated to expound the conductivity changes.

  11. Efficient electroreduction of CO2 on bulk silver electrode in aqueous solution via the inhibition of hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Fengjiao; Xiong, Mubing; Jia, Falong; Zhang, Lizhi

    2017-03-01

    Electrochemical CO2 reduction provides a desirable pathway to convert greenhouse gas into useful chemicals. It is a great challenge to reduce CO2 efficiently in aqueous solution, especially on commercial bulk metal electrodes. Here, we report substantial improvement in CO2 reduction on bulk silver electrode through the introduction of ionic surfactant in aqueous electrolyte. The hydrogen evolution on the electrode surface is greatly suppressed by the surfactant, while the catalytic ability of silver towards CO2 reduction is maintained. The Faradaic efficiency for CO is greatly enhanced from 50% to 95% after the addition of this low-cost surfactant. This study may provide new pathways towards efficient CO2 reduction through the inhibition of proton reduction.

  12. Large-size, high-uniformity, random silver nanowire networks as transparent electrodes for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shouyi; Ouyang, Zi; Jia, Baohua; Gu, Min

    2013-05-06

    Metal nanowire networks are emerging as next generation transparent electrodes for photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate the application of random silver nanowire networks as the top electrode on crystalline silicon wafer solar cells. The dependence of transmittance and sheet resistance on the surface coverage is measured. Superior optical and electrical properties are observed due to the large-size, highly-uniform nature of these networks. When applying the nanowire networks on the solar cells with an optimized two-step annealing process, we achieved as large as 19% enhancement on the energy conversion efficiency. The detailed analysis reveals that the enhancement is mainly caused by the improved electrical properties of the solar cells due to the silver nanowire networks. Our result reveals that this technology is a promising alternative transparent electrode technology for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

  13. A highly sensitive and flexible pressure sensor with electrodes and elastomeric interlayer containing silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Jiu, Jinting; Nogi, Masaya; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Koga, Hirotaka; He, Peng; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2015-02-21

    The next-generation application of pressure sensors is gradually being extended to include electronic artificial skin (e-skin), wearable devices, humanoid robotics and smart prosthetics. In these advanced applications, high sensing capability is an essential feature for high performance. Although surface patterning treatments and some special elastomeric interlayers have been applied to improve sensitivity, the process is complex and this inevitably raises the cost and is an obstacle to large-scale production. In the present study a simple printing process without complex patterning has been used for constructing the sensor, and an interlayer is employed comprising elastomeric composites filled with silver nanowires. By increasing the relative permittivity, εr, of the composite interlayer induced by compression at high nanowire concentration, it has been possible to achieve a maximum sensitivity of 5.54 kPa(-1). The improvement in sensitivity did not sacrifice or undermine the other features of the sensor. Thanks to the silver nanowire electrodes, the sensor is flexible and stable after 200 cycles at a bending radius of 2 mm, and exhibits outstanding reproducibility without hysteresis under similar pressure pulses. The sensor has been readily integrated onto an adhesive bandage and has been successful in detecting human movements. In addition to measuring pressure in direct contact, non-contact pressures such as air flow can also be detected.

  14. Using Silver Nano-Particle Ink in Electrode Fabrication of High Frequency Copolymer Ultrasonic Transducers: Modeling and Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Adit; Wagle, Sanat; Jacobsen, Svein; Melandsø, Frank

    2015-01-01

    High frequency polymer-based ultrasonic transducers are produced with electrodes thicknesses typical for printed electrodes obtained from silver (Ag) nano-particle inks. An analytical three-port network is used to study the acoustic effects imposed by a thick electrode in a typical layered transducer configuration. Results from the network model are compared to experimental findings for the implemented transducer configuration, to obtain a better understanding of acoustical effects caused by the additional printed mass loading. The proposed investigation might be supportive of identification of suitable electrode-depositing methods. It is also believed to be useful as a feasibility study for printed Ag-based electrodes in high frequency transducers, which may reduce both the cost and production complexity of these devices. PMID:25903552

  15. Silver Nanowire Transparent Conductive Electrodes for High-Efficiency III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Munsik; Jin, Won-Yong; Jun Jeong, Hyeon; Jeong, Mun Seok; Kang, Jae-Wook; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been successfully demonstrated to function as next-generation transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) in organic semiconductor devices owing to their figures of merit, including high optical transmittance, low sheet resistance, flexibility, and low-cost processing. In this article, high-quality, solution-processed AgNWs with an excellent optical transmittance of 96.5% at 450 nm and a low sheet resistance of 11.7 Ω/sq were demonstrated as TCEs in inorganic III-nitride LEDs. The transmission line model applied to the AgNW contact to p-GaN showed that near ohmic contact with a specific contact resistance of ~10−3 Ωcm2 was obtained. The contact resistance had a strong bias-voltage (or current-density) dependence: namely, field-enhanced ohmic contact. LEDs fabricated with AgNW electrodes exhibited a 56% reduction in series resistance, 56.5% brighter output power, a 67.5% reduction in efficiency droop, and a approximately 30% longer current spreading length compared to LEDs fabricated with reference TCEs. In addition to the cost reduction, the observed improvements in device performance suggest that the AgNWs are promising for application as next-generation TCEs, to realise brighter, larger-area, cost-competitive inorganic III-nitride light emitters. PMID:26333768

  16. Optimization of silver nanowire-based transparent electrodes: effects of density, size and thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrange, M.; Langley, D. P.; Giusti, G.; Jiménez, C.; Bréchet, Y.; Bellet, D.

    2015-10-01

    Silver nanowire (AgNW) networks are efficient as flexible transparent electrodes, and are cheaper to fabricate than ITO (Indium Tin Oxide). Hence they are a serious competitor as an alternative to ITO in many applications such as solar cells, OLEDs, transparent heaters. Electrical and optical properties of AgNW networks deposited on glass are investigated in this study and an efficient method to optimize them is proposed. This paper relates network density, nanowire dimensions and thermal annealing directly to the physical properties of the nanowire networksusing original physical models. A fair agreement is found between experimental data and the proposed models. Moreover thermal stability of the nanowires is a key issue in thermal optimization of such networks and needs to be studied. In this work the impact of these four parameters on the networks physical properties are thoroughly investigated via in situ measurements and modelling, such a method being also applicable to other metallic nanowire networks. We demonstrate that this approach enables the optimization of both optical and electrical properties through modification of the junction resistance by thermal annealing, and a suitable choice of nanowire dimensions and network density. This work reports excellent optical and electrical properties of electrodes fabricated from AgNW networks with a transmittance T = 89.2% (at 550 nm) and a sheet resistance of Rs = 2.9 Ω □-1, leading to the highest reported figure of merit.

  17. Optimization of silver nanowire-based transparent electrodes: effects of density, size and thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Lagrange, M; Langley, D P; Giusti, G; Jiménez, C; Bréchet, Y; Bellet, D

    2015-11-07

    Silver nanowire (AgNW) networks are efficient as flexible transparent electrodes, and are cheaper to fabricate than ITO (Indium Tin Oxide). Hence they are a serious competitor as an alternative to ITO in many applications such as solar cells, OLEDs, transparent heaters. Electrical and optical properties of AgNW networks deposited on glass are investigated in this study and an efficient method to optimize them is proposed. This paper relates network density, nanowire dimensions and thermal annealing directly to the physical properties of the nanowire networksusing original physical models. A fair agreement is found between experimental data and the proposed models. Moreover thermal stability of the nanowires is a key issue in thermal optimization of such networks and needs to be studied. In this work the impact of these four parameters on the networks physical properties are thoroughly investigated via in situ measurements and modelling, such a method being also applicable to other metallic nanowire networks. We demonstrate that this approach enables the optimization of both optical and electrical properties through modification of the junction resistance by thermal annealing, and a suitable choice of nanowire dimensions and network density. This work reports excellent optical and electrical properties of electrodes fabricated from AgNW networks with a transmittance T = 89.2% (at 550 nm) and a sheet resistance of Rs = 2.9 Ω □(-1), leading to the highest reported figure of merit.

  18. High-Performance Silver Window Electrodes for Top-Illuminated Organic Photovoltaics Using an Organo-molybdenum Oxide Bronze Interlayer.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Martin S; Walker, Marc; Hatton, Ross A

    2016-05-18

    We report an organo-molybdenumn oxide bronze that enables the fabrication of high-performance silver window electrodes for top-illuminated solution processed organic photovoltaics without complicating the process of device fabrication. This hybrid material combines the function of wide-band-gap interlayer for efficient hole extraction with the role of metal electrode seed layer, enabling the fabrication of highly transparent, low-sheet-resistance silver window electrodes. Additionally it is also processed from ethanol, which ensures orthogonality with a large range of solution processed organic semiconductors. The key organic component is the low cost small molecule 3-mercaptopropionic acid, which (i) promotes metal film formation and imparts robustness at low metal thickness, (ii) reduces the contact resistance at the Ag/molybdenumn oxide bronze interface, (iii) and greatly improves the film forming properties. Silver electrodes with a thickness of 8 nm deposited by simple vacuum evaporation onto this hybrid interlayer have a sheet resistance as low as 9.7 Ohms per square and mean transparency ∼80% over the wavelength range 400-900 nm without the aid of an antireflecting layer, which makes them well-matched to the needs of organic photovoltaics and applicable to perovskite photovoltaics. The application of this hybrid material is demonstrated in two types of top-illuminated organic photovoltaic devices.

  19. Development of Silver-Free Silicon Photovoltaic Solar Cells with All-Aluminum Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Cheng

    To date, the most popular and dominant material for commercial solar cells is crystalline silicon (or wafer-Si). It has the highest cell efficiency and cell lifetime out of all commercial solar cells. Although the potential of crystalline-Si solar cells in supplying energy demands is enormous, their future growth will likely be constrained by two major bottlenecks. The first is the high electricity input to produce crystalline-Si solar cells and modules, and the second is the limited supply of silver (Ag) reserves. These bottlenecks prevent crystalline-Si solar cells from reaching terawatt-scale deployment, which means the electricity produced by crystalline-Si solar cells would never fulfill a noticeable portion of our energy demands in the future. In order to solve the issue of Ag limitation for the front metal grid, aluminum (Al) electroplating has been developed as an alternative metallization technique in the fabrication of crystalline-Si solar cells. The plating is carried out in a near-room-temperature ionic liquid by means of galvanostatic electrolysis. It has been found that dense, adherent Al deposits with resistivity in the high 10--6 Ω-cm range can be reproducibly obtained directly on Si substrates and nickel seed layers. An all-Al Si solar cell, with an electroplated Al front electrode and a screen-printed Al back electrode, has been successfully demonstrated based on commercial p-type monocrystalline-Si solar cells, and its efficiency is approaching 15%. Further optimization of the cell fabrication process, in particular a suitable patterning technique for the front silicon nitride layer, is expected to increase the efficiency of the cell to ~18%. This shows the potential of Al electroplating in cell metallization is promising and replacing Ag with Al as the front finger electrode is feasible.

  20. Overcoming the limitations of silver nanowire electrodes for light emitting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dustin Yuan

    nanowires. This development of a thermally stable AgNW based substrate is critical for the future of flexible OLEDs, as both polymers and AgNWs are unstable at elevated temperatures required for certain OLED processing. However, at the time publication, no solutions existed for flexible OLED substrates simultaneously having thermal stability in excess of 230 °C for more than a few minutes while maintaining a smooth surface for subsequent device fabrication. The thermally stable silver nanowires developed in this work are able to withstand temperatures of 500 °C in ramping tests, and when integrated with a thermally stable polymer matrix, withstand temperatures of 300 °C for at least 6 hours, representing an increase in allowable processing temperatures of 70 °C for several hours longer. Resulting polymer light emitting devices (PLEDs) requiring high temperature processing fabricated on this thermally stable exhibit comparable performance to the same devices fabricated on ITO, validating its compatibility for integration in traditional process flows, and validity for use in extreme processing conditions. Secondly, the aforementioned method is applied to understanding the electrical stability of silver nanowires. At the time of publication, previous works on the electrical failure of silver nanowires centered on the observation of failure under current flow, without a solution offered for how to mitigate the phenomenon. However, because the underlying purpose of these electrodes is to transport current, providing a solution for the failure flow is paramount to the success of AgNWs in future commercial applications. The importance of the development of this solution cannot be understated, especially in light of the fact that silver nanowires have been shown to fail under electrical stresses below typical operating conditions of various optoelectronic devices. The same technique mentioned previously can be leveraged for electrically stable silver nanowire networks, which

  1. A highly sensitive and flexible pressure sensor with electrodes and elastomeric interlayer containing silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Jiu, Jinting; Nogi, Masaya; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Koga, Hirotaka; He, Peng; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2015-02-01

    The next-generation application of pressure sensors is gradually being extended to include electronic artificial skin (e-skin), wearable devices, humanoid robotics and smart prosthetics. In these advanced applications, high sensing capability is an essential feature for high performance. Although surface patterning treatments and some special elastomeric interlayers have been applied to improve sensitivity, the process is complex and this inevitably raises the cost and is an obstacle to large-scale production. In the present study a simple printing process without complex patterning has been used for constructing the sensor, and an interlayer is employed comprising elastomeric composites filled with silver nanowires. By increasing the relative permittivity, εr, of the composite interlayer induced by compression at high nanowire concentration, it has been possible to achieve a maximum sensitivity of 5.54 kPa-1. The improvement in sensitivity did not sacrifice or undermine the other features of the sensor. Thanks to the silver nanowire electrodes, the sensor is flexible and stable after 200 cycles at a bending radius of 2 mm, and exhibits outstanding reproducibility without hysteresis under similar pressure pulses. The sensor has been readily integrated onto an adhesive bandage and has been successful in detecting human movements. In addition to measuring pressure in direct contact, non-contact pressures such as air flow can also be detected.The next-generation application of pressure sensors is gradually being extended to include electronic artificial skin (e-skin), wearable devices, humanoid robotics and smart prosthetics. In these advanced applications, high sensing capability is an essential feature for high performance. Although surface patterning treatments and some special elastomeric interlayers have been applied to improve sensitivity, the process is complex and this inevitably raises the cost and is an obstacle to large-scale production. In the present

  2. Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction of Lead Monolayers at a Silver (111) and Gold (111) Electrode/Electrolyte Interface.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-12

    and electronic properties of underpotentially deposited (UPD) layers on single crystal electrodes have been explored by a number of investigators...of the reversible Nernst potential at which bulk deposition occurs. This first stage of deposition has been termed underpotential deposition (UPD...potentials (150 mV for lead on silver and 400 mV for gold) between the potential at which the " underpotential deposition " occurs and the potential for

  3. Towards combined electrochemistry and surface-enhanced resonance Raman of heme proteins: Improvement of diffusion electrochemistry of cytochrome c at silver electrodes chemically modified with 4-mercaptopyridine.

    PubMed

    Millo, Diego; Ranieri, Antonio; Koot, Wynanda; Gooijer, Cees; van der Zwan, Gert

    2006-08-01

    To date, a successful combination of surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) and electrochemistry to study heme proteins is inhibited by the problems raised by the prerequisite to use silver as electrode metal. This paper indicates an approach to overcome these problems. It describes a quick and reproducible procedure to prepare silver electrodes chemically modified with 4-mercaptopyridine suitable to perform diffusion electrochemistry of cytochrome c (cyt c). The method involves the employment of a mechanical and a chemical treatment and avoids the use of alumina slurries and any electrochemical pretreatment. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to test the electrochemical response of cyt c, and the CV signals were found identical with those obtained on gold electrodes under the same experimental conditions. Compared to previous literature, a significant improvement of the CV signal of cyt c at silver electrodes was achieved. Preliminary results show that this treatment can be also successfully employed for the preparation of SERRS-active electrodes.

  4. Lateral-crack-free, buckled, inkjet-printed silver electrodes on highly pre-stretched elastomeric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaemyon; Chung, Seungjun; Song, Hyunsoo; Kim, Sangwoo; Hong, Yongtaek

    2013-03-01

    We report the formation of lateral-crack-free silver electrodes on highly pre-stretched poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates using the inkjet-printing method followed by an annealing process under the pre-stretched state. Due to Poisson's effect, cracks are easily obtained in the direction lateral to the pre-stretching and releasing directions when the highly pre-stretched substrate is released after the electrode formation. In our method, however, Poisson's effect is suppressed significantly from the PDMS thermal expansion perpendicular to the pre-stretched direction during the annealing process. In order to prevent the formation of a lateral crack, the annealing temperature needs to be optimized for each pre-stretching condition. We modelled their relationship using Poisson's ratios and thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate and silver materials. Our measurement results showed consistent result with the simulation. The resistance of the fabricated silver electrodes negligibly changes under up to 17% strain and even after 1000 time stretching cycle tests.

  5. Photocatalytic, antimicrobial activities of biogenic silver nanoparticles and electrochemical degradation of water soluble dyes at glassy carbon/silver modified past electrode using buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zia Ul Haq; Khan, Amjad; Shah, Afzal; Chen, Yongmei; Wan, Pingyu; Khan, Arif Ullah; Tahir, Kamran; Muhamma, Nawshad; Khan, Faheem Ullah; Shah, Hidayat Ullah

    2016-03-01

    In the present research work a novel, nontoxic and ecofriendly procedure was developed for the green synthesis of silver nano particle (AgNPs) using Caruluma edulis (C. edulis) extract act as reductant as well as stabilizer agents. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The small and spherical sizes of AgNPs were conformed from high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis and were found in the range of 2-10nm, which were highly dispersion without any aggregation. The crystalline structure of AgNPs was conformed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. For the elemental composition EDX was used and FTIR helped to determine the type of organic compounds in the extract. The potential electrochemical property of modified silver electrode was also studied. The AgNPs showed prominent antibacterial motion with MIC values of 125 μg/mL against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus while 250 μg/mL against Escherichia coli. High cell constituents' release was exhibited by B. subtilis with 2 × MIC value of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles also showed significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This research would have an important implication for the synthesis of more efficient antimicrobial and antioxidant agent. The AgNP modified electrode (GC/AgNPs) exhibited an excellent electro-catalytic activity toward the redox reaction of phenolic compounds. The AgNPs were evaluated for electrochemical degradation of bromothymol blue (BTB) dyes which showed a significant activity. From the strong reductive properties it is obvious that AgNPs can be used in water sanitization and converting some organic perilous in to non-hazardous materials. The AgNPs showed potential applications in the field of electro chemistry, sensor, catalyst, nano-devices and medical.

  6. Enhanced electromechanical response of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) actuators by various Nafion roughening levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanjie; Liu, Jiayu; Chen, Hualing

    2016-04-01

    Recently, Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs), becoming an increasingly popular material, are used as soft actuators for its inherent properties of light weight, flexibility, softness, especial efficient transformation from electrical energy to mechanical energy with large bending strain response to low activation voltage. This paper mainly focuses on the suitable conditions for surface-roughening of Nafion 117 membrane. The surfaces of Nafion membrane were pretreated and optimized by sandblasting, mainly considering the change of sandblasting time and powder size. The modified surfaces are characterized in terms of their topography from the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and SEM. Then, the detailed change in surface and interfacial electrodes and performances for IPMC actuators prepared by the roughened membranes, were measured and discussed. The results show that an optimized roughening condition with large interface area (capacitance) can effectively increases the electromechanical responses of IPMC.

  7. Dry writing of highly conductive electrodes on papers by using silver nanoparticle-graphene hybrid pencils.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Ho; Park, Myung-Joo; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2017-01-05

    The development of paper electronics would enable realization of extremely cheap devices for portable, disposable, and environmentally-benign electronics. Here, we propose a simple dry-writing tool similar to a pencil, which can be used to draw electrically conducting lines on paper for use in paper-based electronic devices. The fabricated pencil is composed of silver nanoparticles decorated on graphene layers to construct layered hybrid nanostructures. This pencil can draw highly conductive lines that are flexible and foldable on conventional papers. Electrodes drawn using this pencil on conventional copy paper are stable during repetitive mechanical folding and highly resistant to moisture/chemicals. This pencil can draw a conductive line where its resistance can be tuned by changing the amount of nanoparticles. A nonvolatile memory device is realized on papers by hand written lines with different resistance. All memory elements are composed of carbons on papers, so complete data security can be achieved by burning the memory papers. This work will provide a new opportunity to fabricate electronic devices on real papers with good conductivity as well as robust mechanical/chemical stability.

  8. Improved Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes based on Silver Nanowire Networks by a Simple Sunlight Illumination Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Pengfei; Yang, Liu; Chang, Cheng; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks have attracted wide attention as transparent electrodes for emerging flexible optoelectronics. However, the sheet resistance is greatly limited by large wire-to-wire contact resistances. Here, we propose a simple sunlight illumination approach to remarkably improve their electrical conductivity without any significant degradation of the light transmittance. Because the power density is extremely low (0.1 W/cm2, 1-Sun), only slight welding between Ag NWs has been observed. Despite this, a sheet resistance of <20 Ω/sq and transmittance of ~87% at wavelength of 550 nm as well as excellent mechanical flexibility have still been achieved for Ag NW networks after sunlight illumination for 1 hour or longer, which are significant upgrades over those of ITO. Slight plasmonic welding together with the associated self-limiting effect has been investigated by numerical simulations and further verified experimentally through varied solar concentrations. Due to the reduced resistance, high-performance transparent film heaters as well as efficient defrosters have been demonstrated, which are superior to the previously-reported Ag NW based film heaters. Since the sunlight is environmentally friendly and easily available, sophisticated or expensive facilities are not necessary. Our findings are particularly meaningful and show enormous potential for outdoor applications. PMID:28169343

  9. Capillary-Force-Induced Cold Welding in Silver-Nanowire-Based Flexible Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Jianming; Gao, Heng; Wang, Yan; Liu, Qingxian; Huang, Siya; Guo, Chuan Fei; Ren, Zhifeng

    2017-02-08

    Silver nanowire (AgNW) films have been studied as the most promising flexible transparent electrodes for flexible photoelectronics. The wire-wire junction resistance in the AgNW film is a critical parameter to the electrical performance, and several techniques of nanowelding or soldering have been reported to reduce the wire-wire junction resistance. However, these methods require either specific facilities, or additional materials as the "solder", and often have adverse effects to the AgNW film or substrate. In this study, we show that at the nanoscale, capillary force is a powerful driving force that can effectively cause self-limited cold welding of the wire-wire junction for AgNWs. The capillary-force-induced welding can be simply achieved by applying moisture on the AgNW film, without any technical support like the addition of materials or the use of specific facilities. The moisture-treated AgNW films exhibit a significant decrease in sheet resistance, but negligible changes in transparency. We have also demonstrated that this method is effective to heal damaged AgNW films of wearable electronics and can be conveniently performed not only indoors but also outdoors where technical support is often unavailable. The capillary-force-based method may also be useful in the welding of other metal NWs, the fabrication of nanostructures, and smart assemblies for versatile flexible optoelectronic applications.

  10. Improved Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes based on Silver Nanowire Networks by a Simple Sunlight Illumination Approach.

    PubMed

    Kou, Pengfei; Yang, Liu; Chang, Cheng; He, Sailing

    2017-02-07

    Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks have attracted wide attention as transparent electrodes for emerging flexible optoelectronics. However, the sheet resistance is greatly limited by large wire-to-wire contact resistances. Here, we propose a simple sunlight illumination approach to remarkably improve their electrical conductivity without any significant degradation of the light transmittance. Because the power density is extremely low (0.1 W/cm(2), 1-Sun), only slight welding between Ag NWs has been observed. Despite this, a sheet resistance of <20 Ω/sq and transmittance of ~87% at wavelength of 550 nm as well as excellent mechanical flexibility have still been achieved for Ag NW networks after sunlight illumination for 1 hour or longer, which are significant upgrades over those of ITO. Slight plasmonic welding together with the associated self-limiting effect has been investigated by numerical simulations and further verified experimentally through varied solar concentrations. Due to the reduced resistance, high-performance transparent film heaters as well as efficient defrosters have been demonstrated, which are superior to the previously-reported Ag NW based film heaters. Since the sunlight is environmentally friendly and easily available, sophisticated or expensive facilities are not necessary. Our findings are particularly meaningful and show enormous potential for outdoor applications.

  11. Improved Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes based on Silver Nanowire Networks by a Simple Sunlight Illumination Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Pengfei; Yang, Liu; Chang, Cheng; He, Sailing

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks have attracted wide attention as transparent electrodes for emerging flexible optoelectronics. However, the sheet resistance is greatly limited by large wire-to-wire contact resistances. Here, we propose a simple sunlight illumination approach to remarkably improve their electrical conductivity without any significant degradation of the light transmittance. Because the power density is extremely low (0.1 W/cm2, 1-Sun), only slight welding between Ag NWs has been observed. Despite this, a sheet resistance of <20 Ω/sq and transmittance of ~87% at wavelength of 550 nm as well as excellent mechanical flexibility have still been achieved for Ag NW networks after sunlight illumination for 1 hour or longer, which are significant upgrades over those of ITO. Slight plasmonic welding together with the associated self-limiting effect has been investigated by numerical simulations and further verified experimentally through varied solar concentrations. Due to the reduced resistance, high-performance transparent film heaters as well as efficient defrosters have been demonstrated, which are superior to the previously-reported Ag NW based film heaters. Since the sunlight is environmentally friendly and easily available, sophisticated or expensive facilities are not necessary. Our findings are particularly meaningful and show enormous potential for outdoor applications.

  12. Silver nanowire composite thin films as transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se₂/ZnS thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Yu; Liu, Ye-Xiang

    2014-05-20

    Solution processed silver nanowire indium-tin oxide nanoparticle (AgNW-ITONP) composite thin films were successfully applied as the transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ (CIGS) thin film solar cells with ZnS buffer layers. Properties of the AgNW-ITONP thin film and its effects on performance of CIGS/ZnS thin film solar cells were studied. Compared with the traditional sputtered ITO electrodes, the AgNW-ITONP thin films show comparable optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the AgNW-ITONP thin film causes no physical damage to the adjacent surface layer and does not need high temperature annealing, which makes it very suitable to use as transparent conductive layers for heat or sputtering damage-sensitive optoelectronic devices. By using AgNW-ITONP electrodes, the required thickness of the ZnS buffer layers for CIGS thin film solar cells was greatly decreased.

  13. The effect of rod orientation on electrical anisotropy in silver nanowire networks for ultra-transparent electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Thomas; Neuhaus, Raphael; Roth, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional networks made of metal nanowires are excellent paradigms for the experimental observation of electrical percolation caused by continuous jackstraw-like physical pathways. Such systems became very interesting as alternative material in transparent electrodes, which are fundamental components in display devices. This work presents the experimental characterization of low-haze and ultra-transparent electrodes based on silver nanowires. The films are created by dip-coating, a feasible and scalable liquid film coating technique. We have found dominant alignment of the silver nanowires in withdrawal direction. The impact of this structural anisotropy on electrical anisotropy becomes more pronounced for low area coverage. The rod alignment does not influence the technical usability of the films as significant electrical anisotropy occurs only at optical transmission higher than 99 %. For films with lower transmission, electrical anisotropy becomes negligible. In addition to the experimental work, we have carried out computational studies in order to explain our findings further and compare them to our experiments and previous literature. This paper presents the first experimental observation of electrical anisotropy in two-dimensional silver nanowire networks close at the percolation threshold. PMID:27677947

  14. Silver-Copper Nanoalloy Catalyst Layer for Bifunctional Air Electrodes in Alkaline Media.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Fuyi; Jin, Yachao; Zhang, Nan; Johnston, Roy L

    2015-08-19

    A carbon-free and binder-free catalyst layer composed of a Ag-Cu nanoalloy on Ni foam was used as the air cathode in a zinc-air battery for the first time. The Ag-Cu catalyst was prepared using pulsed laser deposition. The structures of the catalysts were found to consist of crystalline Ag-Cu nanoalloy particles with an average size of 2.58 nm embedded in amorphous Cu films. As observed in the X-ray photoelectron spectra, the Ag 3d core levels shifted to higher binding energies, whereas the Cu 2p core levels shifted to lower binding energies, indicating alloying of the silver and copper. Rotating disk electrode measurements indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeded through a four-electron pathway on the Ag50Cu50 and Ag90Cu10 nanoalloy catalysts in alkaline solution. Moreover, the catalytic activity of Ag50Cu50 in the ORR is more efficient than that of Ag90Cu10. By performing charge and discharge cycling measurements, the Ag50Cu50 catalyst layer was confirmed to have a maximum power density of approximately 86.3 mW cm(-2) and an acceptable cell voltage at 0.863 V for current densities up to 100 mA cm(-2) in primary zinc-air batteries. In addition, a round-trip efficiency of approximately 50% at a current density of 20 mA cm(-2) was also obtained in the test.

  15. Rheology of cellulose nanofibrils/silver nanowires suspension for the production of transparent and conductive electrodes by screen printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeng, Fanny; Denneulin, Aurore; Reverdy-Bruas, Nadège; Krosnicki, Guillaume; Bras, Julien

    2017-02-01

    With the aim of processing silver nanowires-based electrodes using screen printing process, this study proposes to evaluate the suitability of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) as a thickening agent for providing a high viscosity silver nanowires screen printing ink. Rheology of CNF suspension has been specifically investigated according to screen printing process requirements using both rotational and oscillating rheology. It has been found that CNF indeed act as a thickener and stabilizer for the silver nanowires suspension. However, the solid dominant visco-elastic behavior of the CNF suspension was not suitable for screen printing and leads to defects within the printed film. CNF visco-elastic properties were modified by adding hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) to the suspension. Homogeneous transparent conductive layers have been obtained when using CNF-HPMC as a matrix for silver nanowires. The screen printed layers were characterized and performances of Rsh = 12 ± 5 Ω□-1 and T%500nm = 74,8% were achieved without any additional post-treatment to the film.

  16. Synthesis of silver nanowires using hydrothermal technique for flexible transparent electrode application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijila, C. V. Mary; Rahman, K. K. Arsina; Parvathy, N. S.; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2016-05-01

    Transparent conducting films are becoming increasingly interesting because of their applications in electronics industry such as their use in solar energy applications. In this work silver nanowires were synthesized using solvothermal method by reducing silver nitrate and adding sodium chloride for assembling silver into nanowires. Absorption spectra of nanowires in the form of a dispersion in deionized water, AFM and SEM images confirm the nanowire formation. Solution of nanowire was coated over PET films to obtain transparent conducting films.

  17. Application of renewable silver amalgam annular band electrode to voltammetric determination of vitamins C, B1 and B2.

    PubMed

    Baś, Bogusław; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Górski, Łukasz

    2011-05-30

    In this work, the design and results of applying silver liquid amalgam film-modified silver solid amalgam annular band electrode (AgLAF-AgSAE), refreshed before each measurement, to voltammetric determination of vitamins C (VC), B(1) (VB1) and B(2) (VB2) are presented. The method is based on adsorptive accumulation of analytes at the AgLAF-AgSAE in a phosphate buffer (VB1), phosphate buffer with Triton X-100 (VB2) and an alkaline borate buffer with Triton X-100 (VC). The analytical parameters and procedure of electrode activation were optimized. The calibration graphs obtained for vitamins C, B(1) and B(2) are linear, respectively, for concentration range 0.05-12, 0.01-0.1 and 0.05-3 mg L(-1). The detection limits were calculated and equaled 0.02, 0.003 and 0.009 mg L(-1), while repeatability of the peak current was 2%, 1% and 3%, respectively. These results are comparable with results obtained for polarographic determination of the same vitamins using mercury electrodes. Finally, the AgLAF-AgSAE was applied to the determination of vitamins in pharmaceutical samples and fruit juices with satisfactory results.

  18. The role of graphene formed on silver nanowire transparent conductive electrode in ultra-violet light emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Seula; Min, Kyung Hyun; Chandramohan, S.; Park, Ah Hyun; Lee, Gun Hee; Park, Min; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Myung Jong

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a highly reliable transparent conductive electrode (TCE) that integrates silver nanowires (AgNWs) and high-quality graphene as a protecting layer. Graphene with minimized defects and large graphene domains has been successfully obtained through a facile two-step growth approach. Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) were fabricated with AgNWs or hybrid electrodes where AgNWs were combined with two-step grown graphene (A-2GE) or conventional one-step grown graphene (A-1GE). The device performance and reliability of the UV-LEDs with three different electrodes were compared. The A-2GE offered high figure of merit owing to the excellent UV transmittance and reduced sheet resistance. As a consequence, the UV-LEDs made with A-2GE demonstrated reduced forward voltage, enhanced electroluminescence (EL) intensity, and alleviated efficiency droop. The effects of joule heating and UV light illumination on the electrode stability were also studied. The present findings prove superior performance of the A-2GE under high current injection and continuous operation of UV LED, compared to other electrodes. From our observation, the A-2GE would be a reliable TCE for high power UV-LEDs. PMID:27387274

  19. Selective Light-Induced Patterning of Carbon Nanotube/Silver Nanoparticle Composite To Produce Extremely Flexible Conductive Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Inhyuk; Woo, Kyoohee; Zhong, Zhaoyang; Lee, Eonseok; Kang, Dongwoo; Jeong, Sunho; Choi, Young-Man; Jang, Yunseok; Kwon, Sin; Moon, Jooho

    2017-02-22

    Recently, highly flexible conductive features have been widely demanded for the development of various electronic applications, such as foldable displays, deformable lighting, disposable sensors, and flexible batteries. Herein, we report for the first time a selective photonic sintering-derived, highly reliable patterning approach for creating extremely flexible carbon nanotube (CNT)/silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) composite electrodes that can tolerate severe bending (20 000 cycles at a bending radius of 1 mm). The incorporation of CNTs into a Ag NP film can enhance not only the mechanical stability of electrodes but also the photonic-sintering efficiency when the composite is irradiated by intense pulsed light (IPL). Composite electrodes were patterned on various plastic substrates by a three-step process comprising coating, selective IPL irradiation, and wiping. A composite film selectively exposed to IPL could not be easily wiped from the substrate, because interfusion induced strong adhesion to the underlying polymer substrate. In contrast, a nonirradiated film adhered weakly to the substrate and was easily removed, enabling highly flexible patterned electrodes. The potential of our flexible electrode patterns was clearly demonstrated by fabricating a light-emitting diode circuit and a flexible transparent heater with unimpaired functionality under bending, rolling, and folding.

  20. The role of graphene formed on silver nanowire transparent conductive electrode in ultra-violet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Seula; Min, Kyung Hyun; Chandramohan, S.; Park, Ah Hyun; Lee, Gun Hee; Park, Min; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Myung Jong

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a highly reliable transparent conductive electrode (TCE) that integrates silver nanowires (AgNWs) and high-quality graphene as a protecting layer. Graphene with minimized defects and large graphene domains has been successfully obtained through a facile two-step growth approach. Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) were fabricated with AgNWs or hybrid electrodes where AgNWs were combined with two-step grown graphene (A-2GE) or conventional one-step grown graphene (A-1GE). The device performance and reliability of the UV-LEDs with three different electrodes were compared. The A-2GE offered high figure of merit owing to the excellent UV transmittance and reduced sheet resistance. As a consequence, the UV-LEDs made with A-2GE demonstrated reduced forward voltage, enhanced electroluminescence (EL) intensity, and alleviated efficiency droop. The effects of joule heating and UV light illumination on the electrode stability were also studied. The present findings prove superior performance of the A-2GE under high current injection and continuous operation of UV LED, compared to other electrodes. From our observation, the A-2GE would be a reliable TCE for high power UV-LEDs.

  1. Silver Nanowire-IZO-Conducting Polymer Hybrids for Flexible and Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Ho Jun; Kim, Se Jung; Hwang, Ju Hyun; Shim, Yong Sub; Jung, Sun-Gyu; Park, Young Wook; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2016-10-01

    Solution-processed silver nanowire (AgNW) has been considered as a promising material for next-generation flexible transparent conductive electrodes. However, despite the advantages of AgNWs, some of their intrinsic drawbacks, such as large surface roughness and poor interconnection between wires, limit their practical application in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Herein, we report a high-performance AgNW-based hybrid electrode composed of indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) and poly (3,4-ethylenediowythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS]. The IZO layer protects the underlying AgNWs from oxidation and corrosion and tightly fuses the wires together and to the substrate. The PEDOT:PSS effectively reduces surface roughness and increases the hybrid films’ transmittance. The fabricated electrodes exhibited a low sheet resistance of 5.9 Ωsq‑1 with high transmittance of 86% at 550 nm. The optical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the AgNW-based hybrid films were investigated in detail to determine the structure-property relations, and whether optical or electrical properties could be controlled with variation in each layer’s thickness to satisfy different requirements for different applications. Flexible OLEDs (f-OLEDs) were successfully fabricated on the hybrid electrodes to prove their applicability; their performance was even better than those on commercial indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes.

  2. Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine-Functionalized Graphene as a Conductive Adhesion Promoter and Protective Layer for Silver Nanowire Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jinlei; Liu, Haihui; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xingxiang

    2016-05-31

    For the scalable fabrication of transparent electrodes and optoelectronic devices, excellent adhesion between the conductive films and the substrates is essential. In this work, a novel mussel-inspired polydopamine-functionalized graphene/silver nanowire hybrid nanomaterial for transparent electrodes was fabricated in a facile manner. Graphene oxide (GO) was functionalized and reduced by polydopamine while remaining stable in water without precipitation. It is shown that the polydopamine-functionalized GO (PFGO) film adhered to the substrate much more easily and more uniformly than the GO film. The PFGO film had a sheet resistance of ∼3.46 × 10(8) Ω/sq and a transparency of 78.2%, with excellent thermal and chemical stability; these characteristics are appropriate for antistatic coatings. Further reduced PFGO (RPFGO) as a conductive adhesion promoter and protective layer for the Ag nanowire (AgNW) significantly enhanced the adhesion force between AgNW networks and the substrate. The RPFGO-AgNW electrode was found to have a sheet resistance of 63 Ω/sq and a transparency of 70.5%. Moreover, the long-term stability of the RPFGO-AgNW electrode was greatly enhanced via the effective protection of the AgNW by RPFGO. These solution-processed antistatic coatings and electrodes have tremendous potential in the applications of optoelectronic devices as a result of their low production cost and facile processing.

  3. Silver Nanowire-IZO-Conducting Polymer Hybrids for Flexible and Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ho Jun; Kim, Se Jung; Hwang, Ju Hyun; Shim, Yong Sub; Jung, Sun-Gyu; Park, Young Wook; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed silver nanowire (AgNW) has been considered as a promising material for next-generation flexible transparent conductive electrodes. However, despite the advantages of AgNWs, some of their intrinsic drawbacks, such as large surface roughness and poor interconnection between wires, limit their practical application in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Herein, we report a high-performance AgNW-based hybrid electrode composed of indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) and poly (3,4-ethylenediowythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS]. The IZO layer protects the underlying AgNWs from oxidation and corrosion and tightly fuses the wires together and to the substrate. The PEDOT:PSS effectively reduces surface roughness and increases the hybrid films’ transmittance. The fabricated electrodes exhibited a low sheet resistance of 5.9 Ωsq−1 with high transmittance of 86% at 550 nm. The optical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the AgNW-based hybrid films were investigated in detail to determine the structure-property relations, and whether optical or electrical properties could be controlled with variation in each layer’s thickness to satisfy different requirements for different applications. Flexible OLEDs (f-OLEDs) were successfully fabricated on the hybrid electrodes to prove their applicability; their performance was even better than those on commercial indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. PMID:27703182

  4. The role of graphene formed on silver nanowire transparent conductive electrode in ultra-violet light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Seula; Min, Kyung Hyun; Chandramohan, S; Park, Ah Hyun; Lee, Gun Hee; Park, Min; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Myung Jong

    2016-07-08

    This paper reports a highly reliable transparent conductive electrode (TCE) that integrates silver nanowires (AgNWs) and high-quality graphene as a protecting layer. Graphene with minimized defects and large graphene domains has been successfully obtained through a facile two-step growth approach. Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) were fabricated with AgNWs or hybrid electrodes where AgNWs were combined with two-step grown graphene (A-2GE) or conventional one-step grown graphene (A-1GE). The device performance and reliability of the UV-LEDs with three different electrodes were compared. The A-2GE offered high figure of merit owing to the excellent UV transmittance and reduced sheet resistance. As a consequence, the UV-LEDs made with A-2GE demonstrated reduced forward voltage, enhanced electroluminescence (EL) intensity, and alleviated efficiency droop. The effects of joule heating and UV light illumination on the electrode stability were also studied. The present findings prove superior performance of the A-2GE under high current injection and continuous operation of UV LED, compared to other electrodes. From our observation, the A-2GE would be a reliable TCE for high power UV-LEDs.

  5. From surface roughening to QCD string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Keisuke Jimmy Juge et al.

    2001-05-23

    Surface critical phenomena and the related onset of Goldstone modes represent fundamental properties of the confining flux in Quantum Chromodynamics. New ideas on surface roughening and their implications for lattice studies of quark confinement and string formation are presented. Problems with a simple string description of the large Wilson surface are discussed.

  6. Surface Dynamics and Roughening in Metal Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. H.; Stafford, C. A.; Goldstein, R. E.; Kassubek, F.

    2002-03-01

    Surface phonons and surface self-diffusion of atoms in metal nanowires are investigated in a continuum approach (jellium model). Electron-shell effects in such a system lead to islands of stability: regions in the (R_0,T) plane where arbitrarily long wires are stable with respect to small perturbations, R0 being the mean radius of the wire and T the temperature. We find that inertial dynamics always dominate over diffusion as one approaches the stability boundary. On the stability boundary, the surface of the nanowire becomes rough at any finite temperature, but remains smooth at T=0. The critical exponents describing this roughening transition are different than those for two-dimensional surfaces, due to the different dispersion relation for surface waves. We also find a novel reentrant roughening transition: for certain ranges of R_0, nanowires are stable within a temperature interval T_c1roughening transition at T_c1 is driven by symmetry breaking. For unstable nanowires, their surfaces roughen exponentially, dominated by the maximum instability mode q_m, and finally will be trapped into a state with a permanent deformation if qm R_0>1. Research supported in part by NSF grant DMR0072703 and by an award from Research Corporation.

  7. Voltammetric analysis of ordnance materials. Part 2: A portable digital voltammeter for use with a silver wire working electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, D. A.; Reeve, D. A.; Dickus, R. A.

    1984-12-01

    An inexpensive, portable, digital voltammeter has been designed and built at NWC. The instrument is intended for use with a silver wire working electrode. The voltammeter was built in response to a need on the part of Navy facilities for the monitoring of effluent water from the carbon column cleanup process used to remove propyleneglycoldinitrate from Otto fuel waste water. The instrument may also be used for the monitoring of contaminants such as nitroglycerin, dinitrotoluene, trinitrotoluene and nitroguanidine. This report describes in detail the construction, circuitry, software and operational features of the instrument.

  8. Enhancement of the electrical properties of silver nanowire transparent conductive electrodes by atomic layer deposition coating with zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anh-Tuan; Nguyen, Xuan-Quang; Tran, Duc-Huy; Ngoc Phan, Vu; Duong, Thanh-Tung; Nguyen, Duy-Cuong

    2016-08-19

    Transparent conductive electrodes for applications in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes are important components and require low sheet resistance and high transmittance. Herein, we report an enhancement of the electrical properties of silver (Ag) nanowire networks by coating with zinc oxide using the atomic layer deposition technique. A strong decrease in the sheet resistance of Ag nanowires, namely from 20-40 Ω/□ to 7-15 Ω/□, was observed after coating with ZnO. Ag nanowire electrodes coated with 200-cycle ZnO by atomic layer deposition show the best quality, with a sheet resistance of 11 Ω/□ and transmittance of 75%.

  9. Enhancement of the electrical properties of silver nanowire transparent conductive electrodes by atomic layer deposition coating with zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Anh-Tuan; Nguyen, Xuan-Quang; Tran, Duc-Huy; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Duong, Thanh-Tung; Nguyen, Duy-Cuong

    2016-08-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes for applications in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes are important components and require low sheet resistance and high transmittance. Herein, we report an enhancement of the electrical properties of silver (Ag) nanowire networks by coating with zinc oxide using the atomic layer deposition technique. A strong decrease in the sheet resistance of Ag nanowires, namely from 20-40 Ω/□ to 7-15 Ω/□, was observed after coating with ZnO. Ag nanowire electrodes coated with 200-cycle ZnO by atomic layer deposition show the best quality, with a sheet resistance of 11 Ω/□ and transmittance of 75%.

  10. Effect of surface modifiers on the electrode reactions and conformation of cytochrome c3 adsorbed on a silver electrode.

    PubMed

    Hobara, D; Niki, K; Cotton, T M

    1998-01-01

    Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering and electroreflectance voltammetry were used to investigate the effect of electrode surface modification on the structure and redox properties of cytochrome c3 immobilized on Ag surfaces. It is shown that the redox reactions of cytochrome c3 are more reversible at an 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid modified Ag electrode as compared to a bare metal surface. The heme of cytochrome c3 is in a mixed low and high spin state when adsorbed at the bare electrode, whereas only the low spin form is present on the 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid modified electrode, suggesting that the native conformation is maintained in the latter case. The reduction potential is close to that of the most positive macroscopic potential as determined by electroreflectance spectroscopy. In contrast, the reduction potential as determined by SERRS undergoes a large positive shift in the presence of 4,4'-bipyridine, the magnitude of which is dependent upon the concentration of 4,4'-bipyridine. These results indicate that the effect of the cytochrome c3 interaction with the 4,4'-bipyridine-modified surface is significantly different as compared to its interaction with the 11-mercaptoundecaodoic acid modified surface. Moreover, the results emphasize that electrode modifiers can have dramatically different effects on the redox properties of different proteins. It is well known that 4,4'-bipyridine acts as a redox promoter in the case of cytochrome c, whereas no electrochemical or electroreflectance response was observed in the case of cytochrome c3.

  11. Fabrication of silver nanowires and metal oxide composite transparent electrodes and their application in UV light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xingzhen; Ma, Jiangang; Xu, Haiyang; Wang, Chunliang; Liu, Yichun

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we prepared the silver nanowires (AgNWs)/aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) composite transparent conducting electrodes for n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting-diodes (LEDs) by drop casting AgNW networks and subsequent atomic layer deposition (ALD) of AZO at 150 °C. The contact resistances between AgNWs were dramatically reduced by pre-annealing in the vacuum chamber before the ALD of AZO. In this case, AZO works not only as the conformal passivation layer that protects AgNWs from oxidation, but also as the binding material that improves AgNWs adhesion to substrates. Due to the localized surface plasmons (LSPs) of the AgNWs resonant coupling with the ultraviolet (UV) light emission from the LEDs, a higher UV light extracting efficiency is achieved from LEDs with the AgNWs/AZO composite electrodes in comparison with the conventional AZO electrodes. Additionally, the antireflective nature of random AgNW networks in the composite electrodes caused a broad output light angular distribution, which could be of benefit to certain optoelectronic devices like LEDs and solar cells.

  12. Polyaniline silver nanoparticle coffee waste extracted porous graphene oxide nanocomposite structures as novel electrode material for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundriyal, Poonam; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2017-03-01

    The exploration of new and advanced electrode materials are required in electronic and electrical devices for power storage applications. Also, there has been a continuous endeavour to formulate strategies for extraction of high performance electrode materials from naturally obtained waste products. In this work, we have developed an in situ hybrid nanocomposite from coffee waste extracted porous graphene oxide (CEPG), polyaniline (PANI) and silver nanoparticles (Ag) and have found this novel composite to serve as an efficient electrode material for batteries. The successful interaction among the three phases of the nano-composite i.e. CEPG–PANI–Ag have been thoroughly understood through RAMAN, Fourier transform infrared and x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, morphological studies through field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of the nano-composite demonstrates higher thermal stability up-to a temperature of 495 °C. Further BET studies through nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms confirm the presence of micro/meso and macro-pores in the nanocomposite sample. The cyclic-voltammetry (CV) analysis performed on CEPG–PANI–Ag nanocomposite exhibits a purely faradic behaviour using nickel foam as a current collector thus suggests the prepared nanocomposite as a battery electrode material. The nanocomposite reports a maximum specific capacity of 1428 C g‑1 and excellent cyclic stability up-to 5000 cycles.

  13. Dynamic silver speciation as studied with fluorous-phase ion-selective electrodes: Effect of natural organic matter on the toxicity and speciation of silver.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Maral P S; Gunsolus, Ian L; Pérez De Jesús, Carlos E; Lancaster, Mitchell; Hussein, Kadir; Haynes, Christy L; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2015-12-15

    The widespread application of silver in consumer products and the resulting contamination of natural environments with silver raise questions about the toxicity of Ag(+) in the ecosystem. Natural organic matter, NOM, which is abundant in water supplies, soil, and sediments, can form stable complexes with Ag(+), altering its bioavailability and toxicity. Herein, the extent and kinetics of Ag(+) binding to NOM, matrix effects on Ag(+) binding to NOM, and the effect of NOM on Ag(+) toxicity to Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (assessed by the BacLight viability assay) were quantitatively studied with fluorous-phase Ag(+) ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Our findings show fast kinetics of Ag(+) and NOM binding, weak Ag(+) binding for Suwannee River humic acid, fulvic acid, and aquatic NOM, and stronger Ag(+) binding for Pony Lake fulvic acid and Pahokee Peat humic acid. We quantified the effects of matrix components and pH on Ag(+) binding to NOM, showing that the extent of binding greatly depends on the environmental conditions. The effect of NOM on the toxicity of Ag(+) does not correlate with the extent of Ag(+) binding to NOM, and other forms of silver, such as Ag(+) reduced by NOM, are critical for understanding the effect of NOM on Ag(+) toxicity. This work also shows that fluorous-phase Ag(+) ISEs are effective tools for studying Ag(+) binding to NOM because they can be used in a time-resolved manner to monitor the activity of Ag(+) in situ with high selectivity and without the need for extensive sample preparation.

  14. Silver

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Silver ; CASRN 7440 - 22 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  15. Effects of surface roughening of Nafion 117 on the mechanical and physicochemical properties of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanjie; Zhu, Zicai; Liu, Jiayu; Chang, Longfei; Chen, Hualing

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the surface of a Nafion membrane was roughened by the sandblasting method, mainly considering the change of sandblasting time and powder size. The roughened surfaces were characterized in terms of their topography from the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and SEM. The key surface parameters, such as Sa (the arithmetical mean deviation of the specified surface profile), SSA (the surface area ratio before and after roughening) and the area measurement on the histogram from the CLSM images, were extracted and evaluated from the roughened membranes. Also, the detailed change in surface and interfacial electrodes were measured and discussed together with the surface resistance, equivalent modulus, capacitance and performances of IPMC actuators based on the roughened membranes. The results show that a suitable sandblasting condition, resulting in the decrease in the bending stiffness and the increase in the interface area closely related to the capacitance, can effectively increase the electromechanical responses of IPMCs. Although the surface roughening by sandblasting caused a considerable lowering of mechanical strength, it was very effective for enlarging the interfacial area between Nafion membrane and the electrode layers, and for forming a penetrated electrode structure, which facilitated improvement of the surface resistance and capacitance characteristics of IPMCs. In this work, a quantitative relationship was built between the topography of Nafion membrane surface and electromechanical performance of IPMCs by means of sandblasting.

  16. Spatial Competition: Roughening of an Experimental Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Newman, Jonathan A.; Walter, Jonathan A.; Korniss, G.; Caraco, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Limited dispersal distance generates spatial aggregation. Intraspecific interactions are then concentrated within clusters, and between-species interactions occur near cluster boundaries. Spread of a locally dispersing invader can become motion of an interface between the invading and resident species, and spatial competition will produce variation in the extent of invasive advance along the interface. Kinetic roughening theory offers a framework for quantifying the development of these fluctuations, which may structure the interface as a self-affine fractal, and so induce a series of temporal and spatial scaling relationships. For most clonal plants, advance should become spatially correlated along the interface, and width of the interface (where invader and resident compete directly) should increase as a power function of time. Once roughening equilibrates, interface width and the relative location of the most advanced invader should each scale with interface length. We tested these predictions by letting white clover (Trifolium repens) invade ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The spatial correlation of clover growth developed as anticipated by kinetic roughening theory, and both interface width and the most advanced invader’s lead scaled with front length. However, the scaling exponents differed from those predicted by recent simulation studies, likely due to clover’s growth morphology. PMID:27465518

  17. Spatial Competition: Roughening of an Experimental Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Newman, Jonathan A.; Walter, Jonathan A.; Korniss, G.; Caraco, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Limited dispersal distance generates spatial aggregation. Intraspecific interactions are then concentrated within clusters, and between-species interactions occur near cluster boundaries. Spread of a locally dispersing invader can become motion of an interface between the invading and resident species, and spatial competition will produce variation in the extent of invasive advance along the interface. Kinetic roughening theory offers a framework for quantifying the development of these fluctuations, which may structure the interface as a self-affine fractal, and so induce a series of temporal and spatial scaling relationships. For most clonal plants, advance should become spatially correlated along the interface, and width of the interface (where invader and resident compete directly) should increase as a power function of time. Once roughening equilibrates, interface width and the relative location of the most advanced invader should each scale with interface length. We tested these predictions by letting white clover (Trifolium repens) invade ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The spatial correlation of clover growth developed as anticipated by kinetic roughening theory, and both interface width and the most advanced invader’s lead scaled with front length. However, the scaling exponents differed from those predicted by recent simulation studies, likely due to clover’s growth morphology.

  18. Spatial Competition: Roughening of an Experimental Interface.

    PubMed

    Allstadt, Andrew J; Newman, Jonathan A; Walter, Jonathan A; Korniss, G; Caraco, Thomas

    2016-07-28

    Limited dispersal distance generates spatial aggregation. Intraspecific interactions are then concentrated within clusters, and between-species interactions occur near cluster boundaries. Spread of a locally dispersing invader can become motion of an interface between the invading and resident species, and spatial competition will produce variation in the extent of invasive advance along the interface. Kinetic roughening theory offers a framework for quantifying the development of these fluctuations, which may structure the interface as a self-affine fractal, and so induce a series of temporal and spatial scaling relationships. For most clonal plants, advance should become spatially correlated along the interface, and width of the interface (where invader and resident compete directly) should increase as a power function of time. Once roughening equilibrates, interface width and the relative location of the most advanced invader should each scale with interface length. We tested these predictions by letting white clover (Trifolium repens) invade ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The spatial correlation of clover growth developed as anticipated by kinetic roughening theory, and both interface width and the most advanced invader's lead scaled with front length. However, the scaling exponents differed from those predicted by recent simulation studies, likely due to clover's growth morphology.

  19. Large-Area Cross-Aligned Silver Nanowire Electrodes for Flexible, Transparent, and Force-Sensitive Mechanochromic Touch Screens.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seungse; Kang, Saewon; Pandya, Ashish; Shanker, Ravi; Khan, Ziyauddin; Lee, Youngsu; Park, Jonghwa; Craig, Stephen L; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2017-04-12

    Silver nanowire (AgNW) networks are considered to be promising structures for use as flexible transparent electrodes for various optoelectronic devices. One important application of AgNW transparent electrodes is the flexible touch screens. However, the performances of flexible touch screens are still limited by the large surface roughness and low electrical to optical conductivity ratio of random network AgNW electrodes. In addition, although the perception of writing force on the touch screen enables a variety of different functions, the current technology still relies on the complicated capacitive force touch sensors. This paper demonstrates a simple and high-throughput bar-coating assembly technique for the fabrication of large-area (>20 × 20 cm(2)), highly cross-aligned AgNW networks for transparent electrodes with the sheet resistance of 21.0 Ω sq(-1) at 95.0% of optical transmittance, which compares favorably with that of random AgNW networks (sheet resistance of 21.0 Ω sq(-1) at 90.4% of optical transmittance). As a proof of concept demonstration, we fabricate flexible, transparent, and force-sensitive touch screens using cross-aligned AgNW electrodes integrated with mechanochromic spiropyran-polydimethylsiloxane composite film. Our force-sensitive touch screens enable the precise monitoring of dynamic writings, tracing and drawing of underneath pictures, and perception of handwriting patterns with locally different writing forces. The suggested technique provides a robust and powerful platform for the controllable assembly of nanowires beyond the scale of conventional fabrication techniques, which can find diverse applications in multifunctional flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  20. Nanoscale current spreading analysis in solution-processed graphene oxide/silver nanowire transparent electrodes via conductive atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Joseph E.; Perumal, Ajay; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2016-05-01

    We use conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) to study the origin of long-range conductivity in model transparent conductive electrodes composed of networks of reduced graphene oxide (rGOX) and silver nanowires (AgNWs), with nanoscale spatial resolution. Pristine networks of rGOX (1-3 monolayers-thick) and AgNWs exhibit sheet resistances of ˜100-1000 kΩ/□ and 100-900 Ω/□, respectively. When the materials are deposited sequentially to form bilayer rGOX/AgNW electrodes and thermally annealed at 200 °C, the sheet resistance reduces by up to 36% as compared to pristine AgNW networks. CAFM was used to analyze the current spreading in both systems in order to identify the nanoscale phenomena responsible for this effect. For rGOX networks, the low intra-flake conductivity and the inter-flake contact resistance is found to dominate the macroscopic sheet resistance, while for AgNW networks the latter is determined by the density of the inter-AgNW junctions and their associated resistance. In the case of the bilayer rGOX/AgNWs' networks, rGOX flakes are found to form conductive "bridges" between AgNWs. We show that these additional nanoscopic electrical connections are responsible for the enhanced macroscopic conductivity of the bilayer rGOX/AgNW electrodes. Finally, the critical role of thermal annealing on the formation of these nanoscopic connections is discussed.

  1. Nanoparticle-electrode collision processes: the underpotential deposition of thallium on silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi-Ge; Rees, Neil V; Compton, Richard G

    2011-08-01

    The electrochemistry of collisions between metal nanoparticles (NPs) and electrode surfaces has been of recent interest with the development of anodic particle coulometry as a characterisation method. For the first time the underpotential deposition of metal ions from solution onto metal nanoparticles during collisions between the NPs and an inert electrode is reported.

  2. The optimization of Ag/Ag2S electrode using carrier electroplating of nano silver particles and its preliminary application to offshore Kueishan Tao, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Qian; Pan, Yi-wen; Huang, Yuan-feng; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Ye, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication-induced ocean acidification is causing a dramatic ecologic change in the coastal ocean. A more acidic ocean would lead to more volatile H2S in the coastal ocean, especially in the area where shallow hydrothermal vents exist. Therefore, the early detection of H2S and its associates is needed. In this study, the preparation method for and the detection limit of an Ag/Ag2S electrode were optimized by coating the electrode with micro-scale to nano-scale silver particles. The size of the silver particles was dependent on the electroplating power used to produce them: (1) direct current power made micrometer scale silver particles, and (2) direct current carrier power made nano-scale silver particles. As a result, the detection limits of [S2-] of the Ag/Ag2S electrode made using direct current and direct carrier current were improved to 1×10-5 mol L-1 and 1×10-7 mol L-1, respectively. Such improvements were mostly due to the fact that nano silver particles have larger surface area and higher surface energy. The Ag/Ag2S electrode made by direct carrier current method was then mounted to a multi-parameter sensor (including a pH and an Eh electrode) used to search of new hydrothermal vents near the Kueishan Tao in May, 2011. A new hydrothermal vent was discovered based on pH, Eh and H2S anomalies at three depths. A clear [S2-] signal anomaly was observed from the top sensor indicating the dispersive pattern of the hot fluid near this shallow vent site. This could also provide additional information on the dispersion pattern of anthropogenic pollutants in the coastal ocean.

  3. Synthesis of Silver Embedded Poly(o-Anisidine) Molybdophosphate Nano Hybrid Cation-Exchanger Applicable for Membrane Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Anish; Khan, Aftab Aslam Parwaz; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Rub, Malik Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Poly(o-anisidine) molybdophosphate was expediently obtained by sol-gel mixing of Poly(o-anisidine) into the inorganic matrices of molybdophosphate, which was allowed to react with silver nitrate to the formation of poly(o-anisidine) molybdophosphate embedded silver nano composite. The composite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, UV-Vis Spectrophotometry, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Thermogravimertic Analysis. Ion exchange capacity and distribution studies were carried out to understand the ion-exchange capabilities of the nano composite. On the basis of highest distribution studies, this nano composite cation exchanger was used as preparation of heavy metal ion selective membrane. Membrane was characterized for its performance as porosity and swelling later on was used for the preparation of membrane electrode for Hg(II), having better linear range, wide working pH range (2–4.5) with fast response in the real environment. PMID:24805257

  4. Synthesis of silver embedded poly(o-anisidine) molybdophosphate nano hybrid cation-exchanger applicable for membrane electrode.

    PubMed

    Khan, Anish; Khan, Aftab Aslam Parwaz; Asiri, Abdullah M; Rub, Malik Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Poly(o-anisidine) molybdophosphate was expediently obtained by sol-gel mixing of Poly(o-anisidine) into the inorganic matrices of molybdophosphate, which was allowed to react with silver nitrate to the formation of poly(o-anisidine) molybdophosphate embedded silver nano composite. The composite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, UV-Vis Spectrophotometry, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Thermogravimertic Analysis. Ion exchange capacity and distribution studies were carried out to understand the ion-exchange capabilities of the nano composite. On the basis of highest distribution studies, this nano composite cation exchanger was used as preparation of heavy metal ion selective membrane. Membrane was characterized for its performance as porosity and swelling later on was used for the preparation of membrane electrode for Hg(II), having better linear range, wide working pH range (2-4.5) with fast response in the real environment.

  5. Non-contact measurement of the electrical conductivity and coverage density of silver nanowires for transparent electrodes using Terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Hyeon; Chung, Wan-Ho; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technique was used for non-contact measurement of the conductivity and coverage density (D C) of silver nanowires (SNWs) as transparent electrodes. The reflection mode of THz-TDS with an incident angle of 30° was used, and the sheet resistance (R sh) of SNW films was measured using the four-point probe method. The correlations between the THz reflection ratio and R sh were studied by comparing the results of the four-point probe method and the measured THz reflection ratios. Also, the D C of SNWs was evaluated using THz waveforms with a general refractivity formula. This result matched well with a conventional approximation method using a scanning electron microscope image. Furthermore, defects in the SNWs could be easily detected using the THz-TDS imaging technique. The non-contact THz-TDS measurement method that we developed is expected to be a promising technique for non-contact measurement of the R sh and D C for transparent conductive electrodes.

  6. Highly sensitive and selective determination of methylergometrine maleate using carbon nanofibers/silver nanoparticles composite modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Kalambate, Pramod K; Rawool, Chaitali R; Karna, Shashi P; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2016-12-01

    A highly sensitive and selective voltammetric method for determination of Methylergometrine maleate (MM) in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples has been developed based on enhanced electrochemical response of MM at carbon nanofibers and silver nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (CNF-AgNP-CPE). The electrode material was characterized by various techniques viz., X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic response of MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimized conditions, the proposed sensor exhibits excellent electrochemical response towards MM. The DPV study shows greatly enhanced electrochemical signal for MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE lending high sensitivity to the proposed sensor for MM detection. The peak (Ip) current for MM is found to be rectilinear in the range 4.0×10(-8)-2.0×10(-5)M with a detection limit of 7.1×10(-9)M using DPV. The feasibility of the proposed sensor in analytical applications was investigated by conducting experiments on commercial pharmaceutical formulations, human urine and blood serum samples, which yielded satisfactory recoveries of MM. The proposed electrochemical sensor offers high sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and practical utility. We recommend it as an authentic and productive electrochemical sensor for successful determination of MM.

  7. Nonequilibrium fluctuation theory in electrochemical nucleation. II. Experimental determination of critical fluctuation in silver nucleation onto platinum electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadano, Atsushi; Aogaki, Ryoichi

    1997-04-01

    Following part I, in this paper, the experiments for silver nucleation onto platinum electrode in AgNO3+NaNO3 solution were carried out to compare the theoretical equations with experimental data. The theoretical examination predicted that after double layer charging current a minimum current emerges, accompanied with rapid monolayer nucleus formation. Since the monolayer nuclei prepare the substrates for the following extensive nucleation, the stage when the nuclei are formed is of much importance. From the experiments for double layer charging current, it was decided that the nucleus formation is activated at the final stage of the charging. This result reinforces the theoretical prediction that the monolayer nuclei are formed by the minimum current. Extrapolation of the minimum current to the critical state gave the critical autocorrelation distance and the average critical concentration fluctuation on the completely active surface. The autocorrelation distance was determined as ãcr=7.82×10-4 m at 300 K, which is quite large in comparison with the scale of the fluctuation and in good agreement with the value obtained in nickel pitting dissolution. On the other hand, as discussed in the previous paper, since there is no intense specific adsorption of ions onto the electrode surface, the electrostatic interaction between the ions accelerates the simultaneous adsorption of Ag+ ion and NO3- ion. Therefore, it was concluded that the concentration of the supporting electrolyte NaNO3 also fluctuates with the Ag+ ionic concentration.

  8. Annealing-free, flexible silver nanowire-polymer composite electrodes via a continuous two-step spray-coating method.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Yun; Kang, Hyun Wook; Sung, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2013-02-07

    For the realization of high-efficiency flexible optoelectronic devices, transparent electrodes should be fabricated through a low-temperature process and have the crucial feature of low surface roughness. In this paper, we demonstrated a two-step spray-coating method for producing large-scale, smooth and flexible silver nanowire (AgNW)-poly3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) composite electrodes. Without the high-temperature annealing process, the conductivity of the composite film was improved via the lamination of highly conductive PEDOT:PSS modified by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Under the room temperature process condition, we fabricated the AgNW-PEDOT:PSS composite film showing an 84.3% mean optical transmittance with a 10.76 Ω sq(-1) sheet resistance. The figure of merit Φ(TC) was higher than that obtained from the indium tin oxide (ITO) films. The sheet resistance of the composite film slightly increased less than 5.3% during 200 cycles of tensile and compression folding, displaying good electromechanical flexibility for use in flexible optoelectronic applications.

  9. Efficient Nickel Sulfide and Graphene Counter Electrodes Decorated with Silver Nanoparticles and Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Gentian; Li, Fumin; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Weifeng

    2016-05-01

    We reported a facile two-step electrochemical-chemical approach for in situ growth of nickel sulfide and graphene counter electrode (CE) decorated with silver nanoparticles (signed NiS/Gr-Ag) and served in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Under optimum conditions, the DSSC achieved a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 8.36 % assembled with the NiS/Gr-Ag CE, much higher than that based on the Pt CE (7.76 %). The surface morphology of NiS/Gr-Ag CE exhibited a smooth surface with cross-growth of NiS, graphene, and Ag nanoparticles, which was beneficial to the fast mass transport of electrolytes; increased the contact area of electrolytes and active materials; and enabled to speed up the reduction of triiodide to iodide. The research on the electrochemical properties also showed that the NiS/Gr-Ag CE possessed lower charge transfer resistance and more excellent electrocatalytic activity in iodide/triiodide electrolyte compared to the Pt electrode.

  10. Optimization of method for zinc analysis in several bee products on renewable mercury film silver based electrode.

    PubMed

    Opoka, Włodzimierz; Szlósarczyk, Marek; Maślanka, Anna; Piech, Robert; Baś, Bogusław; Włodarczyk, Edyta; Krzek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an interesting target for detection as it is one of the elements necessary for the proper functioning of the human body, its excess and deficiency can cause several symptoms. Several techniques including electrochemistry have been developed but require laboratory equipment, preparative steps and mercury or complex working electrodes. We here described the development of a robust, simple and commercially available electrochemical system. Differential pulse (DP) voltammetry was used for this purpose with the cyclic renewable mercury film silver based electrode (Hg(Ag)FE) and 0.05 M KNO3 solution as a supporting electrolyte. The effect of various factors such as: preconcentration potential and time, pulse amplitude and width, step potential and supporting electrolyte composition are optimized. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 1.62 ng/mL and 4.85 ng/mL, respectively. The repeatability of the method at a concentration level of the analyte as low as 3 ng/mL, expressed as RSD is 3.5% (n = 6). Recovery was determined using certified reference material: Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2). The recovery of zinc ranged from 96.6 to 106.5%. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of zinc in bee products (honey, propolis and diet supplements) after digestion procedure.

  11. Fully solution-processed transparent electrodes based on silver nanowire composites for perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Areum; Lee, Hongseuk; Kwon, Hyeok-Chan; Jung, Hyun Suk; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

    2016-03-01

    We report all-solution-processed transparent conductive electrodes based on Ag nanowire (AgNW)-embedded metal oxide composite films for application in organometal halide perovskite solar cells. To address the thermal instability of Ag nanowires, we used combustive sol-gel derived thin films to construct ZnO/ITO/AgNW/ITO composite structures. The resulting composite configuration effectively prevented the AgNWs from undergoing undesirable side-reactions with halogen ions present in the perovskite precursor solutions that significantly deteriorate the optoelectrical properties of Ag nanowires in transparent conductive films. AgNW-based composite electrodes had a transmittance of ~80% at 550 nm and sheet resistance of 18 Ω sq-1. Perovskite solar cells fabricated using a fully solution-processed transparent conductive electrode, Au/spiro-OMeTAD/CH3NH3PbI3 + m-Al2O3/ZnO/ITO/AgNW/ITO, exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 8.44% (comparable to that of the FTO/glass-based counterpart at 10.81%) and were stable for 30 days in ambient air. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using AgNWs as a transparent bottom electrode in perovskite solar cells produced by a fully printable process.We report all-solution-processed transparent conductive electrodes based on Ag nanowire (AgNW)-embedded metal oxide composite films for application in organometal halide perovskite solar cells. To address the thermal instability of Ag nanowires, we used combustive sol-gel derived thin films to construct ZnO/ITO/AgNW/ITO composite structures. The resulting composite configuration effectively prevented the AgNWs from undergoing undesirable side-reactions with halogen ions present in the perovskite precursor solutions that significantly deteriorate the optoelectrical properties of Ag nanowires in transparent conductive films. AgNW-based composite electrodes had a transmittance of ~80% at 550 nm and sheet resistance of 18 Ω sq-1. Perovskite solar cells fabricated using a fully solution

  12. Multiscale surface roughening of commercial purity titanium during uniaxial tension

    SciTech Connect

    Panin, Alexey; Kazachenok, Marina Kozelskaya, Anna Sinyakova, Elena; Lider, Andrey Sklyarova, Elena

    2015-10-27

    The mechanisms of the surface roughening of the titanium specimens during uniaxial tension were demonstrated. By means of optical profilometry and electron backscattered diffraction it was shown that the formation of surface roughening is a multilevel process. The correlation between the density of slip in some grains, and grain rotation, and their displacement towards the free surface was investigated.

  13. Surface-enhanced raman spectra and molecular orientation of phthalazine adsorbed on a silver electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Machiko; Fujita, Masato; Ito, Masatoki

    1984-08-01

    SERS from phthalazine adsorbed on an Ag electrode was investigated under several conditions of applied voltage and solution concentration. Spectral assignments of the Raman bands were successfully performed and two differently oriented adsorbates, i.e. flat and end-on species, were identified. The contribution of the image field to the SERS intensity was considerable.

  14. Fully solution-processed transparent electrodes based on silver nanowire composites for perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Areum; Lee, Hongseuk; Kwon, Hyeok-Chan; Jung, Hyun Suk; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

    2016-03-28

    We report all-solution-processed transparent conductive electrodes based on Ag nanowire (AgNW)-embedded metal oxide composite films for application in organometal halide perovskite solar cells. To address the thermal instability of Ag nanowires, we used combustive sol-gel derived thin films to construct ZnO/ITO/AgNW/ITO composite structures. The resulting composite configuration effectively prevented the AgNWs from undergoing undesirable side-reactions with halogen ions present in the perovskite precursor solutions that significantly deteriorate the optoelectrical properties of Ag nanowires in transparent conductive films. AgNW-based composite electrodes had a transmittance of ∼80% at 550 nm and sheet resistance of 18 Ω sq(-1). Perovskite solar cells fabricated using a fully solution-processed transparent conductive electrode, Au/spiro-OMeTAD/CH3NH3PbI3 + m-Al2O3/ZnO/ITO/AgNW/ITO, exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 8.44% (comparable to that of the FTO/glass-based counterpart at 10.81%) and were stable for 30 days in ambient air. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using AgNWs as a transparent bottom electrode in perovskite solar cells produced by a fully printable process.

  15. Hybrid Silver Mesh Electrode for ITO-Free Flexible Polymer Solar Cells with Good Mechanical Stability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wanjung; Kim, Soyeon; Kang, Iljoong; Jung, Myung Sun; Kim, Sung June; Kim, Jung Kyu; Cho, Sung Min; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2016-05-10

    Herein, we report a tailored Ag mesh electrode coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymer on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The introduction of this highly conductive polymer solves the existing problems of Ag mesh-type transparent conductive electrodes, such as high pitch, roughness, current inhomogeneity, and adhesion problems between the Ag mesh grid and PEDOT polymer or PET substrate, to result in excellent electron spreading from the discrete Ag mesh onto the entire surface without sacrificing sheet conductivity and optical transparency. Based on this hybrid anode, we demonstrate highly efficient flexible polymer solar cells (PSCs) with a high fill factor of 67.11 %, which results in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.9 % based on a poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b'] dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl) carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}):[6,6]-phenyl-C71 -butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction device. Furthermore, the PSC device with the Ag mesh electrode also exhibits a good mechanical bending stability, as indicated by a 70 % retention of the initial PCE after 500 bending cycles compared with the PSC device with a PET/indium tin oxide electrode, which retained 0 % of the initial PCE after 300 bending cycles.

  16. A silver-free, reflective substrate electrode for electron extraction in top-illuminated organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Martin S; Hutter, Oliver S; Walker, Marc; Hatton, Ross A

    2015-04-27

    The choice of metals suitable as the reflective substrate electrode for top-illuminated organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is extremely limited. Herein, we report a novel substrate electrode for this class of OPV architecture based on an Al | Cu | AlOx triple-layer structure, which offers a reflectivity comparable to that of Al over the wavelength range 400-900 nm, a work function suitable for efficient electron extraction in OPVs and high stability towards oxidation. In addition to demonstrating the advantage of this composite electrode over Al in model top-illuminated OPVs, we also present the results of a photoelectron spectroscopy study, which show that an oxidised 0.8 nm Al layer deposited by thermal evaporation onto an Al | Cu reflective substrate electrode is sufficient to block oxidation of the underlying Cu by air or during deposition of a ZnO1-x electron-transport layer. This is remarkable given that the self-limiting oxide thickness on Al metal is greater than 2 nm.

  17. Welding of silver nanowire networks via flash white light and UV-C irradiation for highly conductive and reliable transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Kim, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-08-01

    In this work, silver nanowire inks with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) binders were coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and welded via flash white light and ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation to produce highly conductive transparent electrodes. The coated silver nanowire films were firmly welded and embedded into PET substrate successfully at room temperature and under ambient conditions using an in-house flash white light welding system and UV-C irradiation. The effects of light irradiation conditions (light energy, irradiation time, pulse duration, and pulse number) on the silver nanowire networks were studied and optimized. Bending fatigue tests were also conducted to characterize the reliability of the welded transparent conductive silver nanowire films. The surfaces of the welded silver nanowire films were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the transmittance of the structures was measured using a spectrophotometer. From the results, a highly conductive and transparent silver nanowire film with excellent reliability could be achieved at room temperature under ambient conditions via the combined flash white light and UV-C irradiation welding process.

  18. Welding of silver nanowire networks via flash white light and UV-C irradiation for highly conductive and reliable transparent electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Kim, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-01-01

    In this work, silver nanowire inks with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) binders were coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and welded via flash white light and ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation to produce highly conductive transparent electrodes. The coated silver nanowire films were firmly welded and embedded into PET substrate successfully at room temperature and under ambient conditions using an in-house flash white light welding system and UV-C irradiation. The effects of light irradiation conditions (light energy, irradiation time, pulse duration, and pulse number) on the silver nanowire networks were studied and optimized. Bending fatigue tests were also conducted to characterize the reliability of the welded transparent conductive silver nanowire films. The surfaces of the welded silver nanowire films were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the transmittance of the structures was measured using a spectrophotometer. From the results, a highly conductive and transparent silver nanowire film with excellent reliability could be achieved at room temperature under ambient conditions via the combined flash white light and UV-C irradiation welding process. PMID:27553755

  19. Healable capacitive touch screen sensors based on transparent composite electrodes comprising silver nanowires and a furan/maleimide diels-alder cycloaddition polymer.

    PubMed

    Li, Junpeng; Liang, Jiajie; Li, Lu; Ren, Fengbo; Hu, Wei; Li, Juan; Qi, Shuhua; Pei, Qibing

    2014-12-23

    A healable transparent capacitive touch screen sensor has been fabricated based on a healable silver nanowire-polymer composite electrode. The composite electrode features a layer of silver nanowire percolation network embedded into the surface layer of a polymer substrate comprising an ultrathin soldering polymer layer to confine the nanowires to the surface of a healable Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymer and to attain low contact resistance between the nanowires. The composite electrode has a figure-of-merit sheet resistance of 18 Ω/sq with 80% transmittance at 550 nm. A surface crack cut on the conductive surface with 18 Ω is healed by heating at 100 °C, and the sheet resistance recovers to 21 Ω in 6 min. A healable touch screen sensor with an array of 8×8 capacitive sensing points is prepared by stacking two composite films patterned with 8 rows and 8 columns of coupling electrodes at 90° angle. After deliberate damage, the coupling electrodes recover touch sensing function upon heating at 80 °C for 30 s. A capacitive touch screen based on Arduino is demonstrated capable of performing quick recovery from malfunction caused by a razor blade cutting. After four cycles of cutting and healing, the sensor array remains functional.

  20. Redox Equilibria of Cytochrome C3 Immobilised on Self-Assembled Monolayers Coated Silver Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Paolo, R. E.; Rivas, L.; Murgida, D.; Hildebrandt, P.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochromes c3 are soluble electron transfer proteins in the periplasm of sulphate-reducing bacteria. They act as electron-proton couplers between hydrogenase and the electron transfer chain of sulphate respiration. In this work, cytochrome c3 (Cyt-c3) obtained from both Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas, is electrostatically adsorbed on Ag electrodes coated with self-assembled monolayers of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. The redox equilibria of the adsorbed tetraheme protein are studied by surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS). The quantitative analysis of the SERR spectra, which were measured as a function of the electrode potential, allows determining the redox potentials for the individual hemes of Cyt-c3. The values obtained of the redox potentials are compared with the data provided by NMR experiments and by molecular dynamics simulation studies of the electrostatically bound protein on a coated electrode. It is found that immobilisation causes substantial shifts of the redox potential, which would have an impact on the intramolecular electron flow.

  1. Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Studies of Transition-Metal Tetrasulfonated Phthalocyanines. VI. The Adsorption of Iron Tetrasulfonated Phthalocyanine on Single Crystal Silver Electrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    underpotential deposited lead layer LLK20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side It necessary and identify by block number) ’,.4Adsorbed layers of iron...The peak potentials and charge under the voltammetry peaks show some Sdependence on the crystal planes. The effects of the underpotential deposition of...lead on the adsorbed macrocycle have also been examined on the silver single crystal electrode. The lead can be underpotential deposited on the

  2. Fully Printed Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes with Silver Nanowire Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bade, Sri Ganesh R; Li, Junqiang; Shan, Xin; Ling, Yichuan; Tian, Yu; Dilbeck, Tristan; Besara, Tiglet; Geske, Thomas; Gao, Hanwei; Ma, Biwu; Hanson, Kenneth; Siegrist, Theo; Xu, Chengying; Yu, Zhibin

    2016-02-23

    Printed organometal halide perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported that have indium tin oxide (ITO) or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the transparent anode, a printed composite film consisting of methylammonium lead tribromide (Br-Pero) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as the emissive layer, and printed silver nanowires as the cathode. The fabrication can be carried out in ambient air without humidity control. The devices on ITO/glass have a low turn-on voltage of 2.6 V, a maximum luminance intensity of 21014 cd m(-2), and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1.1%, surpassing previous reported perovskite LEDs. The devices on CNTs/polymer were able to be strained to 5 mm radius of curvature without affecting device properties.

  3. Biomimetic sensor for certain catecholamines employing copper(II) complex and silver nanoparticle modified glassy carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Sanghavi, Bankim J; Mobin, Shaikh M; Mathur, Pradeep; Lahiri, Goutam K; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2013-01-15

    A dimeric Cu(II) complex [Cu(μ(2)-hep)(hep-H)](2)·2ClO(4) (1) containing bidentate (hep-H=2-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyridine) ligand was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Each Cu-ion in 1 is in a distorted square pyramidal geometry. Further 1 along with silver nanoparticles (SNPs) have been used as modifier in the construction of a biomimetic sensor (1-SNP-GCPE) for determining certain catecholamines viz., dopamine (DA), levodopa (l-Dopa), epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NE) using cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and adsorptive stripping square wave voltammetry (AdSSWV). Finally, the catalytic properties of the sensor were characterized by chronoamperometry. Employing AdSSWV, the calibration curves showed linear response ranging between 10(-6) and 10(-9)M for all the four analytes with detection limits (S/N=3) of 8.52×10(-10)M, 2.41×10(-9)M, 3.96×10(-10)M and 3.54×10(-10)M for DA, l-Dopa, EP and NE respectively. The lifetime of the biomimetic sensor was 3 months at room temperature. The prepared modified electrode shows several advantages such as simple preparation method, high sensitivity, high stability, ease of preparation and regeneration of the electrode surface by simple polishing along with excellent reproducibility. The method has been applied for the selective and precise analysis of DA, l-Dopa, EP and NE in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples.

  4. Highly stable and flexible silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrodes for emerging optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Hyungjin; Ahn, Yumi; Jeong, Youngjun; Lee, Dae-Young; Lee, Youngu

    2013-09-07

    A new AgNW-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrode (TCE) was prepared by dry-transferring a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown monolayer graphene onto a pristine AgNW TCE. The AgNW-graphene hybrid TCE exhibited excellent optical and electrical properties as well as mechanical flexibility. The AgNW-graphene hybrid TCE showed highly enhanced thermal oxidation and chemical stabilities because of the superior gas-barrier property of the graphene protection layer. Furthermore, the organic solar cells with the AgNW-graphene hybrid TCE showed excellent photovoltaic performance as well as superior long-term stability under ambient conditions.

  5. Self-similar roughening of drying wet paper.

    PubMed

    Balankin, Alexander S; Morales, Daniel; Susarrey, Orlando; Samayoa, Didier; Trinidad, José Martinez; Marquez, Jesús; García, Rafael

    2006-06-01

    We studied the kinetic roughening dynamics of drying wet paper. The configurations of dry paper sheets are found to be self-similar, rater than self-affine. Accordingly, the paper roughening dynamics corresponds to the new class of anomalous kinetic roughening [J. J. Ramasco, J. M. López, and M. A. Rodríguez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2199 (2000)], characterized by the equal local and global roughness exponents zeta = alpha = 1 and the dynamic exponent z = 1.0+/-0.2, whereas the spectral roughness exponent alpha(s) > 1 is determined by the long-range correlations characterized by the fractal dimension of D crumpled sheet.

  6. Stretchable electronic skin based on silver nanowire composite fiber electrodes for sensing pressure, proximity, and multidirectional strain.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yin; Wang, Ranran; Zhai, Haitao; Sun, Jing

    2017-03-17

    Electronic skin (E-skin) has been attracting great research interest and effort due to its potential applications in wearable health monitoring, smart prosthetics, robot skins and so on. To expand its applications, two key challenges lie in the realization of device stretchability, and independent sensing of pressure and multidirectional lateral strain. Here we made a combination of rational device structure and artfully engineered sensing materials to fulfill the mentioned demands. The as-prepared E-skin took a simple orthogonal configuration to enable both capacitive mode for pressure sensing and resistive mode for multidirectional strain sensing, independently. Pre-cracked silver nanowire based fibers with helical microstructures were utilized as basic electrodes to endow the E-skin with intrinsic stretchability and strain sensing capability. Through dielectric layer optimization, the pressure sensing sensitivity was greatly enhanced, with a detection limit of 1.5 Pa. For application demonstrations, we utilized the E-skin as both flat and curved platforms for pressure mapping, and also as human motion sensors, such as palm and thumb bending.

  7. A comparative study of the reduction of silver and gold salts in water by a cathodic microplasma electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vos, Caroline; Baneton, Joffrey; Witzke, Megan; Dille, Jean; Godet, Stéphane; Gordon, Michael J.; Mohan Sankaran, R.; Reniers, François

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the reduction of aqueous silver (Ag) and gold (Au) salts to colloidal Ag and Au nanoparticles, respectively, by a gaseous, cathodic, atmospheric-pressure microplasma electrode is presented. The resulting nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the aqueous solution composition before and after experiments was determined by ionic conductivity, electrochemical potential, and/or UV–vis absorption measurements. TEM showed that Ag and Au NPs were spherical and non-agglomerated when synthesized in the presence of a stabilizer, polyvinyl alcohol. The charge injected by the plasma was correlated to the maximum intensity in the absorbance spectra which in turn depends on the nanoparticle concentration. Separately, the charge injected was correlated to the metal cation concentration. Ag and Au reduction rates were found to be directly proportional to the charge injected, independent of plasma current and process time. Differences in the mechanism for Ag and Au reduction were also observed, and solution species generated by the plasma and their role in the reduction process (e.g. H2O2, electrons) is discussed.

  8. Paper microchip with a graphene-modified silver nano-composite electrode for electrical sensing of microbial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Safavieh, Mohammadali; Kaul, Vivasvat; Khetani, Sultan; Singh, Anupriya; Dhingra, Karan; Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Memic, Adnan; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Shafiee, Hadi

    2017-02-02

    Rapid and sensitive point-of-care diagnostics are of paramount importance for early detection of infectious diseases and timely initiation of treatment. Here, we present cellulose paper and flexible plastic chips with printed graphene-modified silver electrodes as universal point-of-care diagnostic tools for the rapid and sensitive detection of microbial pathogens or nucleic acids through utilizing electrical sensing modality and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). We evaluated the ability of the developed paper-based assay to detect (i) viruses on cellulose-based paper microchips without implementing amplification in samples with viral loads between 10(6) and 10(8) copies per ml, and (ii) amplified HIV-1 nucleic acids in samples with viral loads between 10 fg μl(-1) and 10(8) fg μl(-1). The target HIV-1 nucleic acid was amplified using the RT-LAMP technique and detected through the electrical sensing of LAMP amplicons for a broad range of RNA concentrations between 10 fg μl(-1) and 10(8) fg μl(-1) after 40 min of amplification time. Our assay may be used for antiretroviral therapy monitoring where it meets the sensitivity requirement of the World Health Organization guidelines. Such a paper microchip assay without the amplification step may also be considered as a simple and inexpensive approach for acute HIV detection where maximum viral replication occurs.

  9. Composite Transparent Electrode of Graphene Nanowalls and Silver Nanowires on Micropyramidal Si for High-Efficiency Schottky Junction Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Tianpeng; Liu, Jian; Wei, Dapeng; Feng, Yanhui; Song, Xuefen; Shi, Haofei; Jia, Shuming; Sun, Wentao; Du, Chunlei

    2015-09-16

    The conventional graphene-silicon Schottky junction solar cell inevitably involves the graphene growth and transfer process, which results in complicated technology, loss of quality of the graphene, extra cost, and environmental unfriendliness. Moreover, the conventional transfer method is not well suited to conformationally coat graphene on a three-dimensional (3D) silicon surface. Thus, worse interfacial conditions are inevitable. In this work, we directly grow graphene nanowalls (GNWs) onto the micropyramidal silicon (MP) by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. By controlling growth time, the cell exhibits optimal pristine photovoltaic performance of 3.8%. Furthermore, we improve the conductivity of the GNW electrode by introducing the silver nanowire (AgNW) network, which could achieve lower sheet resistance. An efficiency of 6.6% has been obtained for the AgNWs-GNWs-MP solar cell without any chemical doping. Meanwhile, the cell exhibits excellent stability exposed to air. Our studies show a promising way to develop simple-technology, low-cost, high-efficiency, and stable Schottky junction solar cells.

  10. Reduced graphene oxide/PAMAM-silver nanoparticles nanocomposite modified electrode for direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase and glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhimin; Yuwen, Lihui; Han, Yujie; Tian, Jing; Zhu, Xingrong; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui

    2012-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide/PAMAM-silver nanoparticles nanocomposite (RGO-PAMAM-Ag) was synthesized by self-assembly of carboxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimer (PAMAM-G3.5) on graphene oxide (GO) as growing template, and in-situ reduction of both AgNO(3) and GO under microwave irradiation. The RGO-PAMAM-Ag nanocomposite was used as a novel immobilization matrix for glucose oxidase (GOD) and exhibited excellent direct electron transfer properties for GOD with the rate constant (K(s)) of 8.59 s(-1). The fabricated glucose biosensor based on GOD electrode modified with RGO-PAMAM-Ag nanocomposite displayed satisfactory analytical performance including high sensitivity (75.72 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)), low detection limit (4.5 μM), an acceptable linear range from 0.032 mM to 1.89 mM, and also preventing the interference of some interfering species usually coexisting with glucose in human blood at the work potential of -0.25 V. These results indicated that RGO-PAMAM-Ag nanocomposite is a promising candidate material for high-performance glucose biosensors.

  11. Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Clere, T.M.

    1983-08-30

    A 3-dimensional electrode is disclosed having substantially coplanar and substantially flat portions and ribbon-like curved portions, said curved portions being symmetrical and alternating in rows above and below said substantially coplanar, substantially flat portions, respectively, and a geometric configuration presenting in one sectional aspect the appearance of a series of ribbon-like oblate spheroids interrupted by said flat portions and in another sectional aspect, 90/sup 0/ from said one aspect, the appearance of a square wave pattern.

  12. Polymer-facilitated low temperature fusing of spray-coated silver nanowire networks as transparent top and bottom electrodes in small molecule organic photovoltaics (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Franz; Weiß, Nelli; Kneppe, David; Bormann, Ludwig; Sachse, Christoph; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander; Leo, Karl; Müller-Meskamp, Lars

    2015-10-01

    Networks of silver nanowires (AgNWs) are promising candidates for transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics (OPV), as they achieve similar performance as the commonly used indium tin oxide (ITO) at lower cost and increased flexibility. The initial sheet resistance (Rs) of AgNW electrodes typically needs to be reduced by a post-annealing step (90 min@200 °C), being detrimental for processing on polymeric substrates. We present novel low temperature-based methods to integrate AgNWs in organic small molecule-based photovoltaics, either as transparent and highly conductive bottom-electrode or, for the first time, as spray-coated AgNW top-electrode. The bottom-electrodes are prepared by organic matrix assisted low-temperature fusing. Here, selected polymers are coated below the AgNWs to increase the interaction between NWs and substrate. In comparison to networks without these polymeric sublayers, the Rs is reduced by two orders of magnitude. AgNW top-electrodes are realized by dispersing modified high-quality AgNWs in inert solvents, which do not damage small molecule layers. Accordingly, our AgNW dispersion can be spray-coated onto all kind of OPV devices. Both bottom- and top-electrodes show a Rs of <11 Ω/ at >87 % transparency directly after spray-coating at very low substrate temperatures of <80 °C. We also demonstrate the implementation of our AgNW electrodes in organic solar cells. The corresponding devices show almost identical performance compared to organic solar cells exploiting ITO as bottom or thermally evaporated thin-metal as top-electrode.

  13. Low-Cost Paper Electrode Fabricated by Direct Writing with Silver Nanoparticle-Based Ink for Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide in Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ghosale, Archana; Shrivas, Kamlesh; Shankar, Ravi; Ganesan, Vellaichamy

    2017-01-03

    A simple, low cost and user-friendly method for the fabrication of paper electrode (PE) using silver nanoparticles capped with octylamine (AgNPs-OA) is reported for detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in wastewater samples. The PE was prepared by direct writing onto the photo paper using a ball-point pen filled with nanoink (10 wt % of AgNPs-OA in chloroform). The prepared electrode was sintered at 100 °C for 1 h to make it conductive. The PE/AgNPs-OA was used as a working electrode in cyclic voltammetry (CV) for the detection of H2O2. The PE/AgNPs-OA exhibited a wide linear calibration range from 1.7 μM to 30 mM for the determination of H2O2 with a low limit of detection, 0.5 μM. The good recovery percentage (95.2-96.2%) and interference study for determination of H2O2 in wastewater samples demonstrated the selectivity of the method from the complex sample matrices. The PE/AgNPs-OA electrode is found to be economic, facile and user-friendly for multiple analyses (n = 60) of H2O2 in CV compared to other commercially available electrodes and custom-made modified electrodes.

  14. Stretchable and transparent electrodes based on patterned silver nanowires by laser-induced forward transfer for non-contacted printing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Teppei; Mandamparambil, Rajesh; Martinus Peterus van Bragt, Dirk; Jiu, Jinting; Koga, Hirotaka; van den Brand, Jeroen; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; den Toonder, Jaap M. J.; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are excellent candidate electrode materials in next-generation wearable devices due to their high flexibility and high conductivity. In particular, patterning techniques for AgNWs electrode manufacture are very important in the roll-to-roll printing process to achieve high throughput and special performance production. It is also essential to realize a non-contact mode patterning for devices in order to keep the pre-patterned components away from mechanical damages. Here, we report a successful non-contact patterning of AgNWs-based stretchable and transparent electrodes by laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) technique. The technique was used to fabricate a 100% stretchable electrode with a width of 200 μm and electrical resistivity 10-4 Ωcm. Experiments conducted integrating the stretchable electrode on rubber substrate in which LED was pre-fabricated showed design flexibility resulting from non-contact printing. Further, a patterned transparent electrode showed over 80% in optical transmittance and less than 100 Ω sq-1 in sheet resistance by the optimized LIFT technique.

  15. Nanoscale Chemical and Electrical Stabilities of Graphene-covered Silver Nanowire Networks for Transparent Conducting Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Heon; Choi, Woon Ih; Kim, Kwang Hee; Yang, Dae Jin; Heo, Sung; Yun, Dong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid structure of Ag nanowires (AgNWs) covered with graphene (Gr) shows synergetic effects on the performance of transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs). However, these effects have been mainly observed via large-scale characterization, and precise analysis at the nanoscale level remains inadequate. Here, we present the nanoscale verification and visualization of the improved chemical and electrical stabilities of Gr-covered AgNW networks using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with the gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) sputtering technique. Specifically by transferring island Gr on top of the AgNW network, we were able to create samples in which both covered and uncovered AgNWs are simultaneously accessible to various surface-characterization techniques. Furthermore, our ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation elucidated the specific mechanistic pathway and a strong propensity for AgNW sulfidation, even in the presence of ambient oxidant gases. PMID:27620453

  16. Organic-Stabilizer-Free Polyol Synthesis of Silver Nanowires for Electrode Applications.

    PubMed

    Sim, Hwansu; Bok, Shingyu; Kim, Bongsung; Kim, Minha; Lim, Guh-Hwan; Cho, Sung Min; Lim, Byungkwon

    2016-09-19

    The polyol reduction of a Ag precursor in the presence of an organic stabilizer, such as poly(vinylpyrrolidone), is a widely used method for the production of Ag nanowires (NWs). However, organic capping molecules introduce insulating layers around each NW. Herein we demonstrate that Ag NWs can be produced in high yield without any organic stabilizers simply by introducing trace amounts of NaCl and Fe(NO3 )3 during low-temperature polyol synthesis. The heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Ag NWs on initially formed AgCl particles, combined with oxidative etching of unwanted Ag nanoparticles, resulted in the selective formation of long NWs with an average length of about 40 μm in the absence of a capping or stabilizing effect provided by surface-adsorbing molecules. These organic-stabilizer-free Ag NWs were directly used for the fabrication of high-performance transparent or stretchable electrodes without a complicated process for the removal of capping molecules from the NW surface.

  17. Electrochemical Investigation of Coenzyme Q10 on Silver Electrode in Ethanol Aqueous Solution and Its Determination Using Differential Pulse Voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Deng, Wei; Xu, Hu; Sun, Yinxing; Wang, Yuhong; Chen, Shouhui; Ding, Xianting

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemistry reduction of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on silver electrodes has been investigated in mixed solvent containing 95 vol. % ethanol and 5 vol. % water. A combination of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is employed to explore the mechanism of redox processes of CoQ10 in the presence and absence of oxygen, respectively. It has been proved that the redox reaction of CoQ10 is highly dependent on the oxygen in the solution compared with that of CoQ0, which may be attributed to the isoprenoid side chain effect of CoQ10 Moreover, the effects of experimental variables such as electrolyte component, pH, temperature, and sonication time on the amperometric and potentiometric responses of CoQ10 are presented. The differential pulse voltammetry method has been developed for the quantification of the CoQ10 in the complex samples. Under the optimum conditions, the method is linear over the concentration range of 1.00 × 10(-7) to 1.00 × 10(-3) mol/L (8.63 × 10(-2) to 8.63 × 10(2) mg/kg). The limit of detection (3σ/k) is 3.33 × 10(-8) mol/L (2.88 × 10(-2) mg/kg). The recoveries of the spiked samples are between 91% and 108%. The presented method can be applied to the analysis of CoQ10 in real samples without any pretreatment.

  18. Effect of silver or copper middle layer on the performance of palladium modified nickel foam electrodes in the 2-chlorobiphenyl dechlorination.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiqiao; Sun, Junjun; Wei, Jie; Wang, Qiong; Huang, Chengxiang; Chen, Jianmeng; Song, Shuang

    2013-04-15

    To enhance the activity of chemi-deposited palladium/nickel foam (Pd/Ni) electrodes used for an electrochemical dechlorination process, silver or copper was deposited electrochemically onto the nickel foam substrate (to give Ag/Ni or Cu/Ni) before the chemical deposition of palladium. The physicochemical properties of the resulting materials (Pd/Ni, Pd/Ag/Ni and Pd/Cu/Ni) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their electrochemical catalytic activities were evaluated by monitoring the electrochemical dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-CB) in strongly alkaline methanol/water solution. The results show that the Pd/Ag/Ni and Pd/Cu/Ni electrodes had consistently higher electrocatalytic activities and current efficiencies (CEs) compared with the untreated Pd/Ni electrode. The Pd/Ag/Ni electrode exhibited the highest activity. The dechlorination was also studied as a function of Pd loading, the Ag or Cu interlayer loadings, and the current density. The Pd loading and the interlayer loadings both had positive effects on the dechlorination reaction. Increasing the current density increased the reaction rate but reduced the CE. The improvement of the electrocatalytic activities of the Pd/Ni electrode by applying the interlayer of Ag or Cu resulted from the enlargement of the effective surface area of the electrode and the adjustment of the metal-H bond energy to the appropriate value, as well as the effective adsorption of 2-CB on Ag. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the Pd/Ag/Ni electrode was maintained after six successive cyclic experiments, whereas Pd/Cu/Ni electrodes deactivate severely under the same conditions.

  19. Determination of ultra-trace amounts of silver in water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a new modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    El-Mai, Hafida; Espada-Bellido, Estrella; Stitou, Mostafa; García-Vargas, Manuel; Galindo-Riaño, Maria Dolores

    2016-05-01

    A highly sensitive and selective new procedure for the determination of silver in aqueous media was developed using a modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). The modified electrode was based on the incorporation of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde benzoylhydrazone (2-HBBH) in the carbon paste electrode. Silver ions were preconcentrated on the modified electrode at open-circuit by complexation with the ligand and reduced to zero valent at a potential of 0V, and followed by the reoxidation of adsorbed ions onto the electrode by scanning the potential in a positive direction. The oxidation peak of Ag(I) was observed at 0.2V (versus Ag/AgCl). The analysis of Ag(I) was carried out in a cell containing the sample solution (20mL) buffered by 0.1molL(-1) K2HPO4/NaOH at pH 5.5 in aqueous solution and nitric acid (pH 1) in real water samples. The optimum conditions for the analysis of silver include a reduction potential of 0V and a pulse amplitude of 100mV, among others. The optimum carbon paste composition was found to be 14.1% (w/w) 2-HBBH, 56.2% (w/w) graphite powder and 29.7% (w/w) paraffin oil. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric response was used as the analytical signal. Under the selected conditions, the voltammetric signal was proportional to the Ag(I) concentration in the range of 0.001-100μgL(-1) with favorable limits of detection and quantification of 1.1ngL(-1) and 3.7ngL(-1) after 3min of accumulation time, respectively. By increasing the accumulation time to 10min, detection and quantification limits can be further improved up to 0.1ngL(-1) and 0.34ngL(-1), respectively. In addition, the results showed a highly reproducible procedure showing a relative standard deviation of 1.5% for 12 replicate measurements. Many coexisting metal ions were investigated and very few interferences were found on the determination of Ag(I). The proposed method was validated using certified reference estuarine waters

  20. Ratio of the surface-enhanced anti-Stokes scattering to the surface-enhanced Stokes-Raman scattering for molecules adsorbed on a silver electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brolo, A. G.; Sanderson, A. C.; Smith, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from oxazine 720 (oxa), rhodamine 6G (R6G), and pyridine (py) adsorbed on a rough silver surface was observed. The silver electrode was immersed in aqueous solutions permitting control of the potential bias applied to the surface. SERS spectra in the Stokes and anti-Stokes regions were obtained for several applied potentials and two laser excitation energies. Normalized ratios between the anti-Stokes and the Stokes intensities K were calculated from the SERS spectra. The K ratios differed from unity for all the systems investigated. A preferential enhancement of the (surface-enhanced) Stokes scattering was observed for oxa and py. In contrast, the K ratios were higher than unity for R6G, indicating an increase in the anti-Stokes signal. The K ratios measured in this work decreased with the excitation energy and showed a dependence on the energy of the vibrational modes. These results were satisfactorily explained using resonance models, based on the charge-transfer and electromagnetic theories for SERS. No evidence for a SERS-induced nonthermal population distribution among the vibrational states of the adsorbed molecules (vibrational optical pumping) was found. Therefore, we conclude that the main features of the preferential enhancement of the anti-Stokes scattering for an adsorbed molecule on rough silver can be fully understood in the context of current SERS theories.

  1. Reproducible preparation of a stable polypyrrole-coated-silver nanoparticles decorated polypyrrole-coated-polycaprolactone-nanofiber-based cloth electrode for electrochemical sensor application.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Guiting; Wang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Feng; Guo, Xiaoyu; Wen, Ying; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-11-06

    A piece of conductive cloth has been successfully constructed from polypyrrole-coated silver nanoparticle (Ag@PPy) composites decorated on electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers that formed the core-shell structure of Ag@PPy/PCL@PPy via a photo-induced one-step redox reaction. The photochemical reaction method both accelerated the rate of formation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and enhanced the dispersion of Ag NPs at the surface of PCL@PPy film. The resulting Ag@PPy/PCL@PPy-based cloth was flexible enough to be cut and pasted onto a glass carbon electrode for the preparation of a biosensor. The resulting biosensor showed good electrochemical activity toward the reduction of H2O2 with low detection limit down to 1 μM (S/N = 3) and wide linear detection ranging from 0.01 mM to 3.5 mM (R(2) = 0.990). This sensor has been applied to detect the trace H2O2 residual in milk. The cloth electrode has been proved to exhibit long-term stability, high selectivity, and excellent reproducibility.

  2. Influence of the morphology on the platinum electrode surface activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, Andreas; Steiger, Beat; Scherer, Günther G.; Wokaun, Alexander

    Polycrystalline Pt electrodes with different surface characteristics were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.5 M H 2SO 4. Plane electrodes showed a decrease in electrochemically active surface area while cycling in the hydrogen underpotential region (H upd), in contrast, electrodes roughened by intensive pre-cycling exhibited a stable value for the electrochemically active surface.

  3. Sensitivities of Key Parameters in the Preparation of Silver/Silver Chloride Electrodes Used in Harned Cell Measurements of pH

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Paul J.; Stoica, Daniela; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was completed by fourteen world leading national metrology institutes to study the influence of several variables in the preparation of Ag/AgCl electrodes on the accuracy of Harned cell measurements of pH. The performance of each institute in the last decade has been assessed based on their results in eight key comparisons, organized by the Bureau International des Poids et Measures Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance, involving the measurement of pH of phosphate, phthalate, carbonate, borate and tetroxalate buffer solutions. The performance of each laboratory has been correlated to the results of the questionnaire to determine the critical parameters in the preparation of Ag/AgCl electrodes and their sensitivities with respect to the accuracy of pH measurement. This study reveals that the parameters most closely correlated to performance in comparisons are area of electrode wire exposed to the electrolyte, diameter and porosity of the Ag sphere prior to anodisation, amount of Ag converted to AgCl during anodisation, stability times employed for electrodes to reach equilibrium in solution prior to measurement, electrode rejection criteria employed and purity of reagents. PMID:22164063

  4. Roughening of porous SiCOH materials in fluorocarbon plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly, F.; David, T.; Chevolleau, T.; Darnon, M.; Posseme, N.; Bouyssou, R.; Ducote, J.; Joubert, O.; Cardinaud, C.

    2010-07-01

    Porous SiCOH materials integration for integrated circuits faces serious challenges such as roughening during the etch process. In this study, atomic force microscopy is used to investigate the kinetics of SiCOH materials roughening when they are etched in fluorocarbon plasmas. We show that the root mean square roughness and the correlation length linearly increase with the etched depth, after an initiation period. We propose that: (1) during the first few seconds of the etch process, the surface of porous SiCOH materials gets denser. (2) Cracks are formed, leading to the formation of deep and narrow pits. (3) Plasma radicals diffuse through those pits and the pore network and modify the porous material at the bottom of the pits. (4) The difference in material density and composition between the surface and the bottom of the pits leads to a difference in etch rate and an amplification of the roughness. In addition to this intrinsic roughening mechanism, the presence of a metallic mask (titanium nitride) can lead to an extrinsic roughening mechanism, such as micromasking caused by metallic particles originating form the titanium nitride mask.

  5. The investigation of electrolytic surface roughening for PCB copper foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shuo-Jen; Liu, Chao-Kai

    2013-10-01

    This study is the application of the principle of electrochemical. The anodic dissolution has no concentration polarization. Hence, electrolyte life is substantially increased. The waste copper is high in ion concentration with a recovery value. As compared with the current PCB chemical pre-treatment method, it may have advantages of cost-saving, improvement of overall efficiency, reduction of production costs and reduction of the amount of waste generated. In the development of the copper foil for electrochemical roughening process, the use of electrolysis reaction affects the copper surface dissolution to form a unique bump coarsening. It will increase in the surface area of the copper foil to improve dry film solder mask and the adhesion between the copper surfaces. Four electrolytes, two neutral salts and two acids, were selected to explore the best of the electrolytic roughening parameters of temperature, time and voltage. The surface roughness and the surface morphology of the copper foil were measured before and after the electrolytic surface roughening. Finally, after repeated experiments, electrolytes A and B copper generates obvious inter-granular corrosion, resulting in a rough surface similar to the chemical pre-treatment. On the other hands, the surface morphology resulted from electrolytes C and D appears more like pitting. Both electrolytic could generate surface roughness of Ra 0.3 um roughened copper surface higher than industrial standard.

  6. A dielectrophoretic chip with a roughened metal surface for on-chip surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, I-Fang; Lin, Chi-Chang; Lin, Dong-Yi; Chang, Hsien-Chang

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the results of in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of bacteria using a microfluidic chip capable of continuously sorting and concentrating bacteria via three-dimensional dielectrophoresis (DEP). Microchannels were made by sandwiching DEP microelectrodes between two glass slides. Avoiding the use of a metal nanoparticle suspension, a roughened metal surface is integrated into the DEP-based microfluidic chip for on-chip SERS detection of bacteria. On the upper surface of the slide, a roughened metal shelter was settled in front of the DEP concentrator to enhance Raman scattering. Similarly, an electrode-patterned bottom layer fabricated on a thin cover-slip was used to reduce fluorescence noise from the glass substrate. Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were effectively distinguished in the SERS spectral data. Staphylococcus aureus (concentration of 106 CFU∕ml) was continuously separated and concentrated via DEP out of a sample of blood cells. At a flow rate of 1 μl∕min, the bacteria were highly concentrated at the roughened surface and ready for on-chip SERS analysis within 3 min. The SERS data were successfully amplified by one order of magnitude and analyzed within a few minutes, resulting in the detection of signature peaks of the respective bacteria. PMID:20806000

  7. Ultrasensitive detection of lead ion sensor based on gold nanodendrites modified electrode and electrochemiluminescent quenching of quantum dots by electrocatalytic silver/zinc oxide coupled structures.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Kong, Qingkun; Bian, Zhaoquan; Ma, Chao; Ge, Shenguang; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

    2015-03-15

    A signal-off electrochemiluminescence (ECL) DNA sensor based on gold nanodendrites (Au NDs) modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode for the detection of lead ion (Pb(2+)) was developed. Well-defined Au NDs were prepared on ITO electrode using low-potential synthesis, assisted by ethylenediamine. Based on Pb(2+)-specific deoxyribozyme, the silver/zinc oxide (Ag/ZnO) with coupled structure, prepared by one-pot method, was close to the surface of the electrode to catalyze the reduction of part of H2O2, the coreactant for cathodic ECL emission, leading to a decrease of ECL intensity. In addition, taking advantage of the larger surface area to capture a large amount of capture probe as well as excellent conductivity of Au NDs, the sensor could detect Pb(2+) quantitatively in a wider range, and performed excellent selectivity. Furthermore, such simple and sensitive DNA sensor was successfully applied for the detection of Pb(2+) in lake water and human serum samples, respectively.

  8. Amperometric detection and electrochemical oxidation of aliphatic amines and ammonia on silver-lead oxide thin-film electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Jisheng

    1996-01-08

    This thesis comprises three parts: Electrocatalysis of anodic oxygen-transfer reactions: aliphatic amines at mixed Ag-Pb oxide thin-film electrodes; oxidation of ammonia at anodized Ag-Pb eutectic alloy electrodes; and temperature effects on oxidation of ethylamine, alanine, and aquated ammonia.

  9. A novel paper-based device coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond electrode for cholesterol detection.

    PubMed

    Nantaphol, Siriwan; Chailapakul, Orawon; Siangproh, Weena

    2015-09-03

    A novel paper-based analytical device (PAD) coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond (AgNP/BDD) electrode was first developed as a cholesterol sensor. The AgNP/BDD electrode was used as working electrode after modification by AgNPs using an electrodeposition method. Wax printing was used to define the hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas on filter paper, and then counter and reference electrodes were fabricated on the hydrophilic area by screen-printing in house. For the amperometric detection, cholesterol and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were directly drop-cast onto the hydrophilic area, and H2O2 produced from the enzymatic reaction was monitored. The fabricated device demonstrated a good linearity (0.39 mg dL(-1) to 270.69 mg dL(-1)), low detection limit (0.25 mg dL(-1)), and high sensitivity (49.61 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)). The precision value for ten replicates was 3.76% RSD for 1 mM H2O2. In addition, this biosensor exhibited very high selectivity for cholesterol detection and excellent recoveries for bovine serum analysis (in the range of 99.6-100.8%). The results showed that this new sensing platform will be an alternative tool for cholesterol detection in routine diagnosis and offers the advantages of low sample/reagent consumption, low cost, portability, and short analysis time.

  10. Modification of the Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Layer for Use in Silver Nanogrid Electrodes for Flexible Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Fei, Fei; Luo, Qun; Nie, Shuhong; Wu, Na; Chen, Xiaolian; Su, Wenming; Li, Yuanjie; Ma, Chang-Qi

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanogrid based flexible transparent electrode is recognized as the most promising alternative to ITO electrode for organic electronics, owing to its low production cost and excellent flexibility. Typically, a highly conductive thin film coating layer, such as highly conductive PEDOT:PSS (HC-PEDOT:PSS) is usually deposited onto the Ag-grid electrode to smooth the surface and to minimize the sheet resistance. In this paper, we found that inverted flexible polymer solar cells with structure of Ag-grid/HC-PEDOT:PSS/ZnO/photoactive layer/MoO3/Al generally exhibits strong S-shaped J-V curves, which could be eliminated by light-soaking treatment. Kelvin probe force microscope (KPFM) measurement proved that a large work function (WF) difference (0.70 eV) between HC-PEDOT:PSS and ZnO is the main reason for the formation of S-shape. White light soaking of the Ag-grid/HC-PEDOT:PSS gradually decreased the WF of HC-PEDOT:PSS from 5.10 to 4.60 eV, leading to a reduced WF difference between HC-PEDOT:PSS and ZnO from 0.70 to 0.38 eV. Such a WF difference decrease was believed to be the working mechanism for the light-soaking effect in this flexible device. Based on this finding, the HC-PEDOT:PSS solution was then modified by doping with polyethylenimine (PEI) and aqueous ammonia. The modified PEDOT:PSS film is characteristic of adjusting WF through varying PEI doping concentrations. By using such a modified PEDOT:PSS layer, light-soaking-free flexible inverted polymer solar cell with a power conversion efficiency of 6.58% was achieved for PTB7-Th:PC71BM cells. The current work provides a useful guideline for interfacial modification for Ag-grid based flexible electrode.

  11. Enhancing the optical properties of silver nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by the modification of nanowire cross-section using ultra-violet illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Lee, H.; Woo, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Improvement in the haze and transmittance of the silver nanowire (Ag NW) based transparent conducting electrodes is achieved by illuminating UV light after the Ag NW network formation. The evidences from the experimental analyses and numerical calculations indicate that the enhancement of the optical properties is derived from the modification of the Ag NW cross-section from a pentagonal to a circular shape, as well as the removal of the polyvinylpyrrolidone capping layer on the Ag NW surface. The deformation of the Ag NW cross-section occurs due to heat generation induced by the UV light absorption in the Ag NW, and it provides thermal energy for recrystallization to the Ag atoms on the NW surface, specifically near the corners of the pentagon, resulting in an increase in the radius of the rounded corners.

  12. Photoreduction of methylviologen adsorbed on silver

    SciTech Connect

    Feilchenfeld, H.; Chumanov, G.; Cotton, T.M. |

    1996-03-21

    Methylviologen adsorbed on a roughened silver electrode is reduced to its cation radical upon irradiation with laser light at liquid nitrogen temperature. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra were obtained with different excitation wavelengths between 406 and 752 nm and compared to those obtained at room temperature in an electrochemical cell under potential control. From two-color experiments, in which one laser frequency was used to generate the radical and a second to excite the SERS spectra, it was determined that radical formation occurs mainly with excitation in the blue spectral region. A comparison of the SERS spectra of the dication and cation radical forms of methylviologen with their solution spectra suggests that the former interacts more strongly with the surface than the latter. The cation radical appears to be stable for several hours in liquid nitrogen but has a short lifetime at room temperature. Two mechanisms for the photoreduction are discussed: plasmon-assisted electron transfer from the metal to the methylviologen dication and formation of a resonance charge transfer complex. The current experimental data are insufficient to determine the particular role of these mechanisms. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Multiplexed enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor based on ZnO nanorods modified reduced graphene oxide-paper electrode and silver deposition-induced signal amplification strategy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoqiang; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Hongmei; Ma, Chao; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua; Song, Xianrang

    2015-09-15

    Herein, an origami multiplexed enzyme-free electrochemical (EC) immunodevice is developed for the first time. Typically, ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-paper electrode is used as a sensor platform, in which rGO improves the electronic transmission rate and ZNRs provide abundant sites for capture probes binding. Furthermore, by combining the large surface area of rGO and high catalytic activity of bovine serum protein (BSA)-stabilized silver nanoparticles (Ag@BSA) toward H2O2 reduction, rGO/Ag@BSA composites can be used as an excellent signal labels. The current signal is generated from the reduction of H2O2 and further amplified by a subsequent signal labels-promoted deposition of silver. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunoassays exhibit excellent precision, high sensitivity and a wide linear range of 0.002-120 mIU mL(-1) for human chorionic gonadotropin, 0.001-110 ng mL(-1) for prostate-specific antigen, and 0.001-100 ng mL(-1) for carcinoembryonic antigen. The results for real sample analysis demonstrate that the newly constructed immunosensor arrays provide a simple and cost-effective method for clinical applications.

  14. Preparation of flexible organic solar cells with highly conductive and transparent metal-oxide multilayer electrodes based on silver oxide.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jungheum; Wang, Wei; Bae, Tae Sung; Park, Yeon Hyun; Kang, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Ho; Lee, Sunghun; Lee, Gun-Hwan; Song, Myungkwan; Kang, Jae-Wook

    2013-10-23

    We report that significantly more transparent yet comparably conductive AgOx films, when compared to Ag films, are synthesized by the inclusion of a remarkably small amount of oxygen (i.e., 2 or 3 atom %) in thin Ag films. An 8 nm thick AgOx (O/Ag=2.4 atom %) film embedded between 30 nm thick ITO films (ITO/AgOx/ITO) achieves a transmittance improvement of 30% when compared to a conventional ITO/Ag/ITO electrode with the same configuration by retaining the sheet resistance in the range of 10-20 Ω sq(-1). The high transmittance provides an excellent opportunity to improve the power-conversion efficiency of organic solar cells (OSCs) by successfully matching the transmittance spectral range of the electrode to the optimal absorption region of low band gap photoactive polymers, which is highly limited in OSCs utilizing conventional ITO/Ag/ITO electrodes. An improvement of the power-conversion efficiency from 4.72 to 5.88% is achieved from highly flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) fabricated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) polymer substrates by replacing the conventional ITO/Ag/ITO electrode with the ITO/AgOx/ITO electrode. This novel transparent electrode can facilitate a cost-effective, high-throughput, room-temperature fabrication solution for producing large-area flexible OSCs on heat-sensitive polymer substrates with excellent power-conversion efficiencies.

  15. Silver Nanowires Binding with Sputtered ZnO to Fabricate Highly Conductive and Thermally Stable Transparent Electrode for Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjeet; Rana, Tanka R; Kim, SeongYeon; Kim, Kihwan; Yun, Jae Ho; Kim, JunHo

    2016-05-25

    Silver nanowire (AgNW) film has been demonstrated as excellent and low cost transparent electrode in organic solar cells as an alternative to replace scarce and expensive indium tin oxide (ITO). However, the low contact area and weak adhesion with low-lying surface as well as junction resistance between nanowires have limited the applications of AgNW film to thin film solar cells. To resolve this problem, we fabricated AgNW film as transparent conductive electrode (TCE) by binding with a thin layer of sputtered ZnO (40 nm) which not only increased contact area with low-lying surface in thin film solar cell but also improved conductivity by connecting AgNWs at the junction. The TCE thus fabricated exhibited transparency and sheet resistance of 92% and 20Ω/□, respectively. Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) study revealed the enhancement of current collection vertically and laterally through AgNWs after coating with ZnO thin film. The CuInGaSe2 solar cell with TCE of our AgNW(ZnO) demonstrated the maximum power conversion efficiency of 13.5% with improved parameters in comparison to solar cell fabricated with conventional ITO as TCE.

  16. Low-Temperature All-Solution-Processed Transparent Silver Nanowire-Polymer/AZO Nanoparticles Composite Electrodes for Efficient ITO-Free Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqin; Wu, Jiang; Wang, Jiantai; Yang, Qingqing; Zhang, Baohua; Xie, Zhiyuan

    2016-12-21

    We present a kind of all-solution-processed transparent conductive film comprising of silver nanowire (AgNW), polyvinyl butyral (PVB), and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles (AZO NPs) composite (APA) by layer-by-layer blade-coating on glass substrate at low temperature. This kind of transparent APA film exhibits high transmittance at a wide range of 400-700 nm. The sheet resistance of the APA film can be as low as 21 Ω sq(-1) with transmittance over 94% at 550 nm. The introduction of PVB significantly improves the APA composite adhesion to glass substrate. The overlaid coating of AZO NPs not only reduces the sheet resistance but also improves the ambient and thermal stability of the APA film. This highly conductive and transparent APA film on glass substrate is employed as the bottom electrode to fabricate high-efficiency polymer solar cells (PSCs). A power conversion efficiency of 8.98% is achieved for the PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM PSCs employing the APA composite as transparent bottom electrode, close to 9.54% of the control device fabricated on the commercial indium tin oxide substrate. As it can be easily prepared with all-solution-processed blade-coating method at low temperature, this kind of AgNW-based composite film is promising to integrate with roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible PSCs.

  17. Electrocatalytic simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, uric acid and L-Cysteine in real samples using quercetin silver nanoparticles-graphene nanosheets modified glassy carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Hamid R.; Jahangiri-Dehaghani, Fahime; Shekari, Zahra; Benvidi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    By immobilizing of quercetin at the surface of a glassy carbon electrode modified with silver nanoparticles and graphene nanosheets (Q-AgNPs-GNs-GCE) a new sensor has been fabricated. The cyclic voltammogram of Q-AgNPs-GNs-GCE shows a stable redox couple with surface confined characteristics. Q-AgNPs-GNs-GCE demonstrated a high catalytic activity for L-Cysteine (L-Cys) oxidation. Results indicated that L-Cys peak potential at Q-AgNPs-GNs-GCE shifted to less positive values compared to GNs-GCE or AgNPs-GCE. Also, the kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient,, and the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant, k‧, for the oxidation of L-Cys at the Q-AgNPs-GNs-GCE surface were estimated. In differential pulse voltammetric determination, the detection limit of L-Cys was obtained 0.28 μM, and the calibration plots were linear within two ranges of 0.9-12.4 μM and 12.4-538.5 μM of L-Cys. Also, the proposed modified electrode is used for the simultaneous determinations of ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and L-Cys. Finally, this study has demonstrated the practical analytical utility of the sensor for determination of AA in vitamin C tablet, L-Cys in a milk sample and UA in a human urine sample.

  18. Highly conductive and transparent silver grid/metal oxide hybrid electrodes for low-temperature planar perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weihai; Xiong, Juan; Wang, Sheng; Liu, Wei-er; Li, Jun; Wang, Duofa; Gu, Haoshuang; Wang, Xianbao; Li, Jinhua

    2017-01-01

    Recently, organometal halide perovskite solar cells have attracted great attention in photovoltaic research. However, the devices require high-temperature processing of up to 450 °C that hinders the applications in the low cost and large-area product of devices. Here, we reported the ITO/Ag grid/AZO hybrid electrodes for planar perovskite solar cells fabricated under the temperature of 150 °C. The planar perovskite solar cells do not require a mesoporous scaffold that need high-temperature annealing processing. The optimized ITO/Ag grid/AZO electrode which was fabricated as the sequence of ITO, Ag grid, AZO by magnetron sputtering exhibited an extreme low sheet resistance about 3.8 Ω/sq and a relative high transparency of 89.6% at the wavelength of 550 nm. The hybrid electrode could combine the electrical property of ITO and optical property of AZO. On the other hand, AZO has better energy level match with electron transport layer of ZnO than ITO. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.8% was obtained under the processing temperature of 150 °C by using ITO/Ag grid/AZO electrode. The high performances of the solar cells were attributed to the superior performances of ITO/Ag grid/AZO electrode and the good band energy match between ZnO and AZO.

  19. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  20. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  1. Preliminary flight prototype silver ion monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, J.

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a preliminary flight prototype silver ion monitoring system based on potentiometric principles and utilizing a solid-state silver sulfide electrode paired with a pressurized double-junction reference electrode housing a replaceable electrolyte reservoir is described. The design provides automatic electronic calibration utilizing saturated silver bromide solution as a silver ion standard. The problem of loss of silver ion from recirculating fluid, its cause, and corrective procedures are reported. The instability of the silver sulfide electrode is discussed as well as difficulties met in implementing the autocalibration procedure.

  2. A spray-coating process for highly conductive silver nanowire networks as the transparent top-electrode for small molecule organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Franz; Weiß, Nelli; Kneppe, David; Bormann, Ludwig; Sachse, Christoph; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander; Leo, Karl; Müller-Meskamp, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel top-electrode spray-coating process for the solution-based deposition of silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto vacuum-processed small molecule organic electronic solar cells. The process is compatible with organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic light emitting thin film transistors (OLETs) as well. By modifying commonly synthesized AgNWs with a perfluorinated methacrylate, we are able to disperse these wires in a highly fluorinated solvent. This solvent does not dissolve most organic materials, enabling a top spray-coating process for sensitive small molecule and polymer-based devices. The optimized preparation of the novel AgNW dispersion and spray-coating at only 30 °C leads to high performance electrodes directly after the deposition, exhibiting a sheet resistance of 10.0 Ω □-1 at 87.4% transparency (80.0% with substrate). By spraying our novel AgNW dispersion in air onto the vacuum-processed organic p-i-n type solar cells, we obtain working solar cells with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.23%, compared to the air exposed reference devices employing thermally evaporated thin metal layers as the top-electrode.We present a novel top-electrode spray-coating process for the solution-based deposition of silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto vacuum-processed small molecule organic electronic solar cells. The process is compatible with organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic light emitting thin film transistors (OLETs) as well. By modifying commonly synthesized AgNWs with a perfluorinated methacrylate, we are able to disperse these wires in a highly fluorinated solvent. This solvent does not dissolve most organic materials, enabling a top spray-coating process for sensitive small molecule and polymer-based devices. The optimized preparation of the novel AgNW dispersion and spray-coating at only 30 °C leads to high performance electrodes directly after the deposition, exhibiting a sheet resistance of 10.0 Ω □-1 at 87

  3. Critical Role of Diels–Adler Adducts to Realise Stretchable Transparent Electrodes Based on Silver Nanowires and Silicone Elastomer

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Gaeun; Pyo, Kyoung-hee; Lee, Da Hee; Kim, Youngmin; Kim, Jong-Woong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the successful fabrication of a transparent electrode comprising a sandwich structure of silicone/Ag nanowires (AgNWs)/silicone equipped with Diels–Alder (DA) adducts as crosslinkers to realise highly stable stretchability. Because of the reversible DA reaction, the crosslinked silicone successfully bonds with the silicone overcoat, which should completely seal the electrode. Thus, any surrounding liquid cannot leak through the interfaces among the constituents. Furthermore, the nanowires are protected by the silicone cover when they are stressed by mechanical loads such as bending, folding, and stretching. After delicate optimisation of the layered silicone/AgNW/silicone sandwich structure, a stretchable transparent electrode which can withstand 1000 cycles of 50% stretching–releasing with an exceptionally high stability and reversibility was fabricated. This structure can be used as a transparent strain sensor; it possesses a strong piezoresistivity with a gauge factor greater than 11. PMID:27140436

  4. Silver nanoparticles on conducting electrode: a simple two-step process for realizing plasmonic solar cell design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Mohammad Kamal; Drmosh, Qasem Ahmed; Mukhaimer, Ayman Wajeeh; Bahaidarah, Haitham Mohammed

    2014-08-01

    Solar light harvesting cannot be efficiently managed unless and until the contribution of plasmonics in solar cells is fully realized. Such an investigation can be initiated and achieved by incorporating plasmonic nanoscatterers that support surface plasmons: excitations of conduction electrons at the interface/surface. The challenge is to fabricate these plasmonic scatterers in cost-effective method as well as without hampering optical, electrical and topographical properties of underneath layers. Here, in this report, we showed a simple two-step method in fabricating silver nanoparticles on zinc oxide followed by topographic and elemental analysis thereof. Numerical calculation and near-electric field distribution of single silver nanoparticles of different sizes was simulated by finite different time domain (FDTD) analysis. Since the distributed electric flux due to individual nanoparticles is crucial for excitons generation in active layer, such simulation predicts that nanoparticles excited by radiation of lower energy contribute wider electric flux sacrificing the intensity of localized electric field. A typical model was considered and FDTD simulation was carried out to understand the trend of absorption depth profile within the active layer involved in plasmonic solar cell.

  5. Metal-oxide thin-film transistor-based pH sensor with a silver nanowire top gate electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Tae-Hee; Sang, Byoung-In; Wang, Byung-Yong; Lim, Dae-Soon; Kang, Hyun Wook; Choi, Won Kook; Lee, Young Tack; Oh, Young-Jei; Hwang, Do Kyung

    2016-04-01

    Amorphous InGaZnO (IGZO) metal-oxide-semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) are one of the most promising technologies to replace amorphous and polycrystalline Si TFTs. Recently, TFT-based sensing platforms have been gaining significant interests. Here, we report on IGZO transistor-based pH sensors in aqueous medium. In order to achieve stable operation in aqueous environment and enhance sensitivity, we used Al2O3 grown by using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a porous Ag nanowire (NW) mesh as the top gate dielectric and electrode layers, respectively. Such devices with a Ag NW mesh at the top gate electrode rapidly respond to the pH of solutions by shifting the turn-on voltage. Furthermore, the output voltage signals induced by the voltage shifts can be directly extracted by implantation of a resistive load inverter.

  6. Roughening of hcp metal surfaces induced by nitrogen adsorption.

    PubMed

    Kaghazchi, Payam; Jacob, Timo

    2012-10-28

    Using DFT calculations and thermodynamic considerations, the structure of Ru, Os, and Re hcp(1121) surfaces has been studied in the presence of a N(2) atmosphere. We find that N adsorption causes two-sided ridges consisting of hcp{1342} faces to form on the initially planar hcp(1121) surface. The rough hcp(1342) surface has a high density of low-coordinated atoms and is expected to show a high bond-breaking activity. Since the roughening of hcp(1121) is also favorable at elevated temperatures and pressures, it might be capable to change the activity of the hcp-catalysts.

  7. Treasure of the Past VI: Standard Potential of the Silver-Silver-Chloride Electrode from 0° to 95° C and the Thermodynamic Properties of Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Roger G.; Bower, Vincent E.

    2001-01-01

    From electromotive-force measurements of the cell without liquid junction: Pt;H2,HCl(m),AgCl;Agthrough the range 0° to 95° C, calculations have been made of (1) the standard potential of the silver–silver-chloride electrode, (2) the activity coefficient of hydrochloric acid in aqueous solutions from m (molality) =0 to m=0.1 and from 0° to 90° C, (3) the relative partial molal heat content of hydrochloric acid, and (4) the relative partial molal heat capacity of hydrochloric acid. The extrapolations were made by the method of least squares with the aid of punch-card techniques. Data from at least 24 cells were analyzed at each temperature, and 81 cells were studied at 25° C. The value of the standard potential was found to be 0.22234 absolute volt at 25° C, and the standard deviation was 0.02 millivolt at 0° C, 0.01 millivolt at 25° C, and 0.09 millivolt at 95° C. The results from 0° to 60° C are compared with earlier determinations of the standard potential and other quantities derived from the electromotive force. PMID:27500034

  8. Conditioning of renewable silver amalgam film electrode for the characterization of clothianidin and its determination in selected samples by adsorptive square-wave voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Brycht, Mariola; Skrzypek, Sławomira; Guzsvány, Valéria; Berenji, Janoš

    2013-12-15

    A new square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (SWAdSV) method was developed for the determination of the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin (Clo), based on its reduction at a renewable silver amalgam film electrode (Hg(Ag)FE). The key point of the procedure is the pretreatment of the Hg(Ag)FE by applying the appropriate conditioning potential (-1.70 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode). Under the optimized voltammetric conditions, such pretreatment resulted in the peak for the Clo reduction in Britton-Robinson buffer pH 9.0 at about -0.60 V, which was used for the analytical purpose. The developed SWAdSV procedure made it possible to determine Clo in the concentration range of 6.0×10(-7)-7.0×10(-6) mol L(-1) (LOD=1.8×10(-7) mol L(-1), LOQ=6.0×10(-7) mol L(-1)) and 7.0×10(-6)-4.0×10(-5) mol L(-1) (LOD=1.3×10(-6) mol L(-1), LOQ=4.2×10(-6) mol L(-1)). The repeatability, precision, and the recovery of the method were determined. The effect of common interfering pesticides was also investigated. Standard addition method was successfully applied and validated for the determination of Clo in spiked Warta River water, corn seeds samples, and in corn seeds samples treated with the commercial formulation PONCHO 600 FS.

  9. Highly Selective Detection of Silver in the Low ppt Range with Ion-Selective Electrodes Based on Ionophore-Doped Fluorous Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chun-Ze; Fierke, Melissa A.; Costa, Rosenildo Corrêa da; Gladysz, John A.; Stein, Andreas; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Ionophore-doped sensing membranes exhibit greater selectivities and wider measuring ranges if their membrane matrixes are noncoordinating and solvate interfering ions poorly. This is particularly true for fluorous phases, which are the least polar and polarizable condensed phases known. In this work, fluorous membrane matrixes were used to prepare silver ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Sensing membranes composed of perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene, sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(perfluorohexyl)phenyl]borate, and one of four fluorophilic Ag+-selective ionophores with one or two thioether groups were investigated. All electrodes exhibited Nernstian responses to Ag+ in a wide range of concentrations. Their selectivities for Ag+ over interfering ions were found to depend on host preorganization and the length of the –(CH2)n– spacers separating the coordinating thioether group from the strongly electron withdrawing perfluoroalkyl groups. ISEs based on the most selective of the four ionophores, i.e., 1,3-bis(perfluorodecylethylthiomethyl)benzene, provided much higher selectivities for Ag+ over many alkaline and heavy metal ions than most Ag+ ISEs reported in the literature (e.g., logKAg,Jpot for K+, −11.6; Pb2+, −10.2; Cu2+, −13.0; Cd2+, −13.2). Moreover, the use of this ionophore with a linear perfluorooligoether as membrane matrix and solid contacts consisting of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) carbon resulted in a detection limit for Ag+ of 4.1 ppt (3.8×10−11 M). PMID:20799720

  10. Rapid synthesis of ultra-long silver nanowires for tailor-made transparent conductive electrodes: proof of concept in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    José Andrés, Luis; Fe Menéndez, María; Gómez, David; Luisa Martínez, Ana; Bristow, Noel; Paul Kettle, Jeffrey; Menéndez, Armando; Ruiz, Bernardino

    2015-07-03

    Rapid synthesis of ultralong silver nanowires (AgNWs) has been obtained using a one-pot polyol-mediated synthetic procedure. The AgNWs have been prepared from the base materials in less than one hour with nanowire lengths reaching 195 μm, which represents the quickest synthesis and one of the highest reported aspect ratios to date. These results have been achieved through a joint analysis of all reaction parameters, which represents a clear progress beyond the state of the art. Dispersions of the AgNWs have been used to prepare thin, flexible, transparent and conducting films using spray coating. Due to the higher aspect ratio, an improved electrical percolation network is observed. This allows a low sheet resistance (RS = 20.2 Ω/sq), whilst maintaining high optical film transparency (T = 94.7%), driving to the highest reported figure-of-merit (FoM = 338). Owing to the light-scattering influence of the AgNWs, the density of the AgNW network can also be varied to enable controllability of the optical haze through the sample. Based on the identification of the optimal haze value, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been fabricated using the AgNWs as the transparent electrode and have been benchmarked against indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Overall, the performance of OPVs made using AgNWs sees a small decrease in power conversion efficiency (PCE), primarily due to a fall in open-circuit voltage (50 mV). This work indicates that AgNWs can provide a low cost, rapid and roll-to-roll compatible alternative to ITO in OPVs, with only a small compromise in PCE needed.

  11. Kinetic Roughening Transition and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    Interpretation of lysozyme crystal growth rates using well-established physical theories enabled the discovery of a phenomenon possibly indicative of kinetic roughening. For example, lysozyme crystals grown above a critical supersaturation sigma, (where supersaturation sigma = ln c/c(sub eq), c = the protein concentration and c(sub eq) = the solubility concentration) exhibit microscopically rough surfaces due to the continuous addition of growth units anywhere on the surface of a crystal. The rate of crystal growth, V(sub c), for the continuous growth process is determined by the continuous flux of macromolecules onto a unit area of the crystal surface, a, from a distance, xi, per unit time due to diffusion, and a probability of attachment onto the crystal surface, expressed. Based upon models applied, the energetics of lysozyme crystal growth was determined. The magnitudes of the energy barriers of crystal growth for both the (110) and (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals are compared. Finally, evidence supportive of the kinetic roughening hypothesis is presented.

  12. Flexible ambipolar organic field-effect transistors with reverse-offset-printed silver electrodes for a complementary inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junsu; Kim, Minseok; Yeom, Seung-Won; Ha, Hyeon Jun; Song, Hyenggun; Jhon, Young Min; Kim, Yun-Hi; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2016-06-01

    We report ambipolar organic field-effect transistors and complementary inverter circuits with reverse-offset-printed (ROP) Ag electrodes fabricated on a flexible substrate. A diketopyrrolopyrrole-based co-polymer (PDPP-TAT) was used as the semiconductor and poly(methyl methacrylate) was used as the gate insulator. Considerable improvement is observed in the n-channel electrical characteristics by inserting a cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) as the electron-injection/hole-blocking layer at the interface between the semiconductors and the electrodes. The saturation mobility values are 0.35 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the p-channel and 0.027 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the n-channel. A complementary inverter is demonstrated based on the ROP process, and it is selectively controlled by the insertion of Cs2CO3 onto the n-channel region via thermal evaporation. Moreover, the devices show stable operation during the mechanical bending test using tensile strains ranging from 0.05% to 0.5%. The results confirm that these devices have great potential for use in flexible and inexpensive integrated circuits over a large area.

  13. Silver nanoflower-reduced graphene oxide composite based micro-disk electrode for insulin detection in serum.

    PubMed

    Yagati, Ajay Kumar; Choi, Yonghyun; Park, Jinsoo; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Jun, Hee-Sook; Cho, Sungbo

    2016-06-15

    Sensitive and selective determination of protein biomarkers remains a significant challenge due to the existence of various biomarkers in human body at a low concentration level. Therefore, new technologies were incessantly steered to detect tiny biomarkers at a low concentration level, yet, it is difficult to develop reliable, stable and sensitive detection methods for disease diagnostics. Therefore, the present study demonstrates a methodology to detect insulin in serum at low levels based on Ag nanoflower (AgNF) decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) modified micro-disk electrode arrays (MDEAs). The morphology of AgNF-rGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the structure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra. The hybrid interface exhibited enhanced electrical conductivity when compared with its individual elements and had improved capturing ability for antibody-antigen binding towards insulin detection. In order to measure quantitatively the insulin concentration in PBS and human serum, the change in impedance (ΔZ) from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was analyzed for various concentrations of insulin in [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) redox couple. The electrode with adsorbed antibodies showed an increase in ΔZ for the addition of antigen concentrations over a working range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1). The detection limits were 50 and 70 pg mL(-1) in PBS and human serum, respectively.

  14. Flexible ambipolar organic field-effect transistors with reverse-offset-printed silver electrodes for a complementary inverter.

    PubMed

    Park, Junsu; Kim, Minseok; Yeom, Seung-Won; Ha, Hyeon Jun; Song, Hyenggun; Min Jhon, Young; Kim, Yun-Hi; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2016-06-03

    We report ambipolar organic field-effect transistors and complementary inverter circuits with reverse-offset-printed (ROP) Ag electrodes fabricated on a flexible substrate. A diketopyrrolopyrrole-based co-polymer (PDPP-TAT) was used as the semiconductor and poly(methyl methacrylate) was used as the gate insulator. Considerable improvement is observed in the n-channel electrical characteristics by inserting a cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) as the electron-injection/hole-blocking layer at the interface between the semiconductors and the electrodes. The saturation mobility values are 0.35 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for the p-channel and 0.027 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for the n-channel. A complementary inverter is demonstrated based on the ROP process, and it is selectively controlled by the insertion of Cs2CO3 onto the n-channel region via thermal evaporation. Moreover, the devices show stable operation during the mechanical bending test using tensile strains ranging from 0.05% to 0.5%. The results confirm that these devices have great potential for use in flexible and inexpensive integrated circuits over a large area.

  15. Horseradish peroxidase-labeled silver/reduced graphene oxide thin film-modified screen-printed electrode for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Lee, S X; Lim, H N; Ibrahim, I; Jamil, A; Pandikumar, A; Huang, N M

    2017-03-15

    In this study, a disposable and simple electrochemical immunosensor was fabricated for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen. In this method, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were mixed with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to modify the surface of screen-printed carbon electrode (SPE). Initially, AgNPs-rGO modified-SPEs were fabricated by using simple electrochemical deposition method. Then the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was immobilized between the primary antibody and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated secondary antibody onto AgNPs-rGO modified-SPEs to fabricate a sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor. The proposed method could detect the CEA with a linear range of 0.05-0.50µgmL(-1) and a detection limit down to 0.035µgmL(-1) as compared to its non-sandwich counterpart, which yielded a linear range of 0.05-0.40µgmL(-1), with a detection limit of 0.042µgmL(-1). The immunosensor showed good performance in the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen, exhibiting a simple, rapid and low-cost. The immunosensor showed a higher sensitivity than an enzymeless sensor.

  16. Highly Conductive and Uniform Alginate/Silver Nanowire Composite Transparent Electrode by Room Temperature Solution Processing for Organic Light Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Lian, Lu; Dong, Dan; Yang, Shuai; Wei, Bingwu; He, Gufeng

    2017-04-05

    A novel transparent electrode composed of alginate/silver nanowire (AgNW) with high conductivity and low roughness is fabricated via a solution process at room temperature. The sol-gel transition of the alginate triggered by CaCl2 solution bonds the AgNWs to the substrate tightly. Meanwhile, Cl(-) in the solution can renovate the cracks on the AgNW surfaces created during the mechanical pressing, resulting in a great increase of the electrical conductivity. The alginate/AgNW composite film can reach a sheet resistance of 2.3 Ω/sq with a transmittance of 83% at 550 nm. The conductivity of the composite film remains stable after bending and tape tests, demonstrating excellent flexibility and great adhesion of AgNWs to the substrate. Moreover, the composite film shows better stability to resist longtime storage than conventional annealed-AgNW film. The organic light emitting diode using such alginate/AgNW composite film as anode presents current densities and luminances comparable to those of indium tin oxide (ITO) anode, and higher efficiencies are obtained due to the better charge balance.

  17. A solution-processed molybdenum oxide treated silver nanowire network: a highly conductive transparent conducting electrode with superior mechanical and hole injection properties.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jung-Hao; Chiang, Kai-Ming; Kang, Hao-Wei; Chi, Wei-Jung; Chang, Jung-Hung; Wu, Chih-I; Lin, Hao-Wu

    2015-03-14

    We demonstrate the fabrication of solution-processed MoOx-treated (s-MoOx) silver nanowire (AgNW) transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) utilizing low-temperature (sub-100 °C) processes. The s-MoOx aggregates around the AgNW and forms gauze-like MoOx thin films between the mesh, which can effectively lower the sheet resistance by more than two orders of magnitude. Notably, these s-MoOx-treated AgNW TCEs exhibit a combination of several promising characteristics, such as a high and broad transmittance across a wavelength range of 400 to 1000 nm, transmission of up to 96.8%, a low sheet resistance of 29.8 ohm sq(-1), a low haze value of 0.90%, better mechanical properties against bending and adhesion tests, and preferable gap states for efficient hole injection in optoelectronic applications. By utilizing these s-MoOx-treated AgNW TCEs as the anode in ITO-free organic light emitting diodes, promising performance of 29.2 lm W(-1) and 10.3% external quantum efficiency are demonstrated. The versatile, multi-functional s-MoOx treatment presented here paves the way for the use of low-temperature, solution-processed MoOx as both a nanowire linker and a hole injection interfacial layer for future flexible optoelectronic devices.

  18. Electrochemical sensor using neomycin-imprinted film as recognition element based on chitosan-silver nanoparticles/graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Lian, Wenjing; Liu, Su; Yu, Jinghua; Li, Jie; Cui, Min; Xu, Wei; Huang, Jiadong

    2013-06-15

    A novel imprinted electrochemical sensor for neomycin recognition was developed based on chitosan-silver nanoparticles (CS-SNP)/graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (GR-MWCNTs) composites decorated gold electrode. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized by electropolymerization using neomycin as the template, and pyrrole as the monomer. The mechanism of the fabrication process and a number of factors affecting the activity of the imprinted sensor have been discussed and optimized. The characterization of imprinted sensor has been carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The performance of the proposed imprinted sensor has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of the sensor was from 9×10(-9)mol/L to 7×10(-6)mol/L, with the limit of detection (LOD) of 7.63×10(-9)mol/L (S/N=3). The film exhibited high binding affinity and selectivity towards the template neomycin, as well as good reproducibility and stability. Furthermore, the proposed sensor was applied to determine the neomycin in milk and honey samples based on its good reproducibility and stability, and the acceptable recovery implied its feasibility for practical application.

  19. Silver decorated LaMnO3 nanorod/graphene composite electrocatalysts as reversible metal-air battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jie; Liu, Qiunan; Shi, Lina; Shi, Ziwei; Huang, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Perovskite LaMnO3 nanorod/reduced graphene oxides (LMO-NR/RGO) decorated with Ag nanoparticles are studied as a bifunctional catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolyte. LMO-NR/RGO composites are synthesized by using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template via a simple hydrothermal reaction followed by heat treatment; overlaying of Ag nanoparticles is obtained through a traditional silver mirror reaction. Electron microscopy reveals that LMO-NR is embedded between the sheets of RGO, and the material is homogeneously overlaid with Ag nanoparticles. The unique composite morphology of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO not only enhances the electron transport property by increasing conductivity but also facilitates the diffusion of electrolytes and oxygen. As confirmed by electrochemical testing, Ag/LMO-NR/RGO exhibits very strong synergy with Ag nanoparticles, LMO-NR, and RGO, and the catalytic activities of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO during ORR and OER are significantly improved. With the novel catalyst, the homemade zinc-air battery can be reversibly charged and discharged and display a stable cycle performance, indicating the great potential of this composite as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for metal-air batteries.

  20. Scaling of local slopes, conservation laws, and anomalous roughening in surface growth.

    PubMed

    López, Juan M; Castro, Mario; Gallego, Rafael

    2005-04-29

    We argue that symmetries and conservation laws greatly restrict the form of the terms entering the long wavelength description of growth models exhibiting anomalous roughening. This is exploited to show by dynamic renormalization group arguments that intrinsic anomalous roughening cannot occur in local growth models. However, some conserved dynamics may display superroughening if a given type of term is present.

  1. The effect of low-fluence neutron irradiation on silver-electroded lead-zirconate-titanate piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broomfield, G. H.

    1980-06-01

    The properties of several different versions of near equi-molar proportioned lead-zirconate-titanate ceramic piezoelectric plates were measured after irradiation for up to 48 h in an MTR hollow fuel element. The irradiation temperature was 180 ± 50°C and the maximum fluences 3.5 × 10 19 thermal and 1.4 × 10 19 fission neutrons/cm 2. The irradiation decreased the capacitance, increased the thickness-mode resonant frequencies and decreased the elevated temperature electromechanical coupling in all of the samples tested. The effects are considered to be due to a change in the electrode bonding and a reduction in the polarisation of the ceramic.

  2. Amperometric Detection of Aqueous Silver Ions by Inhibition of Glucose Oxidase Immobilized on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rust, Ian M; Goran, Jacob M; Stevenson, Keith J

    2015-07-21

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) was successfully developed for the determination of silver ions. Upon exposure to glucose, a steady-state enzymatic turnover rate was detected through amperometric oxidation of the H2O2 byproduct, directly related to the concentration of glucose in solution. Inhibition of the steady-state enzymatic glucose oxidase reaction by heavy metals ions such as Ag(+), produced a quantitative decrease in the steady-state rate, subsequently creating an ultrasensitive metal ion biosensor through enzymatic inhibition. The Ag(+) biosensor displayed a sensitivity of 2.00 × 10(8) ± 0.06 M(-1), a limit of detection (σ = 3) of 0.19 ± 0.04 ppb, a linear range of 20-200 nM, and sample recovery at 101 ± 2%, all acquired at a low-operating potential of 0.05 V (vs Hg/Hg2SO4). Interestingly, the biosensor does not display a loss in sensitivity with continued use due to the % inhibition based detection scheme: loss of enzyme (from continued use) does not influence the % inhibition, only the overall current associated with the activity loss. The heavy metals Cu(2+) and Co(2+) were also detected using the enzyme biosensor but found to be much less inhibitory, with sensitivities of 1.45 × 10(6) ± 0.05 M(-1) and 2.69 × 10(3) ± 0.07 M(-1), respectively. The mode of GOx inhibition was examined for both Ag(+) and Cu(2+) using Dixon and Cornish-Bowden plots, where a strong correlation was observed between the inhibition constants and the biosensor sensitivity.

  3. NiCd battery electrodes, C-150

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G.; Turchan, M.; Hopkins, J.

    1972-01-01

    Electrodes for a nongassing negative limited nickel-cadmium cell are discussed. The key element is the development of cadmium electrodes with high hydrogen overvoltage. For this, the following electrode structures were manufactured and their physical and electrochemical characteristics were evaluated: (1) silver-sinter-based Cd electrodes, (2) Teflon-bonded Cd electrodes, (3) electrodeposited Cd sponge, and (4) Cd-sinter structures.

  4. Silver nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes as bifunctional gas-diffusion electrodes for zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Kaempgen, M.; Nopphawan, P.; Wee, G.; Mhaisalkar, S.; Srinivasan, M.

    Thin, lightweight, and flexible gas-diffusion electrodes (GDEs) based on freestanding entangled networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) decorated with Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) are tested as the air-breathing cathode in a zinc-air battery. The SWNT networks provide a highly porous surface for active oxygen absorption and diffusion. The high conductivity of SWNTs coupled with the catalytic activity of AgNPs for oxygen reduction leads to an improvement in the performance of the zinc-air cell. By modulating the pH value and the reaction time, different sizes of AgNPs are decorated uniformly on the SWNTs, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. AgNPs with sizes of 3-5 nm double the capacity and specific energy of a zinc-air battery as compared with bare SWNTs. The simplified, lightweight architecture shows significant advantages over conventional carbon-based GDEs in terms of weight, thickness and conductivity, and hence may be useful for mobile and portable applications.

  5. Surface etching and roughening in integrated processing of thermal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offenberg, M.; Liehr, M.; Rubloff, G. W.

    1991-04-01

    A multichamber UHV processing and analysis system has been used to study integrated thermal oxide processing, in which the final precleaning process and the thermal oxidation process are integrated by employing transfer of the wafers through ultraclean, inert ambients (purified, dry N2 and then ultrahigh vacuum). The Al-gate MOS capacitors show high breakdown fields (approximately 12 MV/cm) when a thin oxide passivation layer is present prior to oxidation, but low fields (less than 6 MV/cm) when the Si surface is initially oxygen free. This contrasting behavior is caused by the etching of Si surfaces which occurs at elevated temperature in the presence of trace concentration (approximately 100 ppb) of oxygen (e.g., 2 Si + O2 yields 2SiO2), leading to surface roughening and then field enhancement at asperities in the structure. Oxide surface passivation prevents etching and assures the dielectric integrity of the structure.

  6. Smoothing and roughening of slip surfaces in direct shear experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagy, Amir; Badt, Nir; Hatzor, Yossef H.

    2015-04-01

    , increases as a function of slip amount. The roughness measured after slip can be fitted by a power-law similar to that of the initial tensile surface. In the next series of experiments a similar procedure is applied when the roughness evolution is measured as a function of increasing normal stress for a fixed displacement amount of 10 mm. While samples sheared under a constant normal stress of 5 MPa generated surface smoothing, shearing under normal stress of 7.5 MPa to 15 MPa exhibited surface roughening at the measured range of scales. We find that roughening is correlated with the attained peak shear stress values, stress drop (peak shear stress minus residual shear stress) and with wear accumulation, a novel measurement procedure of which is developed here. Analysis of the sheared samples shows that roughening is generated by sets of dense fractures that significantly damaged the sample in the immediate proximity to large asperities. This roughening is related to penetrative damage during transient wear in rough surfaces.

  7. A solution-processed molybdenum oxide treated silver nanowire network: a highly conductive transparent conducting electrode with superior mechanical and hole injection properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jung-Hao; Chiang, Kai-Ming; Kang, Hao-Wei; Chi, Wei-Jung; Chang, Jung-Hung; Wu, Chih-I.; Lin, Hao-Wu

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of solution-processed MoOx-treated (s-MoOx) silver nanowire (AgNW) transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) utilizing low-temperature (sub-100 °C) processes. The s-MoOx aggregates around the AgNW and forms gauze-like MoOx thin films between the mesh, which can effectively lower the sheet resistance by more than two orders of magnitude. Notably, these s-MoOx-treated AgNW TCEs exhibit a combination of several promising characteristics, such as a high and broad transmittance across a wavelength range of 400 to 1000 nm, transmission of up to 96.8%, a low sheet resistance of 29.8 ohm sq-1, a low haze value of 0.90%, better mechanical properties against bending and adhesion tests, and preferable gap states for efficient hole injection in optoelectronic applications. By utilizing these s-MoOx-treated AgNW TCEs as the anode in ITO-free organic light emitting diodes, promising performance of 29.2 lm W-1 and 10.3% external quantum efficiency are demonstrated. The versatile, multi-functional s-MoOx treatment presented here paves the way for the use of low-temperature, solution-processed MoOx as both a nanowire linker and a hole injection interfacial layer for future flexible optoelectronic devices.We demonstrate the fabrication of solution-processed MoOx-treated (s-MoOx) silver nanowire (AgNW) transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) utilizing low-temperature (sub-100 °C) processes. The s-MoOx aggregates around the AgNW and forms gauze-like MoOx thin films between the mesh, which can effectively lower the sheet resistance by more than two orders of magnitude. Notably, these s-MoOx-treated AgNW TCEs exhibit a combination of several promising characteristics, such as a high and broad transmittance across a wavelength range of 400 to 1000 nm, transmission of up to 96.8%, a low sheet resistance of 29.8 ohm sq-1, a low haze value of 0.90%, better mechanical properties against bending and adhesion tests, and preferable gap states for efficient hole

  8. Gelatin coated electrodes allow prolonged bioelectronic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Silver electrodes treated with an anodizing electrolyte containing gelatin are used for long term monitoring of bioelectronic potentials in humans. The electrodes do not interact with perspiration, cause skin irritation, or promote the growth of bacteria.

  9. Fundamental Studies of Surface Processes and Trace Analysis Using Solid Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    electrodes. Underpotential deposition (UPD) studies were undertaken at polycystalline silver electrodes. Using the electrochemical quartz crystal... Underpotential deposition (UPD) studies were undertaken at polycrystalline silver electrodes. Using the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, it...headings. PHYSICAL ELECTROC I] CAL STUDIES. Tracking Anion Expulsion During Underpotential Deposition of Lead at Silver Using the Quartz Mlerobalance

  10. Substrate dependent stability of conducting polymer coatings on medical electrodes.

    PubMed

    Green, Rylie A; Hassarati, Rachelle T; Bouchinet, Lucie; Lee, Chaekyung S; Cheong, Gin L M; Yu, Jin F; Dodds, Christopher W; Suaning, Gregg J; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Lovell, Nigel H

    2012-09-01

    Conducting polymer (CP) coatings on medical electrodes have the potential to provide superior performance when compared to conventional metallic electrodes, but their stability is strongly dependant on the substrate properties. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of laser roughening of underlying platinum (Pt) electrode surfaces on the mechanical, electrical and biological performance of CP coatings. In addition, the impact of dopant type on electrical performance and stability was assessed. The CP poly(ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was coated on Pt microelectrode arrays, with three conventional dopant ions. The in vitro electrical characteristics were assessed by cyclic voltammetry and biphasic stimulation. Results showed that laser roughening of the underlying substrate did not affect the charge injection limit of the coated material, but significantly improved the passive stability and chronic stimulation lifetime without failure of the coating. Accelerated material ageing and long-term biphasic stimulus studies determined that some PEDOT variants experienced delamination within as little as 10 days when the underlying Pt was smooth, but laser roughening to produce a surface index of 2.5 improved stability, such that more than 1.3 billion stimulation cycles could be applied without evidence of failure. PEDOT doped with paratoluene sulfonate (PEDOT/pTS) was found to be the most stable CP on roughened Pt, and presented a surface topography which encouraged neural cell attachment.

  11. An Evaluation of the Photopic Electroretinogram Using Lower Eyelid Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    area above the eyebrows, the lower eyelids, and ear were scrubbed with a 10% Benzalkonium Cl solution and rubbed with a small amount of electrode paste...prior to electrode placement. A 16 mm silver-silver chloride Beckman biopotential reference electrode was attached to the temporal area (above each

  12. Rugged pressed disk electrode has low contact potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. L.; Mosier, B.

    1965-01-01

    Pressed-disk electrode with low contact potential monitors physiological processes. It consists of silver and silver chloride combined with bentonitic clay. The clay affords a surface that permits use over extended periods without contact deterioration.

  13. Silver Sulfadiazine

    MedlinePlus

    Silver sulfadiazine, a sulfa drug, is used to prevent and treat infections of second- and third-degree burns. It ... Silver sulfadiazine comes in a cream. Silver sulfadiazine usually is applied once or twice a day. Follow the directions ...

  14. Roughening and removal of surface contamination from beryllium using negative transferred-arc cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Hollis, K.J.; Elliott, K.E.

    1997-12-01

    Negative transferred-arc (TA) cleaning has been used extensively in the aerospace industry to clean and prepare surfaces prior to plasma spraying of thermal barrier coatings. This non-line of sight process can improve the bond strength of plasma sprayed coatings to the substrate material by cleaning and macroscopically roughening the surface. A variation of this cleaning methodology is also used in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding to cathodically clean the surfaces of aluminum and magnesium prior to welding. Investigations are currently being performed to quantify the degree in which the negative transferred-arc process can clean and roughen metal surfaces. Preliminary information will be reported on the influence of processing conditions on roughening and the removal of carbon and other contaminates from the surface of beryllium. Optical, spectral and electrical methods to quantify cleaning of the surface will also be discussed. Applications for this technology include chemical-free precision cleaning of beryllium components.

  15. Fractal Analysis of Flow Resistance in Tree-Like Branching Networks with Roughened Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shanshan; Fu, Huahua; Yu, Boming

    In this work, the effective average height of the roughness elements, the relative increase of the pressure gradients, the relative decrease of the permeability are derived based on the fractal geometry theory and technique for laminar flow through tree-like branching networks with roughened channels. The relationships among the effective average height, the structural parameters and pressure drops as well as permeability are studied. It is found that the total pressure drop across a tree-like branching network with roughened channels is increased by a factor of 1/(1 ‑ ɛ)4, and the permeability for the network with roughened channels is decreased by a factor of (1 ‑ ɛ)2, where ɛ is the relative roughness of surfaces of channels, compared to those with smooth channels.

  16. Surface intermixing by atomic scale roughening in Sb-terminated InAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Evan M.; Lundquist, Adam M.; Pearson, Chris; Millunchick, Joanna M.

    2017-03-01

    The interaction between Sb and As is investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy of InAs (001) surfaces. Sb roughens the surface by increasing the coverage of divots (vacancy clusters) and two dimensional islands, which both possess a c(4 × 4) reconstruction. ab initio total energy calculations predict that the As-terminated β2(2 × 4) transforms into In-Sb heterodimer terminated c(4 × 4) configurations with increasing Sb chemical potential, which causes the roughening by pulling atoms from the terrace. Thus we propose an alternative model for interfacial broadening by intermixing rather than by surface segregation.

  17. Powder processing of hybrid titanium neural electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jose Luis, Jr.

    A preliminary investigation into the powder production of a novel hybrid titanium neural electrode for EEG is presented. The rheological behavior of titanium powder suspensions using sodium alginate as a dispersant are examined for optimal slip casting conditions. Electrodes were slip cast and sintered at 950°C for 1 hr, 1000°C for 1, 3, and 6 hrs, and 1050°C for 1 hr. Residual porosities from sintering are characterized using Archimedes' technique and image analysis. The pore network is gel impregnated by submerging the electrodes in electrically conductive gel and placing them in a chamber under vacuum. Gel evaporation of the impregnated electrodes is examined. Electrodes are characterized in the dry and gelled states using impedance spectrometry and compared to a standard silver- silver chloride electrode. Power spectral densities for the sensors in the dry and gelled state are also compared. Residual porosities for the sintered specimens were between 50.59% and 44.81%. Gel evaporation tests show most of the impregnated gel evaporating within 20 min of exposure to atmospheric conditions with prolonged evaporation times for electrodes with higher impregnated gel mass. Impedance measurements of the produced electrodes indicate the low impedance of the hybrid electrodes are due to the increased contact area of the porous electrode. Power spectral densities of the titanium electrode behave similar to a standard silver-silver chloride electrode. Tests suggest the powder processed hybrid titanium electrode's performance is better than current dry contact electrodes and comparable to standard gelled silver-silver chloride electrodes.

  18. Fundamental Mechanisms of Roughening and Smoothing During Thin Film Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Headrick, Randall

    2016-03-18

    In this research program, we have explored the fundamental limits for thin film deposition in both crystalline and amorphous (i.e. non-crystalline) materials systems. For vacuum-based physical deposition processes such as sputter deposition, the background gas pressure of the inert gas (usually argon) used as the process gas has been found to be a key variable. Both a roughness transition and stress transition as a function of pressure have been linked to a common mechanism involving collisions of energetic particles from the deposition source with the process inert gas. As energetic particles collide with gas molecules in the deposition process they lose their energy rapidly if the pressure (and background gas density) is above a critical value. Both roughness and stress limit important properties of thin films for applications. In the area of epitaxial growth we have also discovered a related effect; there is a critical pressure below which highly crystalline layers grow in a layer-by-layer mode. This effect is also though to be due to energetic particle thermalization and scattering. Several other important effects such as the observation of coalescence dominated growth has been observed. This mode can be likened to the behavior of two-dimensional water droplets on the hood of a car during a rain storm; as the droplets grow and touch each other they tend to coalesce rapidly into new larger circular puddles, and this process proceeds exponentially as larger puddles overtake smaller ones and also merge with other large puddles. This discovery will enable more accurate simulations and modeling of epitaxial growth processes. We have also observed that epitaxial films undergo a roughening transition as a function of thickness, which is attributed to strain induced by the crystalline lattice mismatch with the substrate crystal. In addition, we have studied another physical deposition process called pulsed laser deposition. It differs from sputter deposition due to the

  19. Design of a Flow-Through Voltammetric Sensor Based on an Antimony-Modified Silver Electrode for Determining Lithol Rubine B in Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Lai-Hao, Wang; Shu-Juan, Huang

    2011-01-01

    Lithol Rubine B (LRB; the disodium salt of 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulfophenyl) azo]-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid) was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical (antimony film on silver) detector (HPLC-ECD). For direct current (DC) mode, with the current at a constant potential, and measurements with suitable experimental parameters, a linear concentration from 0.125 to 1.80 μg/mL was found. The detection limit of our method was approximately 2.0 ng/mL. An antimony-modified silver detector was used to demonstrate that LRB is electrochemically reduced in acidic media and to analyze commercial cosmetics to determine their LRB content. Findings using HPLC-ECD and HPLC with an ultraviolet detector were comparable. PMID:21603230

  20. Uniform thin film electrode made of low-temperature-sinterable silver nanoparticles: optimized extent of ligand exchange from oleylamine to acrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yung Jong; Kim, Na Rae; Lee, Changsoo; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2017-02-01

    Lowering the sintering temperature of nanoparticles in the electrode deposition process holds both academic and industrial interest because of the potential applications of such electrodes in polymer devices and flexible electronics. In addition, achieving uniform electrode formation after ligand exchange is equally important as lowering the sintering temperature. Here, we report a simple chemical treatment by the addition of ligand-exchanging interfaces to lower the sintering temperature; we also determine the optimum extent of ligand exchange for crack-free electrode formation. First, we investigated the structural change of Ag thin films with respect to the concentration of acrylic acid (AA) solutions. Second, we used thermal analysis to evaluate the effects of changes in the sintering temperature. We observed that the resulting conductivity of the Ag patterns was only one order of magnitude lower than that of bulk Ag when the patterns were sintered at 150 °C. The simple chemical treatment developed in this work for solution-processed Ag electrode formation can be adopted for flexible electronics, which would eliminate the need for vacuum and high-temperature processes.

  1. Soft-Etching Copper and Silver Electrodes for Significant Device Performance Improvement toward Facile, Cost-Effective, Bottom-Contacted, Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongrui; Dong, Huanli; Zou, Ye; Zhao, Qiang; Tan, Jiahui; Liu, Jie; Lu, Xiuqiang; Xiao, Jinchong; Zhang, Qichun; Hu, Wenping

    2016-03-01

    Poor charge injection and transport at the electrode/semiconductor contacts has been so far a severe performance hurdle for bottom-contact bottom-gate (BCBG) organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we have developed a simple, economic, and effective method to improve the carrier injection efficiency and obtained high-performance devices with low cost and widely used source/drain (S/D) electrodes (Ag/Cu). Through the simple electrode etching process, the work function of the electrodes is more aligned with the semiconductors, which reduces the energy barrier and facilitates the charge injection. Besides, the formation of the thinned electrode edge with desirable micro/nanostructures not only leads to the enlarged contact side area beneficial for the carrier injection but also is in favor of the molecular self-organization for continuous crystal growth at the contact/active channel interface, which is better for the charge injection and transport. These effects give rise to the great reduction of contact resistance and the amazing improvement of the low-cost bottom-contact configuration OFETs performance.

  2. Silver based batteries for high power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinski, A. P.; Russell, S. J.; Serenyi, J. R.; Murphy, J. P.

    The present status of silver oxide-zinc technology and applications has been described by Karpinski et al. [A.P. Karpinski, B. Makovetski, S.J. Russell, J.R. Serenyi, D.C. Williams, Silver-Zinc: status of technology and applications, Journal of Power Sources, 80 (1999) 53-60], where the silver-zinc couple is still the preferred choice where high specific energy/energy density, coupled with high specific power/power density are important for high-rate, weight or size/configuration sensitive applications. Perhaps the silver oxide cathode can be considered one of the most versatile electrode materials. When coupled with other anodes and corresponding electrolyte management system, the silver electrode provides for a wide array of electrochemical systems that can be tailored to meet the most demanding, high power requirements. Besides zinc, the most notable include cadmium, iron, metal hydride, and hydrogen electrode for secondary systems, while primary systems include lithium and aluminum. Alloys including silver are also available, such as silver chloride, which when coupled with magnesium or aluminum are primarily used in many seawater applications. The selection and use of these couples is normally the result of a trade-off of many factors. These include performance, safety, risk, reliability, and cost. When high power is required, silver oxide-zinc, silver oxide-aluminum, and silver oxide-lithium are the most energetic. For moderate performance (i.e., lower power), silver oxide-zinc or silver-cadmium would be the system of choice. This paper summarizes the suitability of the silver-based couples, with an emphasis on the silver-zinc system, as primary or rechargeable power sources for high energy/power applications.

  3. Two modes of surface roughening during plasma etching of silicon: Role of ionized etch products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazaki, Nobuya; Tsuda, Hirotaka; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2014-12-01

    Atomic- or nanometer-scale surface roughening has been investigated during Si etching in inductively coupled Cl2 plasmas, as a function of rf bias power or ion incident energy Ei, by varying feed gas flow rate, wafer stage temperature, and etching time. The experiments revealed two modes of surface roughening which occur depending on Ei: one is the roughening mode at low Ei < 200-300 eV, where the root-mean-square (rms) roughness of etched surfaces increases with increasing Ei, exhibiting an almost linear increase with time during etching (t < 20 min). The other is the smoothing mode at higher Ei, where the rms surface roughness decreases substantially with Ei down to a low level < 0.4 nm, exhibiting a quasi-steady state after some increase at the initial stage (t < 1 min). Correspondingly, two different behaviors depending on Ei were also observed in the etch rate versus √{Ei } curve, and in the evolution of the power spectral density distribution of surfaces. Such changes from the roughening to smoothing modes with increasing Ei were found to correspond to changes in the predominant ion flux from feed gas ions Clx+ to ionized etch products SiClx+ caused by the increased etch rates at increased Ei, in view of the results of several plasma diagnostics. Possible mechanisms for the formation and evolution of surface roughness during plasma etching are discussed with the help of Monte Carlo simulations of the surface feature evolution and classical molecular dynamics simulations of etch fundamentals, including stochastic roughening and effects of ion reflection and etch inhibitors.

  4. Two modes of surface roughening during plasma etching of silicon: Role of ionized etch products

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazaki, Nobuya Tsuda, Hirotaka; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2014-12-14

    Atomic- or nanometer-scale surface roughening has been investigated during Si etching in inductively coupled Cl{sub 2} plasmas, as a function of rf bias power or ion incident energy E{sub i}, by varying feed gas flow rate, wafer stage temperature, and etching time. The experiments revealed two modes of surface roughening which occur depending on E{sub i}: one is the roughening mode at low E{sub i} < 200–300 eV, where the root-mean-square (rms) roughness of etched surfaces increases with increasing E{sub i}, exhibiting an almost linear increase with time during etching (t < 20 min). The other is the smoothing mode at higher E{sub i}, where the rms surface roughness decreases substantially with E{sub i} down to a low level < 0.4 nm, exhibiting a quasi-steady state after some increase at the initial stage (t < 1 min). Correspondingly, two different behaviors depending on E{sub i} were also observed in the etch rate versus √(E{sub i}) curve, and in the evolution of the power spectral density distribution of surfaces. Such changes from the roughening to smoothing modes with increasing E{sub i} were found to correspond to changes in the predominant ion flux from feed gas ions Cl{sub x}{sup +} to ionized etch products SiCl{sub x}{sup +} caused by the increased etch rates at increased E{sub i}, in view of the results of several plasma diagnostics. Possible mechanisms for the formation and evolution of surface roughness during plasma etching are discussed with the help of Monte Carlo simulations of the surface feature evolution and classical molecular dynamics simulations of etch fundamentals, including stochastic roughening and effects of ion reflection and etch inhibitors.

  5. Electrode for a lithium cell

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  6. Interface-roughening phase diagram of the three-dimensional Ising model for all interaction anisotropies from hard-spin mean-field theory.

    PubMed

    Cağlar, Tolga; Berker, A Nihat

    2011-11-01

    The roughening phase diagram of the d=3 Ising model with uniaxially anisotropic interactions is calculated for the entire range of anisotropy, from decoupled planes to the isotropic model to the solid-on-solid model, using hard-spin mean-field theory. The phase diagram contains the line of ordering phase transitions and, at lower temperatures, the line of roughening phase transitions, where the interface between ordered domains roughens. Upon increasing the anisotropy, roughening transition temperatures settle after the isotropic case, whereas the ordering transition temperature increases to infinity. The calculation is repeated for the d=2 Ising model for the full range of anisotropy, yielding no roughening transition.

  7. Effect of charging methods on battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBreen, J.

    The effect of modified charging methods on the structure and behavior of several battery electrodes are reviewed. These include the alkaline cadmium, zinc, silver oxide and nickel oxide electrodes. Also included are recent results obtained for pasted zinc electrodes and in acidic zinc chloride electrolytes. Modified charging methods can greatly affect electrodes particularly when the charging reaction involving the nucleation, and growth of a new phase. Many of the observed morphological effects are described with regard to nucleation and orientation effects.

  8. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum.

    PubMed

    Lata, Kusum; Dhull, Vikas; Hooda, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs) were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM-5.83 mM) with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM). The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components.

  9. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Kusum; Dhull, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs) were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM–5.83 mM) with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM). The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components. PMID:26885393

  10. Measurements of heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in passages rib-roughened on all walls

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Li, T.; Spring, S.D.

    1998-07-01

    A liquid crystal technique was used to measure heat transfer coefficients in twelve test sections with square and trapezoidal cross-sectional areas representing blade midchord cooling cavities in a modern gas turbine. Full-length ribs were configured on suction side as well as pressure side walls while half-length ribs were mounted on partition walls between adjacent cooling cavities. Ribs were in staggered arrangements with a nominal blockage ratio of 22% and an angle of attack to the mainstream flow, {alpha}, of 90 deg. Heat transfer measurements were performed on the roughened walls with full-length as well as half-length ribs. Nusselt numbers, friction factors, and thermal performances of all geometries are compared. The most important conclusion of this study is that the roughening of the partition walls enhances the heat transfer coefficients on those walls but, more importantly, enhances heat transfer coefficients on the primary walls considerably.

  11. Atomic diffusion on vicinal surfaces: step roughening impact on step permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranguelov, B.; Michailov, M.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of mass transport in material science for systems with reduced dimensionality holds special academic and technological attention since the fine diffusion control of adatoms could initiate exotic nanoscale patterning at epitaxial interfaces. The present study brings out important details of the atomic diffusion mechanisms on vicinal surfaces, accounting for the subtle competition between an external field imposed on the migrating adatoms and the roughening of the steps bordering the atomic terraces. The computational model reveals a temperature gap for breakdown of step permeability in the vicinity of the step roughening transition and sheds light on recently observed experimental results for atomic step dynamics on Si surfaces. The present study also demonstrates the extended capability of atomistic models in computer simulations to unravel simultaneous effects, to distinguish between them, and finally to assess their specific contribution to experimentally observed complex physical phenomena.

  12. Reduction of surface roughening due to copper contamination prior to ultra-thin gate oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Charles A.; Vermeire, Bert; Sarid, Dror; Parks, Harold G.

    2001-09-01

    Roughening of the polished side of a silicon wafer caused by copper contamination present on the unpolished side of the wafer was quantified by tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The copper contamination was introduced via a contaminated buffered hydrochloric acid solution on the unpolished side of the silicon wafer while the polished side was protected. The protection was then removed, and the wafer placed in a clean HF solution. As a result, the copper on the unpolished side catalyzed electrochemical dissolution of the polished side of the silicon. Power spectral density analysis of hundreds of AFM images showed a 10-fold increase in surface roughness with features between 30 and 300 nm in diameter. Time-dependant dielectric breakdown measurements showed a significant decrease in oxide quality in these wafers. However, the introduction of HCl to the HF solution significantly reduced the roughening process.

  13. Intrinsic anomalous surface roughening of TiN films deposited by reactive sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Auger, M. A.; Vazquez, L.; Sanchez, O.; Cuerno, R.; Castro, M.; Jergel, M.

    2006-01-15

    We study surface kinetic roughening of TiN films grown on Si(100) substrates by dc reactive sputtering. The surface morphology of films deposited for different growth times under the same experimental conditions were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The TiN films exhibit intrinsic anomalous scaling and multiscaling. The film kinetic roughening is characterized by a set of local exponent values {alpha}{sub loc}=1.0 and {beta}{sub loc}=0.39, and global exponent values {alpha}=1.7 and {beta}=0.67, with a coarsening exponent of 1/z=0.39. These properties are correlated to the local height-difference distribution function obeying power-law statistics. We associate this intrinsic anomalous scaling with the instability due to nonlocal shadowing effects that take place during thin-film growth by sputtering.

  14. Surface kinetic roughening caused by dental erosion: An atomic force microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartarone, Eliana; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Poggio, Claudio; Lombardini, Marco

    2008-05-01

    Surface kinetic roughening takes place both in case of growth and erosion processes. Teeth surfaces are eroded by contact with acid drinks, such as those used to supplement mineral salts during sporting activities. Calcium-phosphate based (CPP-ACP) pastes are known to reduce the erosion process, and to favour the enamel remineralization. In this study we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the surface roughening during dental erosion, and the mechanisms at the basis of the protection role exerted by a commercial CPP-ACP paste. We found a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) in the roughness of surfaces exposed and not exposed to the acid solutions. The treatment with the CPP-ACP paste determined a statistically significant reduction of the roughness values. By interpreting the AFM results in terms of fractal scaling concepts and continuum stochastic equations, we showed that the protection mechanism of the paste depends on the chemical properties of the acid solution.

  15. Transition from smoothing to roughening of ion-eroded GaSb surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.; Grenzer, J.; Facsko, S.; Biermanns, A.; Carbone, G.; Metzger, T. H.; Plantevin, O.

    2009-05-11

    During ion sputtering of GaSb(100) surfaces a transient behavior from initial smoothing to roughening accompanied by self-organized pattern formation has been observed using in situ x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence small angle scattering. The induced patterns show hexagonally ordered nanodot arrays with a spatial periodicity of 30 nm. The correlation length of the pattern increases with ion fluence. In the framework of the Bradley-Harper model [R. M. Bradley and J. M. E. Harper, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2390 (1988)], where the dot pattern formation results from an interplay of surface roughening due to sputtering and surface smoothing due to diffusion, the initial smoothing behavior is explained by the same surface diffusion processes as the pattern formation.

  16. Reference electrodes for aboveground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ansuini, F.J.; Dimond, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses several factors affecting the reference potential established by copper/copper sulfate and silver/silver chloride reference electrodes. Guidelines for using references in aboveground storage tank applications are presented and some causes of misleading readings are discussed.

  17. Reference electrodes for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ansuini, F.J.; Dimond, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses several factors affecting the reference potential established by copper/copper sulfate and silver/silver chloride reference electrodes. Guidelines for using permanent references in underground storage tank applications are presented and some causes of misleading readings with portable references are discussed.

  18. Hypersonic heat-transfer and transition correlations for a roughened shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertin, J. J.; Stalmach, D. D.; Idar, E. S., III; Conley, D. B.; Goodrich, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of roughness on the heat transfer distributions and the transition criteria for the windward pitch plane of the shuttle orbiter at an angle of attack of 30 deg was studied using data obtained in hypersonic wind tunnels. The heat transfer distributions and the transition locations for the roughened models were compared with the corresponding data for smooth models. The data were correlated using theoretical solutions for a nonsimilar, laminar boundary layer subject to two different flow field models for the orbiter.

  19. Influence of Ice Particle Surface Roughening on the Global Cloud Radiative Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.; LEcuyer, Tristan; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Mlawer, Eli J.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Ice clouds influence the climate system by changing the radiation budget and large-scale circulation. Therefore, climate models need to have an accurate representation of ice clouds and their radiative effects. In this paper, new broadband parameterizations for ice cloud bulk scattering properties are developed for severely roughened ice particles. The parameterizations are based on a general habit mixture that includes nine habits (droxtals, hollow/solid columns, plates, solid/hollow bullet rosettes, aggregate of solid columns, and small/large aggregates of plates). The scattering properties for these individual habits incorporate recent advances in light-scattering computations. The influence of ice particle surface roughness on the ice cloud radiative effect is determined through simulations with the Fu-Liou and the GCM version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) codes and the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, version 5.1). The differences in shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative effect at both the top of the atmosphere and the surface are determined for smooth and severely roughened ice particles. While the influence of particle roughening on the single-scattering properties is negligible in the LW, the results indicate that ice crystal roughness can change the SW forcing locally by more than 10 W m(exp -2) over a range of effective diameters. The global-averaged SW cloud radiative effect due to ice particle surface roughness is estimated to be roughly 1-2 W m(exp -2). The CAM results indicate that ice particle roughening can result in a large regional SW radiative effect and a small but nonnegligible increase in the global LW cloud radiative effect.

  20. Roughening in electronic growth of Ag on Si(111)-(7×7) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pal, Arindam; Mahato, J C; Dev, B N; Goswami, D K

    2013-10-09

    Roughening in the electronic growth of Ag films on Si(111)-(7×7) surfaces for a film thickness ranging from 1 to 30 monolayers is reported. Ag films exhibit the growth of flat-top plateaus of preferential heights due quantum electronic effect. We have observed roughening of the film growth due to instability with linear diffusion characterized by the ln(θ)(1/2) dependence of the local surface slope, where θ is the Ag coverage. The roughening of the surface morphology has been characterized by scaling exponents α, β and 1/z, which are determined using scanning tunneling microscopy. Increased value of α = 0.67 ± 0.04 at the early stage of the electronic growth with two atomic layer height flat-top isolated Ag mounds to 0.77 ± 0.06 at the later stage of the growth when isolated mounds coalesce and form percolated structures maintaining preferential heights of an even number of atomic layers in the Ag mounds indicates the instability in the electronic growth. As a result, interface width W increases as a power law of coverage (θ), W ∼ θ(β), with growth exponent β = 0.33 ± 0.03, and lateral correlation length ξ grows as ξ ∼ θ(1/z) with 1/z = 0.27 ± 0.05.

  1. HRLEED study of the roughening transitions in Cu(110), Ni(110) and Ag(110) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.; Montano, P.A. |

    1996-12-01

    The authors present the results of High Resolution Low Energy Electron Diffraction (HRLEED) measurements of the thermal roughening transition on Cu(110), Ag(110) and Ni(110) surfaces. They performed careful spot profile intensity measurements as a function of temperature. They observed a proliferation of steps along the (110) and (001) directions. In addition a strong deviation from a Debye model was observed in the scattered intensity of the Bragg reflections. This deviation from the harmonic approximation occurs well below the roughening transition temperature. The behavior of the three metal surfaces is qualitatively similar except for the transition temperatures. Ni shows the highest transition temperature (1,300 K), Cu is intermediate (1,000 K) and Ag has the lowest temperature (730 K). Analyzing the behavior of the (00) reflection intensity, and the evolution of the line shape as a function of the temperature, they found clear evidence of a roughening transition at the (110) surface. A lineshape analysis of the (00) reflection shows the transition from a Lorentzian lineshape to a power law. They also proved, based on the experimental data and a recent theoretical model, that there is a tremendous increase in step density and a decrease in the average terrace size as the temperature increases. They used STM to corroborate the HRLEED results at room temperature. They found excellent agreement.

  2. Molecular-Orientation-Induced Rapid Roughening and Morphology Transition in Organic Semiconductor Thin-Film Growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junliang; Yim, Sanggyu; Jones, Tim S.

    2015-01-01

    We study the roughening process and morphology transition of organic semiconductor thin film induced by molecular orientation in the model of molecular semiconductor copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc) using both experiment and simulation. The growth behaviour of F16CuPc thin film with the thickness, D, on SiO2 substrate takes on two processes divided by a critical thickness: (1) D ≤ 40 nm, F16CuPc thin films are composed of uniform caterpillar-like crystals. The kinetic roughening is confirmed during this growth, which is successfully analyzed by Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) model with scaling exponents α = 0.71 ± 0.12, β = 0.36 ± 0.03, and 1/z = 0.39 ± 0.12; (2) D > 40 nm, nanobelt crystals are formed gradually on the caterpillar-like crystal surface and the film growth shows anomalous growth behaviour. These new growth behaviours with two processes result from the gradual change of molecular orientation and the formation of grain boundaries, which conversely induce new molecular orientation, rapid roughening process, and the formation of nanobelt crystals. PMID:25801646

  3. Molecular-orientation-induced rapid roughening and morphology transition in organic semiconductor thin-film growth.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junliang; Yim, Sanggyu; Jones, Tim S

    2015-03-24

    We study the roughening process and morphology transition of organic semiconductor thin film induced by molecular orientation in the model of molecular semiconductor copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc) using both experiment and simulation. The growth behaviour of F16CuPc thin film with the thickness, D, on SiO2 substrate takes on two processes divided by a critical thickness: (1) D ≤ 40 nm, F16CuPc thin films are composed of uniform caterpillar-like crystals. The kinetic roughening is confirmed during this growth, which is successfully analyzed by Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) model with scaling exponents α = 0.71 ± 0.12, β = 0.36 ± 0.03, and 1/z = 0.39 ± 0.12; (2) D > 40 nm, nanobelt crystals are formed gradually on the caterpillar-like crystal surface and the film growth shows anomalous growth behaviour. These new growth behaviours with two processes result from the gradual change of molecular orientation and the formation of grain boundaries, which conversely induce new molecular orientation, rapid roughening process, and the formation of nanobelt crystals.

  4. Hybrid RANS/LES of turbulent flow in a rotating rib-roughened channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xun, Qian-Qiu; Wang, Bing-Chen

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of the Coriolis force on the flow field in a rib-roughened channel subjected to either clockwise or counter-clockwise system rotation using hybrid RANS/LES based on wall modelling. A simplified dynamic forcing scheme incorporating backscatter is proposed for the hybrid simulation approach. The flow is characterized by a Reynolds number of Re = 1.5 × 104 and a rotation number Ro ranging from -0.6 to 0.6. The mean flow speed and turbulence level near the roughened wall are enhanced under counter-clockwise rotation and suppressed under clockwise rotation. The Coriolis force significantly influences the stability of the wall shear layer and the free shear layers generated by the ribs. Consequently, it is interesting to observe that the classification of the roughness type relies not only on the pitch ratio, but also on the rotation number in the context of rotating rib-roughened flows. In order to validate the present hybrid approach, the first- and second-order statistical moments of the velocity field obtained from the simulations are thoroughly compared with the available laboratory measurement data.

  5. Large silver-cadmium technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlip, S.; Lerner, S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of varying cell design on operation factors on the electrochemical performance of sealed, silver-cadmium cells were determined. A factorial experiment was conducted for all test cells constructed with organic separators. Three operating factors were evaluated: temperature, depth of discharge, and charge rate. The six construction factors considered were separator, absorber, electrolyte quantity, cadmium electrode type, cadmium-to-silver ratio, and auxiliary electrode. Test cells of 4 ampere-hour capacity were fabricated and cycled. The best performing cells, on a 94 minute orbit, at 40% depth of discharge, were those containing silver-treated fibrous sausage casings as the separator, and Teflon-ated, pressed cadmium electrodes. Cycling data of cells with inorganic separators (Astroset) are given. Best performance was shown by cells with nonwoven nylon absorbers. Rigid inorganic separators provided the best barrier to silver migration.

  6. Underpotential deposition of thallium, lead, and cadmium at silver electrodes modified with self-assembled monolayers of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Joseph W F; Tiani, Domenic J; Pemberton, Jeanne E

    2007-04-10

    Investigation of the underpotential deposition (UPD) of three metals-Tl, Pb, and Cd-on Ag surfaces modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (3MPT) is reported. On the basis of the observation of negative potential shifts for their UPD processes, Tl and Pb undergo UPD directly on the underlying Ag surface by insertion between the Ag-S bond. This process is proposed to occur by penetration of the 3MPT monolayer by hydrated metal ions through spaces in six-membered siloxane rings that form at the terminus of the 3MPT layer after hydrolysis and condensation. In contrast, Cd does not undergo similarly facile UPD at 3MPT-modified Ag electrodes due to a hydrated ion size too large to fit through these openings. The voltammetric evidence that suggests that the hydrated metal cation size, as described by the Stokes diameter, is the primary determinant of Ag electrode accessibility for UPD through the cross-linked 3MPT layer is further supported by molecular mechanics energy minimization computations of six-membered siloxane rings on each of the three low-index faces of Ag. Finally, the 3MPT monolayer is shown to be exceptionally stable to repeated UPD/stripping cycles of Tl and Pb in contrast to SAMs of similar thickness formed from normal alkanethiols.

  7. Determination of Silver(I) by Differential Pulse Voltammetry Using a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Synthesized N-(2-Aminoethyl)-4,4′-Bipyridine

    PubMed Central

    Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Chira, Ana; Radulescu, Medeea; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2010-01-01

    A new modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) based on a synthesized N-(2-aminoethyl)-4,4′-bipyridine (ABP) was developed for the determination of Ag(I) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). ABP was covalently immobilized on GC electrodes surface using 4-nitrobenzendiazonium (4-NBD) and glutaraldehyde (GA). The Ag(I) ions were preconcentrated by chemical interaction with bipyridine under a negative potential (−0.6 V); then the reduced ions were oxidized by differential pulse voltammetry and a peak was observed at 0.34 V. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range from 0.05 μM to 1 μM Ag(I) with a detection limit of 0.025 μM and RSD = 3.6%, for 0.4 μM Ag(I). The presence of several common ions in more than 125-fold excess had no effect on the determination of Ag(I). The developed sensor was applied to the determination of Ag(I) in water samples using a standard addition method. PMID:22163530

  8. Good Thermal Stability, High Permittivity, Low Dielectric Loss and Chemical Compatibility with Silver Electrodes of Low-Fired BaTiO3-Bi(Cu0.75W0.25)O3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiuli; Ma, Dandan; Chen, Jie; Huang, Guisheng; Zhou, Huanfu

    2017-01-01

    (1 - x)BaTiO3- xBi(Cu0.75W0.25)O3 [(1 - x)BT- xBCW, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.04] perovskite solid solutions ceramics of an X8R-type multilayer ceramic capacitor with a low sintering temperature (900°C) were synthesized by a conventional solid state reaction technique. Raman spectra and x-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that a systematically structural evolution from a tetragonal phase to a pseudo-cubic phase appeared near 0.03 < x < 0.04. X-ray photoelectron analysis confirmed the existence of Cu+/Cu2+ mixed-valent structure in 0.96BT-0.04BCW ceramics. 0.96BT-0.04BCW ceramics sintered at 900°C showed excellent temperature stability of permittivity (Δ ɛ/ ɛ 25°C ≤ ±15%) and retained good dielectric properties (relative permittivity ˜1450 and dielectric loss ≤2%) over a wide temperature range from 25°C to 150°C at 1 MHz. Especially, 0.96BT-0.04BCW dielectrics have good compatibility with silver powders. Dielectric properties and electrode compatibility suggest that the developed materials can be used in low temperature co-fired multilayer capacitor applications.

  9. Study of roughness-induced diffuse and specular reflectance at silver-air and silver-liquid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, S. O.

    1980-07-01

    Surface plasma wave absorption and roughness induced optical scattering from an interface of silver and air were investigated. The position of the surface plasma resonance minimum in reflectivity for a stochastically roughened metal silver surface was studied as a function of a number of distinct roughness perturbations. In the case of a transparent liquid-silver boundary the frequency red shift of the resonance minimum was determined and the location of the surface plasmon dip for various liquids is shown to agree well with a simple roughness theory. The additional interfacial properties due to the formation of a thin inhomogeneous oxide layer occurring either spontaneously or due to application of a small interfacial electrical potential are more complex. The optical constants of the interlayer were determined from differential specular reflectance measurements at the boundary.

  10. A view of aqueous electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction to formate at indium electrodes, and the reversible electrodeposition of silver in ionic liquids through the lens of fundamental surface science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detweiler, Zachary M.

    Two systems were studied using in situ measurement techniques, demonstrating the importance of creative experimental design. The electroreduction of CO2 at heterogeneous indium electrodes in aqueous solution was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. Bulk electrolyses showed that increased indium oxide presence prior to electrolysis improved the Faradaic efficiency of CO 2 reduction to formate in 0.5 M K2SO2 aqueous solutions at a pH of 4.4. In order to more accurately assign speciation at the electrode surface ex situ O2 and H2O dosing of metallic indium under UHV was studied with XPS, HREELS and TPD. Ambient pressure XPS showed that the ratio of oxide to hydroxide at the indium interface is strongly dependent on the partial pressure of water; decreasing as P(H2O) increases. Using this information, a qualitative picture of the indium interface could be generated. In situ ATR-FTIR with an indium thin film as the working electrode showed that bulk oxide quickly reduces with applied potential, but an interfacial oxide is still present at high reductive overpotential. Additionally, an adsorbed carbonate at the thin film interface was observed upon introducing CO 2 to the cell. The implication of a surface bound carbonate as the CO 2 reduction intermediate draws on a mechanism that has not previously been discussed in the electrochemical reduction of CO2. The previous study of this mechanism from Ficscher-Tropsch literature helps to predict the further reduced products found at more electropositive metals, such as copper or magnesium, the latter of which is described here. Additionaly described here is a series of ILs that were employed as electrolyte for reversible silver deposition. BMIM N(TfO)2 was found to be the most promising of those studied, intrinsically giving a more uniform deposit that was bright and reversible. Deposit formation was studied using SEM and EDX as a function of deposition potential and deposition time. In situ reflectometry was employed to get a

  11. Vibrational Sum Frequency Study of the Influence of Water-Ionic Liquid Mixtures in the CO2 Electroreduction on Silver Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Rey, Natalia; Dlott, Dana

    2015-06-01

    Understand the molecular dynamics on buried electrodes under electrochemical transformations is of significant interest. There is a big gap of knowledge in the CO2 electroreduction mechanism due to the limitations to access and probe the liquid-metal interfaces [1,2]. Vibrational Sum Frequency Spectroscopy (VSFS) is a non-invasive and surface sensitive technique, with molecular level detection that can be used to probe electrochemical reactions occurring on the electrolyte-electrode interface [2]. We observed the CO2 electroreduction to CO in ionic liquids (ILs) on poly Ag using VSFS synchronized with cyclic voltammetry. In order to follow the CO2 reaction in situ on the ionic liquid-Ag interface; the CO, CO2 and imidazolium vibrational modes (resonant SFS) were monitored as a function of potential. We identified at which potential the CO was produced and how the EMIM-BF4 played an important role in the electron transfer to the CO2, lowering the CO2- energy barrier. A new approach to reveal the double layer dynamics to the electrostatic environment is presented by the study of the nonresonant sum frequency intensity as a function of the applied potential. By this method, we studied the influence of water-ionic liquid mixtures in the CO2 electroreduction on Ag electrode. We observed a shift to lower potentials in the CO2 electroreduction in water-ILs electrolyte. Previous studies in gas diffusion fuel cells have shown the CO2 electroreduction in a water-imidazolium-based ILs on Ag nanoparticles at lower overpotential [3]. Our VSFS study helps to understand the fundamental electrochemical mechanism, showing how the ILs structural transition influences the CO2 electroreduction. [1] Polyansky, D. E.; Electroreduction of Carbon Dioxide, 2014, Encyclopedia of Applied Electrochemistry, Springer New York, pag 431-437. [2] Bain, C. D.; J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans., 1995, 91, 1281. [3] Rosen, B. A. et al; Science, 2011, 334 (6056), 643. Rosen, B. A. et al.; J. electrochem

  12. Frequency response measurements in battery electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the behavior of porous zinc, silver, cadmium, and nickel electrodes. State of charge could be correlated with impedance data for all but the nickel electrodes. State of health was correlated with impedance data for two AgZn cells, one apparently good and the other bad. The impedance data was fit to equivalent circuit models.

  13. Effects of the interfacial charge injection properties of silver nanowire transparent conductive electrodes on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hoon; Triambulo, Ross E.; Park, Jin-Woo

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the charge injection properties of silver nanowire networks (AgNWs) in a composite-like structure with poly(2,3-dihydrothieno-1,4-dioxin)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The composite films acted as the anodes and hole transport layers (HTLs) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The current density (J)-voltage (V)-luminance (L) characteristics and power efficiency (ɛ) of the OLEDs were measured to determine their electrical and optical properties. The charge injection properties of the AgNWs in the OLEDs during operation were characterized via impedance spectroscopy (IS) by determining the variations in the capacitances (C) of the devices with respect to the applied V and the corresponding frequency (f). All measured results were compared with results for OLEDs fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes. The OLEDs on AgNWs showed lower L and ɛ values than the OLEDs on ITO. It was also observed that AgNWs exhibit excellent charge injection properties and that the interfaces between the AgNWs and the HTL have very small charge injection barriers, resulting in an absence of charge carrier traps when charges move across these interfaces. However, in the AgNW-based OLED, there was a large mismatch in the number of injected holes and electrons. Furthermore, the highly conductive electrical paths of the AgNWs in the composite-like AgNW and PEDOT:PSS structure allowed a large leakage current of holes that did not participate in radiative recombination with the electrons; consequently, a lower ɛ was observed for the AgNW-based OLEDs than for the ITO-based OLEDs. To match the injection of electrons by the electron transport layer (ETL) in the AgNW-based OLED with that of holes by the AgNW/PEDOT:PSS composite anode, the electron injection barrier of the ETL was decreased by using the low work function polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) doped with n-type cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3). With the doped-PEIE, the performance of the AgNW-based OLED was

  14. Higher-efficiency photoelectrochemical electrodes of titanium dioxide-based nanoarrays sensitized simultaneously with plasmonic silver nanoparticles and multiple metal sulfides photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Keying; Liu, Zhifeng; Han, Jianhua; Zhang, Xueqi; Li, Yajun; Hong, Tiantian; Zhou, Cailou

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a novel design of high-efficiency photoelectrochemical water splitting electrode, i.e., ordered TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRs) sensitized simultaneously with noble metal (Ag), binary metal sulfides (Ag2S) and ternary metal sulfides (Ag3CuS2) multiple photosensitizers for the first time. The TiO2/Ag/Ag2S/Ag3CuS2 NRs heterostructure is successfully synthesized through successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and a simple ion-exchange process based on ionic reaction mechanism. On the basis of an optimal quantity of Ag, Ag2S and Ag3CuS2 nanoparticles, such TiO2/Ag/Ag2S/Ag3CuS2 NRs exhibit a higher photoelectrochemical activity ever reported for TiO2-based nanoarrays in PEC water splitting, the photocurrent density is up to 9.82 mA cm-2 at 0.47 V versus Ag/AgCl, respectively. This novel architecture is able to increase electron collection efficiency and suppress carrier recombination via (i) a higher efficiency of light-harvesting through these multiple photosensitizers (Ag, Ag2S and Ag3CuS2); (ii) the efficient separation of photo-induced electrons and holes due to the direct electrical pathways; (iii) the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Ag nanoparticles, which enhances the efficient charge separation and high carrier mobility. This work is useful to explore feasible routes to further enhance the performance of oxide semiconductors for PEC water splitting to produce clean H2 energy.

  15. Anomalous scaling behavior and surface roughening in molecular thin-film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, S.; Jones, T. S.

    2006-04-15

    The thin film growth dynamics of a molecular semiconductor, free-base phthalocyanine (H{sub 2}Pc), deposited by organic molecular beam deposition, has been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and height difference correlation function (HDCF) analysis. The measured dynamic scaling components ({alpha}{sub loc}=0.61{+-}0.12, {beta}=1.02{+-}0.08, and 1/z=0.72{+-}0.13) are consistent with rapid surface roughening and anomalous scaling behavior. A detailed analysis of AFM images and simple growth models suggest that this behavior arises from the pronounced upward growth of crystalline H{sub 2}Pc mounds during the initial stages of thin film growth.

  16. Microtitrimetry by differential electrolytic potentiometry using metallic electrodes and nanomaterials modified metallic electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amro, Abdulaziz Nabil

    For the first time silver wire electrodes have been coated with carbon nanotubes using floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The production of CNTs has been conducted in a horizontal tubular reactor. Acetylene gas was used as a carbon source. Ferrocene has been used as a catalyst precursor for the growth of CNT. Different parameters have been optimized to get a high yield of CNTs and ensure their growth on the silver electrodes using univariate method. The parameters studied include the hydrogen flow rate, acetylene flow rate, temperature of the furnace, time of the reaction and the location of the electrodes in the reactor tube. The optimum conditions for those parameters were: for hydrogen and acetylene, the flow rates were 25 mL /min and 75 mL / min respectively. The furnace temperature was found to be 700 °C and the reaction time was 15 minutes. Regarding the location of the silver wires it should be located in the first 10 cm of the front side of the tube. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transition electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to characterize carbon on silver electrodes. According to the experimental results, TEM figures show that CNT produced on Silver wire is multiwall carbon nanotubes MWCNT. Silver electrodes either pure or coated with CNT were used as indicating systems in micro titration using both dc differential electrolytic potentiometry (DEP) and mark-space bias DEP techniques. All types of titrimetric reactions were investigated using different types of electrodes like Pt and gold for oxidation reduction titrations, antimony electrodes for acid base titrations, silver electrodes for precipitation titrations in addition to Ag-CNT electrodes. End points at volumes of 1 microL were determined. Different parameters were optimized like the current density, the percentage bias, the volume of the sample and the concentrations of the reactants. Microtitrimetry has been applied on several types of analytes; Ferrous

  17. Reclaiming silver from silver zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Silver zeolite is used to capture radioiodines from air cleaning systems in some nuclear facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It may become radioactively contaminated and/or poisoned by hydrocarbon vapors, which diminishes its capacity for iodine. Silver zeolite contains up to 38 wt% silver. A pyrometallurgical process was developed to reclaim the silver before disposing of the unserviceable zeolite as a radioactive waste. A flux was formulated to convert the refractory aluminosilicate zeolite structure into a low-melting fluid slag, with Na{sub 2}O added as NAOH instead of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to avoid severe foaming due to CO{sub 2} evolution. A propane-fired furnace was built to smelt 45 kg charges at 1300C in a carbon-bonded silicon carbide crucible. A total of 218 kg (7000 tr oz) of silver was reclaimed from 1050 kg of unserviceable zeolite. Silver recoveries of 97% were achieved, and the radioisotopes were fixed as stable silicates in a vitreous slag that was disposed of as a low level waste. Recovered silver was refined using oxygen and cast into 100 tr oz bars assaying 99.8+% silver and showing no radioactive contamination.

  18. Reclaiming silver from silver zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Silver zeolite is used to capture radioiodines from air cleaning systems in some nuclear facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It may become radioactively contaminated and/or poisoned by hydrocarbon vapors, which diminishes its capacity for iodine. Silver zeolite contains up to 38 wt% silver. A pyrometallurgical process was developed to reclaim the silver before disposing of the unserviceable zeolite as a radioactive waste. A flux was formulated to convert the refractory aluminosilicate zeolite structure into a low-melting fluid slag, with Na[sub 2]O added as NAOH instead of Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3] to avoid severe foaming due to CO[sub 2] evolution. A propane-fired furnace was built to smelt 45 kg charges at 1300C in a carbon-bonded silicon carbide crucible. A total of 218 kg (7000 tr oz) of silver was reclaimed from 1050 kg of unserviceable zeolite. Silver recoveries of 97% were achieved, and the radioisotopes were fixed as stable silicates in a vitreous slag that was disposed of as a low level waste. Recovered silver was refined using oxygen and cast into 100 tr oz bars assaying 99.8+% silver and showing no radioactive contamination.

  19. Image Potential States of Electrons Interacting with Roughened Metal Surfaces Coated with Self-Assembled Alkanethiol Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. K.; Standard, J. M.; Gregory, Brian W.

    2000-03-01

    Electrons in image potential states (IPS) [1] have been a topic of great interest at smooth dielectric/metal interfaces [2]. IPSs at roughened dielectric/metal interfaces have recently been reported [3]. The IPS model is extended to the case of a charge interacting with two intersecting metal planes. We discuss the role of the angle between intersecting metal planes (characteristic of roughened surfaces) on the IPS binding energies for electrons interacting with these structures. Our results are applied to roughened gold surfaces coated with self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers. [1] T. Fauster, Applied Phys. A 59, 479, 1994. [2] N.-H. Ge, C. M. Wong, R. L. Lingle, Jr., J. D. McNeill, K. J. Gaffney, and C. B. Harris, Science 279, 202, 1998, for example. [3] B. K. Clark, B. W. Gregory, A. Avila, T. M. Cotton, and J. M. Standard, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8201, 1999.

  20. Kinetic Roughening and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth: A Preliminary Atomic Force Microscopy Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined particulars of crystal growth from measurements obtained at both microscopic and molecular levels. The crystal growth measurements performed at the microscopic level are well characterized by a model that balances the flux of macromolecules towards the crystal surface with the flux of the crystal surface. Numerical evaluation of model with measurements of crystal growth, in time, provided accurate estimates for the average growth velocities. Growth velocities thus obtained were also interpreted using well-established phenomenological theories. Moreover, we find that microscopic measurements of growth velocity measurements obtained as a function of temperature best characterizes changes in crystal growth modes, when present. We also examined the possibility of detecting a change in crystal growth modes at the molecular level using atomic force microscopy, AFM. From preliminary AFM measurements performed at various supersaturations, we find that magnitude of surface height fluctuations, h(x), increases with supersaturation. Further examination of surface height fluctuations using methods established for fluctuation spectroscopy also enabled the discovery of the existence of a characteristic length, c, which may possibly determine the mode of crystal growth. Although the results are preliminary, we establish the non- critical divergence of 5 and the root-mean-square (rms) magnitude of height-height fluctuations as the kinetic roughening transition temperatures are approached. Moreover, we also examine approximate models for interpreting the non-critical behavior of both 6 and rms magnitude of height-height fluctuations, as the solution supersaturation is increased towards the kinetic roughening supersaturation.

  1. Screenable silver and base metal solar cell contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.

    1980-01-01

    The metallurgical soundness of the all-metal screenable thick film electrode system is established for silver and copper electrodes. Silver fluoride was identified as a successful etchant material and is found most effective in the liquid phase (435-460 C). Best results were achieved with the eutectic alloys of dopants and semiconductors. The air-fired silver inks were strongly adherent, rugged, and solderable, whereas the hydrogen-fired silver inks had very poor adhesion. A two-step firing process was devised in which copper inks containing silver fluoride were activated in a nitrogen atmosphere, with sintering done at the same or higher temperatures in hydrogen. Good solar cells were made using the copper paste back contacts demonstrating that the electrodes are not the limiting factors in efficiency.

  2. Biomedical engineering tasks. [electrode development for electrocardiography and electroencephalography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Electrocardiographic and vectorcardiographic bioinstrumentation work centered on the development of a new electrode system harness for Project Skylab. Evaluation of several silver electrode configurations proved superior impedance voltage performance for silver/silver chloride electrodes mounted flush by using a paste adhesive. A portable ECG processor has been designed and a breadboard unit has been built to sample ECG input data at a rate of 500 samples per second for arrhythmia detection. A small real time display driver program has been developed for statistical analysis on selected QPS features. Engineering work on a sleep monitoring cap assembly continued.

  3. The Strain-Potential Effect of Silver Iodide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SILVER COMPOUNDS, SEEBECK EFFECT ), IODIDES, IMPURITIES, CONCENTRATION(CHEMISTRY), IONS, IONIZATION, IONIZATION POTENTIALS, ELECTRODES, ELECTROLYTES, INTERFACES, MOBILE, DISLOCATIONS, DEFORMATION, CRYSTAL DEFECTS, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, SENSITIVITY, STRAIN GAGES, STRAIN(MECHANICS).

  4. The effect of gamma radiation on reference electrodes and platinum and carbon steel bare metal electrodes in a simulated waste solution

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, M.J.

    1994-03-01

    Electrochemical potential measurements of materials in waste tanks are important in determining if the materials have a propensity for stress corrosion cracking and pitting. Potential measurement requires a reference electrode, but the effect of radiation on the potential generated by the reference electrode has been an unknown quantity. To determine the significance of the radiation effect, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted studies of five types of electrodes under gamma radiation at room temperature. The subjects were two types of silver, silver chloride reference electrodes, a mercury/calomel reference electrode, a platinum ``flag``, and a piece of A-537 carbon steel; the electrodes were exposed to a simulated caustic tank environment. The Fisher Scientific{reg_sign} silver/silver chloride and mercury/calomel reference electrodes showed essentially no radiation effects up to a flux of 2.IE6 R/h and fluence of 9.4E8 R, indicating they would be useful reference electrodes for in-tank studies. The Lazaran{reg_sign} silver/silver chloride electrode showed serious potential deviations at fluences of 2.E8 R but would be the electrode of choice in many situations because it is simple to maintain. Radiation affected the open circuit potential of both the platinum and carbon steel electrodes. This effect indicates that corrosion studies without radiation may not duplicate the corrosion processes expected in a waste tank. Mixed-potential theory was used to explain the radiation effects.

  5. Russell-Silver syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Silver-Russell syndrome; Silver syndrome; RSS; Russell-Silver syndrome ... Organization for Rare Disorders -- rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/russell-silver-syndrome NIH/NLM Genetics Home Reference -- ghr. ...

  6. Carbon nanotube nanocomposite-modified paper electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korivi, Naga S.; Vangari, Manisha; Jiang, Li

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of carbon paper electrodes for supercapacitor applications. The electrodes are based on carbon micro-fiber paper modified with active material consisting of layers of silver nano-particulate ink and a nanocomposite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nano-particulate ink. The electrodes were characterized microscopically and electrically. Current-voltage studies revealed a consistent Ohmic behavior of the electrode when modified with different nanostructured active material. Among the active materials incorporated into the electrode, a nanocomposite of carbon nanotubes and silver nano-particulate ink significantly improved capacitance. The paper electrodes can be used for lightweight and ultrathin supercapacitors and other portable energy applications.

  7. Cyclic Voltammetry of Silver Chloride in Lithium Chloride-Potassium Chloride Eutectic.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TRY), Fused salts, Silver, Reduction(Chemistry), Dissolving, ChloridesSilver chloride, Cyclic voltammetry , *VoltammetryThe technique of cyclic ... voltammetry was employed to study the deposition and dissolution of silver metal at platinum wire electrodes in molten lithium chloride-potassium chloride

  8. New electrosurgical ball electrode with nonstick properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondinone, Joseph; Brassell, James; Miller, Scott A., III; Thorne, Jonathan O.; Rondinone, David M.; Safabash, Jason; Vega, Felix

    1998-04-01

    A new electrosurgical ball electrode (SilverBulletTM) has been developed for applying radiofrequency (RF) energy to fuse biological and other materials to tissue surfaces. Specifically, the electrode was developed for use in conjunction with the Fusion Medical Technologies, Inc. gelatin patch (RapiSealTM) for use in pulmonary surgery to seal air leaks, and in solid abdominal organ surgeries to provide hemostatic tamponade. The new electrode allows for the application of RF energy in contact mode without the problems of the electrode sticking to the gelatin patch or the underlying tissue. Designed for use with commercially available electrosurgical handpieces, the electrode consists of a stainless steel connector that fits into the hand- piece, and an electrode assembly made from silver that includes a shank region, and a tip extension extending distally from the shank region. The distal tip of the tip extension is rounded and has a length of about 10 mm. The uniqueness of this electrode is the shank region which has a cross sectional area that is larger than the tip extension. The shank region acts as a heat sink to draw away heat from the tip extension while the tip extension itself remains sufficiently small to access desired target sites and display the desired energy transfer properties. In addition to the physical design, the use of silver as the core element provides a material with high electrical and thermal conductivities. The bulk of the electrode is appropriately insulated.

  9. Inkjet printing of semitransparent electrodes for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisch, Philipp; Tam, Kai C.; Lucera, Luca; Fecher, Frank W.; Egelhaaf, Hans-Joachim; Scheiber, Horst; Maier, Eugen; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we compare two different semitransparent inkjet printed electrodes for organic photovoltaic (OPV) applications. We highlight the processing as well as layer properties of the most commonly used silver grid/PEDOT:PSS electrodes and a newly developed inkjet printed silver nanowire (AgNW) mesh. Application of the different electrode types in fully inkjet printed organic solar cells reveals the superior performance of the AgNWs. Using them as bottom and top electrode, semitransparent solar cells with power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 4.3 % are demonstrated. Comparable devices with silver grid electrodes reach a maximum PCE of 3.6 %. We identify shading of the opaque silver grids, which cover 10 % of the device area, and thermal stress introduced by the curing of the silver grid top electrodes as main factors for the losses. Furthermore, the silver grids do not only lower the short circuit current of the solar cell, but are also visually obstructive. The newly developed inkjet printed AgNW percolation network electrodes show high transparency of over 90 % at a sheet resistance of less than 20 Ω/□ and a very low haze of less than 3 %. This enables a clear view through semitransparent devices like organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS) or solar cells in which they can be used.

  10. Constructing heterostructure on highly roughened caterpillar-like gold nanotubes with cuprous oxide grains for ultrasensitive and stable nonenzymatic glucose sensor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Anran; Ding, Yu; Yang, Zhimao; Yang, Shengchun

    2015-12-15

    In this study, a metal-metal oxide heterostructure was designed and constructed by growing cuprous oxide (Cu2O) grains on highly surface roughened caterpillar-like Au nanotubes (CLGNs) for ultrasensitive, selective and stable nonenzymatic glucose biosensors. The Cu2O grains are tightly anchored to the surface of CLGNs by the spines, resulting in a large increase in the contact area between Cu2O grains and the CLGNs, which facilitates the electron transport between metal and metal oxide and improves the sensitivity and stability of the sensors. The electron transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer rate constant (ks) for redox reaction of Cu2O-CLGNs/GCE are found to be 0.50114 and 3.24±0.1 s(-1), respectively. The biosensor shows a linear response to glucose over a concentration range of 0.1-5mM and a high sensitivity of 1215.7 µA mM(-1) cm(-2) with a detection limit of 1.83 μM. Furthermore, the Cu2O-CLGNs biosensor exhibited strong anti-interference capability against uric acid (UA), ascorbic acid (AA), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium ascorbate (SA), as well as a high stability and repeatability. Our current research indicates that the Cu2O-CLGNs hybrid electrode is a promising choice for constructing nonenzyme based electrochemical biosensors.

  11. Electrodes for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Niederhauser, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Jungo, Michael; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Abacherli, Roger; Vogel, Rolf

    2013-09-01

    The emerging application of long-term and high-quality ECG recording requires alternative electrodes to improve the signal quality and recording capability of surface skin electrodes. The esophageal ECG has the potential to overcome these limitations but necessitates novel recorder and lead designs. The electrode material is of particular interest, since the material has to ensure conflicting requirements like excellent biopotential recording properties and inertness. To this end, novel electrode materials like PEDOT and silver-PDMS as well as established electrode materials such as stainless steel, platinum, gold, iridium oxide, titanium nitride, and glassy carbon were investigated by long-term electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and model-based signal analysis using the derived in vitro interfacial properties in conjunction with a dedicated ECG amplifier. The results of this novel approach show that titanium nitride and iridium oxide featuring microstructured surfaces did not degrade when exposed to artificial acidic saliva. These materials provide low electrode potential drifts and insignificant signal distortion superior to surface skin electrodes making them compatible with accepted standards for ambulatory ECG. They are superior to the noble and polarizable metals such as platinum, silver, and gold that induced more signal distortions and are superior to esophageal stainless steel electrodes that corrode in artificial saliva. The study provides rigorous criteria for the selection of electrode materials for prolonged ECG recording by combining long-term in vitro electrode material properties with ECG signal quality assessment.

  12. Convective Heat Transfer from Castings of Ice Roughened Surfaces in Horizontal Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dukhan, Nihad; Vanfossen, G. James, Jr.; Masiulaniec, K. Cyril; Dewitt, Kenneth J.

    1995-01-01

    A technique was developed to cast frozen ice shapes that had been grown on a metal surface. This technique was applied to a series of ice shapes that were grown in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel on flat plates. Eight different types of ice growths, characterizing different types of roughness, were obtained from these plates, from which aluminum castings were made. Test strips taken from these castings were outfitted with heat flux gages, such that when placed in a dry wind tunnel, they could be used to experimentally map out the convective heat transfer coefficient in the direction of flow from the roughened surfaces. The effects on the heat transfer coefficient for parallel flow, which simulates horizontal flight, were studied. The results of this investigation can be used to help size heaters for wings, helicopter rotor blades, jet engine intakes, etc., or de-icing for anti-icing applications where the flow is parallel to the iced surface.

  13. Facile manipulation of receding contact angles of a substrate by roughening and fluorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yueh-Feng; Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2015-11-01

    Contact angle hysteresis plays a paramount role in anti-smudge surfaces. In this study, surface roughness is systematically altered on some polymeric substrates such as polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) by roughening and its effect on contact angle hysteresis is investigated via measuring advancing and receding contact angles of water. The wettability on these substrates is also modified by vapor-phase deposition of perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane, while the surface morphology is kept the same. As surface roughness is increased, the advancing contact angle grows but three types of the receding contact angle (θr) behavior have been identified: (i) monotonic reduction of θr, (ii) monotonic enhancement of θr, and (iii) presence of a minimum of θr. A plausible mechanism based on the stability of air pockets is proposed to explain our experimental findings. The manipulation of receding contact angles can be achieved based on our findings.

  14. Analysis of Surface Roughening in AA6111 Automotive Sheet Under Pure Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Zhao, P. Z.; Jin, H.; Wu, P. D.; Lloyd, D. J.

    2016-02-01

    The finite element method is used to numerically simulate the topographic development in an aluminum sheet, AA6111, under pure bending. The measured electron backscatter diffraction data are directly incorporated into the finite element model, and the constitutive response at an integration point is described by the single crystal plasticity theory. The effects of strain-rate sensitivity, work hardening, and imposed initial surface roughness on surface roughening are studied. It is found that the grains in top surface layers of the sheet play a big role in controlling the outer surface roughness due to the strain gradient across sheet thickness in bending, while the grain size and texture of the surface layers have a direct impact on finishing surface qualities.

  15. The Effect of Roughened Metallic Films on Colloidal Quantum Dot Energy Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, Christopher; Ghosh, Somnath; Rich, Brent; Khine, Michelle; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2009-03-01

    We investigate self-organized, roughened metallic surfaces as a platform for enhanced energy transfer between colloidal Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QD). Pre-stressed thermoplastic substrates are sputter coated with gold palladium (AuPd) to create thin films. When heated, due to differing coefficients of thermal expansion of the plastic and metal, the AuPd film buckles to form micro- to nano-meter sized structures. QDs deposited on these self-organized metallic structures exhibit changes in their static and dynamic optical characteristics, which include spectral red-shift and multiple recombination decay rates. These observations can be attributed to a combination of enhanced electronic coupling between close-packed QDs and plasmonic coupling between the QD and metallic structures. We then leverage these properties to fabricate controlled, directional structures using this self-organized method which can be utilized as biochemical sensors.

  16. Electrochemically Created Highly Surface Roughened Ag Nanoplate Arrays for SERS Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Slotcavage, Daniel; Mai, John D.; Guo, Feng; Li, Sixing; Zhao, Yanhui; Lei, Yong; Cameron, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Highly surface-roughened Ag nanoplate arrays are fabricated using a simple electrodeposition and in situ electrocorrosion method with inorganic borate ions as capping agent. The electrocorrosion process is induced by a change in the local pH value during the electrochemical growth, which is used to intentionally carve the electrodeposited structures. The three dimensionally arranged Ag nanoplates are integrated with substantial surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) hot spots and are free of organic contaminations widely used as shaping agents in previous works, making them excellent candidate substrates for SERS biosensing applications. The SERS enhancement factor of the rough Ag nanoplates is estimated to be > 109. These Ag nanoplate arrays are used for SERS-based analysis of DNA hybridization monitoring, protein detection, and virus differentiation without any additional surface modifications or labelling. They all exhibit an extremely high detection sensitivity, reliability, and reproducibility. PMID:25383191

  17. Time-dependent couplings and crossover length scales in nonequilibrium surface roughening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradas, Marc; López, Juan M.; Hernández-Machado, A.

    2007-07-01

    We show that time-dependent couplings may lead to nontrivial scaling properties of the surface fluctuations of the asymptotic regime in nonequilibrium kinetic roughening models. Three typical situations are studied. In the case of a crossover between two different rough regimes, the time-dependent coupling may result in anomalous scaling for scales above the crossover length. In a different setting, for a crossover from a rough to either a flat or damping regime, the time-dependent crossover length may conspire to produce a rough surface, although the most relevant term tends to flatten the surface. In addition, our analysis sheds light into an existing debate in the problem of spontaneous imbibition, where time-dependent couplings naturally arise in theoretical models and experiments.

  18. Inherent surface roughening as a limiting factor in epitaxial cluster deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinander, K.; Nordlund, K.; Keinonen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Deposition of nanoclusters at thermal energies will result in an onset of roughening of the deposited surface. In order to grow epitaxial films using cluster deposition at soft landing conditions, the effect of this inherent surface roughness on the alignment of deposited clusters must be investigated. Using molecular dynamics computer simulations we have determined the maximum size of Cu clusters that will align epitaxially, upon deposition at thermal energies, on rough (1 0 0) Cu substrates with temperatures ranging from 0 K to 750 K. We have also shown that the likelihood of epitaxial alignment for the resulting structures is dependent on the point of impact of a cluster relative to previously deposited clusters.

  19. Smoothing and re-roughening processes: The geometric evolution of a single fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, Katherine A. H.; Kirkpatrick, James D.

    2016-10-01

    The geometry of a fault zone exerts a major control on earthquake rupture processes and source parameters. Observations previously compiled from multiple faults suggest that fault surface shape evolves with displacement, but the specific processes driving the evolution of fault geometry within a single fault zone are not well understood. Here, we characterize the deformation history and geometry of an extraordinarily well-exposed fault using maps of cross-sectional exposures constructed with the Structure from Motion photogrammetric method. The La Quinta Fault, located in southern California, experienced at least three phases of deformation. Multiple layers of ultracataclasite formed during the most recent phase. Crosscutting relations between the layers define the evolution of the structures and demonstrate that new layers formed successively during the deformation history. Wear processes such as grain plucking from one layer into a younger layer and truncation of asperities at layer edges indicate that the layers were slip zones and the contacts between them slip surfaces. Slip surfaces that were not reactivated or modified after they were abandoned exhibit self-affine geometry, preserving the fault roughness from different stages of faulting. Roughness varies little between surfaces, except the last slip zone to form in the fault, which is the smoothest. This layer contains a distinct mineral assemblage, indicating that the composition of the fault rock exerts a control on roughness. In contrast, the similar roughness of the older slip zones, which have comparable mineralogy but clearly crosscut one another, suggests that as the fault matured the roughness of the active slip surface stayed approximately constant. Wear processes affected these layers, so for roughness to stay constant the roughening and smoothing effects of fault slip must have been approximately balanced. These observations suggest fault surface evolution occurs by nucleation of new surfaces and

  20. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of Rod Eutectics and the Surface Roughening Transition in Binary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, Daniel N.; Betush, William; Jackson, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report on two related topics: Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of the steady state growth of rod eutectics from the melt, and a study of the surface roughness of binary alloys. We have implemented a three dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulation with diffusion by pair exchange only in the liquid phase. Entropies of fusion are first chosen to fit the surface roughness of the pure materials, and the bond energies are derived from the equilibrium phase diagram, by treating the solid and liquid as regular and ideal solutions respectively. A simple cubic lattice oriented in the {100} direction is used. Growth of the rods is initiated from columns of pure B material embedded in an A matrix, arranged in a close packed array with semi-periodic boundary conditions. The simulation cells typically have dimensions of 50 by 87 by 200 unit cells. Steady state growth is compliant with the Jackson-Hunt model. In the kMC simulations, using the spin-one Ising model, growth of each phase is faceted or nonfaceted phases depending on the entropy of fusion. There have been many studies of the surface roughening transition in single component systems, but none for binary alloy systems. The location of the surface roughening transition for the phases of a eutectic alloy determines whether the eutectic morphology will be regular or irregular. We have conducted a study of surface roughness on the spin-one Ising Model with diffusion using kMC. The surface roughness was found to scale with the melting temperature of the alloy as given by the liquidus line on the equilibrium phase diagram. The density of missing lateral bonds at the surface was used as a measure of surface roughness.

  1. Antibacterial Silver

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Julia L.; Jarrett, Penelope S.

    1994-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of silver has long been known and has found a variety of applications because its toxicity to human cells is considerably lower than to bacteria. The most widely documented uses are prophylactic treatment of burns and water disinfection. However, the mechanisms by which silver kills cells are not known. Information on resistance mechanisms is apparently contradictory and even the chemistry of Ag+ in such systems is poorly understood. Silver binds to many cellular components, with membrane components probably being more important than nucleic acids. It is difficult to know whether strong binding reflects toxicity or detoxification: some sensitive bacterial strains have been reported as accumulating more silver than the corresponding resistant strain, in others the reverse apparently occurs. In several cases resistance has been shown to be plasmid mediated. The plasmids are reported as difficult to transfer, and can also be difficult to maintain, as we too have found. Attempts to find biochemical differences between resistant and sensitive strains have met with limited success: differences are subtle, such as increased cell surface hydrophobicity in a resistant Escherichia coli. Some of the problems are due to defining conditions in which resistance can be observed. Silver(I) has been shown to bind to components of cell culture media, and the presence of chloride is necessary to demonstrate resistance. The form of silver used must also be considered. This is usually water soluble AgNO3, which readily precipitates as AgCl. The clinically preferred compound is the highly insoluble silver sulfadiazine, which does not cause hypochloraemia in burns. It has been suggested that resistant bacteria are those unable to bind Ag+ more tightly than does chloride. It may be that certain forms of insoluble silver are taken up by cells, as has been found for nickel. Under our experimental conditions, silver complexed by certain ligands is more cytotoxic

  2. The secondary alkaline zinc electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1991-02-01

    The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

  3. Underpotential Deposition of Silver on Pt(111). Part 1. Concentration Dependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    AD-A236 692 Underpotential Deposition of Silver on Pt(111): Part I. Concentration Dependence r T ~.J.F. Rodriguez, D.L. Taylor and H.D. Abruhla* EL...dependence of the underpotential deposition of silver on well-defined Pt(111) electrodes. Electrochemical as well as ultra high vacuum surface...silver are deposited at underpotentials but the stability of the second layer is a strong function of the silver ion concentration in solution. When

  4. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ray, S.P.; Woods, R.W.

    1998-08-11

    A process is disclosed for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750 C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5--3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite. 2 figs.

  5. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    A process for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5-3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite.

  6. Fabrication of a 3 dimensional dielectrophoresis electrode by a metal inkjet printing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Yun, Gyu-Young; Koh, Yul; Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2013-12-01

    We proposed a micro electrode fabrication method by a metal inkjet printing technology for the bio-applications of dielectrophoresis (DEP). The electrodes are composed of bottom planar gold (Au) electrodes and three dimensional (3D) silver (Ag) electrodes fabricated locally on the Au electrode through metal inkjet printing. We observed the negative DEP characteristics of the 4 μm polystyrene beads on the both electrodes at the 500 kHz, AC 20 Vpp point. The number of beads trapped on the printed Ag electrode is 79 and 25 on the planar Au electrode because of spatially larger electric field in a 3D electrode system.

  7. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.; Fan, X.

    1998-10-27

    An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

  8. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob; Fan, Xiyun

    1998-01-01

    An electrode composition for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5-4.5 volts.

  9. Preliminary flight prototype silver ion monitoring system, addendum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. I.

    1975-01-01

    A number of electrode fabrication techniques are investigated, to achieve an electrode meeting shuttle mission requirements for functional life and stability as well as accuracy and precision of measurement. The instability of a silver bromide column when employed in a closed loop calibration scheme is discussed.

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Boquist, Carl W.; Marchant, David D.

    1978-01-01

    A ceramic-metal composite suitable for use in a high-temperature environment consists of a refractory ceramic matrix containing 10 to 50 volume percent of a continuous high-temperature metal reinforcement. In a specific application of the composite, as an electrode in a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the one surface of the electrode which contacts the MHD fluid may have a layer of varying thickness of nonreinforced refractory ceramic for electrode temperature control. The side walls of the electrode may be coated with a refractory ceramic insulator. Also described is an electrode-insulator system for a MHD channel.

  11. Silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Silver cyanide ; CASRN 506 - 64 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. Fabrication and testing of silver-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debicarri, D. J.; Charkey, A.

    1978-01-01

    Silver electrodes containing various additives were fabricated and tested in single electrode cells in order to improve the electrochemical utilization of sintered silver cathodes in Ag-H2 aerospace batteries. A standard stack arrangement was used which featured a NASA-developed organic-inorganic separator. All cells were cycled in a regime designed to remove 75% of the cells nominal capacity based on 3.3 gms/AHr Ag utilization. In cases where performance degradation was observed, the main feature mode appeared to be corrosion of either the expanded silver current collector or the connection between the silver electrode and the electrode tab. Promising silver electrodes from single electrode studies were used in the construction of 35 AHr Ag-H2 cells. Two such cells were constructed and installed in heavy walled pressure vessels for testing. Based on the data obtained from all cells tested during the program, four lightweight 35 AHr cells were fabricated. During acceptance testing these cells yielded an average gravimetric energy density of 30 WHr/1b.

  13. Design and fabrication of silver-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    The design and fabrication of silver-hydrogen secondary cells capable of delivering higher energy densities than comparable nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen cells and relatively high cycle life is presented. An experimental task utilizing single electrode pairs for the optimization of the individual electrode components, the preparation of a design for lightweight 20Ahr cells, and the fabrication of four 20Ahr cells in heavy wall test housing containing electrode stacks of the lightweight design are described. The design approach is based on the use of a single cylindrical self-contained cell with a stacked disc sequence of electrodes. The electrode stack design is based on the use of NASA- Astropower Separator Material, PPF fuel cell anodes, an intercell electrolyte reservoir concept and sintered silver electrodes. Results of performance tests are given.

  14. Photoelectrolytic production of hydrogen using semiconductor electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Walker, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental data for the photoelectrolytic production of hydrogen using GaAs photoanodes was presented. Four types of GaAs anodes were investigated: polished GaAs, GaAs coated with gold, GaAs coated with silver, and GaAs coated with tin. The maximum measured efficiency using a tungsten light source was 8.9 percent for polished GaAs electrodes and 6.3 percent for tin coated GaAs electrodes.

  15. Super-roughening: A new phase transition on the surfaces of crystals with quenched bulk disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, John; Divincenzo, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    We present and study a model for surface fluctuations and equilibrium crystal shapes in solids with quenched bulk translational disorder but infinitely long-ranged orientational order. Strictly speaking, such surfaces have no sharp surface phase transition. However, for reasonable values of the bulk correlation length ξB (ξB>~30 Å should be sufficient), an experimentally sharp ``super-roughening'' transition occurs at a temperature TSR. This transition separates a high-temperature ``rough'' phase of the surface from a low-temperature ``super-rough'' phase that, counterintuitively, is even rougher. Specifically, the root-mean-square equilibrium vertical fluctuation in the position of the interface

    ¯ 1/2 diverge like √lnL as the length L of the surface -->∞ for T>TSR (just as in ordered solids for T greater than the roughening temperature TR), while

    ¯ 1/2lnL for T measured in surface-sensitive scattering experiments (e.g., anti-Bragg x-ray scattering) to go from algebraic decay C(qzx)~||x||-η(qz) in the rough phase to short-ranged order C(qzx)~||x-h¯(qz)ln(||x||) in the super-rough phase. The functional dependence of η(qz) on qz differs from that for fluctuating surfaces of both bulk ordered solids (above TR) and liquids. We identify an experimentally measurable correlation length ξSR that diverges as T-->TSR- as exp[ATSR2/(TSR-T)2], where A is a constant of order ln-4||ξB/a|| and a is a lattice constant. The equilibrium crystal shapes do not have facets in either the rough or the super-rough phase. At low temperatures in the super-rough phase, however, nearly flat regions appear, with a radius of curvature scaling like (ξB)-1.

  16. Real-Space Direct Visualization of the Layer-Dependent Roughening Transition in Nanometer-Thick Pb Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calleja, F.; Passeggi, M. C. G., Jr.; Hinarejos, J. J.; de Parga, A. L. Vázquez; Miranda, R.

    2006-11-01

    By means of variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy we studied the thickness-dependent roughening temperature of Pb films grown on Cu(111), whose electronic structure and total energy is controlled by quantum well states created by the spatial confinement of electrons. Large scale STM images are employed to quantify the layer population, i.e., the fraction of the surface area covered by different Pb thicknesses, directly in the real space as a function of temperature. The roughening temperature oscillates repeatedly with bilayer periodicity plus a longer beating period, mirroring the thickness dependence of surface energy calculations. Conditions have been found to stabilize at 300 K Pb films of particular magic thicknesses, atomically flat over microns.

  17. Large Eddy Simulation of a Rib-Roughened Turbulent Channel Flow with Heat Transfer and Property Variations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    while a dy- namic subgrid- scale model was used to account for the subgrid scale effects. A dynamic Prandtl number was introduced to calculate subgrid... scale heat transfer. The effects of strong heating on the rib-roughened wall were in- vestigated and Nusselt numbers were computed and compared with...with length scales smaller than the grid size. This equips LES with the ability to analyze complex three dimensional time dependent flows at a

  18. Surface Roughening of Nickel Cobalt Phosphide Nanowire Arrays/Ni Foam for Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xina; Tong, Rui; Wang, Yi; Tao, Hualong; Zhang, Zhihua; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-21

    Development of earth-abundant, efficient, and stable electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) in alkaline or even neutral pH electrolyte is very important for hydrogen production from water splitting. Construction of bimetal phosphides via tuning the bonding strength to hydrogen and increasing effective active sites through nanostructuring and surface engineering should lead to high HER activity. Here, ternary NiCoP nanowires (NWs) decorated by homogeneous nanoparticles have been obtained on Ni foam for a highly efficient HER property via long-term cyclic voltammetric (CV) sweeping. The electron density transfer between the positively charged Ni and Co and negatively charged P atoms, one-dimensional electron transfer channel of the NWs, and abundant active sites supplied by the nanoparticles and NWs endow the catalyst with low overpotentials of 43 and 118 mV to achieve the respective current densities of 10 and 100 mA cm(-2) together with long durability for at least 33 h in 1 M KOH. A cycled anodic dissolution-redeposition mechanism is disclosed for the formation of the NiCoP nanoparticles during the CV sweeping process. Such a surface roughening method is found to be adaptable to enhance the HER property of other phosphides, including Ni2P nanoplates/NF, NiCoP nanoparticles/NF, and CoP NW/NF.

  19. Long structures in a turbulent boundary layer with a rod-roughened wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2015-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) over a rod-roughened wall is performed with long streamwise domain to examine streamwise scale growth mechanism of streamwise velocity fluctuating structures. The surface roughness is the two-dimensional (2-D) rod arranged regularly in the streamwise direction. Inspection of the instantaneous flow fields and streamwise two-point spatial correlations of the streamwise velocity fluctuations shows that the streamwise and spanwise length scales of the structures over the rough wall are generally larger than those over the smooth wall, while the spanwise inclination angle to the streamwise direction (helix angle) is smaller over the rough wall. Inspection of time-evolving instantaneous fields clearly exhibits that adjacent long structures combine to form a longer structure by spanwise merging process over the rough wall, and the occurrence of the spanwise merging for the streamwise scale growth is expected to be more active over the rough wall due to turbulent scales generated by the 2-D roughness. This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2014R1A1A2057031) and 2015 Research Fund (1.150033.01) of UNIST.

  20. Lattice-Gas Model Description of Kinetic Roughening and Fluctuations in Chemical Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammaro, Michael; Evans, Jim

    1996-03-01

    The ZGB model [1] for CO-oxidation on surfaces displays a discontinuous transition from a reactive to a CO-poisoned state, with increasing CO partial pressure. We consider the evolution of the interface between these two states in the vicinity of the poisoning transition [2]. We observe large ``intrinsic fluctuations" at the interface of the order of 10-20 lattice spacings, together with the gradual development of long-wavelength fluctuations. The latter are described by the KPZ-theory for noise-induced kinetic roughening of driven interfaces, for CO partial pressures strictly below the poisoning transition. Distinct behavior is observed and characterized right at the transition. We also show that the influence of introducing surface diffusion of adsorbed reactants into the model is to dramatically quench the intrinsic fluctuations. [1] R.M. Ziff, E. Gulari, and Y. Barshad, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, p.2553 (1986). [2] J.W. Evans and T.R. Ray, Phys. Rev. E 50, p.4302 (1994).

  1. Surface roughening of glass ionomer cements by neutral NaF solutions.

    PubMed

    De Witte, An M J C; De Maeyer, Erna A P; Verbeeck, Ronald M H

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated applications of a neutral NaF solution on the surface roughness of four conventional glass ionomer cements (GIC) (ChemFil Superior encapsulated, Fuji Cap II, Ketac-Fil and Hi Dense), three resin-modified (RM-) GIC (Fuji II LC encapsulated, Photac-Fil and Vitremer) and one polyacid-modified composite resin (PAM-C) (Dyract). Matured specimens were four times alternately eluted in water and exposed to 2% neutral NaF aqueous solutions for 1h. Control specimens were only subjected to elution in water for the same time period. After the treatment the surface roughness R(a) was determined using non-contact surface profilometry and selected samples were examined with SEM. Except for the PAM-C, R(a) increased drastically for the fluoride-treated samples compared to water-stored samples, the effect being most pronounced for the GIC. Surface roughening apparently is caused by a progressive disintegration or chemical erosion of the polysalt matrix of (RM-)GIC.

  2. Numerical sensitivity analysis of 3- and 2- dimensional rib-roughened channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshmiri, Amir

    2012-07-01

    Rough surfaces have been used as a tool to enhance heat transfer by increasing the level of turbulence mixing in the flow. In numerically simulating such flows, it is common to simulate a 3D rib-roughened channel with a 2D domain in order to reduce the computational time and power. The main purpose of the present work is to investigate the accuracy of the above approximation. In order to do so, initially a 3D channel is simulated using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes technique and comparison is made against 2D simulations as well as experimental data. In addition, the effects of rib thermal boundary condition and near-wall treatments are also investigated. All computations are undertaken using the commercial CFD code `STAR-CD'. The Reynolds number, based on the channel bulk velocity and hydraulic diameter, is 30,000. Two low-Reynolds-number linear Eddy-Viscosity Models, namely the Lien-Chen-Leschziner k - ɛ model and a variant of Durbin's v 2 - f formulation are used. In the CFD simulations reported here, the focus is on the experimental data of Rau et al. (ASME J Turbomach 120:368-375, 1998). It was found that the present results for a 3D channel are in relatively good agreement with the data. It was also shown that a 2D channel can be used to represent the flow in the centre-line of a 3D channel with relatively good accuracy.

  3. Entanglement in correlated random spin chains, RNA folding and kinetic roughening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Laguna, Javier; Santalla, Silvia N.; Ramírez, Giovanni; Sierra, Germán

    2016-07-01

    Average block entanglement in the 1D XX-model with uncorrelated random couplings is known to grow as the logarithm of the block size, in similarity to conformal systems. In this work we study random spin chains whose couplings present long range correlations, generated as gaussian fields with a power-law spectral function. Ground states are always planar valence bond states, and their statistical ensembles are characterized in terms of their block entropy and their bond-length distribution, which follow power-laws. We conjecture the existence of a critical value for the spectral exponent, below which the system behavior is identical to the case of uncorrelated couplings. Above that critical value, the entanglement entropy violates the area law and grows as a power law of the block size, with an exponent which increases from zero to one. Interestingly, we show that XXZ models with positive anisotropy present the opposite behavior, and strong correlations in the couplings lead to lower entropies. Similar planar bond structures are also found in statistical models of RNA folding and kinetic roughening, and we trace an analogy between them and quantum valence bond states. Using an inverse renormalization procedure we determine the optimal spin-chain couplings which give rise to a given planar bond structure, and study the statistical properties of the couplings whose bond structures mimic those found in RNA folding.

  4. Computational prediction of heat transfer to gas turbine nozzle guide vanes with roughened surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, S.M.; Jones, T.V.; Lock, G.D.; Dancer, S.N.

    1998-04-01

    The local Mach number and heat transfer coefficient over the aerofoil surfaces and endwalls of a transonic gas turbine nozzle guide vane have been calculated. the computations were performed by solving the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using a fully three-dimensional computational code (CFDS), which is well established at Rolls-Royce. A model to predict the effects of roughness has been incorporated into CFDS and heat transfer levels have been calculated for both hydraulically smooth and transitionally rough surfaces. The roughness influences the calculations in two ways; first the mixing length at a certain height above the surface is increased; second the wall function used to reconcile the wall condition with the first grid point above the wall is also altered. The first involves a relatively straightforward shift of the origin in the van Driest damping function description, the second requires an integration of the momentum equation across the wall layer. A similar treatment applies to the energy equation. The calculations are compared with experimental contours of heat transfer coefficient obtained using both thin-film gages and the transient liquid crystal technique. Measurements were performed using both hydraulically smooth and roughened surfaces, and at engine-representative Mach and Reynolds numbers. The heat transfer results are discussed and interpreted in terms of surface-shear flow visualization using oil and dye techniques.

  5. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Two Possible Configurations for Silver-C60-Silver Molecular Devices and Their Conductance Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Guang-Jun; Su, Wen-Yong

    2009-06-01

    Coherent electronic transport properties of silver-C60-silver molecular junctions in different configurations are studied using hybrid density function theory. The experimentally measured current flows of C60 molecules adsorbed on the silver surface are well reproduced by theoretical calculations. It is found that the current-voltage characteristics of the molecular junctions depend strongly on the configurations of the junctions. Transmission spectra combined with density of states can help us to understand in depth the transport properties. Different kinds of electrode construction are also discussed. With the help of the calculation, two possible configurations of silver-C60-silver molecular junctions are suggested.

  6. Improved electrode gives high-quality biological recordings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. L.; Lippitt, M. W.

    1964-01-01

    To obtain high quality waveforms from a subject engaged in physical activity, an improved electrode assembly has been devised. This consists of a cup containing an electrically conductive paste and a silver electrode. The paste maintains contact between the skin and the plate.

  7. Fabrication of an Inexpensive Ion-Selective Electrode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palanivel, A.; Riyazuddin, P.

    1984-01-01

    The preparation and performance of a graphite (silver/copper sulfide) electrode is described. This rod, extracted from a used dry cell, is an acceptable substitute for ion-selective electrodes after it has been cleaned by abrasion followed by an overnight treatment with hydrochloric acid. (JN)

  8. Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frits for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingfen; Gan, Weiping; Li, Biyuan

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frit composite powders for silicon solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. Silver colloids were used as the activating agent of glass frits. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The characterization results indicated that silver nanoparticles with the melting temperature of 838 °C were uniformly deposited on glass frit surface. The particle size of silver nanoparticles could be controlled by adjusting the [Ag(NH3)2]NO3 concentration. The as-prepared composite powders were applied in the front side metallization of silicon solar cells. Compared with those based on pure glass frits, the solar cells containing the composite powders had the denser silver electrodes and the better silver-silicon ohmic contacts. Furthermore, the photovoltaic performances of solar cells were improved after the electroless plating.

  9. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  10. An analysis of LDEF-exposed silvered FEP teflon thermal blanket material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.

    1991-01-01

    The characterization of selected silvered fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) teflon thermal blanket material which received 5 years and 9 months of exposure to the LEO environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility is reported. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared, and thermal analyses did not detect a significant change at the molecular level as the result of this exposure. However, various microscopic analyses revealed a roughening of the coating surface due to atomic oxygen erosion which resulted in some materials changing from specular reflectors of visible radiation to diffuse reflectors. The potential effect of silicon-containing molecular contamination on these materials is addressed.

  11. Fabrication of Dry Electrode for Recording Bio-potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Guo, Kai; Pei, Wei-Hua; Gui, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Qian; Chen, Hong-Da; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Development of minimally invasive dry electrodes for recording biopotentials is presented. The detailed fabrication process is outlined. A dry electrode is formed by a number of microneedles. The lengths of the microneedles are about 150μm and the diameters are about 50μm. The tips of the microneedles are sharp enough to penetrate into the skin. The silver/silver chloride is grown on microneedle arrays and demonstrates good character. The electrocardiogram shows that the dry electrode is suitable for recording biopotentials.

  12. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of melamine on silver substrate: An experimental and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Nguyen Thi Thai; Dao, Duy Quang; Nam, Pham Cam; Huy, Bui The; Nhung Tran, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful vibrational spectroscopy technique that allows amplifying weak Raman signals by the excitation of localized surface plasmons. In this paper, we used nanoscale roughened silver surface to enhance Raman signals of melamine analyte. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by wet-chemical method and employed for SERS measurement. Theoretically, optimized geometries and vibrational frequencies of melamine and melamine absorbed on silver-cluster surface were calculated by using the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. Then, the predicted spectrograms are compared with the experimental Raman spectra. As a result, Raman signals of melamine were dramatically enhanced by using obtained silver nanoparticles as the substrate. Typical peaks of melamine at 676 and 983 cm- 1 were enhanced and could be obviously observed in experiments. The calculated vibrational frequencies seem to relatively coincide with the experimental values. SERS effect of melamine on nanoscale silver was also explained by analyzing molecular frontier orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) melamine-silver complexes.

  13. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of melamine on silver substrate: An experimental and DFT study.

    PubMed

    An, Nguyen Thi Thai; Dao, Duy Quang; Nam, Pham Cam; Huy, Bui The; Nhung Tran, Hong

    2016-12-05

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful vibrational spectroscopy technique that allows amplifying weak Raman signals by the excitation of localized surface plasmons. In this paper, we used nanoscale roughened silver surface to enhance Raman signals of melamine analyte. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by wet-chemical method and employed for SERS measurement. Theoretically, optimized geometries and vibrational frequencies of melamine and melamine absorbed on silver-cluster surface were calculated by using the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. Then, the predicted spectrograms are compared with the experimental Raman spectra. As a result, Raman signals of melamine were dramatically enhanced by using obtained silver nanoparticles as the substrate. Typical peaks of melamine at 676 and 983cm(-1) were enhanced and could be obviously observed in experiments. The calculated vibrational frequencies seem to relatively coincide with the experimental values. SERS effect of melamine on nanoscale silver was also explained by analyzing molecular frontier orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) melamine-silver complexes.

  14. Effects of Pin Detached Space on Heat Transfer in a Rib Roughened Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Siw, Sin Chien; Chyu, Minking K.; Alvin, Mary Anne

    2012-11-08

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the heat transfer characteristics and frictional losses in a rib roughened channel combined with detached pin-fins. The overall channel geometry (W=76.2 mm, E=25.4 mm) simulates an internal cooling passage of wide aspect ratio (3:1) in a gas turbine airfoil. With a given pin diameter, D=6.35 mm=[1/4]E, three different pin-fin height-to-diameter ratios, H/D=4, 3, and 2, were examined. Each of these three cases corresponds to a specific pin array geometry of detachment spacing (C) between the pin-tip and one of the endwalls, i.e., C/O=0, 1, 2, respectively. The rib height-to-channel height ratio is 0.0625. Two newly proposed cross ribs, namely the broken rib and full rib are evaluated in this effort. The broken ribs are positioned in between two consecutive rows of pin-fins, while the full ribs are fully extended adjacent to the pin-fins. The Reynolds number, based on the hydraulic diameter of the unobstructed cross section and the mean bulk velocity, ranges from 10,000 to 25,000. The experiment employs a hybrid technique based on transient liquid crystal imaging to obtain distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient over all of the participating surfaces, including the endwalls and all pin elements. The presence of ribs enhances local heat transfer coefficient on the endwall substantially by approximately 20% to 50% as compared to the neighboring endwall. In addition, affected by the rib geometry, which is a relatively low profile as compared to the overall height of the channel, the pressure loss seems to be insensitive to the presence of the ribs. However, from the overall heat transfer enhancement standpoint, the baseline cases (without ribs) outperform cases with broken ribs or full ribs.

  15. Wear of gamma-crosslinked polyethylene acetabular cups against roughened femoral balls.

    PubMed

    McKellop, H; Shen, F W; DiMaio, W; Lancaster, J G

    1999-12-01

    Crosslinking of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene has been shown to markedly improve its wear resistance in clinical studies and laboratory tests using hip joint simulators. However, because most of the laboratory studies have been done under clean conditions using prosthesis-quality, highly polished counterfaces, there is concern regarding how well an intentionally crosslinked polyethylene acetabular cup will resist abrasion by a femoral ball that has been damaged by third-body abrasion in vivo. To investigate this, conventional and radiation crosslinked-remelted acetabular cups of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene were tested in a hip joint simulator bearing against smooth femoral balls and against balls with moderate and severe roughening. Cups were tested with and without aging to accelerate any oxidative degradation. The crosslinked cups were produced by exposing extruded GUR 4150 bar stock of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene to 5 Mrad gamma radiation under a partial vacuum and then the bars were remelted to extinguish residual free radicals. Artificial aging at 70 degrees C under 5 atm oxygen for 14 days induced negligible oxidation in the crosslinked and remelted material. Against smooth balls, the wear of the crosslinked cups, with or without aging, averaged approximately 15% of that of the conventional cups. Against the moderately rough balls, the wear rate of the conventional cups was unchanged, whereas the wear rate increased slightly for the nonaged and aged crosslinked cups, but was still only 26% and 20% of that of the conventional cups, respectively. Against extremely rough balls, the mean wear rates increased markedly for each material such that during the final 1 million cycle interval, the average wear rates of the nonaged and the aged crosslinked cups were 72% and 47% of that of the conventional cups, respectively. That is, the crosslinked polyethylene showed substantially better wear resistance than conventional polyethylene

  16. Partitioning of silver and chemical speciation of free Ag in soils amended with nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge about silver nanoparticles in soils is limited even if soils are a critical pathway for their environmental fate. In this paper, speciation results have been acquired using a silver ion selective electrode in three different soils. Results Soil organic matter and pH were the most important soil properties controlling the occurrence of silver ions in soils. In acidic soils, more free silver ions are available while in the presence of organic matter, ions were tightly bound in complexes. The evolution of the chemical speciation of the silver nanoparticles in soils was followed over six months. Conclusion During the first few hours, there appeared to be a strong sorption of the silver with soil ligands, whereas over time, silver ions were released, the final concentration being approximately 10 times higher than at the beginning. Ag release was associated with either the oxidation of the nanoparticles or a dissociation of adsorbed silver from the soil surfaces. PMID:23617903

  17. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  18. Production of silver ions from colloidal silver by nanoparticle iontophoresis system.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Liao, Chih-Yu

    2011-03-01

    Metal ions, especially the silver ion, were used to treat infection before the initiation of antibiotic therapy. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on the metallic nanoparticle suspension as a reservoir for metal ion release application. For medical purposes, conversion of colloidal silver into an ionic form is necessary, but not using silver salts (e.g., AgNO3, Ag2SO4), due to the fact that the counter-ion of silver salts may cause problems to the body as the silver ion (Ag+) is consumed. The goal of this research is to develop a silver nanoparticle iontophoresis system (NIS) which can provide a relatively safe bactericidal silver ion solution with a controllable electric field. In this study, ion-selective electrodes were used to identify and observe details of the system's activity. Both qualitative and quantitative data analyses were performed. The experimental results show that the ion releasing peak time (R(PT)) has an inversely proportional relationship with the applied current and voltage. The ion releasing maximum level (R(ML)) and dosage (R(D)) are proportional to the current density and inversely proportional to the voltage, respectively. These results reveal that the nanoparticle iontophoresis system (NIS) is an alternative method for the controlled release of a metal ion and the ion's concentration profile, by controlling the magnitude of current density (1 microA/cm2 equal to 1 ppm/hour) and applied voltage.

  19. Spinal cord electrophysiology II: extracellular suction electrode fabrication.

    PubMed

    Garudadri, Suresh; Gallarda, Benjamin; Pfaff, Samuel; Alaynick, William

    2011-02-20

    Development of neural circuitries and locomotion can be studied using neonatal rodent spinal cord central pattern generator (CPG) behavior. We demonstrate a method to fabricate suction electrodes that are used to examine CPG activity, or fictive locomotion, in dissected rodent spinal cords. The rodent spinal cords are placed in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and the ventral roots are drawn into the suction electrode. The electrode is constructed by modifying a commercially available suction electrode. A heavier silver wire is used instead of the standard wire given by the commercially available electrode. The glass tip on the commercial electrode is replaced with a plastic tip for increased durability. We prepare hand drawn electrodes and electrodes made from specific sizes of tubing, allowing consistency and reproducibility. Data is collected using an amplifier and neurogram acquisition software. Recordings are performed on an air table within a Faraday cage to prevent mechanical and electrical interference, respectively.

  20. Research of nano silver alloy pasteto solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yizhou; Peng, Xiaoxai; Wang, He

    2017-01-01

    From theory and experiment, the method toimprove the performance of silver paste was explored. Through the analysis about the SEM images to the electrode contact section of the crystal silicon solar cell, the different contact modes and resistance calculation methods of the metal paste and silicon were verified. Through the resistance calculation, consideringthe different oxide and silver silicon contact alloy characteristics, two kinds of additive compositions were found that which may have good performance in alloy paste of the solar cell.

  1. Impedance analysis of bio-fuel cell electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ouitrakul, Sarinee; Sriyudthsak, Mana; Charojrochkul, Sumittra; Kakizono, Toshihide

    2007-12-15

    To determine the criteria for the selection of an electrode suitable for a bio-fuel cell (BFC), five electrodes, i.e. silver, aluminum, nickel, stainless steel and carbon fiber cloth were investigated. The performance of the BFC according to the electrode material, including the generated voltage, current density and power density was observed. These results show that the materials used for constructing the electrodes affect the performance of the BFC. An impedance analysis was used to describe the characteristics of the electrodes in the solution. Equivalent circuits of each component such as solution, electrodes-solution interface and electrode were determined from the impedance data. The constant-phase element (CPE) model was applied for data analyzing. It was found that stainless steel, nickel and aluminum behaved like a polarized electrode which has a high electrode-solution interfacial impedance, while carbon fiber cloth and silver had a low impedance like a non-polarized electrode. The impedance data indicated that a higher interfacial impedance will result in a higher loading effect. The results can be summarized that the carbon fiber cloth electrode offers a good electron transfer in the system and thus supplies higher power to the external load.

  2. Submonolayer nucleation and growth and the initial stage of multilayer kinetic roughening during Ag/Ag (100) homoepitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.

    1996-08-01

    A comprehensive Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) study of submonolayer nucleation and growth of 2D islands in Ag/Ag(100) homoepitaxy for temperature between 295K and 370K is presented. The initial stages of multilayer kinetic roughening is also studied. Analysis of an appropriate model for metal (100) homoepitaxy, produces estimates of 350 meV for the terrace diffusion barrier, 400 meV for the adatom bond energy, and 25 meV for the additional Ehrlich-Schwoebel step-edge barrier.

  3. Effects of Kinetic Roughening and Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition on Lysozyme Crystal Growth Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Konnert, John; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    We measured the growth velocities of the (110) face of tetragonal lysozyme, V (centimeters per second), at four different concentrations, c (milligrams per milliliter), as the solution temperature, T (Centigrade), was reduced. For a broad range of T dependent on c, we find that the growth velocities increased as the solution temperature was reduced. The initial increase in V is well characterized by the 2D nucleation model for crystal growth, yielding the magnitude of an effective barrier for growth, gamma(sub s) = 1.2 plus or minus 0.1 x 10(exp -13) erg/molecule. Below certain temperatures, T(sub cr), dependent on c, however, a kinetic roughening hypothesis that considers the continuous addition of molecules anywhere on the crystal surface better describes the observed growth velocities. The application of the continuous growth model, up to the solution cloud-point temperatures, T(sub cl), enabled the determinations of the crossover concentration, c(sub r), from estimated values of T(sub cr). For all conditions presented, we find that the crossover from growth by 2D nucleation to continuous addition occurs at a supersaturation, sigma (sub c), = 2.0 plus or minus 0.1. Moreover, we find the energy barrier for the continuous addition, E(sub c), within the temperature range T(sub cl) less than T less than T less than T (sub cr), to be 6 plus or minus 1 x 10(exp -13) erg/molecule. Further reduction of T below approximately 2-3 C of T(sub cl), also revealed a rapid slowing of crystal growth velocities. From quasi-elastic light scattering investigations, we find that the rapid diminishment of crystal growth velocities can be accounted for by the phase behavior of lysozyme solutions. Namely, we find the reversible formation of dense fluid proto-droplets comprised of lysozyme molecules to occur below approximately 0.3 C of T(sub cl). Hence, the rapid slowing of growth velocities may occur as a result of the sudden depletion of "mobile" molecules within crystal growth

  4. Heteroepitaxy and properties of III-V materials grown on nanoscopically roughened (001) silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang

    The objectives of this work are (1) to study the growth mechanisms of GaP on Si by organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) using trimethylgallium (TMG) and phosphine (PH3) as precursors, and (2) to improve the GaP growth quality by using nanoscopically roughened Si substrates. We study the growth comparatively on (001) GaAs and thermally generated SiO2. Inadvertent indirect but important data are also obtained from the polycrystalline GaP deposited on the Mo susceptor surrounding the 2 in. wafers. We use spectroscopic polarimetry (SP) to follow growth in real time, and then analyze the films with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). We investigated the gas-phase kinetics inside our vertical-flow, low-pressure OMCVD reactor chamber by calculating various kinetics parameters and characteristic dimensionless numbers based on simple hard-sphere approximations. The results allow a quantitative understanding of the OMCVD processes and the design of optimized growth conditions. We found that the thicknesses of the deposited GaP films increases or decreases exponentially toward the edge of the wafers. This dependence is incompatible with the common explanation of gas-phase depletion of the precursors. Starting with the diffusion equation, we derive analytic expressions that describe the thickness variations in terms of the diffusion parameters, and evaluate the diffusion length quantitatively. We show that the cause is due to differences in chemical reactivities of the various surfaces, especially the different catalytic effects that they exert on PH3 decomposition. The results also show that different parts of the surface, including the susceptor, are in constant contact with each other during growth through gas-phase diffusion, and that deposition occurs via a precursor that involves both Ga and P and is formed by heterogeneous catalysis. We proposed a model for the growth of GaP based on the formation of this precursor and the

  5. The truth about silver.

    PubMed

    Ovington, Liza G

    2004-09-01

    Interest in silver as a topical agent in wound healing is undergoing a renaissance. Having basic information regarding silver's chemical properties and potential actions in the wound bed is important to its appropriate clinical use. Such information is also relevant to the interpretation of silver's in vitro antimicrobial (antiseptic) effects, which in turn relate to issues involved in the evaluation of the clinical effects of silver in vivo. Gaining an understanding of the basic science of silver products and the different challenges inherent to in vitro versus in vivo antimicrobial evaluations will allow clinicians to address several key questions inherent when considering the use of silver as a topical antimicrobial: 1) Are there different forms of silver? 2) How does the amount of silver released into the wound environment correlate with clinical benefit? 3) How does the rate of silver release correlate with clinical benefit?

  6. Electrochemical oxidation of guanine: electrode reaction mechanism and tailoring carbon electrode surfaces to switch between adsorptive and diffusional responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Compton, Richard G

    2010-06-03

    The electrochemical oxidation of guanine is studied in aqueous media at various carbon electrodes. Specifically edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPG), basal plane pyrolytic graphite (BPPG), and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were used, and the voltammetry was found to vary significantly. In all cases, signals characteristic of adsorbed guanine were seen and the total charge passed varied from surface to surface in the order roughened BPPG > EPPG > BPPG > HOPG. It is of note that the peak height for the EPPG electrode is less than that found for roughened BPPG; furthermore, across the series of electrodes, there is a significant decrease in peak potential with increasing density of edge plane sites present at the electrode surface. This leads us to conclude that there are two dominating and controlling factors present: (i) the density of basal plane sites on which guanine can adsorb and (ii) the density of edge plane sites necessary for the electro-oxidation of the analyte. This conclusion is corroborated through further experiments with multi- and single-walled carbon nanotubes. Adsorption was seen to be enhanced by modification of the EPPG surface with alumina particles, and as such, increased peak signals were observed in their presence. It is further reported that via the pre-adsorption of acetone onto the graphite surface that the adsorption of guanine may be blocked, resulting in a diffusional voltammetric signal. This diffusional response has been successfully modeled and gives insight into the complex -4e(-), -4H(+) oxidation mechanism; specifically, it enables explanation of the observed change in rate-determining step with scan rate. The oxidation of guanine first proceeds via a two-electron oxidation followed by a chemical step to form 8-oxoguanine, then 8-oxoguanine is then further oxidized to form nonelectroactive products. The change is mechanism is attributed to the variation in potential of the first and second electron transfer with scan

  7. Non-gassing nickel-cadmium battery electrodes and cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.; Gordy, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of a negative limited nongassing nickel-cadmium battery was demonstrated by constructing and testing practical size experimental cells of approximately 25 Ah capacity. These batteries operated in a gas-free manner and had measured energy densities of 10-11 Wh/lb. Thirty cells were constructed for extensive testing. Some small cells were tested for over 200 cycles at 100% depth. For example, a small cell with an electrodeposited cadmium active mass on a silver screen still had 55% of its theoretical capacity (initial efficiency was 85%). There was no evidence of deterioration of gassing properties with cycling of the nickel electrodes. The charge temperature was observed to be the most critical variable governing nickel electrode gassing. This variable was shown to be age dependent. Four types of cadmium electrodes were tested: an electrodeposited cadmium active mass on a cadmium or silver substrate, a porous sintered silver substrate based electrode, and a Teflon bonded pressed cadmium electrode. The electrodeposited cadmium mass on a silver screen was found to be the best all-around electrode from a performance point of view and from the point of view of manufacturing them in a size required for a 25 Ah size battery.

  8. Assembling silver nanowires using optoelectronic tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuailong; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Neale, Steve L.

    2016-03-01

    Light patterned dielectrophoresis or optoelectronic tweezers (OET) has been proved to be an effective micromanipulation technology for cell separation, cell sorting and control of cell interactions. Apart from being useful for cell biology experiments, the capability of moving small objects accurately also makes OET an attractive technology for other micromanipulation applications. In particular, OET has the potential to be used for efficiently and accurately assembling small optoelectronic/electronic components into circuits. This approach could produce a step change in the size of the smallest components that are routinely assembled; down from the current smallest standard component size of 400×200 μm (0402 metric) to components a few microns across and even nanostructured components. In this work, we have demonstrated the use of OET to manipulate conductive silver nanowires into different patterns. The silver nanowires (typical diameter: 60 nm; typical length: 10 μm) were suspended in a 15 mS/m solution of KCL in water and manipulated by positive dielectrophoresis force generated by OET. A proof-of-concept demonstration was also made to prove the feasibility of using OET to manipulate silver nanowires to form a 150-μm-long conductive path between two isolated electrodes. It can be seen that the resistance between two electrodes was effectively brought down to around 700 Ω after the silver nanowires were assembled and the solution evaporated. Future work in this area will focus on increasing the conductivity of these tracks, encapsulating the assembled silver nanowires to prevent silver oxidation and provide mechanical protection, which can be achieved via 3D printing and inkjet printing technology.

  9. Heat transfer and friction factor correlations for a solar air heater duct roughened artificially with multiple v-ribs

    SciTech Connect

    Hans, V.S.; Saini, R.P.; Saini, J.S.

    2010-06-15

    The use of artificial roughness on the underside of the absorber plate is an effective and economic way to improve the thermal performance of a solar air heater. Several experimental investigations, involving different types of roughness elements, have been carried out to improve the heat transfer from the absorber plate to air flowing in solar air heaters. This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to study the effect of multiple v-rib roughness on heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in an artificially roughened solar air heater duct. The experiment encompassed Reynolds number (Re) from 2000 to 20000, relative roughness height (e/D) values of 0.019-0.043, relative roughness pitch (P/e) range of 6-12, angle of attack ({alpha}) range of 30-75 and relative roughness width (W/w) range of 1-10. Extensive experimentation has been conducted to collect data on heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a rectangular duct roughened with multiple v-ribs. Using these experimental data, correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of roughness geometry and flow parameters have been developed. (author)

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Killpatrick, Don H.

    1978-01-01

    An electrode capable of withstanding high temperatures and suitable for use as a current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator consists of a sintered powdered metal base portion, the upper surface of the base being coated with a first layer of nickel aluminide, an intermediate layer of a mixture of nickel aluminide - refractory ceramic on the first layer and a third or outer layer of a refractory ceramic material on the intermediate layer. The sintered powdered metal base resists spalling by the ceramic coatings and permits greater electrode compliance to thermal shock. The density of the powdered metal base can be varied to allow optimization of the thermal conductivity of the electrode and prevent excess heat loss from the channel.

  11. Cermet electrode

    DOEpatents

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  12. Effective passivation of Ag nanowire-based flexible transparent conducting electrode by TiO2 nanoshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Geon; Lee, Dongjun; Yoo, Jin Sun; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-08-01

    Silver nanowire-based flexible transparent electrodes have critical problem, in spite of their excellent electrical and optical properties, that the electrical conductance and transparency degrade within several days in air because of oxidation of silver. To prevent the degradation of the silver nanowire, we encapsulated Ag-NWs with thin TiO2 barrier. Bar-coated silver nanowires on flexible polymer substrate were laminated at 120 °C, followed by atomic layer deposition of TiO2 nanoshell. With 20 nm of TiO2 nanoshells on silver nanowires, the transparent electrode keeps its electrical and optical properties over 2 months. Moreover, the TiO2-encapsulated silver nanowire-based transparent electrodes exhibit excellent bending durability.

  13. Control of light absorption in organic solar cells using semi-transparent metal electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neutzner, Stefanie; van de Groep, Jorik; Bakulin, Artem A.; Bakker, Huib J.

    2013-09-01

    In this contribution we combine optical modeling and device fabrication/characterization techniques to demonstrate that semitransparent metal electrodes can improve light harvesting in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. We show that inverted P3HT:PCBM solar cells using a thin ~8 nm silver film as a front electrode outperform the ITO-based devices, despite the lower transmittance of silver films in comparison to ITO. The variation of silver thickness allows tailoring the field distribution inside the cell, which leads to a broad resonance window where the absorption is enhanced. Thereby the short-circuit current was increased by 84% and the solar-cell efficiency was doubled. These results show that semitransparent metal electrodes can be efficiently used for light trapping and also form a very promising alternative to ITO in OPV devices. The stacked silver electrodes used in this work are flexible and can be easily produced on a large scale, including printing techniques.

  14. Photoelectrochemical electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The surface of a moderate band gap semiconductor such as p-type molybdenum sulfide is modified to contain an adherent film of charge mediating ionene polymer containing an electroactive unit such as bipyridimium. Electron transport between the electrode and the mediator film is favorable and photocorrosion and recombination processes are suppressed. Incorporation of particles of catalyst such as platinum within the film provides a reduction in overvoltage. The polymer film is readily deposited on the electrode surface and can be rendered stable by ionic or addition crosslinking. Catalyst can be predispersed in the polymer film or a salt can be impregnated into the film and reduced therein.

  15. The Silver Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahyun, M. R. V.

    1977-01-01

    Illustrates the type of fractional bonding for solid silver halides. Treats the silver halides as electron excess compounds, and develops a model of a localized bonding unit that may be iterated in three dimensions to describe the bulk phase. (MLH)

  16. Development of a Flexible Non-Metal Electrode for Cell Stimulation and Recording

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Syu, Wun-Jia; Lei, Kin Fong; Hwang, Yih-Shiou

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a method of producing flexible electrodes for potentially simultaneously stimulating and measuring cellular signals in retinal cells. Currently, most multi-electrode applications rely primarily on etching, but the metals involved have a certain degree of brittleness, leaving them prone to cracking under prolonged pressure. This study proposes using silver chloride ink as a conductive metal, and polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) as the substrate to provide electrodes with an increased degree of flexibility to allow them to bend. This structure is divided into the electrode layer made of PDMS and silver chloride ink, and a PDMS film coating layer. PDMS can be mixed in different proportions to modify the degree of rigidity. The proposed method involved three steps. The first segment entailed the manufacturing of the electrode, using silver chloride ink as the conductive material, and using computer software to define the electrode size and micro-engraving mechanisms to produce the electrode pattern. The resulting uniform PDMS pattern was then baked onto the model, and the flow channel was filled with the conductive material before air drying to produce the required electrode. In the second stage, we tested the electrode, using an impedance analyzer to measure electrode cyclic voltammetry and impedance. In the third phase, mechanical and biocompatibility tests were conducted to determine electrode properties. This study aims to produce a flexible, non-metallic sensing electrode which fits snugly for use in a range of measurement applications. PMID:27690049

  17. Two Dimensional Compressibility of Electrochemically Adsorbed Lead on Silver (111).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-28

    electrode surface, occur at electrode potentials positive of the reversible thermodynamic potential for bulk deposition and hence are termed underpotential ...monolayer formation and bulk deposition , the 1J near neighbor distance of the lead monolayer decreases linearly with applied potential, (proportional to the...report the two dimensional compressibility of electrochemically deposited lead on silver (111). Measurements were made in-situ (in contact with solution

  18. Copper(I) electrode function of two types of copper(II) ion-selective electrodes.

    PubMed

    Neshkova, M; Sheytanov, H

    1985-08-01

    The response of two types of solid-state copper ion-selective electrodes with homogeneous membranes of CuAgSe and Cu(2-x)Se has been investigated in copper(I) solutions, prepared electrochemically by insitu generation from a copper anode in chloride medium. The selectivity coefficient K(pot)(Cu+, Cu(2+)) both types of electrodes has been determined. It is 10(-5.7) for the copper selenide sensor, and 10(-6.2) for the copper silver selenide one. These values are very close to that calculated for an exchange reaction proceeding on the electrode surface. The similarity in K(pot)(Cu+ ,Cu(2+)) values for different chalcogenidebased sensors suggests a common potential-generating mechanism. High chloride concentration does not interfere with the electrode response towards Cu(I), but distorts the electrode response to Cu(II).

  19. Bendable Electro-chemical Lactate Sensor Printed with Silver Nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrar, Md Abu; Dong, Yue; Lee, Paul Kyuheon; Kim, Woo Soo

    2016-07-01

    Here we report a flexible amperometric lactate biosensor using silver nanoparticle based conductive electrode. Mechanically bendable cross-serpentine-shaped silver electrode is generated on flexible substrate for the mechanical durability such as bending. The biosensor is designed and fabricated by modifying silver electrode with lactate oxidase immobilized by bovine serum albumin. The in-sensor pseudo Ag/AgCl reference electrode is fabricated by chloridization of silver electrode, which evinced its long-term potential stability against a standard commercial Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The amperometric response of the sensor shows linear dependence with lactate concentration of 1~25 mM/L. Anionic selectivity is achieved by using drop-casted Nafion coated on silver electrode against anionic interferences such as ascorbate. This non-invasive electrochemical lactate sensor also demonstrates excellent resiliency against mechanical deformation and temperature fluctuation which leads the possibility of using it on human epidermis for continuous measurement of lactate from sweat. Near field communication based wireless data transmission is demonstrated to reflect a practical approach of the sensor to measure lactate concentration portably using human perspiration.

  20. Bendable Electro-chemical Lactate Sensor Printed with Silver Nano-particles

    PubMed Central

    Abrar, Md Abu; Dong, Yue; Lee, Paul Kyuheon; Kim, Woo Soo

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a flexible amperometric lactate biosensor using silver nanoparticle based conductive electrode. Mechanically bendable cross-serpentine-shaped silver electrode is generated on flexible substrate for the mechanical durability such as bending. The biosensor is designed and fabricated by modifying silver electrode with lactate oxidase immobilized by bovine serum albumin. The in-sensor pseudo Ag/AgCl reference electrode is fabricated by chloridization of silver electrode, which evinced its long-term potential stability against a standard commercial Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The amperometric response of the sensor shows linear dependence with lactate concentration of 1~25 mM/L. Anionic selectivity is achieved by using drop-casted Nafion coated on silver electrode against anionic interferences such as ascorbate. This non-invasive electrochemical lactate sensor also demonstrates excellent resiliency against mechanical deformation and temperature fluctuation which leads the possibility of using it on human epidermis for continuous measurement of lactate from sweat. Near field communication based wireless data transmission is demonstrated to reflect a practical approach of the sensor to measure lactate concentration portably using human perspiration. PMID:27465437

  1. Microvoltammetric Electrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-25

    Microvoltammetric Electrodes, J. 0. Howell, R. M. Wightman, Anal. Chem., 56, 524-529 (1984). 2. Flow Rate Independent Amperometric Cell , W. L. Caudill...Electroanal. Chem., 182, 113-122 (1985). C. List of all publications 1. Flow Rate Independent Amperometric Cell , W. L. Caudill, J. 0. Howell, R. M

  2. Fabrication and testing of silver-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    The development and life testing of single electrode and multi electrode stacks to optimize the individual components and characterize the performance of a silver hydrogen battery system are described. A NASA-developed inorganic separator material was used as the main separator within the cells. Single electrode test cells were cycled at 75% of nominal capacity out through approximately 1,000 cycles in a number of cases where deterioration in performance was observed. This deterioration appears to be a decay in usable capacity of the silver electrode; but the exact mechanism is still unidentified. Twenty ampere-hour boilerplate test cells consisting of a stack of ten silver electrodes and twenty hydrogen electrodes were cycled also at 75% depth of discharge. The oldest stack achieved 522 stable cycles to the end of the program. Weight analysis of light-weight cells showed that 50 ampere-hour cells with improved components could be capable of as much as 40 watt hours per pound.

  3. Nanoparticle silver released into water from commercially available sock fabrics.

    PubMed

    Benn, Troy M; Westerhoff, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Manufacturers of clothing articles employ nanosilver (n-Ag) as an antimicrobial agent, but the environmental impacts of n-Ag release from commercial products are unknown. The quantity and form of the nanomaterials released from consumer products should be determined to assess the environmental risks of nanotechnology. This paper investigates silver released from commercial clothing (socks) into water, and its fate in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Six types of socks contained up to a maximum of 1360 microg-Ag/g-sock and leached as much as 650 microg of silver in 500 mL of distilled water. Microscopy conducted on sock material and wash water revealed the presence of silver particles from 10 to 500 nm in diameter. Physical separation and ion selective electrode (ISE) analyses suggest that both colloidal and ionic silver leach from the socks. Variable leaching rates among sock types suggests that the sock manufacturing process may control the release of silver. The adsorption of the leached silver to WWTP biomass was used to develop a model which predicts that a typical wastewater treatment facility could treat a high concentration of influent silver. However, the high silver concentration may limitthe disposal of the biosolids as agricultural fertilizer.

  4. Laser patterning of platinum electrodes for safe neurostimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. A.; Matteucci, P. B.; Dodds, C. W. D.; Palmer, J.; Dueck, W. F.; Hassarati, R. T.; Byrnes-Preston, P. J.; Lovell, N. H.; Suaning, G. J.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Laser surface modification of platinum (Pt) electrodes was investigated for use in neuroprosthetics. Surface modification was applied to increase the surface area of the electrode and improve its ability to transfer charge within safe electrochemical stimulation limits. Approach. Electrode arrays were laser micromachined to produce Pt electrodes with smooth surfaces, which were then modified with four laser patterning techniques to produce surface structures which were nanosecond patterned, square profile, triangular profile and roughened on the micron scale through structured laser interference patterning (SLIP). Improvements in charge transfer were shown through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and biphasic stimulation at clinically relevant levels. A new method was investigated and validated which enabled the assessment of in vivo electrochemically safe charge injection limits. Main results. All of the modified surfaces provided electrical advantage over the smooth Pt. The SLIP surface provided the greatest benefit both in vitro and in vivo, and this surface was the only type which had injection limits above the threshold for neural stimulation, at a level shown to produce a response in the feline visual cortex when using an electrode array implanted in the suprachoroidal space of the eye. This surface was found to be stable when stimulated with more than 150 million clinically relevant pulses in physiological saline. Significance. Critical to the assessment of implant devices is accurate determination of safe usage limits in an in vivo environment. Laser patterning, in particular SLIP, is a superior technique for improving the performance of implant electrodes without altering the interfacial electrode chemistry through coating. Future work will require chronic in vivo assessment of these electrode patterns.

  5. Optimization of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell for sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam

    2013-08-15

    In this paper, resonance light scattering (RLS) properties of a silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell, based on quasi-static approach and plasmon hybridization theory, are investigated. Scattering spectrum of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell has two intense and clearly separated RLS peaks and provides a potential for biosensing based on surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The two RLS peaks in silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell are optimized by tuning the geometrical dimensions. In addition, the optimal geometry is discussed to obtain the high sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. As the silver core radius increases, the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell decreases whereas increasing the middle dielectric thickness increases the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell.

  6. Optimization of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, resonance light scattering (RLS) properties of a silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell, based on quasi-static approach and plasmon hybridization theory, are investigated. Scattering spectrum of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell has two intense and clearly separated RLS peaks and provides a potential for biosensing based on surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The two RLS peaks in silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell are optimized by tuning the geometrical dimensions. In addition, the optimal geometry is discussed to obtain the high sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. As the silver core radius increases, the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell decreases whereas increasing the middle dielectric thickness increases the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell.

  7. Femtosecond laser direct writing of microholes on roughened ZnO for output power enhancement of InGaN light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Zang, Zhigang; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Du, Jihe; Wang, Ming; Tang, Xiaosheng

    2016-08-01

    A significant enhancement of light extraction efficiency from InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with microhole arrays and roughened ZnO was experimentally demonstrated. The roughened ZnO was fabricated using an Ar and H2 plasma treatment of ZnO films pre-coated on a p-GaN layer. When followed by a femtosecond laser direct writing technique, a periodic array of microholes could be added to the surface. The diameter of the microhole was varied by changing the output power of the femtosecond laser. Compared to conventional LEDs on the same wafer, the output power of LEDs with roughened ZnOs and a microhole (diameter of 2 μm) array was increased by 58.4% when operated with an injection current of 220 mA. Moreover, it was found that LEDs fabricated with roughened ZnO and the microhole array had similar current-voltage (I-V) characteristics to those of conventional LEDs and no degrading effect was observed.

  8. CTAB-Influenced Electrochemical Dissolution of Silver Dendrites.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Colm; Zhu, Xi; Zhong, Jun; Anand, Utkarsh; Lu, Jingyu; Su, Haibin; Mirsaidov, Utkur

    2016-04-19

    Dendrite formation on the electrodes of a rechargeable battery during the charge-discharge cycle limits its capacity and application due to short-circuits and potential ignition. However, understanding of the underlying dendrite growth and dissolution mechanisms is limited. Here, the electrochemical growth and dissolution of silver dendrites on platinum electrodes immersed in an aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) electrolyte solution was investigated using in situ liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The dissolution of Ag dendrites in an AgNO3 solution with added cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant was compared to the dissolution of Ag dendrites in a pure aqueous AgNO3 solution. Significantly, when CTAB was added, dendrite dissolution proceeded in a step-by-step manner, resulting in nanoparticle formation and transient microgrowth stages due to Ostwald ripening. This resulted in complete dissolution of dendrites and "cleaning" of the cell of any silver metal. This is critical for practical battery applications because "dead" lithium is known to cause short circuits and high-discharge rates. In contrast to this, in a pure aqueous AgNO3 solution, without surfactant, dendrites dissolved incompletely back into solution, leaving behind minute traces of disconnected silver particles. Finally, a mechanism for the CTAB-influenced dissolution of silver dendrites was proposed based on electrical field dependent binding energy of CTA(+) to silver.

  9. Sonoelectrochemical recovery of silver from photographic processing solutions

    PubMed

    Pollet; Lorimer; Phull; Hihn

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes the effect of ultrasound upon the electrochemical recovery of silver from photographic processing solutions using a newly designed electrochemical cell--SonoEcoCell. Rates of deposition of silver (obtained potentiostatically) were studied in the model 'fix' solutions (dilute aqueous Na2S2O3/NaHSO3 at a stainless steel cylinder electrode in both the absence and the presence of ultrasound. Under silent conditions, the magnitude of the cathodic potential is a major factor in the removal of silver. Under 20 kHz sonication, the rate of deposition of silver increases with increasing ultrasonic intensity. The cathode efficiency is also enhanced under insonation. The position of the ultrasonic probe with respect to the rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) was studied. It was found that for a 'face-on' geometry (probe parallel to the electrode) led to higher rate constants compared with a 'side-on' geometry (probe perpendicular to the electrode). The effect of coupling an RCE with ultrasound upon these rate constants employing the two geometry was also investigated. It was found that, employing either the face-on or the side-on geometry alone, improved rate constants were obtained below approximately 1500 and 2000 rpm, respectively.

  10. Scaling Approach to Anomalous Surface Roughening of the (d+1)-DIMENSIONAL Molecular-Beam Epitaxy Growth Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hui; Tang, Gang; Han, Kui; Hao, Da-Peng; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Lei-Ming

    To determine anomalous dynamic scaling of continuum growth equations, López12 proposed an analytical approach, which is based on the scaling analysis introduced by Hentschel and Family.15 In this work, we generalize this scaling analysis to the (d+1)-dimensional molecular-beam epitaxy equations to determine their anomalous dynamic scaling. The growth equations studied here include the linear molecular-beam epitaxy (LMBE) and Lai-Das Sarma-Villain (LDV). We find that both the LMBE and LDV equations, when the substrate dimension d>2, correspond to a standard Family-Vicsek scaling, however, when d<2, exhibit anomalous dynamic roughening of the local fluctuations of the growth height. When the growth equations exhibit anomalous dynamic scaling, we obtain the local roughness exponents by using scaling relation αloc=α-zκ, which are consistent with the corresponding numerical results.

  11. An Experimental Investigation of Impingement Heat Transfer in a Rib-Roughened Trailing-Edge Channel with Crossover Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao

    Turbine cooling technology plays a critical role in increasing the thermal efficiency and power output of advanced gas turbines. The common cooling methods include the impingement cooling method, the film cooling method, and the rib roughened cooling method. This study focuses on the impingement cooling effect on a rib roughened trailing edge channel with cross over holes and aims to find the influence of blocked exit holes to the heat transfer efficiency. A steady state liquid crystal technique was used to get the heat transfer coefficient. In this experiment, two different kinds of cross over holes were used: five tilt angle and zero tilt angle. Both inline and staggered slot-arrangement were tested and investigated. There were total 16 geometry cases. The numbers of blocked exit holes are 0, 3, 4 and 5 for inline arrangement and 0, 2, 3 and 4 for staggered arrangement. For each geometry setting, a range of Reynolds numbers was tested. The graphs of the Nusselt number versus the Reynolds number were plotted. For each individual area, the Nusselt numbers with different number of blocked exit holes were compared. The results showed that the Nusselt numbers increase monotonically with increasing Reynolds numbers. It was also found that for staggered arrangement, the highest Nusselt numbers were found in the area two holes away from the nearest blocked exit hole. And for inline arrangement, conclusions are different between zero tilt angle and five tilt angle. With zero tilt angle, the Nusselt numbers of area1 and area2 both increased first and then decreased as the number of blocked holes increased. While with five tilt angle, Nusselt numbers of all the four areas decreased monotonically.

  12. Fabrication of Polymer Microneedle Electrodes Coated with Nanoporous Parylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishinaka, Yuya; Jun, Rina; Setia Prihandana, Gunawan; Miki, Norihisa

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of polymer microneedle electrodes covered with a nanoporous parylene film that can serve as flexible electrodes for a brain-machine interface. In brain wave measurement, the electric impedance of electrodes should be below 10 kΩ at 15 Hz, and the conductive layer needs to be protected to survive its insertion into the stratum corneum. Polymer microneedles can be used as substrates for flexible electrodes, which can compensate for the movement of the skin; however, the adhesion between a conductive metal film, such as a silver film, and a polymer, such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), is weak. Therefore, we coated the electrode surface with a nanoporous parylene film, following the vapor deposition of a silver film. When the porosity of the parylene film is appropriate, it protects the silver film while allowing the electrode to have sufficient conductivity. The porosity can be controlled by adjusting the amount of the parylene dimer used for the deposition or the parylene film thickness. We experimentally verified that a conductive membrane was successfully protected while maintaining a conductivity below 10 kΩ when the thickness of the parylene film was between 25 and 38 nm.

  13. A super ink jet printed zinc-silver 3D microbattery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C. C.; Murata, K.; Steingart, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Wright, P. K.

    2009-09-01

    A novel super ink jet printing (SIJP) system was used to fabricate 3D zinc-silver microbatteries directly on a substrate. The SIJP provides a simple and flexible method to deposit interesting 2D and 3D structures of varying morphologies without the waste and large energy inputs typical of standard microfabrication technologies. The system was used to print pairs of silver electrodes with arrays of pillars on glass substrates, and in the presence of an electrolyte, the battery self-assembled during the first charge. Using an aqueous electrolyte solution of KOH with dissolved ZnO, the SIJP printed structures showed similar electrochemical behavior to batteries composed of silver foil electrodes. For a sparse array of pillars (~2.5% footprint area of each electrode pad occupied by pillars), a capacity increase of 60% was achieved in comparison with a cell with planar electrodes.

  14. Fabrication of interdigitated electrodes by inkjet printing technology for apllication in ammonia sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam Le, Duy; Nhien Nguyen, Thi Ngoc; Chanh Tin Doan, Duc; Dung Dang, Thi My; Chien Dang, Mau

    2016-06-01

    In this paper interdigitated electrodes for gas sensors were fabricated by inkjet printing technology. Silver electrodes were inkjet printed on Si/SiO2 substrates instead of traditional photolithography method. The inkjet printing parameters to obtain desired dimensions, thickness of the electrodes and distance between the interdigitated electrodes were optimized in this study. The fabricated interdigitated silver electrodes were tested for application in ammonia gas sensors. Conductive polyaniline (PANI) layer was coated on the silver interdigitated electrodes by drop-coating. Ammonia detection of the PANI-coated chips was characterized with a gas measurement system in which humidity and ammonia concentrations were well-controlled. The electrical conductivity of the PANI films coated on the electrodes was measured when the PANI films were exposed to nitrogen and ammonia. The conductivity of the PANI films decreased significantly due to the deprotonation process of PANI upon ammonia expodure. The recovery time was about 15 min by heating up the polymer chip at 60 °C. The results showed that the silver electrodes fabricated by inkjet printing technique could be used as a sensor platform for ammonia detection.

  15. Application of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy to the study of SOFC electrode surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaxi; Blinn, Kevin; Fang, Yingcui; Liu, Mingfei; Mahmoud, Mahmoud A; Cheng, Shuang; Bottomley, Lawrence A; El-Sayed, Mostafa; Liu, Meilin

    2012-05-07

    SERS provided by sputtered silver was employed to detect trace amounts of chemical species on SOFC electrodes. Considerable enhancement of Raman signal and lowered detection threshold were shown for coked nickel surfaces, CeO(2) coatings, and cathode materials (LSM and LSCF), suggesting a viable approach to probing electrode degradation and surface catalytic mechanism.

  16. Dosimetry using silver salts

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.

    2003-06-24

    The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

  17. Microwave dielectric properties and chemical compatibility with silver electrode of Li2TiO3 ceramic with Li2O-ZnO-B2O3 glass additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyadi-Shahraki, A.; Taheri-Nassaj, E.; Hassanzadeh-Tabrizi, S. A.; Barzegar-Bafrooei, H.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Li2O-ZnO-B2O3 (LZB) glass additive on the sintering behavior, phase composition, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of Li2TiO3 (LT) ceramics have been investigated. The addition of a small amount of LZB glass can reduce the sintering temperature of LT ceramics from 1150 °C to 900 °C without obvious degradation of the microwave dielectric properties. Only a single-phase Li2TiO3 is formed in LT ceramic with LZB glass addition sintered at 900 °C for 2 h. Typically, the 2.5 wt% LZB glass-added LT ceramic sintered at 900 °C for 2 h can reach a maximum relative density of 94.8% of the theoretical density and exhibits good microwave dielectric properties of εr=22.9, Qf=59,600 GHz and τf=+23.7 ppm/°C. The XRD, SEM and EDX analyses showed that the ceramic can be co-fired well with Ag electrode, which may be applied for LTCC application.

  18. Thin metal layer as transparent electrode in n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuring, Martin; Geissendörfer, Stefan; Vehse, Martin; von Maydell, Karsten; Agert, Carsten

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, transparent electrodes, based on a thin silver film and a capping layer, are investigated. Low deposition temperature, flexibility and low material costs are the advantages of this type of electrode. Their applicability in structured n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells is demonstrated in simulation and experiment. The influence of the individual layer thicknesses on the solar cell performance is discussed and approaches for further improvements are given. For the silver film/capping layer electrode, a higher solar cell efficiency could be achieved compared to a reference ZnO:Al front contact.

  19. Screen Printed μ-ELECTRODES for Photochemical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Seta, L.; Marino, S.; Masci, A.; Pilloton, R.

    2000-12-01

    A new device, based on screen printed electrodes, was realised allowing low manufacturing costs and rapid analyses with PSII or with other biological (algae) or photochemical catalysts. The μ-electrode was cut from a PVC sheet, on whose two sides graphite and silver pastes were deposited by screen printing techniques. The biosensor was placed in a flow cell obtained by carving a light emitting diode (LED). Details on the layout of the electrode and the flow-through μ-cell are described together with preliminary results obtained by detecting H2O2, K4Fe(CN)6, Glucose and PSII activity.

  20. The silver ions contribution into the cytotoxic activity of silver and silver halides nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, A. I.; Zherebin, P. M.; Gusev, A. A.; Kudrinskiy, A. A.; Krutyakov, Y. A.

    2015-11-01

    The biocidal action of silver nanoparticles capped with sodium citrate and silver halides nanoparticles capped with non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene(20)sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80®) against yeast cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae was compared to the effect produced by silver nitrate and studied through the measurement of cell loss and kinetics of K+ efflux from the cells. The cytotoxicity of the obtained colloids was strongly correlated with silver ion content in the dispersions. The results clearly indicated that silver and silver halides nanoparticles destroyed yeast cells through the intermediate producing of silver ions either by dissolving of salts or by oxidation of silver.

  1. Contribution to the study of the electric arc: Erosion of metallic electrodes. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, A.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is described for determining the extent of arc electrode erosion (excluding erosion due to transfer of material) from measurements of emitted spectral beam intensity. The relation between emission intensity and plasma temperature is ascertained. Experimental study of several combinations of monometallic electrodes shows that the method is suitable for determining cathode erosion, although the anode metal affects the extent of erosion. Combinations of electrodes which lead to low erosion of silver are reported.

  2. Hybrid electrode based on carbon nanotube and graphene for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Gun Hee; Park, Sungchan; Chandramohan, S.; Park, Ah Hyun; Cho, Hyunjin; Park, Min; Jong Kim, Myung; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2015-10-01

    We report on a transparent current-spreading electrode that combines carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene for UV-LEDs. We compared the device performance and long-term stability of this CNT-graphene hybrid electrode (CGE) with those of the silver nanowire-graphene electrode (SGE) reported previously. Both types of electrode offered excellent UV transmittance and reduced sheet resistance through the bridging effect for grain boundaries and defects in graphene by nanotubes or nanowires. UV-LEDs using such electrodes offered reduced forward voltage and enhanced electroluminescence intensity, but the device with the CGE showed excellent stability whereas the SGE degraded with time.

  3. A low cost solution for the fabrication of dielectrophoretic microfluidic devices and embedded electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sano, Michael B; Caldwell, John L; Davalos, Rafael V

    2011-01-01

    The versatility of a simple method for producing microfluidic devices with embedded electrodes is demonstrated through the fabrication and operation of two dielectrophoretic devices; one employing interdigitated electrode structures on glass and the other employing contactless electrode reservoirs. Device manufacture is based on the precipitation of silver and subsequent photolithography of thin film resists conducted outside of a cleanroom environment. In current experiments, minimum channel widths of 50 microns and electrode widths of 25 microns are achieved when the distance between features is 40 microns or greater. These results illustrate this technique's potential to produce microfluidic devices with embedded electrodes for lab on chip applications while significantly reducing fabrication expense.

  4. An experimental investigation of the rib surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient in a rib-roughened square passage

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Wadsworth, C.M.

    1997-04-01

    Turbine blade cooling is accomplished, among other methods, by passing the cooling air through an often serpentine passage in the core of the blade. Furthermore, to enhance the heat transfer coefficient, these passages are roughened with rib-shaped turbulence promoters. Considerable data are available on the heat transfer coefficient on the passage surface between the ribs. However, the heat transfer coefficients on the surface of the ribs themselves have not been investigated to the same extent. Therefore, an accurate account of the heat transfer coefficient on the rib surfaces is critical in the overall design of the blade cooling system. The objective of this experimental investigation was to conduct a series of 13 tests to measure the rib surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient, h{sub rib} in a square duct roughened with staggered 90 deg ribs. To investigate the effects that blockage ratio, e/D{sub h}, and pitch-to-height ratio, S/e, have on h{sub rib} and passage friction factor, three rib geometries corresponding to blockage ratios of 0.133, 0.167, and 0.25 were tested for pitch-to-height ratios of 5, 7, 8.5, and 10. Comparisons were made between the rib average heat transfer coefficient and that on the wall surface between two ribs, h{sub floor}, reported previously. It is concluded that: The rib average heat transfer coefficient is much higher than that for the area between the ribs; similar to the heat transfer coefficient on the surface between the ribs, the average rib heat transfer coefficient increases with the blockage ratio; a pitch-to-height ratios of 8.5 consistently produced the highest rib average heat transfer coefficients amongst all tested; under otherwise identical conditions, ribs in upstream-most position produced lower heat transfer coefficients than the midchannel positions; the upstream-most rib average heat transfer coefficients decreased with the blockage ratio; and thermal performance decreased with increased blockage ratio.

  5. Experimental heat transfer and friction in channels roughened with angled, V-shaped, and discrete ribs on two opposite walls

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Li, T.; Kercher, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental investigations have shown that the enhancement in heat transfer coefficients for air flow in a channel roughened with angled ribs is on the average higher than that roughened with 90 deg ribs of the same geometry. Secondary flows generated by the angled ribs are believed to be responsible for these higher heat transfer coefficients. In an effort basically to double the area of high heat transfer coefficients, the angled rib is broken at the center to form a V-shaped rib, and tests are conducted to investigate the resulting heat transfer coefficients and friction factors. Three different square rib geometries, corresponding to blockage ratios of 0.083, 0.125, and 0.167, with a fixed pitch-to-height ratio of 10, mounted on two opposite walls of a square channel in a staggered configuration, are tested in a stationary channel for 5,000 < Re < 30,000. Heat transfer coefficients, friction factors, and thermal performances are compared with those of 90 deg, 45 deg, and discrete angled ribs. The V-shaped ribs are tested for both pointing upstream and downstream of the main flow. Test results show that: (a) 90 deg ribs represent the lowest thermal performance, based on the same pumping power, and is essentially the same for the 2:1 change in blockage ratio, (b) low-blockage-ratio (E/D{sub h} = 0.083) V-shaped ribs pointing downstream produced the highest heat transfer enhancement and friction factors. Among all other geometries with blockage ratios of 0.125 and 0.167, 45 deg ribs showed the highest heat transfer enhancements with friction factors less than those of V-shaped ribs, (c) thermal performance of 45 deg ribs and the lowest blockage discrete ribs are among the highest of the geometries tested in this investigation, and (d) discrete angled ribs, although inferior to 45 deg and V-shaped ribs, produce much higher heat transfer coefficients and lower friction factors compared to 90 deg ribs.

  6. Recovery of silver from CEPOD anolyte solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, D.L.; Surma, J.E.; Alexander, D.L.; Shade, E.H.; Matheson, J.D.; Cochran, D.L.; Wheelwright, E.J.; Boyd, T.

    1994-09-01

    The process known as Catalyzed Electrochemical Plutonium Oxide Dissolution (CEPOD) has been shown effective for removing plutonium from a variety of residues and solids. This process involves the electrochemical oxidation of PuO{sub 2} (and other Pu species) to (PuO{sub 2}){sup 2+}, and dissolution of the latter species in the anode solution (anolyte). Silver is used to transfer charge from the electrodes to the solid Pu oxide. Ag (1) is oxidized at the anode to Ag(II) and carried by the solution to the plutonium oxide solids, where the silver and oxide undergo a redox reaction that converts Pu(IV) to Pu(VI), and Ag(II) to Ag(I). Other metal ions [such as Ce(IV) and Co(III)] may also be used for this charge transfer, but have been found to be less effective than silver. The same process may be used to destroy various organic materials (such as paper and wood, oil and fuels, and synthetic polymer materials) by complete oxidation to CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, for example. Upon completion of a CEPOD dissolver run, the anolyte may be processed to remove solution species of interest (i.e., Pu), or the anolyte may be recycled, or disposed. Because silver is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land ban material, it must be removed from waste streams. Preliminary experiments, completed in FY 1991, demonstrated a simple, effective technique for silver removal from solutions. Ascorbic acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6}) Was Used to reduce silver ion to metallic silver, which precipitates from solution. The process was demonstrated effective on a bench scale using samples of actual CEPOD anolyte. Further experiments, in FY 1993, optimized these parameters and demonstrated the effectiveness of the technique on CEPOD anolyte on a larger, process scale (liters of solution). This report describes both the preliminary bench-scale experiments and the more recent process-scale experiments. The results are also compared to electro-deposition, another method of silver ion removal.

  7. Roll-to-roll printed silver nanowires for increased stability of flexible ITO-free organic solar cell modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Reis Benatto, Gisele A.; Roth, Bérenger; Corazza, Michael; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Gevorgyan, Suren A.; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C.

    2015-12-01

    We report the use of roll-to-roll printed silver nanowire networks as front electrodes for fully roll-to-roll processed flexible indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free OPV modules. We prepared devices with two types of back electrodes, a simple PEDOT:PSS back electrode and a PEDOT:PSS back electrode with a printed silver grid in order to simultaneously explore the influence of the back electrode structure on the operational stability of the modules that did not include any UV-protection. We subjected the devices to stability testing under a number of protocols recommended by the international summit on OPV stability (ISOS). We explored accelerated ISOS-D-2, ISOS-D-3, ISOS-L-2, ISOS-L-3, ISOS-O-1 and ISOS-O-2 testing protocols and compared the performance to previous reports employing the same testing protocols on devices with PEDOT:PSS instead of the silver nanowires in the front electrode. We find significantly increased operational stability across all ISOS testing protocols over the course of the study and conclude that replacement of PEDOT:PSS in the front electrode with silver nanowires increase operational stability by up to 1000%. The duration of the tests were in the range of 140-360 days. The comparison of front and back electrode stability in this study shows that the modules with silver nanowire front electrodes together with a composite back electrode comprising PEDOT:PSS and a silver grid present the best operational stability.

  8. Silver nanostructures synthesis via optically induced electrochemical deposition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pan; Liu, Na; Yu, Haibo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Lianqing; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wang, Yuechao; Li, Wen Jung

    2016-01-01

    We present a new digitally controlled, optically induced electrochemical deposition (OED) method for fabricating silver nanostructures. Projected light patterns were used to induce an electrochemical reaction in a specialized sandwich-like microfluidic device composed of one indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrode and an optically sensitive-layer-covered ITO electrode. Silver polyhedral nanoparticles, triangular and hexagonal nanoplates, and nanobelts were controllably synthesized in specific positions at which projected light was illuminated. The silver nanobelts had rectangular cross-sections with an average width of 300 nm and an average thickness of 100 nm. By controlling the applied voltage, frequency, and time, different silver nanostructure morphologies were obtained. Based on the classic electric double-layer theory, a dynamic process of reduction and crystallization can be described in terms of three phases. Because it is template- and surfactant-free, the digitally controlled OED method facilitates the easy, low cost, efficient, and flexible synthesis of functional silver nanostructures, especially quasi-one-dimensional nanobelts. PMID:27295084

  9. Fabrication of embedded electrodes by reverse offset printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Koutake, Masayoshi; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2015-04-01

    We developed a novel offset-printing process that permits the fabrication of silver-nanoparticle electrodes embedded in a dielectric layer. We succeeded in embedding approximately 1 µm thick silver electrodes to a dielectric layer with thickness ratio of 1:1.4. The surface-height difference between the embedded electrode and the surrounded dielectric layer was less than 80 nm. By virtue of the surface uniformity of this embedding process, the interconnect breakage of orthogonal wires printed on top of the underlying wire was drastically reduced to 4%, compared to 41% for non-embedded wires. The electric conductivity of embedded electrodes with thickness ≈110 nm was about 10 µΩ cm-1, which was comparable to that of a silver pattern formed on a glass substrate alone. We also examined the characteristics of fully printed thin-film transistors composed of the embedded electrodes, and measured an average mobility of 0.07 cm2 V-1s-1. These results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed technique to the fabrication of printed circuits and devices including active elements.

  10. Local heat/mass transfer distributions around sharp 180 deg turns in two-pass smooth and rib-roughened channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J. C.; Chandra, P. R.; Lau, S. C.

    1988-01-01

    The napthalene sublimation technique was employed to study the detailed mass transfer distributions around the sharp 180 deg turns in a two-pass, square, smooth channel and in an identical channel with two rib-roughened opposite walls. Experiments conducted for Reynolds numbers of 15,000, 30,000, and 60,000 indicate that the Sherwood numbers on the top, outer, and inner walls around the turn in the rib-roughened channel are higher than the corresponding Sherwood numbers around the turn in the smooth channel. Sherwood numbers after the sharp turn are found to be higher than those before the turn for both the smooth and the ribbed channels.

  11. Stacking faults and interface roughening in semipolar (202{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}) single InGaN quantum wells for long wavelength emission

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Feng; Zhao, Yuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S.; Romanov, Alexey

    2014-04-14

    The microstructure of InGaN single quantum wells (QWs) grown in semipolar (202{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}) orientation on GaN substrates was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Stress relaxation in the lattice mismatch In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layer was realized by forming partial misfit dislocations associated with basal plane stacking faults (BPSFs). For given composition x = 0.24, BPSFs formation was observed when the QW thickness exceeded 4 nm. The high density of partial threading dislocations that bound the BPSFs is detrimental to light-emitting device performance. Interface roughening (faceting) was observed for both upper and lower QW interfaces (more pronounced for upper interface) and was found to increase with the thickness of the QW. BPSFs had a tendency to nucleate at roughened interface valleys.

  12. The Silver Bullet Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehne, George C.

    1995-01-01

    Many colleges address complex problems with a single "silver bullet" strategy. Because value shifts according to the consumer's situation or goal, private colleges should become more aware of their "situational value" and exploit it. This requires an understanding of how students choose colleges. In contrast, popular silver bullets target…

  13. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, George A.

    1986-01-01

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  14. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, G.A.

    1985-03-05

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  15. resterilizable electrode for electrosurgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engstrom, E. R.; Houge, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Required properties of flexibility, electrical conductivity, tensile strength, and tear resistance of electrosurgical electrodes is retained through utilization of flexible-polymer/conductive particle composites for electrodes.

  16. Effect of surface roughening of aluminum plates on the strength of bonds formed between aluminum and polyphenylene sulfide by thermosonic bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Kiyokazu; Saito, Ryo

    2014-08-01

    Thermosonic bonding of aluminum on polyphenylene sulfide was carried out in order to examine the effect of surface roughening of aluminum on the joint strength. Repeated chemical treatment of aluminum by immersion in aqueous sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid solutions increased its surface roughness (Ra ~25 μm) and surface area (~445% increase). Consequently, the bonding strength (~1.8N in average) was enhanced through anchoring effects.

  17. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman study of the photoreduction of methylviologen on a p-InP semiconductor electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Q.; Cotton, T.M.

    1986-03-13

    The redox reactions of methylviologen (MV) at a silver electrode and at a p-InP electrode have been studied by cyclic voltammetry and Raman spectroscopy. By deposition of a silver island overlayer onto a p-InP semiconductor electrode the surface enhancement effect was obtained, allowing the MV reduction products formed at the semiconductor electrode to be monitored in situ. The photovoltaic response on p-InP electrode was not perturbed by the presence of the silver overlayer. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) spectroscopy has verified the adsorption of the products from the reduction reactions MV/sup 2 +/ + e/sup -/ ..-->.. MV/sup +/. and MV/sup +/. + e/sup -/ ..-->.. MV/sup 0/. The Raman spectrum of one-electron and two-electron (MV/sup 0/) reduced methylviologen was obtained by exhaustive electrolysis in acetonitrile solution to provide an assignment of the surface spectra. 31 references, 4 figures.

  18. Measurement of local convective heat transfer coefficients from a smooth and roughened NACA-0012 airfoil: Flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, James E.; Vanfossen, G. James; Poinsatte, Phillip E.; Dewitt, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Wind tunnels typically have higher free stream turbulence levels than are found in flight. Turbulence intensity was measured to be 0.5 percent in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with the cloud making sprays off and around 2 percent with cloud making equipment on. Turbulence intensity for flight conditions was found to be too low to make meaningful measurements for smooth air. This difference between free stream and wing tunnel conditions has raised questions as to the validity of results obtained in the IRT. One objective of these tests was to determine the effect of free stream turbulence on convective heat transfer for the NASA Lewis LEWICE ice growth prediction code. These tests provide in-flight heat transfer data for a NASA-0012 airfoil with a 533 cm chord. Future tests will measure heat transfer data from the same airfoil in the Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Roughness was obtained by the attachment of small, 2 mm diameter hemispheres of uniform size to the airfoil in three different patterns. Heat transfer measurements were recorded in flight on the NASA Lewis Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Measurements were taken for the smooth and roughened surfaces at various aircraft speeds and angles of attack up to four degrees. Results are presented as Frossling number versus position on the airfoil for various roughnesses and angles of attack.

  19. Measurement of local convective heat transfer coefficients from a smooth and roughened NACA-0012 airfoil - Flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Fossen, G. James; De Witt, Kenneth J.; Newton, James E.; Poinsatte, Phillip E.

    1988-01-01

    Wind tunnels typically have higher free stream turbulence levels than are found in flight. Turbulence intensity was measured to be 0.5 percent in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with the cloud making sprays off and around 2 percent with cloud making equipment on. Turbulence intensity for flight conditions was found to be too low to make meaningful measurements for smooth air. This difference between free stream and wind tunnel conditions has raised questions as to the validity of results obtained in the IRT. One objective of these tests was to determine the effect of free stream turbulence on convective heat transfer for the NASA Lewis LEWICE ice growth prediction code. These tests provide in-flight heat transfer data for a NASA-0012 airfoil with a 533 cm chord. Future tests will measure heat transfer data from the same airfoil in the Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Roughness was obtained by the attachment of small, 2 mm diameter hemispheres of uniform size to the airfoil in three different patterns. Heat transfer measurements were recorded in flight on the NASA Lewis Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Measurements were taken for the smooth and roughened surfaces at various aircraft speeds and angles of attack up to four degrees. Results are presented as Frossling number versus position on the airfoil for various roughnesses and angles of attack.

  20. Continuum model of crystal surface relaxation below the roughening transition: Diffusion-mediated decay of axisymmetric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margetis, Dionisios; Aziz, Michael J.; Stone, Howard A.

    2002-03-01

    We use a continuum model to study analytically the morphological relaxation of crystal surfaces containing a single facet below the thermodynamic roughening transition. The surface evolution is characterized by evolution of the facet width, which we treat as a free-boundary problem in the spirit of Spohn [J. Phys. I 3, 69 (1993)], and the interplay between line tension and step-step interactions along the sloping surface outside the facet in the case of diffusion-limited kinetics. We focus on cases with azimuthal symmetry. When the relative strength of step-step interactions is small, we solve the nonlinear partial differential equation for the height gradient via application of the boundary-layer technique. Accordingly, we derive and study a universal ordinary differential equation that is valid within a boundary layer near the facet edge. We compare our results with numerical simulations of a step flow model by Israeli and Kandel [PRB 60, 5946 (1999)]. We discuss the relevance of our analysis to recent experiments and to situations without azimuthal symmetry.

  1. Silver(II) Oxide or Silver(I,III) Oxide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudela, David

    2008-01-01

    The often called silver peroxide and silver(II) oxide, AgO or Ag[subscript 2]O[subscript 2], is actually a mixed oxidation state silver(I,III) oxide. A thermochemical cycle, with lattice energies calculated within the "volume-based" thermodynamic approach, explain why the silver(I,III) oxide is more stable than the hypothetical silver(II) oxide.…

  2. Mineral commodity profiles: Silver

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Hilliard, Henry E.

    2005-01-01

    Overview -- Silver is one of the eight precious, or noble, metals; the others are gold and the six platinum-group metals (PGM). World mine production in 2001 was 18,700 metric tons (t) and came from mines in 60 countries; the 10 leading producing countries accounted for 86 percent of the total. The largest producer was Mexico, followed by Peru, Australia, and the United States. About 25 percent of the silver mined in the world in 2001 came from silver ores; 15 percent, from gold ores and the remaining 60 percent, from copper, lead, and zinc ores. In the United States, 14 percent of the silver mined in 2001 came from silver ores; 39 percent, from gold ores; 10 percent, from copper and copper-molybdenum ores; and 37 percent, from lead, zinc, and lead-zinc ores. The precious metal ores (gold and silver) came from 30 lode mines and 10 placer mines; the base-metal ores (copper, lead, molybdenum, and zinc) came from 24 lode mines. Placer mines yielded less than 1 percent of the national silver production. Silver was mined in 12 States, of which Nevada was by far the largest producer; it accounted for nearly one-third of the national total. The production of silver at domestic mines generated employment for about 1,100 mine and mill workers. The value of mined domestic silver was estimated to be $290 million. Of the nearly 27,000 t of world silver that was fabricated in 2001, about one-third went into jewelry and silverware, one-fourth into the light-sensitive compounds used in photography, and nearly all the remainder went for industrial uses, of which there were 7 substantial uses and many other small-volume uses. By comparison, 85 percent of the silver used in the United States went to photography and industrial uses, 8 percent to jewelry and silverware, and 7 percent to coins and medals. The United States was the largest consumer of silver followed by India, Japan, and Italy; the 13 largest consuming countries accounted for nearly 90 percent of the world total. In the

  3. Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mark A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) is reviewed in seven sections: books, conferences, reviews; potentiometric membrane electrodes; glass and solid-state membrane electrodes; liquid and polymer membrane ISEs; coated wire electrodes, ion-selective field effect transistors, and microelectrodes; gas sensors and selective bioelectrode…

  4. Synthesis and applications of novel silver nanoparticle structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukes, Kyle

    template base self assembly. A 1.5 micron silica sphere is bound to poly(4-vinylpyridine) coated glass and used as a template. a mask of silica monoxide is vacuum deposited atop the spheres/glass leaving a ring just below the sphere untouched and able to bind silver nanoparticles. Optical microscopy reveal interesting results under depolarized light conditions, but ultimate structural analysis has proven elusive. Semiconducting p-type cuprous oxide was electrochemically deposited on both silver and indium tin oxide electrodes. Silver nanoparticles were incorporated into the architecture either atop the cuprous oxide or sandwiched between cuprous oxide and n-type material. Increases in photocurrent were observed in both cases and further work must be conducted to optimize a solid state device for photovoltaic applications.

  5. A new method for measuring low resistivity contacts between silver and YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Haertling, Gene H.; Sherrill, Max D.

    1991-01-01

    Several methods of measuring contact resistivity between silver electrodes and YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductors were investigated; including the two-point, the three point, and the lap-joint methods. The lap-joint method was found to yield the most consistent and reliable results and is proposed as a new technique for this measurement. Painting, embedding, and melting methods were used to apply the electrodes to the superconductor. Silver electrodes produced good ohmic contacts to YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductors with contact resistivities as low as 1.9 x 10 to the -9th ohm sq cm.

  6. HSPES membrane electrode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved fuel cell electrode, as well as fuel cells and membrane electrode assemblies that include such an electrode, in which the electrode includes a backing layer having a sintered layer thereon, and a non-sintered free-catalyst layer. The invention also features a method of forming the electrode by sintering a backing material with a catalyst material and then applying a free-catalyst layer.

  7. Fatigue Debonding of the Roughened Stem–Cement Interface: Effects of Surface Roughness and Stem Heating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Damron, Leatha A.; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Mann, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of cyclic loading on the debond process of a roughened stem– cement interface used in total hip arthroplasty. The specific goals were to assess the effects of two surgeon-controlled variables (stem heating and degree of stem surface roughness) and to determine if an independent finite element-based fracture mechanics model could be used to predict the debond response. A clamped cantilever beam geometry was used to determine the fatigue debond response of the stem– cement interface and was created using an experimental mold that simulated in vivo cementing conditions. A second experiment was performed using a torsion-loading model representative of the stem– cement–bone composite. For both experiments, two stem heating (room temperature and 50°C) and surface roughness conditions (grit blasted: Ra = 2.3 and 5.1 μm) were used. Finally, a finite element model of the torsion experiment with provision for crack growth was developed and compared with the experimental results. Results from both experiments revealed that neither stem preheating nor use of a stem with a greater surface roughness had a marked effect on the fatigue debond response. There was substantial variability in the debond response for all cases; this may be due to microscopic gaps at the interface for all interface conditions. The debond rate from the finite element simulation (10−7.31 m/cycle) had a magnitude similar to the experimental torsion model (10− (6.77 ± 1.25) m/cycle). This suggests that within the context of the experimental conditions studied here that the debond response could be assessed using a linear elastic fracture mechanics-type approach. PMID:16292769

  8. Give silver a shine.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Katharina M

    2011-02-01

    Katharina M. Fromm explains how, as well as catalysis and jewellery, silver serves a myriad of medicinal applications--some of which are even behind poetic traditions such as throwing coins in wishing wells.

  9. Silver recovery system data

    SciTech Connect

    Boulineau, B.

    1991-08-26

    In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

  10. Anodic stripping voltammetry of silver nanoparticles: aggregation leads to incomplete stripping.

    PubMed

    Cloake, Samantha J; Toh, Her Shuang; Lee, Patricia T; Salter, Chris; Johnston, Colin; Compton, Richard G

    2015-02-01

    The influence of nanoparticle aggregation on anodic stripping voltammetry is reported. Dopamine-capped silver nanoparticles were chosen as a model system, and melamine was used to induce aggregation in the nanoparticles. Through the anodic stripping of the silver nanoparticles that were aggregated to different extents, it was found that the peak area of the oxidative signal corresponding to the stripping of silver to silver(I) ions decreases with increasing aggregation. Aggregation causes incomplete stripping of the silver nanoparticles. Two possible mechanisms of 'partial oxidation' and 'inactivation' of the nanoparticles are proposed to account for this finding. Aggregation effects must be considered when anodic stripping voltammetry is used for nanoparticle detection and quantification. Hence, drop casting, which is known to lead to aggregation, is not encouraged for preparing electrodes for analytical purposes.

  11. Cyclic voltammetry using silver as cathode material: a simple method for determining electro and chemical features and solubility values of CO2 in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Reche, Irene; Gallardo, Iluminada; Guirado, Gonzalo

    2015-01-28

    A report is presented on the use of cyclic voltammetry using silver as a working electrode. The combined electrocatalytic properties of silver and ionic liquids allow cyclic voltammetry to be turned into an ideal tool for the rapid and accurate access to diffusion coefficient values and solubility values of carbon dioxide in ionic liquids under standard conditions.

  12. Controlled porosity in electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Bae, Chang-Jun; Halloran, John William; Fu, Qiang; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Erdonmez, Can K.

    2015-06-23

    Porous electrodes in which the porosity has a low tortuosity are generally provided. In some embodiments, the porous electrodes can be designed to be filled with electrolyte and used in batteries, and can include low tortuosity in the primary direction of ion transport during charge and discharge of the battery. In some embodiments, the electrodes can have a high volume fraction of electrode active material (i.e., low porosity). The attributes outlined above can allow the electrodes to be fabricated with a higher energy density, higher capacity per unit area of electrode (mAh/cm.sup.2), and greater thickness than comparable electrodes while still providing high utilization of the active material in the battery during use. Accordingly, the electrodes can be used to produce batteries with high energy densities, high power, or both compared to batteries using electrodes of conventional design with relatively highly tortuous pores.

  13. Micromachined electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  14. Flexible retinal electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  15. Silver: high performance anode for thin film lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillades, G.; Sarradin, J.

    Among metals and intermetallic compounds, silver exhibits a high specific capacity according to the formation of different Ag-Li alloys (up to AgLi 12) in a very low voltage range versus lithium (0.250-0 V). Electrochemical results including Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) as well as cycling behaviour experiments confirmed the interesting characteristics of silver thin film electrodes prepared by radio frequency (r.f.) sputtering. XRD patterns recorded at different electrochemical stages of the alloying/de-alloying processes showed the complexity of the silver-lithium system under dynamic conditions. Cycling life depends on several parameters and particularly of the careful choice of cut-off voltages. In very well monitored conditions, galvanostatic cycles exhibited flat reversible plateaus with a minimal voltage value (0.050 V) between charge and discharge, a feature of great interest in the use of an electrode. The first results of a lithium ion battery with both silver and LiMn 1.5Ni 0.5O 4 thin films are presented.

  16. High performance cermet electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

  17. Oxygen reduction on Ni, Ag, and Cu meniscus electrodes in molten carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Hiroyuki; Shirogami, Tamotsu

    1994-12-31

    The oxygen reduction pathways in molten carbonates have been investigated by analyzing the charge transfer resistances of the i-V curves on the meniscus electrodes of Ni, Cu, and Ag screens at 550 C. The electrochemical reduction pathways of oxygen at the meniscus electrode were found to be different depending on the electrode materials. For the Ni meniscus electrode system, the reactive material of charge transfer is the lithium doped nickel oxide, for the Ag system that is the silver oxide ion, and for the Cu system that is peroxide ion, respectively.

  18. Leaching of Silver from Silver-Impregnated Food Storage Containers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Niece, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of silver in commercial products has proliferated in recent years owing to its antibacterial properties. Food containers impregnated with micro-sized silver promise long food life, but there is some concern because silver can leach out of the plastic and into the stored food. This laboratory experiment gives students the opportunity to…

  19. Electroencephalogram measurement using polymer-based dry microneedle electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Miyako; Nishinaka, Yuya; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we report a successful electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement using polymer-based dry microneedle electrodes. The electrodes consist of needle-shaped substrates of SU-8, a silver film, and a nanoporous parylene protective film. Differently from conventional wet electrodes, microneedle electrodes do not require skin preparation and a conductive gel. SU-8 is superior as a structural material to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS; Dow Corning Toray Sylgard 184) in terms of hardness, which was used in our previous work, and facilitates the penetration of needles through the stratum corneum. SU-8 microneedles can be successfully inserted into the skin without breaking and could maintain a sufficiently low skin-electrode contact impedance for EEG measurement. The electrodes successfully measured EEG from the frontal pole, and the quality of acquired signals was verified to be as high as those obtained using commercially available wet electrodes without any skin preparation or a conductive gel. The electrodes are readily applicable to record brain activities for a long period with little stress involved in skin preparation to the users.

  20. Positive-electrode current collector for liquid-metal cells

    DOEpatents

    Shimotake, H.; Bartholme, L.G.

    1982-09-27

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  1. Positive electrode current collector for liquid metal cells

    DOEpatents

    Shimotake, Hiroshi; Bartholme, Louis G.

    1984-01-01

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  2. Enhancement in solar hydrogen generation efficiency using InGaN photoelectrode after surface roughening treatment with nano-sized Ni mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Tao; Zhi, Ting; Li, Ming-Xue; Xie, Zi-Li; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Bin; Li, Yi; Zhuang, Zhe; Zhang, Guo-Gang; Jiang, Fu-Long; Chen, Peng; Zheng, You-Dou

    2014-09-01

    A significant enhancement in solar hydrogen generation efficiency has been achieved by inductive coupled etching (ICP) surface roughening treatment using nano-sized nickel mask. As much as 7 times improvement of photocurrent is demonstrated in comparison with a planar one fabricated from the same parent wafer. Under identical illumination conditions in HBr solution, the incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) shows an enhancement with a factor of 3, which even exceed 54% at 400 nm wavelength. We believe the enhancement is attributed to several facts including improvement in absorption, reacting area, carrier localization and carrier lifetime.

  3. Characterization of nanoporous gold electrodes for bioelectrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Micheál D; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Belochapkine, Serguei; MacAodha, Domhnall; Leech, Dónal; Ding, Yi; Magner, Edmond

    2012-01-31

    The high surface areas of nanostructured electrodes can provide for significantly enhanced surface loadings of electroactive materials. The fabrication and characterization of nanoporous gold (np-Au) substrates as electrodes for bioelectrochemical applications is described. Robust np-Au electrodes were prepared by sputtering a gold-silver alloy onto a glass support and subsequent dealloying of the silver component. Alloy layers were prepared with either a uniform or nonuniform distribution of silver and, post dealloying, showed clear differences in morphology on characterization with scanning electron microscopy. Redox reactions under kinetic control, in particular measurement of the charge required to strip a gold oxide layer, provided the most accurate measurements of the total electrochemically addressable electrode surface area, A(real). Values of A(real) up to 28 times that of the geometric electrode surface area, A(geo), were obtained. For diffusion-controlled reactions, overlapping diffusion zones between adjacent nanopores established limiting semi-infinite linear diffusion fields where the maximum current density was dependent on A(geo). The importance of measuring the surface area available for the immobilization was determined using the redox protein, cyt c. The area accessible to modification by a biological macromolecule, A(macro), such as cyt c was reduced by up to 40% compared to A(real), demonstrating that the confines of some nanopores were inaccessible to large macromolecules due to steric hindrances. Preliminary studies on the preparation of np-Au electrodes modified with osmium redox polymer hydrogels and Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase (MvBOD) as a biocathode were performed; current densities of 500 μA cm(-2) were obtained in unstirred solutions.

  4. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  5. Improved biomedical electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Newly designed electrode is prefilled, disposable, electrolyte-saturated spong. New design permits longe periods of storage without deterioration, and readiness in matter of seconds. Electrodes supply signals for electroencephalogram, electro-oculogram, and electrocardiogram.

  6. Corneal-shaping electrode

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; Hutson, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a circulating saline electrode for changing corneal shape in eyes. The electrode comprises a tubular nonconductive electrode housing having an annular expanded base which has a surface substantially matched to a subject corneal surface. A tubular conductive electrode connected to a radiofrequency generating source is disposed within the electrode housing and longitudinally aligned therewith. The electrode has a generally hemispherical head having at least one orifice. Saline solution is circulated through the apparatus and over the cornea to cool the corneal surface while radiofrequency electric current emitted from the electrode flows therefrom through the cornea to a second electrode, on the rear of the head. This current heats the deep corneal stroma and thereby effects corneal reshaping as a biological response to the heat.

  7. The CMG Nickel Electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaul, R. A.; Gutridge, I.

    1981-01-01

    The development and design of the Controlled Microgeometry electrode are described. Advantages of the electrode over others in existance include a higher number of ampere hours per kilogram and the ability to make them over a wide range of thicknesses. The parameters that control the performance of the electrode can be individually controlled over a wide range. Therefore, the electrode may be designed to give the optimum performance for a given duty cycle.

  8. Low resistance fuel electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Maskalick, Nichols J.; Folser, George R.

    1989-01-01

    An electrode 6 bonded to a solid, ion conducting electrolyte 5 is made, where the electrode 6 comprises a ceramic metal oxide 18, metal particles 17, and heat stable metal fibers 19, where the metal fibers provide a matrix structure for the electrode. The electrolyte 5 can be bonded to an air electrode cathode 4, to provide an electrochemical cell 2, preferably of tubular design.

  9. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  10. Impedance Relaxation Spectrum Analysis of Oxidized Silver Electrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-31

    3,9) in addition to more conventional electrochemical methods, were used extensively, to characterize the chemical and morphological mechanism of the...Om grains. The surface was subsequently degreased in acetone and propyl alchohol , etched in diluted HN03 solution, rinsed with de-ionized water and...359 Dr. Robert Somoano Dr. Edward Fletcher Jet Propulsion Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering California Institute of Technology University

  11. Absorbent silver (I) antimicrobial fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, silver in form of silver ions, has been gaining importance in the wound management as an effective broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. Silver has a long history as an antimicrobial agent, especially in the treatment of wounds. Alginates and carboxymethyl (CM) cotton contain carboxyl...

  12. Organic devices based on nickel nanowires transparent electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeongmo; da Silva, Wilson Jose; Bin Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid; Jang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize long nickel nanowires and discuss its suitability to replace our commonly used transparent electrode, indium-tin-oxide (ITO), by a hydrazine hydrate reduction method where nickel ions are reduced to nickel atoms in an alkaline solution. The highly purified nickel nanowires show high transparency within the visible region, although the sheet resistance is slightly larger compared to that of our frequently used transparent electrode, ITO. A comparison study on organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells, using commercially available ITO, silver nanowires, and nickel nanowires, are also discussed.

  13. Organic devices based on nickel nanowires transparent electrode

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongmo; da Silva, Wilson Jose; bin Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid; Jang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize long nickel nanowires and discuss its suitability to replace our commonly used transparent electrode, indium-tin-oxide (ITO), by a hydrazine hydrate reduction method where nickel ions are reduced to nickel atoms in an alkaline solution. The highly purified nickel nanowires show high transparency within the visible region, although the sheet resistance is slightly larger compared to that of our frequently used transparent electrode, ITO. A comparison study on organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells, using commercially available ITO, silver nanowires, and nickel nanowires, are also discussed. PMID:26804335

  14. Insulated ECG electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portnoy, W. M.; David, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Insulated, capacitively coupled electrode does not require electrolyte paste for attachment. Other features of electrode include wide range of nontoxic material that may be employed for dielectric because of sputtering technique used. Also, electrode size is reduced because there is no need for external compensating networks with FET operational amplifier.

  15. Fuel cell electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Strmcnik, Dusan; Cuesta, Angel; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad

    2015-06-23

    A process includes patterning a surface of a platinum group metal-based electrode by contacting the electrode with an adsorbate to form a patterned platinum group metal-based electrode including platinum group metal sites blocked with adsorbate molecules and platinum group metal sites which are not blocked.

  16. Aerospace electrode line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L.

    1980-04-01

    A facility which produces electrodes for spacecraft power supplies is described. The electrode assembly procedures are discussed. A number of design features in the production process are reported including a batch operation mode and an independent equipment module design approach for transfering the electrode materials from process tank to process tank.

  17. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  18. Microresonator electrode design

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, III, Roy H.; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Branch, Darren W.

    2016-05-10

    A microresonator with an input electrode and an output electrode patterned thereon is described. The input electrode includes a series of stubs that are configured to isolate acoustic waves, such that the waves are not reflected into the microresonator. Such design results in reduction of spurious modes corresponding to the microresonator.

  19. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  20. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  1. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  2. Protein-Modified-Paramagnetic-Particles as a Tool for Detection of Silver(I) Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizek, R.; Krizkova, S.; Adam, V.; Huska, D.; Hubalek, J.; Trnkova, L.

    2009-04-01

    In a number of published articles the toxic effect of silver(I) ions on aquatic organisms is described. Silver(I) ions in aquatic environment are stable in a wide range of pH. Under alkali pH AgOH and Ag(OH)2- can be formed. However, in water environment there are many compounds to interact with silver(I) ions. The most important ones are chloride anions, which forms insoluble precipitate with silver(I) ions (AgCl). The insoluble silver containing compounds do not pose any threat to aquatic organisms. Toxicity of silver ions is probably caused by their very good affinity to nucleic acids and also proteins. The binding into active enzyme site leads to the expressive enzyme reaction inhibition. Silver(I) ions are into living environment introduced thanks to anthropogenic activities. They easily contaminate atmosphere as well as aquatic environment or soils. Several authors described using of carbon electrode as working electrode for determination of silver. Recently, we have suggested heavy metal biosensor based on interaction of metal ions with low molecular mass protein called metallothionein (MT), which was adsorbed on the surface of hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The biosensor was successfully used for detection of cadmium(II) and zinc(II) ions, cisplatin, cisplatin-DNA adducts and palladium(II) ions. Due to the convincing results with MT as biological component we report on suggesting of heavy metal biosensor based on immobilization of metallothionein (MT) on the surface of carbon paste electrode (CPE) via MT-antibodies. Primarily we studied of basic electrochemical behaviour of MT at surface of carbon paste electrode by using of square wave voltammetry (SWV). Detection limit (3 S/N) for MT was evaluated as 0.1 μg/ml. After that we have evaluated the electroactivity of MT at surface of SWV, we aimed our attention on the way of capturing of MT on the surface of CPE. We choose antibody against MT obtained from chicken eggs for these purposes. Antibodies

  3. Electrochemical Study and Applications of Selective Electrodeposition of Silver on Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Martín-Yerga, Daniel; Rama, Estefanía Costa; Costa-García, Agustín

    2016-04-05

    In this work, selective electrodeposition of silver on quantum dots is described. The particular characteristics of the nanostructured silver thus obtained are studied by electrochemical and microscopic techniques. On one hand, quantum dots were found to catalyze the silver electrodeposition, and on the other hand, a strong adsorption between electrodeposited silver and quantum dots was observed, indicated by two silver stripping processes. Nucleation of silver nanoparticles followed different mechanisms depending on the surface (carbon or quantum dots). Voltammetric and confocal microscopy studies showed the great influence of electrodeposition time on surface coating, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging confirmed the initial formation of Janus-like Ag@QD nanoparticles in this process. By use of moderate electrodeposition conditions such as 50 μM silver, -0.1 V, and 60 s, the silver was deposited only on quantum dots, allowing the generation of localized nanostructured electrode surfaces. This methodology can also be employed for sensing applications, showing a promising ultrasensitive electrochemical method for quantum dot detection.

  4. Tunable optical properties of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam

    2014-05-01

    Tunable optical properties of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell including surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and resonance light scattering (RLS) based on quasi-static theory are investigated. When the silver core radius increases, the longer resonance wavelength red shifts and light scattering cross-section decreases whereas the shorter resonance wavelength blue shifts and the light scattering cross-section increases. The effect of middle dielectric thickness on the light scattering cross-section of nanoshell is different from those of the silver core radius changes. As middle dielectric radius increases, the longer resonance wavelength first blue shifts and then red shifts and the light scattering cross-section increases whereas the shorter resonance wavelength always red shifts and the light scattering cross-section decreases. The sensitivity of RLS to the refractive index of embedding medium is also reported. As the silver core radius increases, the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell decreases whereas increasing the middle dielectric thickness leads to increase the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. Tunable optical properties of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell verify the biosensing potential of this nanostructure.

  5. Pulse Capability of the AIRI Lead Chloride Electrode.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    DISCHARGE RATE ON PULSE BEHAVIOUR .. . 8 INFLUENCE OF PULSE LOAD ON PULSE BEHAVIOUR . ........... 10 CONCLUSION. ............................... 15 DESIGN OF A...source now in use is a seawater-activated battery in which the anode is a magnesium alloy and the cathode a silver chloride electrode. These batteries...in 3.25% NaCI (by weight) dissolved in distilled water. Temperatures ranged from 220 to 250. For the anode the magnesium alloy AZ61 was used (6

  6. Hybrid surface roughening modes during low-temperature heteroepitaxy: Growth of fully-strained metastable Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} alloys on Ge(001)2x1

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, P.; Spila, T.; Guerdal, O.; Taylor, N.; Greene, J. E.

    1999-12-15

    Fully-strained single-crystal metastable Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} alloys were grown on Ge(001) up to their critical epitaxial thickness values t{sub epi}(x) in order to probe surface roughening pathways leading to heteroepitaxial breakdown during low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy under large compressive strain. All films with x>0.09 have comparable roughnesses while films with x<0.09 are considerably rougher with larger lateral feature sizes. Roughening rates increase with increasing x for films with x>0.09 due to a new hybrid relaxation path which only becomes accessible under high strain as kinetic roughening provides surface oscillations on lateral length scales that allow bulk relaxation through strain-induced islanding at growth temperatures where it could not otherwise proceed. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  7. Adhesives, silver amalgam.

    PubMed

    1995-09-01

    The most recent advancement in silver amalgam is use of resin formulations to bond metal to tooth both chemically &/or physically, Since, historically, amalgam has been used successfully without adhesion to tooth, obvious clinical question is: Why is bonding now desirable? Two major clinical reasons to bond are: (1) Adhesive can increase fracture resistance of amalgam restored teeth & decrease cusp fractures; & (2) Seal provided by adhesive can greatly decrease, & often eliminate post-operative sensitivity. Following report summarizes CRA laboratory study of shear bond strength & sealing capability of 23 commercial adhesives used to bond 2 types of silver amalgam to tooth structure.

  8. Improved light extraction efficiency in GaN-based light emitting diode by nano-scale roughening of p-GaN surface.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Jae; Sadasivam, Karthikeyan Giri; Chung, Tae Hoon; Hong, Gi Cheol; Kim, Jin Bong; Kim, Sang Mook; Park, Si-Hyun; Jeon, Seong-Ran; Lee, June Key

    2008-10-01

    Improvement in light extraction efficiency of Ultra Violet-Light Emitting Diode (UV-LED) is achieved by nano-scale roughening of p-type Gallium Nitride (p-GaN) surface. The process of surface roughening is carried out by using self assembled gold (Au) nano-clusters with support of nano-size silicon-oxide (SiO2) pillars on p-GaN surface as a dry etching mask and by p-GaN regrowth in the regions not covered by the mask after dry etching. Au nano-clusters are formed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process carried out at 600 degrees C for 1 min using 15 nm thick Au layer on top of SiO2. The p-GaN roughness is controlled by p-GaN regrowth time. Four different time values of 15 sec, 30 sec, 60 sec and 120 sec are considered for p-GaN regrowth. Among the four different p-GaN regrowth time values 30 sec regrown p-GaN sample has the optimum roughness to increase the electroluminescence (EL) intensity to a value approximately 60% higher than the EL intensity of a conventional LED.

  9. Negative electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  10. Igniter electrode life control

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.C.

    1985-10-07

    The prevention of electrode material erosion by undercutting in the outer electrode shell of igniter electrodes of jet engine ignition systems is prevented by the application of an electrical insulation coating. The coating is applied to the surface of the outer electrode shell which faces the ceramic insulation around the center electrode where erosion patterns are known to occur. The insulation material is selected from electrical insulation substances such as oxides of aluminum, tungsten, magnesium, beryllium or zirconium by choosing a non-porous electrical-insulating substance with thermal-expansion characteristics approximately equalling those of the outer electrode shell. Since a typical outer electrode shell is composed of 446 stainless steel, an optimum choice for the electrical insulation coating is Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ deposited with a coating thickness of between 5 and 10 mils.

  11. Construction of a new selective coated disk electrode for Ag (I) based on modified polypyrrole-carbon nanotubes composite with new lariat ether.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, A; Tashkhourian, J; Ahmadpour, S; Mirahmadi, E; Sharghi, H; Khalifeh, R; Shahriyari, M R

    2014-01-01

    A poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix membrane ion-selective electrode for silver (I) ion is fabricated based on modified polypyrrole - multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite with new lariat ether. This sensor has a Nernstian slope of 59.4±0.5mV/decade over a wide linear concentration range of 1.0×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-1)molL(-1) for silver (I) ion. It has a short response time of about 8.0s and can be used for at least 50days. The detection limit is 9.3×10(-8)molL(-1) for silver (I) ion, and the electrode was applicable in the wide pH range of 1.6 -7.7. The electrode shows good selectivity for silver ion against many cations such as Hg (II), which usually imposes serious interference in the determination of silver ion concentration. The use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a polymer matrix improves the linear range and sensitivity of the electrode. In addition by coating the solid contact with a layer of the polypyrrole (Ppy) before coating the membrane on it, not only did it reduce the drift in potential, but a shorter response time was also resulted. The proposed electrode was used as an indicator electrode for potentiometric titration of silver ions with chloride anions and in the titration of mixed halides. This electrode was successfully applied for the determination of silver ions in silver sulphadiazine as a burning cream.

  12. Physical mechanism of surface roughening of the radial Ge-core/Si-shell nanowire heterostructure and thermodynamic prediction of surface stability of the InAs-core/GaAs-shell nanowire structure.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y Y; Ouyang, G; Wang, C X; Yang, G W

    2013-02-13

    As a promising and typical semiconductor heterostructure at the nanoscale, the radial Ge/Si NW heterostructure, that is, the Ge-core/Si-shell NW structure, has been widely investigated and used in various nanodevices such as solar cells, lasers, and sensors because of the strong changes in the band structure and increased charge carrier mobility. Therefore, to attain high quality radial semiconductor NW heterostructures, controllable and stable epitaxial growth of core-shell NW structures has become a major challenge for both experimental and theoretical evaluation. Surface roughening is usually undesirable for the epitaxial growth of high quality radial semiconductor NW heterostructures, because it would destroy the core-shell NW structures. For example, the surface of the Ge-core/Si-shell NWs always exhibits a periodic modulation with island-like morphologies, that is, surface roughening, during epitaxial growth. Therefore, the physical understanding of the surface roughening behavior during the epitaxial growth of core-shell NW structures is essential and urgent for theoretical design and experimentally controlling the growth of high quality radial semiconductor NW heterostructures. Here, we proposed a quantitative thermodynamic theory to address the physical process of epitaxial growth of core-shell NW structures and surface roughening. We showed that the transformation from the Frank-van der Merwe mode to the Stranski-Krastanow mode during the epitaxial growth of radial semiconductor NW heterostructures is the physical origin of surface roughening. We deduced the thermodynamic criterion for the formation of the surface roughening and the phase diagram of growth and showed that the radius of the NWs and the thickness of the shell layer can not only determine the formation of the surface roughening in a core-shell NW structure, but also control the periodicity and amplitude of the surface roughness. The agreement between the theoretical results and the

  13. Advanced silver zinc battery development for the SRB and ET range safety subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamedes, Zoe

    1994-01-01

    This document presents in viewgraph format the design and development of silver zinc (AgZn) batteries for the solid rocket booster (SRB) and external tank (ET) range safety subsystems. Various engineering techniques, including composite separator systems, new electrode processing techniques, and new restraint techniques, were used to meet difficult requirements.

  14. Electrochemical detection of single E. coli bacteria labeled with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sepunaru, Lior; Tschulik, Kristina; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Gavish, Rachel; Compton, Richard G

    2015-06-01

    A proof-of-concept for the electrochemical detection of single Escherichia coli bacteria decorated with silver nanoparticles is reported. Impacts of bacteria with an electrode - held at a suitably oxidizing potential - lead to an accompanying burst of current with each collision event. The frequency of impacts scales with the concentration of bacteria and the charge indicates the extent of decoration.

  15. Capillary flow of amorphous metal for high performance electrode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Yun; Kim, Suk Jun; Jee, Sang Soo; Park, Jin Man; Park, Keum Hwan; Park, Sung Chan; Cho, Eun Ae; Lee, Jun Ho; Song, In Yong; Lee, Sang Mock; Han, In Taek; Lim, Ka Ram; Kim, Won Tae; Park, Ju Cheol; Eckert, Jürgen; Kim, Do Hyang; Lee, Eun-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Metallic glass (MG) assists electrical contact of screen-printed silver electrodes and leads to comparable electrode performance to that of electroplated electrodes. For high electrode performance, MG needs to be infiltrated into nanometer-scale cavities between Ag particles and reacts with them. Here, we show that the MG in the supercooled state can fill the gap between Ag particles within a remarkably short time due to capillary effect. The flow behavior of the MG is revealed by computational fluid dynamics and density funtional theory simulation. Also, we suggest the formation mechanism of the Ag electrodes, and demonstrate the criteria of MG for higher electrode performance. Consequently, when Al85Ni5Y8Co2 MG is added in the Ag electrodes, cell efficiency is enhanced up to 20.30% which is the highest efficiency reported so far for screen-printed interdigitated back contact solar cells. These results show the possibility for the replacement of electroplating process to screen-printing process.

  16. Capillary flow of amorphous metal for high performance electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se Yun; Kim, Suk Jun; Jee, Sang Soo; Park, Jin Man; Park, Keum Hwan; Park, Sung Chan; Cho, Eun Ae; Lee, Jun Ho; Song, In Yong; Lee, Sang Mock; Han, In Taek; Lim, Ka Ram; Kim, Won Tae; Park, Ju Cheol; Eckert, Jürgen; Kim, Do Hyang; Lee, Eun-Sung

    2013-07-01

    Metallic glass (MG) assists electrical contact of screen-printed silver electrodes and leads to comparable electrode performance to that of electroplated electrodes. For high electrode performance, MG needs to be infiltrated into nanometer-scale cavities between Ag particles and reacts with them. Here, we show that the MG in the supercooled state can fill the gap between Ag particles within a remarkably short time due to capillary effect. The flow behavior of the MG is revealed by computational fluid dynamics and density funtional theory simulation. Also, we suggest the formation mechanism of the Ag electrodes, and demonstrate the criteria of MG for higher electrode performance. Consequently, when Al85Ni5Y8Co2 MG is added in the Ag electrodes, cell efficiency is enhanced up to 20.30% which is the highest efficiency reported so far for screen-printed interdigitated back contact solar cells. These results show the possibility for the replacement of electroplating process to screen-printing process.

  17. Foldable Transparent Substrates with Embedded Electrodes for Flexible Electronics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Hoon; Park, Jin-Woo

    2015-08-26

    We present highly flexible transparent electrodes composed of silver nanowire (AgNW) networks and silica aerogels embedded into UV-curable adhesive photopolymers (APPs). Because the aerogels have an extremely high surface-to-volume ratio, the enhanced van der Waals forces of the aerogel surfaces result in more AgNWs being uniformly coated onto a release substrate and embedded into the APP when mixed with an AgNW solution at a fixed concentration. The uniform distribution of the embedded composite electrodes of AgNWs and aerogels was verified by the Joule heating test. The APP with the composite electrodes has a lower sheet resistance (Rs) and a better mechanical stability compared with APP without aerogels. The APP with the embedded electrodes is a freestanding flexible substrate and can be used as an electrode coating on a polymer substrate, such as polydimethylsiloxane and polyethylene terephthalate. On the basis of the bending test results, the APPs with composite electrodes were sufficiently flexible to withstand a 1 mm bending radius (rb) and could be foldable with a slight change in Rs. Organic light emitting diodes were successfully fabricated on the APP with the composite electrodes, indicating the strong potential of the proposed flexible TEs for application as highly flexible transparent conductive substrates.

  18. Tales From Silver Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Charles J.

    In 1925, "Tales From Silver Lands" was awarded the Newbery medal as the most distinguished contribution to American children's literature for the year. The book contains a collection of 19 short stories learned from the Indians of South America as the author traveled to different lands. As described on the dust jacket, the tales are…

  19. Potassium silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium silver cyanide is inclu

  20. Indium-free organic thin-film solar cells using a plasmonic electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatori, Kentaro; Nishino, Takayuki; Okamoto, Takayuki; Takei, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi, Koji; Micheletto, Ruggero

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new kind of organic solar cell (OSC) that substitutes the standard indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode with a silver layer with randomly arranged circular nanoholes (plasmonic electrode). The quasi-random structure in the silver layer efficiently converts wideband incident light into surface plasmon polaritons propagating along the surface of the silver film. In this way, the converted surface plasmon polaritons enhance light absorption in the active layer. We describe in detail the fabrication process we used and we give a thorough report of the resulting optical characteristics and performances. Although the transmittance of the plasmonic electrode is approximately one-third of that of the ITO electrodes, the power conversion efficiency of the OSCs with our plasmonic electrode is comparable to that of conventional inverted solar cells using ITO electrodes. Moreover, the obtained incident photon to current efficiency was better than that of the inverted solar cells in the wavelength regions around 400 nm and over 620 nm.

  1. Characterization of Electrochemically Generated Silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Martinez, James; Carrier, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Silver biocide offers a potential advantage over iodine, the current state of the art in US spacecraft disinfection technology, in that silver can be safely consumed by the crew. Low concentrations of silver (<500 ppb) have been shown to kill bacteria in water systems and keep it safe for potability. Silver does not require hardware to remove it from a water system, and therefore can provide a simpler means for disinfecting water. The Russian segment of the International Space Station has utilized an electrochemically generated silver solution, which is colloidal in nature. To be able to reliably provide a silver biocide to drinking water by electrochemical means would reduce mass required for removing another biocide such as iodine from the water. This would also aid in crew time required to replace iodine removal cartridges. Future long term missions would benefit from electrochemically produced silver as the biocide could be produced on demand and requires only a small concentration to be effective. Since it can also be consumed safely, there is less mass in removal hardware and little consumables required for production. The goal of this project initially is to understand the nature of the electrochemically produced silver, the particle sizes produced by the electrochemical cell and the effect that voltage adjustment has on the particle size. In literature, it has been documented that dissolved oxygen and pH have an effect on the ionization of the electrochemical silver so those parameters would be measured and possibly adjusted to understand their effect on the silver.

  2. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  3. Li/Ag2VO2PO4 batteries: the roles of composite electrode constituents on electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, David C.; Bruck, Andrea M.; Pelliccione, Christopher J.; Zhang, Yiman; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    2016-11-01

    Silver vanadium phosphorous oxide, Ag2V2OPO4, was used as a model system to systematically study the impact on the constituents of a composite electrode, including polymeric and conductive additives, on electrochemistry. Three different electrode compositions were investigated.

  4. "Bottom-up" transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Morag, Ahiud; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-11-15

    Transparent electrodes (TEs) have attracted significant scientific, technological, and commercial interest in recent years due to the broad and growing use of such devices in electro-optics, consumer products (touch-screens for example), solar cells, and others. Currently, almost all commercial TEs are fabricated through "top-down" approaches (primarily lithography-based techniques), with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the most common material employed. Several problems are encountered, however, in this field, including the cost and complexity of TE production using top-down technologies, the limited structural flexibility, high-cost of indium, and brittle nature and low transparency in the far-IR spectral region of ITO. Alternative routes based upon bottom-up processes, have recently emerged as viable alternatives for production of TEs. Bottom up technologies are based upon self-assembly of building blocks - atoms, molecules, or nanoparticles - generating thin patterned films that exhibit both electrical conductivity and optical transparency. In this Feature Article we discuss the recent progress in this active and exciting field, including bottom-up TE systems produced from carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene-oxide), silver, gold, and other metals. The current hurdles encountered for broader use of bottom-up strategies along with their significant potential are analyzed.

  5. Nanoscopic electrode molecular probes

    DOEpatents

    Krstic, Predrag S [Knoxville, TN; Meunier, Vincent [Knoxville, TN

    2012-05-22

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for enhancing the electron transport property measurements of a molecule when the molecule is placed between chemically functionalized carbon-based nanoscopic electrodes to which a suitable voltage bias is applied. The invention includes selecting a dopant atom for the nanoscopic electrodes, the dopant atoms being chemically similar to atoms present in the molecule, and functionalizing the outer surface and terminations of the electrodes with the dopant atoms.

  6. A rapid method to estimate the concentration of citrate capped silver nanoparticles from UV-visible light spectra.

    PubMed

    Paramelle, D; Sadovoy, A; Gorelik, S; Free, P; Hobley, J; Fernig, D G

    2014-10-07

    We present a generalized table of extinction coefficient data for silver nanoparticles from 8 to 100 nm. This table allows for easy and quick estimation of the concentration and size of modified and mono-dispersed silver nanoparticles from their optical spectra. We obtained data by determining the silver content of citrate-stabilised silver nanoparticles using sodium cyanide to dissolve the nanoparticles, and measuring solution conductivity with a pH meter and a cyanide-ion selective electrode. The quantification of the silver ion concentration enabled the calculation of extinction coefficients. Experimentally calculated extinction coefficients, in the current work, are in good agreement with collated literature values measured by different authors with non-standardized methodology and each for a limited range of particle size. They are also in good agreement with our theoretical calculations using Mie theory. Thus, we provide a highly standardized and comprehensive tabulated reference data-set.

  7. Pocket ECG electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Gordon F. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A low-noise electrode suited for sensing electrocardiograms when chronically and subcutaneously implanted in a free-ranging subject. The electrode comprises a pocket-shaped electrically conductive member with a single entrance adapted to receive body fluids. The exterior of the member and the entrance region is coated with electrical insulation so that the only electrolyte/electrode interface is within the member remote from artifact-generating tissue. Cloth straps are bonded to the member to permit the electrode to be sutured to tissue and to provide electrical lead flexure relief.

  8. Pocket ECG electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A low noise electrode suited for sensing electrocardiograms when chronically and subcutaneously implanted in a free ranging subject is described. The electrode comprises a pocket shaped electrically conductive member with a single entrance adapted to receive body fluids. The exterior of the member and the entrance region is coated with electrical insulation so that the only electrolyte/electrode interface is within the member, remote from artifact-generating tissue. Cloth straps are bonded to the member to permit the electrode to be sutured to tissue and to provide electrical lead flexure relief.

  9. All-solid-state reference electrodes based on conducting polymers.

    PubMed

    Kisiel, Anna; Marcisz, Honorata; Michalska, Agata; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof

    2005-12-01

    A novel construction of solution free (pseudo)reference electrodes, compatible with all-solid-state potentiometric indicator electrodes, has been proposed. These electrodes use conducting polymers (CP): polypyrrole (PPy) or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Two different arrangements have been tested: solely based on CP and those where the CP phase is covered with a poly(vinyl chloride) based outer membrane of tailored composition. The former arrangement was designed to suppress or compensate cation- and anion-exchange, using mobile perchlorate ions and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) or dodecylbenzenesulfonate anions as immobilized dopants. The following systems were used: (i) polypyrrole layers doped simultaneously by two kinds of anions, both mobile and immobilized in the polymer layer; (ii) bilayers of polypyrrole with anion exchanging inner layer and cation-exchanging outer layer; (iii) polypyrrole doped by surfactant dodecylbenzenesulfonate ions, which inhibit ion exchange on the polymer/solution interface. For the above systems, recorded potentials have been found to be practically independent of electrolyte concentration. The best results, profound stability of potentials, have been obtained for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or polypyrrole doped by poly(4-styrenesulfonate) anions covered by a poly(vinyl chloride) based membrane, containing both anion- and cation-exchangers as well as solid potassium chloride and silver chloride with metallic silver. Differently to the cases (i)-(iii) these electrodes are much less sensitive to the influence of redox and pH interferences. This arrangement has been also characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronopotentiometry.

  10. Silver ion release from antimicrobial polyamide/silver composites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Radhesh; Münstedt, Helmut

    2005-05-01

    Silver ion (Ag(+)) the versatile antimicrobial species was released in a steady and prolonged manner from a silver-filled polyamide composite system. Metallic silver powder having varying specific surface area (SSA) has been used as a resource of biocide in polyamide. Strong evidences are found showing the release of the antimicrobial species from the resulting composite upon soaking it in water due to the interaction of the diffused water molecules with the dispersed silver powder within the matrix. The Ag(+) release was observed as increasing with time and concentration of the silver powder and is found to be influenced by the SSA of the silver powder, changes in the physical state of the composite specimen as a result of the water diffusion and the composite morphology. It is observed that the Ag(+) release increases initially which is followed by a marginal increase between day 4 and 6. Composites containing higher amounts of silver (4 and 8 wt%) exhibit a further rise in Ag(+) release from the sixth day of storage in water. Composite containing silver particles with the lowest specific surface area (0.78 m(2)/g) showed highest Ag(+) release. SEM shows a finer dispersion of the silver powder (4 wt%) having lowest SSA. However particles with higher (1.16 and 2.5 m(2)/g) SSA possess an agglomerated morphology leading to lower Ag(+) release. The composites are found to release Ag(+) at a concentration level capable of rendering an antimicrobial efficacy.

  11. Hydrometallurgical recovery of silver from waste silver oxide button cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathaiyan, N.; Nandakumar, V.; Ramachandran, P.

    In recent years, recycling of household batteries has attracted much attention mainly with respect to environmental aspects in addition to the savings. Small silver oxide primary cells used in electric watches become a waste after their life is over. Recycling procedures are needed to prevent any environmental impact from these wastes and to recover the value inherent in the scrap. Smelting and electrolytic methods are discussed for silver recovery from this battery waste. Acid leaching of waste batteries and precipitation of silver as silver chloride followed by smelting at 1000 °C yields a silver recovery of about 83%. An electrolytic route is studied as an alternative to the smelting operation and involves the electrodeposition of silver with higher purity from a silver thiosulfate complex prepared from silver chloride. The electrolysis is potentiostatically controlled at a potential of -0.400 to -0.600 V (SCE) for avoiding side-reactions such as the sulfiding of silver. Although recovery methods have been identified in principle, their suitability for mixed small battery waste and economic factors have yet to be demonstrated.

  12. Fundamental Studies of Surfaces Processes and Trace Analysis Using Solid Electrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-10

    into studies of heterogeneous electrode kinetics, underpotential deposition and electrocatalysis. The electroanalytical work areas involved trace...ism of the catalysis of formic acid electrooxidation by underpotentially deposited species, b) modelling the interaction of mass transport and light...method. P. UPD Studies in Acetonitrile. (5). The underpotential deposition of lead and silver on gold was studied in acetonitrile as a solvent. The

  13. Electrodic voltages in the presence of dissolved sulfide: Implications for monitoring natural microbial activity

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, L.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Yee, N.; O'Brien, M.; Zhang, C.; Williams, K. H.

    2008-10-01

    There is growing interest in the development of new monitoring strategies for obtaining spatially extensive data diagnostic of microbial processes occurring in the earth. Open-circuit potentials arising from variable redox conditions in the fluid local-to-electrode surfaces (electrodic potentials) were recorded for a pair of silver-silver chloride electrodes in a column experiment, whereby a natural wetland soil containing a known community of sulfate reducers was continuously fed with a sulfate-rich nutrient medium. Measurements were made between five electrodes equally spaced along the column and a reference electrode placed on the column inflow. The presence of a sulfate reducing microbial population, coupled with observations of decreasing sulfate levels, formation of black precipitate (likely iron sulfide),elevated solid phase sulfide, and a characteristic sulfurous smell, suggest microbial-driven sulfate reduction (sulfide generation) in our column. Based on the known sensitivity of a silver electrode to dissolved sulfide concentration, we interpret the electrodic potentials approaching 700 mV recorded in this experiment as an indicator of the bisulfide (HS-) concentration gradients in the column. The measurement of the spatial and temporal variation in these electrodic potentials provides a simple and rapid method for monitoring patterns of relative HS- concentration that are indicative of the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Our measurements have implications both for the autonomous monitoring of anaerobic microbial processes in the subsurface and the performance of self-potential electrodes, where it is critical to isolate, and perhaps quantify, electrochemical interfaces contributing to observed potentials.

  14. Peculiarities of the dielectric response of the silver-modified-zeolite porous microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyatova, U.; Ozturk Koc, S.; Orbukh, V. I.; Eyvazova, G. M.; Agamaliev, Z. A.; Lebedeva, N. N.; Koçum, İ. C.; Salamov, B. G.; Ozer, M.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize electrical conductivity and dielectrical properties of the silver-exchanged zeolite - natural clinoptilolite from Western part of Turkey and Azerbaijan in the range of frequencies from 200 Hz to 1 MHz and at room temperature. For a better understanding the effect of concentration and content of silver in the nanoporous zeolite volume on the conductivity, a study of the dielectric properties of an un-modified and silver-modified zeolite plates with different amounts of Ag ions and Ag nanoparticles is performed. Un-modified and three different types of the silver ion-exchanged modified clinoptilolite plates were prepared. It was found, that with increasing silver concentration, resistance of zeolite plate monotonically decreases at the same time a capacitance is increases. It is suggested an explanation of the observed frequency dependence of the capacitance and resistance of zeolite plates on the silver concentrations may be explain on the basis of an electrode-dielectric interface gap model. At the same time, the observed phenomenon can be explained by considering the fact that with increasing content of silver the conductivity increases. These results show that Ag nanoparticles play significant role for performance improvement in plasma electronic devices with zeolite cathode.

  15. Printed silver nanowire antennas with low signal loss at high-frequency radio.

    PubMed

    Komoda, Natsuki; Nogi, Masaya; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Kohno, Kazuo; Akiyama, Yutaka; Otsuka, Kanji

    2012-05-21

    Silver nanowires are printable and conductive, and are believed to be promising materials in the field of printed electronics. However, the resistivity of silver nanowire printed lines is higher than that of metallic particles or flakes even when sintered at high temperatures of 100-400 °C. Therefore, their applications have been limited to the replacement of transparent electrodes made from high-resistivity materials, such as doped metallic oxides, conductive polymers, carbon nanotubes, or graphenes. Here we report that using printed silver nanowire lines, signal losses obtained in the high-frequency radio were lower than those obtained using etched copper foil antennas, because their surfaces were much smoother than those of etched copper foil antennas. This was the case even though the resistivity of silver nanowire lines was 43-71 μΩ cm, which is much higher than that of etched copper foil (2 μΩ cm). When printed silver nanowire antennas were heated at 100 °C, they achieved signal losses that were much lower than those of silver paste antennas comprising microparticles, nanoparticles, and flakes. Furthermore, using a low temperature process, we succeeded in remotely controlling a commercialized radio-controlled car by transmitting a 2.45 GHz signal via a silver nanowire antenna printed on a polyethylene terephthalate film.

  16. Electrochemical direct writing and erasing of silver nanostructures on phosphate glass using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Barna, Shama F; Jacobs, Kyle E; Mensing, Glennys A; Ferreira, Placid M

    2017-02-10

    This paper reports a liquid-free, mask-less electrochemical direct-write lithographic technique using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe for writing silver nanostructures in minutes on an optically transparent substrate. Under ambient conditions, silver is locally and controllably extracted to the surface of superionic (AgI)0.25 (AgPO3)0.75 glass by bringing a conductive AFM probe tip in contact with it, biasing the probe with a negative voltage, and regulating the resulting current. The growth mechanism of the resulting nanostructure is explored by extracting silver with a stationary AFM tip on the surface of the silver. A moving tip was then used to produce continuous lines, solid films and discrete dots of silver by implementing continuous and pulsed current writing approaches. The line dimensions depend on writing speed and current flowing in the electrochemical circuit, while the size and spacing of the dots depend on the parameters (magnitude, duration and frequency) of the current pulses and the writing speed of the AFM tip. Line-widths in the ∼100 nm range are demonstrated. Our investigation also shows that a threshold potential must be overcome to be able to draw and reduce silver ions on the glass surface. When polarity between the electrodes is reversed, the patterned silver ionizes back into the glass, thus offering the capability to erase and rewrite Ag patterns on the glass surface.

  17. Electrochemical direct writing and erasing of silver nanostructures on phosphate glass using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barna, Shama F.; Jacobs, Kyle E.; Mensing, Glennys A.; Ferreira, Placid M.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports a liquid-free, mask-less electrochemical direct-write lithographic technique using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe for writing silver nanostructures in minutes on an optically transparent substrate. Under ambient conditions, silver is locally and controllably extracted to the surface of superionic (AgI)0.25 (AgPO3)0.75 glass by bringing a conductive AFM probe tip in contact with it, biasing the probe with a negative voltage, and regulating the resulting current. The growth mechanism of the resulting nanostructure is explored by extracting silver with a stationary AFM tip on the surface of the silver. A moving tip was then used to produce continuous lines, solid films and discrete dots of silver by implementing continuous and pulsed current writing approaches. The line dimensions depend on writing speed and current flowing in the electrochemical circuit, while the size and spacing of the dots depend on the parameters (magnitude, duration and frequency) of the current pulses and the writing speed of the AFM tip. Line-widths in the ∼100 nm range are demonstrated. Our investigation also shows that a threshold potential must be overcome to be able to draw and reduce silver ions on the glass surface. When polarity between the electrodes is reversed, the patterned silver ionizes back into the glass, thus offering the capability to erase and rewrite Ag patterns on the glass surface.

  18. Silver Ink For Jet Printing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, R. W.; Singaram, Saraswathi

    1989-01-01

    Metallo-organic ink containing silver (with some bismuth as adhesion agent) applied to printed-circuit boards and pyrolized in air to form electrically conductive patterns. Ink contains no particles of silver, does not have to be mixed during use to maintain homogeneity, and applied to boards by ink-jet printing heads. Consists of silver neodecanoate and bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate dissolved in xylene and/or toluene.

  19. A Wearable Hydration Sensor with Conformal Nanowire Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shanshan; Myers, Amanda; Malhotra, Abhishek; Lin, Feiyan; Bozkurt, Alper; Muth, John F; Zhu, Yong

    2017-03-01

    A wearable skin hydration sensor in the form of a capacitor is demonstrated based on skin impedance measurement. The capacitor consists of two interdigitated or parallel electrodes that are made of silver nanowires (AgNWs) in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The flexible and stretchable nature of the AgNW/PDMS electrode allows conformal contact to the skin. The hydration sensor is insensitive to the external humidity change and is calibrated against a commercial skin hydration system on an artificial skin over a wide hydration range. The hydration sensor is packaged into a flexible wristband, together with a network analyzer chip, a button cell battery, and an ultralow power microprocessor with Bluetooth. In addition, a chest patch consisting of a strain sensor, three electrocardiography electrodes, and a skin hydration sensor is developed for multimodal sensing. The wearable wristband and chest patch may be used for low-cost, wireless, and continuous monitoring of skin hydration and other health parameters.

  20. Polyacrylate microspheres composite for all-solid-state reference electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kisiel, Anna; Donten, Mikołaj; Mieczkowski, Józef; Rius-Ruiz, F Xavier; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Michalska, Agata

    2010-09-01

    A novel concept is proposed for the encapsulation of components within polyacrylate microspheres, prior to their incorporation into a membrane phase. Thus finer and better controlled dispersion of heterogeneous membrane components can be achieved. This concept was verified by using a poly(n-butyl acrylate) membrane-based reference electrode as an example. In this example the proper dispersion of solid constituents of the heterogeneous membrane and prevention of their leakage are both of primary importance. Potassium chloride-loaded poly(n-butyl acrylate) microspheres were prepared and then left in contact with silver nitrate to convert some of the KCl into AgCl. The material obtained was introduced into a poly(n-butyl acrylate) membrane. The reference electrode membranes obtained in this way were characterized with much more stable potential (both in different electrolytes and over time) compared with electrodes prepared by the direct introduction of KCl and AgCl to the membrane.

  1. Preparation and characterization of conducting polymer/silver hexacyanoferrate nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Azevedo, W. M.; de Mattos, I. L.; Navarro, M.; da Silva, E. F., Jr.

    2008-11-01

    In this work, we present an alternative route to prepare silver hexacyanoferrate(II)/polyaniline (PANI) composite thin films. Differently from the electrochemical method, used to synthesize the conducting polymer film on a electrode surface, this new chemical route makes use of dialysis membrane as a solid support to synthesize the silver hexacyanoferrate(III) compound, and subsequently uses this composite membrane as oxidizing agent to polymerize the aniline monomer. The spectroscopic (UV-vis and IR region) and electrochemical characterization (cyclic voltammetry) indicates that the polymeric composite remains optically active and conductive. The X-ray analysis shows that the composite membrane/Ag 3[Fe III(CN) 6] has an crystalline structure that can be assigned to the Ag 3[Fe III(CN) 6] structure, and after reaction with aniline solution it became less crystalline. Additionally the SEM measurements shown that the reaction of silver ions with hexacyanoferrate(III) across the membrane results in a well defined and aliened Ag 3[Fe III(CN) 6] crystals and when this crystalline compound reacts with aniline monomer silver wire of 100 nm of diameter by 6 μm longer are formed together with the conducting polymer polyaniline/Ag x[Fe II(CN) 6] composite.

  2. Non-contact printing of high aspect ratio Ag electrodes for polycrystalline silicone solar cell with electrohydrodynamic jet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Yonghee; Hartarto Tambunan, Indra; Tak, Hyowon; Dat Nguyen, Vu; Kang, TaeSam; Byun, Doyoung

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a non-contact printing mechanism for high aspect ratio silver (Ag) electrodes fabricated by an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technique. Using high viscosity Ag paste ink, we were able to fabricate narrow and high aspect ratio electrodes. We investigated the effect of the surface energy of the substrate and improved the aspect ratio of printed lines through multiple printing. We fabricated the polycrystalline silicone solar cell with the Ag electrode and achieved cell efficiency of around 13.7%. The EHD jet printing mechanism may be an alternative method for non-contact fabrication of solar cells electrodes.

  3. Ni-BaTiO3-Based Base-Metal Electrode (BME) Ceramic Capacitors for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Donhang; Fetter, Lula; Meinhold, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    A multi-layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) is a high-temperature (1350C typical) co-fired ceramic monolithic that is composed of many layers of alternately stacked oxide-based dielectric and internal metal electrodes. To make the dielectric layers insulating and the metal electrode layers conducting, only highly oxidation-resistant precious metals, such as platinum, palladium, and silver, can be used for the co-firing of insulating MLCCs in a regular air atmosphere. MLCCs made with precious metals as internal electrodes and terminations are called precious-metal electrode (PME) capacitors. Currently, all military and space-level applications only address the use of PME capacitors.

  4. MOD silver metallization for photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, G. M.; Vest, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The development of flat plate solar arrays is reported. Photovoltaic cells require back side metallization and a collector grid system on the front surface. Metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) silver films can eliminate most of the present problems with silver conductors. The objectives are to: (1) identify and characterize suitable MO compounds; (2) develop generic synthesis procedures for the MO compounds; (3) develop generic fabrication procedures to screen printable MOD silver inks; (4) optimize processing conditions to produce grid patterns and photovoltaic cells; and (5) develop a model which describes the adhesion between the fired silver film and the silicon surface.

  5. Silver-halide gelatin holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, B. J.; Winick, K.

    1980-05-01

    The use of a silver-halide gelatin for volume phase holograms having a wide spectral response and lower exposure requirements than alternatives and using commercially available silver salts, is proposed. The main difference between the dichromated gelatin and silver-halide processes is the creation of a hologram latent image, which is given in the form of a hardness differential between exposed and unexposed regions in the silver halide hologram; the differential is in turn created by the reaction products of either tanning development or tanning bleach, which harden the gelatin with link-bonds between molecules.

  6. Silver Nanoparticles in Dental Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Juliana Mattos; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Sanches, Heloísa Lajas; da Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Poiate, Isis Andréa Venturini Pola

    2015-01-01

    Silver has been used in medicine for centuries because of its antimicrobial properties. More recently, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized and incorporated into several biomaterials, since their small size provides great antimicrobial effect, at low filler level. Hence, these nanoparticles have been applied in dentistry, in order to prevent or reduce biofilm formation over dental materials surfaces. This review aims to discuss the current progress in this field, highlighting aspects regarding silver nanoparticles incorporation, such as antimicrobial potential, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and long-term effectiveness. We also emphasize the need for more studies to determine the optimal concentration of silver nanoparticle and its release over time. PMID:25667594

  7. Silver-zinc: status of technology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinski, A. P.; Makovetski, B.; Russell, S. J.; Serenyi, J. R.; Williams, D. C.

    Michel Yardney and Professor Henri André developed the first practical silver-zinc battery more than 55 years ago. Since then, primary and rechargeable silver-zinc batteries have attracted a variety of applications due to their high specific energy/energy density, proven reliability and safety, and the highest power output per unit weight and volume of all commercially available batteries. Although significant improvements have been achieved on traditional systems such as lead-acid and nickel/cadmium, and in spite of the advent of new electrochemistries such as lithium-ion and nickel/metal hydride, many users still rely on silver-zinc to satisfy their most demanding and critical requirements. Over the past few years, several of the internal components have been subject to many studies which resulted in significant improvements in the battery wet life and cycle life. Specifically, these include new separator materials which offer an alternative to the cellulosic membranes, improvements to the zinc electrode that include additives that help reduce shape-change and dendritic growth, and to a lesser extent, process changes to the silver electrode and additives to the electrolyte. In comparison, the commonly used secondary systems are lead-acid, nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion. Each has attributes which make them desirable for certain applications. Where low cost, high voltage, and high rate capability is required, the lead-acid battery is an obvious choice whenever size and weight are not critical. For applications requiring longer wet life, moderate rate capability, and high cycle life, nickel/cadmium or nickel/metal hydride can be used in spite of their poor charge retention and higher costs. Relatively newer systems are also available such as lithium-ion or lithium polymer technology which are preferred for their high voltage and excellent cycle life. Among the disadvantages of these systems are higher costs, limited configurations (usually

  8. Local heat/mass transfer and pressure drop in a two-pass rib-roughened channel for turbine airfoil cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J. C.; Chandra, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of turbulent air flow in a multipass channel were studied via the naphthalene sublimation technique. The naphthalene-coated test section, consisting of two straight, square channels joined by a 180 deg turn, resembled the internal cooling passages of gas turbine airfoils. The top and bottom surfaces of the test channel were roughened by rib turbulators. The rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D) were 0.063 and 0.094, and the rib pitch-to-height ratio (P/e) were 10 and 20. The local heat/mass transfer coefficients on the roughened top wall and on the smooth divider and side walls of the test channel were determined for three Reynolds numbers of 15, 30, and 60, thousand, and for three angles of attack (alpha) of 90, 60, and 45 deg. Results showed that the local Sherwood numbers on the ribbed walls were 1.5 to 6.5 times those for a fully developed flow in a smooth square duct. The average ribbed-wall Sherwood numbers were 2.5 to 3.5 times higher than the fully developed values, depending on the rib angle of attack and the Reynolds number. The results also indicated that, before the turn, the heat/mass transfer coefficients in the cases of alpha = 60 and 45 deg were higher than those in the case of alpha=90 deg. However, after the turn, the heat/mass transfer coefficients in the oblique-rib cases were lower than those in the transverse rib case. Correlations for the average Sherwood number ratios for individual channel surfaces and for the overall Sherwood number ratios are reported. Correlations for the fully developed friction factors and for the loss coefficients are also provided.

  9. Reaction-zone expansions and mechanism of the O{sub 2}, Ag/yttria-stabilized zirconia electrode reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, R.; Kloidt, T.; Kleitz, M.

    1997-02-01

    Experimental data obtained by impedance spectroscopy with silver droplet electrodes of different radii have been reanalyzed in the medium-frequency range under the assumption of rate-limiting oxygen diffusion through a thin slab of the electrode material. The model, which is based on literature data and has no adjustable parameters, gives a good fit. This demonstrates that in the medium-frequency range, oxygen diffusion through the electrode material is evenly distributed over the whole electrode interface. On the other hand, under dc conditions it is concentrated along the electrode triple-phase perimeter. Therefore, the distribution of the transfer current over the interface varies with the applied signal frequency. It follows that the electrode resistance and capacitance determined from the impedance diagram are related to an electrode reaction occurring over a reaction zone variable with the signal frequency.

  10. Membrane Bioprobe Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the design of ion selective electrodes coupled with immobilized enzymes which operate either continuously or on drop-sized samples. Cites techniques for urea, L-phenylalanine and amygdalin. Micro size electrodes for use in single cells are discussed. (GH)

  11. Electrode stabilizing materials

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Odom, Susan A.

    2015-11-03

    An electrolyte includes a polar aprotic solvent; an alkali metal salt; and an electrode stabilizing compound that is a monomer, which when polymerized forms an electrically conductive polymer. The electrode stabilizing compound is a thiophene, a imidazole, a anilines, a benzene, a azulene, a carbazole, or a thiol. Electrochemical devices may incorporate such electrolytes.

  12. Long term flight electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, B.

    1975-01-01

    The reproducibility, stability, and methods of preparation for the various types and forms of biomedical electrodes are discussed. A critical and selective compilation of information on biological and/or physiological electrodes is presented. A discussion of plant hydrocolloids, clays, hydrophyllic colloids, synthetic waxes, and acrylic polymers is included.

  13. HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRODES

    DOEpatents

    Murray, J.J.

    1963-04-23

    S>This patent relates to electrode structure for creating an intense direct current electric field which may have a field strength of the order of two to three times that heretofore obtained, with automatic suppression of arcing. The positive electrode is a conventional conductive material such as copper while the negative electrode is made from a special material having a resistivity greater than that of good conductors and less than that of good insulators. When an incipient arc occurs, the moderate resistivity of the negative electrode causes a momentary, localized decrease in the electric field intensity, thus suppressing the flow of electrons and avoiding arcing. Heated glass may be utilized for the negative electrode, since it provides the desired combination of resistivity, capacity, dielectric strength, mechani-cal strength, and thermal stability. (AEC)

  14. Bifunctional catalytic electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to an oxygen electrode for a unitized regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell and the unitized regenerative fuel cell having the oxygen electrode. The oxygen electrode contains components electrocatalytically active for the evolution of oxygen from water and the reduction of oxygen to water, and has a structure that supports the flow of both water and gases between the catalytically active surface and a flow field or electrode chamber for bulk flow of the fluids. The electrode has an electrocatalyst layer and a diffusion backing layer interspersed with hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. The diffusion backing layer consists of a metal core having gas diffusion structures bonded to the metal core.

  15. Structural investigations of Pt/TiOx electrode stacks for ferroelectric thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jiang-Li; Solbach, Axel; Klemradt, Uwe; Weirich, Thomas; Mayer, Joachim; Horn-Solle, Herbert; Böttger, Ulrich; Schorn, Peter J.; Schneller, T.; Waser, Rainer

    2006-06-01

    Effects of the thermal treatment and the fabrication process of Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 (PZT) thin films using chemical solution deposition on Pt/TiOx electrode stacks were investigated using complementary analytical techniques including atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity of synchrotron radiation. The surface and interface structures of the Pt/TiOx electrode stacks with different thermal treatments, and the PZT/Pt/TiOx sample were examined. The propagation of Pt hillocks on the bare Pt/TiOx electrode stacks upon the annealing was observed. AFM observations also revealed that the upper surface of the Pt bottom electrode under PZT thin film became rougher than that of the bare Pt electrode with the same thermal history. Global structural information including the density, surface or interface root-mean-square roughness, and thickness of each constituent layer in the samples were determined using x-ray reflectivity. A density decrease of the Pt layer upon the annealing or during the fabrication of PZT thin films was found from fitting the specular reflectivity, and further confirmed by the negative shift of the Yoneda peak of Pt in the diffuse reflectivity. The formation of Pt hillocks on the bare Pt electrodes was attributed to the compressive stress during the high-temperature annealing caused by the limited incorporation of Ti and O into the Pt layer. Roughening of the PZT/Pt interface was ascribed to the interaction between the compressive stress in Pt and the indentation by the PZT crystallization and grain growth during the annealing.

  16. Spectroelectrochemistry of Silver Deposition on Single Gold Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Chirea, Mariana; Collins, Sean S E; Wei, Xingzhan; Mulvaney, Paul

    2014-12-18

    We report the electrodeposition of metallic silver onto gold nanostars adsorbed to ITO electrodes. The electrochemical process was studied at the single particle level by correlated in situ dark field spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Underpotential deposition avoids bulk silver formation on the ITO substrates. SEM proves that deposition occurs on all surfaces of the gold nanostars when polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is stabilizing the nanostars or preferentially at the nanostar tips when the ligand is removed. The surface plasmon resonance blue-shifts by more than 100 nm following the formation of a 5 nm Ag film on PVP stabilized gold nanostars, moving the scattered color from the near-infrared to red or orange. The spectral shifts can be accurately modeled using finite element simulations. These results demonstrate that the morphology and composition of individual bimetallic nanocrystals can be engineered electrochemically.

  17. Determination of nicotine by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, T.E.; List, M.S.; Haas, J.W. III; Wachter, E.A. )

    1994-11-01

    The analytical application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to the determination of nicotine is demonstrated. A simple spectroelectrochemical method using a copper or silver electrode as the SERS substrate has been developed, consisting of three steps: polishing a working electrode to a mirror finish; roughening the electrode in an electrolyte solution; and, finally, depositing the nicotine analyte onto the roughened electrode after immersion in a sample solution. During the reduction cycle, a large enhancement in nicotine Raman scattering is observed at the electrode surface. The intensity of the SERS signal on a silver electrode is linear with concentration from 10 to 900 ppb, with an estimated detection limit of 7 ppb. The total analysis time per sample is approximately five minutes. This procedure has been used to analyze the extract from a cigarette side-stream smoke sample (environmental tobacco smoke); the SERS results agree well with those of conventional gas chromatographic analysis.

  18. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles on carbon papers for electrochemical catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chien-Te; Pan, Ching; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2011-08-01

    This article reports two routes, microwave-assisted synthesis and thermal reduction, to deposit silver nanoparticles on oxidized carbon paper (CP) electrodes. In comparison, as-grown Ag particles, prepared by the microwave-assisted route, exhibit uniform particle size and well-dispersion over the CP substrate. Electrochemical behavior of Ag-CP electrodes is characterized by cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance spectroscopy, incorporated with equivalent circuit. Both the catalyst electrodes display redox reversibility within the potential region of 0-0.5 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in 1 M NaOH. According to the Randles-Sevcik plot, the diffusion coefficient under voltammetric regime ranges from 9.06 × 10-10 to 3.33 × 10-10 cm2 s-1. These differences of diffusion coefficient and capacitance are ascribed to the resulting Ag nanocatalysts with small particle size and no aggregation. On the basis of the results, the microwave-assisted approach for depositing nano sized Ag catalysts on CP electrodes shows the potential in application of alkaline fuel cells because of its fast synthesis, high activity, and simplicity.

  19. Effect of Electrode and EuO Thickness on EuO-Electrode Interface in Tunneling Spin Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Negusse,E.; Holroyd, J.; Liberati, M.; Dvorak, J.; Idzerda, Y.; Santos, T.; Moodera, J.; Arenholz, E.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of electrode material and EuO film thickness on the interface between the two was studied. Of the electrodes examined, yttrium was found to decrease the formation of the nonmagnetic oxide Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}. By decomposing the x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra of the samples with different electrodes against the reference EuO and Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} spectra, the relative fraction of these two species was quantified. Multilayers with silver electrodes had the highest amount of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, about 41%, whereas aluminum had 28% compared to the less than 5% observed for the multilayers with yttrium electrodes. A slight decrease in the fraction of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} with increasing EuO thickness was found. Angle dependent XAS measurements, done on 80 A{sup o} EuO film, indicated the presence of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} at high grazing angles which then decreased drastically with decreasing grazing angle. This indicated that the Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} was localized at the EuO-electrode interface.

  20. Synthesis and application of graphene-silver nanowires composite for ammonia gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quang Trung; Hoa Huynh, Tran My; Tong, Duc Tai; Tam Tran, Van; Dinh Nguyen, Nang

    2013-12-01

    Graphene, consisting of a single carbon layer in a two-dimensional (2D) lattice, has been a promising material for application to nanoelectrical devices in recent years. In this study we report the development of a useful ammonia (NH3) gas sensor based on graphene-silver nanowires ‘composite’ with planar electrode structure. The basic strategy involves three steps: (i) preparation of graphene oxide (GO) by modified Hummers method; (ii) synthesis of silver nanowires by polyol method; and (iii) preparation of graphene and silver nanowires on two electrodes using spin and spray-coating of precursor solutions, respectively. Exposure of this sensor to NH3 induces a reversible resistance change at room temperature that is as large as ΔR/R0 ˜ 28% and this sensitivity is eight times larger than the sensitivity of the ‘intrinsic’ graphene based NH3 gas sensor (ΔR/R0 ˜ 3,5%). Their responses and the recovery times go down to ˜200 and ˜60 s, respectively. Because graphene synthesized by chemical methods has many defects and small sheets, it cannot be perfectly used for gas sensor or for nanoelectrical devices. The silver nanowires are applied to play the role of small bridges connecting many graphene islands together to improve electrical properties of graphene/silver nanowires composite and result in higher NH3 gas sensitivity.