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Sample records for route issue du

  1. Route selection issues for NWPA shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.V.; Harrison, I.G.

    1993-06-01

    Questions surrounding the designation of routes for the movement of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) have broad implications. Federal regulations prescribe rules to be applied in the selection of highway routes. In most cases, these rules will lead to a clear selection of one route between an origin and destination point. However, in other cases, strict application of the regulations does not result in a clear choice of a preferred route. The regulations also provide discretion to State governments and carriers to select alternative routes to enhance the safety of the shipment. Railroad shipments of radioactive materials are not subject to Federal routing regulations. Since the railroads operate on private property, it has been assumed that they know the best way to move freight on their system. This discretion, while desirable for addressing unique local safety concerns or for responding to temporary safety concerns such as road problems, weather conditions, or construction areas, leads to significant opportunity for misunderstandings and uneasiness on the part of local residents.

  2. Issues of Simulation-Based Route Assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, K.; Rickert, M.

    1999-07-20

    The authors use an iterative re-planning scheme with simulation feedback to generate a self-consistent route-set for a given street network and origin-destination matrix. The iteration process is defined by three parameters. They found that they have influence on the speed of the relaxation, but not necessarily on its final state.

  3. Social survey findings on en route noise annoyance issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Most surveys of residents' reactions to aircraft noise were conducted in the vicinity of airports. The findings in those surveys have supported planning and regulatory actions for the airport noise environment. Now, however, aircraft noise planning and regulations are being considered for a new environment, the en route environment. As policy makers search for bases for public policy in these new noise environments, it is appropriate to ask whether the same scientific evidence which supports airport noise policy can also support en route noise policy. Several aspects of that question are considered. An introduction establishes the scope of the present study and examines alternative study methodologies. Next, the selected study methodology is described and important assumptions are listed. The body of the paper then consists of the findings on en route issues. The final section presents findings on relevant research methods and considers priorities for further research.

  4. Key issues and technical route of cyber physical distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, P. X.; Chen, B.; Zheng, L. J.; Zhang, G. L.; Fan, Y. L.; Pei, T.

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the National High Technology Research and Development Program, this paper introduced the key issues in Cyber Physical Distribution System (CPDS), mainly includes: composite modelling method and interaction mechanism, system planning method, security defence technology, distributed control theory. Then on this basis, the corresponding technical route is proposed, and a more detailed research framework along with main schemes to be adopted is also presented.

  5. Fundamental lifetime mechanisms in routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: a survey and open issues.

    PubMed

    Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Razak, Shukor Abd

    2012-10-09

    Wireless sensor networks basically consist of low cost sensor nodes which collect data from environment and relay them to a sink, where they will be subsequently processed. Since wireless nodes are severely power-constrained, the major concern is how to conserve the nodes' energy so that network lifetime can be extended significantly. Employing one static sink can rapidly exhaust the energy of sink neighbors. Furthermore, using a non-optimal single path together with a maximum transmission power level may quickly deplete the energy of individual nodes on the route. This all results in unbalanced energy consumption through the sensor field, and hence a negative effect on the network lifetime. In this paper, we present a comprehensive taxonomy of the various mechanisms applied for increasing the network lifetime. These techniques, whether in the routing or cross-layer area, fall within the following types: multi-sink, mobile sink, multi-path, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, depending on the protocol operation. In this taxonomy, special attention has been devoted to the multi-sink, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, which have not yet received much consideration in the literature. Moreover, each class covers a variety of the state-of-the-art protocols, which should provide ideas for potential future works. Finally, we compare these mechanisms and discuss open research issues.

  6. Fundamental Lifetime Mechanisms in Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

    PubMed Central

    Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Razak, Shukor Abd

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks basically consist of low cost sensor nodes which collect data from environment and relay them to a sink, where they will be subsequently processed. Since wireless nodes are severely power-constrained, the major concern is how to conserve the nodes' energy so that network lifetime can be extended significantly. Employing one static sink can rapidly exhaust the energy of sink neighbors. Furthermore, using a non-optimal single path together with a maximum transmission power level may quickly deplete the energy of individual nodes on the route. This all results in unbalanced energy consumption through the sensor field, and hence a negative effect on the network lifetime. In this paper, we present a comprehensive taxonomy of the various mechanisms applied for increasing the network lifetime. These techniques, whether in the routing or cross-layer area, fall within the following types: multi-sink, mobile sink, multi-path, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, depending on the protocol operation. In this taxonomy, special attention has been devoted to the multi-sink, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, which have not yet received much consideration in the literature. Moreover, each class covers a variety of the state-of-the-art protocols, which should provide ideas for potential future works. Finally, we compare these mechanisms and discuss open research issues. PMID:23202008

  7. Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Route environments can positively influence people's active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters' perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning the criterion-related validity of the ACRES and the representativity using an advertisement-recruited sample. Furthermore, by comparing commuting route environment profiles of inner urban and suburban areas, we provide a novel basis for understanding the relationship between environment and bikeability. Methods Bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, advertisement- (n = 1379) and street-recruited (n = 93), responded to the ACRES. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm (n = 24) responded to a modified version of the ACRES. The criterion-related validity assessments were based on whether or not differences between the inner urban and the suburban route environments, as indicated by the experts and by four existing objective measurements, were reflected by differences in perceptions of these environments. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for the assessments of representativity. Finally, ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles. Results Differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban route environments by the advertisement-recruited participants were in accord with the existing objective measurements and corresponded reasonably well with those of the experts. Overall, there was a reasonably good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants' ratings. Distinct differences in

  8. Issues in optimal parameter estimation for the nonlinear Muskingum flood routing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geem, Zong Woo

    2014-03-01

    This study answers two questions raised in the parameter estimation optimization for the nonlinear Muskingum flood routing model. The first question is whether a new global optimum was still found after the existing global optimum had already been found. In order to fairly verify this question, a standard routing procedure for the nonlinear Muskingum model, which has not been clearly described previously, is proposed. Because the routing procedure was coded in a spreadsheet, any researcher can easily test it after downloading it. The second question is the reason why various approaches, such as Lagrange multiplier, Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS), genetic algorithm, harmony search and particle swarm optimization, have tackled only Wilson's data set as the parameter estimation optimization for the nonlinear Muskingum model, because Wilson's data have a unique structure which is differentiated from other data sets. This study also provides various data sets to compare.

  9. Supervisory control of Petri nets using routing functions: starvation avoidance issues.

    PubMed

    Alpan, G; Gaujal, B

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new point of view on supervisory control of Petri nets by using routing functions instead of the traditional control places. We first show the relation between the two notions. In the second part of the paper, we illustrate the use of routing functions by showing how to compute a routing function in order to avoid starvation in general Petri nets. This control uses a continuous version of the net and a description of the evolution of the net under the form of linear algebraic equations. As for the computational part, we use algebraic polynomial geometry in the continuous case and Diophantine equations for the discrete version of the Petri net under study.

  10. Spinning of carbon nanotube fibres using the floating catalyst high temperature route: purity issues and the critical role of sulphur.

    PubMed

    Gspann, T S; Smail, F R; Windle, A H

    2014-01-01

    The CVD process for the spinning of carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres combines the nucleation, growth and aggregation of CNTs in the form of an aerogel with fibre spinning into a single process step. The optimisation of the process requires agility in multi-dimensional parameter space, so one tends to find parameter 'islands' where spinning is possible, while exploration tends to follow 'routes' through this space. Here, we follow two such routes, one of which drastically improves fibre purity, the other changes the nature of the nanotubes comprising the fibres from multiwall to single wall. In the first case there is only a modest enhancement of the mechanical properties, but in the second a very considerable improvement is seen. In terms of the conditions required to make fibres comprising predominately single wall CNTs, the key factor appears to be the rigorous control of the sulphur addition, in trace quantities, coupled with the availability of carbon atoms at the earliest stage after injection, typically in the range 400-500 °C. A model is presented for the role of sulphur in floating catalysts CNT synthesis.

  11. L’ouverture de l’orifice interne du col prédit mieux l’issue de la maturation cervicale que le score de Bishop chez les nullipares à 41 semaines d’aménorrhée

    PubMed Central

    Kehila, Mehdi; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Hmid, Rim Ben; Touhami, Omar; Miled, Cyrine Ben; Godcha, Imen; Mahjoub, Sami; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif était d'évaluer la mesure échographique de l’ouverture de l’orifice interne du col dans la prédiction de l’issue de la maturation cervicale et la comparer au Score de Bishop. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude prospective sur 10 mois, entre Juillet 2012 et avril 2013 colligeant 77 femmes nullipares admises pour déclenchement du travail à un terme de 41 SA avec un Score de Bishop < 6. La mesure de l’ouverture de l’orifice interne du col a été réalisée par échographie transvaginale et le score de Bishop a été déterminé par l'examen clinique. Toutes les patientes ont eu une maturation cervicale par des prostaglandines. Résultats La maturation cervicale était réussie chez 63 patients (81%). Le Score de Bishop et l’ouverture de l’orifice interne du col se sont révélés statistiquement associés au succès ou l’échec de la maturation cervicale. Le taux de succès de la maturation était de 100% lorsque l’ouverture de l’orifice interne du col était égale ou supérieure à 5 mm (sensibilité: 54%; spécificité: 86%). Les courbes ROC ont montré que la mesure de l’orifice interne du col était plus prédictive de l’issue de la maturation cervicale que le Score de Bishop (Aire sous la courbe respectivement 0.733 et 0.704). Conclusion Comparée au score de Bishop, la mesure échographique de l’ouverture de l’orifice interne du col est plus prédictive du succès de la maturation cervicale chez les femmes nullipares à 41 semaines d’aménorrhée avec un col défavorable. PMID:28292160

  12. La fréquence cardiaque au repos : Un indicateur pronostique modifiable du risque et des issues cardiovasculaires ?

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, J Malcolm; Fitchett, David H; Howlett, Jonathan G; Lonn, Eva M; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    De plus en plus de données probantes tirées d’essais cliniques et d’études épidémiologiques indiquent qu’une fréquence cardiaque élevée au repos est un prédicteur d’événements cliniques. La preuve de sa cause et de son effet direct est limitée car les médicaments courants qui réduisent la fréquence cardiaque (p. ex., les bêtabloquants) ont de multiples mécanismes d’action. Une nouvelle catégorie de médicament, les inhibiteurs If sélectifs, est en cours d’exploration à titre de « pur » médicament réduisant la fréquence cardiaque, ce qui aidera à confirmer s’il existe un lien fortuit entre la fréquence cardiaque élevée et les issues cardiovasculaires. Le présent article analyse les données probantes selon lesquelles une fréquence cardiaque élevée est un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire ainsi que certains essais cliniques courants qui évaluent cette hypothèse.

  13. L'Aventure du LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  14. 75 numeros du "Bulletin suisse de linguistique appliquee," 1966-2002 (75 Issues of the "Swiss Bulletin for Applied Linguistics," 1966-2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthey, Marinette, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This special issue, written in French, is dedicated to highlighting the past 74 issues of the journal since its inception 35 years ago. The first article reflects on the journal's history and evolution, in particular with regard to volume, the distribution of languages (French, German Italian, and Raeto-Roman), the distribution of articles written…

  15. L'Aventure du LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  16. "Recalculating Route".

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Can you imagine going to a doctor who uses a paper chart, sends you a bill on a ledger card, and handwrites a prescription? You wouldn't have a great deal of confidence that the clinical skills of the doctor were up to date. This would be an example of a doctor who did not "recalculate his or her route." This article provides 10 examples of adjustments that have been made in medicine where the route has been recalculated.

  17. Approche de prise en charge du trouble du spectre de l’autisme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Se pencher sur les critères diagnostiques du trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA) comme les définit le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, cinquième édition (DSM-V), et concevoir une approche de prise en charge du TSA à l’aide du cadre CanMEDS–Médecine familiale (CanMEDS-MF). Sources d’information Le DSM-V, publié par l’American Psychiatric Association en mai 2013, énonce de nouveaux critères diagnostiques du TSA. Le cadre CanMEDS-MF du Collège des médecins de famille du Canada fournit un plan d’orientation pour la prise en charge complexe du TSA. Nous avons utilisé des données recueillies par le Centers for Disease Control and Prevention afin de déterminer la prévalence du TSA, ainsi que la revue systématique et méta-analyse détaillée effectuée par le National Institute for Health and Care Excellence du R.-U. pour ses lignes directrices sur le TSA dans le but d’évaluer les données probantes issues de plus de 100 interventions. Message principal Selon les données du Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, la prévalence du TSA se chiffrait à 1 sur 88 en 2008 aux États-Unis. La classification du TSA dans la quatrième édition du DSM incluait l’autisme, le syndrome d’Asperger, le trouble envahissant du développement et le trouble désintégratif de l’enfance. La dernière révision du DSM-V réunit tous ces troubles sous la mention TSA, avec différents niveaux de sévérité. La prise en charge du TSA est complexe; elle exige les efforts d’une équipe multidisciplinaire ainsi que des soins continus. Les rôles CanMEDS-MF fournissent un cadre de prise en charge. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont au cœur de l’équipe de soins multidisciplinaire pour le TSA, et le cadre CanMEDS-MF tient lieu de plan détaillé pour guider la prise en charge d’un enfant atteint de TSA et aider la famille de cet enfant.

  18. Anaesthetic considerations for the patient with cri du chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brislin, R P; Stayer, S A; Schwartz, R E

    1995-01-01

    Cri du chat syndrome is an inherited disease affecting multiple organ systems. Most characteristic is the anatomical abnormality of the larynx resulting in a cat-like cry. Issues important in developing an anaesthetic plan include: anatomical abnormalities of the airway, congenital heart disease, hypotonia, mental retardation, and temperature maintenance. We report the case of a 33-month-old patient with cri du chat syndrome undergoing patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation and discuss the anaesthetic issues.

  19. "Cirque du Freak."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and…

  20. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1994-06-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described.

  1. Roots/Routes: Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative and poetic rendering acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. It is a storying of critical research issues and events as performances of lived experience. It is a metissage of hybrid, but interrelated, themes that find cohesion through fragmentation and coalescence, severance, and regrowth. These themes are invoked by…

  2. Cirque du Monde as a health intervention

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Cynthia; Drouin, Mélodie-Anne; Marcoux, Jérémie; Garel, Patricia; Bochud, Emmanuel; Théberge, Julie; Aubertin, Patrice; Favreau, Gil; Fleet, Richard

    2014-01-01

    functioning. According to Cirque du Soleil, there are several projects under way around the world researching the therapeutic value of social circuses. Conclusion Cirque du Monde is able to reach a marginalized population that is otherwise difficult for the health system to reach. This program has therapeutic potential because of its target population, its promotion of healthy habits, and the support that it offers through the group and its workers. Cirque du Soleil is investing heavily in this project. The lack of literature yielding robust data on the social circus is therefore an important issue. PMID:25392449

  3. La naissance du parsec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenou, F.

    2010-01-01

    Les définitions du parsec et de la magnitude absolue sont le fruit de compromis pour régler trois problèmes entremêlés au début du XXème siècle: quelle unité de distance stellaire adopter? Quel nom lui donner? Comment comparer les luminosités intrinsèques des différentes étoiles?

  4. Central East Pacific Flight Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar; Kopardekar, Parimal; Cheng, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of the Federal Aviation Administration s Advanced Technology and Oceanic Procedures system at the Oakland Oceanic Center, a level of automation now exists in the oceanic environment to potentially begin accommodating increased user preferred routing requests. This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility assessment which examines the potential benefits of transitioning from the fixed Central East Pacific routes to user preferred routes. As a surrogate for the actual user-provided routing requests, a minimum-travel-time, wind-optimal dynamic programming algorithm was developed and utilized in this paper. After first describing the characteristics (e.g., origin airport, destination airport, vertical distribution and temporal distribution) of the westbound flights utilizing the Central East Pacific routes on Dec. 14-16 and 19-20, the results of both a flight-plan-based simulation and a wind-optimal-based simulation are presented. Whereas the lateral and longitudinal distribution of the aircraft trajectories in these two simulations varied dramatically, the number of simulated first-loss-of-separation events remained relatively constant. One area of concern that was uncovered in this initial analysis was a potential workload issue associated with the redistribution of traffic in the oceanic sectors due to thc prevailing wind patterns.

  5. A Survey of Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Khan, Abdul Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges as general WSNs, but the unique requirements of WBSNs impose some more constraints that need to be addressed by the routing mechanisms. This paper identifies various issues and challenges in pursuit of effective routing in WBSNs. Furthermore, it provides a detailed literature review of the various existing routing protocols used in the WBSN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:24419163

  6. Multicast Routing of Hierarchical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shacham, Nachum

    1992-01-01

    The issue of multicast of broadband, real-time data in a heterogeneous environment, in which the data recipients differ in their reception abilities, is considered. Traditional multicast schemes, which are designed to deliver all the source data to all recipients, offer limited performance in such an environment, since they must either force the source to overcompress its signal or restrict the destination population to those who can receive the full signal. We present an approach for resolving this issue by combining hierarchical source coding techniques, which allow recipients to trade off reception bandwidth for signal quality, and sophisticated routing algorithms that deliver to each destination the maximum possible signal quality. The field of hierarchical coding is briefly surveyed and new multicast routing algorithms are presented. The algorithms are compared in terms of network utilization efficiency, lengths of paths, and the required mechanisms for forwarding packets on the resulting paths.

  7. Facteurs prédictifs de l’issue de l’accouchement sur utérus unicicatriciel, expérience du centre de Maternité de Bizerte

    PubMed Central

    Ayachi, Amira; Derouich, Sadok; Morjene, Insaf; Mkaouer, Lassaad; Mnaser, Dalila; Mourali, Mechaal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L’incidence des utérus cicatriciels est en nette augmentation ces dernières décennies. L’obstétricien est alors fréquemment sollicité à décider du mode d’accouchement le plus approprié à la mère et son fœtus. L’objectif de cette étude est de décrire la pratique obstétricale d’un accouchement sur utérus unicicatriciel au sein de notre service et d’identifier les facteurs significativement associés à l’échec de la tentative de voie basse après césarienne. Méthodes Nous avons mené notre étude sur une population de femmes porteuses d’un utérus unicicatriciel. Elle était rétrospective longitudinale de type descriptif et analytique. Nous l’avons réalisée sur une période de deux ans et trois mois du 1er Janvier 2012 au 31 Mars 2014 durant laquelle nous avons colligé 423 dossiers de patientes qui ont eu une tentative de voie basse au centre de maternité et de néonatologie de Bizerte. Résultats Le taux de tentatives de voie basse après césarienne était de 47%. Les taux de succès et d’échec de ces tentatives étaient respectivement de 82,7% et 17,3%. Les principaux facteurs de mauvais pronostic de la tentative de voie basse après césarienne étaient: l’absence d’antécédent d'accouchement par voie basse (p=0,005), une indication de la césarienne antérieure pour stagnation de la dilatation ou défaut d’engagement (p respectifs de 0,049 et 0,002), un terme d’accouchement? 40 SA (p=0,046), une parité < 3 (p=0,75.10-4), un score de Bishop <6 au début du travail (p=0,23.10-47), une phase active de durée? 6h (p=0,002), un travail de durée >8h (p=0,0031) et la survenue d’une anomalie du RCF au cours du travail (p=0,144.10-9). Nous avons observé sept cas de rupture utérine soit un taux de 1,7%. Nous n’avons observé aucun cas de mortalité maternelle. La morbidité maternelle globale était de 9,5%. La différence des taux de complications maternelles entre les deux groupes échec et succ

  8. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  9. Go the Yeshiva Route?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Leland

    1981-01-01

    The Supreme Court's decision in the National Labor Relations Board v. Yeshiva University court case is discussed. National reactions to the case, arguments in favor of the Yeshiva route, arguments against the Yeshiva route, and financial considerations are discussed. (MLW)

  10. Effets du titane et du niobium sur l'oxydation à 950circC d'aciers ferritiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issartel, C.; Buscail, H.; Caudron, E.; Cueff, R.; Riffard, F.; El Messki, S.; Karimi, N.; Antoni, L.

    2004-11-01

    Nous avons étudié l'effet du titane et du niobium sur l'oxydation à 950circC d'un acier Fe-Cr chrominoformeur. La DRX in situ montre que le titane semble s'oxyder en formant Cr{2}TiO{5} et TiO{2} qui contribuent à une augmentation de la prise de masse des échantillons. Une partie du titane issu de ces oxydes semble doper la couche de chromine. Sa présence augmente la concentration en lacunes cationiques dans la chromine et augmente donc la diffusion du chrome dans la couche. Nous avons aussi montré que le niobium n'a pas d'influence sur l'oxydation de ce type d'acier à 950circC.

  11. Cri du chat syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the infant's cry, which is high-pitched and sounds like a cat. Causes Cri du chat syndrome is rare. It is caused by a missing piece of chromosome 5. Most cases are believed to occur during the development of ... Cry that is high-pitched and may sound like a cat Downward slant to the eyes ...

  12. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  13. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  14. Defining Dynamic Route Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Jastrzebski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes a method for defining route structure from flight tracks. Dynamically generated route structures could be useful in guiding dynamic airspace configuration and helping controllers retain situational awareness under dynamically changing traffic conditions. Individual merge and diverge intersections between pairs of flights are identified, clustered, and grouped into nodes of a route structure network. Links are placed between nodes to represent major traffic flows. A parametric analysis determined the algorithm input parameters producing route structures of current day flight plans that are closest to todays airway structure. These parameters are then used to define and analyze the dynamic route structure over the course of a day for current day flight paths. Route structures are also compared between current day flight paths and more user preferred paths such as great circle and weather avoidance routing.

  15. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  16. Proxies for Anonymous Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag. Proxies for Anonymous Routing, 12th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference...San Diego, CA, December 9-13, 1996. Proxies for Anonymous Routing Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag Naval Research Laboratory...implemented. Onion routing provides application independent, real-time, and bi-directional anonymous connections that are resistant to both

  17. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  18. Randomization and sampling issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The need for randomly selected routes and other sampling issues have been debated by the Amphibian electronic discussion group. Many excellent comments have been made, pro and con, but we have not reached consensus yet. This paper brings those comments together and attempts a synthesis. I hope that the resulting discussion will bring us closer to a consensus.

  19. Vehicle routing problem and capacitated vehicle routing problem frameworks in fund allocation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah@Rozita

    2016-11-01

    Two new methods adopted from methods commonly used in the field of transportation and logistics are proposed to solve a specific issue of investment allocation problem. Vehicle routing problem and capacitated vehicle routing methods are applied to optimize the fund allocation of a portfolio of investment assets. This is done by determining the sequence of the assets. As a result, total investment risk is minimized by this sequence.

  20. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  1. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions.

  2. Understanding individual routing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779–782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65–100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325–362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin–destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  3. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  4. Influence du traitement ionisant par rayonnement γ sur le pouvoir antioxydant de fractions polyphénoliques issues de substances d'origine végétale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuyck, S.; Connaulte, J.; Lesgards, G.; Prost, M.; Raffi, J.

    1998-04-01

    Ionizing radiation of vegetables is a cleaning up and preservation physical treatment which consists in submitting them to γ radiation, X radiation or electrons beam. This study deals with the influence of γ radiation on antioxidative effect of vegetables polyphenolic parts. In that purpose, we use a simple biological test based on erythrocytes haemolysis. Le traitement ionisant des produits végétaux est un procédé physique d'assainissement et de conservation qui consiste à les soumettre à l'action de rayonnements γ, de rayons X ou de faisceaux d'électrons. Ce travail porte sur l'étude de l'influence des rayonnements γ sur le pouvoir antioxydant de fractions polyphénoliques issues de substances d'origine végétale. Pour cela, un test biologique basé sur l'hémolyse d'érythrocytes est utilisé.

  5. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  6. Reliable Internet Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    constraints [38]), and the destination of the packet (as needed for blackholing , motivated by security or politics). In particular, we admit as “typical...reducing convergence time, or adding mech- anisms to detect transient loops and blackholes , we avoid dynamic routing protocols entirely [18]. Our...solution can significantly reduce the occurrence of route blackholing and data interception caused either by malicious attacks or accidental

  7. Operational modeling system with dynamic-wave routing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ishii, A.L.; Charlton, T.J.; Ortel, T.W.; Vonnahme, C.C.; ,

    1998-01-01

    A near real-time streamflow-simulation system utilizing continuous-simulation rainfall-runoff generation with dynamic-wave routing is being developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Du Page County Department of Environmental Concerns for a 24-kilometer reach of Salt Creek in Du Page County, Illinois. This system is needed in order to more effectively manage the Elmhurst Quarry Flood Control Facility, an off-line stormwater diversion reservoir located along Salt Creek. Near real time simulation capabilities will enable the testing and evaluation of potential rainfall, diversion, and return-flow scenarios on water-surface elevations along Salt Creek before implementing diversions or return-flows. The climatological inputs for the continuous-simulation rainfall-runoff model, Hydrologic Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) are obtained by Internet access and from a network of radio-telemetered precipitation gages reporting to a base-station computer. The unit area runoff time series generated from HSPF are the input for the dynamic-wave routing model. Full Equations (FEQ). The Generation and Analysis of Model Simulation Scenarios (GENSCN) interface is used as a pre- and post-processor for managing input data and displaying and managing simulation results. The GENSCN interface includes a variety of graphical and analytical tools for evaluation and quick visualization of the results of operational scenario simulations and thereby makes it possible to obtain the full benefit of the fully distributed dynamic routing results.

  8. Collective network routing

    DOEpatents

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  9. Understanding Route Aggregation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-09

    routing anomalies, and is fingered to be the cause of many reported loops and blackholes . In this paper, we posit that the problem arises from a lack of...Route aggre- gation can also result in blackholes [18], which are surprisingly prevalent in the Internet [11]. We illustrate these known anomalies with...advertisement Forwarding paths A B C 10.1.30.0/24 10.1.16.0/22 10.1.16.0/2010.1.16.0/20 Figure 4: Illustration of a blackhole . forwards the packet to Y

  10. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  11. Hydrologic Flood Routing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggen, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

  12. Submarine cable route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Herrouin, G.; Scuiller, T.

    1995-12-31

    The growth of telecommunication market is very significant. From the beginning of the nineties, more and more the use of optical fiber submarine cables is privileged to that of satellites. These submarine telecommunication highways require accurate surveys in order to select the optimum route and determine the cable characteristics. Advanced technology tools used for these surveys are presented along with their implementation.

  13. Cri du Chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-09-05

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and delta-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made

  14. Cri du Chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and δ-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made in

  15. Route repetition and route retracing: effects of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Jan M; Kmecova, Hana; de Condappa, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Retracing a recently traveled route is a frequent navigation task when learning novel routes or exploring unfamiliar environments. In the present study we utilized virtual environments technology to investigate age-related differences in repeating and retracing a learned route. In the training phase of the experiment participants were guided along a route consisting of multiple intersections each featuring one unique landmark. In the subsequent test phase, they were guided along short sections of the route and asked to indicate overall travel direction (repetition or retracing), the direction required to continue along the route, and the next landmark they would encounter. Results demonstrate age-related deficits in all three tasks. More specifically, in contrast to younger participants, the older participants had greater problems during route retracing than during route repetition. While route repetition can be solved with egocentric response or route strategies, successfully retracing a route requires allocentric processing. The age-related deficits in route retracing are discussed in the context of impaired allocentric processing and shift from allocentric to egocentric navigation strategies as a consequence of age-related hippocampal degeneration.

  16. Applications attract DuPont

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1996-08-07

    Scientists at DuPont say they have demonstrated the first chemical processing application for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets. DuPont says the work, which uses a HTS magnet to separate mineral contaminants from kaolin, points to the feasibility of a range of HTS applications in industrial processing, including those involving polymerization. DuPont`s success comes after 10 years of work to commercialize high-temperature superconductors. And while superconductors have lost much of their luster since the late 1980s, the company says it is still bullish on their prospects. {open_quotes}At the moment, there`s no real market for superconductors,{close_quotes} says Alan Lauder, general manager/superconductivity. But, he says, several potentially lucrative applications could be commercialized within the next several years.

  17. Transmission Scheduling and Routing Algorithms for Delay Tolerant Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudukovich, Rachel; Raible, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges of data processing, transmission scheduling and routing within a space network present a multi-criteria optimization problem. Long delays, intermittent connectivity, asymmetric data rates and potentially high error rates make traditional networking approaches unsuitable. The delay tolerant networking architecture and protocols attempt to mitigate many of these issues, yet transmission scheduling is largely manually configured and routes are determined by a static contact routing graph. A high level of variability exists among the requirements and environmental characteristics of different missions, some of which may allow for the use of more opportunistic routing methods. In all cases, resource allocation and constraints must be balanced with the optimization of data throughput and quality of service. Much work has been done researching routing techniques for terrestrial-based challenged networks in an attempt to optimize contact opportunities and resource usage. This paper examines several popular methods to determine their potential applicability to space networks.

  18. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    DOEpatents

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  19. ARPANET Routing Algorithm Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    IMPROVEMENTS . .PFOnINI ORG. REPORT MUNDER -- ) _ .. .... 3940 7, AUT񓂏(c) .. .. .. CONTRACT Of GRANT NUMSlet e) SJ. M. /Mc~uillan E. C./Rosen I...8217), this problem may persist for a very long time, causing extremely bad performance throughout the whole network (for instance, if w’ reports that one of...algorithm may naturally tend to oscillate between bad routing paths and become itself a major contributor to network congestion. These examples show

  20. Onion Routing Access Configurations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    eavesdropping and trac analysis. Thus it hides not only the data being sent, but who is talking to whom. Onion Routing’s anonymous connections are bidirec...Keywords: Security, privacy, anonymity , trac analysis. 1 Introduction Preserving privacy means not only hiding the con- tent of messages, but also...communication over a public network. It pro- vides anonymous connections that are strongly resis- tant to both eavesdropping and trac analysis. The

  1. Poumon du puisatier

    PubMed Central

    Elidrissi, Amal Moustarhfir; Zaghba, Nahid; Benjelloun, Hanane; Yassine, Najiba

    2016-01-01

    Le puisatier a pour profession le creusement et l'entretien des puits pour fournir de l'eau. Il est au contact de divers minerais, particulièrement la silice, particule qui présente un risque certain de développement des maladies pulmonaires connues sous le nom de silicose. Le but de notre travail est de préciser le profil épidémiologique, clinique, radiologique et évolutif des patients puisatiers silicotiques. C'est une étude rétrospective concernant 54 cas de puisatiers ayant une silicose, colligés au service des maladies respiratoires du CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca, de Mars 1997 à Janvier 2016. Tous les malades étaient des puisatiers, de sexe masculin, avec une moyenne d'âge de 50 ans. Le tabagisme était retrouvé dans 36 cas et un antécédent de tuberculose était noté dans huit cas. La radiographie thoracique retrouvait des grandes opacités dans 39 cas, des petites opacités dans 15 cas, et un épaississement des septats dans 11 cas. Ce tableau de silicose s'était compliqué d'une surinfection bactérienne dans 37% des cas, d' un pneumothorax dans 4% des cas et d'une tuberculose dans 20% des cas. La prise en charge thérapeutique était celle des complications. La déclaration de la maladie professionnelle et de l'indemnisation était faite. L'évolution était bonne dans 12 cas, stationnaire dans 17 cas et mauvaise dans 16 cas. La silicose est une pneumoconiose fréquente chez les puisatiers. Elle retentit sur la fonction respiratoire. Nous soulignons l'association fréquente de tuberculose et nous insistons sur la prévention qui reste le meilleur traitement. PMID:28292119

  2. Fabrication Routes for Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composites (CFCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    1998-01-01

    The primary approaches used for fabrication of continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) components have been reviewed. The CFCC fabrication issues related to fiber, interface, and matrix have been analyzed. The capabilities, advantages and limitations of the five matrix-infiltration routes have been compared and discussed. Today, the best fabrication route for the CFCC end-user is not clear and compromises need to be made depending on the details of the CFCC application. However, with time, this problem should be reduced as research continues to develop advanced CFCC constituents and fabrication routes.

  3. Fabrication Routes for Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composites (CFCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    1998-01-01

    The primary approaches used for fabrication of continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) components have been reviewed. The CFCC fabrication issues related to fiber, interface, and matrix have been analyzed. The capabilities. advantages and limitations of the five matrix-infiltration routes have been compared and discussed. Today. the best fabrication route for the CFCC end-user is not clear and compromises need to be made depending on the details of the CFCC application. However, with time, this problem should be reduced as research continues to develop advanced CFCC constituents and fabrication routes.

  4. Actes du colloque sur le bilinguisme, Universite de Neuchatel, 14/15 Septembre, 1981 (Proceedings of the Colloquium on Bilingualism, University of Neuchatel, September 14-15, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRANEL, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This issue contains proceedings of a colloquium on linguistics at the University of Neuchatel: (1) "Propositions epistemologiques pour une etude du bilinguisme (Epistemological Propositions for a Study of Bilingualism)," by B. Py; (2) "Comment on di ca? Prolegomenes a une etude de la composante semantique du langage des migrants (How Do You Say…

  5. HEALTH RISK ISSUES FOR OXYGENATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A substantial database exists on the inhalation toxicity of MTBE, but exposure information and health effects data for non-inhalation routes of exposure are limited. In addition, several issues complicate the interpretation of the avaialble data in assessing the healt risks of M...

  6. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  7. Rupture sous-cutanée du tendon long extenseur du pouce: à propos de 5 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdelillah, Rachid; Abbassi, Najib; Erraji, Moncef; Abdeljawad, Najib; Yacoubi, Hicham; Daoudi, Abdelkrim

    2014-01-01

    La rupture spontanée du muscle long extenseur du pouce (EPL) du tendon au niveau du poignet est rare et principalement rapportés après fracture du radius distal à tubercule de Lister, dans la synovite, ténosynovite ou la polyarthrite rhumatoïde. Nous rapportons 5 cas de rupture spontanée du tendon long extenseur du pouce, traités par une greffe ou un transfert tendineux. PMID:25317233

  8. Instability Free Routing: Beyond One Protocol Instance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    assigned a Rout- ing Information Base (RIB) [13]. This database is used to store the routing information related to the routing process (e.g., routes...presents routing anomalies that can derive from route selection by itself, i.e., without any route redis - tribution configured between the routing... redis - tributed into the RIP protocol, all RIP messages received from the neighbors are in fact discarded independently of the AD values. This

  9. Storage and flood routing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, R.W.; Godfrey, R.G.

    1960-01-01

    The basic equations used in flood routing are developed from the law of continuity. In each method the assumptions are discussed to enable the user to select an appropriate technique. In the stage-storage method the storage is related to the mean gage height in the reach under consideration. In the discharge-storage method the storage is determined, from weighted values of inflow and outflow discharge. In the reservoir-storage method the storage is considered as a function of outflow discharge alone. A detailed example is given for each method to illustrate that particular technique.

  10. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  11. Anonymous Connections and Onion Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Anonymous Connections and Onion Routing Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag Naval Research Laboratory Abstract Onion Routing...eavesdropping and trac analysis. Onion routing’s anonymous connections are bidirectional and near real- time, and can be used anywhere a socket connection...can be used. Any identifying information must be in the data stream carried over an anonymous connec- tion. An onion is a data structure that is

  12. Student Profile, College of DuPage, Fall 1986-1989. Topical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Gary

    Prepared to provide staff with a more comprehensive profile of the student body of the College of DuPage (COD), Illinois, this report looks at changes in the student body and its increasing diversity over the last 5 years, and raises issues for staff discussion and planning. The report is divided into 18 sections, each consisting of an…

  13. W.E.B. DuBois's Challenge to Scientific Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carol M.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that a direct and authoritative challenge to the scientific racism of the late eighteenth and early twentieth centuries was urgently needed, and was one of the leading rhetorical contributions of W.E.B. DuBois. Specifically examines three issues: social Darwinism, the eugenics movement, and psychologists' measurement of intelligence.…

  14. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  15. Métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein: à propos de 2 cas

    PubMed Central

    Loubna, Mezouar; Mohamed, El Hfid; Tijani, El Harroudi; Fouzia, Ghadouani; Hanane, Haj Kacem; Zouhour, Bourhaleb; Asmae, Ouabdelmoumen

    2013-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, notamment au Maroc, avec un taux de mortalité élevé. Les métastases gastro-intestinales d'un carcinome canalaire du sein sont rares. Leur diagnostic est difficile du fait de la nature non spécifique des symptômes. Nous rapportons deux observations originales de métastases gastroduodénales d'un cancer canalaire infiltrant du sein. Les métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein sont très rares; la présence de symptômes gastro-intestinaux chez une malade ayant un antécédent de cancer du sein doit faire suspecter une atteinte métastatique gastro-intestinale. PMID:24198876

  16. School Bus Routing and Scheduling: When to Use Computer-Assisted Methods and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Wayne; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses issues concerning the use of computers in school bus scheduling and routing. Examines the advantages, technical considerations, and costs of changing to a computerized system. Offers a five-point approach toward implementation and includes a table of comparative data for routing and scheduling models for a typical school bus fleet. (IW)

  17. Issues Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sando, Joe S.

    A program for teaching techniques of critical thinking on issues concerning American Indians was developed for students at Albuquerque Indian School. It was designed to include not only the students but also their families with learning activities that required consultation in search of answers or understanding. The first issue presented sought to…

  18. Route visualization using detail lenses.

    PubMed

    Karnick, Pushpak; Cline, David; Jeschke, Stefan; Razdan, Anshuman; Wonka, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present a method designed to address some limitations of typical route map displays of driving directions. The main goal of our system is to generate a printable version of a route map that shows the overview and detail views of the route within a single, consistent visual frame. Our proposed visualization provides a more intuitive spatial context than a simple list of turns. We present a novel multifocus technique to achieve this goal, where the foci are defined by points of interest (POI) along the route. A detail lens that encapsulates the POI at a finer geospatial scale is created for each focus. The lenses are laid out on the map to avoid occlusion with the route and each other, and to optimally utilize the free space around the route. We define a set of layout metrics to evaluate the quality of a lens layout for a given route map visualization. We compare standard lens layout methods to our proposed method and demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in generating aesthetically pleasing layouts. Finally, we perform a user study to evaluate the effectiveness of our layout choices.

  19. Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Survey and Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Bakar, Kamalrulnizam Abu; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22368490

  20. Stop_times based Routing Protocol for VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, Hafez; Shaaban, Eman; Taha Fayed, Zaki

    2013-11-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special class of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) where vehicles are considered as MANET nodes with wireless links. The key difference of VANET and MANET is the special mobility pattern and rapidly changeable topology. There has been significant interest in improving safety and traffic efficiency using VANET. The design of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary issue for support the smart ITS. Existing routing protocols of MANET are not suitable for VANET. AOMDV is the most important on demand multipath routing protocol. This paper proposes SSD-AOMDV as VANET routing protocol. SSD-AOMDV improves AOMDV to suit VANET characteristics. SSD-AOMDV adds the mobility parameters: Stop_times, Speed and Direction to hop count as new AOMDV routing metric to select next hop during the route discovery phase. Stop_times metric is added to simulate buses mobility pattern and traffic lights at intersections. Simulation results show that SSD-AOMDV achieves better performance compared to AOMDV.

  1. Multipath routing in wireless sensor networks: survey and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.

  2. Emerging Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Denise

    1988-01-01

    Youth services programs and cholesterol in children's diets, two topics that may emerge as issues in schools and school districts in the near future, are addressed. Resources for further information are listed. (CB)

  3. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route.

  4. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Asim; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  5. A Multi-Agent Framework for Packet Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dayon; Zhang, Minji; Yang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely investigated in recent years. One of the fundamental issues in WSNs is packet routing, because in many application domains, packets have to be routed from source nodes to destination nodes as soon and as energy efficiently as possible. To address this issue, a large number of routing approaches have been proposed. Although every existing routing approach has advantages, they also have some disadvantages. In this paper, a multi-agent framework is proposed that can assist existing routing approaches to improve their routing performance. This framework enables each sensor node to build a cooperative neighbour set based on past routing experience. Such cooperative neighbours, in turn, can help the sensor to effectively relay packets in the future. This framework is independent of existing routing approaches and can be used to assist many existing routing approaches. Simulation results demonstrate the good performance of this framework in terms of four metrics: average delivery latency, successful delivery ratio, number of live nodes and total sensing coverage. PMID:25928063

  6. Les plaies du tendon patellaire

    PubMed Central

    Mechchat, Atif; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Mardy, Abdelhak; Elayoubi, Abdelghni; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Les plaies du tendon patellaire sont peu fréquentes et sont peu rapportés dans la littérature, contrairement aux ruptures sous cutanées. Les sections du tendon patellaire nécessitent une réparation immédiate afin de rétablir l'appareil extenseur et de permettre une récupération fonctionnelle précoce. A travers ce travail rétrospectif sur 13 cas, nous analysons les aspects épidémiologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de ce type de pathologie en comparant différents scores. L’âge moyen est de 25 ans avec une prédominance masculine. Les étiologies sont dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (68%) et les agressions par agent tranchant (26%) et contendant (6 %). Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un parage chirurgical avec suture tendineuse direct protégée par un laçage au fils d'aciers en légère flexion. La rééducation est débutée après sédation des phénomènes inflammatoires. Au dernier recul les résultats sont excellents et bon à 92%. Nous n'avons pas noté de différence de force musculaire et d'amplitude articulaire entre le genou sain et le genou lésé. Les lésions ouvertes du tendon patellaire est relativement rare. La prise en charge chirurgicale rapide donne des résultats assez satisfaisants. La réparation est généralement renforcée par un semi-tendineux, synthétique ou métallique en forme de cadre de renfort pour faciliter la réadaptation et réduire le risque de récidive après la fin de l'immobilisation. PMID:25170379

  7. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chat syndrome - also known as 5p- syndrome and cat cry syndrome - is a rare genetic condition that ... du chat syndrome usually include a high-pitched cat-like cry, mental retardation, delayed development, distinctive facial ...

  8. Channel routing for VLSI layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schory, Michael

    1988-12-01

    Channel routing for VLSI layout is reviewed and a set of features required of an industrial channel router is defined. A channel router, CAR, was implemented, based on the Greedy and Detour routers. Integrated circuit design is discussed, with attention to the various channel routing problems and models. The major requirements for an industrial channel router to be integrated within general cells and standard cells routing environments are discussed and their fulfillment in CAR is considered. CAR comprises: the Greedy router functionality; the Detour router's obstacle, obstruction and switch box extensions; rectilinear channels; ports located not on standard and immediately surrounding layers; middle ports within the channel; jog on conflict-only to reduce jog use; single layer jogs; and partial pre-routing and dynamic layer optimization. Special features of CAR include: extension of the net definition with a short range tendency; definition of net preferred track; net visibility range in rectilinear channels; an extended area mechanism to deal with obstacles, rectilinear edges, pre-routing and ports on unusual layers; unified jog cost evaluation functions; unified, efficient jog selection; a general evaluation function for track worth; and a net connectivity part to control and handle split nets. Examples are presented of CAR operations.

  9. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  10. Unaddressed Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester, J. Martin

    2005-01-01

    Walter Parker's January article, "Teaching Against Idiocy," raises important and fascinating issues relating to the proper role and function of the K-12 social studies classroom. Although J. Martin Rochester, the author of this article, agrees with his basic premise that schools obviously have an obligation to help promote citizenship education,…

  11. Faculty Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing syllabi for courses on faculty issues are discussed, and four sample syllabi are presented. Few doctoral programs in higher education administration were identified that devote an entire course to the subject of American college and university faculty. For four courses that did devote an entire course to the…

  12. FAA/NASA En Route Noise Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Aircraft community noise annoyance is traditionally a concern only in localities near airports. The proposed introduction of large commercial airplanes with advanced turboprop propulsion systems with supersonic propellers has given rise to concerns of noise annoyance in areas previously considered not to be impacted by aircraft noise. A symposium was held to assess the current knowledge of factors important to the impact of en route noise and to aid in the formulation of FAA and NASA programs in the area. Papers were invited on human response to aircraft noise in areas with low ambient noise levels, aircraft noise heard indoors and outdoors, aircraft noise in recreational areas, detection of propeller and jet aircraft noise, and methodological issues relevant to the design of future studies.

  13. Capacitated arc routing problem and its extensions in waste collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadzli, Mohammad; Najwa, Nurul; Luis, Martino

    2015-05-01

    Capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) is the youngest generation of graph theory that focuses on solving the edge/arc routing for optimality. Since many years, operational research devoted to CARP counterpart, known as vehicle routing problem (VRP), which does not fit to several real cases such like waste collection problem and road maintenance. In this paper, we highlighted several extensions of capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) that represents the real-life problem of vehicle operation in waste collection. By purpose, CARP is designed to find a set of routes for vehicles that satisfies all pre-setting constraints in such that all vehicles must start and end at a depot, service a set of demands on edges (or arcs) exactly once without exceeding the capacity, thus the total fleet cost is minimized. We also addressed the differentiation between CARP and VRP in waste collection. Several issues have been discussed including stochastic demands and time window problems in order to show the complexity and importance of CARP in the related industry. A mathematical model of CARP and its new version is presented by considering several factors such like delivery cost, lateness penalty and delivery time.

  14. Capacitated arc routing problem and its extensions in waste collection

    SciTech Connect

    Fadzli, Mohammad; Najwa, Nurul; Luis, Martino

    2015-05-15

    Capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) is the youngest generation of graph theory that focuses on solving the edge/arc routing for optimality. Since many years, operational research devoted to CARP counterpart, known as vehicle routing problem (VRP), which does not fit to several real cases such like waste collection problem and road maintenance. In this paper, we highlighted several extensions of capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) that represents the real-life problem of vehicle operation in waste collection. By purpose, CARP is designed to find a set of routes for vehicles that satisfies all pre-setting constraints in such that all vehicles must start and end at a depot, service a set of demands on edges (or arcs) exactly once without exceeding the capacity, thus the total fleet cost is minimized. We also addressed the differentiation between CARP and VRP in waste collection. Several issues have been discussed including stochastic demands and time window problems in order to show the complexity and importance of CARP in the related industry. A mathematical model of CARP and its new version is presented by considering several factors such like delivery cost, lateness penalty and delivery time.

  15. Supracervical hysterectomy - the vaginal route.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Miłosz; Cieślak, Jarosław; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Removal of the cervix during hysterectomy is not mandatory. There has been no irrefutable evidence so far that total hysterectomy is more beneficial to patients in terms of pelvic organ function. The procedure that leaves the cervix intact is called a subtotal hysterectomy. Traditional approaches to this surgery include laparoscopic and abdominal routes. Vaginal total hysterectomy has been proven to present many advantages over the other approaches. Therefore, it seems that this route should also be applied in the case of subtotal hysterectomy. We present 9 cases of patients who underwent subtotal hysterectomy performed through the vagina for benign gynecological diseases.

  16. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  17. Environmental Issues are Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary Allaire

    The extensive social-scientific interest and continuing relevance of environmental study assure its immediate and long-range importance in the social studies. But the crisis atmosphere surrounding this issue threatens a thoughtful, systematic approach to the subject, and poses the danger of a careless rush to activity. As social studies educators,…

  18. Theoretical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  19. Biokinetics and dosimetry of depleted uranium (DU) in rats implanted with DU fragments.

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, Ray A.; Hahn, Fletcher F.; Durbin, P. W.

    2004-01-01

    A number of U. S. veterans of the Persian Gulf War were wounded with depleted uranium (DU) metal fragments as a result of 'friendly fire' incidents, in which Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles were struck by DU anti-armor munitions. Some of the crew members who survived were left with multiple small fragments of DU in their muscles and soft tissues. The number, size and location of the fragments made them inoperable in general, and therefore subject to long-term retention. Because there was inadequate data to predict the potential carcinogenicity of DU fragments in soft tissues, Hahn et al. (2003) conducted a lifespan cancer study in rats. As part of that study, a number of rats were maintained to study the biokinetics and dosimetry of DU implanted intramuscularly in male Wistar rats. Typically, four metal fragments, either as cylindrical pellets or square wafers were implanted into the biceps femoris muscles of the rats. Urine samples were collected periodically during their lifespans, and DU was analyzed in kidneys and eviscerated carcass (minus the implant sites) at death. The daily DU urinary excretion rate increased steeply during the first 30 d after implantation peaking at about 90 d at 3-10 x 10{sup -3}%/d. During the first 150 d, the average excretion rate was 2.4 x 10{sup -3}%/d, decreasing thereafter to about 1 x 10{sup -3}%/d. Serial radiographs were made of the wound sites to monitor gross morphologic changes in the DU implant and the surrounding tissue. As early as 1 w after implantation, radiographs showed the presence of surface corrosion and small, dense bodies near the original implant, presumably DU. This corrosion from the surface of the implant continued with time, but did not result in an increasing amount of DU reaching the blood and urine after the first 3 mo. During this 3-mo period, connective tissue capsules formed around the implants, and are hypothesized to have reduced the access of DU to tissue fluids by limiting the diffusion

  20. Reformulated gasoline quality issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.G.; Felch, D.E.; Edgar, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    One year ago, a panel of industry experts were interviewed in the November/December 1994 issue of Fuel Reformulation (Vol. 4, No. 6). With the focus then and now on refinery investments, the panelists were asked to forecast which refining processes would grow in importance. It is apparent from their response, and from other articles and discussions throughout the year, that hydroprocessing and catalytic conversion processes are synergistic in the overall refinery design, with flexibility and process objectives varying on a unit-by-unit case. To an extent, future refinery investments in downstream petrochemicals, such as for paraxylene production, are based on available catalytic reforming feedstock. Just a importantly, hydroprocessing units (hydrotreating, hydrocracking) needed for clean fuel production (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel), are heavily dependent on hydrogen production from the catalytic reformer. Catalytic reforming`s significant influence in the refinery hydrogen balance, as well as its status as a significant naphtha conversion route to higher-quality fuels, make this unit a high-priority issue for engineers and planners striving for flexibility.

  1. A tool for debugging internet multicast routing

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, D.; Floyd, S.

    1994-03-01

    In this paper the authors describe a debugging tool that is an effective means of analyzing problems with multicast packet routing in a network. Multicast packet routing is a source-driven distributed calculation performed by the routers in a multicast network. The routes taken by multicast packets are difficult to predict manually due to the large number of variables that must be considered. The multicast route debugging tool allows off-line investigation of the route taken by a multicast packet and the effects of network modifications on that route. The tool has already proved useful in debugging the problems that have occurred in the experimental Internet Multicast Backbone. The multicast route debugging tool currently predicts multicast routes of packets using the distance-vector truncated-broadcast algorithm implemented for Internet multicast traffic. They will be upgrading the tool to allow the user to choose other multicast routing algorithms.

  2. Drug repositioning summit: finding new routes to success.

    PubMed

    Campas, Clara

    2009-03-01

    The Third Annual Drug Repositioning Summit 2008 was held at the Hyatt Harborside Hotel in Boston, Massachusetts, October 6-7, and focused on new strategies for drug repositioning. The meeting, organized by The Cambridge Healthtech Institute, brought together a panel of speakers from the industry and the academia, who discussed and proposed new routes for success in drug repositioning based on their own experience in the field. This meeting report summarizes the most relevant presentations and issues discussed.

  3. Judaism and the Silk Route.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Judeans traveled along the Ancient Silk Route. Discusses the Iranian influence on the formation of Jewish religious ideas. Considers the development of Jewish trade networks, focusing on the Radanites (Jewish traders), the Jewish presence in the Far East, and the survival of Judaism in central Asia. (CMK)

  4. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  5. Roots/Routes: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  6. Genetic algorithms for route discovery.

    PubMed

    Gelenbe, Erol; Liu, Peixiang; Lainé, Jeremy

    2006-12-01

    Packet routing in networks requires knowledge about available paths, which can be either acquired dynamically while the traffic is being forwarded, or statically (in advance) based on prior information of a network's topology. This paper describes an experimental investigation of path discovery using genetic algorithms (GAs). We start with the quality-of-service (QoS)-driven routing protocol called "cognitive packet network" (CPN), which uses smart packets (SPs) to dynamically select routes in a distributed autonomic manner based on a user's QoS requirements. We extend it by introducing a GA at the source routers, which modifies and filters the paths discovered by the CPN. The GA can combine the paths that were previously discovered to create new untested but valid source-to-destination paths, which are then selected on the basis of their "fitness." We present an implementation of this approach, where the GA runs in background mode so as not to overload the ingress routers. Measurements conducted on a network test bed indicate that when the background-traffic load of the network is light to medium, the GA can result in improved QoS. When the background-traffic load is high, it appears that the use of the GA may be detrimental to the QoS experienced by users as compared to CPN routing because the GA uses less timely state information in its decision making.

  7. Planning Safe Routes to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleyard, Bruce S.

    2003-01-01

    Describes "Safe Routes to School" efforts in the United States and other countries to make walking and biking to school the transportation of choice. Offers a plan of action for formulating and carrying out such a program and information on funding sources. (EV)

  8. Alternative Routes for Teacher Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This publication presents a series of charts, designed for quick reference, which describe the status of alternative teacher certification routes in each of the 50 states. The charts were prepared in response to an increasing number of inquiries from educators, policy makers, and the public. Information was gathered by telephone surveys of state…

  9. Reliable Freestanding Position-Based Routing in Highway Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Galaviz-Mosqueda, Gabriel A.; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Villarreal-Reyes, Salvador; Rivera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Villaseñor-González, Luis; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are considered by car manufacturers and the research community as the enabling technology to radically improve the safety, efficiency and comfort of everyday driving. However, before VANET technology can fulfill all its expected potential, several difficulties must be addressed. One key issue arising when working with VANETs is the complexity of the networking protocols compared to those used by traditional infrastructure networks. Therefore, proper design of the routing strategy becomes a main issue for the effective deployment of VANETs. In this paper, a reliable freestanding position-based routing algorithm (FPBR) for highway scenarios is proposed. For this scenario, several important issues such as the high mobility of vehicles and the propagation conditions may affect the performance of the routing strategy. These constraints have only been partially addressed in previous proposals. In contrast, the design approach used for developing FPBR considered the constraints imposed by a highway scenario and implements mechanisms to overcome them. FPBR performance is compared to one of the leading protocols for highway scenarios. Performance metrics show that FPBR yields similar results when considering freespace propagation conditions, and outperforms the leading protocol when considering a realistic highway path loss model. PMID:23202159

  10. Reliable freestanding position-based routing in highway scenarios.

    PubMed

    Galaviz-Mosqueda, Gabriel A; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Villarreal-Reyes, Salvador; Rivera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Villaseñor-González, Luis; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-10-24

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are considered by car manufacturers and the research community as the enabling technology to radically improve the safety, efficiency and comfort of everyday driving. However, before VANET technology can fulfill all its expected potential, several difficulties must be addressed. One key issue arising when working with VANETs is the complexity of the networking protocols compared to those used by traditional infrastructure networks. Therefore, proper design of the routing strategy becomes a main issue for the effective deployment of VANETs. In this paper, a reliable freestanding position-based routing algorithm (FPBR) for highway scenarios is proposed. For this scenario, several important issues such as the high mobility of vehicles and the propagation conditions may affect the performance of the routing strategy. These constraints have only been partially addressed in previous proposals. In contrast, the design approach used for developing FPBR considered the constraints imposed by a highway scenario and implements mechanisms to overcome them. FPBR performance is compared to one of the leading protocols for highway scenarios. Performance metrics show that FPBR yields similar results when considering freespace propagation conditions, and outperforms the leading protocol when considering a realistic highway path loss model.

  11. Implementation of direct routing mobile IP for solving triangular routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jongwook; Jang, SeongHo; Park, Miri; Lee, Dae-bong

    2001-10-01

    Mobility support on the network layer is of special importance, as the network layer holds together the huge Internet with common protocol IP. Although based on possibility different wireless or wired technologies, all nodes of the network should be able to communicate. Therefore, mobile IP(an extension of the classical IP) has been designed which enablemobility in the Internet without changing existing wired systems. However, mobile IP leaves some points unsolved. Especially, if it comes to security, efficiency of the packet flow that is called triangular routing. Especially triangular routing can cause unnecessary overhead for the network. Furthermore latency can increase dramatically. This is particularly unfortunate if two communicating hosts are separated by transatlantic links. In order to this problem, many methods like IPv6 and ROMIP are proposed. But these methods have limitation. In other words, they have not compatibility because of needing modification of original IP scheme. Especially ROMIP is very complex and the overhead of control message and processing are serious. The problem of inconsistency of Binding caches may occur too. We therefore propose and analyze the performance of the DRMIP (Direct Routing Mobile IP) which do not modify IP source needed in the sender, is compatible with IP and Mobile IP.

  12. 7 CFR 1000.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions § 1000.3 Route disposition. Route disposition means a delivery to a retail or wholesale outlet... store, vendor, or vending machine) of a fluid milk product in consumer-type packages or dispenser...

  13. 14 CFR 221.41 - Routing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Individually stated routings—Method of publication. The routing required by paragraph (a) of this section shall... with their respective explanations of the applicable routings shall be arranged in numerical order...

  14. Pipeline issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisley, Joe T.

    1990-01-01

    The declining pool of graduates, the lack of rigorous preparation in science and mathematics, and the declining interest in science and engineering careers at the precollege level promises a shortage of technically educated personnel at the college level for industry, government, and the universities in the next several decades. The educational process, which starts out with a large number of students at the elementary level, but with an ever smaller number preparing for science and engineering at each more advanced educational level, is in a state of crisis. These pipeline issues, so called because the educational process is likened to a series of ever smaller constrictions in a pipe, were examined in a workshop at the Space Grant Conference and a summary of the presentations and the results of the discussion, and the conclusions of the workshop participants are reported.

  15. Automated Alerting for Black Hole Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    BGP Blackhole Routing Performance.” Kleffman used simulation as the evaluation technique for his research. A simulation software package, Opnet...stated: Second, we concluded that, of the three basic BGP Blackhole routing methods, the customer-triggered method has the worst performance. Neither...trigger router or the ‘Black Hole Route Server’ in the network. This router will be pushing out BGP blackhole route announcements (both addition

  16. Daisy Found on 'Route 66'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This composite image from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit gives an approximately true-color rendering of a daisy-like pattern of brushed circles that Spirit produced on a rock called 'Route 66.' Spirit used the rock abrasion tool to complete this 6-position 'RAT daisy' on sol 99. It took this image on sol 100, April 14, 2004.

    The purpose for these large brushings is to create a large enough patch of treated surface area for the miniature thermal emission spectrometer to analyze. Scientists had previously conducted a brushing like this one on the rock 'Mazatzal.' The brushed area of Route 66 looks very different from the brushed area of Mazatzal, leading scientists to think that the rocks although both light in tone actually have different coating types.

  17. Single-Layer Wire Routing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Theorem: (Ascoli’s Theorem) Let f be an equicontinuous family of functions from a separable space X to a metric space Y. Let (f,) be a sequence in 4o... separable : A separable space is one that has a countable dense subset. settle: Section 8A defines for each suitably restricted sketch a family of...a four-year study on the general problem of wire routing under separation and homotopy constraints. Originally intended as a master’s thesis, the

  18. A New Distributed Routing Protocol.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Kindm ’[t., BMnclh CntMU Consider a attuatJion in %, Adhd them am n n es0 ndh lidkd to at least ne &her node sudh that all moe a wwmwted. either...distributed Itn r that is cpable, of failsafe distributed routing. 37 ~L MANHATAN %SQ.ARE GP :,!: NETWORK, - CONNECTTVY S . .. . I ip p- t 0 4 Figure 4-3

  19. 76 FR 766 - Amtrak Emergency Routing Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Parts 1011, 1034, 1102, 1104, and 1115 Amtrak Emergency Routing Orders... Transportation Board (Board or STB) proposes to establish regulations governing the issuance of emergency routing... routings due to rail line closures or other emergencies. DATES: Comments are due by February 7, 2011....

  20. 14 CFR 121.95 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Route width. 121.95 Section 121.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Routes: Domestic and Flag Operations § 121.95 Route...

  1. 49 CFR 236.379 - Route locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Route locking. 236.379 Section 236.379 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.379 Route locking. Route locking or other type of switch locking shall be tested...

  2. 49 CFR 236.379 - Route locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Route locking. 236.379 Section 236.379 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.379 Route locking. Route locking or other type of switch locking shall be tested...

  3. Cri du Chat: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Sparks, S; Hutchinson, B

    1980-01-01

    Since Lejeune et al. (1963) first described the syndrome of Cri du Chat (Cry of the Cat), cases have been described in the literature in terms of genetic abnormalities. All cases were severely retarded and the mental impairment has been believed to be progressive, although no longitudinal studies have been reported. Descriptions of speech and language behavior have been scarce. This paper presents a case of a 7-yr, 6 mo-old girl with Cri du Chat who has received speech and language therapy for five years. Her speech, language, and mental development are noted and are not consistent with cases reported previously.

  4. Formal Approach For Resilient Reachability based on End-System Route Agility

    SciTech Connect

    Rauf, Usman; Gillani, Fida; Al-Shaer, Ehab; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Chatterjee, Samrat; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2016-12-28

    The deterministic nature of existing routing protocols has resulted into an ossified Internet with static and predictable network routes. This gives persistent attackers (e.g. eavesdroppers and DDoS attackers) plenty of time to study the network and identify the vulnerable links (critical) to plan a devastating and stealthy attack. Recently, route mutation approaches have been proposed to address such issues. However, these approaches incur significantly high overhead and depend upon the availability of disjoint routes in the network, which inherently limit their use for mission critical services. To cope with these issues, we extend the current routing architecture to consider end-hosts as routing elements, and present a formal method based agile defense mechanism to increase resiliency of the existing cyber infrastructure. The major contributions of this paper include: (1) formalization of efficient and resilient End to End (E2E) reachability problem as a constraint satisfaction problem, which identifies the potential end-hosts to reach a destination while satisfying resilience and QoS constraints, (2) design and implementation of a novel decentralized End Point Route Mutation (EPRM) protocol, and (3) design and implementation of planning algorithm to minimize the overlap between multiple flows, for the sake of maximizing the agility in the system. Our implementation and evaluation validates the correctness, effectiveness and scalability of the proposed approach.

  5. 49 CFR 356.9 - Elimination of routing restrictions-regular route carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elimination of routing restrictions-regular route...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS MOTOR CARRIER ROUTING REGULATIONS § 356.9 Elimination of routing restrictions—regular...

  6. Data-Centric Routing for Intra Wireless Body Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Khan, Abdul Waheed; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan

    2015-09-01

    A significant proportion of the worldwide population is of the elderly people living with chronic diseases that result in high health-care cost. To provide continuous health monitoring with minimal health-care cost, Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) has been recently emerged as a promising technology. Depending on nature of sensory data, WBSNs might require a high level of Quality of Service (QoS) both in terms of delay and reliability during data reporting phase. In this paper, we propose a data-centric routing for intra WBSNs that adapts the routing strategy in accordance with the nature of data, temperature rise issue of the implanted bio-medical sensors due to electromagnetic wave absorption, and high and dynamic path loss caused by postural movement of human body and in-body wireless communication. We consider the network models both with and without relay nodes in our simulations. Due to the multi-facet routing strategy, the proposed data-centric routing achieves better performance in terms of delay, reliability, temperature rise, and energy consumption when compared with other state-of-the-art.

  7. Émission X(L) du xénon par interaction laser-agrégats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adoui, L.; Gobert, O.; Indelicato, P.; Lamour, E.; Meynadier, P.; Normand, D.; Perdrix, M.; Prigent, C.; Rozet, J.-P.; Vernhet, D.

    2003-06-01

    Nous avons étudié le rayonnement X provenant d'ions fortement multichargés (ge24+) présentant des lacunes en couche L produits lors de l'irradiation d'agrégats de xénon par des impulsions lumineuses issues d'un laser femtoseconde de puissance. Les résultats obtenus lors de la toute dernière campagne d'expériences réalisée auprès du serveur LUCA du SPAM/DRECAM au CEA/Saclay mettent en cause certains travaux antérieurs [4-6]. Des divergences marquées apparaissent tant au niveau de l'interprétation des spectres X que sur la variation du taux d'émission en fonction de l'éclairement et de la longueur d'onde.

  8. Dynamic route guidance strategy in a two-route pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mianfang; Xiong, Shengwu; Li, Bixiang

    2016-05-01

    With the rapid development of transportation, traffic questions have become the major issue for social, economic and environmental aspects. Especially, during serious emergencies, it is very important to alleviate road traffic congestion and improve the efficiency of evacuation to reduce casualties, and addressing these problems has been a major task for the agencies responsible in recent decades. Advanced road guidance strategies have been developed for homogeneous traffic flows, or to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the road capacity in a symmetric two-route scenario. However, feedback strategies have rarely been considered for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows with variable velocities and sizes in an asymmetric multi-route traffic system, which is a common phenomenon in many developing countries. In this study, we propose a weighted road occupancy feedback strategy (WROFS) for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows, which considers the system equilibrium to ease traffic congestion. In order to more realistic simulating the behavior of mixed traffic objects, the paper adopted a refined and dynamic cellular automaton model (RDPV_CA model) as the update mechanism for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow. Moreover, a bounded rational threshold control was introduced into the feedback strategy to avoid some negative effect of delayed information and reduce. Based on comparisons with the two previously proposed strategies, the simulation results obtained in a pedestrian-vehicle traffic flow scenario demonstrated that the proposed strategy with a bounded rational threshold was more effective and system equilibrium, system stability were reached.

  9. Variete Technique du Lambeau Sural dans les Brulures Profondes du Pied

    PubMed Central

    Ezzoubi, M.; Ettalbi, S.; Elmounjid, S.; Fassi, J.; Benchamckha, F.J.; Sakhi, M.; Boukind, E.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Les couvertures des pertes de substance de la jambe, du talon et du pied font souvent appel au lambeau sural, qui reste, de part ses dimensions, une indication limitée. Les Auteurs présentent, à travers deux cas cliniques, une variété technique pour la levée du lambeau sural, permettant d'obtenir des palettes cutanées de grande surface avec une bonne sécurité vasculaire. C'est un lambeau fasciocutané remontant jusqu'à un centimètre du creux poplité et incluant, lors de la levée, l'aponévrose, le nerf sural, la petite veine saphène et le nerf sural latéral. PMID:21990988

  10. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  11. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-04-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  12. Routing System for Building Block Layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nang-Ping

    With the advent VLSI, layout techniques become more and more crucial to IC design. An automatic building block layout system is a useful tool to deal with the increasing complexity of custom chip layout problem. An approach to the routing part of this layout system is proposed. This routing system can handle arbitrarily shaped rectilinear blocks with pins on the boundary. A feature of this system is its ability to shift blocks at any moment so that better placement and hence better routing can be achieved. The system minimizes layout area and assures 100% routing completion. A relative placement is the input to this routing system. The prerouting analysis will calculate the expected routing density around each block and the routing space is allocated accordingly. The "bottleneck" idea is introduced to represent the critical regions of the layout plane where the congestion of routing is most likely to occur. It also serves as a link between blocks whereby all information are easily updated when some blocks have to move their positions. A weighted "global routing graph" is constructed to reflect the current routing situation associated with bottlenecks. The global routing of each signal is done by a "Steiner-Tree-on-Graphs" (STOG) algorithm. The basic element of STOG is a three-point Steiner-Tree-on-Graphs algorithm. Some theoretical results are derived and an efficient algorithm is developed based on them. STOG has reasonable computational complexities and yields very good results from experimental tests. In the detailed routing phase, an existing channel router and a switch-box router are called for track assignment. Special emphasis has been put on terminal position alignment between two neighboring channels to avoid unnecessary jogs. The power and ground will be allowed different wire width and routed on the metal layer. Several examples have been tested against this routing system. It has achieved very compact layout in short running time.

  13. Sign Communication in Cri du Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlenkamp, Sonja; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study on the use of sign supported Norwegian (SSN) in two individuals with Cri du chat syndrome (CCS). The study gives a first account of some selected aspects of production and intelligibility of SSN in CCS. Possible deviance in manual parameters, in particular inter- and/or intra-subject variation in the use…

  14. Prejudice: From Allport to DuBois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stanley O., Jr.; Reed, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the differences between Gordon Allport's and W. E. B. DuBois's theories on the origins of prejudice and the impact of discrimination on the personality and social development of blacks. The article argues that prejudice is a historically developed process, not a universal feature of human psychology. Implications for U.S. race relations…

  15. Growth study of cri du chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Collins, M S; Eaton-Evans, J

    2001-10-01

    We compared the growth of children with cri du chat (5p-) syndrome with the 1990 UK growth curves. Most subjects had impaired growth, particularly of head circumference. The more emaciated the child the more pronounced the microcephaly, showing the need for growth and nutrition monitoring.

  16. Rick and Becky DuFour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In 1969, a concern with the deep inequity of students' experiences and opportunities in traditional school systems first drove social studies teacher Rick DuFour to begin advocating for the kind of reforms that would jell into his transformative model, Professional Learning Communities (PLC) at Work, some 16 years later. The core belief of the PLC…

  17. DuSable High School Program Flourishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Pat

    1995-01-01

    Describes the fall and rise of the Panther Press, the scholastic newspaper of the DuSable High School in Chicago. States that despite being located in the midst of public housing projects, the school's newspaper is thriving where others in similar circumstances have failed. Describes how the school's principal and an advisor revitalized and…

  18. Improving Operational Acceptability of Dynamic Weather Routes Through Analysis of Commonly Use Routings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Antony D.; Sridhar, Banavar; McNally, David

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) tool is a ground-based trajectory automation system that continuously and automatically analyzes active in-flight aircraft in en route airspace to find simple modifications to flight plan routes that can save significant flying time, while avoiding weather and considering traffic conflicts, airspace sector congestion, special use airspace, and FAA routing restrictions. Trials of the DWR system have shown that significant delay savings are possible. However, some DWR advised routes are also rejected by dispatchers or modified before being accepted. Similarly, of those sent by dispatchers to flight crews as proposed route change requests, many are not accepted by air traffic control, or are modified before implementation as Center route amendments. Such actions suggest that the operational acceptability of DWR advised route corrections could be improved, which may reduce workload and increase delay savings. This paper analyzes the historical usage of different flight routings, varying from simple waypoint pairs to lengthy strings of waypoints incorporating jet routes, in order to improve DWR route acceptability. An approach is developed that can be incorporated into DWR, advising routings with high historical usage and savings potential similar to that of the nominal DWR advisory. It is hypothesized that modifying a nominal DWR routing to one that is commonly used, and nearby, will result in more actual savings since common routings are generally familiar and operationally acceptable to air traffic control. The approach allows routing segments with high historical usage to be concatenated to form routes that meet all DWR constraints. The relevance of a route's historical usage to its acceptance by dispatchers and air traffic control is quantified by analyzing historical DWR data. Results indicate that while historical usage may be less of a concern to flight dispatchers accepting or rejecting DWR advised route corrections, it may be

  19. Route to Attosecond Nonlinear Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, F.; Kienberger, R.; Graf, U.; Schweinberger, W.; Fiess, M.; Goulielmakis, E.; Serebryannikov, E. E.; Zheltikov, A. M.; Schultze, M.; Krausz, F.; Azzeer, A. M.

    2010-12-10

    We demonstrate generation of coherent microjoule-scale, low-order harmonic supercontinua in the deep and vacuum ultraviolet (4-9 eV), resulting from the nonlinear transformations of near-single-cycle laser pulses in a gas cell. We show theoretically that their formation is connected to a novel nonlinear regime, holding promise for the generation of powerful deep-UV and vacuum ultraviolet subfemtosecond pulses. Our work opens the route to pump-probe spectroscopy of subfemtosecond-scale valence-shell phenomena in atoms, molecules, and condensed matter.

  20. View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel Putnam Memorial - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  1. Optical data self-routing using address decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppa, P.; Chavel, P.; Oudar, J. L.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Schnell, J. Ph.; Pocholle, J. P.

    1994-12-01

    We present an optoelectronic self-routing packet switch for digital data commutation applications. The routing of the input data is determined by the optical decoding of the destination address coded in the packet header preceding the data bits. As proof of the operating principle, a one input 64 output demonstration system was built. The experiment is based on the association of two 8 × 8 arrays of GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well electro-optical modulators and optical bistable devices. We have demonstrated the optical address decoding in our first experiments by operating individually the channels of the set-up. Nous présentons un autocommutateur optoélectronique pour signaux numériques organisés en paquets de bits. Le routage des paquets entrant dans le commutateur est déterminé par le décodage optique de l'adresse de destination présente dans l'en-tête de chaque paquet. Pour valider ce principe, un système démonstrateur de commutation d'une voie d'entrée vers 64 voies de sortie a été construit. L'expérience est basée sur l'association d'une matrice de 8 × 8 modulateurs électro-optiques et d'un composant bistable optique à structure de puits quantiques multiples en GaAs/GaAlAs. L'opération de décodage d'adresses a été montrée par nos premières expériences sur les voies du système prises une par une.

  2. A novel load-balanced fixed routing (LBFR) algorithm for wavelength routed optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Gangxiang; Li, Yongcheng; Peng, Limei

    2011-11-01

    In the wavelength-routed optical transport networks, fixed shortest path routing is one of major lightpath service provisioning strategies, which shows simplicity in network control and operation. Specifically, once a shortest route is found for a node pair, the route is always used for any future lightpath service provisioning, which therefore does not require network control and management system to maintain any active network-wide link state database. On the other hand, the fixed shortest path routing strategy suffers from the disadvantage of unbalanced network traffic load distribution and network congestion because it keeps on employing the same fixed shortest route between each pair of nodes. To avoid the network congestion and meanwhile retain the operational simplicity, in this study we develop a Load-Balanced Fixed Routing (LBFR) algorithm. Through a training process based on a forecasted network traffic load matrix, the proposed algorithm finds a fixed (or few) route(s) for each node pair and employs the fixed route(s) for lightpath service provisioning. Different from the fixed shortest path routes between node pairs, these routes can well balance traffic load within the network when they are used for lightpath service provisioning. Compared to the traditional fixed shortest path routing algorithm, the LBFR algorithm can achieve much better lightpath blocking performance according to our simulation and analytical studies. Moreover, the performance improvement is more significant with the increase of network nodal degree.

  3. 78 FR 37652 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kenosha, Racine, Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond Du...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... advertising industry, throughout the project as well as at 6 public information meetings held in May 2012, has.... SUMMARY: The FHWA is issuing this revised notice to advise the public that FHWA and Wisconsin Department... off- property outdoor advertising regulations, the change in route number, and potential...

  4. Routing and Allocation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Communication Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, Chelsea

    Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) teams are anticipated to provide much needed support for human intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence, imagery intelligence, and open source intelligence through algorithms, software, and automation. Therefore, it is necessary to have autonomous algorithms that route multiple UAVs effectively and efficiently throughout missions and that these are realizable in the real-world given the associated uncertainties. Current routing strategies ignore communication constraints altogether. In reality, communication can be restricted by bandwidth, line-of-sight, maximum communication ranges, or a need for uninterrupted transmission. Generating autonomous algorithms that work effectively around these communication constraints is key for the future of UAV surveillance applications. In this work, both current and new routing strategies for UAVS are analyzed to determine how communications impact efficiency of information return. It is shown that under certain communication conditions, a new approach on routing can be more efficient than typically adopted strategies. This new approach defines and presents a new formulation based on a minimum delivery latency objective function. The problem is formulated such that information is not considered delivered until it is returned back to a high-bandwidth connection (depot) which is common when communication is restricted. The size of the region is shown to be dependent upon distance between requests, UAV bandwidth, UAV velocity, and data size, but it was shown that for large-sized data, long distances, and low bandwidth, it is generally better to route UAVs with this new minimum latency objective. With the added decision of when to deliver information to a high-bandwidth connection, an already computationally complex problem grows even faster. Because of scaling issues, a heuristic algorithm was developed that was constructed by analyzing the optimal

  5. VISIR-I: small vessels - least-time nautical routes using wave forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannarini, Gianandrea; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Oddo, Paolo; Iafrati, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    A new numerical model for the on-demand computation of optimal ship routes based on sea-state forecasts has been developed. The model, named VISIR (discoVerIng Safe and effIcient Routes) is designed to support decision-makers when planning a marine voyage. The first version of the system, VISIR-I, considers medium and small motor vessels with lengths of up to a few tens of metres and a displacement hull. The model is comprised of three components: a route optimization algorithm, a mechanical model of the ship, and a processor of the environmental fields. The optimization algorithm is based on a graph-search method with time-dependent edge weights. The algorithm is also able to compute a voluntary ship speed reduction. The ship model accounts for calm water and added wave resistance by making use of just the principal particulars of the vessel as input parameters. It also checks the optimal route for parametric roll, pure loss of stability, and surfriding/broaching-to hazard conditions. The processor of the environmental fields employs significant wave height, wave spectrum peak period, and wave direction forecast fields as input. The topological issues of coastal navigation (islands, peninsulas, narrow passages) are addressed. Examples of VISIR-I routes in the Mediterranean Sea are provided. The optimal route may be longer in terms of miles sailed and yet it is faster and safer than the geodetic route between the same departure and arrival locations. Time savings up to 2.7 % and route lengthening up to 3.2 % are found for the case studies analysed. However, there is no upper bound for the magnitude of the changes of such route metrics, which especially in case of extreme sea states can be much greater. Route diversions result from the safety constraints and the fact that the algorithm takes into account the full temporal evolution and spatial variability of the environmental fields.

  6. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol. PMID:26364639

  7. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-09-02

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol.

  8. Near real-time traffic routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chaowei (Inventor); Cao, Ying (Inventor); Xie, Jibo (Inventor); Zhou, Bin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A near real-time physical transportation network routing system comprising: a traffic simulation computing grid and a dynamic traffic routing service computing grid. The traffic simulator produces traffic network travel time predictions for a physical transportation network using a traffic simulation model and common input data. The physical transportation network is divided into a multiple sections. Each section has a primary zone and a buffer zone. The traffic simulation computing grid includes multiple of traffic simulation computing nodes. The common input data includes static network characteristics, an origin-destination data table, dynamic traffic information data and historical traffic data. The dynamic traffic routing service computing grid includes multiple dynamic traffic routing computing nodes and generates traffic route(s) using the traffic network travel time predictions.

  9. Distributed multiple path routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Wang, San-Xiu; Wu, Ling-Wei; Mei, Pan; Yang, Xu-Hua; Wen, Guang-Hui

    2016-12-01

    Routing in complex transmission networks is an important problem that has garnered extensive research interest in the recent years. In this paper, we propose a novel routing strategy called the distributed multiple path (DMP) routing strategy. For each of the O-D node pairs in a given network, the DMP routing strategy computes and stores multiple short-length paths that overlap less with each other in advance. And during the transmission stage, it rapidly selects an actual routing path which provides low transmission cost from the pre-computed paths for each transmission task, according to the real-time network transmission status information. Computer simulation results obtained for the lattice, ER random, and scale-free networks indicate that the strategy can significantly improve the anti-congestion ability of transmission networks, as well as provide favorable routing robustness against partial network failures.

  10. Isomorphic routing on a toroidal mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Weizhen; Nicol, David M.

    1993-01-01

    We study a routing problem that arises on SIMD parallel architectures whose communication network forms a toroidal mesh. We assume there exists a set of k message descriptors (xi, yi), where (xi, yi) indicates that the ith message's recipient is offset from its sender by xi hops in one mesh dimension, and yi hops in the other. Every processor has k messages to send, and all processors use the same set of message routing descriptors. The SIMD constraint implies that at any routing step, every processor is actively routing messages with the same descriptors as any other processor. We call this isomorphic routing. Our objective is to find the isomorphic routing schedule with least makespan. We consider a number of variations on the problem, yielding complexity results from O(k) to NP-complete. Most of our results follow after we transform the problem into a scheduling problem, where it is related to other well-known scheduling problems.

  11. Zone routing in a torus network

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  12. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  13. Advances in optimal routing through computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paz, I. M.

    1977-01-01

    The optimal routing problem is defined. Progress in solving the problem during the previous decade is reviewed, with special emphasis on technical developments made during the last few years. The relationships between the routing, the throughput, and the switching technology used are discussed and their future trends are reviewed. Economic aspects are also briefly considered. Modern technical approaches for handling the routing problems and, more generally, the flow control problems are reviewed.

  14. Automated Routing of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    environments than manned aircraft. Weather effects thus become a crucial part of both operational planning and execution of UAS missions. The U.S. Army...and observed and predicted meteorological (Met) parameters to plan routes through weather and other hazards to carry out missions with maximum...4  4.  Route Planning : Avoiding Adverse Weather Impacts 5  4.1  Manual Routing

  15. New route for hollow materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivaldo-Gómez, C. M.; Ferreira, F. F.; Landi, G. T.; Souza, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    Hollow micro/nano structures form an important family of functional materials. We have used the thermal oxidation process combined with the passage of electric current during a structural phase transition to disclose a colossal mass diffusion transfer of Ti ions. This combination points to a new route for fabrication of hollow materials. A structural phase transition at high temperature prepares the stage by giving mobility to Ti ions and releasing vacancies to the system. The electric current then drives an inward delocalization of vacancies, condensing into voids, and finally turning into a big hollow. This strong physical phenomenon leading to a colossal mass transfer through ionic diffusion is suggested to be driven by a combination of phase transition and electrical current followed by chemical reaction. We show this phenomenon for Ti leading to TiO2 microtube formation, but we believe that it can be used to other metals undergoing structural phase transition at high temperatures.

  16. New route for hollow materials

    PubMed Central

    Rivaldo-Gómez, C. M.; Ferreira, F. F.; Landi, G. T.; Souza, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hollow micro/nano structures form an important family of functional materials. We have used the thermal oxidation process combined with the passage of electric current during a structural phase transition to disclose a colossal mass diffusion transfer of Ti ions. This combination points to a new route for fabrication of hollow materials. A structural phase transition at high temperature prepares the stage by giving mobility to Ti ions and releasing vacancies to the system. The electric current then drives an inward delocalization of vacancies, condensing into voids, and finally turning into a big hollow. This strong physical phenomenon leading to a colossal mass transfer through ionic diffusion is suggested to be driven by a combination of phase transition and electrical current followed by chemical reaction. We show this phenomenon for Ti leading to TiO2 microtube formation, but we believe that it can be used to other metals undergoing structural phase transition at high temperatures. PMID:27554448

  17. Routing and Scheduling Algorithms for WirelessHART Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Marcelo; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communication is a trend nowadays for the industrial environment. A number of different technologies have emerged as solutions satisfying strict industrial requirements (e.g., WirelessHART, ISA100.11a, WIA-PA). As the industrial environment presents a vast range of applications, adopting an adequate solution for each case is vital to obtain good performance of the system. In this context, the routing and scheduling schemes associated with these technologies have a direct impact on important features, like latency and energy consumption. This situation has led to the development of a vast number of routing and scheduling schemes. In the present paper, we focus on the WirelessHART technology, emphasizing its most important routing and scheduling aspects in order to guide both end users and the developers of new algorithms. Furthermore, we provide a detailed literature review of the newest routing and scheduling techniques for WirelessHART, discussing each of their features. These routing algorithms have been evaluated in terms of their objectives, metrics, the usage of the WirelessHART structures and validation method. In addition, the scheduling algorithms were also evaluated by metrics, validation, objectives and, in addition, by multiple superframe support, as well as by the redundancy method used. Moreover, this paper briefly presents some insights into the main WirelessHART simulation modules available, in order to provide viable test platforms for the routing and scheduling algorithms. Finally, some open issues in WirelessHART routing and scheduling algorithms are discussed. PMID:25919371

  18. A survey of routing techniques in store-and-forward and wormhole interconnects.

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, David Michael; Lee, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of algorithms for directing messages through networks of varying topology. These are commonly referred to as routing algorithms in the literature that is presented. In addition to providing background on networking terminology and router basics, the paper explains the issues of deadlock and livelock as they apply to routing. After this, there is a discussion of routing algorithms for both store-and-forward and wormhole-switched networks. The paper covers both algorithms that do and do not adapt to conditions in the network. Techniques targeting structured as well as irregular topologies are discussed. Following this, strategies for routing in the presence of faulty nodes and links in the network are described.

  19. Administration of Substances to Laboratory Animals: Routes of Administration and Factors to Consider

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Patricia V; Brabb, Thea; Pekow, Cynthia; Vasbinder, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Administration of substances to laboratory animals requires careful consideration and planning to optimize delivery of the agent to the animal while minimizing potential adverse experiences from the procedure. For all species, many different routes are available for administration of substances. The research team and IACUC members should be aware of reasons for selecting specific routes and of training and competency necessary for personnel to use these routes effectively. Once a route is selected, issues such as volume of administration, site of delivery, pH of the substance, and other factors must be considered to refine the technique. Inadequate training or inattention to detail during this aspect of a study may result in unintentional adverse effects on experimental animals and confounded results. PMID:22330705

  20. Adaptive MANET Multipath Routing Algorithm Based on the Simulated Annealing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungwook

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network represents a system of wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize network topologies without any preexisting communication infrastructure. Due to characteristics like temporary topology and absence of centralized authority, routing is one of the major issues in ad hoc networks. In this paper, a new multipath routing scheme is proposed by employing simulated annealing approach. The proposed metaheuristic approach can achieve greater and reciprocal advantages in a hostile dynamic real world network situation. Therefore, the proposed routing scheme is a powerful method for finding an effective solution into the conflict mobile ad hoc network routing problem. Simulation results indicate that the proposed paradigm adapts best to the variation of dynamic network situations. The average remaining energy, network throughput, packet loss probability, and traffic load distribution are improved by about 10%, 10%, 5%, and 10%, respectively, more than the existing schemes. PMID:25032241

  1. Administration of substances to laboratory animals: routes of administration and factors to consider.

    PubMed

    Turner, Patricia V; Brabb, Thea; Pekow, Cynthia; Vasbinder, Mary Ann

    2011-09-01

    Administration of substances to laboratory animals requires careful consideration and planning to optimize delivery of the agent to the animal while minimizing potential adverse experiences from the procedure. For all species, many different routes are available for administration of substances. The research team and IACUC members should be aware of reasons for selecting specific routes and of training and competency necessary for personnel to use these routes effectively. Once a route is selected, issues such as volume of administration, site of delivery, pH of the substance, and other factors must be considered to refine the technique. Inadequate training or inattention to detail during this aspect of a study may result in unintentional adverse effects on experimental animals and confounded results.

  2. Data-Centric Multiobjective QoS-Aware Routing Protocol for Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Razzaque, Md. Abdur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we address Quality-of-Service (QoS)-aware routing issue for Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) in delay and reliability domains. We propose a data-centric multiobjective QoS-Aware routing protocol, called DMQoS, which facilitates the system to achieve customized QoS services for each traffic category differentiated according to the generated data types. It uses modular design architecture wherein different units operate in coordination to provide multiple QoS services. Their operation exploits geographic locations and QoS performance of the neighbor nodes and implements a localized hop-by-hop routing. Moreover, the protocol ensures (almost) a homogeneous energy dissipation rate for all routing nodes in the network through a multiobjective Lexicographic Optimization-based geographic forwarding. We have performed extensive simulations of the proposed protocol, and the results show that DMQoS has significant performance improvements over several state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:22346611

  3. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    SciTech Connect

    Lessing, P.A.; Gillman, H.

    1996-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule.

  4. Cri du Chat syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carolina Paes; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Lessa, Fernanda Campos Rosetti; Orsi, Iara Agusta

    2005-01-01

    Cri du Chat Syndrome occurs as a result of a partial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 5. Among the consequent abnormalities are low birth weight, a striking catlike cry in infancy, mental retardation, epicanthal folds, hypertelorism and dental malocclusions. This paper presents a case report on the dental treatment of a 23-year-old patient who received multidisciplinary treatment, including special education and precocious stimulation for carriers of this syndrome.

  5. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block

    PubMed Central

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappji; Pai, Rohini B.; Rao, Raghavendra P.

    2013-01-01

    Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner's syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner's syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus. PMID:23956726

  6. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappji; Pai, Rohini B; Rao, Raghavendra P

    2013-04-01

    Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner's syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner's syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  7. Proprietes de Transport Electronique du Rutile Stoechiometrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keroack, Danielle

    Le rutile est un oxyde metallique qui presente beaucoup de similitudes avec certains perovskites notamment le titanate de barium ou de strontium. Il est comme ces derniers, compose d'un agencement d'octaedres d'oxygene centres sur l'atome de titane. Ces octaedres sont responsables de la forte polarisabilite de ces cristaux et de leur grande constante dielectrique. Leurs proprietes optiques, seuil d'absorption et spectre de phonons, sont par exemple forts semblables. La presente etude vise a determiner la nature du transport electronique dans le rutile stoechiometrique pur et d'en comparer les resultats avec les proprietes de certains perovskites. Nous determinerons par differentes mesures optoelectroniques les parametres caracteristiques des pieges et leur influence sur le transport des electrons et des trous. Les resultats de conductivite et de capacitance de meme que les spectres de photoconductivite dans nos echantillons ont mis en evidence la presence d'au moins cinq niveaux energetiques dans la bande interdite du rutile agissant comme pieges pour les electrons ou pour les trous et qui jouent un role de premiere importance dans le comportement electrique du rutile. Par la technique de charge transitoire, nous determinerons pour la premiere fois dans le rutile stoechiometrique la grandeur de la mobilite de derive des trous a la temperature ambiante soit 3,4 cm^2/V cdots et nous etablierons une borne superieure a la mobilite des electrons soit 0,1 cm^2 /Vcdots.

  8. What Is the Best Route? Route-Finding Strategies of Middle School Students Using GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigglesivorth, John C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes a research project conducted to investigate the strategies developed by middle school students to solve a route-finding problem using Arc View GIS software. Three different types of route-finding strategies were identified. Some students were visual route-finders and used a highly visual strategy; others were logical route…

  9. Dynamic behavior of shortest path routing algorithms for communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsekas, D. P.

    1980-06-01

    Several proposed routing algorithms for store and forward communication networks, including one currently in operation in the ARPANET, route messages along shortest paths computed by using some set of link lengths. When these lengths depend on current traffic conditions as they must in an adaptive algorithm, dynamic behavior questions such as stability convergence, and speed of convergence are of interest. This paper is the first attempt to analyze systematically these issues. It is shown that minimum queuing delay path algorithms tend to exhibit violent oscillatory behavior in the absence of a damping mechanism. The oscillations can be damped by means of several types of schemes, two of which are analyzed in this paper. In the first scheme a constant bias is added to the queuing delay thereby providing a preference towards paths with a small number of links. In the second scheme the effects of several past routings are averaged as, for example, when the link lengths are computed and communicated asynchronously throughout the network.

  10. Laying Out of a Practical Air Route

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, V S; Carroll, T

    1922-01-01

    Unfortunately the problem of laying out an air route has been approached by all who give it consideration as one of the hardest tasks in the world. Whereas, as a matter of fact, a very serviceable air route can be laid out with an absolute minimum of ground work.

  11. Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

  12. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    A Collective Intelligence (COIN) is a community of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed so that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We introduce the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform previous RL-based systems for such routing that have previously been investigated.

  13. 7 CFR 1032.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Route disposition. 1032.3 Section 1032.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1032.3 Route disposition. See § 1000.3....

  14. 7 CFR 1032.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Route disposition. 1032.3 Section 1032.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1032.3 Route disposition. See § 1000.3....

  15. 7 CFR 1032.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Route disposition. 1032.3 Section 1032.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1032.3 Route disposition. See § 1000.3....

  16. 7 CFR 1032.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Route disposition. 1032.3 Section 1032.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1032.3 Route disposition. See § 1000.3....

  17. 7 CFR 1032.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Route disposition. 1032.3 Section 1032.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1032.3 Route disposition. See § 1000.3....

  18. 14 CFR 121.115 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Route width. 121.115 Section 121.115 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Areas and Routes for Supplemental Operations §...

  19. Influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite du laiton monophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholley, Airy

    La connaissance des proprietes et du comportement d'un materiau en usinage est primordiale pour optimiser son utilisation et obtenir une usinabilite maximale. Dans ce but, l'etude de la modification de la ductilite par traitement thermiques sur plusieurs criteres d'usinabilite tels que les efforts de coupe, la rugosite, les bavures et la formation du copeau a ete menee sur le laiton monophase. A cette fin, l'influence du traitement thermique sur la microstructure du laiton a d'abord ete etudiee. La taille des grains et la durete ont permis de determiner les proprietes mecaniques des etats metallurgiques. Des essais de percage ont ensuite ete effectues sur les etats metallurgiques H01 (99HV), OS100 (88HV) et OS250 (47HV) pour regarder l'influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite. Cette etude experimentale a permis de comprendre l'influence du taux de laminage et de la temperature de recuit sur les proprietes mecaniques. Les essais d'usinabilite ont ensuite permis de prouver que les efforts de coupe sont dependants des conditions de coupe mais pas de la ductilite dans les etats metallurgiques testes. La taille des bavures augmente avec la ductilite et la vitesse de coupe, et diminue avec l'avance. La rugosite de la surface des trous apres l'usinage a egalement ete etudiee. Il a aussi ete prouve par une etude sur les copeaux que la temperature croit avec la vitesse de coupe. L'analyse de la segmentation des copeaux n'a en revanche pas permis de trouver une correlation significative avec les traitements thermiques testes. Enfin, le revetement de l'outil a montre une grande importance sur l'usinabilite du materiau. Il a ete conclu que l'usinabilite du laiton C26000 (CuZn30) est meilleure lorsqu'on travaille dans un etat metallurgique dur. Ces conclusions sont valables pour le laiton monophase etudie, il serait interessant d'examiner aussi le cas des laitons biphases.

  20. Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño; Abbas, Cláudia Jacy Barenco

    2009-01-01

    The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on developing optimization techniques in the area of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22291515

  1. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2015-03-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how information may be specifically communicated and dynamically routed in these systems is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that collective dynamical states systematically control patterns of information sharing and transfer in networks, as measured by delayed mutual information and transfer entropies between activities of a network's units. For oscillatory networks we analyze how individual unit properties, the connectivity structure and external inputs all provide means to flexibly control information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve communication patterns at all levels and show how local interventions within one sub-network may remotely control the non-local network-wide routing of information. This theory helps understanding information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  2. Proceedings of the distributed utility valuation project institutional issues workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    These proceedings summarize the discussions during a one-day working session on institutional issues related to the distributed utility (DU) concept. The purpose of the session was to provide an initial assessment of the {open_quotes}institutional{close_quotes} issues, including legal, regulatory, industry structure, utility organization, competition, and related matters that may affect the development and the relationships among distributed utility stakeholders. The assessment was to identify institutional barriers to utilities realizing benefits of the distributed concept (should these benefits be confirmed), as well as to identify opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders for moving ahead to more easily capture these benefits.

  3. Syngas route to adipic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kealing, H.S.

    1986-03-01

    In an era of escalating hydrocarbon prices, the development of new technology to synthesize large volume chemical intermediates from the least expensive sources of carbon and hydrogen has been a research area of increasing intensity. Adipic acid is prepared commercially by oxidative processes using either benzene or phenol as the raw material base. Since both benzene and phenol prices track with the price of crude oil, future adipic acid price will increase as the oil reserve decreases. Thus, there is a need for a new process to produce adipic acid from cheap, and readily available, raw materials such as butadiene obtained as a by-product from world scale olefin plants. One such process that capitalizes on the use of butadiene as a raw material is BASF's two-step carbonylation route to adipic acid. The butadiene in the C/sub 4/ cut from a steam cracker is transformed by a two-stage carbonylation with carbon monoxide and methanol into adipic acid dimethyl ester. Hydrolysis converts the ester into adipic acid. BASF is now engineering a 130 mm pound per year commercial plant based on this technology.

  4. Drug targeting through pilosebaceous route.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Rashmi; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-10-01

    Local skin targeting is of interest for the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industry. A topically applied substance has basically three possibilities to penetrate into the skin: transcellular, intercellular, and follicular. The transfollicular path has been largely ignored because hair follicles constitute only 0.1% of the total skin. The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. Nonetheless, the hair follicle has great potential for skin treatment, owing to its deep extension into the dermis and thus provides much deeper penetration and absorption of compounds beneath the skin than seen with the transdermal route. In the case of skin diseases and of cosmetic products, delivery to sweat glands or to the pilosebaceous unit is essential for the effectiveness of the drug. Increased accumulation in the pilosebaceous unit could treat alopecia, acne and skin cancer more efficiently and improve the effect of cosmetic substances and nutrients. Therefore, we review herein various drug delivery systems, including liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, lipid nanocarriers, gene therapy and discuss the results of recent researches. We also review the drugs which have been investigated for pilosebaceous delivery.

  5. Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan Hoover

    2009-11-16

    This plan discusses the current energy use on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, the current status of the Tribe's energy program, as well as the issues and concerns with energy on the reservation. This plan also identifies and outlines energy opportunities, goals, and objectives for the Tribe to accomplish. The overall goal of this plan is to address the energy situation of the reservation in a holistic manner for the maximum benefit to the Tribe. This plan is an evolving document that will be re-evaluated as the Tribe's energy situation changes.

  6. CURRENT STATE OF PREDICTING THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current State of Predicting the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE.

    Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...

  7. La reconstruction du sourcil par greffon composite du cuir chevelu: une astuce pour faciliter la technique

    PubMed Central

    El Omari, Mounia; El Mazouz, Samir; Gharib, Noureddine; EL Abbassi, Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Les sourcils jouent un rôle important dans l’équilibre esthétique du visage. Leur reconstruction ou ophriopoïése, après séquelle de brûlure fait partie intégrante du programme de réhabilitation de la face brûlée. Plusieurs techniques ont été décrites. Nous insistons ici sur l'intérêt d'une technique simple, à la portée de tous les chirurgiens, et dont la méthode et les résultats peuvent être améliorés par un dessin bien planifié des zones donneuse et receveuse: la greffe composite prélevée au niveau du cuir chevelu dessinée à l'aide d'un calque du sourcil controlatéral. PMID:26401195

  8. Human Poisoning Through Atypical Routes of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Behal, Niharika; Wong, Alan; Mantara, Ruzly; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-02-01

    There are over 2 million human exposure cases reported to United States poison centers annually. Much of the data involves exposure through ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation, ocular, or parenteral routes. There is limited data characterizing exposure via atypical routes. We conducted a retrospective review of the California Poison Control System Database for a 24-month period from January 2012 to December 2013 for poison exposure that occurred through the otic, vaginal, or rectal route. There were a total of 634 cases involving single-route and single-substance atypical poison exposure. There were 287 (45%) cases of otic exposure, 190 (30.0%) cases of vaginal exposure, and 157 (25%) cases of rectal exposure. Five hundred forty (85%) of the cases were unintentional. Gasoline exposure through the otic route occurred in 83 (13.1%) cases, followed by hydrogen peroxide (4.7%), acetaminophen (3.8%), and miconazole (2.7%). Adverse effects occurred in 336 (53%) cases. No deaths were reported. The most common treatment was observation only, occurring in 396 (62.4%) cases. The majority of the cases did not warrant hospital evaluation (73.5%). This is the first retrospective characterization study of atypical routes of poison exposure. These results may provide education to providers and the public regarding risks of exposure to substances through atypical routes.

  9. Suivi après le traitement du cancer du sein

    PubMed Central

    Sisler, Jeffrey; Chaput, Geneviève; Sussman, Jonathan; Ozokwelu, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Offrir aux médecins de famille un résumé des recommandations fondées sur les données probantes pour guider les soins aux survivantes traitées pour le cancer du sein. Qualité des données Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans MEDLINE entre 2000 et 2016 à l’aide des mots-clés anglais suivants : breast cancer, survivorship, follow-up care, aftercare, guidelines et survivorship care plans, en se concentrant sur la revue des lignes directrices publiées récemment par les organismes nationaux de cancérologie. Les données étaient de niveaux I à III. Message principal Les soins aux survivantes comportent 4 facettes : surveillance et dépistage, prise en charge des effets à long terme, promotion de la santé et coordination des soins. La surveillance des récidives ne se traduit que par une mammographie annuelle, et le dépistage d’autres cancers doit suivre les lignes directrices basées sur la population. La prise en charge des effets à long terme du cancer et de son traitement aborde des problèmes courants tels la douleur, la fatigue, le lymphœdème, la détresse et les effets indésirables des médicaments, de même que les préoccupations à long terme comme la santé du cœur et des os. La promotion de la santé met en relief les bienfaits de l’activité chez les survivantes du cancer, avec l’accent mis sur l’activité physique. Les soins aux survivantes sont de meilleure qualité lorsque divers services et professionnels de la santé participent aux soins, et le médecin de famille joue un rôle important dans la coordination des soins. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont de plus en plus souvent les principaux fournisseurs de soins de suivi après le traitement du cancer du sein. Le cancer du sein doit être considéré comme une affection médicale chronique, même chez les femmes en rémission, et les patientes profitent de la même approche que celle utilisée pour les autres affections chroniques en

  10. Research on the change of chemical composition in productive process of Re Du Ning injection by HPLC/Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Li, Yan-Jing; Zhang, Chun-Xiao; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Bi, Yu-An; Xiao, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/Q-TOF MS) was developed for the analysis of chemical composition change in the production process of Re Du Ning injection, a Chinese medicine preparation with a combination of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and Artemisia annua L. A total of 90 compounds from raw materials-intermediates-Re Du Ning injection were detected; among them, 55 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized, and the characteristic ions of different types of compounds were described. Based on these studies, the different types of compounds in the various process routes were analyzed. A total of 28 compounds, including seven iridoid glycosides and six monoterpenes from G. jasminoides Ellis, five iridoid glycosides, nine phenolic acids and one unknown compound from L. japonica Thunb., were transferred to Re Du Ning injection, and two unknown compounds were generated in the production process of Re Du Ning injection. The results indicated that the Chinese Medicine Pharmaceutical process control is very important. This method could provide some reference for other Chinese medicine preparations.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of cri du chat syndrome with encephalocele.

    PubMed

    Bakkum, Jamie N; Watson, William J; Johansen, Keith L; Brost, Brian C

    2005-10-01

    A 19-year-old primigravida was found to have an encephalocele on screening ultrasound study. Amniocentesis indicated cri du chat syndrome, 5p-. Although cri du chat syndrome has been noted in association with central nervous system malformations, encephalocele is a rare finding in this syndrome.

  12. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  13. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  14. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  15. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  16. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  17. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  18. Effective Mobile Routing Through Dynamic Addressing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    WIRELESS BATTLEFIELD NETWORKS USING UAVS,” 2001. [7] Elizabeth . M. Royer, Chai-Keong Toh, “A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad-Hoc Mobile...Wireless Networks,” IEEE personal Communications, April 1999. [8] S. Corson , J. Macker, “Mobile Ad-hoc Networking (MANET) : Routing Protocol...Charles E. Perkins, Elizabeth M. Royer, “Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing,”wmcsa, p.90, Second IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computer System and

  19. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryam; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à des tumeurs plus volumineuses. Parallèlement à cette extension des indications de conservation mammaire, on a observé le développement de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques notamment la chirurgie oncoplastique, technique du ganglion sentinelle et chirurgie stéréotaxique, dont les résultats initiaux sont très encouragent. A travers cette étude réalisée dans le service de gynécologie et obstétrique II du CHU HASSAN II de FES au MAROC, après l'analyse rétrospective de 16 patientes traitées par traitement conservateur et oncoplastie, nous avons voulus montrer notre aptitude a réalisé ses techniques chirurgicales et a bien prendre en charge ces patientes, mais aussi évaluer ces techniques en termes de résultat carcinologique et de résultat esthétique, aussi en terme de survie globale, survie sans métastase et en termes de récidive locale entre les plasties mammaires et les traitements usuels: mastectomie et traitement conservateur classique. PMID:26430477

  20. The ventral-hypothalamic input route: a common neural network for abstract cognition and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L

    2014-02-01

    hypothalamic input route for abstract cognition and sexuality. Physiologically, the hypothalamic (dual-autonomic) route of the ARAS that processes abstract and sexual information is incompatible with the thalamic (somatic) route of the ARAS that processes concrete information, such that the two distinct routes would be needed to support the mind processes (awareness, consciousness, sexuality) through their own informational inputs from the environment. Informationally, the concrete external data are differentiated from abstract and sexual external data, so that they should be transmitted to cortex through distinct input routes. Pathologically, the hardware and/or software impairments of the hypothalamic default-mode network generate disturbed messages within the brain (related to information transmitted on this route), laying at the basis of mental and sexual disorders. The novel conceptualisations presented in the present paper help address issues surrounding the mind-brain dichotomy and, in doing so, suggest new possible avenues for exploration in the treatment and interventions for cognitive and sexual problems.

  1. Continuous improvement journey at Du Pont photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Robert K.

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the history and experiences of Du Pont Photomasks in their efforts to integrate the continuous improvement philosophy and practices embodied in the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria into their way of doing business. A case study of key learnings in this almost four year long process is presented. Specific topics discussed include the process applied to achieve ISO 9000 certification, the quality systems deployed in this effort, and the use of a balanced set of business and quality metrics to assess and improve upon performance.

  2. La fin du jeûne?

    PubMed Central

    Naugler, Christopher; Sidhu, Davinder

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter une mise à jour sur l’utilité clinique de ne pas être à jeun par rapport à l’être pour l’analyse des lipides dans le but d’améliorer l’observance par les patients, leur sécurité et l’évaluation clinique dans les tests du cholestérol. Qualité des données Les recommandations sont classées comme étant fondées sur des données probantes fortes, acceptables ou faibles (conflictuelles ou insuffisantes), selon les classifications adoptées par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Message principal Le dépistage de la dyslipidémie comme facteur de risque de coronaropathie et la prescription de médicaments hypolipidémiants sont des activités importantes en soins primaires. De récentes données probantes remettent en question la nécessité d’être à jeun pour la mesure des lipides. Dans des études sur la population, le cholestérol total, le cholestérol à lipoprotéines de haute densité et le cholestérol à lipoprotéines autres qu’à haute densité variaient tous d’en moyenne 2 % à jeun. Pour un dépistage de routine, la mesure du cholestérol sans être à jeun est maintenant une option de rechange raisonnable à l’analyse à jeun. Pour les patients diabétiques, l’exigence d’être à jeun peut représenter un important problème de sécurité en raison des possibilités d’hypoglycémie. Pour la surveillance des triglycérides et du cholestérol à lipoprotéines de basse densité chez les patients qui prennent des médicaments hypolipidémiants, le jeûne devient important. Conclusion Être à jeun pour la détermination routinière des niveaux lipidiques est largement inutile et il est improbable que le jeûne influence la stratification du risque clinique chez le patient, tandis que la mesure sans être à jeun pourrait améliorer l’observance par le patient et sa sécurité.

  3. Mass Conservative and Total Variation Diminishing Implementation of Various Hydrological Flow Routing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanenberg, Dirk; Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological flow routing methods are widely used as components of distributed hydrological models and in operational flow forecasting systems, often in combination with data assimilation and predictive control techniques. The most popular ones such as the Muskingum-Cunge approach implement variable parameters to relate the storage to the topology of the river reach and numerical parameters of the schematization. Although this often increases the accuracy of the approach, it may also lead to mass errors and other numerical issues. Whereas fixes for the mass error has been previously discussed by several authors, the numerical robustness is still not properly addressed. We present a novel approach to reformulate hydrological routing schemes as a cascade of implicit pool routing models. Its numerical implementation is mass conservative and total variation diminishing, i.e. the solution does not oscillate or overshoot, for arbitrary time steps. It is shown that these numerical properties are achieved regardless of the accuracy of the scheme and its physical routing characteristics. Numerical experiments compare the computational performance and accuracy of the novel, reformulated approach with existing schemes including linear reservoir routing, nonlinear reservoir routing, and the original Muskingum-Cunge method. We show that the approach can reproduce the original schemes, if these are already mass conservative, otherwise fixes the mass conservation in the reformulated version and improves the solution at sharp gradients by suppressing numerical oscillations, overshooting or negative flows.

  4. Are GIS-modelled routes a useful proxy for the actual routes followed by commuters?

    PubMed

    Dalton, Alice M; Jones, Andrew P; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2015-06-01

    Active commuting offers the potential to increase physical activity among adults by being built into daily routines. Characteristics of the route to work may influence propensity to walk or cycle. Geographic information system (GIS) software is often used to explore this by modelling routes between home and work. However, if the validity of modelled routes depends on the mode of travel used, studies of environmental determinants of travel may be biased. We aimed to understand how well modelled routes reflect those actually taken, and what characteristics explain these differences. We compared modelled GIS shortest path routes with actual routes measured using QStarz BT-Q1000X Global Positioning System (GPS) devices in a free-living sample of adults working in Cambridge and using varying travel modes. Predictors of differences, according to length and percentage overlap, between the two route sets were assessed using multilevel regression models and concordance coefficients. The 276 trips, made by 51 participants, were on average 27% further than modelled routes, with an average geographical overlap of 39%. However, predictability of the route depended on travel mode. For route length, there was moderate-to-substantial agreement for journeys made on foot and by bicycle. Route overlap was lowest for trips made by car plus walk (22%). The magnitude of difference depended on other journey characteristics, including travelling via intermediate destinations, distance, and use of busy roads. In conclusion, GIS routes may be acceptable for distance estimation and to explore potential routes, particularly active commuting. However, GPS should be used to obtain accurate estimates of environmental contexts in which commuting behaviour actually occurs. Public health researchers should bear these considerations in mind when studying the geographical determinants and health implications of commuting behaviour, and when recommending policy changes to encourage active travel.

  5. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori; Murafuji, Toshihiro

    2015-12-01

    We have been investigating "quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development" using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF3 as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings.

  6. 49 CFR 236.767 - Locking, route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.767 Locking, route. Electric locking, effective when a train passes a signal displaying an aspect for it...

  7. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori; Murafuji, Toshihiro

    2015-12-31

    We have been investigating “quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development” using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF{sub 3} as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings.

  8. Routing to preserve energy in wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Frederick J., IV

    Many applications for wireless radio networks require that some or all radios in the network rely on batteries as energy sources. In many cases, battery replacement is infeasible, expensive, or impossible. Communication protocols for such networks should be designed to preserve limited energy supplies. Because the choice of a route to a traffic sink influences how often radios must transmit and receive, poor route selection can quickly deplete the batteries of certain nodes. Previous work has shown that a network's lifetime can be extended by assigning higher routing costs to nodes with little remaining energy and nodes that must use high transmitter power to reach neighbor radios. Although using remaining energy levels in routing metrics can increase network lifetime, in practice, there may be significant error in a node's estimate of its battery level. The effect of battery level uncertainty on routing is examined. Routing metrics are presented that are designed to explicitly account for uncertainty in remaining energy. Simulation results using several statistical models for this uncertainty show that the proposed metrics perform well. In addition to knowledge of current battery levels, estimates of how quickly radios are consuming energy may be helpful in extending network lifetime. We present a family of routing metrics that incorporate a radio's rate of energy consumption. Simulation results show that the proposed family of metrics performs well under a variety of traffic models and network topologies. Route selection can also be complicated by time-varying link conditions. Radios may be subject to interference from other nearby communication systems, hostile jammers, and other, non-communication sources of noise. A route that first appears to have only a small cost may later require much greater energy expenditure when transmitting packets. Frequent route selection can help radios avoid using links with interference, but additional routing control messages

  9. Mesure du taux de la capture radiative du muon par l'hydrogene liquide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkmans, Guy

    À basse énergie, l'interaction faible entre leptons et quarks est décrite par une interaction de la forme courant × courant de type V - A. La présence de l'interaction forte induit des couplages additionnels qui doivent être déterminés expérimentalement. De ceux-ci, le couplage pseudoscalaire induit, gp , est mesuré avec la plus grande incertitude et fait l'objet de la présente recherche. L'hypothèse du Courant Axial Partiellement Conservé (CAPC) et l'usage de la relation de Goldberger-Treiman relie gp au couplage axial ga . Cette relation a été vérifiée traditionnellement par la Capture Ordinaire du Muon (COM) à une valeur fixe du moment de transfert q. La Capture Radiative du Muon (CRM), m- p-->nnmg , est un meilleur outil pour l'étude de gp à cause de sa dépendance variable en q2 qui offre une plus grande sensibilité dans la partie à haute énergie du spectre des photons. Toutefois, le petit rapport d'embranchement (~10-8) de la CRM par rapport à la désintégration du muon a retardé cette mesure jusqu'à ce jour. La théorie et les difficultés expérimentales associées à la détection des photons de CRM sont présentées au deuxième chapitre. On décrit ensuite, au troisième chapitre, les composantes du système de détection. Ce détecteur est un spectromètre à paires de grand angle solide (~3p) et qui permet l'observation des photons par l'analyse des électrons et des positrons de photo-conversion. Ainsi, le bruit de fond important des neutrons de la COM ne constitue pas un problème pour cette mesure. Nous décrivons, au quatrième chapitre, toutes les étapes de l'analyse, nécessaires pour la réduction des multiples bruits de fond. Le cinquième chapitre présente le calcul des efficacités ainsi que l'estimation des erreurs systématiques. Le sixième chapitre démontre comment l'on extrait le rapport d'embranchement pour la CRM ainsi que la valeur ae gp . On insiste sur la dépendance de gp en fonction de la valeur de

  10. The prediction of en route noise levels for a DC-9 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Donald S.

    1988-01-01

    En route noise for advanced propfan powered aircraft has become an issue of concern for the Federal Aviation Administration. The NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) is used to demonstrate the source noise and propagation effects for an aircraft in level flight up to 35,000 feet altitude. One-third octave band spectra of the source noise, atmospheric absorption loss, and received noise are presented. The predicted maximum A-weighted sound pressure level is compared to measured data from the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden. ANOPP is shown to be an effective tool in evaluating the en route noise characteristics of a DC-9 aircraft.

  11. Mergers and Anti-trust Issues in Recent CAB Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    The airline industry is surveyed-particularly domestic trunklines-in relation to collective approaches to industry concerns. These actions are classified by the apparent degree of anti-trust issue present. Recent route merger cases are considered from the CAB staff viewpoint.

  12. The Pic du Midi solar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koechlin, L.

    2015-12-01

    We carry a long term survey of the solar activity with our coronagraphic system at Pic du Midi de Bigorre in the French Pyrenees (CLIMSO). It is a set of two solar telescopes and two coronagraphs, taking one frame per minute for each of the four channels : Solar disk in H-α (656.28 nm), prominences in H-α, disk in Ca II (393.3 nm), prominences in He I (1083 nm), all year long, weather permitting. Since 2015 we also take images of the FeXIII corona (1074.7 nm) at the rate of one every 10 minutes. These images cover a large field: 1.25 solar diameter, 2k*2K pixels, and are freely downloadable form a database. The improvements made since 2015 concern an autoguiding system for better centering of the solar disk behind the coronagraphic masks, and a new Fe XIII channel at λ=1074.7 nm. In the near future we plan to provide radial velocity maps of the disc and polarimetry maps of the disk and corona. This survey took its present form in 2007 and we plan to maintain image acquisition in the same or better experimental conditions for a long period: one or several solar cycles if possible. During the partial solar eclipse of March 20, 2015, the CLIMSO instruments and the staff at Pic du Midi operating it have provided several millions internet users with real time images of the Sun and Moon during all the phenomenon.

  13. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  14. Annoyance caused by aircraft en route noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance response of people on the ground to enroute noise generated by aircraft at cruise conditions. The en route noises were ground level recordings of eight advanced turboprop aircraft flyovers and six conventional turbofan flyovers. The eight advanced turboprop enroute noises represented the NASA Propfan Test Assessment aircraft operating at different combinations of altitude, aircraft Mach number, and propeller tip speed. The conventional turbofan en route noises represented six different commercial airliners. The overall durations of the en route noises varied from approximately 40 to 160 sec. In the experiment, 32 subjects judged the annoyance of the en route noises as well as recordings of the takeoff and landing noises of each of 5 conventional turboprop and 5 conventional turbofan aircraft. Each of the noises was presented at three sound pressure levels to the subjects in an anechoic listening room. Analysis of the judgments found small differences in annoyance between three combinations of aircraft type and operation. Current tone and corrections did not significantly improve en route annoyance prediction. The optimum duration-correction magnitude for en route noise was approximately 1 dB per doubling of effective duration.

  15. Current IT Issues, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Donald Z.; Deblois, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    This article features the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. Administered by the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Committee, whose members review and recommend the set of issues to be presented each year, the survey identifies the issues that leaders in higher education information technology see as their most critical IT challenges. The Top-Ten current IT…

  16. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries.

  17. Brain Stem Hypoplasia Associated with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries. PMID:24265573

  18. Developmental and behavioural characteristics of cri du chat syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, K M; Pigram, J

    1996-01-01

    Developmental and behavioural characteristics were assessed in 27 children with cri du chat syndrome using the Society for the Study of Behavioural Phenotypes questionnaire, which gave information on prenatal and perinatal conditions, neurological problems, and developmental and behavioural difficulties. The findings suggest that the behavioural profile of children with cri du chat syndrome incorporates self injurious behaviour, repetitive movements, hypersensitivity to sound, clumsiness, and obsessive attachments to objects. In terms of a developmental profile, children with cri du chat syndrome were able to communicate their needs, socially interact with others, and have some degree of mobility. PMID:8957962

  19. Metering and routing of liquid quanta in microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Matthew Charles

    Microchemical systems have become increasingly more intricate and complex, and have been used in a wide variety of interesting applications in recent years. However, further advancement of these devices is currently limited by their lack of any significant detection, routing, and scheduling capabilities for the materials moving throughout them. This limited level of control becomes a significant issue when scaling simple, single-channel microfluidic devices to large arrays. The overall goal of this thesis, therefore, is to create and improve several fundamental microfluidic capabilities, including droplet generation, routing, sensing, and scheduling. The integration of these components into larger arrays will also be demonstrated, and will provide a significant step towards more robust and capable heterogeneous microchemical systems. This thesis describes the development of a number of microfluidic handling techniques, including; (i) the detection of individual liquid droplets using electrical position sensors; (ii) the generation and control over the three major microfluidic segmented laminar flow regimes; (iii) the creation of discrete liquid quanta by entirely chip-driven techniques, including on-chip valves and pumps; (iv) the driving around of those resulting liquid quanta; and (v) the combining of multiple microfluidic peristaltic pumps into a multiplexed arrangement, allowing for many pumps to be controlled by a limited number of external pneumatic connections. These techniques were integrated to create an overall microfluidic droplet routing platform, capable of generating and directing individual liquid elements to arbitrary locations within a large microfluidic A I array, using completely chip-driven actuations. As a testbed application, the microfluidic capabilities developed here were utilized in conjunction with an electrohydrodynamic-jet printing process to generate a high resolution heterogeneous printhead.

  20. 1. Aerial view northnortheast, State Route 92 center left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view north-northeast, State Route 92 center left and State Route 100 on right, duck pond, reservoir and farm complex buildings center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  1. 2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and State Route 100 center, Brandywine Creek State Park center right, duck pond and reservoir center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  2. 6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and center, Winterthur Train Station center left, Winterthur Farms dairy barns upper center , duck pond and reservoir center, State Route 92 center right, and Brandywine Creek State Park bottom right. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  3. Un cas de fracture luxation négligée du coude avec conservation de la fonction du coude

    PubMed Central

    Lahrach, Kamal; Ammoumri, Oussama; Mezzani, Amine; Benabid, Mounir; Marzouki, Amine; Boutayeb, Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures luxations du coude sont rares et souvent mal tolérées chez les sujets jeunes actifs. Nous rapportons un cas de fracture-luxation du coude remontant à 20 ans. C'est un jeune de 35 ans, victime il y a 20 ans d'un traumatisme fermé, suite à une chute lors d'un match du football, de son coude gauche occasionnant une fracture-luxation du coude. Le patient a refusé une intervention chirurgicale avec une auto-rééducation. L'examen a mis en évidence une conservation de la fonction du coude. Un bilan radiologique a montré une fracture luxation du coude avec remaniement de la palette humérale. Une abstention thérapeutique a été décidée devant l'ancienneté de la fracture-luxation et la gêne fonctionnelle minime engendrée. Contrairement aux autres séries, la fracture-luxation dans notre cas était bien tolérée malgré le jeune âge du patient. PMID:26113930

  4. A comprehensive survey of energy-aware routing protocols in wireless body area sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree

  5. Automatic Extraction of Destinations, Origins and Route Parts from Human Generated Route Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Mitra, Prasenjit; Klippel, Alexander; Maceachren, Alan

    Researchers from the cognitive and spatial sciences are studying text descriptions of movement patterns in order to examine how humans communicate and understand spatial information. In particular, route directions offer a rich source of information on how cognitive systems conceptualize movement patterns by segmenting them into meaningful parts. Route directions are composed using a plethora of cognitive spatial organization principles: changing levels of granularity, hierarchical organization, incorporation of cognitively and perceptually salient elements, and so forth. Identifying such information in text documents automatically is crucial for enabling machine-understanding of human spatial language. The benefits are: a) creating opportunities for large-scale studies of human linguistic behavior; b) extracting and georeferencing salient entities (landmarks) that are used by human route direction providers; c) developing methods to translate route directions to sketches and maps; and d) enabling queries on large corpora of crawled/analyzed movement data. In this paper, we introduce our approach and implementations that bring us closer to the goal of automatically processing linguistic route directions. We report on research directed at one part of the larger problem, that is, extracting the three most critical parts of route directions and movement patterns in general: origin, destination, and route parts. We use machine-learning based algorithms to extract these parts of routes, including, for example, destination names and types. We prove the effectiveness of our approach in several experiments using hand-tagged corpora.

  6. Routes to Reading and Spelling: Testing the Predictions of Dual-Route Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheriston, Lee; Critten, Sarah; Jones, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Dual-route theory, which emphasizes the importance of lexical and nonlexical routes, makes specific predictions about the kinds of strategies that young students might adopt when attempting to correctly read and spell regular and irregular words. The current study tests these predictions by assessing strategy choice on regular, irregular, and…

  7. Learning multiple routes in homing pigeons.

    PubMed

    Flack, Andrea; Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora

    2014-01-01

    The aerial lifestyle of central-place foraging birds allows wide-ranging movements, raising fundamental questions about their remarkable navigation and memory systems. For example, we know that pigeons (Columba livia), long-standing models for avian navigation, rely on individually distinct routes when homing from familiar sites. But it remains unknown how they cope with the task of learning several routes in parallel. Here, we examined how learning multiple routes influences homing in pigeons. We subjected groups of pigeons to different training protocols, defined by the sequence in which they were repeatedly released from three different sites, either sequentially, in rotation or randomly. We observed that pigeons from all groups successfully developed and applied memories of the different release sites (RSs), irrespective of the training protocol, and that learning several routes in parallel did not impair their capacity to quickly improve their homing efficiency over multiple releases. Our data also indicated that they coped with increasing RS uncertainty by adjusting both their initial behaviour upon release and subsequent homing efficiency. The results of our study broaden our understanding of avian route following and open new possibilities for studying learning and memory in free-flying animals.

  8. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  9. The Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2009-01-01

    Utility companies typically send their meter readers out each day of the billing cycle in order to determine each customer s usage for the period. Customer churn requires the utility company to periodically remove some customer locations from its meter-reading routes. On the other hand, the addition of new customers and locations requires the utility company to add newstops to the existing routes. A utility that does not adjust its meter-reading routes over time can find itself with inefficient routes and, subsequently, higher meter-reading costs. Furthermore, the utility can end up with certain billing days that require substantially larger meter-reading resources than others. However, remedying this problem is not as simple as it may initially seem. Certain regulatory and customer service considerations can prevent the utility from shifting a customer s billing day by more than a few days in either direction. Thus, the problem of reducing the meterreading costs and balancing the workload can become quite difficult. We describe this Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem in more detail and develop an algorithm for providing solutions to a slightly simplified version of the problem. Our algorithm uses a combination of heuristics and integer programming via a three-stage algorithm. We discuss the performance of our procedure on a real-world data set.

  10. Carte du Ciel, San Fernando zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, C.

    2014-06-01

    An updated summary of a future large astrometric catalogue is presented, based on the two most important astrometric projects carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando (ROA). The goal is to make a catalogue of positions and proper motions based on ROA's Cart du Ciel (CdC) and the Astrographic Catalogue (AC) San Fernando zone plates, and the HAMC2 meridian circle catalogue. The CdC and AC plates are being reduced together to provide first-epoch positions while HAMC2 will provide second-epoch ones. New techniques have been applied, that range from using a commercial flatbed scanner to the proper reduction schemes to avoid systematics from it. Only thirty plates (out of 540) remain to be processed, due to scanning problems that are being solved.

  11. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  12. A Secure Cluster-Based Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    PubMed Central

    Almalkawi, Islam T.; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N.

    2011-01-01

    The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption. PMID:22163854

  13. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  14. En route care patient safety: thoughts from the field.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Margaret M; Pierce, Penny; Dukes, Susan; Bridges, Elizabeth J

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the patient safety culture of en route care in the United States Air Force aeromedical evacuation system. Almost 100,000 patients have been transported since 2001. Safety concerns in this unique environment are complex because of the extraordinary demands of multitasking, time urgency, long duty hours, complex handoffs, and multiple stressors of flight. An internet-based survey explored the perceptions and experiences of safety issues among nursing personnel involved throughout the continuum of aeromedical evacuation care. A convenience sample of 236 nurses and medical technicians from settings representing the continuum was studied. Descriptive and nonparametric statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data, and thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. Results indicate that over 90% of respondents agree or strongly agree safety is a priority in their unit and that their unit is responsive to patient safety initiatives. Many respondents described safety incidents or near misses, and these have been categorized as personnel physical capability limitations, environmental threats, medication and equipment issues, and care process problems. Results suggest the care of patients during transport is influenced by the safety culture, human factors, training, experience, and communication. Suggestions to address safety issues emerged from the survey data.

  15. Classification moléculaire du cancer du sein au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Abbass; Yousra, Akasbi; Kaoutar, Znati; Omar, El Mesbahi; Afaf, Amarti; Sanae, Bennis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La classification moléculaire des cancers du sein basée sur l'expression génique puis sur le profil protéique a permis de distinguer cinq groupes moléculaires: luminal A, luminal B, Her2/neu, basal-like et non-classées. L'objectif de cette étude réalisée au CHU Hassan II de Fès est de classer 335 cancers du sein infiltrant en groupes moléculaires, puis de les corréler avec les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques. Méthodes Etude rétrospective étalée sur 45 mois, comportant 335 patientes colligées au CHU pour le diagnostic et le suivi. Les tumeurs sont analysées histologiquement et classées après une étude immunohistochimique en groupes: luminal A, luminal B, Her2+, basal-like et non-classées. Résultats 54.3% des tumeurs sont du groupe luminal A, 16% luminal B, 11.3% Her2+, 11.3% basal-like et 7% non-classées. Le groupe luminal A renferme le plus faible taux de grade III, d'emboles vasculaires ainsi que de métastases; alors que le groupe des non-classées et basal-like représentent un taux élevé de grade III, une faible proportion d'emboles vasculaires et d'envahissement ganglionnaire. Ces facteurs sont significativement élevés dans les groupes luminal B et Her2+ avec un taux de survie globale de 78% et 76% respectivement. Dans le groupe luminal A, la survie globale des patientes est élevée (87%) alors qu'elle n'est que de 49% dans le groupe des triples négatifs (basal-like et non-classés). Conclusion Le groupe luminal B est différent du luminal A et il est de pronostic péjoratif vis à vis du groupe Her2+. Les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques concordent avec le profil moléculaire donc devraient être pris en considération comme facteurs pronostiques. PMID:23396646

  16. Impact socio professionnel de la libération chirurgicale du syndrome du canal carpien

    PubMed Central

    Kraiem, Aouatef Mahfoudh; Hnia, Hajer; Bouzgarrou, Lamia; Henchi, Mohamed Adnène; Khalfallah, Taoufik

    2016-01-01

    L’objectif de notre travail était d’étudier les conséquences socioprofessionnelles d’une libération chirurgicale du SCC. Il s’agit d’une étude transversale portant sur les sujets opérés pour un SCC d’origine professionnelle ; recensés dans le Service de Médecine de Travail et de Pathologies Professionnelles au CHU Tahar Sfar de Mahdia en Tunisie sur une période de 8 ans allant du 1 Janvier 2006 au mois Décembre 2013. Le recueil des données s’est basé sur une fiche d’enquête, portant sur la description des caractéristiques socioprofessionnelles, médicales, et sur le devenir professionnel des participants. Pour étudier les contraintes psychosociales au travail, nous avons adopté le questionnaire de Karasek. La durée d’arrêt de travail après libération chirurgicale du SCC était significativement liée à l’existence d’autres troubles musculo-squelettiques autre que le SCC, la déclaration du SCC en maladie professionnelle et à l’ancienneté professionnelle des salariés. Quant au devenir professionnel des salariés opérés, 50,7% ont gardé le même poste, 15,3% ont bénéficié d’un aménagement de poste et 33,8% ont bénéficié d’un changement de poste dans la même entreprise. Le devenir professionnel de ces salariés était corrélé à leurs qualifications professionnelles et au type de l’atteinte sensitive et/ou motrice du nerf médian à l’EMG. Un certain nombre de facteurs non lésionnels déterminaient la durée de l’arrêt de travail, alors que le devenir professionnel des opérés pour SCC dépendait essentiellement de leurs qualifications professionnelles et des données de l’électromyogramme. Il est certain que des travaux beaucoup plus larges permettraient d’affiner encore ces résultats. PMID:27800089

  17. Geologic and seismic investigations for relocation of Route 128 near Route 28 in Quincy, Mass.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, James E.

    1954-01-01

    In order to obtain information that would aid in locating a base line for the proposed relocation of Route 128 near Route 28 in Quincy, Mass., exploratory geologic and seismic studies were made of an area along a line between a point on present Route 128 approximately 800 feet east of the Milton-Quincy town line to a point on Route 28 approximately 600 feet to the north of the intersection of Route 28 and 128. This work was performed in September 1953 as part of a cooperative program of the Massachusetts Department of Public Works and the United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. Mr. M. E. Chandler and Mr. W. L. Carney, of the Mass. Dept. of Public Works, did the survey for the project and prepared the plans and profiles. Mr. handler also operated the seismic equipment and assisted in the preparation of the seismic velocity data.

  18. APPLICATION AND USE OF DOSE ESTIMATING EXPOSURE MODEL (DEEM) FOR ROUTE TO ROUTE DOSE COMPARISONS AFTER EXPOSURE TO TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Route-to-route extrapolations are a crucial step in many risk assessments. Often the doses which result In toxicological end points in one route must be compared with doses resulting from typical environmental exposures by another route. In this case we used EPA's Dose Estimati...

  19. Theory and New Primitives for Safely Connecting Routing Protocol Instances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    reliability, and load. The current route redistribution procedure handles this incompatibility in a crude fashion. It resets the metric of a redis ...routing instances can also be performed in a link-state manner whereby one routing instance passes on its entire link state database to another...routers B and A, respectively. However, route redis - tribution at multiple points can easily result in routing anomalies [8]. Hence, to support

  20. Baseline requirements of the proposed action for the Transportation Management Division routing models

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important to shippers, carriers, and the general public. This is particularly true for shipments of radioactive material. The shippers are primarily concerned with safety, security, efficiency, and equipment requirements. The carriers are concerned with the potential impact that radioactive shipments may have on their operations--particularly if such materials are involved in an accident. The general public has also expressed concerns regarding the safety of transporting radioactive and other hazardous materials through their communities. Because transportation routes are a central concern in hazardous material transport, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward resolution of these issues. In response to these routing needs, several models have been developed over the past fifteen years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HIGHWAY routing model is used to predict routes for truck transportation, the INTERLINE routing model is used to predict both rail and barge routes, and the AIRPORT locator model is used to determine airports with specified criteria near a specific location. As part of the ongoing improvement of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management Transportation Management Division`s (EM-261) computer systems and development efforts, a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models was held at ORNL on April 27, 1994. The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the existing capabilities of the models and data bases and to review enhancements of the models and data bases to expand their usefulness. The results of the Baseline Requirements Assessment Section will be discussed in this report. The discussions pertaining to the different models are contained in separate sections.

  1. A Survey on Routing Protocols for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changle; Zhang, Hanxiao; Hao, Binbin; Li, Jiandong

    2011-01-01

    and other metrics. Finally some open issues in routing protocol design in large-scale wireless sensor networks and conclusions are proposed. PMID:22163808

  2. Alternative Route Graphs in Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Roland; Dees, Jonathan; Geisberger, Robert; Sanders, Peter

    Every human likes choices. But today's fast route planning algorithms usually compute just a single route between source and target. There are beginnings to compute alternative routes, but there is a gap between the intuition of humans what makes a good alternative and mathematical definitions needed for grasping these concepts algorithmically. In this paper we make several steps towards closing this gap: Based on the concept of an alternative graph that can compactly encode many alternatives, we define and motivate several attributes quantifying the quality of the alternative graph. We show that it is already NP-hard to optimize a simple objective function combining two of these attributes and therefore turn to heuristics. The combination of the refined penalty based iterative shortest path routine and the previously proposed Plateau heuristics yields best results. A user study confirms these results.

  3. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  4. Genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volna, Eva

    2016-06-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization tasks. This problem consists in designing the optimal set of routes for fleet of vehicles in order to serve a given set of customers. Evolutionary algorithms are general iterative algorithms for combinatorial optimization. These algorithms have been found to be very effective and robust in solving numerous problems from a wide range of application domains. This problem is known to be NP-hard; hence many heuristic procedures for its solution have been suggested. For such problems it is often desirable to obtain approximate solutions, so they can be found fast enough and are sufficiently accurate for the purpose. In this paper we have performed an experimental study that indicates the suitable use of genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem.

  5. The Cri-Du-Chat Syndrome: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Stewart C.; Christie, Margarette A.

    1987-01-01

    The developmental history of a 14-year-old girl with Cri-Du-Chat Syndrome (a genetic disorder characterized by a distinctive cry and severe physical and intellectual disabilities) is reported. (Author/DB)

  6. Genetics Home Reference: cri-du-chat syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome March of Dimes: Chromosomal Conditions Merck Manual Consumer Version: Overview of Chromosomal Abnormalities Orphanet: Monosomy 5p ... Pinkel D. High-resolution mapping of genotype-phenotype relationships in cri du chat syndrome using array comparative ...

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere (papers in Philadelphia Library) DRAWING OF REDWOOD LIBRARY IN 1768. - Redwood Library, 50 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County, RI

  8. Issues in Peer Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawamura, Mark H.

    2001-01-01

    Based on concerns raised at a workshop at the Southern California College of Optometry, addresses critical issues in the process of peer review of faculty teaching and possible alternatives to these issues as applied to an optometric institution. (EV)

  9. Epuisement du capital vasculaire en hémodialyse: quelle issue?

    PubMed Central

    Hajji, Meriam; Harzallah, Amel; Kaaroud, Hayet; Jerbi, Mona; Chargui, Soumaya; Younsi, Fethi El; Hamida, Fethi Ben; abdallah, Taieb Ben

    2016-01-01

    Malgré les progrès réalisés dans le traitement de l’insuffisance rénale chronique, l’accès vasculaire reste le maillon faible dans la thérapie de suppléance extrarénale et la principale source de morbidité chez les patients hémodialysés. Nous rapportons l’observation d’une jeune patiente ayant une insuffisance rénale chronique secondaire à une néphropathie vasculaire en hémodialyse périodique, confrontée précocement à un épuisement de son capital vasculaire, en raison de thromboses itératives des fistules artério-veineuses et l’échec de la dialyse péritonéale. Un déficit en protéine C a été objectivé. Elle a bénéficié de la mise en place d’un cathéter tunnelisé au niveau de l’oreillette droite par thoracotomie antéro-latérale droite à travers la veine cave inférieure non fonctionnel au bout de trois mois de son utilisation. Elle est depuis dialysée par ponction des veines jugulaires externes. PMID:28293353

  10. Vehicle routing for the eco-efficient collection of household plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Bing, Xiaoyun; de Keizer, Marlies; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2014-04-01

    Plastic waste is a special category of municipal solid waste. Plastic waste collection is featured with various alternatives of collection methods (curbside/drop-off) and separation methods (source-/post-separation). In the Netherlands, the collection routes of plastic waste are the same as those of other waste, although plastic is different than other waste in terms of volume to weight ratio. This paper aims for redesigning the collection routes and compares the collection options of plastic waste using eco-efficiency as performance indicator. Eco-efficiency concerns the trade-off between environmental impacts, social issues and costs. The collection problem is modeled as a vehicle routing problem. A tabu search heuristic is used to improve the routes. Collection alternatives are compared by a scenario study approach. Real distances between locations are calculated with MapPoint. The scenario study is conducted based on real case data of the Dutch municipality Wageningen. Scenarios are designed according to the collection alternatives with different assumptions in collection method, vehicle type, collection frequency and collection points, etc. Results show that the current collection routes can be improved in terms of eco-efficiency performance by using our method. The source-separation drop-off collection scenario has the best performance for plastic collection assuming householders take the waste to the drop-off points in a sustainable manner. The model also shows to be an efficient decision support tool to investigate the impacts of future changes such as alternative vehicle type and different response rates.

  11. Backtracking search algorithm in CVRP models for efficient solid waste collection and route optimization.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Mahmuda; Hannan, M A; Begum, R A; Basri, Hassan; Scavino, Edgar

    2017-03-01

    Waste collection is an important part of waste management that involves different issues, including environmental, economic, and social, among others. Waste collection optimization can reduce the waste collection budget and environmental emissions by reducing the collection route distance. This paper presents a modified Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA) in capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) models with the smart bin concept to find the best optimized waste collection route solutions. The objective function minimizes the sum of the waste collection route distances. The study introduces the concept of the threshold waste level (TWL) of waste bins to reduce the number of bins to be emptied by finding an optimal range, thus minimizing the distance. A scheduling model is also introduced to compare the feasibility of the proposed model with that of the conventional collection system in terms of travel distance, collected waste, fuel consumption, fuel cost, efficiency and CO2 emission. The optimal TWL was found to be between 70% and 75% of the fill level of waste collection nodes and had the maximum tightness value for different problem cases. The obtained results for four days show a 36.80% distance reduction for 91.40% of the total waste collection, which eventually increases the average waste collection efficiency by 36.78% and reduces the fuel consumption, fuel cost and CO2 emission by 50%, 47.77% and 44.68%, respectively. Thus, the proposed optimization model can be considered a viable tool for optimizing waste collection routes to reduce economic costs and environmental impacts.

  12. Conflict Resolution Performance in an Experimental Study of En Route Free Maneuvering Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Hitt, James M., II

    2005-01-01

    NASA has developed a far-term air traffic management concept, termed Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM). One component of DAG-TM, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows properly trained flight crews of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for separation from other autonomous aircraft and from Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft. Ground-based air traffic controllers continue to separate IFR traffic and issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To examine En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a joint human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted in summer 2004 at the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. Test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve traffic conflicts and adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by subject controllers. The experimental airspace integrated both autonomous and IFR aircraft at varying traffic densities. This paper presents a subset of the En Route Free Maneuvering experimental results, focusing on airborne and ground-based conflict resolution, and the effects of increased traffic levels on the ability of pilots and air traffic controllers to perform this task. The results show that, in general, increases in autonomous traffic do not significantly impact conflict resolution performance. In addition, pilot acceptability of autonomous operations remains high throughout the range of traffic densities studied. Together with previously reported findings, these results continue to support the feasibility of the En Route Free Maneuvering component of DAG-TM.

  13. Atmosphere Assisted Machining of Depleted Uranium (DU) Penetrators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    tooling should be approximately $75,000 each. Lessons learned in the Vacuum Induction Remelt MM&T and the chip melts made on this program point out the...AD-E-401 528 Cutwator Report ARCCD-CR-6600S (V) ATMOSPHERE ASSISTED MACMINING DEPLETED URANIUM (DU) PENETRATORS DTic Charles E. Lathe"rOwn ELECTE...E-401 528 Contractor Report ARCCD-CR-86008 ATMOSPHERE ASSISTED MACHINING OF DEPLETED URANIUM (DU) PENETRATORS Charles E. Latham-Brown Frank Porter

  14. Peters anomaly in cri-du-chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hope, William C; Cordovez, Jose A; Capasso, Jenina E; Hammersmith, Kristin M; Eagle, Ralph C; Lall-Trail, Joel; Levin, Alex V

    2015-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by deletions in the short arm of chromosome 5. It presents with a distinctive catlike high-pitched cry, psychomotor delays, microcephaly, craniofacial abnormalities, and, in many cases, ocular findings. We report the first child with cri-du-chat and the findings of unilateral corneal staphyloma due to Peters anomaly and retinal dysplasia.

  15. Internet worms and global routing instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, James; Ogielski, Andy T.; Premore, B. J.; Yuan, Yougu

    2002-07-01

    We analyze the global BGP routing instabilities observed during the Code Red II and Nimda worm attacks in July and September 2001, respectively. Compelling analysis is shown on the correlation between the observed instabilities and the worm attacks. We analyze router failure modes that can be triggered by the abnormal traffic during the worm attack and how they can lead to global routing instability. Independent research has partially confirmed that such failure modes can and likely do occur in practice. Highly detailed large-scale simulations help close the loop, indicating that such failure modes do in fact trigger the kind of widespread BGP instabilities that were observed empirically.

  16. A parallel algorithm for global routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwer, Randall J.; Banerjee, Prithviraj

    1990-01-01

    A Parallel Hierarchical algorithm for Global Routing (PHIGURE) is presented. The router is based on the work of Burstein and Pelavin, but has many extensions for general global routing and parallel execution. Main features of the algorithm include structured hierarchical decomposition into separate independent tasks which are suitable for parallel execution and adaptive simplex solution for adding feedthroughs and adjusting channel heights for row-based layout. Alternative decomposition methods and the various levels of parallelism available in the algorithm are examined closely. The algorithm is described and results are presented for a shared-memory multiprocessor implementation.

  17. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  18. Lobby Day Issue Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC. Office of Research Advocacy and Legislation.

    This compilation of seven briefs is intended to help citizens lobby United States senators, representatives, and their staff members on issues of importance to the Hispanic American community. Each brief synopsizes an issue, reviews current proposals for addressing the issue, and suggests the appropriate action that the member of congress should…

  19. Determination of periodontopathogens in patients with Cri du chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta-Mudarra, Sofía; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Rodríguez-Caballero, Ángela; Yáñez-Vico, Rosa M.; Solano-Reina, Enrique; Perea-Pérez, Evelio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Cri du chat syndrome is a genetic alteration associated with some oral pathologies. However, it has not been described previously any clinical relationship between the periodontal disease and the syndrome. The purpose of this comparative study was to compare periodontopathogenic flora in a group with Cri du chat syndrome and another without the síndrome, to assess a potential microbiological predisposition to suffer a periodontitis. Study Design: The study compared nineteen subjects with Cri du chat Syndrome with a control group of nineteen patients without it. All patients were clinically evaluated by periodontal probing, valuing the pocket depth, the clinical attachmente level and bleeding on probing. There were no significant differences between both groups. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were detected by multiplex-PCR using 16S rDNA (microIDENT). Results: When A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia and T. denticola were compared, no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups (p>0.05). The value of T. forsythia was significantly higher for Cri du chat syndrome (31.6%) than for the control group (5.3%). The odds ratio for T. forsythia was 8.3. Conclusions: In the present study T. forsythia is associated with Cri du chat syndrome subjects and not with healthy subjects. Key words:Cri du Chat syndrome, periodontal health, microbiology, special care dentistry. PMID:24121919

  20. Oxidation states of uranium in DU particles from Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Salbu, B; Janssens, K; Lind, O C; Proost, K; Danesi, P R

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation states of uranium contained in depleted uranium (DU) particles were determined by synchrotron radiation based micro-XANES, applied to individual particles in soil samples collected at Ceja Mountain, Kosovo. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with XRMA prior to micro-XANES, DU particles ranging from submicrons to about 30 microm (average size: 2 microm or less) were identified. Compared to well-defined standards, all investigated DU particles were oxidized. About 50% of the DU particles were characterized as UO2, the remaining DU particles present were U3O8 or a mixture of oxidized forms (ca. 2/3 UO2, 1/3 U3O8). Since the particle weathering rate is expected to be higher for U3O8 than for UO2, the presence of respiratory U3O8 and UO2 particles, their corresponding weathering rates and subsequent remobilisation of U from DU particles should be included in the environmental or health impact assessments.

  1. Tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique : à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Zizi, Mohamed; Ziouziou, Imad; El Yacoubi, Souhail; Khmou, Mouna; Jahid, Ahmed; Mahassini, Najat; Karmouni, Tariq; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Iben Attya

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Les tumeurs du sac vitellin du testicule sont rares chez l’adulte. Ces tumeurs se caractérisent par un mauvais pronostic à un stade métastatique avancé. Cependant, nous rapportons, dans le présent article, le cas clinique d’un adulte de 32 ans qui présentait une tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique. Ce patient a subi une orchidectomie haute, accompagnée de quatre cycles de chimiothérapie à base de bléomycine, d’étoposide et de cisplatine. Il a répondu complètement au traitement, moyennant un recul de deux ans. PMID:25295144

  2. Would you follow your own route description? Cognitive strategies in urban route planning.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Christoph; Tenbrink, Thora; Wiener, Jan M

    2011-11-01

    This paper disentangles cognitive and communicative factors influencing planning strategies in the everyday task of choosing a route to a familiar location. Describing the way for a stranger in town calls for fundamentally different cognitive processes and strategies than actually walking to a destination. In a series of experiments, this paper addresses route choices, planning processes, and description strategies in a familiar urban environment when asked to walk to a goal location, to describe a route for oneself, or to describe a route for an addressee. Results show systematic differences in the chosen routes with respect to efficiency, number of turns and streets, and street size. The analysis of verbal data provides consistent further insights concerning the nature of the underlying cognitive processes. Actual route navigation is predominantly direction-based and characterized by incremental perception-based optimization processes. In contrast, in-advance route descriptions draw on memory resources to a higher degree and accordingly rely more on salient graph-based structures, and they are affected by concerns of communicability. The results are consistent with the assumption that strategy choice follows a principle of cognitive economy that is highly adaptive to the degree of perceptual information available for the task.

  3. Prise en charge du cancer du col utérin durant la grossesse: à propos de 05 cas

    PubMed Central

    El Mazghi, Abderrahman; Bouhafa, Touria; Loukili, Kaoutar; El Kacemi, Hanan; Lalya, Issam; Hassouni, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    L'association d'un cancer du col utérin avec une grossesse est une éventualité rare. Son incidence est assez mal évaluée, elle se situe selon les études entre 1 et 2/10 000. Lorsque la découverte en est faite, il faut conjuguer deux impératifs parfois totalement divergents: le traitement de la mère et la prise en charge du foetus. Cette association pose schématiquement quatre grands problèmes, qui sont: Celui du diagnostic, qui est loin d’être évident, compte tenu des remaniements cervicaux observés en début de gestation, le pronostic de l'affection, la date du traitement chirurgical et du délai entre le diagnostic et la prise en charge thérapeutique, enfin et de manière plus accessoire, le devenir de la grossesse et le mode d'accouchement. Nous rapportons une série de 5 cas de cancer du col utérin découverts au cours de la grossesse colligés dans notre service entre 2010 et 2013. La prise en charge thérapeutique est identique à celle des patientes en dehors de la grossesse même si quelques adaptations sont nécessaires du fait de l’état gravide, le pronostic du cancer ne semble pas être modifié par la grossesse. PMID:25852788

  4. Routing Based on Length of Time of Available Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anandappan, Thanga (Inventor); Roy, Aloke (Inventor); Malve, Sharath Babu (Inventor); Toth, Louis T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In an embodiment, a method of routing packets at a first node in an ad-hoc network is provided. The method includes receiving, at the first node, a plurality of route-alive messages corresponding to a destination, each of the plurality of route-alive messages including a route time indicating a length of time in which a communicative connection is available between the second node that sent the respective route-alive message and the destination. The method also includes determining an updated route time for each second node. The updated route time corresponds to a length of time in which a communication connection is available between the first node and the destination through the respective second node. A second node is selected for sending a packet to based on the updated route time for each of the second nodes, wherein a node having a longer updated route time is given higher priority for selection.

  5. An Investigation into the Advantages, Mechanisms, and Developmental Challenges of Scripted Mobile Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Request for Comments 3561, The Internet Society, July 2003. [3] J. Macker and S. Corson . Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). http://www.ietf.org...html.charters/manet-charter.html, 1997. IETF Working Group Charter. [4] S. Corson , J. Macker, “Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol...Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations,” Network Working Group, Request for Comments 2501, January 1999 [5] Elizabeth . M. Royer, Chai-Keong Toh

  6. Online PBL: A Route to Sustainability Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkinson, Bland; Hutt, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate online problem-based learning (PBL) as a route to achieving sustainability education using sponsored projects. Design/methodology/approach: The Royal Academy of Engineering sponsored project at Manchester; to foster education in sustainability through inter-disciplinary problem-based approaches,…

  7. Routing in Networks with Random Topologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambos, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    We examine the problems of routing and server assignment in networks with random connectivities. In such a network the basic topology is fixed, but during each time slot and for each of tis input queues, each server (node) is either connected to or disconnected from each of its queues with some probability.

  8. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    PubMed Central

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  9. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  10. Variable-speed, portable routing skate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesch, W. A.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight, portable, variable-speed routing skate is used on heavy metal subassemblies which are impractical to move to a stationary machine. The assembly, consisting of the housing with rollers, router, and driving mechanism with transmission, weighs about forty pounds. Both speed and depth of cut are adjustable.

  11. Neurosimulation modeling of a scheduled bus route

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.G.; Khoo, L.P.

    1997-05-01

    In a densely built-up urban society, operators of public bus services are faced with the recurrent problem of providing timely and reliable service. Wile they have no control over dynamically changing extraneous factors (such as passenger loads or road conditions) that may suddenly degrade the quality of the service provided, it is nonetheless desirable for management to study the extent to which these factors affect their business, and what measures, if any, can be adopted to neutralize them. This paper discusses how a simulation model of a bus route, embellished by a neural network, was created to model the historical pattern of the inputs (namely, passenger loads and road conditions) that affect the overall scheduled terminus-to-terminus time. Thus, in a case study of a bus route running from a suburb to the city center, it was found that the neurosimulation model could predict the cumulative terminus-to-terminus times better than a conventional simulation model could. A software module, embedded into the neurosimulation model for the purposes of speed regulation, was able to minimize the deviation of the bus service from schedule. When intentional delays were further introduced into the bus route, it was discovered that the speed regulator was more effective the longer the delay, and the further the bus traveled into the bus route. There is potential in applying neural computing in a dynamic bus scheduling problem such as the one discussed here.

  12. Obsidian trade routes in the mayan area.

    PubMed

    Hammond, N

    1972-12-08

    Obsidian from two sources in highland Guatemala has been found at 23 sites of the Classic Mayan civilization, mainly in the nonvolcanic lowlands to the north. The distribution, together with trade routes suggested by topography and documentary sources, suggests efficient waterborne transport and competition between sources for the lowland market.

  13. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs.

    PubMed

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-09-23

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation).

  14. 45 CFR 1310.20 - Trip routing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trip routing. 1310.20 Section 1310.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  15. 45 CFR 1310.20 - Trip routing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip routing. 1310.20 Section 1310.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  16. 30 CFR 57.11051 - Escape routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Escape routes. 57.11051 Section 57.11051 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... read direction signs that clearly indicate the ways of escape....

  17. 30 CFR 57.11051 - Escape routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Escape routes. 57.11051 Section 57.11051 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... read direction signs that clearly indicate the ways of escape....

  18. Analyse du comportement thermique du sol d'une serre agricole par simulation dynamique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteil, C.; Amouroux, M.

    1997-02-01

    The overall energetical behaviour of a greenhouse is significantly affected by diurnal storage and nocturnal release of energy inside the soil, which is the only element with high thermal capacitance. Its specific part is analysed with a pre-existing dynamic simulation model. The first part of this paper studies the effects of 4kinds of heating exchangers along each month of an entire cultivation period: hot air convector, aerial metallic pipes with hot water circulation, radiant mulch or buried pipes with warm water circulation. The second part develops the hourly behaviour of both greenhouse and soil during a cold standard-day with each of the 4exchangers. The third part is a sensibility study to various classes of factors in the case of hot air convector exchanger: climatic environment, control policy, intrinsic properties of the greenhouse (soil characteristics, crop density, cover transparency). Le comportement énergétique global d'une serre agricole est influencé de manière parfois importante par le stockage diurne et la restitution nocturne d'énergie au sein de son sol, seul élément à grande capacité thermique. Le rôle spécifique joué par le sol est analysé en appliquant un modèle de simulation dynamique déjà existant. Une première partie compare les effets de 4types d'échangeurs de chauffage sur chaque mois d'une période de culture : aérotherme, tubes aériens à circulation d'eau chaude, paillage radiant ou tubes enterrés à circulation d'eau tiède. Une seconde partie développe le comportement horaire de la serre et du sol pour une journée-type froide en présence de chacun des échangeurs. Une troisième partie précise la sensibilité du bilan thermique de la serre et du sol à différents types de facteurs dans le cas d'un échangeur par aérotherme: environnement climatique, politique de contrôle de la serre, propriétés intrinsèques de la serre (caractéristiques du sol, densité de culture, transparence de la couverture).

  19. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  20. Aerosol immunisation for TB: matching route of vaccination to route of infection.

    PubMed

    Manjaly Thomas, Zita-Rose; McShane, Helen

    2015-03-01

    TB remains a very significant global health burden. There is an urgent need for better tools for TB control, which include an effective vaccine. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the currently licensed vaccine, confers highly variable protection against pulmonary TB, the main source of TB transmission. Replacing BCG completely or boosting BCG with another vaccine are the two current strategies for TB vaccine development. Delivering a vaccine by aerosol represents a way to match the route of vaccination to the route of infection. This route of immunisation offers not only the scientific advantage of delivering the vaccine directly to the respiratory mucosa, but also practical and logistical advantages. This review summarises the state of current TB vaccine candidates in the pipeline, reviews current progress in aerosol administration of vaccines in general and evaluates the potential for TB vaccine candidates to be administered by the aerosol route.

  1. Cri du chat syndrome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Angela; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Rodríguez-Pérez, Antonio; Serrera-Figallo, María-Angeles; Hernández-Guisado, José-María; Machuca-Portillo, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    A new syndrome was identified in 1963, when Lejeune et al. reported a genetic disease resulting from a partial or total deletion on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-) and named it the cri du chat syndrome (CdCS). This term makes reference to the main clinical feature of the syndrome, a high-pitched monochromatic cat-like crying, that usually disappears in the first years of life. CdCS is one of the most common chromosomal deletion syndromes in humans, with an incidence of 1:15.000-1:50.000 live-births. Our purpose was to review different aspects of this syndrome (concept, epidemiology, aetiology, clinical features, diagnostic methods and prognosis) emphasizing both: the breakthrough in this field introduced by new cytogenetic and molecular techniques, and the orofacial manifestations most frequently reported. The main orofacial anomalies registered were mandibular microretrognathia, high palate but rarely cleft, variable malocclusion (frequently anterior open-bite), enamel hypoplasia, poor oral hygiene, generalized chronic periodontitis, and retardation of tooth eruption, although there is not enough evidence to support any clear association between these pathologies and the CdCS.

  2. [Investigation of acupoints on Du (governor) channel].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-bin; Wang, Ling-ling

    2006-07-01

    The origin and variation of acupoints on the Du channel are investigated by analyzing and studying the number and distribution of points recorded in the ancient medical works. It is found that the amount and distribution of the points were different in different ages. The distributions of the points were not only located on the midline of the face, head, nape and posterior midline but also on both sides of the spine from the period of Neijing (Inner Canon) to that of Zhenjiu Jiayi Jing (A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion). Since the period of Tongren Shuxue Zhenjiu Tujing (Illustration Classic of Acupoints on Bronze Statue) in the Song dynasty, only those points of the midline from the face, nape to the spine are remained there until now. Meanwhile, the amount of points were also varied because of the cognition to the points on the spine. Huangdi Neijing Taisu (Grand Simplicity of Inner Canon of Huangdi) compiled in the Tang Dynasty first mentioned the arguments about the varied points on the channel. The records by Yang Shangshan and Wang Bing indicate that the main differences on the cognition of the channel andits points appeared during the period of the Tang Dynasty to the Song Dynasty.

  3. Mise à jour sur le nouveau vaccin 9-valent pour la prévention du virus du papillome humain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, David Yi; Bracken, Keyna

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Informer les médecins de famille quant à l’efficacité, à l’innocuité, aux effets sur la santé publique et à la rentabilité du vaccin 9-valent contre le virus du papillome humain (VPH). Qualité des données Des articles pertinents publiés dans PubMed jusqu’en mai 2015 ont été examinés et analysés. La plupart des données citées sont de niveau I (essais randomisés et contrôlés et méta-analyses) ou de niveau II (études transversales, cas-témoins et épidémiologiques). Des rapports et recommandations du gouvernement sont aussi cités en référence. Message principal Le vaccin 9-valent contre le VPH, qui offre une protection contre les types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 et 58 du VPH, est sûr et efficace et réduira encore plus l’incidence des infections à VPH, de même que les cas de cancer lié au VPH. Il peut également protéger indirectement les personnes non immunisées par l’entremise du phénomène d’immunité collective. Un programme d’immunisation efficace peut prévenir la plupart des cancers du col de l’utérus. Les analyses montrent que la rentabilité du vaccin 9-valent chez les femmes est comparable à celle du vaccin quadrivalent original contre le VPH (qui protège contre les types 6, 11, 16 et 18 du VPH) en usage à l’heure actuelle. Toutefois, il faut investiguer plus en profondeur l’utilité d’immuniser les garçons avec le vaccin 9-valent contre le VPH. Conclusion en plus d’être sûr, le vaccin 9-valent protège mieux contre le VPH que le vaccin quadrivalent. Une analyse coûtefficacité en favorise l’emploi, du moins chez les adolescentes. Ainsi, les médecins devraient recommander le vaccin 9-valent à leurs patients plutôt que le vaccin quadrivalent contre le VPH.

  4. Properties of Air Traffic Conflicts for Free and Structured Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Lee, Hilda Q.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the properties of air traffic conflicts in a future free routing system against those in the current structured routing system. Simulation of en route air traffic operations (above 18,000 ft) over the contiguous United States for a 24-hour period, constructed with initial conditions from actual air traffic data, were conducted using the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). Free routes were modeled as great circle (direct) routes from origin to destination, and structured routes were derived from actual flight plans along the current system of air routes. The conflict properties analyzed in this study include: (1) Total number of conflicts; (2) Distributions of key conflict parameters; and, (3) Categorization of conflicts into independent conflicts and two types of interacting conflicts. Preliminary results (for Denver Center traffic) indicate that conflict properties in a free routing system are different from those in the current structured routing system. In particular, a free routing system has significantly fewer conflicts, involving a correspondingly smaller number of aircraft, compared to the current structured routing system. Additionally, the conflict parameter distributions indicate that free routing conflicts are less intrusive than structured routing conflicts, and would therefore require small trajectory deviations for resolution.

  5. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  6. Current issues and actions

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  7. Route-to-route extrapolation of the toxic potency of MTBE.

    PubMed

    Dourson, M L; Felter, S P

    1997-12-01

    MTBE is a volatile organic compound used as an oxygenating agent in gasoline. Inhalation from fumes while refueling automobiles is the principle route of exposure for humans, and toxicity by this route has been well studied. Oral exposures to MTBE exist as well, primarily due to groundwater contamination from leaking stationary sources, such as underground storage tanks. Assessing the potential public health impacts of oral exposures to MTBE is problematic because drinking water studies do not exist for MTBE, and the few oil-gavage studies from which a risk assessment could be derived are limited. This paper evaluates the suitability of the MTBE database for conducting an inhalation route-to-oral route extrapolation of toxicity. This includes evaluating the similarity of critical effect between these two routes, quantifiable differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, and sufficiency of toxicity data by the inhalation route. We conclude that such an extrapolation is appropriate and have validated the extrapolation by finding comparable toxicity between a subchronic gavage oral bioassay and oral doses we extrapolate from a subchronic inhalation bioassay. Our results are extended to the 2-year inhalation toxicity study by Chun et al. (1992) in which rats were exposed to 0, 400, 3000, or 8000 ppm MTBE for 6 hr/d, 5 d/wk. We have estimated the equivalent oral doses to be 0, 130, 940, or 2700 mg/kg/d. These equivalent doses may be useful in conducting noncancer and cancer risk assessments.

  8. Route Recapitulation and Route Loyalty in Homing Pigeons: Pilotage From 25 km?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Dora; Meade, Jessica; Guilford, Tim

    2006-01-01

    We utilised precision Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking to examine the homing paths of pigeons (Columba livia) released 20 times consecutively 25 km from the loft. By the end of the training phase, birds had developed highly stereotyped yet individually distinct routes home, with detailed recapitulation evident at each stage of the journey. Following training, birds also participated in a series of releases from novel sites at perpendicular distances of up to 3 km from their established routes. Results showed that subjects were attracted back to their established routes and recapitulated them from the point of contact. Naïve conspecifics (yoked controls) released from the same off-route sites confirmed that the experienced birds' route choices were not influenced by constraints exerted by terrain features, but that increased experience with the general area conferred a homing advantage in the form of more efficient flight tracks, even from these novel sites. Patterns in the paths taken by experienced birds to rejoin their established routes are discussed with reference to navigational mechanisms employed by homing pigeons in their familiar area.

  9. ISSUES MANAGEMENT PROGRAM MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    Gravois, Melanie

    2007-06-27

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Issues Management Program encompasses the continuous monitoring of work programs, performance and safety to promptly identify issues to determine their risk and significance, their causes, and to identify and effectively implement corrective actions to ensure successful resolution and prevent the same or similar problems from occurring. This document describes the LBNL Issues Management Program and prescribes the process for issues identification, tracking, resolution, closure, validation, and effectiveness of corrective actions. Issues that are governed by this program include program and performance deficiencies or nonconformances that may be identified through employee discovery, internal or external oversight assessment findings, suggested process improvements and associated actions that require formal corrective action. Issues may also be identified in and/or may result in Root Cause Analysis (RCA) reports, Price Anderson Amendment Act (PAAA) reports, Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) reports, Accident Investigation reports, assessment reports, and External Oversight reports. The scope of these issues may include issues of both high and low significance as well as adverse conditions that meet the reporting requirements of the University of California (UC) Assurance Plan for LBNL or other reporting entities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Energy). Issues that are found as a result of a walk-around or workspace inspection that can be immediately corrected or fixed are exempt from the requirements of this document.

  10. Route Monopolie and Optimal Nonlinear Pricing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tournut, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    To cope with air traffic growth and congested airports, two solutions are apparent on the supply side: 1) use larger aircraft in the hub and spoke system; or 2) develop new routes through secondary airports. An enlarged route system through secondary airports may increase the proportion of route monopolies in the air transport market.The monopoly optimal non linear pricing policy is well known in the case of one dimension (one instrument, one characteristic) but not in the case of several dimensions. This paper explores the robustness of the one dimensional screening model with respect to increasing the number of instruments and the number of characteristics. The objective of this paper is then to link and fill the gap in both literatures. One of the merits of the screening model has been to show that a great varieD" of economic questions (non linear pricing, product line choice, auction design, income taxation, regulation...) could be handled within the same framework.VCe study a case of non linear pricing (2 instruments (2 routes on which the airline pro_ddes customers with services), 2 characteristics (demand of services on these routes) and two values per characteristic (low and high demand of services on these routes)) and we show that none of the conclusions of the one dimensional analysis remain valid. In particular, upward incentive compatibility constraint may be binding at the optimum. As a consequence, they may be distortion at the top of the distribution. In addition to this, we show that the optimal solution often requires a kind of form of bundling, we explain explicitly distortions and show that it is sometimes optimal for the monopolist to only produce one good (instead of two) or to exclude some buyers from the market. Actually, this means that the monopolist cannot fully apply his monopoly power and is better off selling both goods independently.We then define all the possible solutions in the case of a quadratic cost function for a uniform

  11. Efficient and Stable Routing Algorithm Based on User Mobility and Node Density in Urban Vehicular Network

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mayouf, Yusor Rafid Bahar; Ismail, Mahamod; Abdullah, Nor Fadzilah; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Mahdi, Omar Adil; Khan, Suleman; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are considered an emerging technology in the industrial and educational fields. This technology is essential in the deployment of the intelligent transportation system, which is targeted to improve safety and efficiency of traffic. The implementation of VANETs can be effectively executed by transmitting data among vehicles with the use of multiple hops. However, the intrinsic characteristics of VANETs, such as its dynamic network topology and intermittent connectivity, limit data delivery. One particular challenge of this network is the possibility that the contributing node may only remain in the network for a limited time. Hence, to prevent data loss from that node, the information must reach the destination node via multi-hop routing techniques. An appropriate, efficient, and stable routing algorithm must be developed for various VANET applications to address the issues of dynamic topology and intermittent connectivity. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel routing algorithm called efficient and stable routing algorithm based on user mobility and node density (ESRA-MD). The proposed algorithm can adapt to significant changes that may occur in the urban vehicular environment. This algorithm works by selecting an optimal route on the basis of hop count and link duration for delivering data from source to destination, thereby satisfying various quality of service considerations. The validity of the proposed algorithm is investigated by its comparison with ARP-QD protocol, which works on the mechanism of optimal route finding in VANETs in urban environments. Simulation results reveal that the proposed ESRA-MD algorithm shows remarkable improvement in terms of delivery ratio, delivery delay, and communication overhead. PMID:27855165

  12. Efficient and Stable Routing Algorithm Based on User Mobility and Node Density in Urban Vehicular Network.

    PubMed

    Al-Mayouf, Yusor Rafid Bahar; Ismail, Mahamod; Abdullah, Nor Fadzilah; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Mahdi, Omar Adil; Khan, Suleman; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are considered an emerging technology in the industrial and educational fields. This technology is essential in the deployment of the intelligent transportation system, which is targeted to improve safety and efficiency of traffic. The implementation of VANETs can be effectively executed by transmitting data among vehicles with the use of multiple hops. However, the intrinsic characteristics of VANETs, such as its dynamic network topology and intermittent connectivity, limit data delivery. One particular challenge of this network is the possibility that the contributing node may only remain in the network for a limited time. Hence, to prevent data loss from that node, the information must reach the destination node via multi-hop routing techniques. An appropriate, efficient, and stable routing algorithm must be developed for various VANET applications to address the issues of dynamic topology and intermittent connectivity. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel routing algorithm called efficient and stable routing algorithm based on user mobility and node density (ESRA-MD). The proposed algorithm can adapt to significant changes that may occur in the urban vehicular environment. This algorithm works by selecting an optimal route on the basis of hop count and link duration for delivering data from source to destination, thereby satisfying various quality of service considerations. The validity of the proposed algorithm is investigated by its comparison with ARP-QD protocol, which works on the mechanism of optimal route finding in VANETs in urban environments. Simulation results reveal that the proposed ESRA-MD algorithm shows remarkable improvement in terms of delivery ratio, delivery delay, and communication overhead.

  13. Aircraft Route Optimization using the A-Star Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    16 Obstacle Avoidance... 16 Figure 9. Route Optimization Distance Matrix...29 Figure 15. Route between Key West and Brownsville using the TMA-Star model ........ 30 Figure 16 . Obstacle Avoidance model using

  14. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF ROUTE 209 LOOKING NORTH SHOWING SLEEPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF ROUTE 209 LOOKING NORTH SHOWING SLEEPING BEAR INN, SLEEPING BEAR INN GARAGE AND DORMITORY, D.H. DAY STORE, RESTROOM, AND GARAGE - Glen Haven Historic District, Route 209, Glen Arbor, Leelanau County, MI

  15. 21. ROUTE OF THE SHELF LINE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. IN AREAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. ROUTE OF THE SHELF LINE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. IN AREAS WHERE THE ROUTE CROSSED PARTICULARLY STEEP TERRAIN, THE COMPANY USED EXTENSIVE ROCK RIPRAP TO SUPPORT THE TRAM GRADE. - Independent Coal & Coke Company, Kenilworth, Carbon County, UT

  16. Use of Interactive Computer Graphics to Solve Routing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, B. E.; Lawrence, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses vehicle routing problems and solutions. Describes testing of an interactive computer graphics package combining several types of solutions that allows users with little or no experience to work out routing problems. (Author/RW)

  17. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ROUTE 133, SHOWING A CORNER DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ROUTE 133, SHOWING A CORNER DETAIL OF THE POWERHOUSE AND A SECTION OF THE SWITCHYARD. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  18. Adaptive routing in wireless communication networks using swarm intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arabshahi, P.; Gray, A.; Kassabalidis, I.; Das, A.; Narayanan, S.; Sharkawi, M. El; Marks, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the network routing problem, and survey swarm intelligent approaches for its efficient solution, after a brief overview of power-aware routing schemes, which are important in the network examples outlined above.

  19. Afterschool: Providing a Successful Route to Credit Attainment and Recovery. Afterschool Alert. Issue Brief No.39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Afterschool provides older youth with critical academic supports including credit attainment and recovery opportunities. Many educators are turning to afterschool programs to reach students who fail one or more courses, become disengaged, or want alternatives to the traditional path to graduation. Credit recovery refers to recovering credits that…

  20. Design Issues on Broadcast Routing Algorithms using Realistic Cost-Effective Smart Antenna Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    affected due to: • beam shape (flatness and roundness) • (electronically) steerability of antenna (beam scanning capability) • beamwidth expansibility All...pattern is deter- mined by the polar plot of r = r (θ, φ) = α √ Pt ( λ 4π )2 Gt (θ, φ). A. Flat-top Beam Pattern + Variable Beamwidth + Steerable ...Section III-C. B. Flat-top Beam Pattern + Fixed Beamwidth + Steerable Phased Array Compared to the previous scenario, we keep the beamwidth fixed at θmin

  1. Routing in circuit and Packet Switched Networks: An Annotated Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-14

    papers. These reviews focus on parts of the papers relevant to the DSN. 2. INDEX TO SELECTED TOPICS 2.1 Circuit-Switched Networks 2.1.1 Routing Bernas and...engineering - Bell System. 2.1.3 Event-by-Event Simulations Bernas and Grieco (1978) POLYGRID vs. adaptive vs. flood search routing - AUTOVON simula- tion...Enhance Survivability Bernas and Grieco (1978) POLYGRID, adaptive and flood search routing. Gafni and Bertsekas (1981) Distributed routing for packet radio

  2. Magnetic routing of light-induced waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izdebskaya, Yana; Shvedov, Vladlen; Assanto, Gaetano; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2017-02-01

    Among photofunctional materials that can be employed to control the propagation of light by modifying their properties, soft dielectrics such as nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) stand out for their large all-optical response. Through reorientation, the molecular distribution of NLCs can be modified by the electric field of light, permitting functional operations and supporting self-localized light beams or spatial optical solitons. To date, the generation and routing of such solitons have been limited by the boundary conditions employed to tailor the properties of NLCs in planar cells or capillaries. Here we report on spatial solitons in bulk NLCs with no lateral anchoring, where the application of an external magnetic field effectively controls the direction of propagation and the angular steering of the self-trapped wavepackets. Our results entail a completely new approach to the routing of self-localized beams and light-induced waveguides in three dimensions, without the usual limitations imposed by transverse boundary conditions.

  3. NIST cooperative laboratory for OSI routing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.

    1994-05-23

    This document is one of two reports on the Integrated ISIS protocol. Required by the IAB/IESG in order for an Internet routing protocol to advance to Draft Standard Status. Integrated ISIS is an Interior Gateway Protocol and is designed to carry both IP and ISO CLNP routing information. Integrated ISIS is currently designated as a Proposed Standard. The protocol was first published in RFC 1195. Internet Draft was published subsequently to RFC 1195 and documents the current version of the protocol. This report documents experience with Integrated ISIS. This includes reports on interoperability testing, field experience and the current state of Integrated ISIS implementations. It also presents a summary of the Integrated ISIS Management Information Base (MIB), and a summary of the Integrated ISIS authentication mechanism.

  4. Magnetic routing of light-induced waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Izdebskaya, Yana; Shvedov, Vladlen; Assanto, Gaetano; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2017-01-01

    Among photofunctional materials that can be employed to control the propagation of light by modifying their properties, soft dielectrics such as nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) stand out for their large all-optical response. Through reorientation, the molecular distribution of NLCs can be modified by the electric field of light, permitting functional operations and supporting self-localized light beams or spatial optical solitons. To date, the generation and routing of such solitons have been limited by the boundary conditions employed to tailor the properties of NLCs in planar cells or capillaries. Here we report on spatial solitons in bulk NLCs with no lateral anchoring, where the application of an external magnetic field effectively controls the direction of propagation and the angular steering of the self-trapped wavepackets. Our results entail a completely new approach to the routing of self-localized beams and light-induced waveguides in three dimensions, without the usual limitations imposed by transverse boundary conditions. PMID:28198374

  5. Chemical Routes to Colloidal Chalcogenide Nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Schaak, Raymond E.

    2014-11-25

    This project began with an emphasis on developing new low-­temperature synthetic routes to intermetallic alloys in order to advance the synthesis and processing science of superconducting materials, as well as to potentially discover new materials that would be inaccessible using more traditional higher-­temperature methods. Our initial target materials, chosen as model systems for developing new low-­temperature solution-­based synthetic platforms, were based on well known superconducting alloys, including Nb3M (M = Ga, Ge, Sn), Bi-­M (M = In, Cu), and MgCNi3. Several key, fundamental synthetic challenges that underpinned the formation of these materials using solution chemistry routes were identified and investigated.

  6. Dissociable Neural Routes to Successful Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Mark A.; LaMontagne, Pamela; Beck, Stefanie M.; Scullin, Michael K.; Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the processes by which people remember to execute an intention at an appropriate moment (prospective memory) remains a fundamental theoretical challenge. One account is that top-down attentional control is required to maintain activation of the intention, self-initiate intention retrieval, or support monitoring. A diverging account suggests bottom-up spontaneous retrieval can be triggered by cues that have been associated with the intention; sustained attentional processes are not required. We used a specialized experimental design and fMRI methods to selectively marshal and identify each process. Results revealed a clear dissociation. One prospective memory task recruited sustained activity in attentional control areas, such as anterior prefrontal cortex; the other engaged purely transient activity in parietal and ventral brain regions associated with attentional capture, target detection, and episodic retrieval. These patterns provide critical evidence that there are two neural routes to prospective memory, with each route emerging under different circumstances. PMID:23907544

  7. Routing of individual polymers in designed patterns.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Jakob Bach; Liu, Lei; Bank Kodal, Anne Louise; Madsen, Mikael; Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Woehrstein, Johannes B; Wickham, Shelley F J; Strauss, Maximilian T; Schueder, Florian; Vinther, Jesper; Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Gudnason, Daniel; Smith, Anton Allen Abbotsford; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Zelikin, Alexander N; Besenbacher, Flemming; Birkedal, Victoria; Yin, Peng; Shih, William M; Jungmann, Ralf; Dong, Mingdong; Gothelf, Kurt V

    2015-10-01

    Synthetic polymers are ubiquitous in the modern world, but our ability to exert control over the molecular conformation of individual polymers is very limited. In particular, although the programmable self-assembly of oligonucleotides and proteins into artificial nanostructures has been demonstrated, we currently lack the tools to handle other types of synthetic polymers individually and thus the ability to utilize and study their single-molecule properties. Here we show that synthetic polymer wires containing short oligonucleotides that extend from each repeat can be made to assemble into arbitrary routings. The wires, which can be more than 200 nm in length, are soft and bendable, and the DNA strands allow individual polymers to self-assemble into predesigned routings on both two- and three-dimensional DNA origami templates. The polymers are conjugated and potentially conducting, and could therefore be used to create molecular-scale electronic or optical wires in arbitrary geometries.

  8. VISCOPLASTIC FLUID MODEL FOR DEBRIS FLOW ROUTING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Cheng-lung

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes how a generalized viscoplastic fluid model, which was developed based on non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, can be successfully applied to routing a debris flow down a channel. The one-dimensional dynamic equations developed for unsteady clear-water flow can be used for debris flow routing if the flow parameters, such as the momentum (or energy) correction factor and the resistance coefficient, can be accurately evaluated. The writer's generalized viscoplastic fluid model can be used to express such flow parameters in terms of the rheological parameters for debris flow in wide channels. A preliminary analysis of the theoretical solutions reveals the importance of the flow behavior index and the so-called modified Froude number for uniformly progressive flow in snout profile modeling.

  9. TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) ISSUE PAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These issue papers are a part of EPA's effort to develop a trichloroethylene (TCE) human health risk assessment. These issue papers were developed by EPA to provide scientific and technical information to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) for use in developing their advice ...

  10. Issues in Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    1978-01-01

    Views the spectrum of opinions on curriculum issues as ranging from advocacy of measurable, programed, teacher-prepared objectives to advocacy of a flexible, limited, pupil-oriented framework. Also discussed are structuring the learning environment, existentialism vs behaviorism, process vs product, and other issues. (BP)

  11. The Coverage Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinobu, Stan; Jones, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    A significant issue mathematics instructors face is how to cover all the material. Mathematics teachers of all levels have some external and internal pressures to "get through" all the required material. The authors define "the coverage issue" to be the set of difficulties that arise in attempting to cover a lengthy list of topics. Principal among…

  12. News and Issues, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshinsky, Carole J., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the three 2002 issues of a newsletter devoted to identifying and promoting strategies to reduce the poverty rate of young children and to improve the life chances of children still living in poverty. The Winter issue includes the following articles: (1) "NCCP [National Center for Children in Poverty] Responds to…

  13. Teaching about Population Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G., Jr., Comp.

    This teaching guide on population issues contains 19 activities for students in grades 7-12. The objective is to analyze population issues that have resulted from human population dynamics. In this guide, four categories of activities are included: some are discussion starters, some provide factual data, some focus on thinking skills, and some are…

  14. Preface: ISBB Special Issue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue is published for the International Society of Biocatalysis and Biotechnology (ISBB). The ISBB special issue is devoted to all areas of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology in which biological systems are developed and/or used for the provision of commercial goods or serv...

  15. Navigating "Thorny" Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Kashema; Gilbert, Aderinsola; Malyukova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In their article "Mindfulness and discussing 'thorny' issues in the classroom" Konstantinos Alexakos et al. ("Cult Stud Sci Educ," 2016. doi: 10.1007/s11422-015-9718-0) describe "thorny" issues as "difficult topics to discuss because they are more personal to some perhaps even cause pain and violence." As…

  16. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  17. Issue Brief on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division on Developmental Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    During the past year, the Diversity Committee of the Division of Developmental Disabilities (DDD) Board worked with the Board and the Issues Committee Chair to develop an issue brief addressing diversity, its impact on the membership and the wider community that is served by the work of DDD, resulting in recommendations that will influence policy…

  18. HRD Issues in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) issues in Asia. "The Japanese Human Resource Development System" (Kiyoe Harada) provides a comprehensive model of the Japanese HRD system based on the current state of the art, including management practices and issues and trends in Japanese HRD.…

  19. ARPANET Routing Algorithm Improvements. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    engineers , and can be tuned tn be any desired frequency. However, the frequency of updating wculd be related to the performance of the routing scheme...be more complex than any simulator. Congestion control procedures are designed by engineers and tested on simulators but they must - 24g - I Report No...Advanced Research Projects Agency 1400 Wilson Boulevardt Arlington, VA 22209 Attention: Program Management and to: Defense Communicatlons Engineering

  20. AutoRoute Rapid Flood Inundation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    extent results from AutoRoute. A file containing all of the cross sections with cross-section profiles, water elevation, and flow velocity is created...2008, a heavy rain event occurred over central and southern Indiana and southern Wisconsin. The rain event resulted in extreme flooding, culminating in...loss of life and millions of dollars in damages. In response to these flooding events, the USGS determined high- water marks in several communities

  1. Deterministic nanoassembly: Neutral or plasma route?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchenko, I.; Ostrikov, K.; Keidar, M.; Xu, S.

    2006-07-01

    It is shown that, owing to selective delivery of ionic and neutral building blocks directly from the ionized gas phase and via surface migration, plasma environments offer a better deal of deterministic synthesis of ordered nanoassemblies compared to thermal chemical vapor deposition. The results of hybrid Monte Carlo (gas phase) and adatom self-organization (surface) simulation suggest that higher aspect ratios and better size and pattern uniformity of carbon nanotip microemitters can be achieved via the plasma route.

  2. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    3 o Increase the likelihood of successfully salvaging the ship, and o Increase the likelihood that the crew is rescued safely. It will be possible...spans the period before the event that triggers ship abandonment. Escape routes can be configured based on two factors: 6 o “Crew distribution...crewmembers but the guards are resting in cabins and berthing rooms. This is a plausible scenario at night when the ship is in a non-home port. o

  3. An independent, empirical route to nonconceptual content.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Monima

    2009-06-01

    The overall goal of this paper is to offer an independent, empirical route to characterize the content on nonconceptual content. I pursue a recent move by Pylyshyn, a leading cognitive scientist and philosopher of mental representation, who focuses on empirical considerations in favor of nonconceptual representations. Pylyshyn proposes a minimalist view of nonconceptual representations. I offer empirical reasons that force us to go beyond minimalist account and reinstate empirically defensible richer nonconceptual representations into a theory of content.

  4. More Anonymous Onion Routing Through Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    attempt to compromise his anonymity . How should he take this trust into account when he selects his paths? 2.1. The model To make this question concrete...It also does not take into account the total effect of an adversary’s actions on a user’s anonymity , such as the analysis performed in [24]. The...More Anonymous Onion Routing Through Trust Aaron Johnson Computer Science Department Yale University New Haven, CT 06520 USA aaron.johnson@yale.edu

  5. Synchronous Batching: From Cascades to Free Routes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    freehaven.net) 2 SRI International (shmat@csl.sri.com) 3 Naval Research Lab (syverson@itd.nrl.navy.mil) Abstract. The variety of possible anonymity network...topologies can provide better anonymity as well as better message reliability in the event of partial network failure. 1 Introduction Modern deployed...and find that the free-route network provides the highest expected anonymity as well as the best robustness to node failure. In Section 2 we describe

  6. LIRA: Lightweight Incentivized Routing for Anonymity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    accountability that plagues PAR and XPAY, wherein anonymity inherently de- creases as the ability to detect cheaters improves. Ngan et al. propose a...LIRA: Lightweight Incentivized Routing for Anonymity Rob Jansen Aaron Johnson U.S. Naval Research Laboratory {rob.g.jansen, aaron.m.johnson...prob- lems stemming from a lack of incentives for volunteers to contribute. Insufficient capacity limits scalability and harms the anonymity of its

  7. En route spacing system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); Green, Steven M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method of and computer software for minimizing aircraft deviations needed to comply with an en route miles-in-trail spacing requirement imposed during air traffic control operations via establishing a spacing reference geometry, predicting spatial locations of a plurality of aircraft at a predicted time of intersection of a path of a first of said plurality of aircraft with the spacing reference geometry, and determining spacing of each of the plurality of aircraft based on the predicted spatial locations.

  8. Routing and advanced display technologies within STOMPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittu, Ranjeev; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.; McCune, Justin

    1998-08-01

    This paper will discuss research conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory in the area of automated routing, advanced 3D displays and novel interface techniques for interacting with those displays. This research has culminated in the development of the strike optimized mission planing module (STOMPM). The STOMPM testbed incorporates new technologies/results in the aforementioned areas to address the deficiencies in current systems and advance the state of the art in military planing systems.

  9. 9. UNDERSIDE, SHOWING NORTH ROCK OUTCROP ON WHICH ROUTE 31 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. UNDERSIDE, SHOWING NORTH ROCK OUTCROP ON WHICH ROUTE 31 RESTS, NORTH PIER AGAINST ROCK, AND SOUTH PIER. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Route 31 Bridge, New Jersey Route 31, crossing disused main line of Central Railroad of New Jersey (C.R.R.N.J.) (New Jersey Transit's Raritan Valley Line), Hampton, Hunterdon County, NJ

  10. 14 CFR 25.123 - En route flight paths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... provides adequate cooling in the hot-day condition. (b) The one-engine-inoperative net flight path data...) In non-icing conditions; and (2) In icing conditions with the en route ice accretion defined in appendix C, if: (i) A speed of 1.18 “VSR0 with the en route ice accretion exceeds the en route...

  11. 14 CFR 25.123 - En route flight paths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provides adequate cooling in the hot-day condition. (b) The one-engine-inoperative net flight path data...) In non-icing conditions; and (2) In icing conditions with the en route ice accretion defined in appendix C, if: (i) A speed of 1.18 “VSR0 with the en route ice accretion exceeds the en route...

  12. 14 CFR 25.123 - En route flight paths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provides adequate cooling in the hot-day condition. (b) The one-engine-inoperative net flight path data...) In non-icing conditions; and (2) In icing conditions with the en route ice accretion defined in appendix C, if: (i) A speed of 1.18 “VSR0 with the en route ice accretion exceeds the en route...

  13. 14 CFR 25.123 - En route flight paths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... provides adequate cooling in the hot-day condition. (b) The one-engine-inoperative net flight path data...) In non-icing conditions; and (2) In icing conditions with the en route ice accretion defined in appendix C, if: (i) A speed of 1.18 “VSR0 with the en route ice accretion exceeds the en route...

  14. 14 CFR 25.123 - En route flight paths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... provides adequate cooling in the hot-day condition. (b) The one-engine-inoperative net flight path data...) In non-icing conditions; and (2) In icing conditions with the en route ice accretion defined in appendix C, if: (i) A speed of 1.18 “VSR0 with the en route ice accretion exceeds the en route...

  15. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research. PMID:27011193

  16. Identification of Robust Terminal-Area Routes in Convective Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeil, Diana Michalek; Balakrishnan, Hamsa

    2012-01-01

    Convective weather is responsible for large delays and widespread disruptions in the U.S. National Airspace System, especially during summer. Traffic flow management algorithms require reliable forecasts of route blockage to schedule and route traffic. This paper demonstrates how raw convective weather forecasts, which provide deterministic predictions of the vertically integrated liquid (the precipitation content in a column of airspace) can be translated into probabilistic forecasts of whether or not a terminal area route will be blocked. Given a flight route through the terminal area, we apply techniques from machine learning to determine the likelihood that the route will be open in actual weather. The likelihood is then used to optimize terminalarea operations by dynamically moving arrival and departure routes to maximize the expected capacity of the terminal area. Experiments using real weather scenarios on stormy days show that our algorithms recommend that a terminal-area route be modified 30% of the time, opening up 13% more available routes that were forecast to be blocked during these scenarios. The error rate is low, with only 5% of cases corresponding to a modified route being blocked in reality, whereas the original route is in fact open. In addition, for routes predicted to be open with probability 0.95 or greater by our method, 96% of these routes (on average over time horizon) are indeed open in the weather that materializes

  17. Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Priority Flows in a Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    ADAPTIVE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR PRIORITY FLOWS IN A NETWORK THESIS Timothy J. Carbino, Captain...ADAPTIVE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR PRIORITY FLOWS IN A NETWORK THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer... Thesis 20 Aug 10 – 14 Jun 12 Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Priority Flows in a Network 12629PCarbino, Timothy J, Captain, USAF Air Force Institute of

  18. School Bus Crash Rates on Routine and Nonroutine Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Marizen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy; Stahlhut, Mary; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although prior research has established that school buses are a safe form of transportation, crashes can produce catastrophic consequences. School buses have 2 types of routes: predictable, routine routes that take children to and from school and less predictable, nonroutine routes for school events. No studies have examined school bus…

  19. 49 CFR 236.302 - Track circuits and route locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track circuits and route locking. 236.302 Section 236.302 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Standards § 236.302 Track circuits and route locking. Track circuits and route locking shall be provided...

  20. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  1. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  2. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  3. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  4. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  5. 3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams Dam Road center, Brandywine Creek State Park and J. Chandler Farm in center left, duck pond bottom right and reservoir bottom left. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  6. 8. View southeast, Route 100 (Montchanin Road) to left duck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View southeast, Route 100 (Montchanin Road) to left duck and large stand of old growth oak trees at back entrance to Winterthur center right. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  7. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-03-22

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  8. 75 FR 27427 - Amendment of Jet Route J-120; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Jet Route J-120; Alaska AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Jet Route J-120, in... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Jet Route J-120, in Alaska (75...

  9. SPS technical issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guttman, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The technical issues which would either seriously impact or potentially negate the integrity of a solar power satellite program are enumerated. Issues are identified not only relating to the question of engineering feasibility, but also to the equally important areas of environmental and social acceptability and, especially, economic viability. Specific information required for resolution of the issues was developed and a planned overall approach for resolution was identified. Results of these analyses show that 60% of the technical issues can be resolved with analysis only; 10% require only ground testing for resolution; and the remaining 30% require space experiments or demonstrations for resolution. The results also show that 85% resolution of the issues may be accomplished prior to development of a protoype.

  10. Navigating "thorny" issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Kashema; Gilbert, Aderinsola; Malyukova, Anna

    2016-09-01

    In their article Mindfulness and discussing ` thorny' issues in the classroom Konstantinos Alexakos et al. (Cult Stud Sci Educ, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s11422-015-9718-0) describe "thorny" issues as "difficult topics to discuss because they are more personal to some perhaps even cause pain and violence." As women from different backgrounds, we engage in a metalogue, which expands on our thoughts and emotions the thorny issues evoked. Our discussion is grounded in theoretical frameworks of mindfulness, wellness, and safe space for learning. We also reflect on our experiences of facing some of the thorny issues in our academic and personal lives. Having trust and respect for one another and being aware of thorny issues allows for a meaningful conversation about the complexity and nuances involved in discussing difficult topics in a classroom setting.

  11. Advanced routing in interplanetary backbone network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ge; Sheng, Min; Wu, Chengke

    2007-11-01

    Interplanetary (IPN) Internet is a communication infrastructure providing communication services for scientific data delivery and navigation services for the explorer spacecrafts and orbiters of the future deep space missions. The interplanetary backbone network has the unique characteristics hence routing through the backbone network present many challenges that are not presented in traditional networks. Some routing algorithms have been proposed, in which, LPDB integrates the shortest path algorithm and the directional broadcast method to guarantee fast and reliable message delivery. Through this mutipath routing strategy, unpredictable link failures is addressed, but additional network overhead is introduced. In this paper, we propose an improvement of the LPDB named ALPDB in which the source could adaptively decide the next-hop nodes according to the link condition, hence reduce the network overhead. We model this algorithm on the network simulation platform of OPNET and compare it with other applicable algorithms in data passing ratio, data delay and network overhead. The result indicates that the ALPDB algorithm could not only guarantee reliable message delivery, but also decrease the cost significantly.

  12. Terrain-based routing of distribution cables

    SciTech Connect

    West, N.A.; Dwolatzky, B.; Meyer, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Specifying the actual layout of all overhead lines and underground cables is one of the key tasks to be carried out in the design of electrical distribution networks. Voltage drop and other network calculations can be performed only after the length of each cable segment is determined. Although automatic cable routers are currently available, they are mainly for formally planned urban areas. These routers are not always appropriate for use in designing rural distribution networks, because they fail to account for some of the special circumstances found in rural areas. A more practical approach bases automatic cable routing on the terrain of a given area rather than on the layout of roads. The automatic Distribution Network Router (DNR) finds the least-cost path (not merely the shortest one) connecting two nodes. This article briefly discusses methods currently used to determine cable routes for distribution networks, the unsuitability of these methods for routing cables in rural and informal urban areas, the proposed approach that relies on dividing the terrain into cost regions, and the benefits gained in its application. Emphasis is on the practical application of the new approach.

  13. Modelisation du Signal Radar EN Milieu Stratifie et Evaluation de Techniques de Mesure de L'humidite du Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Johanne

    La presente etude se penche sur des problemes relies a l'echantillonnage de l'humidite de sol et a l'estimation du signal radar sur sols nus. Le travail se divise en deux volets. Le volet 1 evalue trois techniques de mesure de l'humidite du sol (gravimetrie, reflectometrie temporelle et sonde dielectrique) et deux protocoles d'echantillonnage. Dans le volet 2, un modele de simulation du signal en milieu stratifie est developpe, et les estimes de signal obtenus sont compares aux estimes bases uniquement sur une valeur moyenne d'humidite du sol prise sur une profondeur fixe d'echantillonnage. Les differences entre les deux estimes dependent de la frequence et du choix judicieux de la profondeur d'echantillonnage; elles sont plus importantes aux faibles angles et en polarisation HV, puis VV. Le modele de simulation a aussi ete utilise pour etudier la profondeur de penetration du signal et en deduire la profondeur optimale d'echantillonnage en tenant compte des caracteristiques du signal. Une variation de 25 ^circ de l'angle d'incidence a peu d'effet sur la profondeur de penetration en bande Ku; l'ecart reste inferieur ou egal a 0,5 cm en bande C mais peut atteindre 1,3 cm en bande L. L'impact de la polarisation est nul en bande Ku mais croi t avec l'angle d'incidence en bande C et L. A 50^circ, il est, en moyenne de 1 cm en bande C et de 2 cm en bande L. En polarisation VV, la profondeur croi t avec une augmentation de l'angle alors que l'effet est inverse en polarisation HH. Deux methodes pour estimer la profondeur d'echantillonnage en conditions operationnelles sont presentees. Lorsqu'on inverse un modele pour estimer l'humidite du sol a partir du signal, ces methodes permettent aussi d'estimer l'epaisseur de sol representee par l'humidite ainsi estimee.

  14. La chirurgie du diaphragme sous aortique

    PubMed Central

    Moutakiallah, Younes; Maaroufi, Ilham; Aithoussa, Mahdi; Bamous, Mehdi; Abdou, Abdessamad; Atmani, Noureddine; Hatim, Abdedaïm; Amahzoune, Brahim; Bekkali, Youssef El; Boulahya, Abdelatif

    2016-01-01

    Le diaphragme sous aortique se caractérise par une certaine latence clinique et une faible morbi-mortalité. La chirurgie reste le traitement de choix malgré un réel risque de récurrence à long terme. Nous rapportons 18 patients opérés entre Avril 1994 et Mars 2011 pour diaphragme sous aortique d’âge moyen de 18,1±9,7 ans avec 11 patients de sexe masculin. Le diaphragme était de nature fibreuse chez 13 patients et fibro-musculaire chez 5 patients. Tous les patients ont été opérés par résection de diaphragme associée à une myectomie, une plastie aortique, une fermeture de communication interventriculaire et une ligature de canal artériel perméable respectivement chez 3, 3, 2 et 2 patients. La Mortalité opératoire était nulle et sans aucun cas de trouble de conduction postopératoire. Le suivi a duré en moyenne 44,3±36,8 mois sans aucun décès tardif. Deux patients ont présenté une récidive de diaphragme qui a nécessité une réopération avec bonne évolution. La tendance actuelle dans la chirurgie du diaphragme se fait vers des interventions précoces et des résections plus extensives. Cependant, le risque de récidive impose une surveillance échographique systématique et rapprochée. PMID:27516830

  15. Steric and Electronic Effects in Olefin Hydrocyanation at Du Pont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    The hydrocyanation of butadiene provides an excellent route to adiponitrile, a nylon precursor. The detailed mechanistic studies that made the development of this technology possible are discussed. (JN)

  16. Method and System for Dynamic Automated Corrections to Weather Avoidance Routes for Aircraft in En Route Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, B. David (Inventor); Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic weather route system automatically analyzes routes for in-flight aircraft flying in convective weather regions and attempts to find more time and fuel efficient reroutes around current and predicted weather cells. The dynamic weather route system continuously analyzes all flights and provides reroute advisories that are dynamically updated in real time while the aircraft are in flight. The dynamic weather route system includes a graphical user interface that allows users to visualize, evaluate, modify if necessary, and implement proposed reroutes.

  17. Smart aircraft routing - a possibility for mitigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannstein, H.; Gierens, K.; Graf, K.; Waibel, A.; Meilinger, S.; Seifert, A.; Köhler, C.

    2009-12-01

    Air traffic affects the energy balance of the earth in various ways. Emission of CO2 with atmospheric residence times measured in decades contributes to the greenhouse effect as well as emission of nitrous oxides, with their impact on ozone and methane chemistry. Soot has a direct effect on the net radiation and, much more important, is involved in the production of contrails and the triggering of contrail cirrus, which can be visible for several hours. These artificial clouds are initiated when flying in sufficiently cold and moist air. In total, their net radiative forcing is of the same order of magnitude as the forcing by the emitted CO2. The impact of contrail cirrus on net radiation results from the conversion of ambient moisture in ice super-saturated regions into ice crystals and depends strongly on the conditions of the ambient radiation field. It ranges from a warming at night or over bright low clouds to cooling during daytime over dark surfaces like the ocean. For the time being these effects are not at all taken into consideration in aircraft routing: the production of contrails and contrail cirrus happens by chance. The dependency of the radiative forcing by contrail cirrus clouds on the weather conditions opens the possibility for mitigation: Avoiding warming (and perhaps also producing cooling) contrails and contrail cirrus by changes of the flight routes has the potential to reduce the man-made imbalance in radiative forcing. As contrails are produced only in 10%- 20% of the flown distances and only the warming contrails should be avoided, the impact on the traffic system is likely to be limited. The basic idea of the project ’Environmentally compatible flight route optimisation’, funded by the German Ministry for Research and Education is, to predict the time integrated radiative forcing of a potential contrail cirrus based on the information given by a weather forecast model. This information is used in relation to total forcing of the

  18. Smart aircraft routing - a possibility for mitigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannstein, H.; Gierens, K.; Waibel, A.; Meilinger, S.; Seifert, A.; Köhler, C.; Kühne, H.

    2009-04-01

    Air traffic affects the energy balance of the earth in various ways. Emission of CO2 with atmospheric residence times measured in decades contributes to the greenhouse effect as well as emission of nitrous oxides, with their impact on ozone and methane chemistry. Soot has a direct effect on the net radiation and, much more important, is involved the production of contrails and the triggering of contrail cirrus, which can be visible for several hours. These artificial clouds are initiated when flying in sufficiently cold and moist air. In total their net radiative forcing is of the same order of magnitude as the forcing by the emitted CO2. The impact of contrail cirrus on net radiation results from the conversion of ambient moisture in ice super-saturated regions into ice crystals and depends strongly on the conditions of the ambient radiation field. It ranges from a warming at night or over bright low clouds to cooling during daytime over dark surfaces like the ocean. For the time being these effects are not at all taken into consideration in aircraft routing: the production of contrails and contrail cirrus happens by chance. in. The dependency of the radiative forcing by contrail cirrus clouds on the weather conditions opens the possibility for a soft version of geo-engineering: Avoiding warming (and perhaps also producing cooling) contrails and contrail cirrus by small changes of the flight routes has the potential to reduce the man-made imbalance in radiative forcing by a few percent - not much compared to other geo-engineering strategies, but without any adverse consequences. With the exception of a small amount of additional fuel usage no other substances have to be brought into the atmosphere. As contrails are produced only in 10%-20% of the flown distances and only the warming contrails should be avoided, the impact on the traffic system is limited. The basic idea of the project 'Environmentally compatible flight route optimisation', funded by the German

  19. Ensemble Data Assimilation for Channel Flow Routing to Improve Operational Hydrologic Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Lee, H.; Seo, D.; Brown, J.; Corby, R.; Howieson, T.

    2008-12-01

    Channel flow routing, which predicts hydrograph transformation as water moves downstream, is a critical step in operational forecasting of floods and water resources. Like hydrologic modeling for headwater basins, routing modeling involves many kinds of uncertainties arising from observational data and the model itself. In addition to in-channel transformations, routing must also consider uncertainties from less-than-well-known sources and sinks along the channel. Data assimilation holds large potential in accounting for these different uncertainties in a dynamically and statistically consistent way. In this presentation, we describe an application of ensemble data assimilation for a hydrologic channel routing model based on the variable three-parameter Muskingum method, in which we consider errors in the inflow and outflow observations, and uncertainties in the initial conditions and Muskingum parameters. For data assimilation, we adopt the Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter (or MLEF, Zupanski 2005), which combines the strengths of variational data assimilation and ensemble filtering techniques. Results from applications to selected river sections in Texas in the WGRFC's service area will be presented, along with issues from research and operational perspectives.

  20. SLEA: A Novel Scheme for Routing in Overlay IP/WDM Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tong; Su, Yikai; Zhu, Keyao; Leng, Lufeng; Zeng, Qingji; Jin, Yaohui

    2005-10-01

    This paper studies the routing problems in Internet protocol/wavelength-division-multiplexing (IP/WDM) networks based on the overlay routing algorithm (ORA) and the integrated routing algorithm (IRA), respectively. Although IRA usually outperforms ORA in terms of blocking performance, IRA exhibits disadvantages in control information exchange, network privacy issue, and wavelength port efficiency. In this paper, a new mechanism called the short lightpath establishment approach (SLEA) is proposed for ORA in order to tackle the problems in IRA and achieve similar (or even better) network performance at the same time. The main idea of SLEA is to ensure that each new lightpath created by ORA is restricted by an optical hop constraint when a subwavelength-granularity connection is routed in the optical layer. It follows that SLEA essentially avoids per-connection-based greedy treatment and improves network wide resource utilization by eliminating inefficient long optical bypasses. To implement SLEA in ORA, the Dijsktra's algorithm has been modified based on an extended layered graph model. SLEA does not introduce any additional signaling and computational complexity. The analysis and simulation in this paper show that there exists an optimal optical hop constraint for each particular network configuration such that SLEA-based ORA (SLEA-ORA) can efficiently utilize the network resource of concern. As a result, with the optimal optical hop constraint, SLEA-ORA could outperform ORA and IRA in terms of the bandwidth-blocking ratio (BBR) and the average number of IP hops of label-switched paths (LSPs).

  1. Towards Internet QoS Provisioning Based on Generic Distributed QoS Adaptive Routing Engine

    PubMed Central

    Haikal, Amira Y.; Badawy, M.; Ali, Hesham A.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing efficiency and quality demands of modern Internet technologies drive today's network engineers to seek to provide quality of service (QoS). Internet QoS provisioning gives rise to several challenging issues. This paper introduces a generic distributed QoS adaptive routing engine (DQARE) architecture based on OSPFxQoS. The innovation of the proposed work in this paper is its undependability on the used QoS architectures and, moreover, splitting of the control strategy from data forwarding mechanisms, so we guarantee a set of absolute stable mechanisms on top of which Internet QoS can be built. DQARE architecture is furnished with three relevant traffic control schemes, namely, service differentiation, QoS routing, and traffic engineering. The main objective of this paper is to (i) provide a general configuration guideline for service differentiation, (ii) formalize the theoretical properties of different QoS routing algorithms and then introduce a QoS routing algorithm (QOPRA) based on dynamic programming technique, and (iii) propose QoS multipath forwarding (QMPF) model for paths diversity exploitation. NS2-based simulations proved the DQARE superiority in terms of delay, packet delivery ratio, throughput, and control overhead. Moreover, extensive simulations are used to compare the proposed QOPRA algorithm and QMPF model with their counterparts in the literature. PMID:25309955

  2. Existence and uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium in the non-cooperative QoS routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforto, Paolo; Delli Priscoli, Francesco; Facchinei, Francisco

    2010-04-01

    Researchers dealing with game theoretic issues are well aware that the definition of a model capturing some physical behaviours such as the routing, the pricing, the flow and congestion control, the admission control just to mention some examples in the telecommunication field, is a difficult task, but it is only half of the overall effort. As a matter of fact, a key aspect is the analysis of the equilibrium (or equilibria) towards which the game will (hopefully) converge. The existence, the uniqueness, the efficiency and the structure of the equilibrium are some of the typical properties which are investigated. In this article, we propose a game theoretic model for quality of service (QoS) routing in networks implementing a Differentiated Service model for the QoS support. In particular, we focus on a parallel link network model and we consider a non-cooperative joint problem of QoS routing and dynamic capacity allocation. For this model, we demonstrate that the Nash equilibrium exists, so overcoming a typical problem in the existence proofs appeared in many papers in the area of routing game since 1990s, and we explicitly obtain a suitable set of relations characterising its structure. Moreover, we prove that Nash equilibrium uniqueness cannot be guaranteed in general.

  3. Geographic Information System (GIS) modeling approach to determine the fastest delivery routes.

    PubMed

    Abousaeidi, Mohammad; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Muhamad, Rusnah

    2016-09-01

    This study involves the adoption of the Geographic Information System (GIS) modeling approach to determine the quickest routes for fresh vegetable delivery. During transport, fresh vegetables mainly deteriorate on account of temperature and delivery time. Nonetheless, little attention has been directed to transportation issues in most areas within Kuala Lumpur. In addition, perishable food normally has a short shelf life, thus timely delivery significantly affects delivery costs. Therefore, selecting efficient routes would consequently reduce the total transportation costs. The regression model is applied in this study to determine the parameters that affect route selection with respect to the fastest delivery of fresh vegetables. For the purpose of this research, ArcGIS software with network analyst extension is adopted to solve the problem of complex networks. The final output of this research is a map of quickest routes with the best delivery times based on all variables. The variables tested from regression analysis are the most effective parameters to make the flow of road networks slower. The objective is to improve the delivery services by achieving the least drive time. The main findings of this research are that Land use such as residential area and population as variables are the effective parameters on drive time.

  4. Long-Range Correlations and Memory in the Dynamics of Internet Interdomain Routing.

    PubMed

    Kitsak, Maksim; Elmokashfi, Ahmed; Havlin, Shlomo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Data transfer is one of the main functions of the Internet. The Internet consists of a large number of interconnected subnetworks or domains, known as Autonomous Systems (ASes). Due to privacy and other reasons the information about what route to use to reach devices within other ASes is not readily available to any given AS. The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is responsible for discovering and distributing this reachability information to all ASes. Since the topology of the Internet is highly dynamic, all ASes constantly exchange and update this reachability information in small chunks, known as routing control packets or BGP updates. In the view of the quick growth of the Internet there are significant concerns with the scalability of the BGP updates and the efficiency of the BGP routing in general. Motivated by these issues we conduct a systematic time series analysis of BGP update rates. We find that BGP update time series are extremely volatile, exhibit long-term correlations and memory effects, similar to seismic time series, or temperature and stock market price fluctuations. The presented statistical characterization of BGP update dynamics could serve as a basis for validation of existing and developing better models of Internet interdomain routing.

  5. Towards Internet QoS provisioning based on generic distributed QoS adaptive routing engine.

    PubMed

    Haikal, Amira Y; Badawy, M; Ali, Hesham A

    2014-01-01

    Increasing efficiency and quality demands of modern Internet technologies drive today's network engineers to seek to provide quality of service (QoS). Internet QoS provisioning gives rise to several challenging issues. This paper introduces a generic distributed QoS adaptive routing engine (DQARE) architecture based on OSPFxQoS. The innovation of the proposed work in this paper is its undependability on the used QoS architectures and, moreover, splitting of the control strategy from data forwarding mechanisms, so we guarantee a set of absolute stable mechanisms on top of which Internet QoS can be built. DQARE architecture is furnished with three relevant traffic control schemes, namely, service differentiation, QoS routing, and traffic engineering. The main objective of this paper is to (i) provide a general configuration guideline for service differentiation, (ii) formalize the theoretical properties of different QoS routing algorithms and then introduce a QoS routing algorithm (QOPRA) based on dynamic programming technique, and (iii) propose QoS multipath forwarding (QMPF) model for paths diversity exploitation. NS2-based simulations proved the DQARE superiority in terms of delay, packet delivery ratio, throughput, and control overhead. Moreover, extensive simulations are used to compare the proposed QOPRA algorithm and QMPF model with their counterparts in the literature.

  6. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  7. Issues management made easier

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, L.

    1993-10-01

    Increases in ES&H compliance issues within the past few years have necessitated a formal process by which DOE facilities address these issues. In May 1991, ANL-W implemented the ANL-W Issues Management System (IMS) to facilitate the management of compliance issues and scheduling of corrective action plans with limited resources. The central focus of this process is a computer database, Integrated Resource Management System (IRMS), which allows quick retrieval of compliance information, organization of compliance issues based on a risk-based prioritization methodology, and tracking of corrective action plans. Without the IRMS, the ANL-W Issues Management System would have been difficult to administer and manage. ANL-W has used the IRMS for both audit preparation and audit response, most noticeably the preparation and subsequent response to the 1991 Tiger Team audit. The IRMS was used to track ANL-W Self-Assessment corrective action plans, provide instant information to Tiger Team members regarding Self-Assessment findings, produce prioritized lists of Tiger Team concerns for developing corrective action plans, and track Tiger Team corrective action plans. Status reports to senior, laboratory management regarding the Tiger Team corrective action plan are produced based on information provided by the IRMS. This paper discusses the criteria used for selecting the IRMS, implementation of the Issues Management System using the IRMS, lessons learned, and the future evolution of the IRMS.

  8. Les rivières et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  9. [Biography of the outstanding acupuncturist DU Xiao-shan].

    PubMed

    Ding, Min; Lu, Rui-Qin; Du, Liang-Dong; Cao, Li; Lin, Tian-Yun

    2012-09-01

    Professor DU Xiao-shan 's academic thought and clinical experiences was introduced in this paper. He has noble medical ethics and is fair to the patients without distinction. He has great learning and rich practical experiences, and he specializes in all kinds of common diseases as well as many difficult and complicated cases. He never stops studying the ancients to make innovation and he creates the technique of the quick-puncture and slow-twist and DU's heat-reinforce method. He teaches to carry forward acupuncture and moxibustion and his achievements have become an important part of acupuncture and moxibustion science.

  10. Baisse du HDL-cholestérol indicateur du stress oxydatif dans le diabète de type 2

    PubMed Central

    Kabamba, Arsène Tshikongo; Bakari, Salvius Amuri; Longanga, Albert Otshudi; Lukumwena, Zet Kalala

    2014-01-01

    L'hypercholestérolémie est étroitement liée au stress oxydatif. Lorsqu'il y a trop de cholestérol qui circule dans le sang, il n'est pas utilisé en totalité par les cellules et il risque de s'accumuler dans les vaisseaux sanguins. Cela peut entrainer la formation des plaques d'athérosclérose qui gênent la circulation sanguine et provoquent des accidents cardiovasculaires. Le stress oxydatif apparait très tôt dans l'histoire des complications du diabète de type 2, et est lié à l'oxydation du glucose mais aussi à la peroxydation lipidique. Le cholestérol-HDL est un marqueur important du stress oxydatif par sa capacité à faciliter la métabolisation du cholestérol, sa baisse est souvent considérée comme la source de beaucoup d'inquiétudes. L'objectif est l’évaluation de la variation du taux de cholestérol-HDL, marqueur du stress oxydatif, chez les patients diabétiques de type 2 dans la population congolaise. Nous avons inclus dans cette étude prospective des cas témoins des patients diabétiques de type 2 reconnus et diagnostiqués, et des témoins non diabétiques appariés selon l’âge et le sexe. Parallèlement au bilan biologique classique, une analyse d'un des facteurs de risque du stress oxydatif a été réalisée: baisse de HDL-Cholestérol. L’âge moyen des 30 patients diabétiques (47,77±10,78 ans) était comparable à celui des 30 témoins (48,83±10,73 ans). Une baisse significative du cholestérol-HDL dans le sang était observée chez 100% des diabétiques et 50% des témoins (p=0,0000). L'augmentation du HDL cholestérol permet d’éliminer le mauvais cholestérol en excès en nettoyant les tissus et en ramenant le cholestérol vers le foie. Lors du diabète de type 2 on constate une baisse sanguine sensible du taux de HDL-cholestérol, qui est signe indicateur du stress oxydatif. PMID:25767660

  11. Facteurs liés au diagnostic tardif du cancer du sein: expérience du CHU Mohammed VI Marrakech

    PubMed Central

    Aloulou, Sofia; El Mahfoudi, Amal; El Omrani, Abdelhamid; Khouchani, Mouna

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est le premier cancer féminin en termes d'incidence et de mortalité. Au Maroc, il vient au premier rang des cancers de la femme avant celui du col utérin Il constitue un problème de santé publique. Son pronostic est étroitement lié au stade auquel le diagnostic est posé. Il s'agit d'une pathologie dont les moyens diagnostiques sont de nos jours développés, allant de la détection précoce à la mise en évidence de lésions infra-cliniques, ce qui a nettement amélioré le pronostic dans les pays développés. Ce travail que nous présentons a pour objectif d'identifier dans notre pratique quotidienne, les facteurs qui amènent les patientes à consulter à des stades tardifs. Une étude rétrospective a été menée de janvier 2012 à janvier 2013 portant sur 130 patientes porteuses d'un cancer du sein au sein du service d'onco-radiotherapie CHU Mohammed VI Marrakech. Un questionnaire a été élaboré et dument renseigné en ayant recours aux dossiers des malades. Ainsi 63,07% des patientes consultaient au-delà de six mois avec un délai moyen de consultation de 8,47 mois avec comme motif de consultation des lésions classées T4 dans 27,69%, et des tumeurs d'emblée métastatiques dans 13,84%. Les facteurs retrouvés à l'interrogatoire étaient le manque de moyens financiers 40%, l’éloignement des structures sanitaires dans 23%, les habitudes socioculturelles avec les traitements traditionnels en première intention 20%, et l'insuffisance de prise en charge thérapeutique 7%. Cependant, pris individuellement, aucune concordance significative n’était retrouvée entre ces facteurs et le long délai diagnostique. Dans notre pratique, c'est la conjonction de la triade ignorance, indigence et habitudes socioculturelles qui constituent le facteur essentiel du diagnostic tardif des cancers du sein. PMID:26327999

  12. A Survey on Clustering Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuxun

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a wide range of applications and it has become a hot research area. Based on network structure, routing protocols in WSNs can be divided into two categories: flat routing and hierarchical or clustering routing. Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and fine grained survey on clustering routing protocols proposed in the literature for WSNs. We outline the advantages and objectives of clustering for WSNs, and develop a novel taxonomy of WSN clustering routing methods based on complete and detailed clustering attributes. In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions. PMID:23112649

  13. Medical Issues: Breathing

    MedlinePlus

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common cause of illness for children with SMA. Breathing Risks In healthy individuals, the muscles between the ...

  14. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  15. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  16. Medical Issues: Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a range of ... you can submit an equipment pool request. Helpful Equipment The following is a list of equipment that ...

  17. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  18. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  19. Cloud Forensics Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Cloud Forensics Issues William R. Simpson Coimbatore Chandersekaran 1 July 2014 IDA...252.227-7013 (a)(16) [Sep 2011]. Cloud Forensics Issues William R Simpson and Coimbatore Chandersekaran Abstract— Forensics is...offerings of cloud capabilities have not provided security, monitoring or attribution that would allow an effective forensics investigation. The high

  20. Special issue on filamentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruxin; Milchberg, Howard; Mysyrowicz, André

    2014-05-01

    Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is delighted to announce a forthcoming special issue on filamentation, to appear in the spring of 2015, and invites you to submit a paper. This special issue will attempt to give an overview of the present status of this field in order to create synergies and foster future developments. The issue is open to papers on the following issues: Theoretical advances on filamentation. Self-focusing and collapse. Filamentation in various media. Pulse self-compression and ultrafast processes in filaments. Molecular alignment and rotation. Filamentation tailoring. Interaction between filaments. Filament weather and pollution control. Filament induced condensation and precipitation. Terahertz science with filaments. Lasing in filaments. Filament induced molecular excitation and reaction. Electric discharge and plasma. Cross-disciplinary applications. Novel concepts related to these topics are particularly welcome. Please submit your article by 1 October 2014 (expected web publication: spring 2015) using our website http://mc04.manuscriptcentral.com/jphysb-iop. Submissions received after this date will be considered for the journal, but may not be included in the special issue. The issue will be edited by Ruxin Li, Howard Milchberg and André Mysyrowicz.

  1. Le traitement conservateur du cancer du sein: expérience d'une équipe tunisienne

    PubMed Central

    Dimassi, Kaouther; Gharsa, Anissa; Chanoufi, Mohammed Badis; Sfar, Ezzeddine; Chelli, Dalenda

    2014-01-01

    En Tunisie, le cancer du sein touche des femmes jeunes avec une taille moyenne au moment du diagnostic à 5 cm. Ces particularités font que la chirurgie radicale reste prédominante. Nous présentons dans ce travail l'expérience de notre équipe en matière de chirurgie conservatrice du cancer du sein. Le but de ce travail est d’évaluer les résultats de ce traitement. Etude rétrospective longitudinale, sur une période de 75 mois. Nous avons inclus toutes les patientes ayant bénéficié d'un traitement conservateur pour une tumeur maligne du sein. Ont été analysés: les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, les aspects radiologiques et histologiques. Le suivi des malades s'est basé sur la détection des récidives. Nous avons évalué le résultat esthétique à la fin de la radiothérapie. Le traitement conservateur a été réalisé dans 23.8% des cas. Le taux de récidives locales était de 6.8% avec une corrélation significative pour une taille tumorale > 30 mm (p= 0.009), l'association d'une composante intracanalaire (p= 0.035), le statut triple négatif (p= 0.003) et des marges d'exérèse < 5mm sans recoupes per-opératoires (p = 0.045). Les facteurs suivants étaient significativement liés au risque de survenue de métastases à distance: le statut triple négatif (p= 0.003), taille tumorale > 30mm (p = 0.006) et l'atteinte ganglionnaire (p = 0.001). Le résultat esthétique était satisfaisant dans 90% des cas. L'augmentation du nombre de patientes pouvant bénéficier d'une chirurgie conservatrice, doit passer impérativement par le développement et la promotion du diagnostic précoce et du dépistage par la mammographie. PMID:25810795

  2. Region based route planning - Multi-abstraction route planning based on intermediate level vision processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doshi, Rajkumar S.; Lam, Raymond; White, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Intermediate and high level processing operations are performed on vision data for the organization of images into more meaningful, higher-level topological representations by means of a region-based route planner (RBRP). The RBRP operates in terrain scenarios where some or most of the terrain is occluded, proceeding without a priori maps on the basis of two-dimensional representations and gradient-and-roughness information. Route planning is accomplished by three successive abstractions and yields a detailed point-by-point path by searching only within the boundaries of relatively small regions.

  3. Routing Protocols to Minimize the Number of Route Disconnections for Communication in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Broch , "DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Multi-hop Wireless Ad hoc Networks," in Ad hoc Networking, Chapter 5, C. E. Perkins, Eds. Addison...Project Report: 09/23/2008 to 09/22/2009 W911NF-08-2-0061 References [I] J. Broch , D. A. Maltz, D. B. Johnson, Y. C. Hu and J. Jetcheva, "A...and Mobile Computing, Vol. 2, pp. 723 - 726, Sept. 2005. [4] D. B. Johnson, D. A. Maltz and J. Broch , "DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for

  4. En route noise of two turboprop aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrzynski, Werner

    1990-01-01

    In order to weigh en route noise emissions originating from future propfan powered aircraft, a data base of emission levels from conventional turboprop aircraft is needed. For this reason flyover noise measurements on two twin-engine turboprop aircraft were conducted at flight heights between 17,000 and 21,000 ft. Acoustic data are presented together with propeller operational parameters and environmental meteorological data. Narrowband spectral analyses demonstrate the characteristic features of the measured propeller noise signatures: Noise spectra are dominated by the propeller rotational noise fundamental frequency and pronounced noise beats occur as a consequence of different rotational speeds of the propellers.

  5. Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via the trivestibular route

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Ra; Kim, Do Hun; Lee, Dong Kun

    2016-01-01

    We recently experienced a case of transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via the trivestibular approach. We identified and preserved all neighboring critical structures during surgery. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. There were no complications in thyroid function, vocal cord function, or lower lip sense. Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via a trivestibular approach provides a short and direct route to the thyroid and an adequate workspace without a skin incision. Therefore, it is worthwhile to develop and refine the surgical techniques of this promising new surgical approach. PMID:27847801

  6. A Combination of Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization for Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Ji-Ping; Zhang, Fu-Hao; Wang, Liang; Sun, Li-Jian

    2015-01-01

    A combination of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for vehicle routing problems with time windows (VRPTW) is proposed in this paper. The improvements of the proposed algorithm include: using the particle real number encoding method to decode the route to alleviate the computation burden, applying a linear decreasing function based on the number of the iterations to provide balance between global and local exploration abilities, and integrating with the crossover operator of genetic algorithm to avoid the premature convergence and the local minimum. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is not only more efficient and competitive with other published results but can also obtain more optimal solutions for solving the VRPTW issue. One new well-known solution for this benchmark problem is also outlined in the following. PMID:26343655

  7. Written Forms of Signed languages: A Route to Literacy for Deaf Learners?

    PubMed

    Mayer, Connie

    2017-01-01

    While there have been attempts to develop written systems for signed languages, none have been widely used or adopted. In his article in an American Annals of the Deaf special issue that also includes the present article, Grushkin makes a case not only for why, but how efforts should be renewed to develop a written signed language, suggesting that increased written-English competence will be a consequence of increased competence in written and signed American Sign Language, with literacy-related skills transferring across languages. The present author responds in terms of what is known about linguistic interdependence in spoken-language contexts and in light of the evidence base from hearing bilinguals. She argues that, given the field's current context, no compelling rationale exists for pursuing this route to literacy for deaf learners, and that other routes are more workable from pragmatic, theoretical, and evidence-based perspectives.

  8. Hybrid routing technique for a fault-tolerant, integrated information network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    The evolutionary growth of the space station and the diverse activities onboard are expected to require a hierarchy of integrated, local area networks capable of supporting data, voice, and video communications. In addition, fault-tolerant network operation is necessary to protect communications between critical systems attached to the net and to relieve the valuable human resources onboard the space station of time-critical data system repair tasks. A key issue for the design of the fault-tolerant, integrated network is the development of a robust routing algorithm which dynamically selects the optimum communication paths through the net. A routing technique is described that adapts to topological changes in the network to support fault-tolerant operation and system evolvability.

  9. A Combination of Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization for Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Ji-Ping; Zhang, Fu-Hao; Wang, Liang; Sun, Li-Jian

    2015-08-27

    A combination of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for vehicle routing problems with time windows (VRPTW) is proposed in this paper. The improvements of the proposed algorithm include: using the particle real number encoding method to decode the route to alleviate the computation burden, applying a linear decreasing function based on the number of the iterations to provide balance between global and local exploration abilities, and integrating with the crossover operator of genetic algorithm to avoid the premature convergence and the local minimum. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is not only more efficient and competitive with other published results but can also obtain more optimal solutions for solving the VRPTW issue. One new well-known solution for this benchmark problem is also outlined in the following.

  10. Consequences experimentales des effets des fluctuations du vide sur la fluorescence parametrique et la generation du second harmonique en milieu confine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Luc

    Les fluctuations du vide, qui consistent en l'apparition momentanee de particules, ce qui est permit par le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg, joue un role primordial dans les processus photoniques, en particulier les processus non-lineaires. Par la manipulation de ces fluctuations du vide a l'aide de confinement optique, on retrouve deux phenomenes particuliers : l'intensification de la fluorescence parametrique (Walker, 2008) et l'inhibition de la generation du second harmonique (Collette, 2013). Dans ce travail, on presente les resultats dans le cas classique ; c'est-a-dire sans fluctuations du vide et confinement. Par la suite, on presente les effets des fluctuations du vide et du confinement, ce qui mene aux deux effets mentionnes. Dans le cas de la fluorescence parametrique, le bruit quantique sur le champ interne et externe est calcule, le role du desaccord de phase dans le modele est expose et une generalisation tridimensionnelle est etudiee afin de generaliser la conception du modele d'un cas unidimensionnel a un cas tridimensionnel planaire. Dans le cas de la generation du second harmonique, les difficultes d'un modele purement tridimensionnel sont exposees et ensuite le cas limite planaire est etudie.

  11. An alternative for cost-effective remediation of depleted uranium (DU) at certain environmental restoration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Galloway, B.; VanDerpoel, G.; Johnson, E.; Copland, J.; Salazar, M.

    2000-02-01

    Numerous sites in the United States and around the world are contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) in various forms. A prevalent form is fragmented DU originating from various scientific tests involving high explosives and DU during weapon development programs, at firing practice ranges, or war theaters where DU was used in armor-piercing projectiles. The contamination at these sites is typically very heterogeneous, with discreet, visually identifiable DU fragments mixed with native soil. That is, the bulk-averaged DU activity is quite low, while specific DU fragments, which are distinct from the soil matrix, have much higher specific activity. DU is best known as a dark, black metal that is nearly twice as dense as lead, but DU in the environment readily weathers to a distinctive bright yellow color that is readily visible. While the specific activity of DU is relatively low and presents only a minor radiological hazard, the fact that it is radioactive and visually identifiable makes it desirable to remove the DU contamination from the environment.

  12. Spectral classification of optical transients with du Pont telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, Nidia; Shappee, Ben; Drout, Maria; Dong, Subo

    2017-04-01

    We obtained optical spectroscopy (range 370-920 nm) of 11 transients with the 2.5-m du Pont telescope (+WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory between March 26 and 29 UT. The data were cross-correlated with a library of supernova spectra via the Supernova Identification tool (Blondin and Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024).

  13. College of DuPage Student Portrait, Fall Quarter 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL. Office of Research and Planning.

    The report profiles the College of DuPage's (COD) fall quarter 1999 student body. It presents a brief history of the college's enrollment and a comparison of enrollments with other Illinois community colleges. It also provides demographic information on current students. Additionally, enrollment information is included by program, division, and…

  14. Consonants in Cri du Chat Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal case study of consonant productions in one Norwegian girl with Cri du chat syndrome from age 4;6 to age 9;4. It was shown that she had many articulation errors throughout the period of observation. Furthermore, these errors were shown to fall into three main categories: (1) errors of differentiation and…

  15. The larynx in the cri du chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Manning, K P

    1977-10-01

    The Cri du Chat Syndrome which is caused by a chromosome abnormality is described. A summary of the laryngeal features found by various authors has been made. The characteristic cat-like cry is probably central in origin. The larynx in this condition may be normal or abnormal. If abnormal it is just another clinical manifestation of the syndrome.

  16. Past Tense Morphology in Cri Du Chat Syndrome: Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wium, Kristin; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2008-01-01

    It has been observed that persons with Cri du chat syndrome (CDCS) have poor language production. However, very few studies have addressed the question whether all aspects of language production are equally afflicted, or whether there are differences between for instance phonological and morphological abilities. The present study was aimed at…

  17. The first Pic du Midi photographs of Mars, 1909

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollfus, A.

    2010-08-01

    This short paper comprises an English translation of the article '1909; Premieres photographies de Mars au Pic du Midi', by Audouin Dollfus, published in l'Astronomie, 2009 November, pp. 27-30, and printed here with the assistance of the Director of the BAA Mars Section, Dr Richard McKim.

  18. 76 FR 68124 - Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 213 (Thursday, November 3, 2011)] [Proposed Rules] [Pages 68124-68125] [FR Doc No: 2011-28452] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 09-115, RM-11543; DA 11-1502] Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI AGENCY:...

  19. Pourfour du Petit Syndrome in a Patient with Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Ramirez, Sergi; Roig, Carles; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The clinical presentation of Pourfour du Petit syndrome (PdPs) is the opposite of Horner syndrome. Although all disorders underlying Horner syndrome may potentially present as PdPs, very few cases of the latter have been described in the literature. We report a patient with PdPs due to carotid compression by a thyroid tumor. PMID:21045936

  20. W. E. B. Du Bois: Reform, Will, and the Veil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Lynn; Warner, W. Keith

    2013-01-01

    While W. E. B. Du Bois is widely recognized for his contributions to the sociology of race, his contributions to the foundations of sociology are largely ignored. His sociology is based on African American reformism, a version of pragmatism, and a contingent historicism. The basic view of sociology is one that emphasizes the role of chance and…

  1. "The Moon Ring": A Conversation with Randy DuBurke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how the author, currently Editor-at-Large of Chronicle Books, chooses books to publish and discusses four attributes in a book that catch her eye. Presents an interview with Randy DuBurke and a conversation about his first picture book, "The Moon Ring." (SG)

  2. 78 FR 76784 - Proposed Modification, Revocation, and Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Charlotte, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...This action proposes to establish two RNAV routes; modify three RNAV routes; and remove one RNAV route in the Charlotte, NC, area. The route changes are proposed to support the Charlotte Optimization of Airspace and Procedures in a Metroplex (OAPM) project. The proposed routes, in combination with existing VOR Federal airways, would provide additional routing options through and around the......

  3. All-Direction Random Routing for Source-Location Privacy Protecting against Parasitic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Na; Zeng, Jiwen

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are deployed to monitor the surrounding physical environments and they also act as the physical environments of parasitic sensor networks, whose purpose is analyzing the contextual privacy and obtaining valuable information from the original wireless sensor networks. Recently, contextual privacy issues associated with wireless communication in open spaces have not been thoroughly addressed and one of the most important challenges is protecting the source locations of the valuable packages. In this paper, we design an all-direction random routing algorithm (ARR) for source-location protecting against parasitic sensor networks. For each package, the routing process of ARR is divided into three stages, i.e., selecting a proper agent node, delivering the package to the agent node from the source node, and sending it to the final destination from the agent node. In ARR, the agent nodes are randomly chosen in all directions by the source nodes using only local decisions, rather than knowing the whole topology of the networks. ARR can control the distributions of the routing paths in a very flexible way and it can guarantee that the routing paths with the same source and destination are totally different from each other. Therefore, it is extremely difficult for the parasitic sensor nodes to trace the packages back to the source nodes. Simulation results illustrate that ARR perfectly confuses the parasitic nodes and obviously outperforms traditional routing-based schemes in protecting source-location privacy, with a marginal increase in the communication overhead and energy consumption. In addition, ARR also requires much less energy than the cloud-based source-location privacy protection schemes. PMID:28304367

  4. All-Direction Random Routing for Source-Location Privacy Protecting against Parasitic Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Zeng, Jiwen

    2017-03-17

    Wireless sensor networks are deployed to monitor the surrounding physical environments and they also act as the physical environments of parasitic sensor networks, whose purpose is analyzing the contextual privacy and obtaining valuable information from the original wireless sensor networks. Recently, contextual privacy issues associated with wireless communication in open spaces have not been thoroughly addressed and one of the most important challenges is protecting the source locations of the valuable packages. In this paper, we design an all-direction random routing algorithm (ARR) for source-location protecting against parasitic sensor networks. For each package, the routing process of ARR is divided into three stages, i.e., selecting a proper agent node, delivering the package to the agent node from the source node, and sending it to the final destination from the agent node. In ARR, the agent nodes are randomly chosen in all directions by the source nodes using only local decisions, rather than knowing the whole topology of the networks. ARR can control the distributions of the routing paths in a very flexible way and it can guarantee that the routing paths with the same source and destination are totally different from each other. Therefore, it is extremely difficult for the parasitic sensor nodes to trace the packages back to the source nodes. Simulation results illustrate that ARR perfectly confuses the parasitic nodes and obviously outperforms traditional routing-based schemes in protecting source-location privacy, with a marginal increase in the communication overhead and energy consumption. In addition, ARR also requires much less energy than the cloud-based source-location privacy protection schemes.

  5. Multi-hop routing mechanism for reliable sensor computing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiann-Liang; Ma, Yi-Wei; Lai, Chia-Ping; Hu, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2009-01-01

    Current research on routing in wireless sensor computing concentrates on increasing the service lifetime, enabling scalability for large number of sensors and supporting fault tolerance for battery exhaustion and broken nodes. A sensor node is naturally exposed to various sources of unreliable communication channels and node failures. Sensor nodes have many failure modes, and each failure degrades the network performance. This work develops a novel mechanism, called Reliable Routing Mechanism (RRM), based on a hybrid cluster-based routing protocol to specify the best reliable routing path for sensor computing. Table-driven intra-cluster routing and on-demand inter-cluster routing are combined by changing the relationship between clusters for sensor computing. Applying a reliable routing mechanism in sensor computing can improve routing reliability, maintain low packet loss, minimize management overhead and save energy consumption. Simulation results indicate that the reliability of the proposed RRM mechanism is around 25% higher than that of the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing (AODV) mechanisms.

  6. Multi-Hop Routing Mechanism for Reliable Sensor Computing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiann-Liang; Ma, Yi-Wei; Lai, Chia-Ping; Hu, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2009-01-01

    Current research on routing in wireless sensor computing concentrates on increasing the service lifetime, enabling scalability for large number of sensors and supporting fault tolerance for battery exhaustion and broken nodes. A sensor node is naturally exposed to various sources of unreliable communication channels and node failures. Sensor nodes have many failure modes, and each failure degrades the network performance. This work develops a novel mechanism, called Reliable Routing Mechanism (RRM), based on a hybrid cluster-based routing protocol to specify the best reliable routing path for sensor computing. Table-driven intra-cluster routing and on-demand inter-cluster routing are combined by changing the relationship between clusters for sensor computing. Applying a reliable routing mechanism in sensor computing can improve routing reliability, maintain low packet loss, minimize management overhead and save energy consumption. Simulation results indicate that the reliability of the proposed RRM mechanism is around 25% higher than that of the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing (AODV) mechanisms. PMID:22303165

  7. Cost-Effective Remediation of Depleted Uranium (DU) at Environmental Restoration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    MILLER,MARK; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; VANDERPOEL,GLENN; JOHNSON,ED; COPLAND,JOHN; SALAZAR,MICHAEL

    1999-11-03

    Numerous sites in the United States and around the world are contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) in various forms. A prevalent form is fragmented DU originating from various scientific tests involving high explosives and DU during weapon-development programs, at firing practice ranges, or in war theaters where DU was used in armor-piercing projectiles. The contamination at these sites is typically very heterogeneous, with discrete, visually identifiable DU fragments mixed with native soil. The bulk-averaged DU activity is quite low, whereas DU fragments, which are distinct from the soil matrix, have much higher specific activity. DU is best known as a dark metal that is nearly twice as dense as lead, but DU in the environment readily weathers (oxidizes) to a distinctive bright yellow color that is quite visible. While the specific activity (amount of radioactivity per mass of soil) of DU is relatively low and presents only a minor radiological hazard, the fact that DU is radioactive and visually identifiable makes it desirable to remove the DU ''contamination'' from the environment. The typical approach to conducting this DU remediation is to use radiation-detection instruments to identify the contaminant and then to separate it from the adjacent soil, packaging it for disposal as radioactive waste. This process can be performed manually or by specialized, automated equipment. Alternatively, a more cost-effective approach might be simple mechanical or gravimetric separation of the DU fragments from the host soil matrix. At SNL/NM, both the automated and simple mechanical approaches have recently been employed. This paper discusses the pros/cons of the two approaches.

  8. Ferromagnetism in Hubbard models: Low density route

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Hartmann, E.

    1995-05-01

    Thirty years ago the Hubbard model was introduced by Gutzwiller, Hubbard and Kanamori with the main purpose of mimicking the ferromagnetism of transition metals. Soon after, Nagaoka and Thouless pointed out a basic mechanism for ferromagnetism in strongly correlated electron systems by studying the motion of a single hole in a half-filled Hubbard model. This important work was hoped to shed light onto metallic ferromagnetism from the low doping regime. Unfortunately, this low doping route towards ferromagnetism has not been successful as far as rigorous results for finite doping concentrations are concerned. In the work presented, we start from the opposite limit of low particle concentrations. In this limit we provide the first proof of a fully polarized metallic ground state for a Hubbard model. The proof proceeds by mapping Hubbard {open_quotes}zigzag{close_quotes} chains onto a continuum model with an additional degree of freedom and local first Hund`s rule coupling. For this model the maximum total spin multiplet is shown to be the unique ground state for infinite Hubbard coupling. Our proof may open a low density route towards the understanding of the ferromagnetism of Hubbard models.

  9. Message routing in HARTS with faulty components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Alan; Shin, Kang G.

    1989-01-01

    It is important to design a distributed system which is capable of delivering messages even in the presence of faulty components between their source and destination nodes. A routing scheme is developed in two steps for a wrapped hexagonal mesh, called HARTS (Hexagonal Architecture for Real-Time Systems), which assures the delivery of every message as long as there is a path between its source and destination. The proposed scheme can also detect the nonexistence of path between a pair of nodes in a finite amount of time. Moreover, the scheme requires each node in HARTS to know only the state (faulty or not) of each of its own links. The performance of the simple routing scheme is simulated for 3- and 5-dimensional H-meshes while varying the physical distribution of faulty components. It is shown that a shortest path between the source and destination of each message is taken with a high probability and a path, if it exists, is usually found very quickly.

  10. Intracellular route of canine parvovirus entry.

    PubMed

    Vihinen-Ranta, M; Kalela, A; Mäkinen, P; Kakkola, L; Marjomäki, V; Vuento, M

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18 degrees C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV.

  11. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  12. The Suprachoroidal Route in Glaucoma Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shaarawy, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glaucoma surgeries targeting the uveoscleral drainage pathways have been drawing more attention lately. Among all the available techniques, procedures focusing on the supra-choroidal space seem particularly promising, by making use of a presumably efficient and secure outflow route and avoiding subconjunctival filtration blebs. The purpose of this review is to assess the efficacy and the security of the different suprachoroidal drainage implants, namely the CyPass Micro-Stent, the iStent Supra, the SOLX Gold Shunt, the Aquashunt, and the STARflo Glaucoma Implant. Most clinical studies seem to currently point toward the direction that there are actual benefits in suprachoroidal surgeries by avoiding bleb-related complications. Nevertheless, even suprachoroidal implants may be subject to scarring and failure. More data are still needed, especially concerning long-term effects, although the approach does seem appealing. How to cite this article: Gigon A, Shaarawy T. The Suprachoroidal Route in Glaucoma Surgery. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2016;10(1): 13-20. PMID:27231415

  13. Air Cargo Transportation Route Choice Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obashi, Hiroshi; Kim, Tae-Seung; Oum, Tae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    Using a unique feature of air cargo transshipment data in the Northeast Asian region, this paper identifies the critical factors that determine the transshipment route choice. Taking advantage of the variations in the transport characteristics in each origin-destination airports pair, the paper uses a discrete choice model to describe the transshipping route choice decision made by an agent (i.e., freight forwarder, consolidator, and large shipper). The analysis incorporates two major factors, monetary cost (such as line-haul cost and landing fee) and time cost (i.e., aircraft turnaround time, including loading and unloading time, custom clearance time, and expected scheduled delay), along with other controls. The estimation method considers the presence of unobserved attributes, and corrects for resulting endogeneity by use of appropriate instrumental variables. Estimation results find that transshipment volumes are more sensitive to time cost, and that the reduction in aircraft turnaround time by 1 hour would be worth the increase in airport charges by more than $1000. Simulation exercises measures the impacts of alternative policy scenarios for a Korean airport, which has recently declared their intention to be a future regional hub in the Northeast Asian region. The results suggest that reducing aircraft turnaround time at the airport be an effective strategy, rather than subsidizing to reduce airport charges.

  14. Route Optimization for Offloading Congested Meter Fixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The Optimized Route Capability (ORC) concept proposed by the FAA facilitates traffic managers to identify and resolve arrival flight delays caused by bottlenecks formed at arrival meter fixes when there exists imbalance between arrival fixes and runways. ORC makes use of the prediction capability of existing automation tools, monitors the traffic delays based on these predictions, and searches the best reroutes upstream of the meter fixes based on the predictions and estimated arrival schedules when delays are over a predefined threshold. Initial implementation and evaluation of the ORC concept considered only reroutes available at the time arrival congestion was first predicted. This work extends previous work by introducing an additional dimension in reroute options such that ORC can find the best time to reroute and overcome the 'firstcome- first-reroute' phenomenon. To deal with the enlarged reroute solution space, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this problem. Experiments were conducted using the same traffic scenario used in previous work, when an arrival rush was created for one of the four arrival meter fixes at George Bush Intercontinental Houston Airport. Results showed the new approach further improved delay savings. The suggested route changes from the new approach were on average 30 minutes later than those using other approaches, and fewer numbers of reroutes were required. Fewer numbers of reroutes reduce operational complexity and later reroutes help decision makers deal with uncertain situations.

  15. Would You Follow Your Own Route Description? Cognitive Strategies in Urban Route Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holscher, Christoph; Tenbrink, Thora; Wiener, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper disentangles cognitive and communicative factors influencing planning strategies in the everyday task of choosing a route to a familiar location. Describing the way for a stranger in town calls for fundamentally different cognitive processes and strategies than actually walking to a destination. In a series of experiments, this paper…

  16. Walkable Route Perceptions and Physical Features: Converging Evidence for En Route Walking Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barbara B.; Werner, Carol M.; Amburgey, Jonathan W.; Szalay, Caitlin

    2007-01-01

    Guided walks near a light rail stop in downtown Salt Lake City, Utah, were examined using a 2 (gender) x 3 (route walkability: low-mixed-, or high-walkability features) design. Trained raters confirmed that more walkable segments had more traffic, environmental, and social safety; pleasing aesthetics; natural features; pedestrian amenities; and…

  17. Route to Administrative Licensure: Perceptions of Preparation regarding Traditional and Examination Route Assistant Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Joseph Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In the state of California, potential administrators may gain certification by successfully passing the School Leaders Licensure Assessment (SLLA). This study attempts to determine if the SLLA route to administrative licensure is an effective way of placing quality candidates into entry level assistant principal positions by comparing and…

  18. Bus accident analysis of routes with/without bus priority.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin Chun Keong; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-04-01

    This paper summarises findings on road safety performance and bus-involved accidents in Melbourne along roads where bus priority measures had been applied. Results from an empirical analysis of the accident types revealed significant reduction in the proportion of accidents involving buses hitting stationary objects and vehicles, which suggests the effect of bus priority in addressing manoeuvrability issues for buses. A mixed-effects negative binomial (MENB) regression and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) modelling of bus accidents considering wider influences on accident rates at a route section level also revealed significant safety benefits when bus priority is provided. Sensitivity analyses done on the BPNN model showed general agreement in the predicted accident frequency between both models. The slightly better performance recorded by the MENB model results suggests merits in adopting a mixed effects modelling approach for accident count prediction in practice given its capability to account for unobserved location and time-specific factors. A major implication of this research is that bus priority in Melbourne's context acts to improve road safety and should be a major consideration for road management agencies when implementing bus priority and road schemes.

  19. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the HTML Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  20. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the HTML Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  1. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the HTML Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  2. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-12-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the HTML Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  3. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the HTML Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  4. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  5. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  6. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  7. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the HTML Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  8. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-02-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  9. Advertising in This Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    To see a list of advertisers from the three most recent issues of JCE, go to the Ad Index. This will take you to the list of advertisers, each conveniently linked to their home page. To get advertising information via mail, fax, or email, refer to the top portion of the Readers Service Card inserted in the print issue. Whatever method of communication you use, be sure to mention to advertisers that you saw their ad in the Journal of Chemical Education. To view a list of the companies that advertised in this issue of JCE, click here. Advertising Representative McNeill Group, Inc. 301 Oxford Valley Road, Suite 804 Yardley, PA 19067 phone: 215/321-9662 or 800/275-5084 fax: 215/321-9636; email: jchemed@mcneill-group.com

  10. It Top-10 Issues 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Barbara I.; DeBlois, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE Current Issues Committee, whose members review and recommend the set of IT issues to be presented each year, conducted a Web-based survey in December 2005 to identify the five of thirty-one IT issues in each of four areas: (1) issues that are critical for strategic success; (2) issues that are expected to increase in significance; (3)…

  11. Top 10 IT Issues, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, John S.; DeBlois, Peter B.

    2007-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE Current Issues Committee, whose members review and recommend the set of IT issues to be presented each year, conducted a Web-based survey in December 2006 to identify the five of thirty-one IT issues in each of four areas: (1) issues that are critical for strategic success; (2) issues that are expected to increase in significance; (3)…

  12. Effect of exposure routes on the relationships of lethal toxicity to rats from oral, intravenous, intraperitoneal and intramuscular routes.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhong H; Long, Shuang; Zhou, Yuan Y; Peng, Zi Y; Sun, Yi N; Chen, Si W; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-11-01

    The lethal toxicity values (log 1/LD(50)) of 527 aliphatic and aromatic compounds in oral, intravenous, intramuscular and intraperitoneal routes were used to investigate the relationships of log 1/LD(50) from different exposure routes. Regression analysis shows that the log 1/LD(50) values are well correlated between intravenous and intraperitoneal or intramuscular injections. However, the correlations between oral and intravenous or intraperitoneal routes are relatively poor. Comparison of the average residuals indicates that intravenous injection is the most sensitive exposure route and oral administration is the least sensitive exposure route. This is attributed to the difference in kinetic process of toxicity testing. The toxic effect of a chemical can be similar or significantly different between exposure routes, depending on the absorption rates of chemicals into blood. Inclusion of hydrophobic parameter and fractions of ionic forms can improve the correlations between intravenous and intraperitoneal or oral routes, but not between intraperitoneal and oral routes. This is due to the differences of absorption rate in different exposure environments from different routes. Several factors, such as experimental uncertainty, metabolism and toxic kinetics, can affect the correlations between intravenous and intraperitoneal or oral routes.

  13. mizuRoute version 1: a river network routing tool for a continental domain water resources applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.; Sampson, Kevin; Nijssen, Bart; Mao, Yixin; McMillan, Hilary; Viger, Roland J.; Markstrom, Steve L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Woods, Ross; Arnold, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, Levi D.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the first version of a stand-alone runoff routing tool, mizuRoute. The mizuRoute tool post-processes runoff outputs from any distributed hydrologic model or land surface model to produce spatially distributed streamflow at various spatial scales from headwater basins to continental-wide river systems. The tool can utilize both traditional grid-based river network and vector-based river network data. Both types of river network include river segment lines and the associated drainage basin polygons, but the vector-based river network can represent finer-scale river lines than the grid-based network. Streamflow estimates at any desired location in the river network can be easily extracted from the output of mizuRoute. The routing process is simulated as two separate steps. First, hillslope routing is performed with a gamma-distribution-based unit-hydrograph to transport runoff from a hillslope to a catchment outlet. The second step is river channel routing, which is performed with one of two routing scheme options: (1) a kinematic wave tracking (KWT) routing procedure; and (2) an impulse response function - unit-hydrograph (IRF-UH) routing procedure. The mizuRoute tool also includes scripts (python, NetCDF operators) to pre-process spatial river network data. This paper demonstrates mizuRoute's capabilities to produce spatially distributed streamflow simulations based on river networks from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) data set in which over 54 000 river segments and their contributing areas are mapped across the contiguous United States (CONUS). A brief analysis of model parameter sensitivity is also provided. The mizuRoute tool can assist model-based water resources assessments including studies of the impacts of climate change on streamflow.

  14. mizuRoute version 1: A river network routing tool for a continental domain water resources applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.; Sampson, Kevin; Nijssen, Bart; Mao, Yixin; McMillan, Hilary; Viger, Roland; Markstrom, Steven; Hay, Lauren E.; Woods, Ross; Arnold, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, Levi D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of a stand-alone runoff routing tool, mizuRoute. The mizuRoute tool post-processes runoff outputs from any distributed hydrologic model or land surface model to produce spatially distributed streamflow at various spatial scales from headwater basins to continental-wide river systems. The tool can utilize both traditional grid-based river network and vector-based river network data. Both types of river network include river segment lines and the associated drainage basin polygons, but the vector-based river network can represent finer-scale river lines than the grid-based network. Streamflow estimates at any desired location in the river network can be easily extracted from the output of mizuRoute. The routing process is simulated as two separate steps. First, hillslope routing is performed with a gamma-distribution-based unit-hydrograph to transport runoff from a hillslope to a catchment outlet. The second step is river channel routing, which is performed with one of two routing scheme options: (1) a kinematic wave tracking (KWT) routing procedure; and (2) an impulse response function – unit-hydrograph (IRF-UH) routing procedure. The mizuRoute tool also includes scripts (python, NetCDF operators) to pre-process spatial river network data. This paper demonstrates mizuRoute's capabilities to produce spatially distributed streamflow simulations based on river networks from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) data set in which over 54 000 river segments and their contributing areas are mapped across the contiguous United States (CONUS). A brief analysis of model parameter sensitivity is also provided. The mizuRoute tool can assist model-based water resources assessments including studies of the impacts of climate change on streamflow.

  15. RD, ADHD, and their comorbidity from a dual route perspective.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Christien G W; Licht, Robert; Sergeant, Joseph A; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve further insight into the comorbidity of reading disorder (RD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), lexical processing and rapid naming were studied in RD and ADHD. The Dual Route Cascaded model postulates that lexical processing contains two parallel processes: lexical route processing and sublexical route processing. An orthographic decision task and a phonological decision task were used to measure lexical and sublexical route processing, respectively. In addition, a rapid naming task was used to compare 27 children with RD, 18 children with ADHD, 20 children with ADHD+RD, and 29 controls. RD and ADHD shared impairments in accuracy of orthographic and phonological decision making as well as in rapid naming, which suggest that RD and ADHD may be overlapping disorders that share deficits in both lexical route and sublexical route processing. RD was dissociated from ADHD by being slower in both orthographical and phonological decision making that indicates unique deficits in RD on lexical and sublexical speed.

  16. Design, Fabrication and Failure Analysis of Stretchable Electrical Routings

    PubMed Central

    Hocheng, Hong; Chen, Chao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Stretchable microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) possess higher mechanical deformability and adaptability than devices based on conventional solid and flexible substrates, hence they are particularly desirable for biomedical, optoelectronic, textile and other innovative applications. The stretchability performance can be evaluated by the failure strain of the embedded routing and the strain applied to the elastomeric substrate. The routings are divided into five forms according to their geometry: straight; wavy; wrinkly; island-bridge; and conductive-elastomeric. These designs are reviewed and their resistance-to-failure performance is investigated. The failure modeling, numerical analysis, and fabrication of routings are presented. The current review concludes with the essential factors of the stretchable electrical routing for achieving high performance, including routing angle, width and thickness. The future challenges of device integration and reliability assessment of the stretchable routings are addressed. PMID:24999718

  17. Iconic memory-based omnidirectional route panorama navigation.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Yasushi; Imai, Kousuke; Tsuji, Kentaro; Yachida, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    A route navigation method for a mobile robot with an omnidirectional image sensor is described. The route is memorized from a series of consecutive omnidirectional images of the horizon when the robot moves to its goal. While the robot is navigating to the goal point, input is matched against the memorized spatio-temporal route pattern by using dual active contour models and the exact robot position and orientation is estimated from the converged shape of the active contour models.

  18. A Measurement Study of BGP Blackhole Routing Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    STUDY OF BGP BLACKHOLE ROUTING PERFORMANCE by Nikolaos Stamatelatos September 2006 Thesis Advisor: Geoffrey Xie Second Reader: J. D. Fulp...September 2006 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Measurement Study of BGP Blackhole Routing Performance 6...distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) BGP Blackhole routing is a mechanism used to protect networks from DDoS

  19. Robust Dynamic Multi-objective Vehicle Routing Optimization Method.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi-Nan; Cheng, Jian; Luo, Sha; Gong, Dun-Wei

    2017-03-21

    For dynamic multi-objective vehicle routing problems, the waiting time of vehicle, the number of serving vehicles, the total distance of routes were normally considered as the optimization objectives. Except for above objectives, fuel consumption that leads to the environmental pollution and energy consumption was focused on in this paper. Considering the vehicles' load and the driving distance, corresponding carbon emission model was built and set as an optimization objective. Dynamic multi-objective vehicle routing problems with hard time windows and randomly appeared dynamic customers, subsequently, were modeled. In existing planning methods, when the new service demand came up, global vehicle routing optimization method was triggered to find the optimal routes for non-served customers, which was time-consuming. Therefore, robust dynamic multi-objective vehicle routing method with two-phase is proposed. Three highlights of the novel method are: (i) After finding optimal robust virtual routes for all customers by adopting multi-objective particle swarm optimization in the first phase, static vehicle routes for static customers are formed by removing all dynamic customers from robust virtual routes in next phase. (ii)The dynamically appeared customers append to be served according to their service time and the vehicles' statues. Global vehicle routing optimization is triggered only when no suitable locations can be found for dynamic customers. (iii)A metric measuring the algorithms' robustness is given. The statistical results indicated that the routes obtained by the proposed method have better stability and robustness, but may be sub-optimum. Moreover, time-consuming global vehicle routing optimization is avoided as dynamic customers appear.

  20. Multiple Path Static Routing Protocols for Packet Switched Networks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    has not yet been used in routing schemes implemented in operating networks, although there are plans to incorporate this procedure in future routing...rules and procedures used to develop loop-frea! routing scheses, are extensions of techniques used in network graph theory and flow pattern analysis. The...parameters of interest, of a process that resembles the actual bahavior of a specific ’ system. Thus an evaluation of its performance and other important

  1. Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, PE

    2003-09-18

    The Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) model is used to calculate highway, rail, or waterway routes within the United States. TRAGIS is a client-server application with the user interface and map data files residing on the user's personal computer and the routing engine and network data files on a network server. The user's manual provides documentation on installation and the use of the many features of the model.

  2. A Model of Onion Routing With Provable Anonymity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-30

    Yale University Department of Computer Science A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity Aaron Johnson YALEU/DCS/TR-1368 August 30, 2006...2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-08-2006 to 00-08-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity 5a... Anonymity Aaron Johnson∗ Department of Computer Science Yale University New Haven, CT ajohnson@cs.yale.edu Abstract Onion routing is a scheme for anonymous

  3. Trust-based Anonymous Communication: Adversary Models and Routing Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Trust-based Anonymous Communication: Adversary Models and Routing Algorithms Aaron Johnson ∗ Paul Syverson U.S. Naval Research Laboratory... anonymous communication, and in particular onion routing, although we expect the approach to apply more broadly. This paper provides two main...contributions. First, we present a novel model to consider the various security con- cerns for route selection in anonymity networks when users vary their trust

  4. Different “routes” to a cognitive map: Dissociable forms of spatial knowledge derived from route and cartographic map learning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Zherdeva, Ksenia; Ekstrom, Arne D.

    2014-01-01

    An important, but as of yet, incompletely resolved issue, is whether spatial knowledge acquired during navigation differs significantly from that acquired by studying a cartographic map. This, in turn, is relevant to understanding the generalizability of the concept of a “cognitive map,” which is often likened to a cartographic map. Based on previous theoretical proposals, we hypothesized that route and cartographic map learning would produce differences in the dynamics of acquisition of landmark-referenced (allocentric) knowledge compared to view-referenced (egocentric) knowledge. We compared this model with competing predictions from two other models linked to route vs. map learning. To test these ideas, participants repeatedly performed a judgment of relative direction (JRD) and scene and orientation-dependent pointing (SOP) task while undergoing route and cartographic map learning of virtual spatial environments. In Experiment 1, we found that map learning led to significantly faster improvements in JRD pointing accuracy compared to route learning. In Experiment 2, in contrast, we found that route learning led to more immediate and greater improvements overall in SOP accuracy compared to map learning. Comparing Experiment 1 and 2, we found a significant 3-way interaction effect, indicating that improvements in performance differed for the JRD vs. SOP task as a function of route vs. map learning. We interpret these findings to suggest that learning modality differentially affects the dynamics of how we utilize primarily landmark-referenced vs. view-referenced knowledge, suggesting potential differences in how we utilize spatial representations acquired from routes vs. cartographic maps. PMID:24845757

  5. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orey, Michael; Sullivan, Michael; Molenda, Michael; Foley, Anne L.; Morgan, Janet; McKenney, Susan; Harada, Violet H.; Lee, Jung

    2003-01-01

    Contains five articles covering general trends and issues in instructional technology, including: developments in corporate training, higher education, and K-12 education; women's contributions to the leading instructional technology journals; developing science education materials via computer-based support; learning in the Information Age; and…

  6. Social Skills Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Charles W., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue for people working in the field of adult literacy focuses on the impact of learning disabilities (LD) on an adult's social skills. It explores various social, emotional, and daily living concerns which adults with learning disabilities may face. The following articles are included: (1) "Social Skills and Adults with Learning…

  7. ACE--Some Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Annie, Ed.; Curtin, Penelope, Ed.

    This publication contains four papers that identify issues within the adult and community education (ACE) sector. "Overview" (Annie Campbell, Peter Thomson) considers what defines ACE; who offers ACE programs; who participates in ACE programs and who does not participate; what are the barriers to participation; who is responsible for…

  8. Special Amnesty Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TESOL Adult Education and Refugee Concerns Interest Sections Newsletter, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This special issue of the newsletter of the Adult Education Interest Section (AEIS) of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), prepared in cooperation with TESOL's refugee concerns interest section, concerns the response of the English-as-a-Second-Language teaching profession to Immigration and Naturalization Service…

  9. Automated conflict resolution issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  10. [Censorship and Other Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchikes, Alice W., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    The five articles in this journal issue discuss attempts to censor certain nonprint media in the schools, the conflict between intellectual freedom and community values, recent efforts by Tennessee educators and librarians to achieve a better measure of intellectual freedom, the need for English teachers to reexamine their teaching methods and…

  11. Contextual Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented at a symposium on contextual learning issues moderated by John Henschke at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Self-Directed Learning in Organizations: An Analysis of Policies and Practices of Seven Resource Companies in Western Canada" (H. K. Morris…

  12. Assistive Technologies, Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wobschall, Rachel, Ed.; Lakin, Charlie, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This feature issue of a newsletter on community integration of individuals with developmental disabilities considers the role of assistive technologies. It describes efforts to utilize consumer direction, public policy, creativity, energy, and professional know-how in the pursuit of technology-based opportunities to enhance community inclusion,…

  13. Critical Endowment Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapovsky, Lucie

    2007-01-01

    Governing boards and administrations wrestle with complex endowment policy decisions that will determine current institutional quality and future institutional viability. This chapter presents data from the 2006 NACUBO Endowment Study (published in 2007), divided into the following issues of endowment management: historical returns; endowment…

  14. Special Issue: Rural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

  15. Women and Performance Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    The diversity of important work being done by women in many aspects of theatrical performance in the United States is illustrated in this journal issue. The nine articles provide discussions of the following: (1) women's careers, images, and movements in the American theatre; (2) the evolution of La Mama, an off-off-Broadway theatre group begun in…

  16. Current Issues in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Michael P., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Articles in this journal issue focus on reading acquisition and instruction. The titles and authors are as follows: (1) "10 Good Ways to Involve Parents in the Reading Program," by Nickolas Criscuolo; (2) "A Parent Guide for Helping the Child with A Reading Disability," by Frederick Duffelmeyer and Dale Baum; (3)…

  17. JPRS Report Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    Britain are also involved in the project to improve the [Transmitted via KYODO] safety and design of the reactor used at the plant. Finnish specialists...information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical , and biological weapons, including delivery systems and...Ministry Official Missile Control, Korea [ZHONGGUO XINWEN SHE] .................................. 3 Spokesman Denies Export of Reactor to Syria [RENMIN

  18. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical , and biological weapons, including...I East Asia South Korea Scientist Urges ROK To Aid DPRK With Reactors ...14 Construction of Water-Type Nuclear Reactor To Begin 31 Jul [THENEWS, 30Jul 93] ............... 15 JPRS-TND-93-026 10 August 1993 2 Central

  19. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    security for those who work at the facil- ities for scrapping chemical arms, and at improving the R. Kosyan also rejected the possibility that nuclear...report contains foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical , and biological...2 EAST EUROPE BULGARIA Trucks Carry ’ Chemical Warfare’ Cargo to Iraq [BTA] .................................................................... 3

  20. JPRS Report: Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical , and biological weapons, including...9 JPRS-TND-93-003 27 January 1993 2 SLOVAKIA Foreign Affairs Minister on Chemical Weapons [PRA VDA 16 Jan...10 IRAN Military Purchasing Agency Set Up in London [London PRESS ASSOCIATION] ....................... 10 Commentary Welcomes Convention on Chemical

  1. JPRS Report Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    This report contains foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical , and...HUNGARY Government Tightens Chemical Arms Trade Controls [MTI] 10 YUGOSLAVIA Consortium Agrees To Build USSR Chemical Plant [TANJUG] 10...May Sell Nuclear Research Reactor to Iran [AFP] 14 Plans To Sell Iran Nuclear Reactor Denied [Beijing XINHUA] 14 Official Defends Right To

  2. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    the more Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station. There is base, but also the chemical machine building plant, the an atomic reactor at the bottom of...issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical , and biological weapons, including delivery systems and the...7 PRC Chemical Company Establishes Seoul Office [THE KOREA HERALD 10 Dec] ............ 7 North

  3. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    president said. MALAYSIA Soong said the federation would not know whether its members were producing reactors for Libya. Investigation of Libyan Chemical ...This report contains foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical , and...Continue’ [Frankfurt/Main FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE 19 Mar] .......... 15 MALAYSIA Investigation of Libyan Chemical Weapons Aid [AFP

  4. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    December 1992 [This report contains foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical ...Nor Nuclear Test Site [Moscow INTERFAX] ...................... I Qian Qichen To Sign Chemical Weapons Convention in Paris [XINHUA...No. 2 Reactor for Startup [BTA] ............................................................ 3 Kozloduy Nuclear Plant May Lack Funds for Fuel

  5. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical , and biological weapons, including delivery systems and...I CHINA Russian Scientists To Cooperate in Nuclear Reactor Research [XINHUA] .............................................. 2 Beijing...Moscow To Cooperate on Hybrid Reactor [XINHUA] ................................................................ 2 Qian Qichen, ROK Foreign Minister

  6. National Issues Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkins, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Demonstrating an appreciation for the perspectives of others is now recognized as one of the single most important learning outcomes of a college education. This skill, fundamental to democracy and civic engagement, is honed in college by institutions that provide opportunities for students to interact with their peers and others on issues that…

  7. Current Issues in Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansara, Alice, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This bulletin is published annually in the interest of children with learning disabilities, language disabilities, or dyslexia. The 22 articles discuss the following topics: current issues in dyslexia, language disorders, subgroups in dyslexia, specificity and parameters in defining dyslexia, strategies for recognition and management of reading…

  8. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orey, Michael; Molenda, Michael; Sullivan, Michael; Klein, James D.; Brinkerfhoff, Jonathan; Koroghlanian, Carol; Moore, D. Michael; Lockee, Barbara B.; Burton, John K.; Liu, Y.; Emerson, John D.; Boes, Lisa; Mosteller, Frederick; Ely, Donald P.; Belanger, Yvonne; Ellsworth, James B.; Lowe, Carrie A.; Russell, Shayne; Thomas, Lajeane; Richey, Rita C.; Earle, Rodney S.

    2002-01-01

    The articles in this section of "Educational Media and Technology Yearbook" identify current trends and issues in the field of instructional technology. Two subsections are also included: ERIC Digests, which are reprints of ERIC reports available on the Internet, and a subsection on a variety of standards that emerged during the past…

  9. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  10. Chemistry from Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jan; Donaldson, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Describes the "Chemistry from Issues" project at Chelsea College. Provides the background information, rationale, and overall structure of a proposed course about the importance of chemistry to common culture. Outlines one module about the British steel industry that has been taught at King's College. (TW)

  11. Integrated Education. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Jennifer, Ed.; Vandercook, Terri, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This "feature issue" provides various perspectives on a number of integrated education topics, including successful integration practices and strategies, the changing roles of teachers, the appropriate role of research, the history and future of integrated education, and the realization of dreams of life in the mainstream for children with severe…

  12. Emerging Privacy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Willis H.

    As the issue of information privacy increases in complexity in terms of the number of organizations involved, the intricacy of the information flows, and the difficulty of conceiving appropriate legal safeguards, it is not certain that the practices and laws that have been developed for current privacy protection can work for new situations.…

  13. Measurement Issues in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks; Yin, Alexander C.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter summarizes ten selected issues and common problems that arise in most assessment research projects. These include: (1) the uses of grades in assessment; (2) institutional review boards; (3) research design as a compromise; (4) standardized testing; (5) self-reported measures; (6) missing data; (7) weighting data; (8) conditional…

  14. Issues in HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers on issues in human resource development (HRD). "Employability By Sector of Industry: Taking Account of Supply and Demand Characteristics (Andries de Grip, Jasper B. van Loo, Jos M.A.F. Sanders) reports on development of an Industry Employability Index that integrates both supply and demand determinants of…

  15. Some Issues Regarding Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Patrick J.

    1995-01-01

    A number of issues concerning revival and maintenance of the Irish language are discussed. First, it is found that public attitudes about language use in Ireland, outwardly positive toward revival of Irish usage but not carried through in mass media or education, reflect considerable ambiguity. Linguistic stewardship of the language has been…

  16. Contextual Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on contextual learning issues. "Learning to Learn Strategies of Successful Real Estate Professionals: Implications for Learning in the Workplace" (Margot B. Weinstein) describes a multicase study in which a model called the Individual Learning System was used to identify the strategies and…

  17. International Issues in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggeri, Kai; Diaz, Carmen; Kelley, Karl; Papousek, Ilona; Dempster, Martin; Hanna, Donncha

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety, negative attitudes, and attrition are all issues presented in the teaching of statistics to undergraduates in research-based degrees regardless of location. Previous works have looked at these obstacles, but none have consolidated a multilingual, multinational effort using a consistent method. Over 400 Spanish-, English-, and…

  18. Cultural Issues in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on cultural issues in organizations. "Emotion Management and Organizational Functions: A Study of Action in a Not-for-Profit Organization" (Jamie Callahan Fabian) uses Hochschild's emotion systems theory and Parsons' social systems theory to explain why members of an organization managed their…

  19. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and…

  20. Constitutional Issues and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Important constitutional issues are presented in a manner appropriate for use in the classroom. Case studies and events from the history of Iowa are used to illuminate the Constitution and Bill of Rights. Freedom of expression and students' rights are discussed in "The Black Armband Case"; free exercise of religion as won by the Iowa's…

  1. Contemporary Career Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Robert F., Ed.; Adams, Jerome, Ed.

    This book provides practical guidance and examples for human resource development (HRD) specialists to use in the evaluation of their current career development programs and the design of new ones. "Issues in the Management of Careers" (Jerome Adams) provides a summary of each chapter and points out specific questions the chapter can answer.…

  2. Transition. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Teri, Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This feature issue of a quarterly bulletin on community integration addresses the topic of transition services for preparing youth with disabilities for adult community living. It contains articles with the following titles and authors: "Transition: The Next Five Years" (David R. Johnson and others); "Transition Policy in the 1990s:…

  3. Issues of HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on issues of human resource development (HRD). "The Complex Roots of Human Resource Development" (Monica Lee) discusses the roots of HRD within the framework of the following views of management: (1) classic (the view that managers must be able to create appropriate rules and…

  4. [Thematic Issue: Black Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Carl F., Jr., Ed.

    "Nummo" refers to "the word" or "word force." The aim of this publication is to provide a common forum for the utilization of the word force in exploring the opinions and creations of black community, educational, and professional theatre artists and scholars. This issue includes a play called "The Twilight Dinner" by Lennox Brown; a review of…

  5. [Thematic Issue: Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…

  6. Emerging Issues in Duoethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breault, Rick A.

    2016-01-01

    Duoethnography is a relatively new research method in which two participants interrogate the cultural contexts of autobiographical experiences in order to gain insight into their current perspectives on and experience of issues related to personal and professional identities. Commonly explored themes include race, gender, pedagogy, professional…

  7. ISSUES. Teacher Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Continent Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Kansas City, MO.

    Innovative Social Studies: Urban Elementary Schools, known as ISSUES, is a social studies program actively pursuing the profound social problems of our times by daily student involvement with solutions as part of the curriculum. Upper elementary and junior high students increase their understanding in active participation in community problem…

  8. Professional Issues in Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Robert G. L.

    1991-01-01

    The following issues in psychological testing in Australia are reviewed: (1) commercialization of testing; (2) test user qualifications; and (3) computerization of testing. Proposed solutions include development of user guidelines, accreditation standards, test standards, and a network of test data information; and regulation by a professional…

  9. Workforce Issues Facing HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These four papers are from a symposium facilitated by Eugene Andette on work force issues facing human resources development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Meaning Construction and Personal Transformation: Alternative Dimensions of Job Loss" (Terri A. Deems) reports a study conducted to explore the ways…

  10. [Thematic Issue: International Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    The five major articles in this document examine a variety of subjects: communication issues involved in the upcoming United Nations conference "Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries"; the fundamental role that information plays in the economy and in social structures of advanced industrial economies; an investigation into the…

  11. Perspectives on Current Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Hank; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Encapsulates several brief articles providing perspectives from the states, the 104th Congress, the Supreme Court, and the White House. Issues covered include the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and the White House attempts to reduce the federal workforce. Authors include Hank Brown, Rita G. Koman, James L. Martin, and Joseph R. Marbach. (MJP)

  12. Learning Organization Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on learning organization issues. "How Action Learning Builds the Learning Organization: A Conceptual Analysis" (Michael Marquardt, Ty Alexander) is a systematic examination of four subsystems of learning organizations (learning dynamics, organization renewal, people empowerment, knowledge…

  13. Structuralist Performance Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Defining structuralism as an unannounced aesthetic movement that involves not only the theatre but all arts, this journal issue focuses on structuralist performance. The nine articles provide information on the following topics: the French theatre group, Atelier Theatre et Musique; "Tell Me," a play by Guy de Cointet; patterning in "Five…

  14. Special Book Review Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Barbara Ellman, Ed.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Provides reviews of books dealing with all aspects of careers, including 8 books on dealing with change, 13 on career management, 4 on entrepreneurship, 3 guides and workbooks, 2 on assessment, 4 on resumes, and 1 biography. Includes 12 short reviews of books on career development issues and information such as publishers' addresses. (JOW)

  15. JPRS Report: Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, including...delivery systems and the transfer of weapons-relevant technologies.] AFRICA SOUTH AFRICA Russian Offer To Launch Satellites Considered [SUNDAY TIMES 27...Iraqi Islamic Revolution] ................. 15 ISRAEL Charges of Technology Transfer to PRC ’Baseless’ /DA VAR 6 Jan

  16. Research Issues in HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on research issues in human resource development (HRD). "Data for HRD Research and the 1997 Human Performance Practices Survey" (Laurie J. Bassi, George S. Benson), describes two research projects undertaken by American Society for Training and Development (ASTD): publication of the…

  17. Columbia Quincentenary. Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foard, Douglas, Ed.; Regoli, Michael, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This special theme issue of the OAH Magazine of History contains articles that present a variety of perspectives on the Columbian Quincentenary--the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's voyages of discovery. The articles include: "Exploring the Columbian Quincentenary through Historiography" (John Hebert); "Science, Religion,…

  18. Workplace Diversity Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains three symposium papers on workplace diversity issues. "Expanding Theories of Career Development: Adding the Voices of African American Women in the White Academy" (Mary V. Alfred) questions the validity of existing career development models for women and minority groups and examines the professional development of…

  19. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  20. Fatigue mitigation effects of en-route napping on commercial airline pilots flying international routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Jarret Taylor

    The introduction of ultra-long range commercial aircraft and the evolution of the commercial airline industry has provided new opportunities for air carriers to fly longer range international route segments while deregulation, industry consolidation, and the constant drive to reduce costs wherever possible has pressured airline managements to seek more productivity from their pilots. At the same time, advancements in the understanding of human physiology have begun to make their way into flight and duty time regulations and airline scheduling practices. In this complex and ever changing operating environment, there remains an essential need to better understand how these developments, and other daily realities facing commercial airline pilots, are affecting their fatigue management strategies as they go about their rituals of getting to and from their homes to work and performing their flight assignments. Indeed, the need for commercial airline pilots to have access to better and more effective fatigue mitigation tools to combat fatigue and insure that they are well rested and at the top of their game when flying long-range international route segments has never been greater. This study examined to what extent the maximum fatigue states prior to napping, as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments, were affected by a number of other common flight assignment related factors. The study also examined to what extent the availability of scheduled en-route rest opportunities, in an onboard crew rest facility, affected the usage of en-route napping as a fatigue mitigation strategy, and to what extent the duration of such naps affected the perceived benefits of such naps as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments. The study utilized an online survey tool to collect data on crew position, prior flight segments flown in the same duty period, augmentation, commuting, pre-flight rest obtained in the