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Sample records for routine aquatic toxicity

  1. Evaluation of Daphnia ambigua for Routine Aquatic Toxicity Testing at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.; Harmon, S.M.

    1997-09-01

    Short-term whole effluent toxicity testing, which is currently a requirement of the U.S. EPA`s National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), commonly uses the cladoceran species Ceriodaphnia dubia. Despite the advantages to using a common test species to model the toxic effects of effluents, it could be argued that toxicity test results would be more meaningful if a wider variety of test organisms were commonly used. One particular argument against C. dubia is that tests conducted with this species do not always reflect local, site-specific conditions. The careful selection and use of an indigenous test species would produce a more realistic model of local instream effects and would account for regional differences in water quality. Permitted effluent discharges from Savannah River Site (SRS), a government weapons facility operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, require toxicity testing with C. dubia. However, water quality in these receiving streams is markedly different (lower pH and hardness) from standard laboratory water used for the culturing and testing of C. dubia, and it has been shown that this receiving water presents varying degrees of toxicity to C. dubia. Based on these results, it is possible that toxic effects observed during an effluent study could be the result of test organism stress from the dilution water and not the effects of SRS effluents. Therefore, this study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with an indigenous cladoceran species, Daphnia ambigua for routine regulatory testing at SRS. Given the indigenous nature of this species, combined with the fact that it has been successfully cultured by other investigators, D. ambigua was ideal for consideration as a replacement for C. dubia, but further study of the overall success and sensitivity of laboratory-reared D. ambigua was required. This investigation determined that D. ambigua could be laboratory cultured with only minimal changes to established regulatory protocol and

  2. Aquatic toxicity of triclosan.

    PubMed

    Orvos, David R; Versteeg, Donald J; Inauen, Josef; Capdevielle, Marie; Rothenstein, Arthur; Cunningham, Virginia

    2002-07-01

    The aquatic toxicity of triclosan (TCS), a chlorinated biphenyl ether used as an antimicrobial in consumer products, was studied with activated-sludge microorganisms, algae, invertebrates, and fish. Triclosan, a compound used for inhibiting microbial growth, was not toxic to wastewater microorganisms at concentrations less than aqueous solubility. The 48-h Daphnia magna median effective concentration (EC50) was 390 microg/L and the 96-h median lethal concentration values for Pimephales promelas and Lepomis macrochirus were 260 and 370 microg/L, respectively. A no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration of 34.1 microg/L and 71.3 microg/L, respectively, were determined with an early life-stage toxicity test with Oncorhynchus mykiss. During a 96-h Scenedesmus study, the 96-h biomass EC50 was 1.4 microg/L and the 96-h NOEC was 0.69 microg/L. Other algae and Lemna also were investigated. Bioconcentration was assessed with Danio rerio. The average TCS accumulation factor over the five-week test period was 4,157 at 3 microg/L and 2,532 at 30 microg/L. Algae were determined to be the most susceptible organisms. Toxicity of a TCS-containing wastewater secondary effluent to P. promelas and Ceriodaphnia was evaluated and no observed differences in toxicity between control and TCS-treated laboratory units were detected. The neutral form of TCS was determined to be associated with toxic effects. Ionization and sorption will mitigate those effects in the aquatic compartment.

  3. Assessing aquatic terrestrial toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.S.; Mirenda, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    it is recognized that the toxic effects of environmental samples cannot be predicted based on chemical concentration data alone. The EPA recommends an integrated approach that uses both chemical specific and whole effluent toxicity testing methods to control effluent toxicity. Toxicity tests allow for the consideration of site-specific factors that may increase or decrease the toxicity of a chemical in a given medium.

  4. PHOTOACTIVATED TOXICITY IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most aquatic organisms have evolved mechanisms to minimize damage by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Many terrestrial species have additionally had to adapt to plant compounds (e.g. furanocoumarins) that are extremely toxic when activated by UV radiation. Over evolutionary time, it i...

  5. Modeling Aquatic Toxicity through Chromatographic Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pumarega, Alejandro; Amézqueta, Susana; Farré, Sandra; Muñoz-Pascual, Laura; Abraham, Michael H; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

    2017-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment requires information about the toxicity of the growing number of chemical products coming from different origins that can contaminate water and become toxicants to aquatic species or other living beings via the trophic chain. Direct toxicity measurements using sensitive aquatic species can be carried out but they may become expensive and ethically questionable. Literature refers to the use of chromatographic measurements that correlate to the toxic effect of a compound over a specific aquatic species as an alternative to get toxicity information. In this work, we have studied the similarity in the response of the toxicity to different species and we have selected eight representative aquatic species (including tadpoles, fish, water fleas, protozoan, and bacteria) with known nonspecific toxicity to chemical substances. Next, we have selected four chromatographic systems offering good perspectives for surrogation of the eight selected aquatic systems, and thus prediction of toxicity from the chromatographic measurement. Then toxicity has been correlated to the chromatographic retention factor. Satisfactory correlation results have been obtained to emulate toxicity in five of the selected aquatic species through some of the chromatographic systems. Other aquatic species with similar characteristics to these five representative ones could also be emulated by using the same chromatographic systems. The final aim of this study is to model chemical products toxicity to aquatic species by means of chromatographic systems to reduce in vivo testing.

  6. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  7. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  8. Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, Mark D.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to assess current water-quality conditions, changes in water quality over time, and the effects of natural and human factors on water quality for the Nation's streams and ground-water resources. For streams, one of the most difficult parts of the assessment is to link chemical conditions to effects on aquatic biota, particularly for pesticides, which tend to occur in streams as complex mixtures with strong seasonal patterns. A Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was developed that combines pesticide exposure of aquatic biota (measured concentrations of pesticides in stream water) with toxicity estimates (standard endpoints from laboratory bioassays) to produce a single index value for a sample or site. The development of the PTI was limited to pesticide compounds routinely measured in NAWQA studies and to toxicity data readily available from existing databases. Qualifying toxicity data were found for one or more types of test organisms for 75 of the 83 pesticide compounds measured in NAWQA samples, but with a wide range of bioassays per compound (1 to 65). There were a total of 2,824 bioassays for the 75 compounds, including 287 48-hour EC50 values (concentration at which 50 percent of test organisms exhibit a nonlethal response) for freshwater cladocerans, 585 96-hour LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50 percent of test organisms) for freshwater benthic invertebrates, and 1,952 96-hour LC50 values for freshwater fish. The PTI for a particular sample is the sum of toxicity quotients (measured concentration divided by the median toxicity concentration from bioassays) for each detected pesticide. The PTI can be calculated for specific groups of pesticides and for specific taxonomic groups.While the PTI does not determine whether water in a sample is toxic, its values can be used to rank or compare the toxicity of samples or sites on a relative basis for use in further analysis or

  9. Toxicity of Ordnance Wastes in Aquatic Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-30

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Corvallis, Ore. 82 pp. Crosby, D.G., R.K. Tucker, and N. Aharonson. 1966. The detection of acute toxicity with Daphnia ... magna . Fd. Cosmet. Toxicol. 4:503-514. Dacre, 1. and R.W. Tew. 1973. Mammalian toxicology and toxicity to aquatic organisms of nitroglycerine, a

  10. Estimation of inorganic species aquatic toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, James P.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2005-01-01

    The acute aquatic toxicities (narcoses) for a range of organism types may be estimated with LSER for a large number of inorganic and organometal species, many with an accuracy at or within an order of magnitude. Optimum estimations make use of a bioavailable metal fraction and a more accurate structure(s) for the toxic solution species. The estimated toxicities for a number of salts were quite different from the observed values, likely due to a dominant specific toxicity mechanism other than baseline narcosis. The tool still requires fine-tuning.

  11. Acute aquatic toxicity of alkyl phenol ethoxylates

    SciTech Connect

    Schueuermann G2 )

    1991-04-01

    The recently derived log Kow (octanol/water partition coefficient in logarithmic form) increment for a nonterminal oxyethylene unit was used to calculate a quantitative structure-activity relationships for literature data on the acute crustacean toxicity of polyoxyethylene surfactants. The resulting log Kow regression parameters are between the corresponding values for nonpolar and polar narcosis, which supports an interpretation of the surfactants' aquatic toxicity on the basis of another distinct mode of action. Furthermore, a comparison with calculated water solubility data indicates that for log Kow greater than 5 an aquatic toxicity decrease due to a solubility limit is expected, which gets support from two other sets on toxicity data of nonyl phenol polyethoxylates.

  12. Acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.; Haws, R.; Little, D.; Reese, D.; Peterson, C.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    This study develops data on the acute aquatic toxicity of selected biodiesel fuels which may become subject to environmental effects test regulations under the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The test substances are Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Methyl Soyate (MS), a biodiesel mixture of 20% REE and 80% Diesel, a biodiesel mixture of 50% REE and diesel, and a reference substance of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel. The test procedure follows the Daphnid Acute Toxicity Test outlined in 40 CFR {section} 797.1300 of the TSCA regulations. Daphnia Magna are exposed to the test substance in a flow-through system consisting of a mixing chamber, a proportional diluter, and duplicate test chambers. Novel system modifications are described that accommodate the testing of oil-based test substances with Daphnia. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an EC50, an effective concentration producing immobility in 50% of the test specimen.

  13. Toxicity of trifluoroacetate to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Berends, A.G.; Rooij, C.G. de; Boutonnet, J.C.; Thompson, R.S.

    1999-05-01

    As a result of the atmospheric degradation of several hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, trifluoroacetate (TFA) will be formed. Through precipitation, TFA will enter aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the impact on the aquatic environment, an aquatic toxicity testing program was carried out with sodium trifluoroacetate (NaTFA). During acute toxicity tests, no effects of NaTFA on water fleas (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio retrio) were found at a concentration of 1,200 mg/L. A 7-d study with duckweed (Lemna gibba Ge) revealed a NOEC of 300 mg/L. On the basis of the results of five toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum, they determined a NOEC of 0.12 mg/L. However, algal toxicity tests with NaTFA and Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus subspicatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Eugelan gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Navicula pelliculosa, Skeletonema costatum, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Microcystis aeruginosa resulted in EC50 values that were all higher than 100 mg/L. The toxicity of TFA to S. capricornutum could be due to metabolic defluorination to monofluoroacetate (MFA), which is known to inhibit the citric acid cycle. A toxicity test with MFA and S. capricornutum revealed it to be about three orders of magnitude more toxic than TFA. However, a bioactivation study revealed that defluorination of TFA was less than 4%. On the other hand, S. capricornutum exposed to a toxic concentration of NaTFA showed a recovery of growth when citric acid was added, suggesting that TFA (or a metabolite of TFA) interferes with the citric acid cycle. A recovery of the growth of S. capricornutum was also found when TFA was removed from the test solutions. Therefore, TFA should be considered algistatic and not algicidic for S. capricornutum. On the basis of the combined results of the laboratory tests and a previously reported semi-field study, they can consider a TFA concentration of 0.10 mg/L as safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

  14. Aquatic Toxicity of the Decontamination Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    environmental data exists. To estimate potential impact to an aquatic environment, Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum (a luminescent marine...pyrrolidinone to daphnia was 0.04 mg/L (highly toxic) and 107 mg/L (moderately toxic), respectively. EC50, Calcium hypochlorite, Daphnia magna Photobacterium phosphoreum, Aquatic toxicity N-Cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone.

  15. Toxicity of fluoroquinolone antibiotics to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, April A; Belden, Jason B; Lydy, Michael J

    2005-02-01

    Toxicity tests were performed with seven fluoroquinolone antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, clinafloxacin, enrofloxacin, and flumequine, on five aquatic organisms. Overall toxicity values ranged from 7.9 to 23,000 microg/L. The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa was the most sensitive organism (5-d growth and reproduction, effective concentrations [EC50s] ranging from 7.9 to 1,960 microg/L and a median of 49 microg/L), followed by duckweed (Lemna minor, 7-d reproduction, EC50 values ranged from 53 to 2,470 microg/L with a median of 106 microg/L) and the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (3-d growth and reproduction, EC50 values ranged from 1,100 to 22,700 microg/L with a median 7,400 microg/L). Results from tests with the crustacean Daphnia magna (48-h survival) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, 7-d early life stage survival and growth) showed limited toxicity with no-observed-effect concentrations at or near 10 mg/L. Fish dry weights obtained in the ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin treatments (10 mg/L) were significantly higher than in control fish. The hazard of adverse effects occurring to the tested organisms in the environment was quantified by using hazard quotients. An estimated environmental concentration of 1 microg/L was chosen based on measured environmental concentrations previously reported in surface water; at this level, only M. aeruginosa may be at risk in surface water. However, the selective toxicity of these compounds may have implications for aquatic community structure.

  16. Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms, 2nd edition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, Mark D.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Moran, Patrick W.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to assess current water-quality conditions, changes in water quality over time, and the effects of natural and human factors on water quality for the Nation's streams and ground-water resources. For streams, one of the most difficult parts of the assessment is to link chemical conditions to effects on aquatic biota, particularly for pesticides, which tend to occur in streams as complex mixtures with strong seasonal patterns. A Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was developed that combines pesticide exposure of aquatic biota (measured concentrations of pesticides in stream water) with acute toxicity estimates (standard endpoints from laboratory bioassays) to produce a single index value for a sample or site. The development of the PTI was limited to pesticide compounds routinely measured in NAWQA studies and to toxicity data readily available from existing databases. Qualifying toxicity data were found for one or more types of test organisms for 124 of the 185 pesticide compounds measured in NAWQA samples, but with a wide range of available bioassays per compound (1 to 232). In the databases examined, there were a total of 3,669 bioassays for the 124 compounds, including 398 48-hour EC50 values (concentration at which 50 percent of test organisms exhibit a sublethal response) for freshwater cladocerans, 699 96-hour LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50 percent of test organisms) for freshwater benthic invertebrates, and 2,572 96-hour LC50 values for freshwater fish. The PTI for a particular sample is the sum of toxicity quotients (measured concentration divided by the median toxicity concentration from bioassays) for each detected pesticide, and thus, is based on the concentration addition model of pesticide toxicity. The PTI can be calculated for specific groups of pesticides and for specific taxonomic groups. Although the PTI does not determine whether water in a sample is

  17. Persistent toxic substances in Mediterranean aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Miniero, Roberto; Abate, Vittorio; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Davoli, Enrico; De Felip, Elena; De Filippis, Stefania P; Dellatte, Elena; De Luca, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena; Ferri, Fabiola; Fochi, Igor; Rita Fulgenzi, Anna; Iacovella, Nicola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Lucchetti, Dario; Melotti, Paolo; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Roncarati, Alessandra; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Zambon, Stefano; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Fish and fishery products may represent one of the main sources of dietary exposure to persistent toxic substances (PTSs) such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls; polybromodiphenyl ethers; organochlorine pesticides; perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate; and inorganic mercury and methyl mercury. In this study, PTS contamination of Mediterranean fish and crustaceans caught in Italian coastal waters was investigated in order to increase the representativeness of the occurrence database for wild species. The objectives were to verify the suitability of regulatory limits for PTSs, identify background concentrations values, if any, and examine the possible sources of variability when assessing the chemical body burdens of aquatic species. Twelve wild species of commercial interest and two farmed fish species were chosen. Excluding methyl mercury, chemical concentrations found in wild species fell generally towards the low ends of the concentration ranges found in Europe according to EFSA database and were quite lower than the tolerable maximum levels established in the European Union; farmed fish always showed contamination levels quite lower than those detected in wild species. The data obtained for wild species seemed to confirm the absence of local sources of contamination in the chosen sampling areas; however, species contamination could exceed regulatory levels even in the absence of specific local sources of contamination as a result of the position in the food web and natural variability in species' lifestyle. A species-specific approach to the management of contamination in aquatic organisms is therefore suggested as an alternative to a general approach based only on contaminant body burden. A chemical-specific analysis performed according to organism position in the food chain strengthened the need to develop this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pesticides on residential outdoor surfaces: environmental impacts and aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weiying; Luo, Yuzhou; Conkle, Jeremy L; Li, Juying; Gan, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Pesticides are routinely applied to residential impervious outdoor surfaces for structural pest control. This residential usage has been linked to the occurrence of toxic levels of pesticides in urban water bodies. It is believed that run-off water transports particles that have sorbed hydrophobic pesticides. However, concentrations of particle-bound pesticides have not been directly measured on impervious surfaces, and the role of these particles as a source of contamination is unknown. Pesticides were detected in 99.4% of samples, with >75% of samples containing at least five pesticides. Assuming all particles were transferred with run-off, the run-off amount of pesticide during each rainfall would be >5 mg. We also used the US EPA Storm Water Management Model and estimated that 43 and 65% of the pesticides would be washed off during two rainfall events, with run-off concentrations ranging from 10.0 to 54.6 ng L(-1) and from 13.3 to 109.1 ng L(-1) respectively. The model-predicted pesticide run-off concentrations were similar to the levels monitored in urban run-off and sediments. Most (78%) particle samples contained aggregate toxicities above the Hyalella azteca LC50 . The results suggest that loose particles on residential impervious surfaces are not only carriers but also an important source of hydrophobic pesticides in urban run-off and contribute to downstream aquatic toxicities. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO{sub 2} and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD{sub 5} and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population.

  20. Toxicity of TNT Wastewater (Pink Water) to Aquatic Organisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the aquatic invertebrate Daphnia magna . The toxicity tests were conducted on materials that had been...probably the most toxic ingredient of LAP wastewater. The minnow and Daphnia magna were equally sensitive to 2,4-DNT, but the latter was more tolerant of alpha-TNT.

  1. Ranking of aquatic toxicity of esters modelled by QSAR.

    PubMed

    Papa, Ester; Battaini, Francesca; Gramatica, Paola

    2005-02-01

    Alternative methods like predictions based on Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) are now accepted to fill data gaps and define priority lists for more expensive and time consuming assessments. A heterogeneous data set of 74 esters was studied for their aquatic toxicity, and available experimental toxicity data on algae, Daphnia and fish were used to develop statistically validated QSAR models, obtained using multiple linear regression (MLR) by the OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) method and GA-VSS (Variable Subset Selection by Genetic Algorithms) to predict missing values. An ESter Aquatic Toxicity INdex (ESATIN) was then obtained by combining, by PCA, experimental and predicted toxicity data, from which model outliers and esters highly influential due to their structure had been eliminated. Finally this integrated aquatic toxicity index, defined by the PC1 score, was modelled using only a few theoretical molecular descriptors. This last QSAR model, statistically validated for its predictive power, could be proposed as a preliminary evaluative method for screening/prioritising esters according to their integrated aquatic toxicity, just starting from their molecular structure.

  2. Release of metal impurities from carbon nanomaterials influences aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hull, Matthew S; Kennedy, Alan J; Steevens, Jeffery A; Bednar, Anthony J; Weiss, Charles A; Vikesland, Peter J

    2009-06-01

    Few studies have considered the environmental impacts of impurities and byproducts associated with low-efficiency nanomanufacturing processes. Here, we study the composition and aquatic toxicity of low-purity, as-produced fullerenes (C60) and metallofullerene waste solids, both of which were generated via arc-discharge synthesis. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) were used to characterize the metals composition of the solid test materials and of aqueous leachates prepared by mixing test materials with waters of varying pH, hardness, and salinity. The aquatic toxicity of the leachates was determined using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended aquatic bioassay protocols with two standard test organisms-Pimephales promelas and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Results indicated that metals associated with the solid test materials became mobilized in our test system upon interaction with waters of circumneutral pH and reached concentrations sufficient to induce toxicity in both test species. Acute (48 h) LC50 values for P. promelas and C. dubia exposed to leachates prepared from metallofullerene waste solids were 54 and 5% (as % leachate in diluent), respectively. Toxicity was eliminated after adding the chelator EDTA to the leachates, implicating divalent transition metals as the toxicity source. Our results demonstrate the aquatic toxicity of metals mobilized from products and byproducts of nanomanufacturing, and they emphasize the need for a global review of nanomanufacturing wastes and low-purity products.

  3. PETROTOX: an aquatic toxicity model for petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; McGrath, Joy A; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2012-11-01

    A spreadsheet model (PETROTOX) is described that predicts the aquatic toxicity of complex petroleum substances from petroleum substance composition. Substance composition is characterized by specifying mass fractions in constituent hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) based on available analytical information. The HBs are defined by their mass fractions within a defined carbon number range or boiling point interval. Physicochemical properties of the HBs are approximated by assigning representative hydrocarbons from a database of individual hydrocarbons with associated physicochemical properties. A three-phase fate model is used to simulate the distribution of each structure among the water-, air-, and oil-phase liquid in the laboratory test system. Toxicity is then computed based on the predicted aqueous concentrations and aquatic toxicity of each structure and the target lipid model. The toxicity of the complex substance is computed assuming additivity of the contribution of the individual assigned hydrocarbons. Model performance was evaluated by using direct comparisons with measured toxicity data for petroleum substances with sufficient analytical characterization to run the model. Indirect evaluations were made by comparing predicted toxicity distributions using analytical data on petroleum substances from different product categories with independent, empirical distributions of toxicity data available for the same categories. Predictions compared favorably with measured aquatic toxicity data across different petroleum substance categories. These findings demonstrate the utility of PETROTOX for assessing environmental hazards of petroleum substances given knowledge of substance composition.

  4. New approach for evaluating biological toxicity at aquatic hazardous-waste sites. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.K.; Lapota, D.

    1989-08-01

    The impact of hazardous wastes on aquatic systems is an important consideration in the Navy's Installation Restoration Program. A majority of the Navy's assets are located in coastal and estuarine areas which are complex, dynamic ecosystems, important both economically and ecologically. The purpose of this paper is to survey methods available to assess the toxicity of hazardous wastes on aquatic ecosystems, identify the most practical methods for use in determining the potential impact of hazardous waste sites and the selection of remedial alternatives. Current techniques for measuring toxicity using bacteria, phytoplankton, crustaceans, molluscs, and other organisms are reviewed. These methods can be used in developing the information required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) during the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. There is a need to develop new and innovative bioassays for assessing toxicity. Once these tests and their results are compared, it may be practical to use only a few species for routine monitoring.

  5. Haloacetic acids in the aquatic environment. Part I: macrophyte toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mark L; Solomon, Keith R

    2004-08-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are contaminants of aquatic ecosystems with numerous sources, both anthropogenic and natural. The toxicity of HAAs to aquatic plants is generally uncharacterized. Laboratory tests were conducted with three macrophytes (Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum sibiricum and Myriophyllum spicatum) to assess the toxicity of five HAAs. Myriophyllum spp. has been proposed as required test species for pesticide registration in North America, but few studies have been conducted under standard test conditions. The HAAs in the present experiments were monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA). MCA was the most toxic to Myriophyllum spp. with EC50 values ranging from 8 to 12.4 mg/l depending on the endpoint, followed by DCA (EC50 range 62-722.5 mg/l), TCA (EC50 range 49.5-1702.6 mg/l), CDFA (EC50 range 105.3 to >10,000 mg/l) and with TFA (EC50 range 222.1 to 10,000 mg/l) the least toxic. Generally, L. gibba was less sensitive to HAA toxicity than Myriophyllum spp., with the difference in toxicity between them approximately threefold. The range of toxicity within Myriophyllum spp. was normally less than twofold. Statistically, plant length and node number were the most sensitive endpoints as they had the lowest observed coefficients of variation, but they were not the most sensitive to HAA toxicity. Toxicological sensitivity of endpoints varied depending on the measure of effect chosen and the HAA, with morphological endpoints usually an order of magnitude more sensitive than pigments for all plant species. Overall, mass and root measures tended to be the most sensitive indicators of HAA toxicity. The data from this paper were subsequently used in an ecological risk assessment for HAAs and aquatic plants. The assessment found HAAs to be of low risk to aquatic macrophytes and the results are described in the second manuscript of this series.

  6. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity, but development of predictive MoA classification models in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity MoA using a recently published dataset containing over one thousand chemicals with MoA assignments for aquatic animal toxicity. Two dimensional theoretical chemical descriptors were generated for each chemical using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool. The model was developed through augmented Markov blanket discovery from the dataset of 1098 chemicals with the MoA broad classifications as a target node. From cross validation, the overall precision for the model was 80.2%. The best precision was for the AChEI MoA (93.5%) where 257 chemicals out of 275 were correctly classified. Model precision was poorest for the reactivity MoA (48.5%) where 48 out of 99 reactive chemicals were correctly classified. Narcosis represented the largest class within the MoA dataset and had a precision and reliability of 80.0%, reflecting the global precision across all of the MoAs. False negatives for narcosis most often fell into electron transport inhibition, neurotoxicity or reactivity MoAs. False negatives for all other MoAs were most often narcosis. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was undertaken for each MoA to examine the sensitivity to individual and multiple descriptor findings. The results show that the Markov blank

  7. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity, but development of predictive MoA classification models in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity MoA using a recently published dataset containing over one thousand chemicals with MoA assignments for aquatic animal toxicity. Two dimensional theoretical chemical descriptors were generated for each chemical using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool. The model was developed through augmented Markov blanket discovery from the dataset of 1098 chemicals with the MoA broad classifications as a target node. From cross validation, the overall precision for the model was 80.2%. The best precision was for the AChEI MoA (93.5%) where 257 chemicals out of 275 were correctly classified. Model precision was poorest for the reactivity MoA (48.5%) where 48 out of 99 reactive chemicals were correctly classified. Narcosis represented the largest class within the MoA dataset and had a precision and reliability of 80.0%, reflecting the global precision across all of the MoAs. False negatives for narcosis most often fell into electron transport inhibition, neurotoxicity or reactivity MoAs. False negatives for all other MoAs were most often narcosis. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was undertaken for each MoA to examine the sensitivity to individual and multiple descriptor findings. The results show that the Markov blank

  8. Toxicity and removal of pesticides by selected aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Olette, Rachel; Couderchet, Michel; Biagianti, Sylvie; Eullaffroy, Philippe

    2008-02-01

    Pesticides are being detected in water bodies on an increasingly frequent basis. The present study focused on the phytoremediation potential of selected aquatic plants to remove phytosanitary products from contaminated water. We investigated the uptake capacity of Lemna minor (L. minor), Elodea canadensis (E. canadensis) and Cabomba aquatica (C. aquatica) on three pesticides: copper sulphate (fungicide), flazasulfuron (herbicide) and dimethomorph (fungicide). Pesticide toxicity was evaluated by exposing plants to five concentrations (0-1 mg L(-1)) in culture media for 7d using chlorophyll fluorescence as a biomarker. The toxicity of the contaminants was the same for all the aquatic plants studied and occurred in this descending order of toxicity: flazasulfuron>copper>dimethomorph. We found that L. minor had the most efficient uptake capacity, followed by E. canadensis and then C. aquatica. The maximum removal rate (microg g(-1)fresh weight d(-1)) of copper, flazasulfuron and dimethomorph was 30, 27 and 11, respectively.

  9. Acute toxicity value extrapolation with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny R.; Mayer, Foster L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Asfaw, Amha

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of risk posed by an environmental contaminant to an aquatic community requires estimation of both its magnitude of occurrence (exposure) and its ability to cause harm (effects). Our ability to estimate effects is often hindered by limited toxicological information. As a result, resource managers and environmental regulators are often faced with the need to extrapolate across taxonomic groups in order to protect the more sensitive members of the aquatic community. The goals of this effort were to 1) compile and organize an extensive body of acute toxicity data, 2) characterize the distribution of toxicant sensitivity across taxa and species, and 3) evaluate the utility of toxicity extrapolation methods based upon sensitivity relations among species and chemicals. Although the analysis encompassed a wide range of toxicants and species, pesticides and freshwater fish and invertebrates were emphasized as a reflection of available data. Although it is obviously desirable to have high-quality acute toxicity values for as many species as possible, the results of this effort allow for better use of available information for predicting the sensitivity of untested species to environmental contaminants. A software program entitled “Ecological Risk Analysis” (ERA) was developed that predicts toxicity values for sensitive members of the aquatic community using species sensitivity distributions. Of several methods evaluated, the ERA program used with minimum data sets comprising acute toxicity values for rainbow trout, bluegill, daphnia, and mysids provided the most satisfactory predictions with the least amount of data. However, if predictions must be made using data for a single species, the most satisfactory results were obtained with extrapolation factors developed for rainbow trout (0.412), bluegill (0.331), or scud (0.041). Although many specific exceptions occur, our results also support the conventional wisdom that invertebrates are generally more

  10. Acute toxicity value extrapolation with fish and aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Denny R; Mayer, Foster L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Asfaw, Amha

    2005-11-01

    Assessment of risk posed by an environmental contaminant to an aquatic community requires estimation of both its magnitude of occurrence (exposure) and its ability to cause harm (effects). Our ability to estimate effects is often hindered by limited toxicological information. As a result, resource managers and environmental regulators are often faced with the need to extrapolate across taxonomic groups in order to protect the more sensitive members of the aquatic community. The goals of this effort were to 1) compile and organize an extensive body of acute toxicity data, 2) characterize the distribution of toxicant sensitivity across taxa and species, and 3) evaluate the utility of toxicity extrapolation methods based upon sensitivity relations among species and chemicals. Although the analysis encompassed a wide range of toxicants and species, pesticides and freshwater fish and invertebrates were emphasized as a reflection of available data. Although it is obviously desirable to have high-quality acute toxicity values for as many species as possible, the results of this effort allow for better use of available information for predicting the sensitivity of untested species to environmental contaminants. A software program entitled "Ecological Risk Analysis" (ERA) was developed that predicts toxicity values for sensitive members of the aquatic community using species sensitivity distributions. Of several methods evaluated, the ERA program used with minimum data sets comprising acute toxicity values for rainbow trout, bluegill, daphnia, and mysids provided the most satisfactory predictions with the least amount of data. However, if predictions must be made using data for a single species, the most satisfactory results were obtained with extrapolation factors developed for rainbow trout (0.412), bluegill (0.331), or scud (0.041). Although many specific exceptions occur, our results also support the conventional wisdom that invertebrates are generally more sensitive to

  11. Plant bioindicators for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon toxicity in aquatic microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Gensemer, R.W.; Solomon, K.R.; Day, K.E.; Hodson, P.V.; Servos, M.R.; Greenberg, B.M.

    1994-12-31

    Plant bioindicators are being developed to assess the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in experimental aquatic ecosystems. The approach is to develop and test biomarker assays that are specifically predictive of ecological events at the population and/or community levels of organization in artificial aquatic microcosms. PAH mixtures were introduced into a series of aquatic microcosms using the wood preservative creosote as a PAH source. The authors applied creosote at five dosage levels designed to simulate conductions observed at highly contaminated sites. The growth and biomass of phytoplankton, periphyton, and macrophytes were then measured throughout the growing season, and compared to one or more biomarker assays used to detect PAH contamination. Preliminary results using fluorescence induction on aquatic macrophytes suggest that PAHs can significantly inhibit photosynthesis at even modest concentrations 1--4 hours after exposure. This assay thus is not only a sensitive indicator of PAH exposure, but may also describe mechanisms of PAH toxicity that ultimately reduce biomass or population growth for aquatic plants in these microcosms.

  12. Aquatic Toxicity Screening of Fire Fighting Agents; 2003 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-02

    the Trimmed Spearman - Karber Method and the results were shown in parts per million (ppm). Typical program output is shown in Appendix C. 4 SECTION... Karber Method and the results are given in parts per million (ppm). RESULTS The first sample of FireAde 2000 had a pH of 12.4, which resulted in the...the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) as the screening organism. Aquatic toxicity screening offers an inexpensive, efficient and reliable method for

  13. Toxic metals in aquatic ecosystems: a microbiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Ford, T; Ryan, D

    1995-02-01

    Microbe-metal interactions in aquatic environments and their exact role in transport and transformations of toxic metals are poorly understood. This paper will briefly review our understanding of these interactions. Ongoing research in Lake Chapala, Mexico, the major water source for the City of Guadalajara, provides an opportunity to study the microbiological aspects of metal-cycling in the water column. Constant resuspension of sediments provides a microbiologically rich aggregate-based system. Data indicate that toxic metals are concentrated on aggregate material and bioaccumulate in the food chain. A provisional model is presented for involvement of microbial aggregates in metal-cycling in Lake Chapala.

  14. Toxic metals in aquatic ecosystems: a microbiological perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, T; Ryan, D

    1995-01-01

    Microbe-metal interactions in aquatic environments and their exact role in transport and transformations of toxic metals are poorly understood. This paper will briefly review our understanding of these interactions. Ongoing research in Lake Chapala, Mexico, the major water source for the City of Guadalajara, provides an opportunity to study the microbiological aspects of metal-cycling in the water column. Constant resuspension of sediments provides a microbiologically rich aggregate-based system. Data indicate that toxic metals are concentrated on aggregate material and bioaccumulate in the food chain. A provisional model is presented for involvement of microbial aggregates in metal-cycling in Lake Chapala. PMID:7621793

  15. Toxicity of ferric chloride sludge to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Sotero-Santos, Rosana B; Rocha, Odete; Povinelli, Jurandyr

    2007-06-01

    Iron-rich sludge from a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) was investigated regarding its toxicity to aquatic organisms and physical and chemical composition. In addition, the water quality of the receiving stream near the DWTP was evaluated. Experiments were carried out in August 1998, February 1999 and May 1999. Acute toxicity tests were carried out on a cladoceran (Daphnia similis), a midge (Chironomus xanthus) and a fish (Hyphessobrycon eques). Chronic tests were conducted only on D. similis. Acute sludge toxicity was not detected using any of the aquatic organisms, but chronic effects were observed upon the fecundity of D. similis. Although there were relatively few sample dates, the results suggested that the DWTP sludge had a negative effect on the receiving body as here was increased suspended matter, turbidity, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and hardness in the water downstream of the DWTP effluent discharge. The ferric chloride sludge also exhibited high heavy metal concentrations revealing a further potential for pollution and harmful chronic effects on the aquatic biota when the sludge is disposed of without previous treatment.

  16. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors.

    PubMed

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests.

  17. Aquatic toxicity and biodegradability of advanced cationic surfactant APA-22 compatible with the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Masayuki; Toyo, Takamasa; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Sakai, Takaya; Kaneko, Youhei; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2008-01-01

    Cationic surfactant is a chemical substance used in hair conditioner, fabric softener and other household products. By investigating the relationship between the aquatic toxicity and the chemical structures of two types of mono alkyl cationic surfactants, alkyl trimethylammonium salts and alkyl dimethylamine salts, we have found that the C22 alkyl chain length is effective to reduce the toxicity. Besides, we have recognized that the amidopropyl functional group contributes to the enhanced biodegradability by investigating the biodegradation trend of (alkylamidopropyl)dimethylamine salt (alkyl chain length: C18). Based on these findings, we have developed mono alkyl cationic surfactant called APA-22, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]docosanamide salt. APA-22 is formed by the C22 alkyl chain, amidopropyl functional group and di-methyltertiary amine group. We evaluated the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability of APA-22 by two standard methods (OECD Test Guideline 301B and ECETOC technical document No.28) and found that this substance was degraded rapidly in both conditions. The toxicity to algae, invertebrate and fish of this substance are evaluated by using OECD Test Guideline 201, 202 and 203, respectively. All acute toxicity values are >1 mg/L, which indicates that environmental toxicity of this substance is relatively less toxic to aquatic organism. In addition, we estimated the biodegradation pathway of APA-22 and observed the complete disappearance of APA-22 and its intermediates during the test periods. Based on the environmental data provided above, we concluded that APA22 is more compatible with the aquatic environment compared to other cationic surfactants with mono long alkyl chain.

  18. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity but MoA classification in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity mode of action using a recently published dataset containing over one thousand chemicals with MoA assignments for aquatic animal toxicity. Two dimensional theoretical chemical descriptors were generated for each chemical using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool. The model was developed through augmented Markov blanket discovery from the data set with the MoA broad classifications as a target node. From cross validation, the overall precision for the model was 80.2% with a R2 of 0.959. The best precision was for the AChEI MoA (93.5%) where 257 chemicals out of 275 were correctly classified. Model precision was poorest for the reactivity MoA (48.5%) where 48 out of 99 reactive chemicals were correctly classified. Narcosis represented the largest class within the MoA dataset and had a precision and reliability of 80.0%, reflecting the global precision across all of the MoAs. False negatives for narcosis most often fell into electron transport inhibition, neurotoxicity or reactivity MoAs. False negatives for all other MoAs were most often narcosis. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was undertaken for each MoA to examine the sensitivity to individual and multiple descriptor findings. The results show that the Markov blanket of a structurally

  19. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity but MoA classification in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity mode of action using a recently published dataset containing over one thousand chemicals with MoA assignments for aquatic animal toxicity. Two dimensional theoretical chemical descriptors were generated for each chemical using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool. The model was developed through augmented Markov blanket discovery from the data set with the MoA broad classifications as a target node. From cross validation, the overall precision for the model was 80.2% with a R2 of 0.959. The best precision was for the AChEI MoA (93.5%) where 257 chemicals out of 275 were correctly classified. Model precision was poorest for the reactivity MoA (48.5%) where 48 out of 99 reactive chemicals were correctly classified. Narcosis represented the largest class within the MoA dataset and had a precision and reliability of 80.0%, reflecting the global precision across all of the MoAs. False negatives for narcosis most often fell into electron transport inhibition, neurotoxicity or reactivity MoAs. False negatives for all other MoAs were most often narcosis. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was undertaken for each MoA to examine the sensitivity to individual and multiple descriptor findings. The results show that the Markov blanket of a structurally

  20. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Spallholz, Julian E; Hoffman, David J

    2002-04-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH(3)Se(minus sign) which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. L-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of L-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that L-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. L-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of L-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of L-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of L-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of L-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when L-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing

  1. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spallholz, J.E.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH3Se- which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. l-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of l-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that l-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. l-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of l-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of l-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of l-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of l-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when l-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing aquatic chick.

  2. Read-across estimates of aquatic toxicity for selected fragrances.

    PubMed

    Rorije, Emiel; Aldenberg, Tom; Peijnenburg, Willie

    2013-03-01

    Read-across as a non-animal testing alternative for the generation of risk assessment data can be useful in those cases where quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are not available, or are less well developed. This paper provides read-across case studies for the estimation of the aquatic toxicity of five different fragrance substances, and proposes a pragmatic approach for expressing uncertainty in read-across estimates. The aquatic toxicity estimates and their uncertainties are subsequently used to estimate fresh water compartment Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs), with their two-sided 90% Confidence Intervals (CIs). These PNECs can be used directly in risk assessment. The results of the musk fragrance read-across cases (musk xylene, musk ketone and galaxolide) are compared to experimentally derived PNEC values. The read-across estimates made by using similarity in a hypothesised mechanism of action for (acute) toxicity of musk xylene gave a PNEC of 2μg/L (90% CI 0.0004-13.5μg/L) with the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) approach. This estimated value is 1.8 times above the experimentally-based fresh water PNEC of 1.1μg/L. For musk ketone and galaxolide, the PNEC values based on the SSD approach and employing a toxicity mechanism-based read-across were 2.0 times greater, and 4.9 times below the experimentally derived PNEC values, respectively.

  3. Aquatic acute toxicity assessments of molybdenum (+VI) to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Wei; Liang, Chenju; Yeh, Hui-Ju

    2016-03-01

    Generally, molybdenum (Mo) metals in the environment are very rare, but wastewater discharges from industrial processes may contain high concentrations of Mo, which has the potential to contaminate water or soil if not handled properly. In this study, the impact of three common compounds of hexavalent Mo (sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4‧2H2O), ammonium molybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)) in an aquatic system were assessed based on 48-h exposure acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (D. magna). The LC50 toxicities for associated conjugate ions including Na(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NH4(+) were determined. Furthermore, the LC50 values for the three forms of hexavalent Mo were determined, and the acute toxicities of the Mo forms were found to follow the order: (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O > MoO3 > Na2MoO4‧2H2O in solution. (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O exhibited the lowest LC50 of 43.3 mg L(-1) (corresponding to 23.5 mg Mo L(-1)) among the three molybdenum salts. The research confirmed that the toxicity of molybdenum in the aquatic system is highly dependent on the form of molybdenum salts used, and is also associated with the influence of the background water quality.

  4. Graphene in the aquatic environment: adsorption, dispersion, toxicity and transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Zhenyu; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-09-02

    Graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) including pristine graphene, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and graphene oxide (GO) offer great application potential, leading to the possibility of their release into aquatic environments. Upon exposure, graphene/rGO and GO exhibit different adsorption properties toward environmental adsorbates, thus the molecular interactions at the GFN-water interface are discussed. After solute adsorption, the dispersion/aggregation behaviors of GFNs can be altered by solution chemistry, as well as by the presence of colloidal particles and biocolloids. GO has different dispersion performance from pristine graphene and rGO, which is further demonstrated from surface properties. Upon exposure in aquatic environments, GFNs have adverse impacts on aquatic organisms (e.g., bacteria, algae, plants, invertebrates, and fish). The mechanisms of GFNs toxicity at the cellular level are reviewed and the remaining unclear points on toxic mechanisms such as membrane damage are presented. Moreover, we highlight the transformation routes of GO to rGO. The degradation of GFNs upon exposure to UV irradiation and/or biota is also reviewed. In view of the unanswered questions, future research should include comprehensive characterization of GFNs, new approaches for explaining GFNs aggregation, environmental behaviors of metastable GO, and the relationship between dispersion of GFNs and the related adsorption properties.

  5. Reference toxicants for toxicity testing using Caenorhabditis elegans in aquatic media

    SciTech Connect

    Cressman, C.P. III; Williams, P.L.

    1997-09-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans aquatic toxicity assays were standardized with five common reference toxicants: CdCl{sub 2}, NaCl, KCl, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP). Aquatic toxicity testing was conducted in 3 media: a standard C. elegans medium; EPA moderately hard reconstituted water; and EPA moderately hard mineral water. Test duration in each medium was 24h without a food source, and 24h and 48h with Escherichia coli strain OP50 as a food source. Each test was replicated three times with each replicate having 6 wells per concentration, 10 worms per well. LC{sub 50} values were calculated using probit analysis. The average LC{sub 50}s for each set of replications were compared to assess sensitivity and reproducibility of the data, identifying expected variation between replicate tests. These reference toxicants increase the database for C. elegans and provide a benchmark for further application.

  6. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to freshwater aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Brunson, Eric L.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hydrophobic in nature and thus tend to accumulate in sediments if released into aquatic environments. As part of our overall effort to examine the toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials to sediment-dwelling invertebrates, we have evaluated the toxicity of different types of CNTs in 14-d water-only exposures to an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), a midge (Chironomus dilutus), an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus), and a mussel (Villosa iris) in advance of conducting whole-sediment toxicity tests with CNTs. The results of these toxicity tests conducted with CNTs added to water showed that 1.00g/L (dry wt) of commercial sources of CNTs significantly reduced the survival or growth of the invertebrates. Toxicity was influenced by the type and source of the CNTs, by whether the materials were precleaned by acid, by whether sonication was used to disperse the materials, and by species of the test organisms. Light and electron microscope imaging of the surviving test organisms showed the presence of CNTs in the gut as well as on the outer surface of the test organisms, although no evidence was observed to show penetration of CNTs through cell membranes. The present study demonstrated that both the metals solubilized from CNTs such as nickel and the "metal-free" CNTs contributed to the toxicity.

  7. ESTIMATION OF AQUATIC SPECIES SENSITIVITY USING INTERSPECIES CORRELATION AND ACUTE TO CHRONIC TOXICITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for presentation

    Estimation of aquatic species sensitivity using interspecies correlation and acute to chronic toxicity models

    Determining species sensitivity of aquatic organisms to contaminants is a critical component of criteria development and ecolog...

  8. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-05-19

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure-activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical-chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard.

  9. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T.; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-01-01

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure–activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical–chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard. PMID:24639521

  10. Toxicity of a complex munitions wastewater to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.H.W.; Bailey, H.C.; Pearson, J.G.

    1981-10-01

    The toxicity to freshwater organisms of a complex munitions effluent called condensate wastewater was determined using a novel and relatively economical approach proposed by Pearson and co-workers at the Second Annual ASTM Symposium on Aquatic Toxicology. Applicable only to complex wastewaters in which the concentrations of the individual chemical components are relatively constant over time, the approach emphasizes performing toxicity and related tests on a chemical mixture representative of the actual wastewater, with secondary attention being directed toward testing the individual chemical components, which is the conventional approach. The testing program comprised several series of static acute toxicity tests on authentic wastewater, artificial wastewater, and selected components to identify the conditions under which they are most toxic and to identify the most sensitive species; a series of flow-through acute toxicity tests on the artificial wastewater using the most sensitive species; a series of short-term bioconcentration tests; several early life-stage tests; and, finally, several life-cycle chronic tests. Twelve species representing three trophic levels were employed in the program. It was concluded that the approach economically and rapidly provided a sufficient data base for assessing the effects of the wastewater on aquatic life. Two modifications were recommended to decrease the cost and time of obtaining the data. One was to perform a static and a flow-through test early in the testing program to identify the most appropriate exposure condition to use in the initial portion of the program. The other was to compute the octanol-water partition coefficients of the organic components of the wastewater before performing any bioconcentration test and to use the coefficients to determine if bioconcentration tests are necessary.

  11. An expert system for prediction of aquatic toxicity of contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, James P.; Aldridge, Andrew J.; Passino, Dora R. May; Frank, Anthony M.; Hushon, Judith M.

    1990-01-01

    The National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has developed an interactive computer program in muLISP that runs on an IBM-compatible microcomputer and uses a linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) to predict acute toxicity to four representative aquatic species from the detailed structure of an organic molecule. Using the SMILES formalism for a chemical structure, the expert system identifies all structural components and uses a knowledge base of rules based on an LSER to generate four structure-related parameter values. A separate module then relates these values to toxicity. The system is designed for rapid screening of potential chemical hazards before laboratory or field investigations are conducted and can be operated by users with little toxicological background. This is the first expert system based on LSER, relying on the first comprehensive compilation of rules and values for the estimation of LSER parameters.

  12. Data quality and relevance in ecotoxicity: The undocumented influences of model assumptions and modifying factors on aquatic toxicity dose metrics.

    PubMed

    McCarty, L S

    2015-11-01

    A model-based approach using hypothetical organic chemicals examines how aquatic toxicity test results are influenced by toxicity modifying factors such as hydrophobicity, exposure duration, body size, lipid content, mode of toxic action (via Critical Body Residue differences), and metabolic degradation. Differences of up to one to three orders of magnitude were identified for modeled LC50s. Dominance of CBR by low log Kow chemicals can cause further influences. Such differences cause significant changes in the relationship between exposure- and organism-based doses and create substantial difficulties for both interpretation of test results and extrapolation to other laboratory or field exposure conditions. The resulting variability is not readily evident in toxicity testing as insufficient data are collected to validate fundamental assumptions. Consequently, results obtained with standard aquatic toxicity test protocols do not yield consistent, comparable measures of relative toxicity and are inappropriate for quantitative toxicology and risk applications. The substantial uncertainties in testing results created by such undocumented variability must also be given serious consideration in data quality and relevance assessments. Necessary improvements in aquatic toxicity testing methodology should include explicit estimation of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and routine validation of toxicological model assumptions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effluent from bulk drug production is toxic to aquatic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Gunnar; Orn, Stefan; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2009-12-01

    Very high levels of a range of pharmaceuticals have been reported recently in the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant near Hyderabad, India. The plant serves approximately 90 manufacturers of bulk drugs that primarily are exported to the world market. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found at levels that are highly toxic to various microorganisms. Even though milligram-per-liter levels of drugs targeting human proteins also have been found, it is difficult to conclude whether these levels are sufficiently high to adversely affect fish or amphibians due to the lack of relevant chronic toxicity data for most human pharmaceuticals. To assess potential effects on aquatic vertebrates, tadpoles of Xenopus tropicalis were exposed to three dilutions of effluent (0.2, 0.6, and 2%) over 14 d, starting at developmental stage 51. Additionally, newly fertilized zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to diluted effluent in 96-well plates for up to 144 h postfertilization (hpf). The tadpoles' body lengths, weights, and developmental stages were recorded, whereas a larger number of sublethal and lethal endpoints were studied in the zebrafish. A 40% reduced growth of the exposed tadpoles was demonstrated at the lowest tested effluent concentration (0.2%), indicating potent constituents in the effluent that can adversely affect aquatic vertebrates. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for zebrafish at 144 hpf was between 2.7 and 8.1% in different experiments. Reduced spontaneous movements, pigmentation, and heart rate were recorded within 48 hpf at 8 and 16% effluent concentrations. Treated effluent from a plant that serves as an important link in the global supply chain for bulk drugs is thus shown to cause adverse effects to aquatic vertebrates even at very high dilutions.

  14. Aquatic toxicity of ivermectin in cattle dung assessed using microcosms.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Leticia M; Lindt, I; Negro, L; Gutierrez, M F; Mayora, G; Montalto, L; Ballent, M; Lifschitz, A

    2017-10-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a parasiticide widely used for livestock. It is a semisynthetic derivative of avermectin, a macrocyclic lactone produced by Streptomyces avermitilis. This drug is only partly metabolized by livestock; considerable amounts of parent drug are excreted mostly via feces. To simulate exposure of aquatic invertebrates and macrophytes to direct excretion of cattle dung into surface waters, a microcosm experiment with IVM spiked in cattle dung was conducted. The objectives of this study were to characterize accumulation of IVM in water, sediment+dung, roots of the floating fern Salvinia and the zooplankton Ceriodaphnia dubia, the amphipod Hyalella and the apple snail Pomacea; to determine the effect of this drug spiked in cattle dung on life-history traits of these invertebrates; and to evaluate the influence of IVM on aquatic nutrient cycling. Dung was spiked with IVM to attain concentrations of 1150, 458, 50 and 22µgkg(-1)dung fresh weight, approximating those found in cattle dung at days 3, 7, 16 and 29 following subcutaneous injection. Concentrations found in dung during the first week of excretion were lethally toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella, whereas no mortality was observed in Pomacea. Concentrations of IVM in roots, sediment + dung and Pomacea increased significantly from the lowest to the highest treatment level. The effect of this drug on decomposition and release of nutrients from dung would have negative consequences for nutrient cycling in water. Increasing concentrations in sediment + dung with days of the experiment suggested that toxic concentrations would persist for an extended period in the water-sediment system. IVM represents an ecological risk for aquatic ecosystems, underscoring the need for livestock management strategies to limit its entry into water bodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative toxicities of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides to aquatic macroarthropods.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Neal T; Civitello, David J; Rohr, Jason R

    2015-09-01

    As agricultural expansion and intensification increase to meet the growing global food demand, so too will insecticide use and thus the risk of non-target effects. Insecticide pollution poses a particular threat to aquatic macroarthropods, which play important functional roles in freshwater ecosystems. Thus, understanding the relative toxicities of insecticides to non-target functional groups is critical for predicting effects on ecosystem functions. We exposed two common macroarthropod predators, the crayfish Procambarus alleni and the water bug Belostoma flumineum, to three insecticides in each of two insecticide classes (three organophosphates: chlorpyrifos, malathion, and terbufos; and three pyrethroids: esfenvalerate, λ-cyhalothrin, and permethrin) to assess their toxicities. We generated 150 simulated environmental exposures using the US EPA Surface Water Contamination Calculator to determine the proportion of estimated peak environmental concentrations (EECs) that exceeded the US EPA level of concern (0.5×LC50) for non-endangered aquatic invertebrates. Organophosphate insecticides generated consistently low-risk exposure scenarios (EECs<0.5×LC50) for both P. alleni and B. flumineum. Pyrethroid exposure scenarios presented consistently high risk (EECs>0.5×LC50) to P. alleni, but not to B. flumineum, where only λ-cyhalothrin produced consistently high-risk exposures. Survival analyses demonstrated that insecticide class accounted for 55.7% and 91.1% of explained variance in P. alleni and B. flumineum survival, respectively. Thus, risk to non-target organisms is well predicted by pesticide class. Identifying insecticides that pose low risk to aquatic macroarthropods might help meet increased demands for food while mitigating against potential negative effects on ecosystem functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  17. Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    hepatic GSH peroxidase, depletion of hepatic protein bound thiols and total thiols, but a small increase in GSH. Diving ducks in the San Francisco Bay area exhibited a positive correlation between hepatic Se concentration and GSH peroxidase activity (r=0.63, P<0.05), but a negative correlation between hepatic Se and GSH concentration (r=0.740, P<0.05). In willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) from the San Diego area, positive correlations occurred between hepatic Se concentration and GSSG (r=0.70, P<0.001), GSSG:GSH ratio, and TBARS. In emperor geese (Chen canagica) from western Alaska, blood levels of up to 9.4 ppm occurred and were associated with increased plasma GSH peroxidase activity (r=0.62, P<0.001), but with decreased plasma GSSG reductase activity. When evaluating Se toxicity, interactive nutritional factors, including other elements and dietary protein, should also be taken into consideration. Further studies are needed to examine the relationship between different forms of environmentally occurring selenium, arsenic and mercury on reproduction, hepatotoxicity and immune function of aquatic birds. Further selenium nutritional interaction studies may also help to illucidate the mechanism of selenium induced teratogenesis, by optimizing GSH and other antioxidant defense mechanisms in a manner that would stabilize or raise the cell's threshold for susceptibility to toxic attack from excess selenium. It is concluded that Se-related manifestations of oxidative stress may serve as useful bioindicators of Se exposure and toxicity in wild aquatic birds.

  18. INTER-SPECIES MODELS FOR ACUTE AQUATIC TOXICITY BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide interspecies QSARs for acute toxicity to 17 aquatic species, such as fish, snail, tadpole, hydrozoan, crustacean, insect larvae, and bacteria developed using 5,000 toxic effect results for approximately 2400 chemicals.

  19. INTER-SPECIES MODELS FOR ACUTE AQUATIC TOXICITY BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide interspecies QSARs for acute toxicity to 17 aquatic species, such as fish, snail, tadpole, hydrozoan, crustacean, insect larvae, and bacteria developed using 5,000 toxic effect results for approximately 2400 chemicals.

  20. Pesticidal copper (I) oxide: environmental fate and aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kiaune, Lina; Singhasemanon, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Besides being a naturally occurring element and an essential micronutrient, copper is used as a pesticide, but at generally higher concentrations. Copper, unlike organic pesticides, does not degrade, but rather enters a complex biogeochemical cycle. In the water column, copper can exist bound to both organic and inorganic species and as free or hydrated copper ions. Water column chemistry affects copper speciation and bioavailability. In all water types (saltwater, brackish water, and freshwater), organic ligands in the water column can sequester the majority of dissolved copper, and therefore, organic ligands play the largest role in copper bioavailability. In freshwater, however, the geochemistry of a particular location, including water column characteristics such as water hardness and pH, is a significant factor that can increase copper bioavailability and toxicity. In most cases, organic ligand concentrations greatly exceed copper ion concentrations in the water column and therefore provide a large buffering capacity. Hence, copper bioavailability can be grossly overestimated if it is based on total dissolved copper (TDCu) concentrations alone. Other factors that influence copper concentrations include location in the water column, season, temperature, depth, and level of dissolved oxygen. For example, concentrations of bioavailable copper may be significantly higher in the bottom waters and sediment pore waters, where organic ligands degrade much faster and dissolved copper is constantly resuspended and recycled into the aquatic system. Aquatic species differ greatly in their sensitivity to copper. Some animals, like mollusks, can tolerate high concentrations of the metal, while others are adversely affected by very low concentrations of copper. Emerging evidence shows that very low, sublethal copper levels can adversely affect the sense of smell and behavior of fish. The developmental stage of the fish at the time of copper exposure is critical to the

  1. Aquatic Toxicity Comparison of Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Eun Kyung; Johari, Seyed Ali; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Ellen; Lee, Ji Hyun; Chung, Young Shin; Yu, Il Je

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the potential ecotoxicological impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) released into freshwater environments, the toxicities of these nanomaterials were assessed and compared using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guidelines, including a "Daphnia sp., acute immobilization test," "Fish, acute toxicity test," and "freshwater alga and cyanobacteria, growth inhibition test." Based on the estimated median lethal/effective concentrations of AgNPs and AgNWs, the susceptibility to the nanomaterials was different among test organisms (daphnia > algae > fish), suggesting that the AgNPs are classified as "category acute 1" for Daphnia magna, "category acute 2" for Oryzias latipes, and "category acute 1" for Raphidocelis subcapitata, while the AgNWs are classified as "category acute 1" for Daphnia magna, "category acute 2" for Oryzias latipes, and "category acute 2" for Raphidocelis subcapitata, according to the GHS (Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals). In conclusion, the present results suggest that more attention should be paid to prevent the accidental or intentional release of silver nanomaterials into freshwater aquatic environments.

  2. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species.

  3. Fractionating nanosilver: importance for determining toxicity to aquatic test organisms.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alan J; Hull, Matthew S; Bednar, Anthony J; Goss, Jennifer D; Gunter, Jonas C; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Vikesland, Peter J; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2010-12-15

    This investigation applied novel techniques for characterizing and fractionating nanosilver particles and aggregates and relating these measurements to toxicological endpoints. The acute toxicity of eight nanosilver suspensions of varying primary particle sizes (10-80 nm) and coatings (citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, EDTA, proprietary) was assessed using three aquatic test organisms (Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). When 48-h lethal median concentrations (LC50) were expressed as total silver, both D. magna and P. promelas were significantly more sensitive to ionic silver (Ag(+)) as AgNO(3) (mean LC50 = 1.2 and 6.3 μg/L, respectively) relative to a wide range in LC50 values determined for the nanosilver suspensions (2 -126 μg/L). However, when LC50 values for nanosilver suspensions were expressed as fractionated nanosilver (Ag(+) and/or <4 nm particles), determined by ultracentrifugation of particles and confirmed field-flow-fractograms, the LC50 values (0.3-5.6 μg/L) were comparable to the values obtained for ionic Ag(+) as AgNO(3). These results suggest that dissolved Ag(+) plays a critical role in acute toxicity and underscores the importance of characterizing dissolved fractions in nanometal suspensions.

  4. Aquatic Toxicity Comparison of Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Ellen; Lee, Ji Hyun; Chung, Young Shin

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the potential ecotoxicological impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) released into freshwater environments, the toxicities of these nanomaterials were assessed and compared using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guidelines, including a “Daphnia sp., acute immobilization test,” “Fish, acute toxicity test,” and “freshwater alga and cyanobacteria, growth inhibition test.” Based on the estimated median lethal/effective concentrations of AgNPs and AgNWs, the susceptibility to the nanomaterials was different among test organisms (daphnia > algae > fish), suggesting that the AgNPs are classified as “category acute 1” for Daphnia magna, “category acute 2” for Oryzias latipes, and “category acute 1” for Raphidocelis subcapitata, while the AgNWs are classified as “category acute 1” for Daphnia magna, “category acute 2” for Oryzias latipes, and “category acute 2” for Raphidocelis subcapitata, according to the GHS (Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals). In conclusion, the present results suggest that more attention should be paid to prevent the accidental or intentional release of silver nanomaterials into freshwater aquatic environments. PMID:26125025

  5. Research of nickel nanoparticles toxicity with use of Aquatic Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgaleva, T.; Morgalev, Yu; Gosteva, I.; Morgalev, S.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of nanoparticles with the particle size Δ50=5 nm on the test function of aquatic organisms was analyzed by means of biotesting methods with the use of a complex of test-organisms representing general trophic levels. The dependence of an infusoria Paramecium caudatum chemoattractant-elicited response, unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Beijer growth rate, Daphnia magna Straus mortality and trophic activity and Danio rerio fish kill due to nNi disperse system concentration, is estimated. It is determined that the release of chlorella into cultivated environment including nNi as a feed for daphnias raises the death rate of entomostracans. The minimal concentration, whereby an organism response to the effect of nNi is registered, depends on the type of test organism and the analysed test function. L(E)C20 is determined for all the organisms used in bioassays. L(E)C50 is estimated for Paramecium caudatum (L(E)C50 = 0.0049 mg/l), for Chlorella vulgaris Beijer (L(E)C50 = 0.529 mg/l), for Daphnia m. S (L(E)C50 > 100 mg/l) and for fish Danio rerio (L(E)C50 > 100 mg/l). According to the Globally Harmonized System hazard substance evaluation criteria and Commission Directive 93/67/EEC, nNi belongs to the “acute toxicity 1” category of toxic substances.

  6. Accuracy of Chronic Aquatic Toxicity Estimates Determined from Acute Toxicity Data and Two Time–Response Models.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, chronic toxicity in aquatic organisms and wildlife has been determined from either toxicity test data, acute to chronic ratios, or application of safety factors. A more recent alternative approach has been to estimate chronic toxicity by modeling the time course of...

  7. Immediate Closures and Violations Identified During Routine Inspections of Public Aquatic Facilities - Network for Aquatic Facility Inspection Surveillance, Five States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hlavsa, Michele C; Gerth, Taryn R; Collier, Sarah A; Dunbar, Elizabeth L; Rao, Gouthami; Epperson, Gregory; Bramlett, Becky; Ludwig, David F; Gomez, Diana; Stansbury, Monty M; Miller, Freeman; Warren, Jeffrey; Nichol, Jim; Bowman, Harry; Huynh, Bao-An; Loewe, Kara M; Vincent, Bob; Tarrier, Amanda L; Shay, Timothy; Wright, Robert; Brown, Allison C; Kunz, Jasen M; Fullerton, Kathleen E; Cope, James R; Beach, Michael J

    2016-05-20

    reporting jurisdictions. During 2013, environmental health practitioners in the 16 reporting NAFIS jurisdictions conducted 84,187 routine inspections of 48,632 public aquatic venues. Of the 84,187 routine inspection records for individual aquatic venues, 78.5% (66,098) included data on immediate closure; 12.3% (8,118) of routine inspections resulted in immediate closure because of at least one identified violation that represented a serious threat to public health. Disinfectant concentration violations were identified during 11.9% (7,662/64,580) of routine inspections, representing risk for aquatic facility-associated outbreaks of infectious etiology. Safety equipment violations were identified during 12.7% (7,845/61,648) of routine inspections, representing risk for drowning. Pool chemical safety violations were identified during 4.6% (471/10,264) of routine inspections, representing risk for pool chemical-associated health events. Routine inspections frequently resulted in immediate closure and identified violations of inspection items corresponding to 15 MAHC elements critical to protecting public health, highlighting the need to improve operation and maintenance of U.S. public aquatic facilities. These findings also underscore the public health function that code enforcement, conducted by environmental health practitioners, has in preventing illness and injury at public aquatic facilities. Findings from the routine analyses of aquatic facility inspection data can inform program planning, implementation, and evaluation. At the state and local level, these inspection data can be used to identify aquatic facilities and venues in need of more frequent inspections and to select topics to cover in training for aquatic facility operators. At the national level, these data can be used to evaluate whether the adoption of MAHC elements minimizes the risk for aquatic facility-associated illness and injury. These findings also can be used to prioritize revisions or updates to the

  8. METHOD FOR TESTING THE AQUATIC TOXICITY OF SEDIMENT EXTRACTS FOR USE IN IDENTIFYING ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biologically-directed fractionation techniques are a fundamental tool for identifying the cause of toxicity in environmental samples, but few are available for studying mixtures of organic chemicals in aquatic sediments. This paper describes a method for extracting organic chemic...

  9. METHOD FOR TESTING THE AQUATIC TOXICITY OF SEDIMENT EXTRACTS FOR USE IN IDENTIFYING ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biologically-directed fractionation techniques are a fundamental tool for identifying the cause of toxicity in environmental samples, but few are available for studying mixtures of organic chemicals in aquatic sediments. This paper describes a method for extracting organic chemic...

  10. Update On Aquatic Toxicity/Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) Issues, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, Winona L

    2005-07-01

    This paper summarizes recent changes in the field of aquatic toxicity/Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) testing. There are been numerous legal challenges to the validity of WET testing, both at the federal and state levels, but to date, the regulators have prevailed and WET testing is used as a regulatory tool to ensure that the biota of receiving streams are protected. The most recent ruling at the federal level was on December 10, 2004, when a federal appeals court in the District of Columbia upheld the validity of WET testing. At the state level, at the urging of the South Carolina Manufacturers Alliance, the state legislature passed a law (the South Carolina Aquatic Life Protection Act) in 2004 that requires the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the WET test. As a result, SCDHEC removed WET test limits from several NPDES permits. EPA took issue with the impact of the legislation and SCDHEC's actions, and as a result, EPA has taken over several NPDES permits from SCDHEC and threatened to revoke the state's delegated NPDES permit program. A new Act was signed into law in March 2005, which does not exclude the use of chronic toxicity testing for regulatory compliance. As a result, EPA has turned over the issuance of NPDES permits back to SCDHEC. In December 2004, the U.S. EPA issued the Draft National WET Implementation Guidance document for review and comment. The guidance contains recommendations on the determination of ''reasonable potential'' for toxicity. The EPA's ECOTOX database is a valuable resource of toxicity data for many chemicals. For those cases in which there are no toxicity data or very limited data available, the EPA has developed two models, the Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) and the Acute to Chronic Estimation (ACE), for predicting toxicity. Active areas of research include assessing the uptake of heavy metals via multiple routes of exposure, the development of

  11. [Toxicity of nitrate-N to freshwater aquatic life and its water quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling-Song; Wang, Ye-Yao; Meng, Fan-Sheng; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Yu, Hai-Bin

    2013-08-01

    The toxicity sensitivity of different freshwater aquatic organisms was analyzed using the collected toxicity data in this paper. Three methods were used to estimate the criteria of nitrate to protect the freshwater aquatic life. The results showed that the species sensitivity to nitrate followed the order of Arthropoda > Mollusca > Chordata, and Crustacea > Insecta > Gastropoda > Bivalvia > Amphibia > Actinopterygii. Moreover, the output of assessment factor method, species sensitivity distribution method and USEPA's method was significantly different. Finally, criterias of 87.97 mg x L(-1) and 5.17 mg x L(-1) to protect aquatic life from acute and chronic toxicity were proposed using USEPA's method.

  12. DETERMINANTS OF VARIABILITY IN ACUTE TO CHRONIC TOXICITY RATIOS IN AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in acute to chronic ratios (ACRs; LC50/chronic value) has been a continuing interest in aquatic toxicology because of the reliance on ACRs to estimate chronic toxicity for chemicals and species with known acute toxicity but limited or no information on sublethal toxic...

  13. DETERMINANTS OF VARIABILITY IN ACUTE TO CHRONIC TOXICITY RATIOS IN AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in acute to chronic ratios (ACRs; LC50/chronic value) has been a continuing interest in aquatic toxicology because of the reliance on ACRs to estimate chronic toxicity for chemicals and species with known acute toxicity but limited or no information on sublethal toxic...

  14. Improving the quality of aquatic toxicity tests: Lessons learned and proficiency needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic toxicity testing methodologies have been widely used to assess potential adverse effects of chemicals and wastewater discharges on aquatic life in the United States since the 1970’s. Over the years, continued method modifications, increased training, and technical r...

  15. Improving the quality of aquatic toxicity tests: Lessons learned and proficiency needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic toxicity testing methodologies have been widely used to assess potential adverse effects of chemicals and wastewater discharges on aquatic life in the United States since the 1970’s. Over the years, continued method modifications, increased training, and technical r...

  16. Factors affecting metal toxicity to (and accumulation by) aquatic organisms - overview

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wuncheng )

    1987-01-01

    This literature review encompasses aquatic environmental toxicities of metals and metalloids. The emphasis is on the influencing factors on metal toxicity to aquatic organisms. The effects of environmental factors on metal uptake are also discussed. The factors can be divided into biotic and abiotic. The biotic factors include tolerance, size and life stages, species, and nutrition related to the test organisms. The abiotic factors include organic substances, pH, temperature, alkalinity and hardness, inorganic ligands, interactions, sediments, and others. These factors can alter metal toxicity in the aquatic environment substantially, mostly causing attenuating effect. The literature shows divergent results. For example, the interactions between Cd and Zn were reported to be synergistic by some researchers and antagonistic by others. It is recommended that environmental hazard assessment takes into consideration the results of standard toxicity tests and site-specific conditions which can moderate metal toxicity considerably. 238 refs.

  17. Rapid aquatic toxicity assay utilizing labeled thymidine incorporation in sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Jackim, E.; Nacci, D.

    1984-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity was evaluated in the sea urchin embryo (Arbacea punctulata) by the inhibition of tritiated thymidine incorporation after a brief exposure to toxic chemicals. Arbacia is a useful surrogate species for assay: well-studied, easily cultured and fertile virtually year round. The simplicity and speed of this test system lends itself to screening large numbers of compounds, mixtures or water samples.

  18. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode of action using two dimensional theoretical molecular descriptors-abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity but MoA classification in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity mode of action using a recently published dataset contain...

  19. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode of action using two dimensional theoretical molecular descriptors-abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity but MoA classification in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity mode of action using a recently published dataset contain...

  20. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode of action using two dimensional theoretical molecular descriptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity, but development of predictive MoA classification models in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity MoA using a recently pu...

  1. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode of action using two dimensional theoretical molecular descriptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity, but development of predictive MoA classification models in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity MoA using a recently pu...

  2. Aquatic toxicity information retrieval data base (aquire for non-vms) (on magnetic tape). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The AQUIRE-AQUatic toxicity information REtrieval-data base was established in 1981 by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Office of Pesticide and Toxic Substances. AQUIRE continues to be updated and maintained at the US EPA Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. The purpose of AQUIRE is to provide scientists and managers quick access to a comprehensive, systematic, computerized compilation of aquatic toxic effects data for freshwater and marine organisms. The AQUIRE system is one of the foremost resources for the location of aquatic toxicity information and is commonly used to evaluate and prioritize the hazards of industrial chemicals and pesticides in the USA and abroad. Scientific papers published both nationally and internationally on the toxicity of chemicals to aquatic organisms and plants are collected and reviewed for AQUIRE. Independently compiled data files that meet AQUIRE parameter and quality assurance criteria are also included. Relevant toxicity test results and related test information for any individual chemicals analyzed using freshwater and marine organisms in laboratory and field conditions, are included in the database. Since 1994, nine data updates were made to the AQUIRE system. AQUIRE now contains 129,740 individual aquatic toxicity test results for 5,679 chemicals, 2,827 organisms, and over 160 endpoints reviewed from 7,517 publications. Over 16,000 of the AQUIRE records represent aquatic toxicity data reported in the literature for the publication years 1989-1991. AQUIRE offers data contributed through an international data exchange clearinghouse with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Borok Institute in Russia. The current release of AQUIRE delivers data submitted from Germany, The Netherlands, and Russia.

  3. Augmenting aquatic species sensitivity distributions with interspecies toxicity estimation models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) are cumulative distribution functions of species toxicity values. The SSD approach is increasingly being used in ecological risk assessment, but is often limited by available toxicity data necessary for diverse species representation. In ...

  4. Augmenting aquatic species sensitivity distributions with interspecies toxicity estimation models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) are cumulative distribution functions of species toxicity values. The SSD approach is increasingly being used in ecological risk assessment, but is often limited by available toxicity data necessary for diverse species representation. In ...

  5. ASSESSING RISKS FROM PHOTOACTIVATED TOXICITY OF PAHS TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most ubiquitous classes of environmental contaminants. Although most PAHs are toxic only at concentrations large enough to cause narcosis, the toxicity of some can be greatly enhanced through mechanisms that involve molecul...

  6. Potential toxicity of pesticides measured in midwestern streams to aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.; Fairchild, J.

    2002-01-01

    Society is becoming increasingly aware of the value of healthy aquatic ecosystems as well as the effects that man's activities have on those ecosystems. In recent years, many urban and industrial sources of contamination have been reduced or eliminated. The agricultural community also has worked towards reducing off-site movement of agricultural chemicals, but their use in farming is still growing. A small fraction, estimated at <1 to 2% of the pesticides applied to crops are lost from fields and enter nearby streams during rainfall events. In many cases aquatic organisms are exposed to mixtures of chemicals, which may lead to greater non-target risk than that predicted based on traditional risk assessments for single chemicals. We evaluated the potential toxicity of environmental mixtures of 5 classes of pesticides using concentrations from water samples collected from ???50 sites on midwestern streams during late spring or early summer runoff events in 1989 and 1998. Toxicity index values are calculated as the concentration of the compound in the sample divided by the EC50 or LC50 of an aquatic organism. These index values are summed within a pesticide class and for all classes to determine additive pesticide class and total pesticide toxicity indices. Toxicity index values greater than 1.0 indicate probable toxicity of a class of pesticides measured in a water sample to aquatic organisms. Results indicate that some samples had probable toxicity to duckweed and green algae, but few are suspected of having significant toxicity to bluegill sunfish or chorus frogs.

  7. Impact of surface water conditions on preservative leaching and aquatic toxicity from treated wood products.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Bittont, Gabriel

    2007-05-15

    New alternative wood preservatives contain higher levels of copper (Cu) which can promote aquatic toxicity in natural water systems. Earlier work focused on evaluating toxicity using laboratory generated leaching solutions. In this study, the impact on preservative leaching and aquatic toxicity from treated wood products was evaluated using natural surface waters including waters from two rivers, three lakes, two wetlands, and one seawater, in addition to synthetic moderate hard water and deionized water. Blocks of wood treated with Cu based alternatives such as alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) and copper boron azole (CBA), along with chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, were leached under quiescent conditions, and total Cu, labile Cu, and heavy metal toxicity were measured. Results show that ACQ- and CBA-treated wood leach approximately 10 and 20 times more total Cu relative to CCA-treated wood and that the presence of organic and inorganic ligands in natural waters lowered the labile fraction of Cu relative to that from laboratory generated leaching solutions. Aquatic toxicity was found to correlate with the labile Cu fraction, and hence, the aquatic toxicity of the treated wood leachates was lower in natural waters in comparison to laboratory leaching solutions. The results of the present study suggest that studies designed to evaluate the impacts of treated wood should therefore consider the role of complexation in reducing the labile Cu fraction and its potential role in decreasing toxicity.

  8. Influence of Lipophilicity on the Toxicity of Bisphenol A and Phthalates to Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Mathieu-Denoncourt, Justine; Wallace, Sarah J; de Solla, Shane R; Langlois, Valerie S

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are among the most popular plasticizers used today and have been reported ubiquitously in surface water, ground water, and sediment. For aquatic organisms, BPA was the most toxic (96 h LC50s) to aquatic invertebrates (0.96-2.70 mg/L) and less toxic to fish (6.8-17.9 mg/L). The toxicity of BPA to amphibians differed among developmental stages, with embryos having an LC50 of 4.6-6.8 mg/L and juveniles 0.50-1.4 mg/L. The toxicity of phthalates is affected by aromatic ring substitution, alkyl chain length, and metabolism. The toxicity (96 h LC50s) of phthalates was similar to aquatic invertebrates (0.46-377 mg/L) and fish (0.48-121 mg/L). In general, the toxicity of phthalates appears to be highest around a log KOW of 6, which corresponds to the highest potential for bioconcentration and bioaccumulation. In conclusion, the lipophilicity of BPA and phthalates influence their toxicity to aquatic species.

  9. Assessing Toxicity of Obscurant Grade Pan-Based Carbon Fiber Aquatic Species Chronic Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    with minimal restrictions. To this end we are investigating the toxicity of PAN-based carbon fibers to the aquatic species Ceriodaphnia dubia (water...media, and to supernatants produced from fibers soaked in media. Aquatic test species are Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnid...provide dose-response information for mortality, growth, and reproduction . These methods are recommended by USEPA for testing of effluents, and may be

  10. Ecotoxicogenomic Approaches for Understanding Molecular Mechanisms of Environmental Chemical Toxicity Using Aquatic Invertebrate, Daphnia Model Organism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Seo, Young Rok

    2015-01-01

    Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term “ecotoxicogenomics” has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Daphnia is a model species to study aquatic environmental toxicity designated in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s toxicity test guideline and to investigate expression patterns using ecotoxicology-oriented genomics tools. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology by identifying novel biomarkers and relevant modes of toxicity in Daphnia magna. These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s) and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers. Furthermore, key challenges that currently face aquatic ecotoxicology (e.g., predicting toxicant responses among a broad spectrum of phytogenetic groups, predicting impact of temporal exposure on toxicant responses) necessitate the parallel use of other model organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. By investigating gene expression profiling in an environmentally important organism, this provides viable support for the utility of ecotoxicogenomics. PMID:26035755

  11. Ecotoxicogenomic approaches for understanding molecular mechanisms of environmental chemical toxicity using aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia model organism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Seo, Young Rok

    2015-05-29

    Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term "ecotoxicogenomics" has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Daphnia is a model species to study aquatic environmental toxicity designated in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's toxicity test guideline and to investigate expression patterns using ecotoxicology-oriented genomics tools. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology by identifying novel biomarkers and relevant modes of toxicity in Daphnia magna. These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s) and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers. Furthermore, key challenges that currently face aquatic ecotoxicology (e.g., predicting toxicant responses among a broad spectrum of phytogenetic groups, predicting impact of temporal exposure on toxicant responses) necessitate the parallel use of other model organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. By investigating gene expression profiling in an environmentally important organism, this provides viable support for the utility of ecotoxicogenomics.

  12. Aquatic Toxicity of Decontaminating Solutions DS-2/DS-2P

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    toxicity of the DS-2 and DS-2P mixtures on Daphnia magna, (water flea), Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), Eisenia foetida (earthwonm) and...checked graphically using the same procedure described in the daphnia methods. 2.3 Earthworm Assay Earthworm toxicity testing utiiizcd Eisenia foetida as...graphically using the same proccdure described in the daphnia methods. 2.3 Er.thworm Assay Earthworm toxicity testing utilized Eisenia foetida as the

  13. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  14. Assessing the toxic threat of selenium to fish and aquatic birds

    SciTech Connect

    Lemly, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    A procedure is given for evaluating the toxic threat of selenium to fish and wildlife. Toxic threat is expressed as hazard, and is based on the potential for food-chain bioaccumulation and reproductive impairment in fish and aquatic birds, which are the most sensitive biological responses for estimating ecosystem-level impacts of selenium contamination. Five degress of hazard are possible depending on the expected environmental concentrations of selenium, exposure of fish and aquatic birds to toxic concentrations, and resultant potential for reproductive impairment. A separate hazard score is given to each of five ecosystem components; water, sediments, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish eggs, and aquatic bird eggs. An example is given to illustrate how the procedure is applied to selenium data from a typical contaminant monitoring program.

  15. Bioremoval of toxic elements with aquatic plants and algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.C.; Ramesh, G.; Weissman, J.C.; Varadarajan, R.; Benemann, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic plants were screened to evaluate their ability to adsorb dissolved metals. The plants screened included those that are naturally immobilized (attached algae and rooted plants) and those that could be easily separated from suspension (filamentous microalgae, macroalgae, and floating plants). Two plants were observed to have high adsorption capabilities for cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) removal: one blue green filamentous alga of the genus Phormidium and one aquatic rooted plant, water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). These plants could also reduce the residual metal concentration to 0.1 mg/L or less. Both plants also exhibited high specific adsorption for other metals (Pb, Ni, and Cu) both individually and in combination. Metal concentrations were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).

  16. Toxicity of anthelmintic drugs (fenbendazole and flubendazole) to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Wagil, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Puckowski, Alan; Wychodnik, Katarzyna; Maszkowska, Joanna; Mulkiewicz, Ewa; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN) belong to benzimidazoles-pharmaceuticals widely used in veterinary and human medicine for the treatment of intestinal parasites as well as for the treatment of systemic worm infections. In recent years, usage of these drugs increased, which resulted in a larger contamination of the environment and possible negative effects on biota. Hence, in our research, we investigated an aquatic ecotoxicity of these pharmaceuticals towards: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustacean (Daphnia magna). Ecotoxicity tests were combined with chemical analysis in order to investigate the actual exposure concentration of the compounds used in the experiment as well as to stability and adsorption studies. As a result, study evaluating sensitivity of different aquatic organisms to these compounds and new ecotoxicological data is presented. The strongest negative impact of FLU and FEN was observed to D. magna.

  17. Toxicity of Hydrolyzed Chemical Agents to Aquatic Organisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    may be the most likely candidate for less restrictive disposal methods. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Daphnia magna HD GD 20 Aquatic...10 2.4 Daphnia Magna Assay ..................................... 11 2.5 Biomass Growth Study . ................................... 11 3...mortality data was evaluated using the probit analysis that was developed by Tidepool Scientific Software (McKinleyville, CA). 8 2.4 Daphnia Magna

  18. Acute toxicity of anionic and non-ionic surfactants to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Lechuga, M; Fernández-Serrano, M; Jurado, E; Núñez-Olea, J; Ríos, F

    2016-03-01

    The environmental risk of surfactants requires toxicity measurements. As different test organisms have different sensitivity to the toxics, it is necessary to establish the most appropriate organism to classify the surfactant as very toxic, toxic, harmful or safe, in order to establish the maximum permissible concentrations in aquatic ecosystems. We have determined the toxicity values of various anionic surfactants ether carboxylic derivatives using four test organisms: the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna, the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum (freshwater algae) and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (seawater algae). In addition, in order to compare and classify the different families of surfactants, we have included a compilation of toxicity data of surfactants collected from literature. The results indicated that V. fischeri was more sensitive to the toxic effects of the surfactants than was D. magna or the microalgae, which was the least sensitive. This result shows that the most suitable toxicity assay for surfactants may be the one using V. fischeri. The toxicity data revealed considerable variation in toxicity responses with the structure of the surfactants regardless of the species tested. The toxicity data have been related to the structure of the surfactants, giving a mathematical relationship that helps to predict the toxic potential of a surfactant from its structure. Model-predicted toxicity agreed well with toxicity values reported in the literature for several surfactants previously studied. Predictive models of toxicity is a handy tool for providing a risk assessment that can be useful to establish the toxicity range for each surfactant and the different test organisms in order to select efficient surfactants with a lower impact on the aquatic environment.

  19. A REVIEW OF SINGLE SPECIES TOXICITY TESTS: ARE THE TESTS RELIABLE PREDICTORS OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM COMMUNITY RESPONSES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides a comprehensive review to evaluate the reliability of indicator species toxicity test results in predicting aquatic ecosystem impacts, also called the ecological relevance of laboratory single species toxicity tests.

  20. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Published toxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils and aquatic plants. The historical phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for ...

  1. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Published toxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils and aquatic plants. The historical phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for ...

  2. Toxicity of pentachlorophenol to native aquatic species in the Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaowei; Zha, Jinmiao; Xu, Yiping; Giesy, John P; Wang, Zijian

    2012-03-01

    While the literature is replete with studies of the toxic potency of pentachlorophenol (PCP), site-specific criteria for native aquatic species that can be used in ecological risk assessments has been lacking and application of toxicity information for non-native species is controversial. In the present study, acute and chronic toxicities of PCP to six aquatic species native to the Yangtze River were determined. The HC₅ and HC₅₀ (hazardous concentration for 5% and 50% of species) were derived from dose-response curves for these native aquatic species and were then compared with those derived for non-native species. The acute toxicity values for the native species ranged from 8.8 × 10⁻² mg l⁻¹ (Plagiognathops microlepis) to 1.1 mg l⁻¹ (Soirodela polyrhiza), while chronic toxicity values based on no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) ranged from 0.01 mg l⁻¹ (Macrobrachium superbum) to 0.25 mg l⁻¹ (Soirodela polyrhiza). Native aquatic benthos was more sensitive to acute PCP exposure than non-native species. There was no significant difference in NOECs derived from native fish species and those based on non-native fish species. The median acute HC₅ and HC₅₀ derived from the toxicity data of native taxa were both less than those derived from non-native taxa. There was no significant difference between chronic HC₅s derived from the two sets of taxa. However, the median chronic HC₅₀ derived from native taxa was less than that derived from non-native taxa. The study upon which we report here provides site-specific toxicity information developed for native species which can be used for the protection of local aquatic life from a common contaminant, PCP.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of Ethiopian local plant Phytolacca dodecandra extract for its toxicity effectiveness against aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity effectiveness of berries crude extract of Endod [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Phytolacca dodecandra] against aquatic macroinvertebrates Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant, berries of Phytolacca dodecandra are being commonly used for washing clothes and to control fresh water snails. Macroinvertebrates are useful biological indicators of change in the aquatic ecosystems. The present study clearly revealed that the LC50 and LC90 values for berries crude extract of Phytolacca dodecandra against Baetidae were 181.94 and 525.78 mg/l and lethal doses (LC50 and LC90) required for Hydropsychidae were 1060.69 and 4120.4 mg/l respectively. The present investigation demonstrated that Baetidae was more susceptible than Hydropsychidae, even at shorter exposure period of 2 h. From our preliminary investigation the toxicity effectiveness of crude extracts of Phytolacca dodecandra has been clearly shown. In addition, it requires further explorations which address both the toxicity activity and the active principles that are responsible for its toxicity effectiveness. Ultimately, the release/introduction of Phytolacca dodecandra plant berries extracts into the river/streams leads to disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, at this moment preserving the aquatic ecosystem is extremely essential and inevitable.

  4. Environmental factors affecting contaminant toxicity in aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Heath, Alan G.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    1995-01-01

    Environmental factors have long been demonstrated to influence the toxicity of pollutants to vertebrates. The vast majority of data has been derived from studies on fish, highly inbred laboratory rodents, and man.1,2 The magnitude and significance of these factors on toxicity has almost exclusively been elucidated in controlled experiments conducted in a laboratory setting. The significance of such effects to free-ranging vertebrate wildlife is frequently overlooked. Drawing upon controlled experiments and observational science, we overview environmental factors that influence pollutant toxicity in fish and wildlife, and attempt to present some perspective on their ecotoxicological significance.

  5. Environmental factors affecting contaminant toxicity in aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Heath, Alan G.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Physical and natural factors have long been known to influence the toxicity of environmental contaminants to vertebrates. The majority of data that address this topic have been derived from studies on fish, highly inbred laboratory rodents, and man.' The degree to which these factors modify toxicity has principally been elucidated by controlled laboratory experiments. Until recently, the significance of such effects to free-ranging vertebrates Figure 23.1 was frequently overlooked in ecological risk assessments.' Drawing upon controlled experiments and observational science, we overview environmental factors that influence pollutant toxicity in fish and wildlife, and present some perspective on their ecotoxicological significance.

  6. Using biodynamic models to reconcile differences between laboratory toxicity tests and field biomonitoring with aquatic insects.

    PubMed

    Buchwalter, D B; Cain, D J; Clements, W H; Luoma, S N

    2007-07-01

    Aquatic insects often dominate lotic ecosystems, yet these organisms are under-represented in trace metal toxicity databases. Furthermore, toxicity data for aquatic insects do not appear to reflect their actual sensitivities to metals in nature, because the concentrations required to elicit toxicity in the laboratory are considerably higher than those found to impact insect communities in the field. New approaches are therefore needed to better understand how and why insects are differentially susceptible to metal exposures. Biodynamic modeling is a powerful tool for understanding interspecific differences in trace metal bioaccumulation. Because bioaccumulation alone does not necessarily correlate with toxicity, we combined biokinetic parameters associated with dissolved cadmium exposures with studies of the subcellular compartmentalization of accumulated Cd. This combination of physiological traits allowed us to make predictions of susceptibility differences to dissolved Cd in three aquatic insect taxa: Ephemerella excrucians, Rhithrogena morrisoni, and Rhyacophila sp. We compared these predictions with long-term field monitoring data and toxicity tests with closely related taxa: Ephemerella infrequens, Rhithrogena hageni, and Rhyacophila brunea. Kinetic parameters allowed us to estimate steady-state concentrations, the time required to reach steady state, and the concentrations of Cd projected to be in potentially toxic compartments for different species. Species-specific physiological traits identified using biodynamic models provided a means for better understanding why toxicity assays with insects have failed to provide meaningful estimates for metal concentrations that would be expected to be protective in nature.

  7. Using biodynamic models to reconcile differences between laboratory toxicity tests and field biomonitoring with aquatic insects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Cain, D.J.; Clements, W.H.; Luoma, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic insects often dominate lotic ecosystems, yet these organisms are under-represented in trace metal toxicity databases. Furthermore, toxicity data for aquatic insects do not appear to reflect their actual sensitivities to metals in nature, because the concentrations required to elicit toxicity in the laboratory are considerably higher than those found to impact insect communities in the field. New approaches are therefore needed to better understand how and why insects are differentially susceptible to metal exposures. Biodynamic modeling is a powerful tool for understanding interspecific differences in trace metal bioaccumulation. Because bioaccumulation alone does not necessarily correlate with toxicity, we combined biokinetic parameters associated with dissolved cadmium exposures with studies of the subcellular compartmentalization of accumulated Cd. This combination of physiological traits allowed us to make predictions of susceptibility differences to dissolved Cd in three aquatic insect taxa: Ephemerella excrucians, Rhithrogena morrisoni, and Rhyacophila sp. We compared these predictions with long-term field monitoring data and toxicity tests with closely related taxa: Ephemerella infrequens, Rhithrogena hageni, and Rhyacophila brunea. Kinetic parameters allowed us to estimate steady-state concentrations, the time required to reach steady state, and the concentrations of Cd projected to be in potentially toxic compartments for different species. Species-specific physiological traits identified using biodynamic models provided a means for better understanding why toxicity assays with insects have failed to provide meaningful estimates for metal concentrations that would be expected to be protective in nature. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  8. Statistical evaluation of chronic toxicity data on aquatic organisms for the hazard identification: the chemicals toxicity distribution approach.

    PubMed

    González-Doncel, Miguel; Ortiz, José; Izquierdo, Juan J; Martín, Bárbara; Sánchez, Paloma; Tarazona, José V

    2006-05-01

    Presently, in the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals the classification of substances for long-term effects to aquatic life is based on acute toxicity in combination with degradation and/or bioaccumulation potential. Recently an OECD Working Group was created to develop the classification scheme to accommodate chronic toxicity data related to aquatic organisms for assigning a chronic hazard category. This study focuses on a new approach for setting chronic toxicity cut-off values based on Chemicals Toxicity Distributions (CTDs). A CTD is obtained through statistical fitting of the data used by regulatory bodies for setting hazard-based classifications. The CTDs were made using the lowest aquatic NOEC value of each chemical. A review of different toxicological sources reporting acute aquatic toxicities was carried out. Initially, the data were arranged according to the specific source and distributions for key taxonomic groups (i.e. fishes, crustaceans and algae) were evaluated separately. In most cases, no significant departures from normality were observed. Thereafter, a compiled database containing >900 values was developed and the CTDs were constructed for each taxonomic group. Significant deviation from normality (P < 0.05) was observed in the fishes and crustaceans' CTDs. However, this deviation was apparently produced by the presence of only seven values with NOECs <1 x 10(-5) mg l(-1), while high correlation between the data and the normal scores (r-values>or= 0.989) indicated that the data were samples from normal distributions. From these observations, potential cut-off values would allow quantitative estimations of the percentage of chemicals falling into each specific category. This approach results in a simple classification hazard scheme where most chemicals are covered in one of the categories, allowing a clear distribution of the chemicals among three categories for chronic toxicity.

  9. Pesticide Toxicity Index--a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Lisa H; Norman, Julia E; Moran, Patrick W; Martin, Jeffrey D; Stone, Wesley W

    2014-04-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1-1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values >1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Toxicity of benzotriazole and benzotriazole derivatives to three aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Pillard, D A; Cornell, J S; Dufresne, D L; Hernandez, M T

    2001-02-01

    Benzotriazole and its derivatives comprise an important class of corrosion inhibitors, typically used as trace additives in industrial chemical mixtures such as coolants, deicers, surface coatings, cutting fluids, and hydraulic fluids. Recent studies have shown that benzotriazole derivatives are a major component of aircraft deicing fluids (ADFs) responsible for toxicity to bacteria (Microtox). Our current research compared the toxicity of benzotriazole (BT), two methylbenzotriazole (MeBT) isomers, and butylbenzotriazole (BBT). Acute toxicity assays were used to model the response of three common test organisms: Microtox bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia). The response of all the three organisms varied over two orders of magnitude among all compounds. Vibrio fischeri was more sensitive than either C. dubia or P. promelas to all the test materials, while C. dubia was less sensitive than P. promelas. The response of test organisms to unmethylated benzotriazole and 4-methylbenzotriazole was similar, whereas 5-methylbenzotriazole was more toxic than either of these two compounds. BBT was the most toxic benzotriazole derivative tested, inducing acute toxicity at a concentration of < or = 3.3 mg/l to all organisms.

  11. Aquatic toxicity of petroleum products and dispersant agents ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development has developed baseline data on the ecotoxicity of selected petroleum products and several chemical dispersants as part of its oil spills research program. Two diluted bitumens (dilbits) from the Alberta Tar Sands were tested for acute and chronic toxicity to standard freshwater and marine organisms given their spill potential during shipment within the United States. Separately, two reference crude oils representing a range of characteristics, and their mixtures with four representative dispersants, were tested to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity to marine organisms in support of Subpart J of the U.S. National Contingency Plan. Water accommodated fractions (WAF) of oil were prepared using traditional slow-stir methods and toxicity tests generally followed U.S. EPA standard effluent testing guidelines. WAFs were characterized for petroleum hydrocarbons including alkyl PAH homologs. The results of these studies will assist the U.S. EPA to assess toxicity data for unconventional oils (dilbits), and establish baseline toxicity data for selected crude oils and dispersant in support of planning and response activities. Abstract reporting the results of EPA's oil and dispersant toxicity testing program

  12. Design and Analysis of Chronic Aquatic Tests of Toxicity with Daphnia magna.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    A.. .A...A... * A.... ct. * . .2 .A - - ’-..- .. .I. • o .~ AD __ DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CHRONIC AQUATIC TESTS OF TOXICITY WITH DAPHNIA MAGNA...1981 OF TOXICITY WITH DAPHNIA MACNA S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER p G-7673 7. AUTHOR(e) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Paul I. Feder DAMDl7-80-C...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reveree aide It neceeary and Identify by block number) Daphnia Magna confidence intervals outlier detection 5

  13. MOAtox: A comprehensive mode of action and acute aquatic toxicity database for predictive model development.

    PubMed

    Barron, M G; Lilavois, C R; Martin, T M

    2015-04-01

    The mode of toxic action (MOA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity and as an alternative to chemical class-based predictive toxicity modeling. However, the development of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and other models has been limited by the availability of comprehensive high quality MOA and toxicity databases. The current study developed a dataset of MOA assignments for 1213 chemicals that included a diversity of metals, pesticides, and other organic compounds that encompassed six broad and 31 specific MOAs. MOA assignments were made using a combination of high confidence approaches that included international consensus classifications, QSAR predictions, and weight of evidence professional judgment based on an assessment of structure and literature information. A toxicity database of 674 acute values linked to chemical MOA was developed for fish and invertebrates. Additionally, species-specific measured or high confidence estimated acute values were developed for the four aquatic species with the most reported toxicity values: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), and the cladoceran (Daphnia magna). Measured acute toxicity values met strict standardization and quality assurance requirements. Toxicity values for chemicals with missing species-specific data were estimated using established interspecies correlation models and procedures (Web-ICE; http://epa.gov/ceampubl/fchain/webice/), with the highest confidence values selected. The resulting dataset of MOA assignments and paired toxicity values are provided in spreadsheet format as a comprehensive standardized dataset available for predictive aquatic toxicology model development.

  14. Review of selenium toxicity in the aquatic food chain.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Steven J

    2004-06-29

    In many environmental contaminant situations selenium has become the primary element of concern because of its bioaccumulative nature in food webs. Initial concerns about selenium were related to fish kills at Belews Lake, NC, Martin Lake, TX, and Kesterson Reservoir, CA, and to bird deformities at Kesterson Reservoir. Additional concerns were identified under the National Irrigation Water Quality Program at Salton Sea, CA, Kendrick, WY, Stewart Lake, UT, and Grand Valley and Uncompahgre Valley, CO. Recent studies have raised concerns about selenium impacts on aquatic resources in Southeastern Idaho and British Columbia. The growing discomfort among the scientific community with a waterborne criterion has lead the US Environment Protection Agency to consider a tissue-based criterion for selenium. Some aquatic ecosystems have been slow to recover from selenium contamination episodes. In recent years, non-governmental researchers have been proposing relatively high selenium thresholds in diet and tissue relative to those proposed by governmental researchers. This difference in opinions is due in part to the selection of datasets and caveats in selecting scientific literature. In spite of the growing selenium literature, there are needs for additional research on neglected organisms. This review also discusses the interaction of selenium with other elements, inconsistent effects of selenium on survival and growth of fish, and differences in depuration rates and sensitivity among species.

  15. EVALUATION OF MINIMUM DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY VALUE EXTRAPOLATION WITH AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buckler, Denny R., Foster L. Mayer, Mark R. Ellersieck and Amha Asfaw. 2003. Evaluation of Minimum Data Requirements for Acute Toxicity Value Extrapolation with Aquatic Organisms. EPA/600/R-03/104. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...

  16. Comparison of Global and Mode of Action-Based Models for Aquatic Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to estimate aquatic toxicity for a wide variety of chemicals is a critical need for ecological risk assessment and chemical regulation. The consensus in the literature is that mode of action (MOA) based QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) models yield ...

  17. EVALUATION OF MINIMUM DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY VALUE EXTRAPOLATION WITH AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buckler, Denny R., Foster L. Mayer, Mark R. Ellersieck and Amha Asfaw. 2003. Evaluation of Minimum Data Requirements for Acute Toxicity Value Extrapolation with Aquatic Organisms. EPA/600/R-03/104. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...

  18. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Baun, A; Hartmann, N B; Grieger, K; Kusk, K O

    2008-07-01

    Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates as sensitive and relevant test organisms. Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C(60), carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used Daphnia magna as the test organism. To date, the limited number of studies has indicated acute toxicity in the low mg l(-1) range and higher of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates, although some indications of chronic toxicity and behavioral changes have also been described at concentrations in the high microg l(-1) range. Nanoparticles have also been found to act as contaminant carriers of co-existing contaminants and this interaction has altered the toxicity of specific chemicals towards D. magna. We recommend that invertebrate testing is used to advance the level of knowledge in nanoecotoxicology through standardized short-term (lethality) tests with invertebrates as a basis for investigating behaviour and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. Based on this literature review, we further recommend that research is directed towards invertebrate tests employing long-term low exposure with chronic endpoints along with more research in bioaccumulation of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates.

  19. Comparison of Global and Mode of Action-Based Models for Aquatic Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to estimate aquatic toxicity for a wide variety of chemicals is a critical need for ecological risk assessment and chemical regulation. The consensus in the literature is that mode of action (MOA) based QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) models yield ...

  20. Aquatic phytoremendiation: Algae and aquatic plants for removal of toxic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A study to test several species of plants for heavy metal bioremoval is very briefly described. Adsorption isotherms were determined for cadmium, zinc, lead, nickel, and copper by measuring the amounts adsorbed by the biomass over a range of residual metal concentrations. Numerical results presented include adsorption characteristics of aquatic plants at pH 5 and specific adsorption of cadmium onto various biomass. The two best species were Phormidium, a blue-green alga, and Myriophyllum spicatum, water milfoil. The maximum metal ion absorbed the the minimal residual metal concentrations achieved allow estimation of the amount of biomass required to achieve a desired treatment level.

  1. Effect of lead toxicity on aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis Michx.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Muhittin; Saygideger, Saadet Demirors; Colak, Ugur

    2009-08-01

    Effects of Pb accumulation on the contents of chlorophylls (a and b), carotenoid, ascorbic acid (AsA), non-protein SH groups and protein were investigated in aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis. Pb accumulation in E. canadensis tissues increased with increasing metal concentrations. The increases at 1, 10 and 100 mg/L Pb are about 12.0, 44.6 and 71.1 times greater than control, respectively. Contents of chlorophylls, carotenoid and protein were adversely affected by Pb accumulation. Induction of non-protein SH groups and AsA showed that Pb accumulation caused oxidative stress. It is also possible that increased non-protein SH groups by Pb accumulation may be due to their role in Pb detoxification.

  2. Toxicity of a coal liquefaction product to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.; Parkhurst, B.R.; Gehrs, C.W.; Millemann, R.E.

    1980-07-01

    Using acute bioassay tests a representative coal liquefaction product was compared with a petroleum derived residual fuel oil and a diesel fuel. The acute toxicity of water soluble fractions of the oils to two freshwater algae and one freshwater crustacean was determined.

  3. Meta-analysis of aquatic chronic chemical toxicity data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic toxicity data from the open literature and from tests submitted for pesticide registration were extracted and assembled into a database, AquaChronTox, with a flexible search interface. Data were captured at a treatment and, when available, replicate level to support conc...

  4. THE ROLE OF INORGANIC ION IMBALANCE IN AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effluent toxicity testing methods have been well defined, but to a large part have not attempted to segregate the effects of active ionic concentrations and ion imbalances upon test and species performances. The role that various total dissolved solids in effluents have on regula...

  5. INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATIONS: ACUTE TOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive toxicological models, including estimates of uncertainty, are necessary to address the trend towards probability-based ecological risk assessments. A method and software were developed to aid in estimating acute toxicity of chemicals to species where data is lacking, p...

  6. THE ROLE OF IONORGANIC ION IMBALANCE IN AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper assessess the issue of ion imbalance, provides summary of applicable data, presents several successful technical tools to address toxicity resulting from salinity and ion imbalances, and discusses regulatory/compliance options to manage discharges with salinity/ion imb...

  7. Draft Test Guideline: Aquatic Invetebrate Acute Toxicity, Test, Freshwater Daphnids

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  8. AQUATIC TOXICITY MODE OF ACTION STUDIES APPLIED TO QSAR DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of QSAR models for predicting fish acute lethality were developed using systematically collected data on more than 600 chemicals. These models were developed based on the assumption that chemicals producing toxicity through a common mechanism will have commonality in the...

  9. AQUATIC TOXICITY MODE OF ACTION STUDIES APPLIED TO QSAR DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of QSAR models for predicting fish acute lethality were developed using systematically collected data on more than 600 chemicals. These models were developed based on the assumption that chemicals producing toxicity through a common mechanism will have commonality in the...

  10. Meta-analysis of aquatic chronic chemical toxicity data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic toxicity data from the open literature and from tests submitted for pesticide registration were extracted and assembled into a database, AquaChronTox, with a flexible search interface. Data were captured at a treatment and, when available, replicate level to support conc...

  11. Effects of water temperature on the toxicity of chemicals to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, F.; Brecken-Folse, J.; Howe, G.; Linton, T.

    1995-12-31

    Water temperatures fluctuate regularly in aquatic environments, producing physiological and ecological changes in resident biota. Temperature has been recognized as a critical factor affecting the toxicity of chemicals by altering the physiological condition of the biota and the interactions between organisms and toxicants. Temperature significantly affects respiration rates, chemical absorption, and chemical detoxification and excretion. Acute toxicity of most chemicals to aquatic organisms is positively correlated with temperature; however, the toxicity of some chemicals is negatively correlated with or not affected by temperature. Regression slopes of toxicity appear consistent among species within a chemical for temperature, indicating chemical rather than biological differences in toxicity. Temperature may not affect acute toxicity per se, but does affect bioavailability and, therefore, exposure. Octanol/water partition coefficients are altered by temperature and could replace some biological testing since the partition coefficient-acute toxicity relationship has been well established. Temperature may only alter the rate of intoxication in chronic exposures no-effect concentrations do not appear to be affected by temperature; only the time required to attain the same no-effect concentration varies.

  12. Evaluation of the Aquatic Toxicity and Fate of Brass Dust Using the Standard Aquatic Microcosm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    effect and an effect level could be expected from Daphnia magna 48-hr and algal 96-hr growth assay results. 1 , 2 The brass concentrations were 0.01...Haley, M.V., Hart, G.S., Muse, W.T., and Landis, W.G., "Acute Toxicity of Brass Particles to Daphnia magna ," _, Applied Tox. Vol. 6, pp 225-228...Inorganic Complexing on the Toxicity of Copper to Daphnia magna ," Water__e. Vol. 11, pp 309-315 (1977). 24

  13. Establishment of quality assurance procedures for aquatic toxicity testing with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.N.; Marse, T.J.; Williams, P.L.

    1998-12-31

    In this study initial data were generated to develop laboratory control charts for aquatic toxicity testing using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Tests were performed using two reference toxicants: CdCl{sub 2} and CuCl{sub 2}. All tests were performed for 24 h without a food source and of 48 h with a food source in a commonly used nematode aquatic medium. Each test was replicated 6 times with each replicate having 6 wells per concentration with 10 {+-} 1 worms per well. Probit analysis was used to estimate LC{sub 50} values for each test. The data were used to construct a mean ({bar x}) laboratory control chart for each reference toxicant. The coefficient of variation (CV) for three of the four reference toxicant tests was less than 20%, which demonstrates an excellent degree of reproducibility. These CV values are well within suggested standards for determination of organism sensitivity and overall test system credibility. A standardized procedure for performing 24 h and 48 h aquatic toxicity studies with C. elegans is proposed.

  14. The Acute, Aquatic Toxicity of Selected Mineral Particles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Graphite; Daphnia magna " 06 1i Nickel...whiskers, nickel-graphite fibers, and synthetic graphite Micro-260 (M-260). Each compound was tested against the cladoceran, Daphnia magna (D. Magna ...graphite fibers, polycrystalline iron whiskers, and graphite Micro-260 (M-260) were tested to determine their toxicities to Daphnia mag . The

  15. Toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticle suspensions to aquatic biota.

    PubMed

    Manusadžianas, Levonas; Caillet, Celine; Fachetti, Louis; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Thomas, Fabien; Vitkus, Rimantas; Férard, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity effects induced by nanosuspensions of CuO (<50 nm; Sigma-Aldrich) on macrophytic algae cells of Nitellopsis obtusa (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50]), microphytic algae Chlorella (30-min median inhibitory concentration [IC50]), shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus (24-h LC50), and rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (24-h LC50) were investigated. No substantial differences between the effects of nonsonicated and sonicated nCuO suspensions were observed. The particle size distribution analysis accomplished by the laser diffraction technique at suspension concentration from 3 to 100 mg/L revealed rapid (within 5 min) reagglomeration of the particles after the sonication. The observed adverse effects on N. obtusa cells may be attributed to nanoparticles per se, but not to ionic Cu, because neither chemical analysis nor biological testing (algae survival in the supernatants of suspensions) confirmed the presence of cupric ions in toxic amounts. Contrary to ionic Cu form, nCuO delayed the initial phase of N. obtusa cell membrane depolarization. Lethality tests with rewash demonstrated that the least used 5-min exposure in 100 mg/L nCuO sonicated suspension induced 70% mortality in charophyte cells after 8 d, whereas the rewash after a short exposure to a noticeably toxic concentration of Cu(2+) prevented cell mortality. The obtained data suggested the possible influence of a thick charophyte cell wall on the dynamics of nanotoxicity effects.

  16. Methods for aquatic toxicity-identification evaluations. Phase 1 toxicity characterization procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, D.I.; Anderson-Carnahan, L.

    1988-09-01

    This manual describes procedures for characterizing the physical/chemical nature of toxicants in acutely toxic effluent samples. To detect the presence and potency of the toxicants as the sample is manipulated, the measurement of toxicity using organisms is helpful. The final step is to separate the toxicants from other sample constituents to simplify the analytical process. Usually the toxicants must be concentrated for analysis. Sample manipulations to alter toxicity include: sparging, pH change, filtration, solid-phase extraction and addition of chelating and reducing agents. The results will often reveal information about the physical/chemical characteristics of the toxicants.

  17. Assessing the aquatic hazard of some branched and linear nonionic surfactants by biodegradation and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, P.B.; Salanitro, J.P.; Evans, S.H.; Kravetz, L. . Westhollow Research Center)

    1993-10-01

    An aquatic hazard assessment was conducted for branched and linear nonionic surfactants using toxicity and biodegradation measurements. Four nonionic alcohol ethoxylate surfactants with different degrees of branching were evaluated for neat surfactant toxicity, degradation in laboratory sewage treatment units, and aquatic toxicity of treated effluents. Acute testing with neat surfactants showed ranges for EC50s of 1.3 to 11.6 mg/L for Daphnia, 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L for Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), and 1.5 to 11.4 mg/L for Microtox[reg sign]. Chronic testing of algae showed NOECs of 1 to 10 mg/L and maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations (MATCs) of 0.8 to 14.2 mg/L. Seven-day chronic estimation tests showed MATCs of 0.6 to 41.4 mg/L for Pimephales promelas and 1 to 14 mg/L for Daphnia. Effluents collected from treatment units receiving a 50-mg/L surfactant feed at 25 C showed no acute toxicity to either Daphnia or fathead minnows, with the exception of a unit containing nonylphenol ethoxylate. Chronic effluent toxicity was greatest in effluent from the nonylphenol ethoxylate unit and least in the effluent from the linear alcohol ethoxylate unit. Chronic toxicity of the highly branched C[sub 13] alcohol ethoxylate effluent was greater than that for the linear alcohol ethoxylate unit effluent.

  18. Some effects of polyphenols on aquatic plants: toxicity of phenols in aquatic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stom, D.I.; Roth R.

    1981-09-01

    Physiological parameters such as cytoplasmic streaming and motility are used to analyze the effects of chemically different phenolic compounds. Test organisms included: Cyclotella cryptica, Dunaliella salina, Chlamydomonas reinhardii strain 137, Lemna minor and Euglena graclis. It was found that phytotoxicity of phenols, meta-isomers, and methylated phenols is lower than that of ortho- and para-diphenols. Comparing ortho- and para-isomers of the same substance, the results were not uniform, as there were organisms for which para-isomers are more toxic, and others, for which ortho-isomers were more toxic. These results suggest that most compounds tested affect unspecific cell proteins, structural proteins in cell organelles as well as cytoplasmic proteins involved in cell motility and cytoplasmic streaming. (JMT)

  19. Toxicity of a coal liquefaction product to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.; Parkhurst, B.R.; Gehrs, C.W.; Millemann, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    As coal liquefaction processes approach commercialization in the United States, there is a growing need for information on their potential environmental impacts. Past oil spill experiences will not be adequate for predicting the effects of coal-derived oils, because the latter are chemically quite different from petroleum products. Using acute bioassay tests, a representative coal liquefaction product was compared with a petroluem-derived residual fuel oil and a diesel fuel, materials whose ecological effects have been documented following actual spills over the past 15 years. The acute toxicity of water soluble fractions (WSFs) of the three oils to two freshwater algae and one freshwater crustacean was determined. The WSFs were tested instead of the whole oils because (a) the water soluble components of an oil are responsible for most of its acute toxicity; and (b) while spilled oil can be contained and often recovered, the water with which it comes in contact will affect a larger area and for a longer time.

  20. Aquatic toxicity of the decontamination agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination solution. Final report, May-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, M.V.; Kurnas, C.W.; Chester, N.A.; Muse, W.T.

    1994-05-01

    A new formulation, Decontaminating Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution, is being considered as a replacement to the DS-2 decontaminating solution. The new formulation is composed of calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone. Since this is a new formulation little environmental data exists. To estimate potential impact to an aquatic environment, Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum (a luminescent marine bacterium) were exposed to the DAM solution and to the individual components (Calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone). The toxicity of the DAM solution to D. magna and P. phosphoreum was 5000 and 0.00053, respectively (highly toxic). The toxicity of calcium hypochlorite' and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone to daphnia was 0.04 mg/L (highly toxic) and 107 mg/L (moderately toxic), respectively.

  1. Development of a biopolymer nanoparticle-based method of oral toxicity testing in aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Gott, Ryan C; Luo, Yangchao; Wang, Qin; Lamp, William O

    2014-06-01

    Aquatic toxicity testing generally focuses on the water absorption/dermal route of exposure to potential toxic chemicals, while much less work has been done on the oral route of exposure. This is due in part to the difficulties of applying traditional oral toxicity testing to aquatic environments, including the tendency for test chemicals to dissolve into water. The use of biopolymer nanoparticles to encapsulate test chemicals onto food to prevent dissolution is one solution presented herein. The biopolymers zein and chitosan were explored for their previously known nanoparticle-forming abilities. Nanoparticles containing the test chemical rhodamine B were formed, applied as films to coat food, and then fed to the test organism, the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. In feeding trials both zein and chitosan nanoparticles showed a significantly lower release rate of rhodamine B into water than food dyed with rhodamine B without biopolymer nanoparticles. Zein nanoparticles also showed better retention ability than chitosan nanoparticles. Both kinds of nanoparticles showed no significant effect on the survival, growth, or feeding behavior of H. azteca. Thus these biopolymers may be an effective system to encapsulate and deliver chemicals to aquatic invertebrates without interfering with common toxicity assessment endpoints like survival and growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contents of cry genes and insecticidal toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains from terrestrial and aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Martínez, C; Caballero, P

    2002-01-01

    Two Bacillus thuringiensis collections from terrestrial and aquatic habitats were compared in order to study the possible interrelationships between habitat and biological characteristics (serovar, cry genes content and toxicity). Bacillus thuringiensis strains were characterized by serology, PCR, and one-dose treatment against the noctuids Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua, and the dipteran Tipula oleracea. A total of 12 and 10 different serovars were identified within terrestrial and aquatic strains, respectively. The number of non-toxic strains was greater in aquatic (41.6%) than in terrestrial habitats (5.3%). The genes cry1C, cry1D and cry1E were significantly more frequent in the terrestrial habitat. The cry1B gene was very frequent within thuringiensis strains. A high diversity was found in terms of serovars present and cry genes content in both collections. The relative frequency of individual cry genes was different in both collections, and a serovar-dependent distribution of the cry1B gene was found. Some strains sharing the same set of cry genes differed in their toxicity, suggesting important differences in gene expression. The inter-relationships between serology, cry gene content and toxicity may allow a better understanding of B. thuringiensis ecology.

  3. Predicting aquatic toxicities of chemical pesticides in multiple test species using nonlinear QSTR modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Basant, Nikita; Gupta, Shikha; Singh, Kunwar P

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we established nonlinear quantitative-structure toxicity relationship (QSTR) models for predicting the toxicities of chemical pesticides in multiple aquatic test species following the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines. The decision tree forest (DTF) and decision tree boost (DTB) based QSTR models were constructed using a pesticides toxicity dataset in Selenastrum capricornutum and a set of six descriptors. Other six toxicity data sets were used for external validation of the constructed QSTRs. Global QSTR models were also constructed using the combined dataset of all the seven species. The diversity in chemical structures and nonlinearity in the data were evaluated. Model validation was performed deriving several statistical coefficients for the test data and the prediction and generalization abilities of the QSTRs were evaluated. Both the QSTR models identified WPSA1 (weighted charged partial positive surface area) as the most influential descriptor. The DTF and DTB QSTRs performed relatively better than the single decision tree (SDT) and support vector machines (SVM) models used as a benchmark here and yielded R(2) of 0.886 and 0.964 between the measured and predicted toxicity values in the complete dataset (S. capricornutum). The QSTR models applied to six other aquatic species toxicity data yielded R(2) of >0.92 (DTF) and >0.97 (DTB), respectively. The prediction accuracies of the global models were comparable with those of the S. capricornutum models. The results suggest for the appropriateness of the developed QSTR models to reliably predict the aquatic toxicity of chemicals and can be used for regulatory purpose.

  4. Monitoring the aquatic toxicity of mosquito vector control spray pesticides to freshwater receiving waters.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bryn M; Anderson, Brian S; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Siegler, Katie; Denton, Debra; TenBrook, Patti; Larsen, Karen; Isorena, Philip; Tjeerdema, Ron S

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides are applied to state and local waterways in California to control insects such as mosquitoes, which are known to serve as a vector for West Nile Virus infection of humans. The California State Water Resources Control Board adopted a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System General Permit to address the discharge to waters of the United States of pesticides resulting from adult and larval mosquito control. Because pesticides used in spray activities have the potential to cause toxicity to nontarget organisms in receiving waters, the current study was designed to determine whether toxicity testing provides additional, useful environmental risk information beyond chemical analysis in monitoring spray pesticide applications. Monitoring included a combination of aquatic toxicity tests and chemical analyses of receiving waters from agricultural, urban, and wetland habitats. The active ingredients monitored included the organophosphate pesticides malathion and naled, the pyrethroid pesticides etofenprox, permethrin, and sumithrin, pyrethrins, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Approximately 15% of the postapplication water samples were significantly toxic. Toxicity of half of these samples was attributed to the naled breakdown product dichlorvos. Toxicity of 2 other water samples likely occurred when PBO synergized the effects of pyrethroid pesticides that were likely present in the receiving system. Four of 43 postapplication sediment samples were significantly more toxic than their corresponding pre-application samples, but none of the observed toxicity was attributed to the application events. These results indicate that many of the spray pesticides used for adult mosquito control do not pose significant acute toxicity risk to invertebrates in receiving systems. In the case of naled in water, analysis of only the active ingredient underestimated potential impacts to the receiving system, because toxicity was attributed to the breakdown product, dichlorvos

  5. Toxic potential of the emerging contaminant nicotine to the aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, Ana Lourdes; Floro, António Miguel; Palma, Patrícia

    2017-07-01

    Nicotine is a "life-style compound" widely consumed by human populations and, consequently, often found in surface waters. This fact presents a concern for possible effects in the aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to assess the potential lethal and sublethal toxicity of nicotine in aquatic organisms from different trophic levels (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Thamnocephalus platyurus, and Daphnia magna). The bioassays were performed by exposing the organisms to concentrations of nicotine in a range of 0.5-1000 μg/L. Results showed that nicotine, at tested concentration, was not acutely toxic to V. fischeri and T. platyurus. On the contrary, this substance exhibited toxicity to P. subcapitata and Daphnia magna. Thus, concentrations of nicotine of 100 and 200 μg/L promoted an inhibition in the growth of P. subcapitata. In addition, a concentration of 100 μg/L nicotine acted on the reproduction of the crustacean D. magna, by decreasing the number of juveniles produced by female. On the other hand, the results showed that concentrations equal to or greater than 10 μg/L induced the production of daphnids male offspring, which may indicate that nicotine is a weak juvenoid compound of the D. magna endocrine system. Furthermore, the result showed that concentrations tested of this chemical have the capacity to revert the effect of fenoxycarb, a strong juvenoid chemical insecticide. The results of the study revealed that nicotine can induce several changes in some of the most important key groups of the aquatic compartment, which can compromise, in a short time, the balance of aquatic ecosystem. Finally, a preliminary environmental risk assessment of this stimulant was performed from the highest measured concentration in surface water and the no observable effect concentration value in the most sensitive species, i.e., D. magna. This process revealed that nicotine can produce an important risk to aquatic organisms.

  6. Acute aquatic toxicity of tire and road wear particles to alga, daphnid, and fish.

    PubMed

    Marwood, Christopher; McAtee, Britt; Kreider, Marisa; Ogle, R Scott; Finley, Brent; Sweet, Len; Panko, Julie

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have indicated that tire tread particles are toxic to aquatic species, but few studies have evaluated the toxicity of such particles using sediment, the likely reservoir of tire wear particles in the environment. In this study, the acute toxicity of tire and road wear particles (TRWP) was assessed in Pseudokirchneriella subcapita, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas using a sediment elutriate (100, 500, 1000 or 10000 mg/l TRWP). Under standard test temperature conditions, no concentration response was observed and EC/LC(50) values were greater than 10,000 mg/l. Additional tests using D. magna were performed both with and without sediment in elutriates collected under heated conditions designed to promote the release of chemicals from the rubber matrix to understand what environmental factors may influence the toxicity of TRWP. Toxicity was only observed for elutriates generated from TRWP leached under high-temperature conditions and the lowest EC/LC(50) value was 5,000 mg/l. In an effort to identify potential toxic chemical constituent(s) in the heated leachates, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies and chemical analysis of the leachate were conducted. The TIE coupled with chemical analysis (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry [LC/MS/MS] and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry [ICP/MS]) of the leachate identified zinc and aniline as candidate toxicants. However, based on the high EC/LC(50) values and the limited conditions under which toxicity was observed, TRWP should be considered a low risk to aquatic ecosystems under acute exposure scenarios.

  7. Influence of poultry litter on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, T.K.; Kaviraj, A.

    1996-12-01

    Increased deposition of cadmium in impounded water through atmospheric fallout and runoff water is a growing concern for aquaculture. In India, pisciculture practices are threatened by frequent low to moderate deposition of Cd in ponds. Although several studies have been conducted on Cd toxicity to freshwater organisms, little is known about the interaction of Cd with other chemicals present in the receiving water system. There is evidence that Cd, in the presence of other chemicals, may produce synergistic, additive or antagonistic effect on aquatic organisms. Aquatic ecosystems, heavily enriched by nitrogen and phosphorus, have reduced the stress imposed by Cd. In contrast, chemicals such as KMnO{sub 4} and CoCl{sub 2} used in aquaculture increase Cd toxicity to fish and plankton. Poultry litter is frequently used in pisciculture ponds to enrich nutrients. However, interaction of poultry litter with Cd is not known. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Aquatic toxicity of airfield-pavement deicer materials and implications for airport runoff.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Steven R; Geis, Steven W; Bowman, George; Failey, Greg G; Rutter, Troy D

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of airfield-pavement deicer materials (PDM) in a study of airport runoff often exceeded levels of concern regarding aquatic toxicity. Toxicity tests on Vibrio fischeri, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (commonly known as Selenastrum capricornutum) were performed with potassium acetate (K-Ac) PDM, sodium formate (Na-For) PDM, and with freezing-point depressants (K-Ac and Na-For). Results indicate that toxicity in PDM is driven by the freezing-point depressants in all tests except the Vibrio fisheri test for Na-For PDM which is influenced by an additive. Acute toxicity end points for different organisms ranged from 298 to 6560 mg/L (as acetate) for K-Ac PDM and from 1780 to 4130 mg/L (as formate) for Na-For PDM. Chronic toxicity end points ranged from 19.9 to 336 mg/L (as acetate) for K-Ac PDM and from 584 to 1670 mg/L (as formate) for Na-For PDM. Sample results from outfalls at General Mitchell International Airport in Milwaukee, WI (GMIA) indicated that 40% of samples had concentrations greater thanthe aquatic-life benchmarkfor K-Ac PDM. K-Ac has replaced urea during the 1990s as the most widely used PDM at GMIA and in the United States. Results of ammonia samples from airport outfalls during periods when urea-based PDM was used at GMIA indicated that 41% of samples had concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 1-h water-quality criterion. The USEPA 1-h water-quality criterion for chloride was exceeded in 68% of samples collected in the receiving stream, a result of road-salt runoff from urban influence near the airport. Results demonstrate that PDM must be considered to comprehensively evaluate the impact of chemical deicers on aquatic toxicity in water containing airport runoff.

  9. Aquatic toxicity of airfield-pavement deicer materials and implications for airport runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, S.R.; Geis, S.W.; Bowman, G.; Failey, G.G.; Rutter, T.D.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of airfield-pavement deicer materials (PDM) in a study of airport runoff often exceeded levels of concern regarding aquatic toxicity. Toxicity tests on Vibrio fischeri, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (commonly known as Selenastrum capricornutum) were performed with potassium acetate (K-Ac) PDM, sodium formate (Na-For) PDM, and with freezing- point depressants (K-Ac and Na-For). Results indicate that toxicity in PDM is driven by the freezing-point depressants in all tests except the Vibrio fisheri test for Na-For PDM which is influenced by an additive. Acute toxicity end points for different organisms ranged from 298 to 6560 mg/L (as acetate) for K-Ac PDM and from 1780 to 4130 mg/L (as formate) for Na- For PDM. Chronic toxicity end points ranged from 19.9 to 336 mg/L (as acetate) for K-Ac PDM and from 584 to 1670 mg/L (as formate) for Na-For PDM. Sample results from outfalls at General Mitchell International Airport in Milwaukee, Wl (GMIA) indicated that 40% of samples had concentrations greater than the aquatic-life benchmark for K-Ac PDM. K-Ac has replaced urea during the 1990s as the most widely used PDM at GMIA and in the United States. Results of ammonia samples from airport outfalls during periods when urea-based PDM was used at GMIA indicated that41% of samples had concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 1 -h water-quality criterion. The USEPA 1-h water-quality criterion for chloride was exceeded in 68% of samples collected in the receiving stream, a result of road-salt runoff from urban influence near the airport. Results demonstrate that PDM must be considered to comprehensively evaluate the impact of chemical deicers on aquatic toxicity in water containing airport runoff. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. Creosote toxicity to photosynthesis and plant growth in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Marwood, Christopher A; Bestari, K T Jim; Gensemer, Robert W; Solomon, Keith R; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2003-05-01

    To assess photosynthesis as a bioindicator of toxicity from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the response of chlorophyll-a fluorescence to creosote exposure was compared with effects on population-level plant growth. Large, outdoor, freshwater microcosms containing Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) received either a single application or multiple applications of liquid creosote at nominal concentrations from 0.109 to 32.7 mg L(-1). For several weeks following treatment, photosynthetic electron transport was measured using pulse amplitude-modulated chlorophyll-a fluorescence. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II electron transport (Fv/Fm) and the quantum yield of photochemistry (deltaF/F'm) were diminished in plants shortly after the addition of creosote. In microcosms that received a single treatment of creosote only, the 50% effective concentrations (EC50s), expressed as the aqueous concentration of 15 of the most abundant PAHs, were 0.28 mg L(-1) for Fv/Fm and 0.30 mg L(-1) for deltaF/F'm. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence was diminished to a greater extent in microcosms that received multiple treatments of creosote, with EC50s of 0.13 mg L(-1) for Fv/Fm and 0.10 mg L(-1) for deltaF/F'm. Plant biomass accumulation was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner in all microcosms treated with creosote, but this inhibition occurred to a greater degree in microcosms treated with multiple creosote applications. The response of chlorophyll-a fluorescence, measured only 8 d after creosote treatment, was similar to plant growth over the entire growing season, indicating that this technique can be used to estimate potential effects of contaminants before detrimental impacts on populations.

  11. Alternative aircraft anti-icing formulations with reduced aquatic toxicity and biochemical oxygen demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Harris; Joback, Kevin; Geis, Steven; Bowman, George; Mericas, Dean; Corsi, Steven R.; Ferguson, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The current research was conducted to identify alternative aircraft and pavement deicer and anti-icer formulations with improved environmental characteristics compared to currently used commercial products (2007). The environmental characteristics of primary concern are the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and aquatic toxicity of the fully formulated products. Except when the distinction among products is necessary for clarity, “deicer” will refer to aircraft-deicing fluids (ADFs), aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAFs), and pavementdeicing materials (PDMs).

  12. The mechanisms of nickel toxicity in aquatic environments: an adverse outcome pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily R

    2016-12-09

    Current ecological risk assessment and water quality regulations for nickel (Ni) use mechanistically based, predictive tools such as biotic ligand models (BLMs). However, despite many detailed studies, the precise mechanism(s) of Ni toxicity to aquatic organisms remains elusive. This uncertainty in the mechanism(s) of action for Ni has led to concern over the use of tools like the BLM in some regulatory settings. To address this knowledge gap, the authors used an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) analysis, the first AOP for a metal, to identify multiple potential mechanisms of Ni toxicity and their interactions with freshwater aquatic organisms. The analysis considered potential mechanisms of action based on data from a wide range of organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments on the premise that molecular initiating events for an essential metal would potentially be conserved across taxa. Through this analysis the authors identified 5 potential molecular initiating events by which Ni may exert toxicity on aquatic organisms: disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis, disruption of Mg(2+) homeostasis, disruption of Fe(2+/3+) homeostasis, reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage, and an allergic-type response of respiratory epithelia. At the organ level of biological organization, these 5 potential molecular initiating events collapse into 3 potential pathways: reduced Ca(2+) availability to support formation of exoskeleton, shell, and bone for growth; impaired respiration; and cytotoxicity and tumor formation. At the level of the whole organism, the organ-level responses contribute to potential reductions in growth and reproduction and/or alterations in energy metabolism, with several potential feedback loops between each of the pathways. Overall, the present AOP analysis provides a robust framework for future directed studies on the mechanisms of Ni toxicity and for developing AOPs for other metals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-10. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid to plants and aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2009-02-01

    Acute toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were tested on four freshwater species and three plant species. PFOS was more toxic than PFOA for all species tested in this study. Similar time-response patterns of PFOS and PFOA toxicity were observed for each tested species. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOS for all test species ranged from 27 to 233 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 10 to 178 mg/L. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOA for all test species ranged from 181 to 732 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 337 to 672 mg/L. The most sensitive freshwater species to PFOS was green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulate) with a 96-h LC(50) of 10 mg/L. Of the aquatic organisms tested, the aquatic snail (Physa acuta) always has the highest resistance to PFOS or PFOA toxicity over each exposure period. Both PFOS and PFOA had no obvious adverse effect on seed germination for all three plant species. Five-day EC(50) of root elongation was more sensitive to LC(50) of seed germination in this study. Based on EC(10), EC(50), and NOECs, the 5-day root elongation sensitivity of test plants to both PFOS and PFOA was in the order of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) > pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) > cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Based on the results of this study and other published literature, it is suggested that current PFOS and PFOA levels in freshwater may have no acute harmful ecological impact on the aquatic environment. However, more research on the long-term ecological effects of PFOS and PFOA on aquatic fauna are needed to provide important information to adequately assess ecological risk of PFOS and PFOA.

  14. Toxic substances in submerged aquatic vegetation beds. Rept. for Dec 87-Jun 88

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, J.C.; Stevenson, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The widespread decline of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) in the Chesapeake Bay has been well documented. In order to better understand the relative importance of toxic contaminants on SAV occurrence, the authors collected sediments from SAV beds in Chesapeake Bay for the analysis of herbicides, pesticides and trace metals. The central question of the research was whether the input of toxics to Chesapeake Bay sediments may have been a causative factor in SAV loss. A comparison of contaminant concentrations in vegetated and unvegetated sites was the basis for the study.

  15. Comparative toxicity of SRC-I wastewater to aquatic organisms. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    SRI International performed a series of acute and chronic toxicity studies on SRC-I wastewaters using fish, zooplankton, and algae as test organisms. The tests were designed to determine the toxicity of SRC-I wastewaters to quatic organisms and based on differences in toxicity of the various water samples, to evaluate the efficacy of various wastewater treatment methods. Survival data from acute and chronic daphnid studies indicate that phenol recovery markedly reduced wastewater toxicity. In treatment processes that did not include phenol recovery, powdered activated carbon reduced toxicity more effectively than granulated activated carbon. All treated water supported algal growth in excess of that in controls, particularly those waters subjected to phenol recovery. The toxicity of each SRC-I wastewater sample was compared with that of a corresponding synthetic salt solution to determine whether the salt load was the toxic element. The wastewaters typically exhibited higher toxicity than their associated salt solutions. The effect was greatest in the daphnid chronic studies. The aquatic ecotoxicity tests were performed as part of ICRC's post-Base-line environmental R and D program. One objective of the program was to evaluate the impact of phenol recovery on effluent quality. Another objective was to assess the potential impact of wastewater discharge on aquatic organisms. The results of this study have been integrated with results from the rest of the R and D program, and are documented in ICRC's Integration Report for SRC-I Post-Baseline Environmental R and D. 7 references, 10 figures and 22 tables.

  16. Overview of progress: Predicting effects of aquatic toxicant mixtures and applying the findings

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    Application is limited because the patterns for lethality cannot be expected to fit sublethal mixtures, the important real-world situation. The recent availability of workable, meaningful, and fast sublethal tests allows research on patterns of joint sublethal action. Startling findings have emerged, particularly from the Netherlands. Mixtures of up to 25 toxicants of similar mode of action have retained at least half of the fractional toxicity of components, sometimes all of it, and sometimes at 0.04--0.06 of their individual sublethal thresholds. That implies no safe concentration of a toxicant discharged in a mixture. Surprisingly, a simple additive model appears to fit much of the research, applies down to very low concentrations, and often functions for toxicants with different modes of action. Errors of prediction would be conservative (over-prediction of toxicity). The base of scientific information is adequate although not overwhelming. It is therefore dismaying to see a refusal to deal with mixtures of pollutants, by most North American regulatory bodies and even by technical agencies having the task of setting water quality guidelines. Aquatic toxicologists cannot make great theoretical advances by borrowing from toxic mixture research in other fields; most groups seem at similar scientific stages. However one can learn about regulation. Industrial hygiene, in particular, seems to have been obliged to move boldly into regulating mixtures of airborne toxicants in the workplace. This group and some others, have opted for predictions based on an additive model, at least for those toxicants with similar action.

  17. Acute aquatic toxicity of nine alcohol ethoxylate surfactants to fathead minnow and Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.C.L.; Dorn, P.B.; Chai, E.Y.

    1995-12-31

    The aquatic toxicity of nine commercial-grade alcohol ethoxylate surfactants was studied in acute exposures to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. All studies were conducted in accordance with USEPA TSCA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. Mean measured surfactant concentrations in exposure solutions showed good agreement with nominal concentrations for both fathead minnow and daphnid tests. Surfactant recoveries ranged from 59 to 97% and 67 to 106% in the fathead minnow and daphnid solutions, respectively. The response of both species to the surfactants was generally similar with the daphnids being slightly more sensitive to a few surfactants. Surfactant toxicity tended to increase with increasing alkyl chain lengths. The effect of low average EO groups on increased surfactant toxicity was more evident in the daphnid exposures. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed form the data which relates surfactant structure to toxicity. The models predict increasing toxicity with decreasing EO number and increasing alkyl chain length. The models also indicate that alkyl chain length has a greater effect on toxicity than EO groups. Further, the models indicate that both species did not differ markedly in their sensitivity to alkyl chain length effects, while the number of EO groups had a stronger effect on daphnids than fathead minnow. Good agreement was found between QSAR model-predicted toxicity and reported toxicity values from the literature for several surfactants previously studied.

  18. Should home ipecac-induced emesis be routinely recommended in the management of toxic berry ingestions?

    PubMed

    Wax, P M; Cobaugh, D J; Lawrence, R A

    1999-12-01

    Poison center (PC) management of toxic berry ingestions may include recommendations to administer syrup of ipecac (SI) regardless of the number of berries ingested. We investigated whether the routine use of SI in the home management of asymptomatic single or few (< 6) berry ingestions may be unnecessary. A prospective, randomized clinical trial compared SI + home observation (HO) to HO alone for management of pediatric toxic berry ingestions. Subjects were children 9 mo to 5 y who ingested a small number (< 6) of Taxus sp (yew), Solanum americanus (nightshade), Ilex sp (holly) or unknown potentially toxic berries. Exclusions were symptomatic subjects, ingestion of more than 1 type of berry or other plant part, or contraindication to SI. Outcome variables consisting of symptom assessment and disposition were assessed 24 h following the ingestion. Over a 27-mo period 103 subjects were entered into the study; 45 received SI/HO and 51 received only HO. While 100% of the SI/HO group experienced vomiting, none of the HO group vomited. Diarrhea and sedation were more common in the SI/HO group. Use of SI in the home management of young children who ingest fewer than 6 toxic berries (yew, nightshade, holly or unknown) and who are asymptomatic when the PC is contacted may be responsible for the majority of symptoms. Ingestion of small amounts of berries may require no intervention beyond observation. Methodological limitations of this study included the lack of confirmed identification of the berries and the inability to confirm ingestion and absorption.

  19. Evaluation of in silico development of aquatic toxicity species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mace G; Jackson, Crystal R; Awkerman, Jill A

    2012-07-15

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard test species. This study assessed whether species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) could be generated with reasonable accuracy using only in silico modeling of toxicity to aquatic organisms. Ten chemicals were selected for evaluation that spanned several modes of actions and chemical classes. Median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were estimated using three internet-based quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) tools that employ different computational approaches: ECOSAR (Ecological Structure Activity Relationships), ASTER (Assessment Tools for the Evaluation of Risk), and TEST (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool). Each QSAR estimate was then used as input into the SSD module of the internet-based toxicity estimation program Web-ICE to generate an in silico estimated fifth percentile hazard concentration (HC5) for each of the ten chemicals. The accuracy of the estimated HC5s was determined by comparison to measured HC5s developed from an independent dataset of experimental acute toxicity values for a diversity of aquatic species. Estimated HC5s showed generally poor agreement with measured HC5s determined for all available aquatic species, but showed better agreement when species composition of the chemical specific SSDs were identical. These results indicated that LC50 variability and species composition were large sources of error in estimated HC5s. Additional research is needed to reduce uncertainty in HC5s using only in silico approaches and to develop computational approaches for predicting species sensitivity.

  20. Toxicity of five antibiotics and their mixtures towards photosynthetic aquatic organisms: implications for environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    González-Pleiter, Miguel; Gonzalo, Soledad; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Leganés, Francisco; Rosal, Roberto; Boltes, Karina; Marco, Eduardo; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

    2013-04-15

    The individual and combined toxicities of amoxicillin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin and tetracycline have been examined in two organisms representative of the aquatic environment, the cyanobacterium Anabaena CPB4337 as a target organism and the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata as a non-target organism. The cyanobacterium was more sensitive than the green alga to the toxic effect of antibiotics. Erythromycin was highly toxic for both organisms; tetracycline was more toxic to the green algae whereas the quinolones levofloxacin and norfloxacin were more toxic to the cyanobacterium than to the green alga. Amoxicillin also displayed toxicity to the cyanobacterium but showed no toxicity to the green alga. The toxicological interactions of antibiotics in the whole range of effect levels either in binary or multicomponent mixtures were analyzed using the Combination Index (CI) method. In most cases, synergism clearly predominated both for the green alga and the cyanobacterium. The CI method was compared with the classical models of additivity Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA) finding that CI could accurately predict deviations from additivity. Risk assessment was performed by calculating the ratio between Measured Environmental Concentration (MEC) and the Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC). A MEC/PNEC ratio higher than 1 was found for the binary erythromycin and tetracycline mixture in wastewater effluents, a combination which showed a strong synergism at low effect levels in both organisms. From the tested antibiotic mixtures, it can be concluded that certain specific combinations may pose a potential ecological risk for aquatic ecosystems with the present environmentally measured concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxicity of the mixture of selected antineoplastic drugs against aquatic primary producers.

    PubMed

    Elersek, Tina; Milavec, Sara; Korošec, Maša; Brezovsek, Polona; Negreira, Noelia; Zonja, Bozo; de Alda, Miren López; Barceló, Damià; Heath, Ester; Ščančar, Janez; Filipič, Metka

    2016-08-01

    The residues of antineoplastic drugs are considered as new and emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. Recent experiments showed relatively high toxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), imatinib mesylate (IM), etoposide (ET) and cisplatin (CP) that are currently among most widely used antineoplastic drugs, against phytoplankton species. In this study, we investigated the toxic potential of the mixture of 5-FU + IM + ET against green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis, and the stability and sorption of these drugs to algal cells. Toxic potential of the mixture was predicted by the concepts of 'concentration addition' and 'independent action' and compared to the experimentally determined toxicity. In both test species, the measured toxicity of the mixture was at effects concentrations EC10-EC50 higher than the predicted, whereas at higher effect concentration (EC90), it was lower. In general, P. subcapitata was more sensitive than S. leopoliensis. The stability studies of the tested drugs during the experiment showed that 5-FU, IM and CP are relatively stable, whereas in the cultures exposed to ET, two transformation products with the same mass as ET but different retention time were detected. The measurements of the cell-linked concentrations of the tested compounds after 72 h exposure indicated that except for CP (1.9 % of the initial concentration), these drugs are not adsorbed or absorbed by algal cells. The results of this study showed that in alga and cyanobacteria exposure to the mixture of 5-FU + ET + IM, in particular at low effect concentration range, caused additive or synergistic effect on growth inhibition, and they suggest that single compound toxicity data are not sufficient for the proper toxicity prediction for aquatic primary producers.

  2. Aquatic toxicity assessment of the additive 6-methylcoumarine using four experimental systems.

    PubMed

    Jos, A; Repetto, G; Ríos, J C; Del Peso, A; Salguero, M; Cameán, A M

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity assessment of chemicals is one of the main issues in the current policies in order to protect the health of the environment and human beings. Food and cosmetic additives have been extensively studied in relation to their toxicity to humans, but data about their ecotoxicological effects are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of the additive 6-methylcoumarine in the aquatic milieu using a test battery comprising experimental model systems from different trophic levels. The inhibition of bioluminiscence was studied in the bacteria Vibrio fischeri (decomposer), the inhibition of growth was evaluated in the alga Chlorella vulgaris (producer) and immobilization was studied in the cladoceran Daphnia magna (first consumer). Finally, several end points were evaluated in the RTG-2 salmonid fish cell line, including neutral red uptake, protein content, methylthiazol tetrazolium salt metabolization, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity and leakage, and morphology. The sensitivity of the test systems employed was as follows: V. fischeri > D. magna > C. vulgaris > RTG-2 cell line. The results show that 6-methylcoumarine is not expected to produce acute toxic effects on the aquatic biota. However, chronic and synergistic effects with other chemicals cannot be excluded and should be further investigated.

  3. Reduction in toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms by vertical tubular biological reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Siyun; Watanabe, Haruna; Wei, Chang; Wang, Dongzhou; Zhou, Jiti; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Masunaga, Shigeki; Zhang, Ying

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a battery of toxicity tests using photo bacterium, algae, crustacean and fish to evaluate acute toxicity profile of coking wastewater, and to evaluate the performance of a novel wastewater treatment process, vertical tubular biological reactor (VTBR), in the removal of toxicity and certain chemical pollutants. A laboratory scale VTBR system was set up to treat industrial coking wastewater, and investigated both chemicals removal efficiency and acute bio-toxicity to aquatic organisms. The results showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol reductions by VTBR were approximately 93% and 100%, respectively. VTBR also reduced the acute toxicity of coking wastewater significantly: Toxicity Unit (TU) decreased from 21.2 to 0.4 for Photobacterium phosphoreum, from 9.5 to 0.6 for Isochrysis galbana, from 31.9 to 1.3 for Daphnia magna, and from 30.0 to nearly 0 for Danio rerio. VTBR is an efficient treatment method for the removal of chemical pollutants and acute bio-toxicity from coking wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of aquatic toxicity benchmarks for oil products using species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mace G; Hemmer, Michael J; Jackson, Crystal R

    2013-10-01

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to spilled oil and chemically dispersed oil continues to be a significant challenge in spill response and impact assessment. We used standardized tests from the literature to develop species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) of acute aquatic toxicity values for several petroleum products and 2 Corexit oil dispersants. Fifth percentile hazard concentrations (HC5s) were computed from the SSDs and used to assess relative oil product toxicity and in evaluating the feasibility of establishing toxicity benchmarks for a community of species. The sensitivity of mysids (Americamysis bahia) and silversides (Menidia beryllina) were evaluated within the SSDs to determine if these common test species were appropriate surrogates for a broader range of species. In general, SSD development was limited by the availability of acute toxicity values that met standardization criteria for a diversity of species. Pooled SSDs were also developed for crude oil and Corexit dispersants because there was only small variability in the HC5s among the individual oil or dispersant products. The sensitivity of mysids and silversides varied across the oil and dispersant products, with the majority of toxicity values greater than the HC5. Application of SSDs appears to be a reasonable approach to developing oil product toxicity benchmarks, but additional toxicity data are needed for a larger range of species conducted under standardized test conditions. © 2013 SETAC.

  5. Toxicity of two types of silver nanoparticles to aquatic crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Niskanen, Jukka; Kajankari, Paula; Kanarbik, Liina; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Tenhu, Heikki; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Kahru, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Although silver nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used in various consumer products and produced in industrial scale, information on harmful effects of nanosilver to environmentally relevant organisms is still scarce. This paper studies the adverse effects of silver NPs to two aquatic crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus. For that, silver NPs were synthesized where Ag is covalently attached to poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). In parallel, the toxicity of collargol (protein-coated nanosilver) and AgNO₃ was analyzed. Both types of silver NPs were highly toxic to both crustaceans: the EC50 values in artificial freshwater were 15-17 ppb for D. magna and 20-27 ppb for T. platyurus. The natural water (five different waters with dissolved organic carbon from 5 to 35 mg C/L were studied) mitigated the toxic effect of studied silver compounds up to 8-fold compared with artificial freshwater. The toxicity of silver NPs in all test media was up to 10-fold lower than that of soluble silver salt, AgNO₃. The pattern of the toxic response of both crustacean species to the silver compounds was almost similar in artificial freshwater and in natural waters. The chronic 21-day toxicity of silver NPs to D. magna in natural water was at the part-per-billion level, and adult mortality was more sensitive toxicity test endpoint than the reproduction (the number of offspring per adult).

  6. Metal toxicity, uptake and bioaccumulation in aquatic invertebrates--modelling zinc in crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, P S; Luoma, S N

    2011-10-01

    We use published data on the different patterns of the bioaccumulation of zinc by three crustaceans, the caridean decapod Palaemon elegans, the amphipod Orchestia gammarellus and the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite, to construct comparative biodynamic models of the bioaccumulation of zinc into metabolically available and detoxified components of accumulated zinc in each crustacean under both field and laboratory toxicity test conditions. We then link these bioaccumulation models to the onset of toxic effects on exposure of the crustaceans to high dissolved zinc bioavailabilities, using the tenets that toxicity effects are related to the total uptake rate of the toxic metal, and that toxicity is not usually dependent on the total accumulated metal concentration but always on the concentration of accumulated metal that is metabolically available. We dismiss the general concept that there is a critical accumulated body concentration of a metal in an invertebrate at which toxicity ensues, except under specific circumstances involving a rare lack of storage detoxification of accumulated metal. We thus propose a theoretical framework that can be extended to other metals and other aquatic invertebrates (indeed other animals) to explain the variation in the relationship between bioaccumulated body concentrations and toxicity, and subsequently to predict this relationship in many other species for which we have bioaccumulation modelling data.

  7. Aquatic toxicity of nitrogen mustard to Ceriodaphina dubia, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Tser-Sheng; Peng, Chiung-Yu

    2005-06-01

    Investigation of toxicity of mustard compounds to aquatic organisms has been limited although their effects on terrestrial mammal species have been well studied. In this study, the 48-h LC50 values of nitrogen mustard (HN2) are reported for two aquatic invertebrate species (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and for one fish species (Pimephales promelas). Mean LC50 values to C. dubia, D. magna, and P. promela were 1.12, 2.52, and 98.86 mg/L, respectively. C. dubia was the species most sensitive to HN2. Seven-day lethal and sublethal tests with P. promelas and C. dubia were also conducted. In chronic tests, fathead minnow growth was significantly reduced by 2.50 mg/L HN2, while C. dubia reproduction was significantly affected by 7.81 mug/L HN2. These adverse effects on aquatic organisms caused by lower-level concentrations of HN2 indicate that a possible aquatic ecosystem disaster could occur either after a chemical spill or during chemical warfare.

  8. Toxicity of Jet A (aviation fuel) selected aquatic organisms. Technical report, August 1987-February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, M.V.; Landis, W.G.

    1989-03-01

    JP8 (jet propulsion) is an aviation fuel being considered for replacement of diesel fuel used in the generation of smoke on the battlefield. JP8 is projected to be more economical and also be used as a fuel for the ground machinery used in the transport and dissemination of JP8. Also, fog oil has naphthene constituents above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. JP8 trailing and testing could lead to contaminating surrounding aquatic ecosystems through runoff or wind transport. Therefore, the toxicity of JP8 to aquatic organisms must be known. Jet A (aviation fuel) was substituted for JP8 due to availability and similar distillation procedure. The aquatic toxicity of the soluble fraction of Jet A (aviation fuel) was examined. Acute 48-hr bioassays were performed using the water flea, Daphnia magna, and 96-hr growth inhibition bioassays were performed using a green unicellular alga, Selenastrum capricornutum. All tests were conducted according to guidelines set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The 48-hr EC50 for D. magna was 3.1 mg/L. The 96-hr IC50 for S. capricornutum was 4.2 mg/L.

  9. Environmental behavior of the chiral insecticide fipronil: Enantioselective toxicity, distribution and transformation in aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Qu, Han; Ma, Rui-Xue; Liu, Dong-Hui; Gao, Jing; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Peng

    2016-11-15

    The enantioselective environmental behaviors of the chiral insecticide fipronil and its metabolites in lab-scale aquatic ecosystems were studied and the toxicity of fipronil enantiomers and the metabolites to non-target organisms Lemna minor (L. minor) and Anodonta woodiana (A. woodiana) was also investigated in this work. Water-sediment, water-L. minor, water-A. woodiana, and water-sediment-L. minor-A. woodiana ecosystems were set up and exposed to fipronil through a 90-day period. The results showed fipronil could be degraded significantly faster (half-life of 4.6 days) in the complex water-sediment-L. minor-A. woodiana ecosystem. A. woodiana played a crucial role in the dissipation of fipronil, and the microorganisms in the sediment also made great contribution to the degradation of fipronil in aquatic ecosystems. All the three metabolites fipronil desulfinyl, fipronil sulfide and fipronil sulfone were detected in the ecosystems and were more persistent than fipronil. Enantioselective degradation of fipronil was observed with S-fipronil being preferentially degraded in sediment and L. minor, while R-fipronil was metabolized preferentially in A. woodiana. EC50 for L. minor was obtained using 7-day exposure, and for A. woodiana was obtained using 72-h exposure. S-fipronil was more toxic to A. woodiana, while R-fipronil showed higher toxicity to L. minor. Moreover, the three metabolites were found more toxic than fipronil indicating significant environment risks due to their persistence. The present study might have important implications for the risk assessment of fipronil and its metabolites in real aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enantioselective toxicities of chiral ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate to aquatic algae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Zou, Yuqin; Zhang, Lijuan; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-09-01

    With the wide application of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) as green solvents, their threats to the aquatic environment cannot be ignored. Thus, risk assessment and the prospective design of inherently safe CILs have become more urgent. However, whether enantioselectivity is a feature of the aquatic toxicity of CILs is poorly understood. Herein, we describe the first investigation into the ecotoxicities of CILs toward green algae Scenedesmus obliquus and Euglena gracilis. A series of methylimidazolium lactic ionic liquids, which cation parts with different alkyl chains and anion part is enantiomers of lactate, are used as representative CILs. The results of S. obliquus showed that the EC50 value of L-(+)-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate (L-(+)-EMIM L) was more than 5000 μM, while the EC50 value of D-(-)-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate (D-(-)-EMIM L) was 2255.21 μM. Such a distinct difference indicates the enantioselective toxicity of CILs to algae. This enantioselectivity initially persisted with increasing carbon chain length, but no longer exhibited when with greater carbon chain lengths, due to changes in the toxicity weightings of the cation parts. Further research showed that the enantioselective effects of CILs resulted from the differences in the production of reactive oxygen species, the damage to cell membrane integrity and cell wall after exposure to CILs. Results from this study showed that monitoring for the racemate CILs will give an inadequate or misleading environmental risk assessment. Thus, we should improve our ability to predict their effects in natural environments. In the meantime, non-selective use of CILs will do harm to aquatic organisms. Therefore, to minimize their potential for environmental impact, the enantioselective toxicities of CILs with short alkyl chains should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    SciTech Connect

    Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S.

    1995-12-31

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide.

  12. Naphthenic acids degradation and toxicity mitigation in tailings wastewater systems and aquatic environments: a review.

    PubMed

    Kannel, Prakash R; Gan, Thian Y

    2012-01-01

    Naphthenic acids, NAs (classical formula C(n)H(2n+z)O(2), where n is the carbon numbers, z represents zero or negative even integers), found in oil sands process waters (OSPWs), are toxic to aquatic environments depending upon several factors such as pH, salinity, molecular size and chemical structure of NAs. Among various available methods, biodegradation seems to be generally the most cost-effective method for decreasing concentrations of NAs (n ≤ 21) and reducing their associated toxicity in OSPW, however the mechanism by which the biodegradation of NAs occurs are poorly understood. Ozonation is superior over biodegradation in decreasing higher molecular weight alkyl branched NAs (preferentially, n ≥ 22, -6 ≥ z ≥ -12) as well as enabling accelerated biodegradation and reducing toxicity. Photolysis (UV at 254 nm) is effective in cleaving higher molecular weight NAs into smaller fragments that will be easier for microorganisms to degrade, whereas photocatalysis can metabolize selective NAs (0 ≥ z ≥ -6) efficiently and minimize their associated toxicity. Phytoremediation is applicable for metabolizing specific NAs (O(2), O(3), O(4), and O(5) species) and minimizing their associated toxicities. Petroleum coke (PC) adsorption is effective in reducing the more structurally complex NAs (preferentially 12 ≥ n ≥ 18 and z = -10, -12) and their toxicity in OSPWs, depending upon the PC content, pH and temperature. Several factors have influence on the degradation of NAs in OSPWs and aquatic environments, which include molecular mass and chemical structure of NAs, sediment structure, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and bacteria types.

  13. A simple scheme to determine potential aquatic metal toxicity from mining wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildeman, T.R.; Smith, K.S.; Ranville, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    A decision tree (mining waste decision tree) that uses simple physical and chemical tests has been developed to determine whether effluent from mine waste material poses a potential toxicity threat to the aquatic environment. For the chemical portion of the tree, leaching tests developed by the United States Geological Survey, the Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology (Denver, CO), and a modified 1311 toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test of the United States Environmental Protection Agency have been extensively used as a surrogate for readily available metals that can be released into the environment from mining wastes. To assist in the assessment, element concentration pattern graphs (ECPG) are produced that compare concentrations of selected groups of elements from the three leachates and any water associated with the mining waste. The MWDT makes a distinction between leachates or waters with pH less than or greater than 5. Generally, when the pH values are below 5, the ECPG of the solutions are quite similar, and potential aquatic toxicity from cationic metals, such as Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Al, is assumed. Below pH 5, these metals are mostly dissolved, generally are not complexed with organic or inorganic ligands, and hence are more bioavailable. Furthermore, there is virtually no carbonate alkalinity at pH less than 5. All of these factors promote metal toxicity to aquatic organisms. On the other hand, when the pH value of the water or the leachates is above 5, the ECPG from the solutions are variable, and inferred aquatic toxicity depends on factors in addition to the metals released from the leaching tests. Hence, leachates and waters with pH above 5 warrant further examination of their chemical composition. Physical ranking criteria provide additional information, particularly in areas where waste piles exhibit similar chemical rankings. Rankings from physical and chemical criteria generally are not correlated. Examples of how this

  14. Development and application of a multimetal multibiotic ligand model for assessing aquatic toxicity of metal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Santore, Robert C; Ryan, Adam C

    2015-04-01

    A multimetal, multiple binding site version of the biotic ligand model (mBLM) has been developed for predicting and explaining the bioavailability and toxicity of mixtures of metals to aquatic organisms. The mBLM was constructed by combining information from single-metal BLMs to preserve compatibility between the single-metal and multiple-metal approaches. The toxicities from individual metals were predicted by assuming additivity of the individual responses. Mixture toxicity was predicted based on both dissolved metal and mBLM-normalized bioavailable metal. Comparison of the 2 prediction methods indicates that metal mixtures frequently appear to have greater toxicity than an additive estimation of individual effects on a dissolved metal basis. However, on an mBLM-normalized basis, mixtures of metals appear to be additive or less than additive. This difference results from interactions between metals and ligands in solutions including natural organic matter, processes that are accounted for in the mBLM. As part of the mBLM approach, a technique for considering variability was developed to calculate confidence bounds (called response envelopes) around the central concentration-response relationship. Predictions using the mBLM and response envelope were compared with observed toxicity for a number of invertebrate and fish species. The results show that the mBLM is a useful tool for considering bioavailability when assessing the toxicity of metal mixtures.

  15. Microtox aquatic toxicity of petrodiesel and biodiesel blends: the role of biodiesel's autoxidation products.

    PubMed

    Yassine, Mohamad H; Wu, Shuyun; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2012-12-01

    The acute Microtox toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of six commercial soybean biodiesel/petrodiesel blends was investigated at different oil loads. We analyzed five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10-C24 n-alkanes, four aromatics, methanol, and total organic carbon (TOC) content. At high oil loads, the WAFs' toxicity was significantly higher for blends containing biodiesel. At the lowest load, the WAFs' toxicity decreased almost linearly with decreasing biodiesel in the blend. At intermediate loads, the WAFs of all the blends appeared to have a similar toxicity. Analysis of WAFs confirmed the presence of autoxidation byproducts of FAMEs at high oil loads. Pure unsaturated FAMEs and n-alkanes were nontoxic when present in water at their reported solubility limits. However, 24-h equilibrated WAFs of pure FAMEs were highly toxic for C18:1 and C18:3, but not for C18:2. The authors concluded that at high oil loads, the acute toxicity of the WAFs was caused by FAMEs' autoxidation byproducts, whereas at low oil loads, the toxicity appeared to be caused primarily by the aromatic compounds present in petrodiesel. The addition of a synthetic antioxidant in biodiesel did not appear to affect the concentration of autoxidation byproducts in the WAF but resulted in a slight decrease in its toxicity. The major autoxidation byproducts identified in the WAF of commercial biodiesel were present neither in the WAFs of pure unsaturated FAMEs nor in the WAF of a different soybean biodiesel that was transesterified in our laboratory, which was nontoxic. We concluded that the process of transesterification of biodiesel might be a more critical factor in determining the aquatic toxicity of the fuel than the source of feedstock itself. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  16. Toxicity of the veterinary sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamonomethoxine to five aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-Ji; Hou, Jung-Hsin; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lai, Hong-Thih

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic toxicity of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) to aquatic organisms to evaluate its impact at different trophic levels in the ecosystem. Regarding the growth inhibition of microalgae, SMM exhibited 72-h median effective concentration (EC50) values of 5.9mgL(-1) for freshwater Chlorella vulgaris and 9.7mgL(-1) for marine Isochrysis galbana. In a study on the cladocerans, SMM exhibited acute toxicity and 48-h median lethal concentrations of 48mgL(-1) for Daphnia magna and 283mgL(-1) for D. similis. An examination of chronic toxicity revealed that SMM inhibited the brook production of the cladocerans and exhibited 21-day EC50 values of 14.9mgL(-1) for D. magna and 41.9mgL(-1) for D. similis. This study investigated the potentially adverse effects of SMM on aquatic organisms and revealed that microalgae exhibited higher sensitivity to SMM than cladocerans did. The residue of SMM in water is recommended to be carefully evaluated to reduce ecological impacts after applied to cultured animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

    2012-02-01

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 μg/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 μg/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant.

  18. Toxicity of pentachlorophenol to aquatic organisms under naturally varying and controlled environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hedtke, S.F.; West, C.W.; Allen, K.N.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Mount, D.I.

    1986-06-01

    The toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was determined in the laboratory for 11 aquatic species. Tests were conducted seasonally in ambient Mississippi River water and under controlled conditions in Lake Superior water. Fifty-one acute toxicity tests were conducted, with LC50 values ranging from 85 micrograms/L for the white sucker Catastomus commersoni during the summer to greater than 7770 micrograms/L for the isopod Asellus racovitzai during the winter. The effect of PCP on growth and/or reproduction was determined for seven species. The most sensitive chronically exposed organisms were the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata and the snail Physa gyrina. The greatest variation in toxicity was due to species sensitivity. Within a given, season there was as much as a 40-fold difference in LC50 values between species. For any one species, the maximum variation in LC50 between seasons was approximately 14-fold. There were also substantial differences in acute-chronic relationships, with acute/chronic ratios ranging from greater than 37 for C. reticulata to 1 for Simocephalus vetulus. It is suggested that the composition of the aquatic community should be the most important consideration in estimating the potential environmental effects of PCP.

  19. In Silico Analysis of the Conservation of Human Toxicity and Endocrine Disruption Targets in Aquatic Species

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals, both in the environment and in research settings, commonly interact with aquatic vertebrates. Due to their short life-cycles and the traits that can be generalized to other organisms, fish and amphibians are attractive models for the evaluation of toxicity caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and adverse drug reactions. EDCs, such as pharmaceuticals or plasticizers, alter the normal function of the endocrine system and pose a significant hazard to human health and the environment. The selection of suitable animal models for toxicity testing is often reliant on high sequence identity between the human proteins and their animal orthologs. Herein, we compare in silico the ligand-binding sites of 28 human “side-effect” targets to their corresponding orthologs in Danio rerio, Pimephales promelas, Takifugu rubripes, Xenopus laevis, and Xenopus tropicalis, as well as subpockets involved in protein interactions with specific chemicals. We found that the ligand-binding pockets had much higher conservation than the full proteins, while the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 were notable exceptions. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the conservation of subpockets may vary dramatically. Finally, we identified the aquatic model(s) with the highest binding site similarity, compared to the corresponding human toxicity target. PMID:24392850

  20. Toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Milletia ferruginea (Hochst) seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Birbira [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Milletia ferruginea] seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates, Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant; Milletia ferruginea pulverized seeds have been used for fish poisoning since time immemorial. Macroinvertebrates are important biological indicators of alteration in the natural water sources. Milletia ferruginea seed extract was applied at concentrations of 125, 250, 500 1000 and 2000 ppm on Hydropsychididae whereas Baetidae were exposed at various concentrations viz., 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 & 500 ppm. Milletia ferruginea seeds crude extract of lethal doses (LCso and LC90) required for Baetidae 49.29 mg/l and 172.52 mg/l were respectively and the respective doses (LC50 and LC90) against Hydropsychidae were 679.64 mg/l and 2383.93 mg/l. The present investigation end result demonstrated that Milletia ferruginea seed extracts were extremely toxic to Baetidae than Hydropsychididae. As a result, application of Milletia ferruginea seed extracts into the rivers/streams for fish poisoning possibly leads to contamination and disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, the concerned authorities should launch appropriate awareness campaign among the local inhabitants and fisherman about adverse effect of Birbira seed extracts. Furthermore, providing alternative ecofriendly techniques for fish harvesting may possibly bring constructive out come in the near future.

  1. In silico analysis of the conservation of human toxicity and endocrine disruption targets in aquatic species.

    PubMed

    McRobb, Fiona M; Sahagún, Virginia; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals, both in the environment and in research settings, commonly interact with aquatic vertebrates. Due to their short life-cycles and the traits that can be generalized to other organisms, fish and amphibians are attractive models for the evaluation of toxicity caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and adverse drug reactions. EDCs, such as pharmaceuticals or plasticizers, alter the normal function of the endocrine system and pose a significant hazard to human health and the environment. The selection of suitable animal models for toxicity testing is often reliant on high sequence identity between the human proteins and their animal orthologs. Herein, we compare in silico the ligand-binding sites of 28 human "side-effect" targets to their corresponding orthologs in Danio rerio, Pimephales promelas, Takifugu rubripes, Xenopus laevis, and Xenopus tropicalis, as well as subpockets involved in protein interactions with specific chemicals. We found that the ligand-binding pockets had much higher conservation than the full proteins, while the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 were notable exceptions. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the conservation of subpockets may vary dramatically. Finally, we identified the aquatic model(s) with the highest binding site similarity, compared to the corresponding human toxicity target.

  2. Relative leaching and aquatic toxicity of pressure-treated wood products using batch leaching tests.

    PubMed

    Stook, Kristin; Tolaymat, Thabet; Ward, Marnie; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Bitton, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Size-reduced samples of southern yellow pine dimensional lumber, each treated with one of five different waterborne chemical preservatives, were leached using 18-h batch leaching tests. The wood preservatives included chromated copper arsenate (CCA), alkaline copper quaternary, copper boron azole, copper citrate, and copper dimethyldithiocarbamate. An unpreserved wood sample was tested as well. The batch leaching tests followed methodology prescribed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The wood samples were first size-reduced and then leached using four different leaching solutions (synthetic landfill leachate, synthetic rainwater, deionized water, and synthetic seawater). CCA-treated wood leached greater concentrations of arsenic and copper relative to chromium, with copper leaching more with the TCLP and synthetic seawater. Copper leached at greater concentrations from the arsenic-free preservatives relative to CCA. Arsenic leached from CCA-treated wood at concentrations above the U.S. federal toxicity characteristic limit (5 mg/L). All of the arsenic-free alternatives displayed a greater degree of aquatic toxicity compared to CCA. Invertebrate and algal assays were more sensitive than Microtox. Examination of the relative leaching of the preservative compounds indicated that the arsenic-free preservatives were advantageous over CCA with respect to waste disposal and soil contamination issues but potentially posed a greater risk to aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Toxic effects of nickel oxide bulk and nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Lemna gibba L.

    PubMed

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; Barhoumi, Lotfi; Samadani, Mahshid; Dewez, David

    2015-01-01

    The aquatic plant Lemna gibba L. was used to investigate and compare the toxicity induced by 30 nm nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) and nickel(II) oxide as bulk (NiO-Bulk). Plants were exposed during 24 h to 0-1000 mg/L of NiO-NPs or NiO-Bulk. Analysis of physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles in solution indicated agglomerations of NiO-NPs in culture medium and a wide size distribution was observed. Both NiO-NPs and NiO-Bulk caused a strong increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, especially at high concentration (1000 mg/L). These results showed a strong evidence of a cellular oxidative stress induction caused by the exposure to NiO. Under this condition, NiO-NPs and NiO-Bulk induced a strong inhibitory effect on the PSII quantum yield, indicating an alteration of the photosynthetic electron transport performance. Under the experimental conditions used, it is clear that the observed toxicity impact was mainly due to NiO particles effect. Therefore, results of this study permitted determining the use of ROS production as an early biomarker of NiO exposure on the aquatic plant model L. gibba used in toxicity testing.

  4. Toxic Effects of Nickel Oxide Bulk and Nanoparticles on the Aquatic Plant Lemna gibba L.

    PubMed Central

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; Barhoumi, Lotfi; Samadani, Mahshid

    2015-01-01

    The aquatic plant Lemna gibba L. was used to investigate and compare the toxicity induced by 30 nm nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) and nickel(II) oxide as bulk (NiO-Bulk). Plants were exposed during 24 h to 0–1000 mg/L of NiO-NPs or NiO-Bulk. Analysis of physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles in solution indicated agglomerations of NiO-NPs in culture medium and a wide size distribution was observed. Both NiO-NPs and NiO-Bulk caused a strong increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, especially at high concentration (1000 mg/L). These results showed a strong evidence of a cellular oxidative stress induction caused by the exposure to NiO. Under this condition, NiO-NPs and NiO-Bulk induced a strong inhibitory effect on the PSII quantum yield, indicating an alteration of the photosynthetic electron transport performance. Under the experimental conditions used, it is clear that the observed toxicity impact was mainly due to NiO particles effect. Therefore, results of this study permitted determining the use of ROS production as an early biomarker of NiO exposure on the aquatic plant model L. gibba used in toxicity testing. PMID:26075242

  5. Biotic and abiotic interactions in aquatic microcosms determine fate and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles: part 2-toxicity and Ag speciation.

    PubMed

    Bone, Audrey J; Colman, Benjamin P; Gondikas, Andreas P; Newton, Kim M; Harrold, Katherine H; Cory, Rose M; Unrine, Jason M; Klaine, Stephen J; Matson, Cole W; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2012-07-03

    To study the effects of complex environmental media on silver nanoparticle (AgNP) toxicity, AgNPs were added to microcosms with freshwater sediments and two species of aquatic plants (Potamogeton diversifolius and Egeria densa), followed by toxicity testing with microcosm surface water. Microcosms were designed with four environmental matrices in order to determine the contribution of each environmental compartment to changes in toxicity: water only (W), water + sediment (WS), water + plants (WP), and water + plants + sediment (WPS). Silver treatments included AgNPs with two different coatings, gum arabic (GA-AgNPs) or polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP-AgNPs), as well as AgNO(3). Water samples taken from the microcosms at 24 h postdosing were used in acute toxicity tests with two standard model organisms, early life stage zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Daphnia magna. Speciation of Ag in these samples was analyzed using Ag L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). Silver speciation patterns for the nanoparticle treatments varied significantly by coating type. While PVP-AgNPs were quite stable and resisted transformation across all matrices (>92.4% Ag(0)), GA-AgNP speciation patterns suggest significantly higher transformation rates, especially in treatments with plants (<69.2% and <58.8% Ag(0) in WP and WPS, respectively) and moderately increased transformation with sediments (<85.6% Ag(0)). Additionally, the presence of plants in the microcosms (with and without sediments) reduced both the concentration of Ag in the water column and toxicity for all Ag treatments. Reductions in toxicity may have been related to decreased water column concentrations as well as changes in the surface chemistry of the particles induced by organic substances released from the plants.

  6. Biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants: Effect of the spacer on their ecological properties.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M Teresa; Kaczerewska, Olga; Ribosa, Isabel; Brycki, Bogumił; Materna, Paulina; Drgas, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of five types of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants have been examined. The effect of the spacer structure and the head group polarity on the ecological properties of a series of dimeric dodecyl ammonium surfactants has been investigated. Standard tests for ready biodegradability assessment (OECD 310) were conducted for C12 alkyl chain gemini surfactants containing oxygen, nitrogen or a benzene ring in the spacer linkage and/or a hydroxyethyl group attached to the nitrogen atom of the head groups. According to the results obtained, the gemini surfactants examined cannot be considered as readily biodegradable compounds. The negligible biotransformation of the gemini surfactants under the standard biodegradation test conditions was found to be due to their toxic effects on the microbial population responsible for aerobic biodegradation. Aquatic toxicity of gemini surfactants was evaluated against Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity values to Daphnia magna, IC50 at 48 h exposure, ranged from 0.6 to 1 mg/L. On the basis of these values, the gemini surfactants tested should be classified as toxic or very toxic to the aquatic environment. However, the dimeric quaternary ammonium-based surfactants examined result to be less toxic than their corresponding monomeric analogs. Nevertheless the aquatic toxicity of these gemini surfactants can be reduced by increasing the molecule hydrophilicity by adding a heteroatom to the spacer or a hydroxyethyl group to the polar head groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The biotic ligand model approach for addressing effects of exposure water chemistry on aquatic toxicity of metals: Genesis and challenges

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major uncertainty in many aquatic risk assessments for toxic chemicals is the aggregate effect of the physicochemical characteristics of exposure media on toxicity, and how this affects extrapolation of laboratory test results to natural systems. A notable example of this is h...

  8. Pesticide toxicity in aquatic environments. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning determination, research, causes, effects, and control of pesticide toxicity in aquatic environments. Bioaccumulation of toxic substances and assay methods to determine their effects are considered. Synergistic effects of combinations of chemical agents are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. The biotic ligand model approach for addressing effects of exposure water chemistry on aquatic toxicity of metals: Genesis and challenges

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major uncertainty in many aquatic risk assessments for toxic chemicals is the aggregate effect of the physicochemical characteristics of exposure media on toxicity, and how this affects extrapolation of laboratory test results to natural systems. A notable example of this is h...

  10. Mechanism, kinetics and toxicity assessment of OH-initiated transformation of triclosan in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanpeng; Ji, Yuemeng; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng

    2014-02-01

    The mechanisms and kinetics of OH-initiated transformation of triclosan (TCS) in aquatic environments were modeled using high-accuracy molecular orbital theory. TCS can be initially attacked by OH in two ways, OH-addition and H-abstraction. Twelve OH-addition routes were reported, and the C atom adjacent to the ether bond in the benzene ring (RaddB1) was found as the most easily attacked position by OH, producing TCS-OHB1. Seven H-abstraction routes were reported, and the OH exclusively abstracted the phenolic hydroxyl (RabsOH) H atom, to form TCS(-H). The kinetics results showed that the RaddB1 and RabsOH routes would occur preferentially in aquatic environments, and the half-life depended on the OH concentration ([OH]). At low [OH], the main intermediates, TCS-OHB1 and TCS(-H), can be converted into 2,4-dichlorophenol and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, respectively. However, when enough OH is present, such as in advanced oxidation process (AOP) systems, they would be fully decomposed. The acute and chronic toxicities of TCS and its products were assessed at three trophic levels using the "ecological structure-activity relationships" program. The toxicity of the products decreased through the RaddB1 route, while the toxicity of the products first increased and then decreased through the other degradation routes. These results should help reveal the mechanism of TCS transformation as well as risk assessment in aquatic environments, and will help design further experimental studies and industrial application of AOPs.

  11. Toxicity of methanol to fish, crustacean, oligochaete worm, and aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kaviraj, A; Bhunia, F; Saha, N C

    2004-01-01

    Static renewal bioassays were conducted in the laboratory and in outdoor artificial enclosures to evaluate toxic effects of methanol to one teleost fish and two aquatic invertebrates and to limnological variables of aquatic ecosystem. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed cladoceran crustacea Moina micrura as the most sensitive to methanol (LC50, 4.82 g/L), followed by freshwater teleost Oreochromis mossambicus (LC50, 15.32 g/L) and oligochaete worm Branchiura sowerbyi (LC50, 54.89 g/L). The fish, when exposed to lethal concentrations of methanol, showed difficulties in respiration and swimming. The oligochaete body wrinkled and fragmented under lethal exposure of methanol. Effects of five sublethal concentrations of methanol (0, 23.75, 47.49, 736.10, and 1527.60 mg/L) on the feeding rate of the fish and on its growth and reproduction were evaluated by separate bioassays. Ninety-six-hour bioassays in the laboratory showed significant reduction in the appetite of fish when exposed to 736.10 mg/L or higher concentrations of methanol. Chronic toxicity bioassays (90 days) in outdoor enclosures showed a reduction in growth, maturity index and fecundity of fish at 47.49 mg/L or higher concentrations of methanol. Primary productivity, phytoplankton population, and alkalinity of water were also reduced at these concentrations. Chronic exposure to 1527.60 mg/L methanol resulted in damages of the epithelium of primary and secondary gill lamellae of the fish. The results revealed 23.75 mg/L as the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of methanol to freshwater aquatic ecosystem.

  12. The submitochondrial particle assay as a screening test for acute aquatic toxicity of surfactant molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bookland, E.A.; Bettermann, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    Two complementary protocols of the submitochondrial particle assay (SMP) were evaluated as screening tools for predicting the acute aquatic toxicity of various classes and chain lengths of surfactant molecules. SMP contain the functionally intact mitochondrial enzyme systems responsible for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Both the Electron Transfer Assay (ETR) and the Reverse Electron Transfer Assay (RET) have been shown in prior work to generally be sensitive to agents capable of membrane and protein interactions, both suspected mechanisms of action for surfactants. The toxicity of ten compounds; four anionic surfactants, C{sub 12} alkyl sulfate (C{sub 12}AS), C{sub 12} and C{sub 15} alkyl ethoxy sulfate (C{sub 12}E{sub 4}S, C{sub 15}E{sub 4}S), linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C{sub 12.3}LAS); one nonionic surfactant, alkyl ethoxylate (C{sub 12}E{sub 3}); three cationic surfactants, C{sub 8}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 16} alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (C{sub 8}TMAC, C{sub 12}TMAC, C{sub 16}TMAC); an alcohol (C{sub 12}OH); and an amine, alkyl dimethylamine (C{sub 12}DMA); was determined. In all cases, both the ETR and the RET gave results showing equal or greater sensitivity than previously reported acute fish and invertebrate LC{sub 50}`s. In addition, increasing toxicity with increasing alkyl chain length was observed. As a rapid screening tool, the SMP bioassay avoids exposure concerns such as degradation of test material, a common concern for acute in vivo toxicity testing with rapidly degradable materials. Results indicate that the SMP bioassay can be useful as a predictive screening tool for the aquatic toxicity of surfactants.

  13. Aquatic Toxicity Screening of an ACWA Secondary Waste, GB-Hydrolysate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    survival and reproduction of freshwater organism Ceriodaphnia dubia were used to investigate the aquatic toxicities of ACWA GB-hydrolysate or the...nominal concentrations of 1.2, 2.3, 4.6, 9.3, 18.6, 37.2, and 74.3% vol/vol. 2.3 Ceriodaphnia 7-Day Survival and Reproduction Assay Ceriodaphnia 7-day... ceriodaphnia . The test media were renewed and fresh food added daily, for 7 d. Mortality, reproduction , pH, and dissolved oxygen measurements were

  14. Phototransformation of carboxin in water. Toxicity of the pesticide and its sulfoxide to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    DellaGreca, Marina; Iesce, Maria Rosaria; Cermola, Flavio; Rubino, Maria; Isidori, Marina

    2004-10-06

    Sunlight exposure of aqueous suspensions of carboxin (1) causes its phototransformation to sulfoxide 2 and minor components. Similar effects are observed in the presence of humic acid or nitrate or at different pH values. Photoproducts 2-9 were isolated by chromatographic techniques and/or identified by spectroscopic means. Carboxin 1 and its main photoproduct sulfoxide 2 were tested to evaluate acute toxicity to primary consumers typical of the aquatic environment: the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus and two crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus. Chronic tests comprised a producer, the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and a consumer, the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia.

  15. The toxic effect of oxytetracycline and trimethoprim in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Boris; Arnuš, Lovro; Jeretin, Bogdana; Gutmaher, Aleš; Drobne, Damjana; Durjava, Mojca Kos

    2014-11-01

    The objective of our study was the investigation of the toxic properties of two antimicrobial drugs: oxytetracycline (OTC) and trimethoprim (TMP) in the aquatic environment. The toxic effects were tested according to the OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals, on the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aque, on the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, on the daphnid Daphnia magna as well as on the activated sludge. We discussed the short term and long term results of tests on cyanobacteria and microalgae. Both experiments were concluded in 72h allowing direct comparison of sensitivity of the two tested species. The results of our study showed toxic effect in the same range for both groups. In the test on the toxicity of OTC to P. subcapitata we obtained the 72hErC50 of 1.04mgL(-1) (72hErC10 0.47mgL(-1)) which are lower in comparison to the results on the toxicity to A. flos-aque of ErC50 of 2.7mgL(-1) (72hErC101.5mgL(-1)). TMP is less toxic to both photosynthetic plankton species. Similar to the test results on OTC, the P. subcapitata is more sensitive to TMP (ErC50129mgL(-1); ErC1065mgL(-1)) than A. flos-aque (72hErC50253mgL(-1); 72hErC1026mgL(-1)). OTC is toxic to the activated sludge (3hEC50 17.9mgL(-1)), while the calculated 3hEC50 value for TMP exceeded solubility for the compound. In comparison to other species, both tested antimicrobials showed low toxicity to daphnids.

  16. Toxicity of sediments near an aluminum smelter on the St. Lawrence river to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe-Smith, J.L.; Sirota, G.R.; Holtze, K.E.; Reid, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    Under a US EPA Superfund Administrative Order, over 50,000 cu yds of bottom sediments contaminated with fluoride, cyanide, PCBs, PAHs and Al will be dredged from the St. Lawrence River near the Reynolds Metals plant at Massena, NY in 1994. The purpose of this study was to determine the toxicity of these sediments to aquatic organisms and the potential for remobilizing sediment-bound contaminants into the water column during dredging. Sediment was collected from 7 sites along a gradient from the outfall in October 1993. Sediment from the most contaminated site ``B2`` (1,500 {mu}g/g fluoride, 30 {mu}g/g cyanide, 450 {mu}g/g PCBs, 3,500 {mu}g/g PAHs, 90,000 {mu}g/g Al), caused complete mortality of mayflies, Hexagenia limbata, and avoidance, considerable weight loss and some mortality in fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, after 21 d exposure. Mortality was not observed at other sites, but growth of both organisms decreased with increasing contamination. LOECs of B2 elutriate were 13% for survival and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 6% for survival and 1.5% for growth of larval fatheads. Elutriates of other sediments were nontoxic. TIE testing suggested organic contaminants as the primary toxicants. Over 2,000 cu yds of sediment are highly toxic and 18,000 cu yds somewhat toxic. Toxicity of B2 elutriate shows that contaminants enter the water column when sediments are disturbed and may harm indigenous biota.

  17. Nitrate toxicity to aquatic animals: a review with new data for freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Julio A; Alonso, Alvaro; Salamanca, Annabella

    2005-03-01

    Published data on nitrate (NO3-) toxicity to freshwater and marine animals are reviewed. New data on nitrate toxicity to the freshwater invertebrates Eulimnogammarus toletanus, Echinogammarus echinosetosus and Hydropsyche exocellata are also presented. The main toxic action of nitrate is due to the conversion of oxygen-carrying pigments to forms that are incapable of carrying oxygen. Nitrate toxicity to aquatic animals increases with increasing nitrate concentrations and exposure times. In contrast, nitrate toxicity may decrease with increasing body size, water salinity, and environmental adaptation. Freshwater animals appear to be more sensitive to nitrate than marine animals. A nitrate concentration of 10 mg NO3-N/l (USA federal maximum level for drinking water) can adversely affect, at least during long-term exposures, freshwater invertebrates (E. toletanus, E. echinosetosus, Cheumatopsyche pettiti, Hydropsyche occidentalis), fishes (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Salmo clarki), and amphibians (Pseudacris triseriata, Rana pipiens, Rana temporaria, Bufo bufo). Safe levels below this nitrate concentration are recommended to protect sensitive freshwater animals from nitrate pollution. Furthermore, a maximum level of 2 mg NO3-N/l would be appropriate for protecting the most sensitive freshwater species. In the case of marine animals, a maximum level of 20 mg NO3-N/l may in general be acceptable. However, early developmental stages of some marine invertebrates, that are well adapted to low nitrate concentrations, may be so susceptible to nitrate as sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

  18. Toxicity of tetramethylammonium hydroxide to aquatic organisms and its synergistic action with potassium iodide.

    PubMed

    Mori, Izumi C; Arias-Barreiro, Carlos R; Koutsaftis, Apostolos; Ogo, Atsushi; Kawano, Tomonori; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu; Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan H; Aoyama, Isao

    2015-02-01

    The aquatic ecotoxicity of chemicals involved in the manufacturing process of thin film transistor liquid crystal displays was assessed with a battery of four selected acute toxicity bioassays. We focused on tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, CAS No. 75-59-2), a widely utilized etchant. The toxicity of TMAH was low when tested in the 72 h-algal growth inhibition test (Pseudokirchneriellia subcapitata, EC50=360 mg L(-1)) and the Microtox® test (Vibrio fischeri, IC50=6.4 g L(-1)). In contrast, the 24h-microcrustacean immobilization and the 96 h-fish mortality tests showed relatively higher toxicity (Daphnia magna, EC50=32 mg L(-1) and Oryzias latipes, LC50=154 mg L(-1)). Isobologram and mixture toxicity index analyses revealed apparent synergism of the mixture of TMAH and potassium iodide when examined with the D. magna immobilization test. The synergistic action was unique to iodide over other halide salts i.e. fluoride, chloride and bromide. Quaternary ammonium ions with longer alkyl chains such as tetraethylammonium and tetrabutylammonium were more toxic than TMAH in the D. magna immobilization test.

  19. Toxicity assessment of arsenic and cobalt in the presence of aquatic humic substances of different molecular sizes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Cláudia Hitomi; Monteiro, Adnivia Santos Costa; Gontijo, Erik Sartori Jeunon; Lira, Vivian Silva; Bueno, Carolina de Castro; Kumar, Nirmal Tej; Fracácio, Renata; Rosa, André Henrique

    2017-05-01

    The release of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems can be influenced by humic acids. In this study, toxicity tests using environmentally relevant concentrations of arsenic and cobalt were conducted both in the presence and absence of aquatic humic substances (AHS) and the fractions of different molecular sizes in the range of (<5, 5-10;10-30; 30-100 and >100kDa) using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. AHS together with arsenic reduced the toxicity, and the toxicity decreased in fractions of larger molecular size AHS. Despite the presence of cobalt, the reduction in toxicity was not observed and that depended on the molecular size of AHS. There was a trend of enhanced toxicity for Co in fractions of larger molecular sizes, opposed to that found for arsenic. Thus, the humic substances alter toxicity of trace elements, and this effect varies depending on the size of the humic substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Aquatic toxicity of magnesium sulfate, and the influence of calcium, in very low ionic concentration water.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Rick A; Hogan, Alicia C; McCullough, Clint D; Houston, Melanie A; Humphrey, Chris L; Harford, Andrew J

    2010-02-01

    The toxicity of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)), and the influence of calcium (Ca), were assessed in very soft freshwater (natural Magela Creek water [NMCW]) using six freshwater species (Chlorella sp., Lemna aequinoctialis, Amerianna cumingi, Moinodaphnia macleayi, Hydra viridissima, and Mogurnda mogurnda). The study involved five stages: toxicity of MgSO(4) in NMCW, determination of the toxic ion, influence of Ca on Mg toxicity, toxicity of MgSO(4) at an Mg:Ca mass ratio of 9:1, and derivation of water quality guideline values for Mg. The toxicity of MgSO(4) was higher than previously reported, with chronic median inhibition concentration (IC50)/acute median lethal concentration (LC50) values ranging from 4 to 1,215 mg/L, as Mg. Experiments exposing the 3 most sensitive species (L. aequinoctialis, H. viridissima, and A. cumingi) to Na(2)SO(4) and MgCl(2) confirmed that Mg was the toxic ion. Additionally, Ca was shown to have an ameliorative effect on Mg toxicity. For L. aequinoctialis and H. viridissima, Mg toxicity at the IC50 concentration was eliminated at Mg:Ca (mass) ratios of < or =10:1 and < or =9:1, respectively. For A. cumingi, a 10 to 30% effect persisted at the IC50 concentration at Mg:Ca ratios <9:1. The toxicity of MgSO(4) in NMCW at a constant Mg:Ca ratio of 9:1 was lower than at background Ca, with chronic IC50/acute LC50 values from 96 to 4,054 mg/L, as Mg. Water quality guideline values for Mg (to protect 99% of species) at Mg:Ca mass ratios of >9:1 and < or =9:1 were 0.8 and 2.5 mg/L, respectively. Magnesium can be toxic at concentrations approaching natural background levels, but toxicity is dependent on Ca concentrations, with exposure in very low ionic concentration, Ca-deficient waters posing the greatest risk to aquatic life.

  1. Toxic and feeding deterrent effects of native aquatic macrophytes on exotic grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Joseph E; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Johnson, Julie K; Cope, Rhian B; Lawmaster, Todd; Beasley, Val R

    2002-08-01

    Declines of amphibians have been attributed to many factors including habitat degradation. The introduction of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) as a biological agent for aquatic plant control in ponds and lakes managed narrowly for human recreation has likely contributed to amphibian declines through massive plant removal and associated habitat simplification and thus degradation. This research examined the interactions among grass carp and three Midwestern aquatic plants (Jussiaea repens, Ranunculus longirostris, and R. flabellaris) that may be of value in rehabilitation of habitats needed by amphibians. The feeding preference study found that C. idella avoided eating both J. repens and R. longirostris. Ranunculus species studied to date contain a vesicant toxin called ranunculin that is released upon mastication. The study that compared the effects of R. flabellaris, J. repens and a control food administered by tube feeding to C. idella found significant lesions only in the mucosal epithelium of the individuals exposed to R.flabellaris. The avoidance by C. idella of J. repens and R. longirostris in the feeding preference study, and the significant toxicity of R. flabellaris demonstrated by the dosing study, indicate these plants warrant further examination as to their potential effectiveness in aquatic amphibian habitat rehabilitation.

  2. Using a holistic approach to assess the impact of engineered nanomaterials inducing toxicity in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaojia; Aker, Winfred G; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Hwang, Huey-Min

    2014-03-01

    In this report, we critically reviewed selected intrinsic physicochemical properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and their role in the interaction of the ENMs with the immediate surroundings in representative aquatic environments. The behavior of ENMs with respect to dynamic microenvironments at the nano-bio-eco interface level, and the resulting impact on their toxicity, fate, and exposure potential are elaborated. Based on this literature review, we conclude that a holistic approach is urgently needed to fulfill our knowledge gap regarding the safety of discharged ENMs. This comparative approach affords the capability to recognize and understand the potential hazards of ENMs and their toxicity mechanisms, and ultimately to establish a quantitative and reliable system to predict such outcomes.

  3. Estimating the environmental behavior of inorganic and organometal contaminants: Solubilities, bioaccumulation, and acute aquatic toxicities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, James P.

    1999-01-01

    The estimation of environmental properties of inorganic species has been difficult. In this presentation aqueous solubility, bioconcentration and acute aquatic toxicity are estimated for inorganic compounds using existing Linear Solvation Energy Relationship (LSER) equations. Many estimations fall within an order of magnitude of the measured property. For complex solution chemistry, the accuracy of the estimations improve with the more complete description of the solution species present. The toxicities also depend on an estimation of the bioactive amount and configuration. A number of anion/cation combinations (salts) still resist accurate property estimation, and the reasons currently are not understood. These new variable values will greatly extend the application and utility of LSER for the estimation of environmental properties.

  4. Interpreting stress responses during routine toxicity studies: a review of the biology, impact, and assessment.

    PubMed

    Everds, Nancy E; Snyder, Paul W; Bailey, Keith L; Bolon, Brad; Creasy, Dianne M; Foley, George L; Rosol, Thomas J; Sellers, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Stress often occurs during toxicity studies. The perception of sensory stimuli as stressful primarily results in catecholamine release and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to increase serum glucocorticoid concentrations. Downstream effects of these neuroendocrine signals may include decreased total body weights or body weight gain; food consumption and activity; altered organ weights (e.g., thymus, spleen, adrenal); lymphocyte depletion in thymus and spleen; altered circulating leukocyte counts (e.g., increased neutrophils with decreased lymphocytes and eosinophils); and altered reproductive functions. Typically, only some of these findings occur in a given study. Stress responses should be interpreted as secondary (indirect) rather than primary (direct) test article-related findings. Determining whether effects are the result of stress requires a weight-of-evidence approach. The evaluation and interpretation of routinely collected data (standard in-life, clinical pathology, and anatomic pathology endpoints) are appropriate and generally sufficient to assess whether or not changes are secondary to stress. The impact of possible stress-induced effects on data interpretation can partially be mitigated by toxicity study designs that use appropriate control groups (e.g., cohorts treated with vehicle and subjected to the same procedures as those dosed with test article), housing that minimizes isolation and offers environmental enrichment, and experimental procedures that minimize stress and sampling and analytical bias. This article is a comprehensive overview of the biological aspects of the stress response, beginning with a Summary (Section 1) and an Introduction (Section 2) that describes the historical and conventional methods used to characterize acute and chronic stress responses. These sections are followed by reviews of the primary systems and parameters that regulate and/or are influenced by stress, with an emphasis on parameters

  5. Aquatic toxicity of four veterinary drugs commonly applied in fish farming and animal husbandry.

    PubMed

    Kołodziejska, Marta; Maszkowska, Joanna; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Steudte, Stephanie; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Doramectin (DOR), metronidazole (MET), florfenicol (FLO), and oxytetracycline (OXT) are among the most widely used veterinary drugs in animal husbandry or in aquaculture. Contamination of the environment by these pharmaceuticals has given cause for concern in recent years. Even though their toxicity has been thoroughly analyzed, knowledge of their ecotoxicity is still limited. We investigated their aquatic toxicity using tests with marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustaceans (Daphnia magna). All the ecotoxicological tests were supported by chemical analyses to confirm the exposure concentrations of the pharmaceuticals used in the toxicity experiments, since deviations from the nominal concentration can result in underestimation of biological effects. It was found that OXT and FLO have a stronger adverse effect on duckweed (EC50=3.26 and 2.96mgL(-1) respectively) and green algae (EC50=40.4 and 18.0mgL(-1)) than on bacteria (EC50=108 and 29.4mgL(-1)) and crustaceans (EC50=114 and 337mgL(-1)), whereas MET did not exhibit any adverse effect in the tested concentration range. For DOR a very low EC50 of 6.37×10(-5)mgL(-1) towards D. magna was determined, which is five orders of magnitude lower than values known for the toxic reference compound K2Cr2O7. Our data show the strong influence of certain veterinary drugs on aquatic organisms and contribute to a sound assessment of the environmental hazards posed by commonly used pharmaceuticals.

  6. A new mechanism of macrophyte mitigation: how submerged plants reduce malathion's acute toxicity to aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that aquatic plants can mitigate the toxicity of insecticides to sensitive aquatic animals. The current paradigm is that this ability is driven primarily by insecticide sorption to plant tissues, especially for hydrophobic compounds. However, recent work shows that submerged plants can strongly mitigate the toxicity of the relatively hydrophilic insecticide malathion, despite the fact that this compound exhibits a slow sorption rate to plants. To examine this disparity, we tested the hypothesis that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity is driven primarily by the increased water pH from plant photosynthesis causing the hydrolysis of malathion, rather than by sorption. To do this, we compared zooplankton (Daphnia magna) survival across five environmentally relevant malathion concentrations (0, 1, 4, 6, or 36 μg L(-1)) in test containers where we chemically manipulated water pH in the absence of plants or added the submerged plant (Elodea canadensis) but manipulated plant photosynthetic activity via shading or no shading. We discovered that malathion was equally lethal to Daphnia at all concentrations tested when photosynthetically inactive (i.e. shaded) plants were present (pH at time of dosing=7.8) or when pH was chemically decreased (pH=7.7). In contrast, when photosynthetically active (i.e. unshaded) plants were present (pH=9.8) or when pH was chemically increased (pH=9.5), the effects of 4 and 6 μg L(-1) of malathion on Daphnia were mitigated strongly and to an equal degree. These results demonstrate that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity can be explained entirely by a mechanism of photosynthesizing plants causing an increase in water pH, resulting in rapid malathion hydrolysis. Our findings suggest that current ecotoxicological models and phytoremediation strategies may be overlooking a critical mechanism for mitigating pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  7. Sulfate transport kinetics and toxicity are modulated by sodium in aquatic insects.

    PubMed

    Scheibener, Shane; Conley, Justin M; Buchwalter, David

    2017-09-01

    The salinization of freshwater ecosystems is emerging as a major ecological issue. Several anthropogenic causes of salinization (e.g. surface coal mining, hydro-fracking, road de-icing, irrigation of arid lands, etc.) are associated with biodiversity losses in freshwater ecosystems. Because insects tend to dominate freshwater ecology, it is important that we develop a better understanding of how and why different species respond to salinity matrices dominated by different major ions. This study builds upon previous work demonstrating that major ion toxicity to the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer was apparently due to the ionic composition of water rather than specific conductance. Synthetic waters with low Ca:Mg ratios and high SO4:Na ratios produced toxicity, whereas waters with higher Ca:Mg ratios and lower SO4:Na ratios were not toxic to mayflies at comparable conductivities. Here we used a radiotracer approach to show that Mg did not competitively exclude Ca uptake at environmentally realistic ratios in 4 aquatic insect species. We characterized SO4 uptake kinetics in 5 mayflies and assessed the influence of different ions on SO4 uptake. Dual label experiments show an inverse relationship between SO4 and Na transport rates as SO4 was held constant and Na was increased, suggesting that Na (and not Cl or HCO3) is antagonistic to SO4 transport. Based on this observation, we tested the hypothesis that increasing Na would protect against SO4 induced toxicity in a Na-dependent manner. Increasing Na from 0.7 to 10.9mM improved 96-h survivorship associated with 20.8mM SO4 from 44% to 73% in a concentration dependent manner. However, when Na reached 21.8mM, survivorship decreased to 16%, suggesting that other interactive effects of major ions caused toxicity under those conditions. Thus, the combination of elevated sulfate and low sodium commonly observed in streams affected by mountaintop coal mining has the potential to cause toxicity in sensitive aquatic insects

  8. Review of methods for sublethal aquatic toxicity tests relevant to the Canadian metal-mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, J.B.

    1997-12-31

    The sublethal toxicity program of the Aquatic Effects Technology Evaluation Program intends to identify methods for assessing impacts of liquid effluent from metal mining, methods that are effective for estimating impacts, of least cost, and linked to a field program. The first section of this report evaluates a pre-selected list of sublethal aquatic toxicity tests and recommends which ones should be subjected to a laboratory program for evaluating performance. The tests were evaluated according to four criteria related to the instructional document, test relevance, technical items, and test convenience and economy. Tests evaluated were of the following types: Genotoxicity, biochemical, whole-organism bacterial, whole-organism fish, and tests with green plants and with invertebrates. The second section reviews literature on sublethal tests as a means of determining effects of mining effluents in receiving waters. A number of testing approaches are described and evaluated, a framework and rationale for monitoring discharges of effluents is outlined, and attempts to validate sublethal tests on effluents are reviewed by examining validation studies using natural water bodies, artificial stream channels, mesocosms in ponds, and other experimental procedures of interest.

  9. Toxicity of the herbicides bromacil and simazine to the aquatic macrophyte, Vallisneria americana Michx.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P Chris; Wilson, Sandra B

    2010-01-01

    Vallisneria americana Michx. (tapegrass) is an ecologically important submersed, vascular aquatic plant that provides food and shelter for many aquatic and waterfowl species. This plant often occurs close to land areas where herbicides are used. Nontarget exposure of these plants to herbicides may compromise ecological structure and function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of several endpoint measurements for determining no-observable-adverse effect concentrations (NOAECs), lowest-observable-adverse effect concentrations (LOAECs), and median effective concentration values (EC50s) for tapegrass exposed to the herbicides bromacil (0-0.092 mg/L) and simazine (0-0.592 mg/L) following a 13-d single-pulse exposure and 15-d (bromacil) or 14-d (simazine) postexposure periods. The NOAEC/LOAEC/EC50 for fresh weight gains, new leaf production, and total leaf growth after 13-d exposure to bromacil were 0.020/0.036/0.032, 0.036/0.054/0.036, and 0.036/0.054/0.043 mg/L, respectively. The same respective NOAEC/LOAEC/EC50s for simazine were <0.058/0.058/0.067, 0.229/0.344/0.154, and 0.058/0.116/0.081 mg/L. Reductions in quantity and fresh weight of daughter plants produced and stolon fresh weights occurred at bromacil concentrations > or = 77, 0.020, and 0.036 mg/L, respectively; and simazine concentrations > or = 0.344, >0.592, and > or = 0.116 mg/L, respectively. Neither herbicide affected leaf greenness, total chlorophyll concentrations, or carbohydrate allocation. Although toxicity was shown for many endpoints, most EC50 values were greater than aquatic life benchmark values for algae used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), but less than for aquatic plants, indicating that V. americana would likely be protected by use of the algal benchmark criteria.

  10. Biodegradation and aquatic toxicity of beta-alaninediacetic acid (beta-ADA).

    PubMed

    Nitschke, L; Wilk, A; Cammerer, C; Lind, G; Metzner, G

    1997-02-01

    The aquatic toxicity and biodegradability of the new chelating agent beta-alaninediacetic acid (beta-ADA) were investigated. There is no inhibition effect of beta-ADA in the daphnia magna 24 h test up to a concentration of 1000 mg/L. The algal growth inhibition test resulted in an EC 50 of 19.7 mg/L. An EC 20 of 740 mg/L was determined in the luminescent bacteria test. An EC 50 was not obtained in this test up to a concentration of 2000 mg/L beta-ADA. The degree of biodegradation of beta-ADA was determined in a static and a continuous test. The beta-ADA removal reached 98% at the end of the test after eight weeks in the continuous test which was carried out with laboratory activated sludge units simulating a waste water treatment plant. Further, biodegradation and toxicity tests were coupled, i.e. the effluents of the laboratory activated sludge units were applied in the toxicity tests. A higher toxicity of the effluents of the test units in comparison with the control unit was not observed.

  11. Unexpected toxicity to aquatic organisms of some aqueous bisphenol A samples treated by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Tišler, Tatjana; Erjavec, Boštjan; Kaplan, Renata; Şenilă, Marin; Pintar, Albin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, photocatalytic and catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) processes were used to examine removal efficiency of bisphenol A from aqueous samples over several titanate nanotube-based catalysts. Unexpected toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) samples treated by means of the CWAO process to some tested species was determined. In addition, the CWAO effluent was recycled five- or 10-fold in order to increase the number of interactions between the liquid phase and catalyst. Consequently, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis indicated higher concentrations of some toxic metals like chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silver, and zinc in the recycled samples in comparison to both the single-pass sample and the photocatalytically treated solution. The highest toxicity of five- and 10-fold recycled solutions in the CWAO process was observed in water fleas, which could be correlated to high concentrations of chromium, nickel, and silver detected in tested samples. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that aqueous samples treated by means of advanced oxidation processes should always be analyzed using (i) chemical analyses to assess removal of BPA and total organic carbon from treated aqueous samples, as well as (ii) a battery of aquatic organisms from different taxonomic groups to determine possible toxicity.

  12. Use of the aquatic plant Elodea canadensis to assess toxicity and genotoxicity of Yenisei River sediments.

    PubMed

    Zotina, Tatiana A; Trofimova, Elena A; Medvedeva, Marina Yu; Dementyev, Dmitry V; Bolsunovsky, Alexander Ya

    2015-10-01

    The toxicity, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity of bulk sediments from the Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia) were estimated in laboratory bioassays based on several endpoints in the aquatic plant Elodea canadensis. The bottom sediment samples were collected in the Yenisei River upstream and downstream of the sources of chemical and radioactive contamination. The testing revealed different sensitivities of Elodea endpoints to the quality of the bottom sediment: weight of shoots < length of shoots < mitotic index < length of roots < percentage of abnormal cells. The response of the genotoxicity endpoint (percentage of cells with chromosome abnormalities in roots of Elodea) was the highest in sediments with chemical pollution, whereas the highest inhibition of toxicity endpoints (shoot and root length) occurred in sediments with the highest level of radioactive pollution. The extreme response of Elodea endpoints to the quality of certain sediment samples may be regarded as related to the possible presence of unknown toxicants. The results show that E. canadensis can be used as an indicator species in laboratory contact testing of bottom sediment. The responses of shoot and root length growth endpoints of Elodea can be recommended as basic sensitivity indicators of bottom sediment toxicity. Analysis of cells carrying abnormal chromosomes in the apical root meristem of Elodea can be performed optionally in the same test to assess the genotoxicity of sediments. © 2015 SETAC.

  13. Acute toxicity assessment of Osthol content in bio-pesticides using two aquatic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Eun-Chae; Kim, Hyeon Joe; Kim, Seong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study focused on the assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol, a major component of environment-friendly biological pesticides, by using two aquatic organisms. Methods The assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol was conducted in Daphnia magna and by examining the morphological abnormalities in Danio rerio embryos. Results The median effective concentration value of Osthol in D. magna 48 hours after inoculation was 19.3 μM. The median lethal concentration of D. rerio embryo at 96 hours was 30.6 μM. No observed effect concentration and predicted no effect concentration values of Osthol in D. magna and D. rerio were calculated as 5.4 and 0.19 μM, respectively. There was an increase in the morphological abnormalities in D. rerio embryo due to Osthol over time. Coagulation, delayed hatching, yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, and pigmentation were observed in embryos at 24–48 hours. Symptoms of scoliosis and head edema occurred after 72 hours. In addition, bent tails, ocular defects, and symptoms of collapse were observed in fertilized embryo tissue within 96 hours. Ocular defects and pigmentation were the additional symptoms observed in this study. Conclusions Because Osthol showed considerable toxicity levels continuous toxicity evaluation in agro-ecosystems is necessary when bio-pesticides containing Osthol are used. PMID:25518842

  14. Contrasting sensitivities to fluoride toxicity between juveniles and adults of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Sierra, Aránzazu; Alonso, Alvaro; Camargo, Julio A

    2011-05-01

    In contrast to aquatic vertebrates, there is scarce available information on the contrasting tolerance to fluoride of different life stages and/or sizes of aquatic invertebrates. The purpose of this study was to assess the likely differences in sensitivity between juveniles and adults of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca) to short-term (4 days) toxicity of fluoride ion (F(-)). LC50 and EC50 values for juveniles were significantly lower than those for adults at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Based on our results, the use of fluoride data of bioassays with juveniles should provide more protective water quality criteria than data from adult stage.

  15. Derivation of guideline values for gold (III) ion toxicity limits to protect aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Woo-Mi; Shin, Yu-Jin; Yoon, Sung-Ji; Kim, Shin Woong; Kwak, Jin Il; An, Youn-Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on estimating the toxicity values of various aquatic organisms exposed to gold (III) ion (Au(3+)), and to propose maximum guideline values for Au(3+) toxicity that protect the aquatic ecosystem. A comparative assessment of methods developed in Australia and New Zealand versus the European Community (EC) was conducted. The test species used in this study included two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis), one alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), one euglena (Euglena gracilis), three cladocerans (Daphnia magna, Moina macrocopa, and Simocephalus mixtus), and two fish (Danio rerio and Oryzias latipes). Au(3+) induced growth inhibition, mortality, immobilization, and/or developmental malformations in all test species, with responses being concentration-dependent. According to the moderate reliability method of Australia and New Zealand, 0.006 and 0.075 mg/L of guideline values for Au(3+) were obtained by dividing 0.33 and 4.46 mg/L of HC5 and HC50 species sensitivity distributions (SSD) with an FACR (Final Acute to Chronic Ratio) of 59.09. In contrast, the EC method uses an assessment factor (AF), with the 0.0006 mg/L guideline value for Au(3+) being divided with the 48-h EC50 value for 0.60 mg/L (the lowest toxicity value obtained from short term results) by an AF of 1000. The Au(3+) guideline value derived using an AF was more stringent than the SSD. We recommend that more toxicity data using various bioassays are required to develop more accurate ecological risk assessments. More chronic/long-term exposure studies on sensitive endpoints using additional fish species and invertebrates not included in the current dataset will be needed to use other derivation methods (e.g., US EPA and Canadian Type A) or the "High Reliability Method" from Australia/New Zealand. Such research would facilitate the establishment of guideline values for various pollutants that reflect the universal effects of various pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. To

  16. Uptake and toxic effects of surface modified nanomaterials in freshwater aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seda, Brandon Casey

    Nanomaterials are a class of materials with unique properties due to their size, and the association of these properties with the toxicity of nanomaterials is poorly understood. The present study assessed the toxic effects of stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of three distinctly different classes of nanomaterials in aquatic organisms. The fullerene, C70, was stabilized through non-covalent surface modification with gallic acid. Toxicity of C70-gallic acid was confirmed to exhibit similar toxic effects as C60-fullerene, including changes in antioxidative processes in Daphnia magna. Daphnia magna fecundity was significantly reduced in 21d bioassays at C70-gallic concentrations below quantifiable limits (0.03 mg/L C70). Antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as well as lipid peroxidation suggested that exposed organisms experienced oxidative stress. Carbon dots are a class of nanomaterials proposed for use as nontoxic alternatives to semiconductor quantum dots for photoluminescent applications, because of the difference in toxicity of their core components: carbon as opposed to heavy metals. In vivo analysis of treated organisms by confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed carbon dots were absorbed and systemically distributed regardless of particle size. The present study did not find any evidence of acute toxicity at concentrations up to 10mg/L carbon dots. These concentrations also failed to produce negative effects in Ceriodaphnia dubia bioassays to predict chronic toxicity. Carbon dots also failed to elicit developmental toxic effects in zebrafish. The toxic effects of semiconductor quantum dots have been partially attributed to the release of heavy metals with their degradation, particularly cadmium. Laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry was used to compare the uptake of cadmium, selenium and zinc in Daphnia magna treated to CdSe/ZnS quantum dots or CdCl2. These quantum dots were observed to accumulate

  17. The relationship between metal toxicity and biotic ligand binding affinities in aquatic and soil organisms: a review.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2014-12-01

    The biotic ligand model (BLM) is a theoretical, potentially mechanistic approach to assess metal bioavailability in soil and aquatic systems. In a BLM, toxicity is linked to the fraction of biotic ligand occupied, which in turn, depends on the various components of the solution, including activity of the metal. Bioavailability is a key factor in determining toxicity and uptake of metals in organisms. In this study, the present status of BLM development for soil and aquatic organisms is summarized. For all species and all metals, toxicity was correlated with the conditional biotic ligand binding constants. For almost all organisms, values for Ag, Cu, and Cd were higher than those for Zn and Ni. The constants derived for aquatic systems seem to be equally valid for soil organisms, but in the case of soils, bioavailability from the soil solution is greatly influenced by the presence of the soil solid phase.

  18. Hazard evaluation of soil contaminants with aquatic animals and plant toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, A.; Burks, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    Deleterious effects upon the biota should be one of the principal characteristics used to perform the initial assessment of contamination and the acceptable level of clean-up at hazardous waste sites. Acute toxicity tests are probably the best means for conducting rapid preliminary assessment of distribution and extent of toxic conditions at a site. On the other hand acute toxicity tests may not be adequate indicators of potential effects at critical life stages or responses to longer term exposure to contaminants. Chronic toxicity tests are generally more sensitive than acute tests, and can be used to predict {open_quotes}no effect{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} levels of contamination. In addition, chronic tests provide a better index of field population responses and more closely mimic actual exposure in the field. Partial chronic tests such as the 7 d Ceriodaphnia sp. survival and reproduction test and 7 d fathead minnow survival and growth test are widely used to predict effects upon critical stages in the life cycle of chemical and mixtures. The overall objective of this project was to evaluate the potential hazard of contaminants at an abandoned oil refinery upon aquatic ecosystems within the vicinity. A battery of acute and partial chronic toxicity tests were used to evaluate potential effects of contaminated soil and leachates of soil upon rice seed germination and root growth, Ceriodaphnia acute survival, fathead minnow acute survival, Microtox acute response, 7 d Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction, and 7 d fathead minnow survival and growth. The specific tests used to accomplish the overall objective included; (1) To estimate phytotoxicity of the soil at the selected contaminated areas within the refinery, (2) to determine potential for leaching at the selected contaminated areas within the refinery, and (3) to assess the relative toxicity of each of the six contaminated areas in the refinery. 13 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  20. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, F J; Mayer, F L; Sappington, L C; Buckler, D R; Bridges, C M; Greer, I E; Hardesty, D K; Henke, C E; Ingersoll, C G; Kunz, J L; Whites, D W; Augspurger, T; Mount, D R; Hattala, K; Neuderfer, G N

    2005-02-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  1. Influence of pH-dependent aquatic toxicity of ionizable pharmaceuticals on risk assessments over environmental pH ranges.

    PubMed

    Boström, Marja Lena; Berglund, Olof

    2015-04-01

    Due to variation in pH, ionizable pharmaceuticals entering aquatic environments experience different degrees of ionization, which may affect toxicity. Using data from toxicity testing at only neutral pH may potentially under- or overestimate actual toxicity at pH ranges found in natural aquatic environments. Here we show relative pH-dependent acute toxicity to Daphnia magna for the pharmaceutical weak bases fluoxetine and sertraline, as well as the weak acids naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen and ketoprofen. A probabilistic modelling approach using the pH-dependent toxicity data for D. magna and an environmental pH distribution based on over 4000 European running waters from 21 countries predicted that environmental toxicity for the weak bases may be underestimated if pH 7 was assumed. The model predicted median underestimation by a factor of 3, with 90% of the model results ranging from 1 to 6. Consequently, due to the slightly basic nature of the European running waters, weak acid toxicity may be overestimated by a factor of 2. Predicted median toxicity was 0.5 of that assuming pH 7 with 90% of the results ranging from 0.03 to 5. Because aquatic pH exhibits large variation both within and between countries, we advise the use of site-specific risk assessments for ionizable pharmaceuticals in making informed water management decisions.

  2. Toxicity reference values for protecting aquatic birds in China from the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Su, Hailei; Wu, Fengchang; Zhang, Ruiqing; Zhao, Xiaoli; Mu, Yunsong; Feng, Chenglian; Giesy, John P

    2014-01-01

    PCBs are typical of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds (PBTs) that are widely distributed in the environment and can biomagnify through aquatic food webs, because of their stability and lipophilic properties. Fish-eating birds are top predators in the aquatic food chain and may suffer adverse effects from exposure to PCB concentrations. In this review, we address the toxicity of PCBs to birds and have derived tissue residue guidelines (TRGs) and toxic reference values (TRVs) for PCBs for protecting birds in China. In deriving these protective indices, we utilized available data and three approaches, to wit: species sensitivity distribution (SSD), critical study approach (CSA) and toxicity percentile rank method (TPRM). The TRGs and TRVs arrived at by using these methods were 42.3, I 0. 7, 4.3 pg TEQs/g diet wm and 16.7, 15.5, and 5.5 pg TEQs/g tissue wm for the CSA SSD and TPRM approaches, respectively. These criteria values were analyzed and compared with those derived by others. The following TRG and TRY, derived by SSD, were recommended as avian criteria for protecting avian species in China: 10.7 pg TEQs/g diet wm and 15.5 pg TEQs/g tissue wm, respectively. The hazard of PCBs to birds was assessed by comparing the TRVs and TRGs derived in this study with actual PCB concentrations detected in birds or fish. The criteria values derived in this study can be used to evaluate the risk of PCBs to birds in China, and to provide indices that are more reasonable for protecting Chinese avian species. However, several sources of uncertainty exists when deriving TRGs and TRVs for the PCBs in birds, such as lack of adequate toxicity data for birds and need to use uncertainty factors. Clearly, relevant work on PCBs and birds in China are needed in the future. For example, PCB toxicity data for resident avian species in China are needed. In addition, studies are needed on the actual PCB levels in birds and fish in China. Such information is needed to serve as a

  3. Silver nanoparticle toxicity effect on growth and cellular viability of the aquatic plant Lemna gibba.

    PubMed

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; Barhoumi, Lotfi; Pirastru, Laura; Dewez, David

    2013-04-01

    The toxicity effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on growth and cellular viability was investigated on the aquatic plant Lemna gibba exposed over 7 d to 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L of AgNPs. Growth inhibition was demonstrated by a significant decrease of frond numbers dependent on AgNP concentration. Under these conditions, reduction in plant cellular viability was detected for 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L of AgNPs within 7 d of AgNPs treatment. This effect was highly correlated with the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). A significant increase of intracellular ROS formation was triggered by 1 and 10 mg/L of AgNP exposure. The induced oxidative stress was related to Ag accumulation within L. gibba plant cells and with the increasing concentration of AgNP exposure in the medium. The authors' results clearly suggested that AgNP suspension represented a potential source of toxicity for L. gibba plant cells. Due to the low release capacity of free soluble Ag from AgNP dissolution in the medium, it is most likely that the intracellular uptake of Ag was directly from AgNPs, triggering cellular oxidative stress that may be due to the release of free Ag inside plant cells. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that AgNP accumulation in an aquatic environment may represent a potential source of toxicity and a risk for the viability of duckweeds. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  4. Toxicity of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticle suspensions to the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Das, Pranab; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the 48 h acute toxicity of capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and capped and uncapped titanium dioxide (nTiO₂) to Daphnia magna neonates. In addition, a 24 days chronic toxicity study was performed for D. magna exposed to uncapped nTiO₂ to evaluate effects on growth, reproduction and survival. The 48 h median lethal concentrations (LC₅₀) for carboxy-functionalized capped AgNPs and uncapped nTiO₂ were 2.75 μg/L and 7.75 mg/L, respectively. In contrast, no mortalities were observed for Daphnia exposed to carboxy-functionalized capped nTiO₂ at concentrations up to 30 mg/L. In the chronic toxicity experiment with uncapped nTiO₂, the growth, reproduction and survival of D. magna were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced at concentrations ranging from 4.5 to 7.5 mg/L. Growth and reproduction were reduced by 35 % and 93 %, respectively in the treatments at the highest uncapped nTiO₂ concentration (7.5 mg/L). Time to first reproduction was delayed by 2-3 days in D. magna and the test organisms produced only 1-2 broods over 24 days exposure to the highest concentration of uncapped nTiO₂. Overall, the results from the present study indicate that exposures of aquatic invertebrates to nanoparticles could have important ecological effects on lower trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Potential toxic effect on aquatic fauna by the dwarf shrub Empetrum hermaphroditum.

    PubMed

    Brännäs, Eva; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Nilsson, Linda; Gallet, Christiane; Brännäs, Kurt; Berglind, Rune; Eriksson, Lars-Ove; Leffler, Per-Erik; Zackrisson, Olle

    2004-01-01

    The common evergreen dwarf shrub Empetrum hermaphroditum has influence on the functioning of boreal terrestrial ecosystems in northern Sweden. The negative effects of E. hermaphroditum are partly attributed to the production of the dihydrostilbene, batatasin-III, which is released from leaves and litter by rain and snowmelt. In this study, we investigated whether batatasin-III is carried by runoff into streams and lakes during the snowmelt period and whether it is also potentially hazardous to aquatic fauna. Sampling of water from streams and a lake for which the surrounding terrestrial vegetation is dominated by E. hermaphroditum was done during the snowmelt period in May 1993 and in 1998, and analyzed for batatasin-III. Using 24- and 48-hr standard toxicity tests, we analyzed toxicity to brown trout (Salmo trutta) alevins and juvenile water fleas (Daphnia magna). Toxicity (proportion of dead individuals) to trout was tested at pH 6.5 and compared with that of a phenol within a range of concentrations. In the toxicity (proportion of immobilized individuals) test on D. magna, the interactive effect of pH (pH 5.5-7.0) was included. Concentration of batatasin-III was generally higher in 1998 than in 1993 and showed peak levels during snowmelt. Concentration in ephemeral runnels > the lake > streams running through clear-cuts dominated by E. hermaphroditum > control streams lacking adjacent E. hermaphroditum vegetation. The maximum concentration of batatasin-III found was 1.06 mg l(-1). The proportion of dead yolk sac alevins increased significantly (P < 0.001) with increasing concentrations of batatasin-III and time of exposure. After 24 hr, EC50 was 10 mg l(-1). It was 2 mg l(-1) after 48 hr. The effect of phenol was negligible, indicating a specific phytotoxic effect of the bibenzyl structure of batatasin-III. The proportion of mobile D. magna became significantly smaller (P < 0.001) with increasing concentrations of batatasin-III, with decreasing pH, and with

  6. Evaluating the aquatic toxicity of complex organic chemical mixtures: lessons learned from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and petroleum hydrocarbon case studies.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Peter F; Chapman, Peter M; Neff, Jerry; Page, David S

    2012-04-01

    Experimental designs for evaluating complex mixture toxicity in aquatic environments can be highly variable and, if not appropriate, can produce and have produced data that are difficult or impossible to interpret accurately. We build on and synthesize recent critical reviews of mixture toxicity using lessons learned from 4 case studies, ranging from binary to more complex mixtures of primarily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum hydrocarbons, to provide guidance for evaluating the aquatic toxicity of complex mixtures of organic chemicals. Two fundamental requirements include establishing a dose-response relationship and determining the causative agent (or agents) of any observed toxicity. Meeting these 2 requirements involves ensuring appropriate exposure conditions and measurement endpoints, considering modifying factors (e.g., test conditions, test organism life stages and feeding behavior, chemical transformations, mixture dilutions, sorbing phases), and correctly interpreting dose-response relationships. Specific recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. Quantifying solar spectral irradiance in aquatic habitats for the assessment of photoenhanced toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, M.G.; Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.; Diamond, S.

    2000-01-01

    The spectra and intensity of solar radiation (solar spectral irradiance [SSI]) was quantified in selected aquatic habitats in the vicinity of an oil field on the California coast. Solar spectral irradiance measurements consisted of spectral scans (280–700 nm) and radiometric measurements of ultraviolet (UV): UVB (280–320 nm) and UVA (320–400 nm). Solar spectral irradiance measurements were taken at the surface and at various depths in two marsh ponds, a shallow wetland, an estuary lagoon, and the intertidal area of a high-energy sandy beach. Daily fluctuation in SSI showed a general parabolic relationship with time; maximum structure–activity relationship (SAR) was observed at approximate solar noon. Solar spectral irradiance measurements taken at 10-cm depth at approximate solar noon in multiple aquatic habitats exhibited only a twofold variation in visible light and UVA and a 4.5-fold variation in UVB. Visible light ranged from 11,000 to 19,000 μW/cm2, UVA ranged from 460 to 1,100 μW/cm2, and UVB ranged from 8.4 to 38 μW/cm2. In each habitat, the attenuation of light intensity with increasing water depth was differentially affected over specific wavelengths of SSI. The study results allowed the development of environmentally realistic light regimes necessary for photoenhanced toxicity studies.

  8. Quantifying solar spectral irradiance in aquatic habitats for the assessment of photoenhanced toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, M.G.; Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.; Diamond, S.

    2000-04-01

    The spectra and intensity of solar radiation (solar spectral irradiance [SSI]) was quantified in selected aquatic habitats in the vicinity of an oil field on the California coast. Solar spectral irradiance measurements consisted of spectral scans and radiometric measurements of ultraviolet (UV): UVB and UVA. Solar spectral irradiance measurements were taken at the surface and at various depths in two marsh ponds, a shallow wetland, an estuary lagoon, and the intertidal area of a high-energy sandy beach. Daily fluctuation in SSI showed a general parabolic relationship with time; maximum structure-activity relationship (SAR) was observed at approximate solar noon. Solar spectral irradiance measurements taken at 10-cm depth at approximate solar noon in multiple aquatic habitats exhibited only a twofold variation in visible light and UVA and a 4.5-fold variation in UVB. Visible light ranged from 11,000 to 19,000 {micro}W/cm{sup 2}, UVA ranged from 460 to 1,100 {micro}W/cm{sup 2}, and UVB ranged from 8.4 to 38 {micro}W/cm{sup 2}. In each habitat, the attenuation of light intensity with increasing water depth was differentially affected over specific wavelengths of SSI. The study results allowed the development of environmentally realistic light regimes necessary for photoenhanced toxicity studies.

  9. Effects of invertebrate predators and a pesticide on temporary pond microcosms used for aquatic toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Barry, Michael J; Davies, Warren

    2004-09-01

    The effects of increased trophic complexity, through the addition of predatory notonectids (Anisops deanei), on temporary pond microcosms used for aquatic toxicity testing were studied. Replicate microcosms were established using sediment from a dried temporary pond, and treated with one of four concentrations of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan (0, 1, 10 or 50 microg/L), in the presence or absence of six A. deanei. The tanks were sampled regularly for nine weeks following the addition of the predators and the entire contents of each tank counted after 12 weeks. Analysis using non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and non-parametric MANOVA showed that both Anisops and endosulfan at concentrations >10 microg/L significantly altered community structure. However, an interaction between the effects of Anisops and the effects of endosulfan was not detected. The addition of Anisops did not increase the variability of response and thus did not reduce the sensitivity of the test method.

  10. Uptake and toxicity of organic compounds: studies with an aquatic macrophyte (Lemna minor)

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, W.L.; de March, B.G.F.; Billeck, B.N.; Muir, D.C.G.

    1981-10-01

    Aquatic macrophytes have been the subjects of relatively little research attention, either for their ability to accumulate pollutants or for their susceptibility to any toxic action of pollutants. Duckweed (Lemna minor) clones were maintained in axenic culture and were exposed to several carbon-14 (/sup 14/C) labeled compounds added to the culture medium. Transfer of radioactivity from media to plants (bioconcentration) was described empirically with regression equations incorporating exposure times and concentrations, partition coefficients, and types of water used to make the culture media. In separate experiments, the growth of cultures in terms of frond numbers was described as a function of exposure time for several concentrations of the herbicides terbutryn, ethalfluralin, and fluridone. Bioconcentration and growth equations were then used to estimate those herbicide residues that should be associated with reductions in culture growth.

  11. Using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to assess the toxicity and teratogenicity of aquatic amphibian habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.; Little, E.E.; Linder, Gregory L.; Krest, S.; Sparling, Don; Little, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Environmental contamination has been suspected of being partially responsible for recent declines in amphibian populations. It is often not feasible to identify all of the compounds in an environment, nor the concentrations in which they are present. SPMDs are passive sampling devices that uptake lipophilic compounds from the environment in a manner similar to aquatic organisms. The extracts from the SPMDs, therefore, contain a composite sample of the compounds that are present in the environment. In this paper, we outline the methods from studies in which we have used extracts from SPMDs in toxicity tests on amphibian larvae. Using SPMD extracts makes it possible to establish potential links between amphibian deformities and declines and environmental contamination by lipophilic compounds.

  12. Environmental influence on the response of aquatic laboratory ecosystems to a toxicant

    SciTech Connect

    Woltering, D.M.

    1981-10-01

    The influence of prevailing environmental conditions on population and community responses to chronic toxicant perturbation was addressed in a 36-month laboratory ecosystem study. A series of 16 aquatic communities incorporating guppy, amphipod, snail, planaria, algal, and microbial populations were established in 750-L (200-gal) fiberglass tanks and were monitored monthly for changes in population biomasses. The environmental variables were the exploitation levels of the fish populations and the energy input and habitat availability. The development and resultant near steady states of the predator, prey, and competitor populations were represented graphically using phase plane analysis. Both the density-dependent and the time-dependent responses of the laboratory ecosystems to ''established'' sublethal dieldrin exposure varied according to the prevailing levels of environmental conditions. The ecologically different outcomes ranged from substantial perturbation, including mortalities but with eventual recovery to the preexposure population densities and community structure, to the extinction of a major population as a result of sublethal effects.

  13. Use of the Biotic Ligand Model to predict metal toxicity to aquatic biota in areas of differing geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.

    2005-01-01

    This work evaluates the use of the biotic ligand model (BLM), an aquatic toxicity model, to predict toxic effects of metals on aquatic biota in areas underlain by different rock types. The chemical composition of water, soil, and sediment is largely derived from the composition of the underlying rock. Geologic source materials control key attributes of water chemistry that affect metal toxicity to aquatic biota, including: 1) potentially toxic elements, 2) alkalinity, 3) total dissolved solids, and 4) soluble major elements, such as Ca and Mg, which contribute to water hardness. Miller (2002) compiled chemical data for water samples collected in watersheds underlain by ten different rock types, and in a mineralized area in western Colorado. He found that each rock type has a unique range of water chemistry. In this study, the ten rock types were grouped into two general categories, igneous and sedimentary. Water collected in watersheds underlain by sedimentary rock has higher mean pH, alkalinity, and calcium concentrations than water collected in watersheds underlain by igneous rock. Water collected in the mineralized area had elevated concentrations of calcium and sulfate in addition to other chemical constituents. Miller's water-chemistry data were used in the BLM (computer program) to determine copper and zinc toxicity to Daphnia magna. Modeling results show that waters from watersheds underlain by different rock types have characteristic ranges of predicted LC 50 values (a measurement of aquatic toxicity) for copper and zinc, with watersheds underlain by igneous rock having lower predicted LC 50 values than watersheds underlain by sedimentary rock. Lower predicted LC 50 values suggest that aquatic biota in watersheds underlain by igneous rock may be more vulnerable to copper and zinc inputs than aquatic biota in watersheds underlain by sedimentary rock. For both copper and zinc, there is a trend of increasing predicted LC 50 values with increasing dissolved

  14. Toxicity test using medaka (Oryzias latipes) early fry and concentrated sample water as an index of aquatic habitat condition.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, H; Haribowo, R; Sekine, M; Oda, N; Kanno, A; Shimono, Y; Shitao, W; Higuchi, T; Imai, T; Yamamoto, K

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to show a relationship between toxicity of 100-fold concentrated water and aquatic habitat conditions. Environmental waters are 100-fold concentrated with solid-phase extraction. Medaka early fry was exposed in these waters for 48 h. The number of death and disorder was counted at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h; toxicity was expressed using inverse median effect time and median lethal time (ET (50)(-1), LT (50)(-1)). Average score per taxon (ASPT) for benthic animals and Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) for fish were applied as indices of aquatic habitat conditions. The results of toxicity test were compared using ASPT and IBI. The different levels of toxicity were detected in the seawater of Japan. At the Husino River area, toxicity cannot be detected. In rivers, high toxicity appeared at urban districts without sewerage. By Spearman coefficient, the relationship between toxicity and high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were obtained. BOD household wastewater contains hydrophobic toxic matters; otherwise, seawater in industrial area does not show clear relationship between toxicity and chemical oxygen demand. Gas chromatography to mass spectrometry simultaneous analysis database may give an answer for the source of toxicity, but further test is required. Ratio of clear stream benthic animal sharply decreased over 0.25 of LT (50)(-1) or 0.5 of ET (50)(-1). Tolerant fish becomes dominant over 0.3 of LT (50)(-1) or 0.5-1.0 of ET (50)(-1). By Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, correlation coefficient between toxicity and ASPT was obtained at -0.773 (ET (50)(-1)) and -0.742 (LT (50)(-1)) at 1 % level of significance with a high negative correlation. Toxicity (LT (50)(-1) ) has strong correlation with the ratio of tolerant species. By Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, correlation coefficient between toxicity and IBI obtained were -0.155 (ET (50)(-1)) and -0.190 (LT (50)(-1)) at 1 % level of significance and has a

  15. Aquatic toxicity and ecological risk assessment of seven parabens: Individual and additive approach.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tamura, Ikumi; Hirata, Yoshiko; Kato, Jun; Kagota, Keiichiro; Katsuki, Shota; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, aquatic concentrations of seven parabens were determined in urban streams highly affected by treated or untreated domestic sewage in Tokushima and Osaka, Japan. The detected highest concentrations were 670, 207, and 163ngl(-1) for methylparaben, n-propylparaben, and n-butylparaben, respectively in sampling sites with watershed area of no sewer system in Tokushima. Conventional acute/chronic toxicity tests were conducted using medaka (Oryzias latipes), Daphnia magna, and Psuedokirchneriella subcapitata for four parabens, which was consistent with our previous study on three parabens, n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben. The aquatic toxicity on fish, daphnia, and algae was weaker for the parabens with a shorter alkyl chain than those with a longer alkyl chain as predicted by their hydrophobicity. Medaka vitellogenin assays and DNA microarray analysis were carried out for methylparaben and found induction of significant vitellogenin in male medaka at 630μgl(-1) of methylparaben, while the expression levels of genes encoding proteins such as choriogenin and vitellogenin increased for concentrations at 10μgl(-1) of methylparaben. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) of seven parabens in Tokushima and Osaka were divided by predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and hazard quotient (MEC/PNEC) was determined for individual parabens. The MEC/PNEC was highest for n-propylparaben and was 0.010 followed by n-butylparaben (max. of 0.0086) and methylparaben (max. of 0.0042). The sum of the MEC/PNEC for the seven parabens was 0.0049. Equivalence factors were assigned for each paraben on the basis of the toxicity of n-butylparaben for each species, and n-butylparaben equivalence was calculated for the measured environmental concentrations. The MEC/PNEC approach was also conducted for the n-butylparaben-based equivalence values. The maximum MEC/PNEC was 0.018, which is lower than the trigger level for further detailed study such as

  16. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    PubMed

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-03-15

    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200 mg kg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31 L m(-2) (333 gal acre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16 weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2 weeks of incubation.

  17. Microbial community-level toxicity testing of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Kristian K; Jørgensen, Niels O G; Nielsen, Tommy H; Winding, Anne

    2004-08-01

    Complex microbial communities may serve as ideal and ecologically relevant toxicity indicators. We here report an assessment of frequently used methods in microbial ecology for their feasibility to detect toxic effects of the environmentally important surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on microbial communities in lake water and treated waste water. The two microbial communities were evaluated for changes in community structure and function over a period of 7 weeks in replicated aquatic microcosms amended with various levels of LAS (0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 mg l(-1)) and inorganic nutrients. In general, the two communities behaved similarly when challenged with LAS. Following lag periods of 1-3 weeks, LAS was degraded to non-toxic substances. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments and [3H]leucine incorporation were the most sensitive assays with effect levels of 0-1 and 1-10 mg LAS l(-1), respectively. Community-level physiological profiles and pollution-induced community tolerance determinations using Biolog microplates demonstrated less sensitivity with effect levels of 10-100 mg LAS l(-1). Total cell counts and net uptake of inorganic N and P were unaffected even at 100 mg LAS l(-1). Interestingly, different microbial communities developed in some replicate microcosms, indicating the importance of stochastic events for community succession. We conclude that microbial community-level toxicity testing holds great promise and suggest a polyphasic approach involving a range of independent methods targeting both the structure and function of the tested microbial communities.

  18. An empirical comparison of effective concentration estimators for evaluating aquatic toxicity test responses

    SciTech Connect

    Bailer, A.J.; Hughes, M.R.; Denton, D.L.; Oris, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity tests are statistically evaluated by either hypothesis testing procedures to derive a no-observed-effect concentration or by inverting regression models to calculate the concentration associated with a specific reduction from the control response. These latter methods can be described as potency estimation methods. Standard US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) potency estimation methods are based on two different techniques. For continuous or count response data, a nominally nonparametric method that assumes monotonic decreasing responses and piecewise linear patterns between successive concentration groups is used. For quantal responses, a probit regression model with a linear dose term is fit. These techniques were compared with a recently developed parametric regression-based estimator, the relative inhibition estimator, RIp. This method is based on fitting generalized linear models, followed by estimation of the concentration associated with a particular decrement relative to control responses. These estimators, with levels of inhibition (p) of 25 and 50%, were applied to a series of chronic toxicity tests in a US EPA region 9 database of reference toxicity tests. Biological responses evaluated in these toxicity tests included the number of young produced in three broods by the water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and germination success and tube length data from the giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). The greatest discrepancy between the RIp and standard US EPA estimators was observed for C. dubia. The concentration-response pattern for this biological endpoint exhibited nonmonotonicity more frequently than for any of the other endpoint. Future work should consider optimal experimental designs to estimate these quantities, methods for constructing confidence intervals, and simulation studies to explore the behavior of these estimators under known conditions.

  19. Toxicities of Oils, Dispersants and Dispersed Oils to Aquatic Plants: Summary and Database Value to Resource Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the phytotoxicities of crude and dispersed oils is important for near-shore ecosystem management, particularly post-oil spills. One source of information is toxicity data summaries which are scattered and outdated for aquatic plants and petrochemicals. As a resu...

  20. INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATION (ICE) FOR ACUTE TOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS AND WILDLIFE. II. USER MANUAL AND SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asfaw, Amha, Mark R. Ellersieck and Foster L. Mayer. 2003. Interspecies Correlation Estimations (ICE) for Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms and Wildlife. II. User Manual and Software. EPA/600/R-03/106. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effe...

  1. Toxic effects of Hydrilla verticillata exposed to toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene and safety assessment for protecting aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Sha; Zhou, Qixing

    2011-10-01

    Little information is available about the toxicity of toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene acting on macrophytes, and their toxicity data are rarely used in regulation and criteria decisions. The results extended the knowledge on toxic effects of toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene on aquatic plants. The responses of Hydrilla verticillata to these pollutants were investigated. Chlorophyll levels, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase) showed diverse responses at different concentrations of toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. The linear regression analyses were performed respectively, suggesting the concentrations of toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene expected to protect aquatic macrophytes were 7.30 mg L⁻¹, 1.15 mg L⁻¹ and 2.36 mg L⁻¹, respectively. This study emphasized that aquatic plants are also sensitive to organic pollutants as fishes and zooplanktons, indicating that macrophytes could be helpful in predicting the toxicity of these pollutants and should be considered in regulation and criteria decisions for aquatic environment protection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicities of Oils, Dispersants and Dispersed Oils to Aquatic Plants: Summary and Database Value to Resource Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the phytotoxicities of crude and dispersed oils is important for near-shore ecosystem management, particularly post-oil spills. One source of information is toxicity data summaries which are scattered and outdated for aquatic plants and petrochemicals. As a resu...

  3. Evaluation of Time- and Concentration-dependent Toxic Effect Models for use in Aquatic Risk Assessments, Oral Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various models have been proposed for describing the time- and concentration-dependence of toxic effects to aquatic organisms, which would improve characterization of risks in natural systems. Selected models were evaluated using results from a study on the lethality of copper t...

  4. INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATION (ICE) FOR ACUTE TOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS AND WILDLIFE. II. USER MANUAL AND SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asfaw, Amha, Mark R. Ellersieck and Foster L. Mayer. 2003. Interspecies Correlation Estimations (ICE) for Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms and Wildlife. II. User Manual and Software. EPA/600/R-03/106. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effe...

  5. Acute toxicity of Daphnia pulex to six classes of chemical compounds potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stephen B.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Blouin, Marc A.

    1988-01-01

    Of the six classes of chemicals potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota, derivatives of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most acutely toxic (48-h EC 50) to Daphnia pulex. The other classes, listed in order of decreasing toxicity were alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, silicon-containing compounds. O f the 41 compounds representing the six chemical classes, 6 were extremely toxic (> 0.01 - 0.1 mg/L), 11 highly toxic (> 01. - 1.0 mg/L), 20 moderately toxic (> 1.0 - 10.0 mg/L), and 4 slightly toxic (>10 - 100 mg/L). The reference compound, p, p'DDT, was super toxic (< 0.01 mg/L). Based on toxicity and relative abundance (hazard ranking) of the 21 compounds that were detected in tissue of Great Lakes fishes, the classes of compounds that present the greatest threat to Great Lakes aquatic biota are PAH derivatives, alkyl halides, and cyclic aklanes.

  6. Toxicity, accumulation, and removal of heavy metals by three aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Basile, A; Sorbo, S; Conte, B; Cobianchi, R Castaldo; Trinchella, F; Capasso, C; Carginale, V

    2012-04-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the uptake, tolerance, and transport of heavy metals by plants will be essential for the development of phytoremediation technologies. In the present paper, we investigated accumulation, tissue and intracellular localization, and toxic effects of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in three aquatic macrophytes (the angiosperms Lemna minor and Elodea canadensis, and the moss Leptodictyum riparium). We also tested and compared their capacity to absorb heavy metal from water under laboratory conditions. Our data showed that all the three species examined could be considered good bioaccumulators for the heavy metals tested. L. riparium was the most resistant species and the most effective in accumulating Cu, Zn, and Pb, whereas L. minor was the most effective in accumulating Cd. Cd was the most toxic metal, followed by Pb, Cu, and Zn. At the ultrastructural level, sublethal concentrations of the heavy metals tested caused induced cell plasmolysis and alterations of the chloroplast arrangement. Heavy metal removal experiments revealed that the three macrophytes showed excellent performance in removing the selected metals from the solutions in which they are maintained, thus suggesting that they could be considered good candidates for wastewaters remediation purpose.

  7. Cadmium in aquatic microcosms: implications for screening the ecological effects of toxic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, P.F.; Langner, C.L.; Odum, E.P.

    1982-11-01

    A two-phase set of experiments was conducted to address some of the problems inherent in ecological screening of toxic substances in aquatic microcosms. Phase I was a 4 x 4 factorial experiment dealing with the interactive effects of cadmium and nutrients in static microcosms. Phase II was a 2 x 4 factorial experiment using flowthrough microcosms to study temporal aspects of system behavior in response to nutrient loading and chronic versus acute cadmium perturbations. Nutrient enrichment resulted in increased biomass and metabolic activity in both static and flowthrough microcosms. Cadmium treatments generally resulted in a decrease in abundance of grazing crustaceans and a subsequent increase in community respiration, suggesting a change in community structure from a grazing to a detritus food chain. Of the variables measured, community metabolism, community composition, and output/input ratios of nitrate-nitrogen were the most useful indicators of system response to cadmium. Nutrient enrichment reduced the effects of cadmium. For screening the ecological effects of toxic chemicals, a series of experiments is proposed, including 1) relatively simple static microcosms, 2) flow through microcosms, and 3) more detailed but selective studies in microcosms derived from specific ecosystems. Each step yields increasingly more information and serves as a guide for subsequent experiments; in addition, each step more closely approximates natural ecosystems.

  8. Methods for establishing microcosms of aquatic littoral ecosystems for determining safe levels of toxicant exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, P.J.; Giddings, J.M.

    1986-02-01

    This protocol describes procedures for establishing freshwater littoral communities in a laboratory, using materials collected from natural ponds. The methods were developed to assess the effects of chemical toxicants on aquatic communities; however, the systems may be adaptable to testing the potential impacts of microbial pesticides on freshwater ecosystems. Littoral ecosystems are established in 72-L glass aquaria using sediments, water, and biota from natural ponds. The microcosms are easily replicated and require little maintenance. These microcosms are static systems (no inflow or outflow) and retain a functional similarity to natural ponds for more than 6 months under artificial lighting. In testing for the effects of toxicants, at least five chemical concentrations, a no-treatment control, and a solvent control (if a carrier solvent is used) are recommended, with replication. Chemical (pH hardness, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen) and biological (e.g., zooplankton and bacterial densities, and chlorophyll concentrations) measurements are made periodically throughout the experimental period. No-observable-effect concentrations (NOEC) are determined using Dunnett's procedure.

  9. Cadmium in aquatic microcosms: Implications for screening the ecological effects of toxic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, Paul F.; Langner, Christine L.; Odum, Eugene P.

    1982-11-01

    A two-phase set of experiments was conducted to address some of the problems inherent in ecological screening of toxic substances in aquatic microcosms. Phase I was a 4×4 factorial experiment dealing with the interactive effects of cadmium and nutrients in static microcosms. Phase II was a 2×4 factorial experiment using flowthrough microcosms to study temporal aspects of system behavior in response to nutrient loading and chronic versus acute cadmium perturbations. Nutrient enrichment resulted in increased biomass and metabolic activity in both static and flowthrough microcosms. Cadmium treatments generally resulted in a decrease in abundance of grazing crustaceans and a subsequent increase in community respiration, suggesting a change in community structure from a grazing to a detritus food chain. Of the variables measured, community metabolism, community composition, and output/input ratios of nitrate-nitrogen were the most useful indicators of system response to cadmium. Nutrient enrichment significantly influenced cadmium effects with respect to most of the variables measured; high levels of enrichment reduced the effects of cadmium. For screening the ecological effects of toxic chemicals, a series of experiments is proposed, including 1) relatively simple static microcosms, 2) flow through microcosms, and 3) more detailed but selective studies in microcosms derived from specific ecosystems. Each step yields increasingly more information and serves as a guide for subsequent experiments; in addition, each step more closely approximates natural ecosystems.

  10. Prediction of aquatic toxicity mode of action using linear discriminant and random forest models.

    PubMed

    Martin, Todd M; Grulke, Christopher M; Young, Douglas M; Russom, Christine L; Wang, Nina Y; Jackson, Crystal R; Barron, Mace G

    2013-09-23

    The ability to determine the mode of action (MOA) for a diverse group of chemicals is a critical part of ecological risk assessment and chemical regulation. However, existing MOA assignment approaches in ecotoxicology have been limited to a relatively few MOAs, have high uncertainty, or rely on professional judgment. In this study, machine based learning algorithms (linear discriminant analysis and random forest) were used to develop models for assigning aquatic toxicity MOA. These methods were selected since they have been shown to be able to correlate diverse data sets and provide an indication of the most important descriptors. A data set of MOA assignments for 924 chemicals was developed using a combination of high confidence assignments, international consensus classifications, ASTER (ASessment Tools for the Evaluation of Risk) predictions, and weight of evidence professional judgment based an assessment of structure and literature information. The overall data set was randomly divided into a training set (75%) and a validation set (25%) and then used to develop linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and random forest (RF) MOA assignment models. The LDA and RF models had high internal concordance and specificity and were able to produce overall prediction accuracies ranging from 84.5 to 87.7% for the validation set. These results demonstrate that computational chemistry approaches can be used to determine the acute toxicity MOAs across a large range of structures and mechanisms.

  11. Influences of sediment geochemistry on metal accumulation rates and toxicity in the aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Fernández, Leire; De Jonge, Maarten; Bervoets, Lieven

    2014-12-01

    Metal bioaccumulation and toxicity in the aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex exposed to three metal-contaminated field-sediments was studied in order to assess whether sediment-geochemistry (AVS, TOC) plays a major role in influencing these parameters, and to assess if the biodynamic concept can be used to explain observed effects in T. tubifex tissue residues and/or toxicity. An active autotomy promotion was observed in three studied sediments at different time points and reproduction impairment could be inferred in T. tubifex exposed to two of the tested sites after 28 days. The present study showed that sediment metal concentration and tissue residues followed significant regression models for four essential metals (Cu, Co, Ni and Zn) and one non-essential metal (Pb). Organic content normalization for As also showed a significant relationship with As tissue residue. Porewater was also revealed to be an important source of metal uptake for essential metals (e.g. Cu, Ni and Zn) and for As, but AVS content was not relevant for metal uptake in T. tubifex in studied sediments. Under the biodynamic concept, it was shown that influx rate from food (IF, sediment ingestion) in T. tubifex, in a range of sediment geochemistry, was able to predict metal bioaccumulation, especially of the essential metals Cu, Ni and Zn, and for the non-essential metal Pb. Additionally, IF appeared to be a better predictor for metal bioaccumulation in T. tubifex compared to sediment geochemistry normalization.

  12. Understanding Dissolved and Colloidal Metal Transport and Transformation - Pathways for Aquatic Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, B. A.; Besser, J. M.

    2004-05-01

    Hundreds of miles of streams in the western United States are affected by the release of metals from weathering of mineralized bedrock and mine wastes. In many cases, historical mining has accelerated these weathering processes and increased concentrations of metals in affected streams. Copper and zinc are two metals that affect aquatic health in such streams. Aquatic toxicity from copper and zinc is thought to be related principally to their dissolved concentrations. But there are alternative pathways that may lead to toxicity. Movement of many metals associated with mine drainage is affected by iron colloidal solids. The initial precipitation of iron hydroxides results in nanometer-sized colloids that subsequently aggregate to form a continuum of particle sizes from about one nanometer to greater than one micrometer. This behavior makes the popular or legal definition of dissolved metals at 0.45 micrometers meaningless in streams affected by mine drainage. Ultrafiltration, using tangential-flow across 10,000-Dalton membranes, provides a means to understand dissolved and colloidal metal concentrations. When ultrafiltration is combined with methods to determine mass loading, it is possible to quantify sources and chemical reactions affecting metals. For example, results from a mass-loading study in Mineral Creek, Colorado, indicate that copper and zinc are contributed to the stream from both mined and unmined sources. As the pH of Mineral Creek changes in response to both neutral and acidic inflows, copper was repeatedly transferred between dissolved and colloidal phases through sorption reactions. When the colloidal phase was dominant, the total load of copper consistently decreased because the colloids are entrained by algae on cobbles and strained by the streambed during hyporheic exchange. Zinc load also decreased during transport, but this was a result of the physical process of water exchange with the hyporheic zone, and not a result of colloidal

  13. Predicting toxic effects of copper on aquatic biota in mineralized areas by using the Biotic Ligand Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Ranville, James F.; Adams, M.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Church, Stanley E.; Fey, David L.; Wanty, Richard B.; Crock, James G.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical speciation of metals influences their biological effects. The Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) is a computational approach to predict chemical speciation and acute toxicological effects of metals on aquatic biota. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency incorporated the BLM into their regulatory water-quality criteria for copper. Results from three different laboratory copper toxicity tests were compared with BLM predictions for simulated test-waters. This was done to evaluate the ability of the BLM to accurately predict the effects of hardness and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron on aquatic toxicity. In addition, we evaluated whether the BLM and the three toxicity tests provide consistent results. Comparison of BLM predictions with two types of Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity tests shows that there is fairly good agreement between predicted LC50 values computed by the BLM and LC50 values determined from the two toxicity tests. Specifically, the effect of increasing calcium concentration (and hardness) on copper toxicity appears to be minimal. Also, there is fairly good agreement between the BLM and the two toxicity tests for test solutions containing elevated DOC, for which the LC50 is 3-to-5 times greater (less toxic) than the LC50 for the lower-DOC test water. This illustrates the protective effects of DOC on copper toxicity and demonstrates the ability of the BLM to predict these protective effects. In contrast, for test solutions with added iron there is a decrease in LC50 values (increase in toxicity) in results from the two C. dubia toxicity tests, and the agreement between BLM LC50 predictions and results from these toxicity tests is poor. The inability of the BLM to account for competitive iron binding to DOC or DOC fractionation may be a significant shortcoming of the BLM for predicting site- specific water-quality criteria in streams affected by iron-rich acidic drainage in mined and mineralized areas.

  14. Fate of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles in an aquatic environment and their toxicity toward 14 ciliated protist species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Pu, Zhichao; Du, Songyan; Chen, Yongsheng; Jiang, Lin

    2016-05-01

    The potential environmental impacts of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) on aquatic organisms have remained largely unknown. Therefore, the laboratory study featured herein was performed to determine the fate of CeO2 NPs in an aquatic environment and their toxicity towards 14 different ciliated protist species at a specified population level. An investigation of 48 h aggregation kinetics in the Dryl's solution showed the CeO2 NPs to be relatively stable. The pH values in three test medium were too far away from PZC, which explained the stability of CeO2 NPs. CeO2 NPs generally elicited more toxicity with increasing NP concentration, following certain dose-response relationships. Nano-CeO2 resulted in greater toxicity in a particle state than when added as bulk material. LC50 values showed a negative correlation with the surface-to-volume ratio for these protists, suggesting that surface adsorption of CeO2 NPs might contribute to the observed toxicity. Additionally, acute toxic responses of 14 ciliated protist species to CeO2 NPs were not significantly phylogenetically conserved. The results of these observations provide a better insight into the potential risks of CeO2 NPs in an aquatic environment.

  15. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael; Pryor, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    Phytotoxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils. The phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of reactive research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for at least 41 crude oils and 56 dispersants. As many as 107 response parameters have been monitored for 85 species of unicellular and multicellular algae, 28 wetland plants, 13 mangroves and 9 seagrasses. Effect concentrations have varied by as much as six orders of magnitude due to experimental diversity. This diversity restricts phytotoxicity predictions and identification of sensitive species, life stages and response parameters. As a result, evidence-based risk assessments for most aquatic plants and petrochemicals and dispersants are not supported by the current toxicity database. A proactive and experimentally-consistent approach is recommended to provide threshold toxic effect concentrations for sensitive life stages of aquatic plants inhabiting diverse ecosystems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Multiple mitigation mechanisms: Effects of submerged plants on the toxicity of nine insecticides to aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that regulate contaminant impacts in nature is an increasingly important challenge. For insecticides in surface waters, the ability of aquatic plants to sorb, or bind, hydrophobic compounds has been identified as a primary mechanism by which toxicity can be mitigated (i.e. the sorption-based model). However, recent research shows that submerged plants can also rapidly mitigate the toxicity of the less hydrophobic insecticide malathion via alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. the hydrolysis-based model) driven by increased water pH resulting from photosynthesis. However, it is still unknown how generalizable these mitigation mechanisms are across the wide variety of insecticides applied today, and whether any general rules can be ascertained about which types of chemicals may be mitigated by each mechanism. We quantified the degree to which the submerged plant Elodea canadensis mitigated acute (48-h) toxicity to Daphnia magna using nine commonly applied insecticides spanning three chemical classes (carbamates: aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran; organophosphates: malathion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos; pyrethroids: permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin). We found that insecticides possessing either high octanol-water partition coefficients (log Kow) values (i.e. pyrethroids) or high susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. carbamates and malathion) were all mitigated to some degree by E. canadensis, while the plant had no effect on insecticides possessing intermediate log Kow values and low susceptibility to hydrolysis (i.e. chlorpyrifos and diazinon). Our results provide the first general insights into which types of insecticides are likely to be mitigated by different mechanisms based on known chemical properties. We suggest that current models and mitigation strategies would be improved by the consideration of both mitigation models.

  17. Cyst-based toxicity tests. VI: Toxkits and Fluotox tests as cost-effective tools for routine toxicity screening.

    PubMed

    Persoone, G

    1992-01-01

    During the last two decades microbiotests have been developed which are independent of recruitment, maintenance and/or culturing of live stocks of test organisms. "Culture and maintenance free" microbiotests have been worked out in the Laboratory for Biological Research in Aquatic Pollution at the University of Ghent, with selected aquatic invertebrates. The new approach is based on the use of "resting stages" (cysts) as inert biological material from which live test organisms can be hatched "on demand". The "cyst-based" bioassays have recently been miniaturized in Toxkits. Four cyst-based screening tests have reached the stage of commercialization: two freshwater 24h-LC50 tests (Rotoxkit F and Streptoxkit F) and two estuarine/marine 24h-LC50 bioassays (Rotoxkit M and Artoxkit M), based on cysts of rotifer and crustacean species, respectively. Recently, the same laboratory has also been focusing on the development of a "rapid" (one hour) sublethal bioassays with aquatic invertebrates. The so called "Fluotox" screening test is based on the visual observation of in vivo inhibition of an enzymatic process, using a fluorescent substrate. Besides the advantages of rapidity and cost-effectiveness, the Fluotox assay also appears to have a remarkable predictive potential for mortality, as displayed by the remarkable correlation between the Fluotox 1h-EC50's and conventional 24h-LC50's with the same species.

  18. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode of action using two dimensional theoretical molecular descriptors.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Martin, Todd M; Barron, Mace G

    2016-11-01

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity, but development of predictive MoA classification models in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity MoA using a recently published dataset containing over one thousand chemicals with MoA assignments for aquatic animal toxicity. Two dimensional theoretical chemical descriptors were generated for each chemical using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool. The model was developed through augmented Markov blanket discovery from the dataset of 1098 chemicals with the MoA broad classifications as a target node. From cross validation, the overall precision for the model was 80.2%. The best precision was for the AChEI MoA (93.5%) where 257 chemicals out of 275 were correctly classified. Model precision was poorest for the reactivity MoA (48.5%) where 48 out of 99 reactive chemicals were correctly classified. Narcosis represented the largest class within the MoA dataset and had a precision and reliability of 80.0%, reflecting the global precision across all of the MoAs. False negatives for narcosis most often fell into electron transport inhibition, neurotoxicity or reactivity MoAs. False negatives for all other MoAs were most often narcosis. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was undertaken for each MoA to examine the sensitivity to individual and multiple descriptor findings. The results show that the Markov blanket of a structurally complex dataset can simplify analysis and interpretation by identifying a subset of the key chemical descriptors associated with broad aquatic toxicity MoAs, and by providing a computational chemistry-based network classification model with reasonable prediction accuracy.

  19. Aquatic models for the study of renal transport function and pollutant toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.S.

    1987-04-01

    Studies of renal cell transport mechanisms and their impairment by xenobiotics are often limited by technical difficulties related to renal tubule complexity. Problems include the juxtaposition of multiple tubule segments with different transport functions and severely limited access to the tubular lumen. Some limitations can be overcome by the careful selection of an appropriate aquatic experimental system. Two aquatic models for the vertebrate proximal segment are discussed here. The first is the kidney from certain marine flounder, which offers the following advantages: long-term viability, little tissue of nonproximal origin, and easy tubule isolation. Data are presented to demonstrate how studies with flounder kidney can be used to elucidate cellular mechanisms whereby different classes of toxic pollutants may interact. Results from these experiments indicate that the excretion of certain anionic xenobiotics can be delayed (1) by other anionic xenobiotics that compete for secretory transport sites and (2) by compounds that disrupt cellular ion gradients and energy metabolism needed to drive transport. The second system is the crustacean urinary bladder, a simple, flatsheet epithelium. Bladder morphology and transport physiology closely resemble those of vertebrate proximal segment. Electron micrographs show a brush border membrane at the luminal surface, numerous mitochondria, and an infolded serosal membrane, while in vivo and in vitro transport studies show reabsorption of NaCl, nutrients and water and secretion of organic cations; organic anions are secreted in bladders from some species and reabsorbed in others. Moreover, since bladders can be mounted as flat sheets in flux chambers, studies with this tissue avoid the problems of complex renal tubule geometry and tissue heterogeneity and tissue heterogeneity that limit transport studies in proximal tubule.

  20. Investigating the role of dissolved and droplet oil in aquatic toxicity using dispersed and passive dosing systems.

    PubMed

    Redman, Aaron D; Butler, Josh D; Letinski, Daniel J; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2017-04-01

    Characterization of the aquatic toxicity of oil is needed to support hazard assessment and inform spill response. Natural processes and mitigation strategies involving dispersant use can result in exposures to both dissolved and droplet oil that are not typically differentiated when oil exposures are characterized in toxicity tests. Thus, the impact of droplets on aquatic toxicity is largely uncharacterized. To improve the understanding of the role of droplets, acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Americamysis bahia were performed with Endicott crude oil in low-energy mixing systems with and without Corexit 9500 dispersant. Exposures were also prepared by placing crude oil in silicone tubing and passively dosing test media to provide dissolved oil exposures without droplets. A framework is described for characterizing dissolved phase exposures using both mechanistic modeling and passive sampling measurements. The approach is then illustrated by application to data from the present study. Expression of toxicity in terms of toxic units calculated from modeled dissolved oil concentrations or passive sampling measurements showed similar dose responses between exposure systems and organisms, despite the gradient in droplet oil. These results indicate that droplets do not appreciably contribute to toxicity for the 2 species investigated and further support hazard evaluation of dispersed oil on the basis of dissolved exposure metrics. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1020-1028. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Phosphorus availability modulates the toxic effect of silver on aquatic fungi and leaf litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Funck, J Arce; Clivot, H; Felten, V; Rousselle, P; Guérold, F; Danger, M

    2013-11-15

    The functioning of forested headwater streams is intimately linked to the decomposition of leaf litter by decomposers, mainly aquatic hyphomycetes, which enables the transfer of allochthonous carbon to higher trophic levels. Evaluation of this process is being increasingly used as an indicator of ecosystem health and ecological integrity. Yet, even though the individual impacts of contaminants and nutrient availability on decomposition have been well studied, the understanding of their combined effects remains limited. In the current study, we investigated whether the toxic effects of a reemerging contaminant, silver (Ag), on leaf litter decomposition could be partly overcome in situations where microorganisms were benefitting from high phosphorus (P) availability, the latter being a key chemical element that often limits detritus decomposition. We also investigated whether these interactive effects were mediated by changes in the structure of the aquatic hyphomycete community. To verify these hypotheses, leaf litter decomposition by a consortium of ten aquatic hyphomycete species was followed in a microcosm experiment combining five Ag contamination levels and three P concentrations. Indirect effects of Ag and P on the consumption of leaf litter by the detritivorous crustacean, Gammarus fossarum, were also evaluated. Ag significantly reduced decomposition but only at the highest concentration tested, independently of P level. By contrast, P and Ag interactively affected fungal biomass. Both P level and Ag concentrations shaped microbial communities without significantly affecting the overall species richness. Finally, the levels of P and Ag interacted significantly on G. fossarum feeding rates, high [Ag] reducing litter consumption and low P availability tending to intensify the feeding rate. Given the high level of contaminant needed to impair the decomposition process, it is unlikely that a direct effect of Ag on leaf litter decomposition could be observed in

  2. Aquatic toxicity of cartap and cypermethrin to different life stages of Daphnia magna and Oryzias latipes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghee; Jung, Jinyong; Oh, Sorin; Choi, Kyungho

    2008-01-01

    Cartap and cypermethrin, which are among the most widely used pesticides in many countries, are considered safe because of their low mammalian toxicity and their low persistence in the environment. However, recent findings of endocrine-disrupting effects and developmental neurotoxicity have raised concerns about the potential ecological impacts of these pesticides. We evaluated the aquatic toxicity of cartap [S,S'-(2-dimethylaminotrimethylene) bis(thiocarbamate), unspecified hydrochloride] and cypermethrin [(RS)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-(1RS,3RS,1RS,3SR)-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate], both individually and combined, on different life stages of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna and a freshwater teleost, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The 96-hr Daphnia median effective concentrations (EC50s) for cartap and cypermethrin were 91.0 microg/L and 0.00061 microg/L, respectively. Rapid recovery of Daphnia was observed after short-term pulsed exposure to cartap and cypermethrin; there were no adverse effects on reproduction or survival 20 d after a 24 hr exposure to cartap up to 1240 microg/L and cypermethrin up to 1.9 microg/L. Chronic continuous exposure (for 21 d) of 7-d-old Daphnia to cypermethrin significantly reduced the intrinsic population growth rate in a concentration-dependent manner. However, because the intrinsic population growth rates were all above zero, populations did not decrease even at the highest experimental concentration of 200 ng/L. Exposure of Daphnia neonates (< 24 hr old) to cypermethrin for 21 d caused significant, sub-lethal reproduction-related problems, such as increased time to first brood, reduced brood size, and reduced total brood number, at 0.0002, 0.002, and 0.2 ng/L cypermethrin, but the intrinsic population growth rate was not significantly affected. Oryzias latipes was relatively more resistant to both pesticides. In particular, embryos appeared to be more resistant than juveniles or adults

  3. Humic substances alleviate the aquatic toxicity of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles to organisms of different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuang; Quik, Joris T K; Song, Lan; Van Den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; Wouterse, Marja; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated how humic substances (HS) modify the aquatic toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as these particles agglomerate in water and interact with HS. An alga species (Raphidocelis subcapitata), a cladoceran species (Chydorus sphaericus), and a freshwater fish larva (Danio rerio), representing organisms of different trophic levels, were exposed to colloids of the polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs in the presence and absence of HS. Results show that the presence of HS alleviated the aquatic toxicity of the AgNP colloids to all the organisms in a dose-dependent manner. The particle size distribution of the AgNPs' colloidal particles shifted to lower values due to the presence of HS, implying that the decrease in the toxicity of the AgNP colloids cannot be explained by the variation of agglomeration size. The surface charge of the AgNPs was found to be more negative in the presence of high concentrations of HS, suggesting an electrostatic barrier by which HS might limit interactions between particles and algae cells; indeed, this effect reduced the algae toxicity. Observations on silver ions (Ag(+)) release show that HS inhibit AgNP dissolution, depending on the concentrations of HS. When toxic effects were expressed as a function of each Ag-species, toxicity of the free Ag(+) was found to be much higher than that of the agglomerated particles. © 2015 SETAC.

  4. Toxicity and metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenol by the aquatic angiosperm Lemna gibba

    SciTech Connect

    Ensley, H.E. . Dept. of Chemistry); Barber, J.T.; Polito, M.A.; Oliver, A.I. . Dept. of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology)

    1994-02-01

    The toxicity and metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenol with regard to the aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba (duckweed), have been studied. Toxicity is described in terms of the effect of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) on the vegetative reproduction of duckweed over a 10-d growth period; the EC10 and EC50 were 2.5 and 9.2 [mu]M, respectively. Metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenol was monitored by incubation of the plants with radiolabeled substrate, and periodic sampling and analysis by reversed-phase HPLC of the plant growth medium. Depending on the growth conditions, up to 95% of the 2,4-DCP was metabolized over a 6-d growth period. To analyze the metabolites, the plants were grown in the presence of sublethal concentrations of [U-[sup 14]C]-2,4-DCP. The growth medium was lyophilized and then mixed with the plants, extracted, and analyzed using reversed-phase HPLC, followed by scintillation counting of the fractions. The major metabolite was isolated and identified as 2,4-dichlorophenol-[beta]-D-glucopyranoside by high-field NMR and MS. The structure of the metabolite was confirmed by synthesis and by enzymatic cleavage of the [beta]-glucosidic linkage to afford 2,4-DCP. An important consequence of conjugate formation is the masking of the presence of 2,4-DCP to the usual analytical techniques used for its detection and quantitation. This finding is probably applicable to other contaminants and organisms.

  5. Methods for assessing the toxicity of herbicides to submersed aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Knauer, Katja; Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco; Dark, Roberta J; Maund, Stephen J

    2006-08-01

    A new test design for the non-axenic submergent aquatic macrophytes Elodea canadensis Michx. and Myriophyllum spicatum L. has been developed for potential use in herbicide toxicity testing. For the non-axenic cultures, the best growth conditions were observed in the Elendt-M4 medium in which no growth of algae or bacteria was observed. Cuttings were placed in beakers containing only the artificial M4 medium or were planted in small beakers containing OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) sediment (5% peat, 75% sand, 20% kaolinite), which were then placed in larger vessels with the M4 medium. The plants were observed for main and secondary shoot length, biomass and root formation within 2-3 weeks of planting. Growth rates were calculated for total plant length and biomass. The variance between the replicates was low throughout the experiment [coefficient of variation (CV) < 26% for total plant length, and between 16 and 40% for biomass]. Relative growth rates based on total plant length were determined as 0.028 and 0.050 per day for M. spicatum in the systems containing M4 medium only and medium plus sediment respectively. Similar results were observed for E. canadensis, with relative growth rates of 0.26 and 0.073 per day in the two test systems. The root-shoot ratio at harvest was greater by a factor of 2-3 for E. canadensis in the M4 medium than in the system containing sediment. However, comparable ratios were observed for M. spicatum in the two test systems. Both growth in total plant length and growth in biomass of the two species have potential as measures of toxicity.

  6. Toxicity of select beta adrenergic receptor-blocking pharmaceuticals (B-blockers) on aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Huggett, D B; Brooks, B W; Peterson, B; Foran, C M; Schlenk, D

    2002-08-01

    One class of pharmaceutical compounds identified in U.S. and European waters are the B-adrenergic receptor blocking compounds (B-blockers). However, little information is available on the potential aquatic toxicity of these compounds. Therefore, Hyalella azteca, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Oryias latipes (Japanese medaka) were exposed to metoprolol, nadolol, and propranolol to determine potential toxicity. Average 48-h LC(50) for propranolol to H. azteca was 29.8 mg/L. The no-observed-effects concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effects concentration (LOEC) for propranolol affecting reproduction of H. azteca were 0.001 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. The average propranolol and metoprolol 48-h LC(50)s for D. magna were 1.6 and 63.9 mg/L, respectively. C. dubia 48-h LC(50)s were 0.85 and 8.8 mg/L for propranolol and metoprolol, respectively. The NOEC and LOEC of propranolol affecting reproduction in C. dubia were 0.125 and 0.25 mg/L, respectively. In O. latipes, the propranolol 48-h LC(50) was 24.3 mg/L. Medaka growth was decreased at 0.5 mg/L propranolol. A 2-week medaka reproductive study indicated significant changes in plasma steroid levels; however, no changes in the average number of eggs produced or number of viable eggs which hatched was observed. In a 4-week follow-up propranolol exposure, the total number of eggs produced by medaka and the number of viable eggs that hatched were decreased at concentrations as low as 0.5 microg/L. Based on this study and the expected aqueous environmental exposure levels, adverse effects of propranolol to invertebrate populations is unlikely; however, further reproductive studies are need to elucidate the risk to teleosts.

  7. Variation in sensitivity of aquatic species to toxicants: Practical consequences for effect assessment of chemical substances

    SciTech Connect

    Vaal, M.A.; Van Leeuwen, C.J.; Hoekstra, J.A.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2000-04-01

    This study addresses the relation between the sensitivity of aquatic species and mode of action of different classes or organic chemicals. The authors analyzed large data sets of ecotoxicological information to reveal the interspecies variation in sensitivity, to relate this variation to the compounds' mode of action, and to explain the observed patterns using general biological information. Here the authors present a general framework and recommendations for risk assessment procedures. The authors recommend the use of toxicologically based classification schemes at an early stage of the risk assessment procedure. Screening programs are most efficiently run when only one species per compound is tested to prioritize substances. The toxicity of compounds belonging to the class of nonpolar narcotics is highly predictable and shows little interspecies variation. For these compounds quantitative structure-activity relationships (WSARs) can be used to estimate effect levels. Most effort should be put into testing reactive compounds and compounds with a specific mode of action as toxicity to some species can be 10{sup 5}--10{sup 6} times higher compared with less sensitive species. The use of assessment factors in effect assessment procedures may lead to an underestimation of effects on the more sensitive species. For many priority pollutants there is little information on their ecotoxicity. Predictive techniques are needed to compensate for this lack of data. Knowledge of the relation between modes of action of compounds and interspecies variation in sensitivity should be integrated in risk assessment procedures in order to make more efficient use of the limited financial resources available.

  8. Uptake and toxicity of methylmethacrylate-based nanoplastic particles in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Booth, Andy M; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Frenzel, Max; Johnsen, Heidi; Altin, Dag

    2016-07-01

    The uptake and toxicity of 2 poly(methylmethacrylate)-based plastic nanoparticles (PNPs) with different surface chemistries (medium and hydrophobic) were assessed using aquatic organisms selected for their relevance based on the environmental behavior of the PNPs. Pure poly(methylmethacrylate) (medium; PMMA PNPs) and poly(methylmethacrylate-co-stearylmethacrylate) copolymer (hydrophobic; PMMA-PSMA PNPs) of 86 nm to 125 nm were synthesized using a miniemulsion polymerization method. Fluorescent analogs of each PNP were also synthesized using monomer 7-[4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin]acrylamide and studied. Daphnia magna, Corophium volutator, and Vibrio fischeri were employed in a series of standard acute ecotoxicity tests, being exposed to the PNPs at 3 different environmentally realistic concentrations (0.01 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L, and 1.0 mg/L) and a high concentration 500 mg/L to 1000 mg/L. In addition, sublethal effects of PNPs in C. volutator were determined using a sediment reburial test, and the uptake and depuration of fluorescent PNPs was studied in D. magna. The PNPs and fluorescent PNPs did not exhibit any observable toxicity at concentrations up to 500 mg/L to 1000 mg/L in any of the tests except for PMMA-PSMA PNPs and fluorescent PNPs following 48-h exposure to D. magna (median lethal concentration values of 879 mg/L and 887 mg/L, respectively). No significant differences were observed between labeled and nonlabeled PNPs, indicating the suitability of using fluorescent labeling. Significant uptake and rapid excretion of the fluorescent PNPs was observed in D. magna. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1641-1649. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Effects of triclosan on aquatic invertebrates in tropics and the influence of pH on its toxicity on microalgae.

    PubMed

    Khatikarn, Jidapa; Satapornvanit, Kriengkrai; Price, Oliver R; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-08-20

    The antimicrobial triclosan (TCS) has been detected in household wastewaters (untreated and treated) and receiving environments across the globe. The toxic effects of TCS on temperate standard aquatic test organisms have been widely reported with microalgae being the most sensitive. However, environmental differences between tropical and temperate regions may have selected different trait compositions between these two regions, which in turn may lead to a difference in species sensitivity. Therefore, additional information is required to better characterize risks to organisms in tropics and ensure biodiversity in these regions is not adversely impacted. This study aims to supplement existing TCS toxicity data with five aquatic invertebrates found in tropics and to compare the sensitivity between aquatic invertebrate species from tropical and temperate regions. In addition, the effect of pH on the toxicity of neutral and ionized forms of TCS to microalgae (Chlorella ellipsoidea) was investigated. The reported 96-h LC50 values for the studied invertebrate species ranged from 72 to 962 μg/L. There was no significant difference between the sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate species from tropical and temperate regions. EC50 values for C. ellipsoidea, with and without pH buffer, were significantly different. The findings of this study can be used to support site-specific water quality criteria and environmental risk assessment for TCS in tropical regions. However, further chronic and semi-field experiments with TCS could potentially enable a refined assessment of direct and indirect effects on tropical aquatic communities and further explore functional endpoints of tropical ecosystems.

  10. Biotic and abiotic interactions in aquatic microcosms determine fate and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles. Part 1. Aggregation and dissolution.

    PubMed

    Unrine, Jason M; Colman, Benjamin P; Bone, Audrey J; Gondikas, Andreas P; Matson, Cole W

    2012-07-03

    To better understand their fate and toxicity in aquatic environments, we compared the aggregation and dissolution behavior of gum arabic (GA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in aquatic microcosms. There were four microcosm types: surface water; water and sediment; water and aquatic plants; or water, sediment, and aquatic plants. Dissolution and aggregation behavior of AgNPs were examined using ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation coupled to ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dynamic and static laser light scattering, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plants released dissolved organic matter (DOM) into the water column either through active or passive processes in response to Ag exposure. This organic matter fraction readily bound Ag ions. The plant-derived DOM had the effect of stabilizing PVP-AgNPs as primary particles, but caused GA-AgNPs to be removed from the water column, likely by dissolution and binding of released Ag ions on sediment and plant surfaces. The destabilization of the GA-AgNPs also corresponded with X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy results which suggest that 22-28% of the particulate Ag was associated with thiols and 5-14% was present as oxides. The results highlight the potential complexities of nanomaterial behavior in response to biotic and abiotic modifications in ecosystems, and may help to explain differences in toxicity of Ag observed in realistic exposure media compared to simplified laboratory exposures.

  11. Chitosan nanoparticles loaded the herbicide paraquat: the influence of the aquatic humic substances on the colloidal stability and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Renato; Clemente, Zaira; de Oliveira, Jhones Luis; Campos, Estefânia Vangelie Ramos; Chalupe, Victor C; Jonsson, Claudio M; de Lima, Renata; Sanches, Gabriela; Nishisaka, Caroline S; Rosa, André H; Oehlke, Kathleen; Greiner, Ralf; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2015-04-09

    Polymeric nanoparticles have been developed for several applications, among them as carrier system of pesticides. However, few studies have investigated the fate of these materials in the environment in relation to colloidal stability and toxicity. In nature, humic substances are the main agents responsible for complexation with metals and organic compounds, as well as responsible for the dynamics of these nanoparticles in aquatic and terrestrial environments. In this context, the evaluation of the influence of aquatic humic substances (AHS) on the colloidal stability and toxicity of polymeric nanoparticles of chitosan/tripolyphosphate with or without paraquat was performed. In this study, the nanoparticles were prepared by the ionic gelation method and characterized by size distribution measurements (DLS and NTA), zeta potential, infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Allium cepa genotoxicity studies and ecotoxicity assays with the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were used to investigate the effect of aquatic humic substances (AHS) on the toxicity of this delivery system. No changes were observed in the physical-chemical stability of the nanoparticles due to the presence of AHS using DLS and NTA techniques. However some evidence of interaction between the nanoparticles and AHS was observed by infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies. The ecotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that humic substances can decrease the toxic effects of nanoparticles containing paraquat. These results are interesting because they are important for understanding the interaction of these nanostructured carrier systems with species present in aquatic ecosystems such as humic substances, and in this way, opening new perspectives for studies on the dynamics of these carrier systems in the ecosystem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Separation and aquatic toxicity of enantiomers of the organophosphorus insecticide O-ethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothioate (EPN).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianqiang; Liu, Jinsong; Tu, Wenqing; Xu, Chao

    2010-11-01

    Enantioselectivity in separation and toxicity of chiral pesticides has become important research areas in environmental science, because these studies give a deeper insight into the environmental effect of chiral pesticides. In this study, enantiomeric separation of the organophosphorus pesticide and acaricide O-ethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothioate (EPN) was investigated by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with two chiral stationary phases. The racemate and separated enantiomers of EPN were tested for aquatic toxicities assay using Daphnia magna and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test. The enantiomers of EPN were completely separated on Chiralpak AD and Chiralpak AS columns coupled with a circular dichroism detector at 236 nm. Better separations were achieved with lower temperatures (e.g., 20°C) and lower levels of polar modifiers (e.g., 1%). A significant difference was found between the enantiomers in their acute aquatic toxicity; the (+)-enantiomer was about 10 times more toxic than its antipode. On the contrary, the (-)-enantiomer induced crooked body, yolk sac edema and pericardial edema significantly more than (+)-enantiomer in the zebrafish embryo test. These results suggest that biological toxicity of chiral pesticides should be assessed by using their individual enantiomers with more comprehensive methods.

  13. Abiotic sulfhydryl reactivity: a predictor of aquatic toxicity for carbonyl-containing alpha,beta-unsaturated compounds.

    PubMed

    Yarbrough, Jason W; Schultz, T Wayne

    2007-03-01

    A diverse series of aliphatic alpha,beta-unsaturated esters, ketones, and aldehydes were evaluated for reactivity with the model nucleophile sulfhydryl group in the form of the cysteine residue of the tripeptide glutathione; the reactive end point (RC50) was then related to aquatic toxicity (IGC50) assessed in the Tetrahymena pyriformis population growth impairment assay. The substructure specific to all tested reactive substances, an olefin conjugated to a carbonyl group, is inherently electrophilic and conveys the potential to act by way of Michael-type nucleophilic addition. All such unsaturated compounds are inherently acutely toxic. However, their toxicity is difficult to model with conventional descriptors since toxicity is independent of both hydrophobicity and molecular orbital electrophilicity but dependent on the specific molecular structure. While methacrylates typically did not attain an RC50 value at saturation, a linear relationship [log (IGC50(-1)) = 0.936[log (RC50(-1))] + 0.508, where n = 41, r2 = 0.846, q2 = 0.832, s = 0.35, F = 214, and Pr > F = 0.0001] was observed between aquatic toxicity and reactivity for the other carbonyl-containing alpha,beta-unsaturated chemicals.

  14. Influence of the stabilizers on the toxicity of metallic nanomaterials in aquatic organisms and human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Andreani, Tatiana; Nogueira, Verónica; Pinto, Vera V; Ferreira, Maria José; Rasteiro, Maria Graça; Silva, Amélia M; Pereira, Ruth; Pereira, Carlos M

    2017-12-31

    In this study, following a systematic approach, we used aquatic species (bacteria Vibrio fischeri and microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata) and different human cell lines (Caco-2, HepG2, SV-80 and HaCaT) representing different tissues and exposure pathways, to investigate how two organic stabilizers (PVA and DMSO) used for NMs dispersion influence their physicochemical properties, the persistence of metals in suspension and the toxicity/ecotoxicity of two metallic NMs (nano-Ag and nano-Cu). Although the stabilizers are expected to contribute to improve the dispersion and stability of NMs, the results obtained clearly showed that no similar changes in toxicity and morphological properties of the nano-Ag can be expected after its stabilization with PVA. Thus, regarding human cell lines, the reduction in the average size of the PVA-nano-Ag was followed by a reduction or maintenance of its toxicity, but the opposite was observed for the aquatic species tested since an increase in the average size enhanced its toxicity. As far as nano-Cu is considered DMSO contributed for a better dispersion of this nanomaterial, however this was not translated in a similar toxicity/ecotoxicity modification. In summary, even for nano-Cu, for which few or no data exists regarding its toxicity after stabilization with organic compounds, it was confirmed with consistent data, that the toxicity of metallic NMs is a complex combination of average size, chemical composition, solubilization or persistence in suspension of the metallic forms, interaction with test medium components and sensitivity of test species and cell lines. The combination of all of these factors makes the toxicity of metallic NMs unpredictable and points for the need of an extensive evaluation of each new formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating aquatic toxicity by visual inspection of thallus color in the green macroalga Ulva: testing a novel bioassay.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Seok; Brown, Murray T; Park, Gyoung Soo; Han, Taejun

    2007-05-15

    A novel bioassaythat uses visual inspection of reproduction of the aquatic green macroalga Ulva has been developed for testing toxic chemicals. The method employs a technique to quantify percentage reproduction based on thallus color change during the progression of reproduction. The validity of visual inspection as a reliable method was supported by a high test score (80.4) from a test of the ability of 97 first year university students with no biology background to evaluate reproduction by visual observation after 30 min training. The sensitivity of the method was assessed using a reference toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS; EC50 = 7.1 mg x L(-1)), heavy metals Cu (0.063 mg x L(-1)), Cd (0.217 mg x L(-1, Pb (0.840 mg x L(-1)), Zn (0.966 mg x L(-1)), formalin (1.458 mg x L(-1)), diesel fuel (3.7 mL x L(-1)), and is shown to be similar or better than more established aquatic toxicity bioassays. Toxicity data obtained by the Ulva bioassay for elutriates of sludge collected from nine different locations were directly compared with the commercially available Microtox test. Ulva reproduction was significantly inhibited in all elutriates with the greatest and least toxic effects, estimated by toxicity units (TU) observed in elutriates from industrial waste (13.1 TU) and a filtration bed (4.8 TU), whereas values ranging from 1 to 4.5 TU were obtained from the Microtox test, confirming that the Ulva bioassay is more sensitive. Correlation analyses for EC50 data versus the concentrations of toxicants in the sludge indicated a significant relationship between toxicity and four heavy meals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) for the Ulva bioassay but no such correlation was detected by the Microtox test. The new bioassay method is simple to use, easy to interpret, economical, and eco-relevant so would be a valuable addition to aquatic toxicity testing protocols for a wide range of toxicants. Moreover, since Ulva has a wide geographical distribution and species have similar reproductive

  16. Evaluation of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) degradation and toxicity to Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Myriophyllum sibiricum in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mark L; Sibley, Paul K; Ellis, David A; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R

    2002-12-03

    The fate of monochloroacetic acid (MCA), a common phytotoxic aquatic contaminant, and its toxicity to the aquatic macrophytes Lemna gibba (L. gibba), Myriophyllum spicatum (M. spicatum), and Myriophyllum sibiricum (M. sibiricum) under semi-natural field conditions was studied. Replicate 12,000 l enclosures were treated with 0, 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/l of MCA. Each microcosm was stocked with eight individual apical shoots of M. spicatum and M. sibiricum 1 day prior to initiation of exposure. Plants were sampled after 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of exposure and their response assessed using numerous somatic and biochemical endpoints. L. gibba was introduced into the microcosms the day of MCA treatment and monitored regularly for 21 days. The half-life of MCA in the water column ranged between 86 and 523 h. The most sensitive plant species was M. spicatum, followed by M. sibiricum and L. gibba. All species demonstrated toxicity within a threefold range of each other. Endpoint sensitivity varied depending on the duration of exposure and the level of effect chosen. Most species endpoint EC(x) values were less than an order of magnitude different. Citrate levels in Myriophyllum spp. were not influenced by exposure to MCA. The toxicity of MCA to M. spicatum and M. sibiricum was very similar and thus highly predictive of toxicity observed for each other. The EC(10) was a more conservative estimate of toxicity than the statistically derived no observed effect concentration. Current concentrations of MCA are not likely to pose a risk to these aquatic plants in surface waters.

  17. Factors influencing the partitioning and toxicity of nanotubes in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alan J; Hull, Matthew S; Steevens, Jeffery A; Dontsova, Katerina M; Chappell, Mark A; Gunter, Jonas C; Weiss, Charles A

    2008-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (NTs) may be among the most useful engineered nanomaterials for structural applications but could be difficult to study in ecotoxicological evaluations using existing tools relative to nanomaterials with a lower aspect ratio. Whereas the hydrophobicity and van der Waals interactions of NTs may suggest aggregation and sedimentation in aquatic systems, consideration regarding how engineered surface modifications influence their environmental fate and toxicology is needed. Surface modifications (e.g., functional groups and coatings) are intended to create conditions to make NTs dispersible in aqueous suspension, as required for some applications. In the present study, column stability and settling experiments indicated that raw, multiwalled NTs (MWNTs) settled more rapidly than carbon black and activated carbon particles, suggesting sediment as the ultimate repository. The presence of functional groups, however, slowed the settling of MWNTs (increasing order of stability: hydroxyl > carboxyl > raw), especially in combination with natural organic matter (NOM). Stabilized MWNTs in high concentrations of NOM provided relevance for water transport and toxicity studies. Aqueous exposures to raw MWNTs decreased Ceriodaphnia dubia viability, but such effects were not observed during exposure to functionalized MWNTs (> 80 mg/L). Sediment exposures of the amphipods Leptocheirus plumulosus and Hyalella azteca to different sizes of sediment-borne carbon particles at high concentration indicated mortality increased as particle size decreased, although raw MWNTs induced lower mortality (median lethal concentration [LC50], 50 to >264 g/kg) than carbon black (LC50, 18-40 g/kg) and activated carbon (LC50, 12-29 g/kg). Our findings stress that it may be inappropriate to classify all NTs into one category in terms of their environmental regulation.

  18. Degradation and aquatic toxicity of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using simulated wetlands.

    PubMed

    Toor, Navdeep S; Franz, Eric D; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Liber, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) produced during the extraction of bitumen at the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, are toxic to many aquatic organisms. Much of this toxicity is related to a group of dissolved organic acids known as naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are a natural component of bitumen and are released into process water during the separation of bitumen from the oil sand ore by a caustic hot water extraction process. Using laboratory microcosms as an analogue of a proposed constructed wetland reclamation strategy for OSPW, we evaluated the effectiveness of these microcosms in degrading NAs and reducing the aquatic toxicity of OSPW over a 52-week test period. Experimental manipulations included two sources of OSPW (one from Syncrude Canada Ltd. and one from Suncor Energy Inc.), two different hydraulic retention times (HRTs; 40 and 400 d), and increased nutrient availability (added nitrate and phosphate). Microcosms with a longer HRT (for both OSPWs) showed higher reductions in total NAs concentrations (64-74% NAs reduction, p<0.05) over the test period, while nutrient enrichment appeared to have little effect. A 96 h static acute rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioassay showed that the initial acute toxicity of Syncrude OSPW (LC50=67% v/v) was reduced (LC50>100% v/v) independent of HRT. However, EC20s from separate Microtox® bioassays were relatively unchanged when comparing the input and microcosm waters at both HRTs over the 52-week study period (p>0.05), indicating that some sub-lethal toxicity persisted under these experimental conditions. The present study demonstrated that given sufficiently long HRTs, simulated wetland microcosms containing OSPW significantly reduced total NAs concentrations and acute toxicity, but left behind a persistent component of the NAs mixture that appeared to be associated with residual chronic toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomonitoring of testate amoebae (protozoa) as toxic metals absorbed in aquatic bryophytes from the Hg-Tl mineralized area (China).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zai-Chao; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Zhao-Hui

    2011-05-01

    Toxic metal pollution in bodies of water is a source of danger to the health of people living in developing countries. The untreated mine wastes located near some Chinese ore mines may cause water pollution, which ultimately results in various diseases. The aim of the present study is to assess the response of testate amoebae communities to pollution by toxic metals in groundwater, stream water, and aquatic bryophytes in Lanmuchang stream located in the Hg-Tl mineralized area in southwestern Guizhou Province, China. Measurements were made of the levels of Hg, As, Cd, Tl, Cu, Zn, and Pb in three mosses: Hyophila propagulifera, Rhynchostegium riparioides, and Hygroamblystegium tenax. Mean moss concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn were significantly higher than stream water values and testate amoebae species richness and abundance were significantly lower in the 'polluted' group. We then studied the correlation between toxic metals and testate amoebae. The total species abundance is correlated negatively to Hg and Cu concentrations. Our results indicated that testate amoebae are sensitive to toxic metal pollution and aquatic bryophytes are bioaccumulators of trace metals, and results also showed potential microecosystem health risks.

  20. Evaluation of aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing effluents in reference to chromium electroplating industries.

    PubMed

    Baral, A; Engelken, R; Stephens, W; Farris, J; Hannigan, R

    2006-05-01

    This study evaluated aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing laboratory samples representative of effluents from chromium electroplating industries, and compared the aquatic environmental risks of hexavalent and trivalent chromium electroplating operations. Trivalent chromium electroplating has emerged as an acceptable alternative to hazardous hexavalent chromium electroplating. This process substitution has reduced the human health impact in the workplace and minimized the production of hazardous sludge regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The thrust behind this research was to investigate whether trivalent chromium electroplating operations have lower adverse impacts on standardized toxicity test organisms. Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas were used to investigate toxicities of trivalent chromium (Cr (III)), hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), and industrial effluents. In agreement with previous studies, Cr (III) was found to be less toxic than Cr (VI). Despite having several organic and inorganic constituents in the effluents obtained from trivalent chromium plating baths, they exhibited less adverse effects to C. dubia than effluents obtained from hexavalent chromium electroplating baths. Thus, transition from hexavalent to trivalent chromium electroplating processes may be justified. However, because of the presence of organic constituents such as formate, oxalate, and triethylene glycol in effluents, trivalent chromium electroplating operations may face additional regulatory requirements for removal of total organic carbon.

  1. Interspecies quantitative structure-activity-activity relationships (QSAARs) for prediction of acute aquatic toxicity of aromatic amines and phenols.

    PubMed

    Furuhama, A; Hasunuma, K; Aoki, Y

    2015-01-01

    We propose interspecies quantitative structure-activity-activity relationships (QSAARs), that is, QSARs with descriptors, to estimate species-specific acute aquatic toxicity. Using training datasets consisting of more than 100 aromatic amines and phenols, we found that the descriptors that predicted acute toxicities to fish (Oryzias latipes) and algae were daphnia toxicity, molecular weight (an indicator of molecular size and uptake) and selected indicator variables that discriminated between the absence or presence of various substructures. Molecular weight and the selected indicator variables improved the goodness-of-fit of the fish and algae toxicity prediction models. External validations of the QSAARs proved that algae toxicity could be predicted within 1.0 log unit and revealed structural profiles of outlier chemicals with respect to fish toxicity. In addition, applicability domains based on leverage values provided structural alerts for the predicted fish toxicity of chemicals with more than one hydroxyl or amino group attached to an aromatic ring, but not for fluoroanilines, which were not included in the training dataset. Although these simple QSAARs have limitations, their applicability is defined so clearly that they may be practical for screening chemicals with molecular weights of ≤364.9.

  2. Toxicity assessment of a complex industrial wastewater using aquatic and terrestrial bioassays Daphnia pulex and Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Meza, Juan Carlos; Pacheco-Salazar, Víctor Francisco; Pavón-Silva, Thelma Beatriz; Guiérrez-García, Víctor Guadalupe; Avila-González, Clemente De Jesús; Guerrero-García, Patricia

    2007-08-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial bioassays were used to assess toxicity at several stages in an industrial wastewater treatment plant that processes 400 L/s from a complex influent formed by wastewater from 135 industries. Daphnia pulex and Lactuca sativa were used to assess and compare toxicity between the influent wastewater and effluent wastewater from an activated sludge process, and compare their relationship with physicochemical parameters of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD); Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD); Total Suspended Solids (TSS); total Nitrogen (N (N-total)), and ammonia Nitrogen (N (N - NH3)). Samples from the primary clarifiers (PC), mix liquor stage (ML) and secondary clarifiers (SC) were processed using physicochemical and bioassay test. Toxicity results with Daphnia pulex showed decreased mean values of acute Toxic Units (a.T.U.) between PC (2.1 a.T.U.) and SC (1,25 a.T.U.). Lactuca sativa showed high values of toxicity between PC and SC (3.37 and 3.32 a.T.U. respectively). Some samples exhibited higher toxicity values at the effluent stage (SC) than the influent stage (PC). The highest correlations of physicochemical properties with toxicity were obtained with COD and nitrogen compounds in effluent samples (SC), but not with influent samples (PC).

  3. Initial evaluation of developmental malformation as an end point in mixture toxicity hazard assessment for aquatic vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, D.A.; Wilke, T.S. )

    1991-04-01

    The joint toxic action of three binary mixtures was determined for the embryo malformation endpoint of the aquatic FETAX (frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus) test system. Osteolathyrogenic compounds and short-chain carboxylic acids, representing separate, distinct modes of action for induction of malformation, were selected for testing in 96-hr, static-renewal tests. Three mixtures were tested for each combination, with each combination being tested on three separate occasions. Using toxic unit analysis, the combination of osteolathyrogens and the combination of carboxylic acids produced strictly additive (concentration addition) rates of malformation, while the combination of an osteolathyrogen and a carboxylic acid was less-than-additive (response addition) for induction of malformation. Therefore, developmental malformation may have value as an endpoint in mixture toxicity hazard assessment.

  4. Toxic endothelial cell destruction of the cornea after routine extracapsular cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Breebaart, A C; Nuyts, R M; Pels, E; Edelhauser, H F; Verbraak, F D

    1990-08-01

    Eighteen patients developed an acute corneal decompensation following normal intraocular surgery (cataract extraction in 17 patients), characterized by star-shaped endothelial folds, a twofold increase in corneal thickness, and a visual acuity of counting fingers during several postoperative days. In some cases, there was an additional iritis and transient hypotony. There was no effect of topical and/or subconjunctival corticosteroids on the course of the decompensation. Endothelial morphometric analysis showed a mean endothelial cell loss of 72%. Endothelial wound healing, as determined by coefficient of variation and percentage hexagonals, stabilized 6 months postoperatively. We coined the term toxic endothelial cell destruction for this syndrome. Epidemiological evaluation revealed the toxic endothelial cell destruction syndrome to be linked with the 10-fold increase of a detergent solution in the ultrasonic bath for cleaning the surgical instruments.

  5. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV<30%) for most chemicals and laboratories. The reproducibility was lower (CV>30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Uptake and translocation of Cd[sup 109] by two aquatic ferns in relation to relative toxic response

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.; Viswanathan, P.N. ); Gupta, M.; Devi, S. )

    1993-12-01

    Considerable variations exist in the phytotoxic response of different plants to cadmium exposure and uptake as observed in experimental and field studies. Quantitative and qualitative variations in comparative anatomy, physiology and biochemistry could be responsible for selective toxicity. Variations in uptake, translocation, sequestration by cell wall, phytochelation or formation of inclusion bodies have been reported in phytotoxic response to cadmium. Earlier studies by Singh et al. (1991) with the aquatic fern Marsilea minuta Linn showed Cd[sup 2+] induced both ultrastructural lesions and metallothioneins at concentrations above 0.5 ppm. However, another aquatic fern, Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brogn was even more sensitive to the basis of this variation, the comparative uptake and translocation of radioactive Cd[sup 109] by these plans was studied. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Aquatic toxicity structure-activity relationships for the zwitterionic surfactant alkyl dimethyl amine oxide to several aquatic species and a resulting species sensitivity distribution.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Scott E; Brill, Jessica L; Rawlings, Jane M; McDonough, Kathleen M; Zoller, Ann C; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R

    2016-12-01

    Amine oxide (AO) is a cationically charged surfactant at environmental pH and has previously been assessed in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) High Production Volume (HPV) chemicals program. Typical of cationic chemicals, AO is highly aquatically toxic. In this study we vastly improve the knowledge of AO toxicity by developing acute Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) for an alga (Desmodesmus subspicatus), an invertebrate (Daphnia magna) and a fish (Danio rerio) using the appropriate array of OECD Test Guidelines. A chronic toxicity QSAR was also determined for the most sensitive taxon, Desmodesmus. Pure AO spanning the chain lengths of C8 to C16 were tested individually with trace analytical confirmation of exposures in all tests. The QSARs were all of high quality (R(2) 0.92-0.98) with slopes ranging from -0.338 to -0.484. QSARs were then used to normalize toxicity outcomes for a larger, previously published data set used in HPV, European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals), and peer reviewed publications. Two additional species, Lemna gibba (macrophyte) and Ankistrodesmus falcatus (alga) were studied in exposures to dodecyl (C12) AO to provide sufficient taxonomic diversity to conduct a Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) analysis. The SSD 5th percentile hazardous concentration (HC5) to C12 AO was found to be 0.052mg/L which is similar to an existing AO 28-d, 3-community periphyton community bioassay normalized to C12 AO (No-observed-effect-concentration or NOEC=0.152mg/L). The statistical properties of the SSD was probed suggesting that new studies of additional taxa would be required that were at least 10-fold more sensitive than the most sensitive taxon to move the HC5 lower by a factor of 3. The overall AO hazard assessment suggests a large margin of safety relative to published environmental exposure data.

  8. The Structure of Algal Population in the Presence of Toxicants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatova, Valentina; Prokhotskaya, Valeria; Dmitrieva, Aida

    Algal bioassays are routinely employed as part of a battery of toxicity tests to assess the environmental impacts of contaminants on aquatic ecosystems. This estimation is an essential component of the ecological risk assessment.

  9. Water Spinach, Ipomoea aquatic (Convolvulaceae), Ameliorates Lead Toxicity by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Dewanjee, Saikat; Dua, Tarun K; Khanra, Ritu; Das, Shilpa; Barma, Sujata; Joardar, Swarnalata; Bhattacharjee, Niloy; Zia-Ul-Haq, M; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2015-01-01

    Ipomoea aquatica (Convolvulaceae), an aquatic edible plant, is traditionally used against heavy metal toxicity in India. The current study intended to explore the protective role of edible (aqueous) extract of I. aquatica (AEIA) against experimentally induced Pb-intoxication. The cytoprotective role of AEIA was measured on mouse hepatocytes by cell viability assay followed by Hoechst staining and flow cytometric assay. The effect on ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, intracellular redox status were measured after incubating the hepatocytes with Pb-acetate (6.8 μM) along with AEIA (400 μg/ml). The effects on the expressions of apoptotic signal proteins were estimated by western blotting. The protective role of AEIA was measured by in vivo assay in mice. Haematological, serum biochemical, tissue redox status, Pb bioaccumulation and histological parameters were evaluated to estimate the protective role of AEIA (100 mg/kg) against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) intoxication. Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes showed a gradual reduction of cell viability dose-dependently with an IC50 value of 6.8 μM. Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes exhibited significantly enhanced levels (p < 0.01) of ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation with concomitant depletion (p < 0.01) of antioxidant enzymes and GSH. However, AEIA treatment could significantly restore the aforementioned parameters in murine hepatocytes near to normalcy. Besides, AEIA significantly reversed (p < 0.05-0.01) the alterations of transcription levels of apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl 2, Bad, Cyt C, Apaf-1, cleaved caspases [caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9], Fas and Bid. In in vivo bioassay, Pb-acetate treatment caused significantly high intracellular Pb burden and oxidative pressure in the kidney, liver, heart, brain and testes in mice. In addition, the haematological and serum biochemical factors were changed significantly in Pb-acetate-treated animals. AEIA treatment restored

  10. The acute aquatic toxicity of a series of acrylate and methacrylate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, C.A.; McLaughlin, J.E.; Hamilton, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Acute aquatic toxicity data for several acrylate and methacrylate esters were reviewed. Acrylates included acrylic acid, ethyl-, and butyl-acrylate. Methacrylates included methacrylic acid, methyl-, and butyl-methacrylate. Tests were 48 hr or 96 hr standard flow through (invertebrates and fish) assays (measured exposure concentrations). These data are currently used in a risk assessment of acrylate/methacrylate environmental safety. Algal growth (Selanastrum capricomutum) 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.17 mg/L (NOEC < 0.13 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 11.0 mg/L (NOEC < 6.5 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC < 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Invertebrate (Daphnia magna) 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were 95.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 7.9 mg/L (NOEC 3.4 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 8.2 mg/L (NOEC 2.4 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 27.0 mg/L (NOEC 6.3 mg/L) for acrylic acid, 4.6 mg/L (NOEC 0.78 mg/L) for ethyl acrylate, and 5.2 mg/L (NOEC 3.8 mg/L) for butyl acrylate. Algae 96 hr EC{sub 50}s were 0.59 mg/L (NOEC 0.38 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 170.0 mg/L (NOEC 100.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 130.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate. Daphnia magna 48 hr LC{sub 50}s were > 130.0 mg/L (NOEC 130.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid, 69.0 mg/L (NOEC 48.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate, and 32.0 mg/L (NOEC 23.0 mg/L) for butyl methacrylate. Trout 96 hr LC{sub 50}s were 85.0 mg/L (NOEC 12.0 mg/L) for methacrylic acid and > 79.0 mg/L (NOEC 40.0 mg/L) for methyl methacrylate. The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 96 hr LC{sub 50} was 11.0 mg/L for butyl methacrylate.

  11. [Occurrence of PFOA and PFOS in the aquatic environments and their ecological toxicities in the aquatic environments].

    PubMed

    Cao, Jin-Ling; Xi, Bei-Dou; Xu, Qi-Gong; Wang, Ze-Bin; Jiang, Tian-Tian; Jiang, Lei; Mao, Jing-Ying

    2011-10-01

    Based on current researches, described the sources, toxicities, analytical methods and occurrence of PFOA and PFOS in wastewater treatment plants, lakes, rivers, coastal areas and tap waters in different countries in the world. According to the limited concentrations of PFOA + PFOS in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) put forward by Germany, the concentrations of PFOA + PFOS in WTP effluents in Singapore, Germany, Korea and England were assessed. The results showed that the concentrations of PFOA + PFOS in WTP effluents in Singapore were higher than the liminted concentration of 300 microg/L. Researches done by China, Japan, USA, and other countries showed that the concentrations of POFA and PFOS in rivers and coastal areas reached to ng/L, and the concentrations in Tennessee River, USA were the highest, reached to 100 ng/L. The risk assessments of PFOA and PFOS in tap water in some cities in China were assessed according to the risk quotients(RQ). The assessment results showed that tap waters from 19 cities in China were all below the risk level.

  12. Toxicity bioassays: Water pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity bioassay studies of water pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic fauna and flora. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fish and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Toxicity bioassays: Water-pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity bioassay studies of water pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic fauna and flora. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fish and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Evaluation of municipal waste incinerator fly ash toxicity and the role of cadmium by two aquatic toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Hidehiro

    1996-12-31

    Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator in Japan is regulated under the hazardous waste regulation Waste under Special Control, according to the Amendment of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law, because it contains high concentrations of heavy metals which are available for leaching. To evaluate the toxicity of fly ash, a fly ash leachate was prepared according to the Japanese standard leaching procedure. The chemical analysis of the leachate showed that possibly one of the most toxic substances was cadmium. The toxicity of the leachate and the cadmium was determined by algal assay and a Daphnia acute toxicity test. The results showed that the leachate was about seven times more toxic to the growth of algae and 20 to 30 times more toxic to the survival of Daphnia than expected from its cadmium concentration. The toxicity interaction between cadmium and the other constituents in the leachate was also examined. The toxicity of cadmium showed an additive effect with the other constituents in the leachate in algal assay. In the Daphnia test, however, cadmium showed an antagonistic effect.

  15. Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 1. Acute Toxicity of LAP Wastewater and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    34 Distribution/ Availability Codes t . Avail and/or Dist Special ig,- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report is the first in a series of four reports on the toxi ...Water temperature, pH, and hardness are known to affect the toxi - city of some chemicals. These factors had a statistically significant effect on the...International conducted a laboratory study to determine the acute, subchronic, and chronic toxi - I |city to aquatic organisms of condensate wastewater, LAP

  16. Toxicity evaluation of three pesticides on non-target aquatic and soil organisms: commercial formulation versus active ingredient.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joana L; Antunes, Sara C; Castro, Bruno B; Marques, Catarina R; Gonçalves, Ana M M; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

    2009-05-01

    The Ecological Risk Assessment of pesticides requires data regarding their toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial non-target species. Such requirements concern active ingredient(s), generally not considering the noxious potential of commercial formulations. This work intends to contribute with novel information on the effects of short-term exposures to two herbicides, with different modes of action (Spasor, Stam Novel Flo 480), and an insecticide (Lannate), as well as to corresponding active ingredients (Glyphosate, Propanil and Methomyl, respectively). The microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (growth inhibition), the cladoceran Daphnia magna (immobilisation), and the earthworm Eisenia andrei (avoidance behaviour) were used as test species. Both herbicides were innocuous to all test organisms at environmentally realistic concentrations, except for Stam and Propanil (highly toxic for Pseudokirchneriella; moderately toxic to Daphnia). Lannate and Methomyl were highly toxic to Daphnia and caused Eisenia to significantly avoid the spiked soil at realistic application rates. The toxicity of formulations either overestimated (e.g. Stam/Propanil for P. subcapitata) or underestimated (e.g. Stam/Propanil for D. magna) that of the active ingredient.

  17. Influence of developmental stage, salts and food presence on various end points using Caenorhabditis elegans for aquatic toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Donkin, S.G.; Williams, P.L.

    1995-12-01

    This study used a randomized block design to investigate the importance of several variables in using the free-living soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, for aquatic toxicity testing. Concentration-response data were obtained on nematodes of various developmental stages exposed to four metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Hg) and a water-soluble organic toxicant, sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP), under conditions of varied solvent medium (with or without salts and with or without a bacterial food source). The end points measured were 24- and 96-h mortality LC50 value, as well as development of larval stages to adulthood and evidence of reproduction. The results suggest that nematodes of various ages respond similarity to a given toxicant for all end points measured, although adults cultured from eggs appeared more sensitive than adults cultured from dauer larvae. The most important environmental variable in determining toxicity was the medium in which the tests were conducted. The presence of potassium and sodium salts in the medium significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the toxicity of many test samples. The presence of bacteria had little effect on 24-h tests with salts, but was important in 96-h survival and development. Based on sensitivity and ease of handling, adults cultured from eggs are recommended in both 24h and 96-h tests.

  18. Aquatic toxicity of PAHs and PAH mixtures at saturation to benthic amphipods: linking toxic effects to chemical activity.

    PubMed

    Engraff, Maria; Solere, Clémentine; Smith, Kilian E C; Mayer, Philipp; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2011-04-01

    Organisms in marine sediments are usually exposed to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), whereas risk assessment and management typically focus on the effects of single PAHs. This can lead to an underestimation of risk if the effects of single compounds are additive or synergistic. Because of the virtually infinite number of mixture-combinations, and the many different targeted organisms, it would be advantageous to have a model for the assessment of mixture effects. In this study we tested whether chemical activity, which drives the partitioning of PAHs into organisms, can be used to model the baseline toxicity of mixtures. Experiments were performed with two benthic amphipod species (Orchomonella pinguis and Corophium volutator), using passive dosing to control the external exposure of single PAHs and mixtures of three and four PAHs. The baseline toxicity of individual PAHs at water saturation generally increased with increasing chemical activity of the PAHs. For O. pinguis, the baseline toxicity of PAH mixtures was successfully described by the sum of chemical activities. Some compounds and mixtures showed a delayed expression of toxicity, highlighting the need to adjust the length of the experiment depending on the organism. On the other hand, some of the single compounds had a higher toxicity than expected, possibly due to the toxicity of PAH metabolites. We suggest that chemical activity of mixtures can, and should, be used in addition to toxicity data for single compounds in environmental risk assessment.

  19. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates.The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies.Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a).The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity data

  20. MOAtox: A Comprehensive Mode of Action and Acute Aquatic Toxicity Database for Predictive Model Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    tThe mode of toxic action (MOA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity andas an alternative to chemical class-based predictive toxicity modeling. However, the development ofquantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and other models has been limite...

  1. MOAtox: A Comprehensive Mode of Action and Acute Aquatic Toxicity Database for Predictive Model Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    tThe mode of toxic action (MOA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity andas an alternative to chemical class-based predictive toxicity modeling. However, the development ofquantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and other models has been limite...

  2. Oxidation of parenteral lipid emulsion by ambient and phototherapy lights: potential toxicity of routine parenteral feeding.

    PubMed

    Neuzil, J; Darlow, B A; Inder, T E; Sluis, K B; Winterbourn, C C; Stocker, R

    1995-05-01

    Vitamin E can be a prooxidant in isolated lipoprotein suspensions. Because lipid emulsions used in parenteral nutrition are lipoprotein-like suspensions rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E, we hypothesized that vitamin E may act as a prooxidant in lipid emulsions, as it is in lipoprotein suspensions. We therefore exposed an intravenously administered lipid emulsion (Intralipid) to a single spotlight commonly used in the treatment of neonatal jaundice, and measured the formation of triglyceride hydroperoxides by using high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn chemiluminescence detection. Concentrations of these hydroperoxides in different batches of fresh intralipid were usually approximately 10 mumol/L but increased up to 60 times after exposure to phototherapy light for a period of 24 hours, even though significant amounts of vitamin E were present at the end of the exposure. Triglyceride hydroperoxides were formed during phototherapy light exposure whether the intralipid was in plastic tubing used routinely for infusion or in glass containers. Ambient light also caused significant peroxidation of the formula lipids, although to a much lesser extent than observed with phototherapy light. For infants in the neonatal intensive care unit who were receiving intralipid but not phototherapy, solutions being infused at the end of 24 hours contained a mean of 40 mumol/L hydroperoxides. For infants receiving phototherapy, the mean was 97 mumol/L. Phototherapy light-induced formation of triglyceride hydroperoxides was prevented by covering the intralipid with aluminum foil or supplementation with sodium ascorbate before light exposure. We conclude that intralipid is highly susceptible to oxidation and that elevated levels of oxidized lipids can be formed during its clinical use, especially when intralipid infusion is combined with phototherapy. Because lipid hydroperoxides are cytotoxic and can cause adverse effects, inadvertent infusion of rancid

  3. Feasibility of Long-Term Patient Self-Reporting of Toxicities From Home via the Internet During Routine Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Timothy J.; Bennett, Antonia V.; Rogak, Lauren J.; Sit, Laura; Barz, Allison; Kris, Mark G.; Hudis, CliffordA.; Scher, Howard I.; Sabattini, Paul; Schrag, Deborah; Basch, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Patient-reported outcomes are increasingly used in routine outpatient cancer care to guide clinical decisions and enhance communication. Prior evidence suggests good patient compliance with reporting at scheduled clinic visits, but there is limited evidence about compliance with long-term longitudinal reporting between visits. Patients and Methods Patients receiving chemotherapy for lung, gynecologic, genitourinary, or breast cancer at a tertiary cancer center, with access to a home computer and prior e-mail experience, were asked to self-report seven symptomatic toxicities via the Web between visits. E-mail reminders were sent to participants weekly; patient-reported high-grade toxicities triggered e-mail alerts to nurses; printed reports were provided to oncologists at visits. A priori threshold criteria were set to determine if this data collection approach merited further development based on monthly (≥ 75% participants reporting at least once per month on average) and weekly compliance rates (60% at least once per week). Results Between September 2006 and November 2010, 286 patients were enrolled (64% were women; 88% were white; median age, 58 years). Mean follow-up was 34 weeks (range, 2 to 214). On average, monthly compliance was 83%, and weekly compliance was 62%, without attrition until the month before death. Greater compliance was associated with older age and higher education but not with performance status. Compliance was greatest during the initial 12 weeks. Symptomatic illness and technical problems were rarely barriers to compliance. Conclusion Monthly compliance with home Web reporting was high, but weekly compliance was lower, warranting strategies to enhance compliance in routine care settings. PMID:23733753

  4. Feasibility of long-term patient self-reporting of toxicities from home via the Internet during routine chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Judson, Timothy J; Bennett, Antonia V; Rogak, Lauren J; Sit, Laura; Barz, Allison; Kris, Mark G; Hudis, Clifford A; Scher, Howard I; Sabattini, Paul; Schrag, Deborah; Basch, Ethan

    2013-07-10

    Patient-reported outcomes are increasingly used in routine outpatient cancer care to guide clinical decisions and enhance communication. Prior evidence suggests good patient compliance with reporting at scheduled clinic visits, but there is limited evidence about compliance with long-term longitudinal reporting between visits. Patients receiving chemotherapy for lung, gynecologic, genitourinary, or breast cancer at a tertiary cancer center, with access to a home computer and prior e-mail experience, were asked to self-report seven symptomatic toxicities via the Web between visits. E-mail reminders were sent to participants weekly; patient-reported high-grade toxicities triggered e-mail alerts to nurses; printed reports were provided to oncologists at visits. A priori threshold criteria were set to determine if this data collection approach merited further development based on monthly (≥ 75% participants reporting at least once per month on average) and weekly compliance rates (60% at least once per week). Between September 2006 and November 2010, 286 patients were enrolled (64% were women; 88% were white; median age, 58 years). Mean follow-up was 34 weeks (range, 2 to 214). On average, monthly compliance was 83%, and weekly compliance was 62%, without attrition until the month before death. Greater compliance was associated with older age and higher education but not with performance status. Compliance was greatest during the initial 12 weeks. Symptomatic illness and technical problems were rarely barriers to compliance. Monthly compliance with home Web reporting was high, but weekly compliance was lower, warranting strategies to enhance compliance in routine care settings.

  5. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Statistically validated QSARs, based on theoretical descriptors, for modeling aquatic toxicity of organic chemicals in Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow).

    PubMed

    Papa, Ester; Villa, Fulvio; Gramatica, Paola

    2005-01-01

    The use of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships in assessing the potential negative effects of chemicals plays an important role in ecotoxicology. (LC50)(96h) in Pimephales promelas (Duluth database) is widely modeled as an aquatic toxicity end-point. The object of this study was to compare different molecular descriptors in the development of new statistically validated QSAR models to predict the aquatic toxicity of chemicals classified according to their MOA and in a unique general model. The applied multiple linear regression approach (ordinary least squares) is based on theoretical molecular descriptor variety (1D, 2D, and 3D, from DRAGON package, and some calculated logP). The best combination of modeling descriptors was selected by the Genetic Algorithm-Variable Subset Selection procedure. The robustness and the predictive performance of the proposed models was verified using both internal (cross-validation by LOO, bootstrap, Y-scrambling) and external statistical validations (by splitting the original data set into training and validation sets by Kohonen-artificial neural networks (K-ANN)). The model applicability domain (AD) was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability.

  7. Incorporating Aquatic Interspecies Toxicity Estimates into Large Databases: Model Evaluations and Data Gains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database, developed by NOAA’s Emergency Response Division (ERD), is a centralized data repository that allows for unrestricted access to fate and effects data. While this database was originally designed to help support decisions...

  8. Aquatic Toxicity of 3-Nitro-1,2,4-Triazol-5-One

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    13. Cowgill, U.M.; Milazzo, D.P. The sensitivity of Ceriodaphnia dubia and daphnia magna to seven chemicals utilizing the three brood test. Arch, of...Environ. Contam. Toxi . 1991,20,211-217. 14. Ankley, G.T.; Dierkes, D.A.; Jensen, D.A.; Peterson, G.S. Piperonyl butoxide as a tool in aquatic

  9. TOXICITY OF DIETBOURNE METALS IN AQUATIC BIOTA: EMERGING SCIENCE AND REGULATORY IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Pellston Workshop entitled "The Role of Dietborne Exposures in the Evaluation of Risk of Metals to Aquatic Organisms" was held in July 2002. The workshop was organized by SETAC, with funding from several government and industry organizations. The objective was to examine key ...

  10. TOXICITY OF DIETBOURNE METALS IN AQUATIC BIOTA: EMERGING SCIENCE AND REGULATORY IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Pellston Workshop entitled "The Role of Dietborne Exposures in the Evaluation of Risk of Metals to Aquatic Organisms" was held in July 2002. The workshop was organized by SETAC, with funding from several government and industry organizations. The objective was to examine key ...

  11. Incorporating Aquatic Interspecies Toxicity Estimates into Large Databases: Model Evaluations and Data Gains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database, developed by NOAA’s Emergency Response Division (ERD), is a centralized data repository that allows for unrestricted access to fate and effects data. While this database was originally designed to help support decisions...

  12. An "assemblage toxicity index" to improve characterization of effects of atrazine on aquatic plant communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic risk assessments are made uncertain by the use of measures of effect for only one level of effect and by the use of only one percentile in sensitivity distributions for the variation of this measure of effect across an assemblage of taxa. This leaves undefined the severi...

  13. An "assemblage toxicity index" to improve characterization of effects of atrazine on aquatic plant communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic risk assessments are made uncertain by the use of measures of effect for only one level of effect and by the use of only one percentile in sensitivity distributions for the variation of this measure of effect across an assemblage of taxa. This leaves undefined the severi...

  14. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  15. Amines and amine-related compounds in surface waters: a review of sources, concentrations and aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Poste, Amanda E; Grung, Merete; Wright, Richard F

    2014-05-15

    This review compiles available information on the concentrations, sources, fate and toxicity of amines and amine-related compounds in surface waters, including rivers, lakes, reservoirs, wetlands and seawater. There is a strong need for this information, especially given the emergence of amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture technologies, which may represent a new and significant source of amines to the environment. We identify a broad range of anthropogenic and natural sources of amines, nitrosamines and nitramines to the aquatic environment, and identify some key fate and degradation pathways of these compounds. There were very few data available on amines in surface waters, with reported concentrations often below detection and only rarely exceeding 10 μg/L. Reported concentrations for seawater and reservoirs were below detection or very low, while for lakes and rivers, concentrations spanned several orders of magnitude. The most prevalent and commonly detected amines were methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), ethylamine (EA), diethylamine (DEA) and monoethanolamine (MEAT). The paucity of data may reflect the analytical challenges posed by determination of amines in complex environmental matrices at ambient levels. We provide an overview of available aquatic toxicological data for amines and conclude that at current environmental concentrations, amines are not likely to be of toxicological concern to the aquatic environment, however, the potential for amines to act as precursors in the formation of nitrosamines and nitramines may represent a risk of contamination of drinking water supplies by these often carcinogenic compounds. More research on the prevalence and toxicity of amines, nitrosamines and nitramines in natural waters is necessary before the environmental impact of new point sources from carbon capture facilities can be adequately quantified.

  16. QSTR modeling for predicting aquatic toxicity of pharmacological active compounds in multiple test species for regulatory purpose.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Basant, Nikita

    2015-02-01

    High concentrations of pharmacological active compounds (PACs) detected in global drinking water resources and their toxicological implications in aquatic life has become a matter of concern compelling for the development of reliable QSTRs (qualitative/quantitative structure-toxicity relationships) for their risk assessment. Robust QSTRs, such as decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) models implementing stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms were established by experimental toxicity data of structurally diverse PACs in daphnia using molecular descriptors for predicting toxicity of new untested compounds in multiple test species. Developed models were rigorously validated using OECD recommended internal and external validation procedures and predictive power tested with external data of different trophic level test species (algae and fish). Classification QSTRs (DTB, DTF) rendered accuracy of 98.73% and 97.47%, respectively in daphnia and 84.38%, 85.94% (algae), 78.46% and 79.23% (fish). On the other hand, the regression QSTRs (DTB, DTF) yielded squared correlation coefficient values of 0.831, 0.852 (daphnia), 0.534, 0.556 (algae) and 0.620, 0.637 (fish). QSTRs developed in this study passed the OECD validation criteria and performed better than reported earlier for predicting toxicity of PACs, and can be used for screening the new untested compounds for regulatory purpose.

  17. Metal toxicity differently affects the Iris pseudacorus-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi symbiosis in terrestrial and semi-aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Wężowicz, K; Turnau, K; Anielska, T; Zhebrak, I; Gołuszka, K; Błaszkowski, J; Rozpądek, P

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation offers an environmental friendly alternative to conventional cleanup techniques. In this study, mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the roots of Mentha longifolia grown in the basin of the Centuria River (S Poland) were used. Iris pseudacorus was grown in substratum from an industrial waste, enriched in Pb, Fe, Zn, and Cd in a terrestrial and water-logged habitat. Plant yield and photosynthetic performance was the highest in the aquatic environment; however, the presence of toxic metals (TM) negatively affected photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry as shown by the JIP test. Fungi colonization and Cd accumulation within plant tissues was decreased. In the terrestrial habitat, neither arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) nor metal toxicity affected plant growth, although metal uptake, Cd in particular, as well as photosynthesis were affected. Inoculated plants accumulated significantly more Cd, and photosynthesis was downregulated. The results presented in this study clearly indicate that the I. pseudacorus-AMF symbiosis adapts itself to the presence of toxic metals in the environment, optimizing resource supply, energy fluxes, and possibly stress tolerance mechanisms. Plant/AMF consortia grown in terrestrial and water-logged habitats utilize different strategies to cope with metal toxicity. The use of AMF in improving the phytoremediation potential of I. pseudacorus needs, however, further research.

  18. Evaluating the risk to aquatic ecosystems posed by leachate from tire shred fill in roads using toxicity tests, toxicity identification evaluations, and groundwater modeling.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Patrick J; Warmerdam, John M; Ogle, Scott; Humphrey, Dana N; Patenaude, Stacey M

    2006-02-01

    The risk to adjacent aquatic systems posed by leachates from scrap tires used in engineering applications has not been characterized adequately. Toxicity testing, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), and groundwater modeling were used to determine the circumstances under which tire shreds could be used as roadbed fill with negligible risk to aquatic organisms in adjacent water bodies. Elevated levels of iron, manganese, and several other chemicals were found in tire shred leachates. However, chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) showed no adverse effects caused by leachates collected from tire shreds installed above the water table. Exposure to leachates collected from tire shreds installed below the water table resulted in significant reductions to both survival and reproduction in C. dubia. The TIE results indicated that exposure to soluble metals (likely ferrous iron primarily) and the formation of iron hydroxide precipitates on this invertebrate species likely were the causes of the observed effects. The available chemistry data show that iron concentrations in the affected groundwater decreased substantially within a short distance (0.61 m) downgradient of tire shred fill. Based on geochemical modeling, the use of tire shreds in applications below the water table is appropriate in settings where dissolved oxygen is greater than 2.0 mg/L, pH is greater than 5.8, and a downgradient buffer of approximately 3.0 m exists between the fill and the surface water. For settings with lower dissolved oxygen concentrations or lower pH, results of groundwater modeling indicate that a greater buffer distance (approximately 11 m) is needed to dilute the leachate to nontoxic levels under various soil and groundwater conditions solely through advection and dispersion processes.

  19. Water quality and aquatic toxicity data of 2002 spring thaw conditions in the upper Animas River watershed, Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, D.L.; Wirt, L.; Besser, J.M.; Wright, W.G.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic, water-quality, and biologic toxicity data collected during the annual spring thaw of 2002 in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado. The spring-thaw runoff is a concern because elevated concentrations of iron oxyhydroxides can contain sorbed trace metals that are potentially toxic to aquatic life. Water chemistry of streams draining the San Juan Mountains is affected by natural acid drainage and weathering of hydrothermal altered volcanic rocks and by more than a century of mining activities. The timing of the spring-thaw sampling effort was determined by reviewing historical climate and stream-flow hydrographs and current weather conditions. Twenty-one water-quality samples were collected between 11:00 AM March 27, 2002 and 6:00 PM March 30, 2002 to characterize water chemistry at the A-72 gage on the upper Animas River below Silverton. Analyses of unfiltered water at the A-72 gage showed a relation between turbidity and total-recoverable iron concentrations, and showed diurnal patterns. Copper and lead concentrations were related to iron concentrations, indicating that these elements are probably sorbed to colloidal iron material. Calcium, strontium, and sulfate concentrations showed overall decreasing trends due to dilution, but the loads of those constituents increased over the sampling period. Nine water-quality samples were collected near the confluence of Mineral Creek with the Animas River, the confluence of Cement Creek with the Animas River, and on the upper Animas River above the confluence with Cement Creek (three samples at each site). A total of six bulk water-toxicity samples were collected before, during, and after the spring thaw from the Animas River at the A-72 gage site. Toxicity tests conducted with the bulk water samples on amphipods did not show strong differences in toxicity among the three sampling periods; however, toxicity of river water to fathead minnows showed a decreasing trend

  20. Identifying the causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    A previous study found that coke leachates (CL) collected from oil sands field sites were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, the cause of toxicity was not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to generate CL in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity response of C. dubia and perform chronic toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests to identify the causes of CL toxicity. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at pH 5.5 and 9.5. Leachates were filtered on day 15 and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) was 6.3 and 28.7% (v/v) for pH 5.5 and 9.5 CLs, respectively. Trace element characterization of the CLs showed Ni and V levels to be well above their respective 7-d LC50s for C. dubia. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survival and reproduction in pH 5.5 CL, but not in pH 9.5 CL. Cationic and anionic resins removed toxicity of pH 5.5 CL only. Conversely, the toxicity of pH 9.5 CL was completely removed with an anion resin alone, suggesting that the pH 9.5 CL contained metals that formed oxyanions. Toxicity reappeared when Ni and V were added back to anion resin-treated CLs. The TIE results combined with the trace element chemistry suggest that both Ni and V are the cause of toxicity in pH 5.5 CL, whereas V appears to be the primary cause of toxicity in pH 9.5 CL. Environmental monitoring and risk assessments should therefore focus on the fate and toxicity of metals, especially Ni and V, in coke-amended oil sands reclamation landscapes.

  1. Natural and active chemical remediation of toxic metals, organics, and radionuclides in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, G.; Pintauro, P.; O`Connor, S.

    1996-05-02

    This project focuses on the chemical aspects of remediation, with the underlying theme that chemical remediation does occur naturally. Included are studies on the fate of heavy metal and organic contaminants discharged into aquatic environments; accurate assay metal contaminants partitioned into soils, water and tissue; development of novel polymeric membranes and microporous solids for the entrapment of heavy metals; and the development of hybrid chemo-enzymatic oxidative schemes for aromatics decontamination. 49 refs.

  2. Aquatic toxicity variability for fresh- and saltwater species in refinery wastewater effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Bleckmann, C.A.; Rabe, B.; Edgmon, S.J.; Fillingame, D.

    1995-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established test requirements for toxicity reduction or toxicity identification evaluations (TR/TIE) of wastewater effluents. Interpretations of test results are complicated by factors other than toxicity when essentially freshwater wastewaters flow into estuaries and the effluent permit requires marine organisms for testing. This paper reports the results of an investigation of potential freshwater surrogate species, and Microtox{reg_sign}, for use in such a TIE. Of the five species tested, mysid shrimp were found to be most sensitive to unidentified toxicants in petroleum refinery wastewater. No strong correlations of this sensitivity to that of other organisms, or to several wastewater constitutents, were identified. The two marine species specified in the effluent permit were more sensitive to the toxicants that were the freshwater species.

  3. A Test of a Major-ion Toxicity Model to Predict the Toxicity of Coal Bed Methane Product Waters to Aquatic Biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, M. B.; Meyer, J. S.

    2003-12-01

    Coal bed methane (CBM) accounts for about 7.5% of the total natural gas production in the United States, and the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Montana and Wyoming has recently become a major production area. During CBM extraction, a coal seam is partially de-watered to relieve hydraulic pressure, thus causing methane gas to desorb. Some of this water (called product water) is discharged on the land surface and allowed to run into local drainages in the PRB. Due to the massive amounts of product water being discharged (rates up to 64,000 L/day per well), studies are needed to examine the potential effects on aquatic organisms. Additionally, models to predict such effects would be useful regulatory screening tools. To that end, we tested the ability of a multivariate logistic regression model of the toxicity of major inorganic ions (i.e., Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-) to predict the acute toxicity of CBM-related waters to two aquatic invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). First, we entered water chemistry data for several CBM product and receiving waters from the PRB into the major-ion model. Then we compared the model's predicted survival to the survival of the three species in toxicity tests we had previously conducted with those waters. For the majority of CBM product water and stream water samples in which CBM product water constituted the entire flow of the stream, the major-ion model consistently under-predicted survival by >50%. Therefore, from a regulatory standpoint, this model is conservative for detecting toxicity of CBM product waters (i.e., it over-predicts toxicity). Although the model appeared to be an excellent predictor of survival for receiving waters that contained no inputs from CBM processing (i.e., the difference between predicted and observed survival was <=10%), the majority of those cases were inconclusive tests of the model because the predicted and observed survival were

  4. Toxicity of thiocyanate, phenol, and their mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms: A mixture modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Soboslay, E.G.

    1987-01-01

    Thiocyanate and phenol are two environmentally significant constituents of wastewater streams from coke production plants and coal conversion facilities. Acute and chronic toxicity experiments were conducted for thiocyanate and phenol with Daphnia magna at 20 C and Ceriodaphnia affinis/dubia at 25C in hard water to study their individual toxic effects on survival and reproduction. Statistical analysis of the dose response relationships for the individual chemicals indicated the type of combined effects that occur when thiocyanate and phenol are present simultaneously. Mixture models for toxicant interaction were used to predict joint toxic effects on survival and reproduction. The applicability of the mixture model was tested by performing joint toxicity experiments for specific thiocyanate and phenol mixtures to verify the model for toxic effects on specific whole organism performances. Neonate production and hatchability, two indices of reproduction, were selected to evaluate the chronic toxic effects of thiocyanate and phenol. The resulting dose response curves for mixtures were compared to curves predicted on the basis of the mathematical model for concentration addition. Low concentrations of thiocyanate, phenol and their mixtures generally caused a stimulation effect on D. magna and C. affinis/dubia reproduction.

  5. Assessment of aquatic experimental versus predicted and extrapolated chronic toxicity data of four structural analogues.

    PubMed

    Dom, Nathalie; Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny

    2012-01-01

    The present study was developed to assess the chronic toxicity predictions and extrapolations for a set of chlorinated anilines (aniline (AN), 4-chloroaniline (CA), 3,5-dichloroaniline (DCA) and 2,3,4-trichloroaniline (TCA)). Daphnia magna 21 d chronic experimental data was compared to the chronic toxicity predictions made by the US EPA ECOSAR QSAR tools and to acute-to-chronic extrapolations. Additionally, Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) were constructed to assess the chronic toxicity variability among different species and to investigate the acute versus chronic toxicity in a multi-species context. Since chlorinated anilines are structural analogues with a designated polar narcotic mode of action, similar toxicity responses were assumed. However, rather large interchemical and interspecies differences in toxicity were observed. Compared to the other three test compounds, TCA exposure had a significantly larger impact on growth and reproduction of D. magna. Furthermore, this study illustrated that QSARs or a fixed ACR are not able to account for these interchemical and interspecies differences. Consequently, ECOSAR was found to be inadequate to predict the chronic toxicity of the anilines and the use of a fixed ACR (of 10) led to under of certain species. The experimental ACRs determined in D. magna were substantially different among the four aromatic amines (ACR of 32 for AN, 16.9 for CA, 5.7 for DCA and 60.8 for TCA). Furthermore, the SSDs illustrated that Danio rerio was rather insensitive to AN in comparison to another fish species, Phimphales promelas. It was therefore suggested that available toxicity data should be used in an integrative multi-species way, rather than using individual-based toxicity extrapolations. In this way, a relevant overview of the differences in species sensitivity is given, which in turn can serve as the basis for acute to chronic extrapolations.

  6. Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 3. Chronic Toxicity of LAP Wastewater and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    blowkt~ebP Ictaluru unctatusTNT Fathead minnow Ial Lr tg"tce LAP Daphnia magna Channel catfish 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene Chronic studies Rainbow trout RDX...channel catfish as test organisms. Chronic toxicity studies were performed with TNT and LAP water using fathead minnows and Daphnia magna as test...organisms. A chronic study was also performed with irradiated LAP water using Daphnia magna. Based on the data from these studies as well as prior acute

  7. Radiolysis of selected antibiotics and their toxic effects on various aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Y.; Yu, Seung H.; Lee, Myun J.; Kim, Tae H.; Kim, Sang D.

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the decomposition of three γ-irradiated antibiotics (e.g., tetracycline, sulfamethazine, and lincomycin) and to compare the toxic effects on Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The median cell growth inhibition concentrations (IC 50) of tetracycline, lincomycin, and sulfamethazine for P. subcapitata dramatically increased (e.g., toxicity decreased) after radiolysis. The results demonstrated that γ-radiation treatment was efficient to decompose antibiotics and thereby their toxicity on P. subcaptitata remarkably decreased due to reduced parent compounds.

  8. Evaluation of CADASTER QSAR models for the aquatic toxicity of (benzo)triazoles and prioritisation by consensus prediction.

    PubMed

    Cassani, Stefano; Kovarich, Simona; Papa, Ester; Roy, Partha Pratim; Rahmberg, Magnus; Nilsson, Sara; Sahlin, Ullrika; Jeliazkova, Nina; Kochev, Nikolay; Pukalov, Ognyan; Tetko, Igor; Brandmaier, Stefan; Durjava, Mojca Kos; Kolar, Boris; Peijnenburg, Willie; Gramatica, Paola

    2013-03-01

    QSAR regression models of the toxicity of triazoles and benzotriazoles ([B]TAZs) to an alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), Daphnia magna and a fish (Onchorhynchus mykiss), were developed by five partners in the FP7-EU Project, CADASTER. The models were developed by different methods - Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Partial Least Squares (PLS), Bayesian regularised regression and Associative Neural Network (ASNN) - by using various molecular descriptors (DRAGON, PaDEL-Descriptor and QSPR-THESAURUS web). In addition, different procedures were used for variable selection, validation and applicability domain inspection. The predictions of the models developed, as well as those obtained in a consensus approach by averaging the data predicted from each model, were compared with the results of experimental tests that were performed by two CADASTER partners. The individual and consensus models were able to correctly predict the toxicity classes of the chemicals tested in the CADASTER project, confirming the utility of the QSAR approach. The models were also used for the prediction of aquatic toxicity of over 300 (B)TAZs, many of which are included in the REACH pre-registration list, and were without experimental data. This highlights the importance of QSAR models for the screening and prioritisation of untested chemicals, in order to reduce and focus experimental testing. 2013 FRAME.

  9. Toxicity on aquatic organisms exposed to secondary effluent disinfected with chlorine, peracetic acid, ozone and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Juliana Berninger; Rodgher, Suzelei; Daniel, Luiz Antonio; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2014-11-01

    The toxic potential of four disinfectant agents (chlorine, ozone, peracetic acid and UV radiation), used in the disinfection of urban wastewater, was evaluated with respect to four aquatic organisms. Disinfection assays were carried out with wastewater from the city of Araraquara (São Paulo State, Brazil), and subsequently, toxicity bioassays were applied in order to verify possible adverse effects to the cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Daphnia similis), midge larvae Chironomus xanthus and fish (Danio rerio). Under the experimental conditions tested, all the disinfectants were capable of producing harmful effects on the test organisms, except for C. xanthus. The toxicity of the effluent to C. silvestrii was observed to increase significantly as a result of disinfection using 2.5 mg L(-1) chlorine and 29.9 mg L(-1) ozone. Ozonation and chlorination significantly affected the survival of D. similis and D. rerio, causing mortality of 60 to 100 % in comparison to the non-disinfected effluent. In experiments with effluent treated with peracetic acid (PAA) and UV radiation, a statistically significant decrease in survival was only detected for D. rerio. This investigation suggested that the study of the ideal concentrations of disinfectants is a research need for ecologically safe options for the treatment of wastewater.

  10. Use of the aquatic oligochaete lumbriculus variegatus for assessing the toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, G.L.; Ankley, G.T.; Benoit, D.A.; Mattson, V.R. )

    1993-02-01

    In this paper the authors describe test methods utilizing the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus to assess the acute and chronic toxicity and the presence of bioaccumulatable compounds in contaminated sediments. Lumbriculus variegatus was chosen as a test species because (a) it represents an ecologically relevant component of freshwater ecosystems; (b) it is suitable for long-term testing and evaluation of chronic toxicity end points (e.g., growth, reproduction); (c) it is exposed via all important routes of concern, including ingesting of contaminated particles; and (d) it has sufficient biomass to assess bioaccumulation of contaminants. Also, Lumbriculus variegatus is easily cultured and handled. Described herein are culturing procedures and test protocols for Lumbriculus variegatus, as well as two examples of the types of experimental data generated when using the oligochaete in test with contaminated sediments. Two case studies are presented in which L. variegatus was used to assess the bioaccumulation of metals (cadmium, nickel) from contaminated sediments and assess the toxicity of sediment samples collected from the copper-contaminated Keweenaw Waterway system in Michigan.

  11. Dynamics of aquatic ecosystems and models under toxicant stress: State space analysis, covariance structure, and ecological risk

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.R.; Bartell, S.M.

    1988-06-01

    The state of an ecosystem at any time t may be characterized by a multidimensional state vector x(t). Changes in state are represented by the trajectory traced out by x(t) over time. The effects of toxicant stress are summarized by the displacement of a perturbed state vector, x/sub p/(t), relative to an appropriate control, x/sub c/(t). Within a multivariate statistical framework, the response of an ecosystem to perturbation is conveniently quantified by the distance separating x/sub p/(t) from x/sub c/(t) as measured by a Mahalanobis metric. Use of the Mahalanobis metric requires that the covariance matrix associated with the control state vector be estimated. State space displacement analysis was applied to data on the response of aquatic microcosms and outdoor ponds to alkylphenols. Dose-response relationships were derived using calculated state space separations as integrated measures of the ecological effects of toxicant exposure. Inspection of the data also revealed that the covariance structure varied both with time and with toxicant exposure, suggesting that analysis of such changes might be a useful tool for probing control mechanisms underlying ecosystem dynamics. 90 refs., 53 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Aquatic toxicity of acetaminophen, carbamazepine, cimetidine, diltiazem and six major sulfonamides, and their potential ecological risks in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghee; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinyong; Park, Sujung; Kim, Pan-Gyi; Park, Jeongim

    2007-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are manufactured and used for specific biological functions in veterinary and human medicine. Their detection in the environment and their bioactivity have resulted in concern for potential adverse effects on non-target species. Notwithstanding recent attention for their occurrence in the environment, there are significant research gaps for existing pharmaceuticals with regard to their potential ecological consequences. In this study, the four most abundantly used pharmaceuticals in Korea, namely acetaminophen, carbamazepine, cimetidine, and diltiazem, and six sulfonamide related antibiotics, including sulfamethoxazole, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, and trimethoprim were examined for their acute aquatic toxicity employing a marine bacterium (Vibrio fischeri), a freshwater invertebrate (Daphnia magna), and the Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). In general, Daphnia was the most susceptible among the test organisms. The most acutely toxic among the chemicals tested in this study was diltiazem, with a median lethal concentration of 8.2 mg/L for D. magna. The resulting acute toxicity of these pharmaceuticals was reasonably predicted by physicochemical descriptors such as pH-dependent distribution coefficient and EHOMO-ELUMO gap. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) derived for the test pharmaceuticals in Korea ranged between 0.14 and 16.5 microg/L. Hazard quotients derived from PECs and predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for sulfamethoxazole and acetaminophen were 6.3 and 1.8, respectively, suggesting potential environmental concerns and a need for further investigation.

  13. LINKING EFFECTS OF PERSISTENT BIOACCUMULATIVE TOXICANTS TO CHEMICAL EXPOSURES IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The critical step in characterization of ecological risks associated with exposures of fish and wildlife to persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs) is linking chemical residue based toxicological data to concentrations of PBTs in sediments, water, and biota. This is necessary...

  14. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the results of acute toxicity tests conducted with common surrogate species, and several species of threatened and endangered species for which there were excess artificially propagated stock to allow direct testing.

  15. Evaluation of in silico development of aquatic toxicity species sensitivity distributions (SSDs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard test species. This study assessed whether species sensitivity di...

  16. Selenium toxicity to aquatic life: An argument for sediment-based water quality criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, S.P.; Van Derveer, W.D.

    1997-06-01

    A number of streams in Colorado were found to contain waterborne selenium concentrations that consistently exceeded the current US EPA chronic criterion of 5 {micro}g/L and often exceeded the acute criterion of 210 {micro}g/L. Despite these elevated concentrations, no biological impact was observed. These findings led to a review of selenium exposure pathways in freshwater. The literature strongly indicates that chronic selenium toxicity can result from accumulation of selenium in the sediment, movement into the food chain, and resulting dietary uptake. Chronic toxicity does not appear to be strictly a result of waterborne selenium concentrations. In fact, dissolved selenium concentrations are a poor predictor of potential chronic toxicity to freshwater organisms, when evaluated with Hill`s criteria for causal association. To develop a more reliable chronic waterborne criterion, a sediment-based method is needed to describe accurately potential chronic toxicity of selenium on a site-specific basis.

  17. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the results of acute toxicity tests conducted with common surrogate species, and several species of threatened and endangered species for which there were excess artificially propagated stock to allow direct testing.

  18. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part III. Effluent Toxicity Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the results of chronic toxicity tests conducted with common surrogate species, and several threatened and endangered species for which there were excess artificially propagated stock to allow direct testing.

  19. Evaluation of in silico development of aquatic toxicity species sensitivity distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard test species. This study assessed whether species sensitivity d...

  20. ABILITY OF ECOSAR, TOPKAT, NEURAL NETWORKS, AND ASTER TO PREDICT TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS TO AQUATIC BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) which provides the basis for assessing and managing toxic substances in Canada, is being revised. Several new mandates have been introduced in the Act...

  1. ABILITY OF ECOSAR, TOPKAT, NEURAL NETWORKS, AND ASTER TO PREDICT TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS TO AQUATIC BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) which provides the basis for assessing and managing toxic substances in Canada, is being revised. Several new mandates have been introduced in the Act...

  2. Evaluation of in silico development of aquatic toxicity species sensitivity distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard test species. This study assessed whether species sensitivity d...

  3. QSAR models for predicting in vivo aquatic toxicity of chlorinated alkanes to fish.

    PubMed

    Zvinavashe, Elton; van den Berg, Hans; Soffers, Ans E M F; Vervoort, Jacques; Freidig, Andreas; Murk, Albertinka J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2008-03-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play a crucial role in reducing the number of animals to be used for toxicity testing resulting from the adoption of the new European Union chemical control system called Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH). The objective of the present study was to generate in vitro acute toxicity data that could be used to develop a QSAR model to describe acute in vivo toxicity of chlorinated alkanes. Cytotoxicity of a series of chlorinated alkanes to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was observed at concentrations similar to those that have been shown previously to be toxic to fish. Strong correlations exist between the acute in vitro toxicity of the chlorinated alkanes and (i) hydrophobicity [modeled by the calculated log K ow (octanol-water partition coefficient); r (2) = 0.883 and r int (2) = 0.854] and (ii) in vivo acute toxicity to fish ( r (2) = 0.758). A QSAR model has been developed to predict in vivo acute toxicity to fish, based on the in vitro data and even on in silico log K ow data only. The developed QSAR model is applicable to chlorinated alkanes with up to 10 carbon atoms, up to eight chlorine atoms, and log K ow values lying within the range from 1.71 to 5.70. Out of the 100204 compounds on the European Inventory of Existing Chemicals (EINECS), our QSAR model covers 77 (0.1%) of them. Our findings demonstrate that in vitro experiments and even in silico calculations can replace animal experiments in the prediction of the acute toxicity of chlorinated alkanes.

  4. Acute toxicity measurements on aquatic pollutants using microcalorimetry on tissue-cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    McGuinness, S.M.; Barisas, B.G. )

    1991-06-01

    A new microcalorimetric bioassay for acute cellular toxicity is based on metabolic heat evolution from tissue-cultured human cells. The assay is quantitative, inexpensive, and versatile; moreover, toxicological information can be obtained with cells from other species of interest. The biological response to toxicants is inhibition of heat production in cells and toxicity is expressed as the concentration 50% effective in this inhibition (EC{sub 50}). The system can therefore measure acute toxicity for a broad range of toxicants having target sites in various cellular metabolic pathways. Average heat production in HeLa cells is 40 pW/cell and the reproducibility is 5 pW/cell. Cell samples range from 8 {times} 10{sup 5} to 2 {times} 10{sup 6} cells and yield signals of 30-80 {mu}W in the absence of toxicants. These signals are readily measurable in an LKB Model 10700-1 flow microcalorimeter. Results are compared with those obtained with the Beckman Microtox bioassay and the Escherichia coli electrode and with rainbow trout 96-h LC{sub 50} values.

  5. Aquatic toxicity of dyes before and after photo-Fenton treatment.

    PubMed

    de Luna, Luis A V; da Silva, Thiago H G; Nogueira, Raquel F Pupo; Kummrow, Fábio; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2014-07-15

    This study evaluated the ecotoxicity of five dyes to freshwater organisms before and during their photo-Fenton degradation. EC50 (48h) of the five tested dyes ranged from of 6.9 to >1000mgL(-1) for Daphnia similis. In the chronic tests IC50 (72h) varied from 65 to >100mgL(-1) for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and IC50 (8 days) from 0.5 to 410mgL(-1) for Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity tests revealed that although the applied treatment was effective for decolorization of the dye, the partial mineralization may be responsible for the presence of degradation products which can be either more toxic than the original dye, as is the case of Vat Green 3 and Reactive Black 5, lead to initially toxic products which may be further degraded to non toxic products (acid Orange 7 and Food Red 17), or generate non toxic products as in the case of Food Yellow 3. The results highlighted the importance of assessing both acute and chronic toxicity tests of treated sample before effluent discharge.

  6. Effects of particle composition and species on toxicity of metallic nanomaterials in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Griffitt, Robert J; Luo, Jing; Gao, Jie; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude; Barber, David S

    2008-09-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are among the most widely used types of engineered nanomaterials; however, little is known about their environmental fate and effects. To assess potential environmental effects of engineered nanometals, it is important to determine which species are sensitive to adverse effects of various nanomaterials. In the present study, zebrafish, daphnids, and an algal species were used as models of various trophic levels and feeding strategies. To understand whether observed effects are caused by dissolution, particles were characterized before testing, and particle concentration and dissolution were determined during exposures. Organisms were exposed to silver, copper, aluminum, nickel, and cobalt as both nanoparticles and soluble salts as well as to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Our results indicate that nanosilver and nanocopper cause toxicity in all organisms tested, with 48-h median lethal concentrations as low as 40 and 60 microg/L, respectively, in Daphnia pulex adults, whereas titanium dioxide did not cause toxicity in any of the tests. Susceptibility to nanometal toxicity differed among species, with filter-feeding invertebrates being markedly more susceptible to nanometal exposure compared with larger organisms (i.e., zebrafish). The role of dissolution in observed toxicity also varied, being minor for silver and copper but, apparently, accounting for most of the toxicity with nickel. Nanoparticulate forms of metals were less toxic than soluble forms based on mass added, but other dose metrics should be developed to accurately assess concentration-response relationships for nanoparticle exposures.

  7. Stability, bioavailability, and bacterial toxicity of ZnO and iron-doped ZnO nanoparticles in aquatic media.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghua; Pokhrel, Suman; Jin, Xue; Mädler, Lutz; Damoiseaux, Robert; Hoek, Eric M V

    2011-01-15

    The stability and bioavailability of nanoparticles is governed by the interfacial properties that nanoparticles acquire when immersed in a particular aquatic media as well as the type of organism or cell under consideration. Herein, high-throughput screening (HTS) was used to elucidate ZnO nanoparticle stability, bioavailability, and antibacterial mechanisms as a function of iron doping level (in the ZnO nanoparticles), aquatic chemistry, and bacterial cell type. ζ-Potential and aggregation state of dispersed ZnO nanoparticles was strongly influenced by iron doping in addition to electrolyte composition and dissolved organic matter; however, bacterial inactivation by ZnO nanoparticles was most significantly influenced by Zn(2+) ions dissolution, cell type, and organic matter. Nanoparticle IC(50) values determined for Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were on the order of 0.3-0.5 and 15-43 mg/L (as Zn(2+)), while the IC(50) for Zn(2+) tolerant Pseudomonas putida was always >500 mg/L. Tannic acid decreased toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles more than humic, fulvic, and alginic acid, because it complexed the most free Zn(2+) ions, thereby reducing their bioavailability. These results underscore the complexities and challenges regulators face in assessing potential environmental impacts of nanotechnology; however, the high-throughput and combinatorial methods employed promise to rapidly expand the knowledge base needed to develop an appropriate risk assessment framework.

  8. Spinosad toxicity to Simulium spp. larvae and associated aquatic biota in a coffee-growing region of Veracruz State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Infante-Rodríguez, Dennis A; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Mercado, Gabriel; Williams, Trevor

    2011-05-01

    Spinosad is a naturally derived insecticide that has shown potential as a mosquito larvicide. To determine the activity of spinosad against blackflies, late-instar larvae from a community comprising Simulium triittatum (63.6%) and seven other species, including three known vectors of onchocerciasis in Mexico (S. metallicum, S. ochraceum, and S. callidum), were subjected to concentration-mortality laboratory bioassays following World Health Organization guidelines. Cephalic capsule measurements confirmed the relatively homogeneous distribution of experimental larvae. The 50% lethal concentration of spinosad was estimated at 1.48 ppm spinosad (95% confidence interval: 1.07-2.33) for a 10-min exposure period, whereas larvae treated with 0.05 ppm of the organophosphate temephos experienced 61% mortality. Immature aquatic insects were identified to genus and tested for their susceptibility to spinosad in the laboratory. After exposure to 12 ppm spinosad for 10 min, ephemeropterans, odonates, trichopterans, and hemipterans did not experience significantly increased mortality over that of untreated controls, whereas a significant increase in mortality was observed in spinosad-treated Plecoptera (P < 0.001). Tilapia and trout fry exposed to 12 ppm spinosad for 10 min did not experience increased mortality at 24-h postexposure over that of the controls. We conclude that spinosad is less toxic than temephos to these blackfly species, but is likely to have a low impact on nontarget members of the aquatic community.

  9. The Toxicity of Nitroguanidine and Photolyzed Nitroguandine to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Paratanytarsus dissimlils), and aquatic worms ( Lumbriculus variegatus ). The. IN) tWS UCLASSIFIED SEURIY4T CLAISIPICAtIOW OF TNIS PAGE (1160 Date U40*4. I. II...2868 0 ( Lumbriculus variegatue ) 1785 0 (1.49 0 a. The high, low, and control NGu concentrations are listed for each test. The top concentration tested...Bailey, H.C. and D.H.W. Liu. 1980. Lumbriculus variegatus , a benthic oligochaete, as a bioassay organism. In: A.L. Buikema and J. Cairns, Jr., eds

  10. Clay-Catalyzed Incorporation of Arsenic to Bioorganic Moities: A Low-Cost Mechanism for Ameliorating As toxicity Aquatic Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Pined, J.; Fernández-Lomelin, P.; Lopez-Santiago, N.; Cervini-Silva, J.

    2007-05-01

    A method for ameliorating the toxicity of As has been developed. Succesive methylation of arsenic has been reported to represent an important detoxification pathway in aquatic systems. Clays are natural porous materials bearing high surface areas and interlayer spacing that allows entrapment of small-sized particles. Thus, clays are natural nanomaterials that can serve as efficient catalysts in natural or engineered systems. In this paper we study the kinetics of transformation of inorganic arsenic to arseno-organic complexes as affected by the following clay samples: Montmorillonite [SWy-2] from Crook Country, Wyoming, USA, and Hectorite [SHCa-1] from San Bernardino. Country, California, USA, and Nontronite [NG-1] from Australia. The effect of environmental factors, arsenic inicial concentration and speciation is discussed.

  11. Decontamination of aquatic vegetable leaves by removing trace toxic metals during pickling process with acetic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenbiao; Yang, Yixing

    2011-01-01

    The heavy-metal content of aquatic plants is mainly dependent upon their ecological system. This study indicated that although the toxic heavy-metal contents could be above the recommended maximum levels depending upon their concentrations in growing water, they can be decontaminated by pickling with 5% acetic acid solution. Almost all Cd, Hg, Ba, or Sb and 99.5% Pb, 96.7% Ag, or 97.1% Al were removed from Water Spinach leaves by soaking in acetic acid solution. For Water-Shield leaves, almost all Cd, Hg, Pb, Ba, or Sb and 95.0% Ag or 96.1% Al were removed. For Watercress leaves, almost all Cd, Hg, Ba, or Sb and 99.0% Pb or 99.7% Ag were removed. For Water Hyacinth leaves, almost all Cd, Ba, or Sb and 99.0% Hg, 98.5% Pb, 95.0% Ag, or 98.7% Al were removed.

  12. Aquatic toxicity of photo-degraded insensitive munition 101 (IMX-101) constituents.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alan J; Poda, Aimee R; Melby, Nicolas L; Moores, Lee C; Jordan, Shinita M; Gust, Kurt A; Bednar, Anthony J

    2017-08-01

    Insensitive munitions are desirable alternatives to historically used formulations, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), because of their so-called insensitivity to unintended detonation. The insensitive munition IMX-101 is a mixture of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), and nitroguanidine (NQ). Environmental releases of munitions may be from production wastewaters or training; these munitions may be exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. Therefore, it is useful to understand the relative toxicity of IMX-101 and its constituents both before and after photodegradation. The intent of the present study was to generate relative hazard information by exposing the standard ecotoxicological model Ceriodaphnia dubia to each insensitive munition constituent individually and to IMX-101 before and after the exposure solution was irradiated in a UV photoreactor. Without photodegradation, DNAN was more toxic (median lethal concentration [LC50] = 43 mg/L) than the other 2 constituents and it contributed predominantly to the toxicity of IMX-101 (LC50 = 206 mg/L) based on toxic units. Toxicity was observed only at high levels of NQ (LC50 = 1174 mg/L) and pH-adjusted NTO (LC50 = 799 mg/L). The toxicity of IMX-101 is lower than literature-reported TNT toxicity. Photodegradation efficiency was greater at lower insensitive munition concentrations. The observed degradation was greatest for NQ (42-99%), which in turn corresponded to the greatest relative increase in toxicity (100-1000-fold). Modest percent of degradation (4-18%) and increases in phototoxicity (2-100-fold) were observed for NTO and DNAN. Photodegraded NQ products were the predominant source of toxicity of photodegraded IMX-101. Future work involves research to enable analytical and computational confirmation of the specific degradation compounds inducing the observed photoenhanced toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2050-2057. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on

  13. Aquatic dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Heidi; Landthaler, Michael; Vogt, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Despite the fascination of the aquatic world, it can be associated with some medical risks. Natural bodies of water, swimming pools and aquariums contain many living organisms. Some of these aquatic species may cause traumatic or toxic skin reactions after contact as well as life-threatening systemic reactions. Most frequently, the injuries include poisonous bites and stings by coelenter-ates, worms,stinging fish,mollusks and echinoderms or skin infections. A basic knowledge regarding the flora and fauna that populate the aquatic world can help to avoid contact with such organisms,or if it happens,to promptly initiate appropriate therapy.

  14. Ratios between acute aquatic toxicity and effects on population growth rates in relation to toxicant mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Roex, E.W.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Wezel, A.P. Van; Straalen, N.M. Van

    2000-03-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is mostly based on the results of standardized toxicity tests. To obtain environmental quality criteria, extrapolation factors are used that depend on the amount and quality of available data. These extrapolation factors do not, however, take into account the mode of action of the compound tested or the life history of the test organism. In this study, the authors analyzed the variability in acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) for various chemicals in relation to their mode of action. Chemicals were classified as nonpolar narcotics, polar narcotics, specifically acting compounds, and heavy metals. As an acute endpoint, the LC50 was used; as a chronic endpoint, the lowest test concentration at which the natural rate of population increase (r) is affected, or LOEC(r), was used. Data were derived from the on-line literature. Nonpolar narcotic chemicals demonstrate the smallest variation in ACRs, and acute tests can be used to derive chronic endpoints for this class. For the other classes, the variation in ACRs is larger. Fish species especially show a relatively large ACR. For heavy metals, differences in the mode of action may play an important role in explaining differences in ACRs. For the other three classes, however, it is less reliable to predict chronic toxicity using the results of acute tests. In general, differences in species sensitivity rather than in mode of action for the chemical seem to determine differences in ACRs.

  15. Impact of Environmentally Based Chemical Hardness on Uranium Speciation and Toxicity in Six Aquatic Species

    PubMed Central

    Goulet, Richard R; Thompson, Patsy A; Serben, Kerrie C; Eickhoff, Curtis V

    2015-01-01

    Treated effluent discharge from uranium (U) mines and mills elevates the concentrations of U, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfate (SO42–) above natural levels in receiving waters. Many investigations on the effect of hardness on U toxicity have been experiments on the combined effects of changes in hardness, pH, and alkalinity, which do not represent water chemistry downstream of U mines and mills. Therefore, more toxicity studies with water chemistry encountered downstream of U mines and mills are necessary to support predictive assessments of impacts of U discharge to the environment. Acute and chronic U toxicity laboratory bioassays were realized with 6 freshwater species in waters of low alkalinity, circumneutral pH, and a range of chemical hardness as found in field samples collected downstream of U mines and mills. In laboratory-tested waters, speciation calculations suggested that free uranyl ion concentrations remained constant despite increasing chemical hardness. When hardness increased while pH remained circumneutral and alkalinity low, U toxicity decreased only to Hyalella azteca and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Also, Ca and Mg did not compete with U for the same uptake sites. The present study confirms that the majority of studies concluding that hardness affected U toxicity were in fact studies in which alkalinity and pH were the stronger influence. The results thus confirm that studies predicting impacts of U downstream of mines and mills should not consider chemical hardness. PMID:25475484

  16. Toxicity of organic pollutants to seven aquatic organisms: effect of polarity and ionization.

    PubMed

    Qin, W C; Su, L M; Zhang, X J; Qin, H W; Wen, Y; Guo, Z; Sun, F T; Sheng, L X; Zhao, Y H; Abraham, M H

    2010-07-01

    The toxicity of organic chemicals to Vibrio fischeri, river bacteria, algae, Daphnia magna and fishes were analysed. The results showed that the toxicity of chemicals to narcotics was dependent on hydrophobicity. A single model for both polar and non-polar narcotics was developed by inclusion of a polarity descriptor as well as the hydrophobic parameter. The highly hydrophobic polar narcotics could be treated as non-polar narcotics because their polar functional group(s) make(s) a relatively small contribution to polarity as compared with their hydrophobicity. In order to investigate the toxic mechanism of action for reactive compounds, the response-surface approach was used to develop models derived from easily calculated descriptors. The stepwise analysis selected the octanol/water partition coefficient and a polarity descriptor to parameterize bio-uptake and reactivity, respectively, for seven species. Benzoic acids can be easily absorbed into the unicellular bacteria, but this is not the case for multicellular D. magna and fish. Their toxicity to V. fischeri is much higher than that to D. magna and carp. Regression analysis was performed based on the model that we developed for ionizable compounds. Good correlations were observed by introducing the correction factor for ionizable compounds. The toxic mechanisms are discussed.

  17. Biotic ligand modeling approach: Synthesis of the effect of major cations on the toxicity of metals to soil and aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2015-10-01

    The biotic ligand model (BLM) approach is used to assess metal toxicity, taking into account the competition of other cations with the free metal ions for binding to the biotic ligand sites of aquatic and soil organisms. The bioavailable fraction of metals, represented by the free metal ion, is a better measure than the total concentration for assessing their potential risk to the environment. Because BLMs are relating toxicity to the fraction of biotic ligands occupied by the metal, they can be useful for investigating factors affecting metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. In the present review, the effects of major cations on the toxicity of metals to soil and aquatic organisms were comprehensively studied by performing a meta-analysis of BLM literature data. Interactions at the binding sites were shown to be species- and metal-specific. The main factors affecting the relationships between toxicity and conditional binding constants for metal binding at the biotic ligand appeared to be Ca(2+) , Mg(2+) , and protons. Other important characteristics of the exposure medium, such as levels of dissolved organic carbon and concentrations of other cations, should also be considered to obtain a proper assessment of metal toxicity to soil and aquatic organisms. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Toxicity of differently sized and coated silver nanoparticles to the bacterium Pseudomonas putida: risks for the aquatic environment?

    PubMed

    Matzke, Marianne; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Backhaus, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Aim of this study was to describe the toxicity of a set of different commercially available silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas putida (growth inhibition assay, ISO 10712) in order to contribute to their environmental hazard and risk assessment. Different AgNP sizes and coatings were selected in order to analyze whether those characteristics are determinants of nanoparticle toxicity. Silver nitrate was tested for comparison. In general Pseudomonas putida reacted very sensitive towards the exposure to silver, with an EC05 value of 0.043 μg L−1 for AgNO3 and between 0.13 and 3.41 μg L−1 for the different AgNPs (EC50 values 0.16 μg L−1 for AgNO3, resp. between 0.25 and 13.4 μg L−1 for AgNPs). As the ionic form of silver is clearly the most toxic, an environmental hazard assessment for microorganisms based on total silver concentration and the assumption that AgNPs dissolve is sufficiently protective. Neither specific coatings nor certain sizes could be linked to increasing or decreasing toxicity. The characterization of particle behavior as well as the total and dissolved silver content in the medium during the exposures was not possible due to the high sensitivity of Pseudomonas (test concentrations were below detection limits), indicating the need for further development in the analytical domain. Monitored silver concentrations in the aquatic environment span six orders of magnitude (0.1–120,000 ng L−1), which falls into the span of observed EC05 values and might hence indicate a risk to environmental bacteria.

  19. Toxicity of Nine (Doped) Rare Earth Metal Oxides and Respective Individual Metals to Aquatic Microorganisms Vibrio fischeri and Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Kurvet, Imbi; Juganson, Katre; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Blinova, Irina; Syvertsen-Wiig, Guttorm

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of rare earth elements (REEs) and oxides (REOs) in various technologies, the information on their ecotoxicological hazard is scarce. Here, the effects of La3+, Ce3+, Pr3+, Nd3+, Gd3+, CeO2, and eight doped REOs to marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and freshwater protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila were studied in parallel with REO dopant metals (Co2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Sr2+). The highest concentrations of REOs tested were 100 mg/L with protozoa in deionized water and 500 mg/L with bacteria in 2% NaCl. Although (i) most REOs produced reactive oxygen species; (ii) all studied soluble REEs were toxic to bacteria (half-effective concentration, EC50 3.5–21 mg metal/L; minimal bactericidal concentration, MBC 6.3–63 mg/L) and to protozoa (EC50 28–42 mg/L); and (iii) also some dopant metals (Ni2+, Fe3+) proved toxic (EC50 ≤ 3 mg/L), no toxicity of REOs to protozoa (EC50 > 100 mg/L) and bacteria (EC50 > 500 mg/L; MBC > 500 mg/L) was observed except for La2NiO4 (MBC 25 mg/L). According to kinetics of V. fischeri bioluminescence, the toxicity of REEs was triggered by disturbing cellular membrane integrity. Fortunately, as REEs and REOs are currently produced in moderate amounts and form in the environment insoluble salts and/or oxides, they apparently present no harm to aquatic bacteria and protozoa. PMID:28773114

  20. Rapid toxicity screening tests for aquatic biota. 1. Methodology and experiments with Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, C.R.; Persoone, G. )

    1993-04-01

    A promising new and rapid toxicity screening test was developed, the concept and principles of which are presented. The method consists of visual observation of in vivo inhibition of an enzymatic process, using a fluorescent substrate. Juvenile Daphnia magna was exposed to a toxicant dilution series for 1 h, after which the substrate was added and the enzymatic inhibition was observed visually, using a long-wave UV light. The 1-h EC50 results of 11 pure compounds are presented and compared to the conventional 24- and 48-h Daphnia magna EC50s. All 1-h fluorescence EC50s were of the same order of magnitude and correlated very well with the 24- and 48-h EC50s. The sensitivity and reproducibility of this cost-effective screening test were compared to those of the Microtox[reg sign] test. The scope for application and the potential of this new rapid toxicity screening test are evaluated.

  1. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG EXCEEDENCES OF CHEMICAL CRITERIA OR GUIDELINES, THE RESULTS OF AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS AND COMMUNITY METRICS IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA document, Relationships Among Exceedances of Chemical Criteria or Guidelines, the Results of Ambient Toxicity Tests, and Community Metrics in Aquatic Ecosystems, presents two studies where the three general approaches for the ecological assessment of contaminant ex...

  2. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG EXCEEDENCES OF CHEMICAL CRITERIA OR GUIDELINES, THE RESULTS OF AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS AND COMMUNITY METRICS IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA document, Relationships Among Exceedances of Chemical Criteria or Guidelines, the Results of Ambient Toxicity Tests, and Community Metrics in Aquatic Ecosystems, presents two studies where the three general approaches for the ecological assessment of contaminant ex...

  3. The BEAM-project: prediction and assessment of mixture toxicities in the aquatic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, Thomas; Altenburger, Rolf; Arrhenius, Åsa; Blanck, Hans; Faust, Michael; Finizio, Antonio; Gramatica, Paola; Grote, Matthias; Junghans, Marion; Meyer, Wiebke; Pavan, Manuela; Porsbring, Tobias; Scholze, Martin; Todeschini, Roberto; Vighi, Marco; Walter, Helge; Horst Grimme, L.

    2003-11-01

    Freshwater and marine ecosystems are exposed to various multi-component mixtures of pollutants. Nevertheless, most ecotoxicological research and chemicals regulation focus on hazard and exposure assessment of individual substances only, the problem of chemical mixtures in the environment is ignored to a large extent. In contrast, the assessment of combination effects has a long tradition in pharmacology, where mixtures of chemicals are specifically designed to develop new products, e.g. human and veterinary drugs or agricultural and non-agricultural pesticides. In this area, two concepts are frequently used and are thought to describe fundamental relationships between single substance and mixture effects: Independent Action (Response Addition) and Concentration Addition. The question, to what extent these concepts may also be applied in an ecotoxicological and regulatory context may be considered a research topic of major importance, as the concepts would allow to make use of already existing single substance toxicity data for the predictive assessment of mixture toxicities. Two critical knowledge gaps are identified: (a) There is a lack of environmental realism, as a huge part of our current knowledge about the applicability of the concepts is restricted to artificial situations with respect to mixture composition or biological effect assessment. (b) The knowledge on what exactly is needed for using the concepts as tools for the predictive mixture toxicity assessment is insufficient. Both gaps seriously hamper the necessary, scientifically sound consideration of mixture toxicities in a regulatory context. In this paper, the two concepts will be briefly introduced, the necessity of considering the toxicities of chemical mixtures in the environment will be demonstrated and the applicability of Independent Action and Concentration Addition as tools for the prediction and assessment of mixture toxicities will be discussed. An overview of the specific aims and

  4. Toxicity of aircraft de-icer and anti-icer solutions to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, S.I.; Jordahl, D.M.; Evans, J.E.; May, E.B.

    1995-08-01

    Laboratory studies were undertaken to assess the toxicity of industrial mixtures of aviation de-icers and anti-icers. Various additives and contaminants are present in these solutions at proportions of 10 to 20% of the total volume. Static-renewal toxicity tests were performed at concentrations that bracketed published LC50 values for the primary ingredients (9--51 ml glycol/L) using fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox{reg_sign}) bioassays. Water from a stream that receives runoff from a large commercial airport was also tested during a late winter storm (March), and spring baseflow (April). The anti-icer solution was more toxic than the de-icer solution by two orders of magnitude (96-h LC50 range 0.03-0.44 ml/L, 3.02--13.48 ml/L, respectively). Both types of solutions exhibited greater toxicity than previously reported values for the primary ingredients. Toxic effects were observed in the March stream sample, but not the April sample. Significant inhibition of reproduction in C. dubia in the anti-icer and de-icer solutions occurred at 0.05 and 0.38 ml/L, respectively. Effects were observed in the Microtox assay at concentrations of 0.125 and 0.25 ml/L for the anti-icer and de-icer, respectively. Results suggest that the additives, rather than the glycols, are the major source of toxicity. Histological damage observed in fathead minnows primarily involved gill, kidney, and skin tissue, with the most prominent responses seen in fish exposed to the anti-icer solution. The de-icer solution elicited respiratory epithelial ``disruption`` and renal damage, and the anti-icer caused proliferative branchitis (hyperplastic response) and delamination of the epidermis from the dermis of the skin.

  5. Multispecies QSAR modeling for predicting the aquatic toxicity of diverse organic chemicals for regulatory toxicology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Kumar, Anuj; Mohan, Dinesh

    2014-05-19

    The research aims to develop multispecies quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) modeling tools capable of predicting the acute toxicity of diverse chemicals in various Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) recommended test species of different trophic levels for regulatory toxicology. Accordingly, the ensemble learning (EL) approach based classification and regression QSAR models, such as decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) implementing stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms were developed using the algae (P. subcapitata) experimental toxicity data for chemicals. The EL-QSAR models were successfully applied to predict toxicities of wide groups of chemicals in other test species including algae (S. obliguue), daphnia, fish, and bacteria. Structural diversity of the selected chemicals and those of the end-point toxicity data of five different test species were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Kruskal-Wallis (K-W) statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of the constructed QSAR models were compared using statistical parameters. The developed QSAR models (DTB and DTF) yielded a considerably high classification accuracy in complete data of model building (algae) species (97.82%, 99.01%) and ranged between 92.50%-94.26% and 92.14%-94.12% in four test species, respectively, whereas regression QSAR models (DTB and DTF) rendered high correlation (R(2)) between the measured and model predicted toxicity end-point values and low mean-squared error in model building (algae) species (0.918, 0.15; 0.905, 0.21) and ranged between 0.575 and 0.672, 0.18-0.51 and 0.605-0.689 and 0.20-0.45 in four different test species. The developed QSAR models exhibited good predictive and generalization abilities in different test species of varied trophic levels and can be used for predicting the toxicities of new chemicals for screening and prioritization of chemicals for regulation.

  6. Response Characteristics of an Aquatic Biomonitor Used for Rapid Toxicity Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-15

    Spearman - Karber method (Hamilton et al., 1977) was used of 0.05-1 mV were amplified by a factor of 1000. Signal to compute 96-h LC,0 values, interference by...RV. 1977. Trimmed surveillance. Bull. Environ. Contam. ToxicoL. 66: 392-399. Spearman - Karber method for estimating median lethal Shedd TR, Widder MW...described in the MATERIALS AND METHODS next section). Two types of toxicant response testing were conducted Fish chambers and toxicant solution exposures with

  7. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two surrogate species (fathead minnow, Pimephales...

  8. FROM ORGANISMS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA ACROSS TWO LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical step in estimating the ecological effects of a toxicant is extrapolating organism-level response data across higher levels of biological organization. In the present study, the organism-to-population link is made for the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to a range of...

  9. Ecotoxicological assessment of surfactants in the aquatic environment: combined toxicity of docusate sodium with chlorinated pollutants.

    PubMed

    Rosal, Roberto; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Boltes, Karina; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca; Leganés, Francisco; Petre, Alice

    2010-09-01

    The toxicity of perfluorinated surfactants perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and PF-656 as well as the sulfosuccinate surfactant docusate sodium has been examined using two bioluminescence inhibition assays based on the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the self-luminescent cyanobacterial recombinant strain Anabaena CPB4337. We also determined multigenerational toxicity towards the growth of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. With EC(50) values in the 43-75 mg/L range, docusate sodium exhibited a higher toxicity towards the three organisms than PFOS, PFOA, PF-656 and PFBS. We investigated the toxicological interactions of the most toxic surfactant, docusate sodium, with two chlorinated compounds, triclosan and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), in their binary and ternary mixtures using the method of the combination index based on the median-effect equation. In general, the binary mixture of the chlorinated compounds triclosan and TCP exhibited antagonism, which was stronger for the growth test using P. subcapitata. Except for the green alga, the binary mixtures of docusate sodium with TCP or triclosan showed synergism at medium to high effect levels; the synergistic behaviour predominating in the ternary mixture and in the three tested species. This result highlights the potential toxicological risk associated with the co-occurrence of this surfactant with other pollutants.

  10. A residue-based toxicokinetic model for pulse-exposure toxicity in aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hickie, B.E.; McCarty, L.S.; Dixon, D.G.

    1995-12-01

    This pulse-exposure model (PULSETOX) is based on the simple one-compartment first-order kinetics (1CFOK) equation. It tracks the accumulation of waterborne organic chemicals by fish and predicts acute toxicity by means of previously established relationships between whole-body residues and lethality. The predictive capabilities of the model were tested with a data set of 27 acute pulse-exposure lethality tests with larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP). Tests included eight single exposures (2 to 96 h) and 19 multiple exposures, which varied in the number (2 to 15) and duration (2 to 24 h) of pulses, and time interval between pulses (6 to 24 h). Experimental work included determination of 1CFOK kinetics parameters from [{sup 14}C]PCP uptake and clearance, and from time-toxicity curves. Lethality was expected in any exposure regime where the fish reaches or exceeds the critical body residue (CBR) of 0.30 mmol PCP/kg fish (SD, {+-} 0.02; n = 11). Using the CBR endpoint, the model accounted for between 90 and 93% of variability in the observed lethality data, depending on the toxicokinetic parameters employed. Predictive power of the model was optimized by using kinetics parameters derived from the toxicity curve for pulse-toxicity tests as shown by the regression: predicted LC50 = 1.04 {center_dot} (observed LC50) + 0.01 (p < 0.001, r{sup 2} = 0.94, n = 27).

  11. Dielectrophoretic Field-Flow Fractionation System for Detection of Aquatic Toxicants

    PubMed Central

    Pui-ock, Sittisak; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Gascoyne, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (dFFF) was applied as a contact-free way to sense changes in the plasma membrane capacitances and conductivities of cultured human HL-60 cells in response to toxicant exposure. A micropatterned electrode imposed electric forces on cells in suspension in a parabolic flow profile as they moved through a thin chamber. Relative changes in the dFFF peak elution time, reflecting changes in cell membrane area and ion permeability, were measured as indices of response during the first 150 min of exposure to eight toxicants having different single or mixed modes of action (acrylonitrile, actinomycin D, carbon tetrachloride, endosulfan, N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU), paraquat dichloride, puromycin, and styrene oxide). The dFFF method was compared with the cell viability assay for all toxicants and with the mitochondrial potentiometric dye assay or DNA alkaline comet assay according to the mode of action of the specific agents. Except for low doses of nucleic acid-targeting agents (actinomycin D and NMU), the dFFF method detected all toxicants more sensitively than other assays, in some cases up to 105 times more sensitively than the viability approach. The results suggest the dFFF method merits additional study for possible applicability in toxicology. PMID:18788754

  12. Comparative Toxicity of Eight Oil Dispersant Products on Two Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Test Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is the first of a round of toxicity testing data for eight oil dispersants that have been authorized for use on the National Contingency Plan (NCP) Product Schedule, which is a list of authorized dispersants and other chemicals that may be used to respond to oil disch...

  13. Benzoic Acid Interactions Affect Aquatic Properties and Toxicity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuang; Fang, Hao; Wang, Se

    2016-08-01

    Effects of benzoic acid (BA) on physicochemical properties and ecotoxicities of CuO nanoparticles (CuONPs) in model aqueous media were studied. The CuONPs had larger hydrodynamic sizes and higher surface zeta potentials during 96 h of settling in the presence of BA than when the BA were not present. BA interaction with CuONPs is shown to promote dissolved Cu release from CuONPs in a dose-dependent manner. The contribution of free Cu(2+)-ions to growth inhibition toxicity of the CuONP suspensions at a toxicologically relevant concentration for the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was around 22 %, indicating that dissolved fraction was not the major source of toxicity of CuONPs. The toxicity of CuONPs increased as the BA concentration increased. BA significantly altered total antioxidant capacity of CuONPs-exposed algal cells. The mechanism of the BA effect on the CuONPs toxicity may be mainly associated with degree of agglomeration, dissolved Cu, and particle-induced oxidative stress.

  14. The effects of acrylamide polyelectrolytes on aquatic organisms: relating toxicity to chain architecture.

    PubMed

    Costa, R; Pereira, J L; Gomes, J; Gonçalves, F; Hunkeler, D; Rasteiro, M G

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the inherent toxicity of water-soluble synthetic polyelectrolytes is critical for adequate risk management as well as enhancing product design when biological activity is a key performance index (e.g. for application in biofouling bivalves' control). The toxicity of two cationic acrylamide copolymers with different chain branching degree was evaluated. Standard ecotoxicity tests were conducted with microalgae and daphnids. The susceptibility of Corbicula fluminea, as a biofouling bivalve, was also evaluated. The effect of polyelectrolyte on the test media viscosity and the polymer chain size distributions under the experimental conditions were also examined. The susceptibility of the microalgae to both polymers was similar. As the complexity and size of the test organisms increased, differences in toxicity due to different chain architecture were noticeable. The more branched polymer was significantly less toxic to both daphnids and the bivalves, which could be linked to the distinctive features of its bimodal size chain distribution. This architecture resulted in both more compact globular molecules and the formation of aggregates, which reduce the polymer interaction with the biological surfaces. The results of this study promote the incorporation of environmental considerations in polyelectrolyte development and contribute to the design of improved solutions for controlling biofouling bivalves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Toxicity of Eight Oil Dispersant Products on Two Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Test Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is the first of a round of toxicity testing data for eight oil dispersants that have been authorized for use on the National Contingency Plan (NCP) Product Schedule, which is a list of authorized dispersants and other chemicals that may be used to respond to oil disch...

  16. Toxicity of Cold Lake Blend and Western Canadian Select dilbits to standard aquatic test species.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mace G; Conmy, Robyn N; Holder, Edith L; Meyer, Peter; Wilson, Gregory J; Principe, Vanessa E; Willming, Morgan M

    2017-10-04

    Dilbits are blends of bitumen and natural gas condensates or crude oils with only limited toxicity data. Two dilbits, Cold Lake Blend and Western Canadian Select, were tested as either unweathered or weathered oils for acute and chronic toxicity to standard freshwater and estuarine organisms. Water accommodated fractions of the dilbits were characterized for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and monoaromatics (BTEX). Acute toxicity of unweathered and weathered dilbits ranged from 4 to 16 mg/L TPH, 8 to 40 μg/L total PAHs, and 0.7 to 16 mg/L BTEX in Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, Americamysis bahia, and Menidia beryllina. Concentrations of weathered dilbits causing impaired growth (A. bahia) and reproduction (C. dubia) ranged from 0.8 to 3.5 mg/L TPH and 6 to 16 μg/L PAHs. The two dilbits had generally similar acute and short term chronic toxicity expressed as TPH or total PAHs as other crude oils and other petroleum products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. EXTRAPOLATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY AMONG AQUATIC SPECIES BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation provides inter-species QSARs for acute toxicity to ciliates, fish and daphnia...The inter-species QSARs can be also useful in the analysis of the relative species sensitivity to a variety of pollutants and will be useful in assisting in risk assessments of potential ...

  18. Quantification of Toxic Effects for Water Concentration-based Aquatic Life Criteria -Part B

    EPA Science Inventory

    Erickson et al. (1991) conducted a series of experiments on the toxicity of pentachloroethane (PCE) to juvenile fathead minnows. These experiments included evaluations of bioaccumulation kinetics, the time-course of mortality under both constant and time-variable exposures, the r...

  19. FROM ORGANISMS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA ACROSS TWO LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical step in estimating the ecological effects of a toxicant is extrapolating organism-level response data across higher levels of biological organization. In the present study, the organism-to-population link is made for the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to a range of...

  20. Quantification of Toxic Effects for Water Concentration-based Aquatic Life Criteria -Part B

    EPA Science Inventory

    Erickson et al. (1991) conducted a series of experiments on the toxicity of pentachloroethane (PCE) to juvenile fathead minnows. These experiments included evaluations of bioaccumulation kinetics, the time-course of mortality under both constant and time-variable exposures, the r...

  1. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two surrogate species (fathead minnow, Pimephales...

  2. Effect of keratin on heavy metal chelation and toxicity to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Coello, W.F.; Khan, M.A.Q.

    1998-12-31

    The presence of fresh scales and human hair in water can reduce the toxicity of lead nitrate at and above 6 ppb to fish. This ability is lost on drying and storage, but can be restored if dried hair or scales are treated with a solution of amino acids. The chelation ability of keratin in amino acid-treated scales or hair is retained for months on dry storage. Addition of these hair and/or scales to solutions of lead nitrate, mercuric chloride and a mixture of both, and cupric sulfate reduced the toxicity of these solutions to Daphnia magna and Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels). Toxicity of 10 ppm solutions of salts of 27 different metals to daphnids was similarly reduced after filtration through scales or hair. A mixture of a 2 ppb concentration of each of these 27 metals also became nonlethal to daphnids in the presence of, or filtration through, treated scales or hair. 0.25 g of treated hair or scale can be used indefinitely, again and again, to remove the mixture of these 27 metals from their fresh solution in 1 L water if the keratin is frequently rinsed with 0.1% nitric acid to remove the bound metals. The keratin in scales, this, may be the most important ectodermal secretion in absorbing metals from polluted environments and in providing protection against their toxic levels.

  3. Routine serum thyroid-stimulating hormone testing-optimizing pre-conception health or generating toxic knowledge?

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Abha; Bhide, Priya; Pundir, Jyotsna; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2017-09-01

    Monitoring subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in women is believed to be important in terms of preventing overt hypothyroidism and optimizing the health and cognitive development of their children. Current systematic reviews have suggested an association between maternal SCH and adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. However, initiating the administration of thyroxine during pregnancy has failed to demonstrate appreciable health benefits. Hence there are calls by professional endocrine societies for optimizing serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels pre-conception. The strategy of ensuring that serum TSH levels are below 2.5 mIU/l during the pre-conception period has generated considerable uncertainty partly because the recommended level of <2.5 mIU/l is lower than those previously used to define the condition and partly due to uncertainty about the best screening programme clinicians can use in this context. Recalibrating the expected normal peri-conceptional range of serum TSH (<2.5 mIU/l), will have a significant impact on clinical services due to an inevitable increase in numbers of women diagnosed with SCH who will need to be investigated, treated and monitored. Serum TSH fulfils the criteria for a screening test and oral thyroxine is an inexpensive drug. Therefore, there is no reason to believe that screening cannot be undertaken in all women planning to conceive. Yet this approach will miss women whose pregnancies are unplanned and generate anxiety, further tests and many more prescriptions for thyroxine, coupled with the need for lifelong monitoring in affected women. A number of existing and ongoing randomized trials have evaluated the use of thyroxine in women with infertility or miscarriage with detectable thyroid auto-antibodies. These are unlikely to answer the question whether routine pre-conception testing for SCH in asymptomatic women is beneficial. Routine screening of women at risk of pregnancy and optimization of their thyroid status could

  4. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of environmentally based chemical hardness on uranium speciation and toxicity in six aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Richard R; Thompson, Patsy A; Serben, Kerrie C; Eickhoff, Curtis V

    2015-03-01

    Treated effluent discharge from uranium (U) mines and mills elevates the concentrations of U, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfate (SO4 (2-) ) above natural levels in receiving waters. Many investigations on the effect of hardness on U toxicity have been experiments on the combined effects of changes in hardness, pH, and alkalinity, which do not represent water chemistry downstream of U mines and mills. Therefore, more toxicity studies with water chemistry encountered downstream of U mines and mills are necessary to support predictive assessments of impacts of U discharge to the environment. Acute and chronic U toxicity laboratory bioassays were realized with 6 freshwater species in waters of low alkalinity, circumneutral pH, and a range of chemical hardness as found in field samples collected downstream of U mines and mills. In laboratory-tested waters, speciation calculations suggested that free uranyl ion concentrations remained constant despite increasing chemical hardness. When hardness increased while pH remained circumneutral and alkalinity low, U toxicity decreased only to Hyalella azteca and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Also, Ca and Mg did not compete with U for the same uptake sites. The present study confirms that the majority of studies concluding that hardness affected U toxicity were in fact studies in which alkalinity and pH were the stronger influence. The results thus confirm that studies predicting impacts of U downstream of mines and mills should not consider chemical hardness. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:562-574. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  6. Solubility and toxicity of eight phthalate esters to four aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    DeFoe, D.L.; Holcombe, G.W.; Hammermeister, D.E.; Biesinger, K.E.

    1990-05-01

    Solubility values for eight phthalate esters investigated ranged from 0.020 to 121 mg/L. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and all eight phthalate esters. Acute and chronic tests were conducted with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using di-2-ethylhexylphthalate. In addition, the chronic toxicity of the three di-n-butylphthalates and a mixture of these three phthalates was examined using daphnids (Daphnia magna). Di-n-octyl-ortho-phthalate, di-n-octyl-iso-phthalate and di-n-octyl-tere-phthalate were not acutely toxic to fathead minnows at concentrations that exceeded the water solubility estimates for each phthalate. Di-2-ethylhexylphthalate was not acutely toxic to any tested species at the highest tested concentrations. No significant adverse effects were observed on hatchability, survival or growth of rainbow trout exposed to a mean di-2-ethylhexylphthalate concentration of 0.502 mg/L (the highest concentration tested) in a 90-d embryo-larval test. However, exposure to a mean di-2-ethylhexylphthalate concentration of 0.554 mg/L significantly reduced the growth of Japanese medaka during a 168-d larval test. Significant adverse effects on reproduction occurred in 21-d chronic tests with D. magna at concentrations of 1.91, 0.20 and 0.64 mg/L for di-n-butyl-ortho-phthalate, di-n-butyl-iso-phthalate and di-n-butyl-tere-phthalate, respectively. A daphnid mixture test with these three phthalates showed complete additivity, which suggests a similar mode of toxic action.

  7. The role of metabolism in the toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and its degradation products to the aquatic amphipod Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Sims, Jerre G; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2008-05-01

    Toxicological data on the effects of the explosive, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and its degradation products suggests an unpredictable toxicological response in aquatic organisms. Several studies suggest TNT becomes more toxic as it degrades while others suggest TNT becomes less toxic. This study focused on the toxicity of TNT and several degradation products as well as the role of oxidative metabolism in the toxicity of TNT. The aquatic invertebrate Hyalella azteca was used to evaluate the toxicity of TNT and four of its degradation products. The most reduced degradation product, 2,4-diamino, 6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT) was the most toxic to H. azteca. However, 2,4-DANT was only a minor metabolite in H. azteca. The influence of metabolism on the toxicokinetics of TNT was assessed indirectly through the use of a CYP450 inducer and inhibitor. Treatment of organisms with beta-napthoflavone (BNF), a CYP450 inducer, increased the toxicity of TNT and increased the rate of elimination and metabolism of TNT. Similar to BNF, organisms treated with clotrimazole (CTZ), a CYP450 inhibitor, resulted in increased toxicity and TNT metabolism. It is likely the ability to metabolize or bioactivate TNT to a more reactive intermediate plays a significant role in the sensitivity of organisms to TNT.

  8. Proteomics in aquatic amphipods: can it be used to determine mechanisms of toxicity and interspecies responses after exposure to atrazine?

    PubMed

    Ralston-Hooper, Kimberly J; Sanchez, Brian C; Adamec, Jiri; Sepúlveda, María S

    2011-05-01

    Proteomics has gained popularity in the field of ecotoxicology as a holistic tool for unraveling novel mechanisms of toxicity and elucidating subtle effects of contaminant exposure. The holoarctic amphipod Diporeia spp. is declining at precipitous rates in the Great Lakes, and we are evaluating the use of the well-studied amphipod model Hyalella azteca as a surrogate for Diporeia spp. This article presents proteomics data from both amphipod species exposed to atrazine (ATZ) and one of its metabolites, desethylatrazine (DEA; 3 and 30 µg/L for 21 and 42 d). We used a proteomics approach to determine whether these two species of amphipods responded similarly to the same chemicals and to understand better the mechanisms of toxicity of ATZ and DEA in aquatic invertebrates. We observed disruption in energy production and mitochondrial function as well as hormesis in exposed organisms. In addition, we identified a two proteins (GAPDH and HSP 90 kDa) that have been linked to hormonal disruptions, suggesting potential endocrine disruption. Finally, we found that H. azteca and Diporeia spp. responded with similar proteomic profiles after ATZ and DEA exposure, suggesting that H. azteca may be used as a surrogate model organism for Diporeia spp.

  9. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Movafeghi, Ali; Nazari, Fatemeh; Vafaei, Fatemeh; Dadpour, Mohammad Reza; Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo

    2014-12-01

    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15-20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes' activity.

  10. Aquatic toxicity testing for multicomponent compounds with special reference to preparation of test solution

    SciTech Connect

    Tadokoro, H.; Maeda, M.; Kawashima, Y.; Kitano, M.; Hwang, D.F.; Yoshida, T. )

    1991-02-01

    An adequate method of determining the toxicity of a compound consisting of multiple components, such as creosote, coal tar, and coal tar pitch, was studied for different test solution preparation methods, i.e., direct dosing without filtration, diluting the stock solution of saturated concentration, and dispersing with acetone. Killifish, Oryzias latipes, as a freshwater fish; red sea bream, Pagrus major, as a saltwater fish; and daphnia, Daphnia magna, as a representative crustacean, were used for testing. The chemical analysis of each preparation of test solution with gas chromatography revealed an entirely different profile of the components. The highest toxicity was obtained with preparation by acetone dispersion. That was followed by the preparations with direct dosing method and with the method of dilution of saturated concentration stock solution. Considering the results obtained, the direct dosing method with a suitable settling time may provide useful information enabling extrapolation of the test results to the natural environment for complex multicomponent compounds.

  11. Effects of an aquatic plant and suspended clay on the activity of fish toxicants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilderhus, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Rotenone, antimycin, permethrin, pydrin, and Salicylanilide I were tested for their toxicities against fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in the presence of Canadian waterweed (Elodea canadensis) or suspended clay. The plants had little effect on the activity of rotenone and antimycin but substantially reduced the activity of permethrin and pydrin (synthetic pyrethroids). Bentonite severely inhibited the activity of all chemicals tested. Salicylanilide I was affected least and pydrin most (27 times as much pydrin was required when I g/liter of bentonite was present in 96-hour tests). The efficacy of the registered fish toxicants rotenone and antimycin is probably not significantly affected by vegetation under field conditions, but is greatly reduced by suspended bentonite clay.

  12. Assessment of polyaniline nanoparticles toxicity and teratogenicity in aquatic environment using Rhinella arenarum model.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Luis E; Tarres, Lucrecia; Bongiovanni, Silvestre; Barbero, César A; Kogan, Marcelo J; Rivarola, Viviana A; Bertuzzi, Mabel L; Yslas, Edith I

    2015-04-01

    With the rapid growth of nanotechnology and the applications of nanoparticles, environmental exposure to these particles is increasing. However, their impact in human and environmental health is not well studied. Anurans, with life stage comprising embryos, tadpoles and adults, have an extremely permeable skin which makes them excellent indicators of environmental health. This study evaluated the acute toxicity effects of polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI-Np) in different dispersant on embryos and larvae of Rhinella arenarum. The results showed that LC50 of PANI-Np dispersed in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were 1,500 mg/L, while LC50 by PANI-Np dispersed in PVP+PNIPAM (polyN-isopropylacrilamide) showed a highest toxicity (1,170 mg/L). The embryo teratogenicity increased with increasing exposure concentration in both kinds of PANI-Np although in PANI-Np1, there is an increased teratogenic effect associated with the polymer stabilizer PVP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting changes in aquatic toxicity of chemicals resulting from solvent or dispersant use as vehicle.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Mikio; Nakagawa, Masamitsu; Tone, Suguru; Saito, Hotaka; Niino, Tatsuhiro; Nagasawa, Natsumi; Sawai, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The influence of two vehicles (N,N-dimethylformamide [DMF] as solvent and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil [HCO-40] as a dispersant) on the acute toxicity of eight hydrophobic chemicals with a non-specific mode of action to Daphnia magna was investigated according to the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, No. 202. An increased 48-h EC50 value for D. magna or reduced toxicity resulting from the addition of HCO-40 to the test medium was observed for five of the eight chemicals examined. Each of eight chemicals was dissolved in water at a concentration of either 10 mg/L or 1.0 mg/L, with or without DMF or HCO-40. Silicone film as a model of a biological membrane was then immersed in each solution, and the concentration of each chemical in the water was monitored until equilibrium was reached for each test substance, after which the adsorbed amount of each chemical was determined. The amounts of p-pentylphenol and four other substances with log Pow (1-octanol/water partition coefficient) values greater than 3.4 adsorbed onto the silicone film decreased with increasing concentrations of HCO-40. However, 3-chloro-4-fluoronitrobenzene and two other substances with log Pow values less than 2.6 demonstrated no changes in adsorption with either increasing HCO-40 concentration or the addition of DMF. The reduced adsorption in the presence of a vehicle on the silicone film correlated closely with changes in toxicity. These results indicate that the methodology developed in this study enables the prediction of changes in toxicity resulting from the addition of vehicles to a test system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  15. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: part III. Effluent toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, F J; Hardesty, D K; Henke, C E; Ingersoll, C G; Whites, D W; Augspurger, T; Canfield, T J; Mount, D R; Mayer, F L

    2005-02-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia--or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  16. Evaluation of the effect of water type on the toxicity of nitrate to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Baker, Josh A; Gilron, Guy; Chalmers, Ben A; Elphick, James R

    2017-02-01

    A suite of acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of freshwater organisms to nitrate (as sodium nitrate). Acute exposures with rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) and amphipods (Hyalella azteca), as well as chronic exposures with H. azteca (14-d survival and growth), midges (Chironomus dilutus; 10-d survival and growth), daphnids (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 7-d survival and reproduction), and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; 7-d survival and growth) were used to determine sublethal and lethal effect concentrations. Modification of nitrate toxicity was investigated across a range of ionic strengths, created through the use of very soft water, and standard preparations of synthetic soft, moderately-hard and hard dilution waters. The most sensitive species tested were C. dubia and H. azteca, in soft water, with reproduction and growth IC25 values of 13.8 and 12.2 mg/L NO3-N, respectively. All of the organisms exposed to nitrate demonstrated significantly reduced effects with increasing ionic strength associated with changes in water type. Possible mechanisms responsible for the modifying effect of increasing major ion concentrations on nitrate toxicity are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Monensin is not toxic to aquatic macrophytes at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Erin B; Solomon, K R; Hanson, M L

    2007-11-01

    Monensin, a common livestock feed additive, has been detected in surface waters around areas of intensive agriculture. The effect of this ionophore antibiotic on floating (Lemna gibba) and submersed (Myriophyllum spicatum, Elodea canadensis, Egeria densa) freshwater macrophytes was investigated under seminatural field conditions using 12,000 l of outdoor microcosms. Exposure concentrations of 0, 12, 25, 50, and 100 mug/l (n = 3) were evaluated over a 35-day period. Submersed plants were grown individually in 115-ml plastic "cone-tainers" and assessed for various growth and pigment end points. E. canadensis and M. spicatum also were grown in assemblages to represent model populations and two-species communities. Few statistically significant differences from control organisms were observed for any of the monitored end points. Overall, monensin is deemed unlikely to cause toxicity in freshwater macrophytes at current environmental concentrations. However, the ability to characterize toxicity in macrophytes is based partially on the relative growth rates (RGRs) of the plants. The greater the RGR, the more sensitive the assay may be to contaminants. The RGRs of E. canadensis and M. spicatum grown in model populations and communities were found to be significantly higher than the RGRs of plants grown individually. This implies that the "cone-tainer" method, although simple and easy to perform, may underestimate toxicity in simulated field studies.

  18. Bayesian approach to estimating reproductive inhibition potency in aquatic toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Bailer, A John; Oris, James T

    2012-04-01

    Effectively and accurately assessing the toxicity of chemicals and their impact on the environment continues to be an important concern in ecotoxicology. Single experiments conducted by a particular laboratory commonly serve as the basis of toxicity risk assessment. These laboratories often have a long history of conducting experiments using particular protocols. In the present study, a Bayesian analysis for estimating potency based on a single experiment was formulated, which then served as the basis for incorporating the experimental information from historical controls. A Bayesian hierarchical model was developed to estimate the relative inhibition concentrations (RIp) of a toxicant and flexible ways of using historical control information were suggested. The methods were illustrated using a data set produced by the test for reproduction in Ceriodaphnia dubia in which the number of young produced over three broods was recorded. In addition, simulation studies were included to compare the Bayesian methods with previously proposed estimators of potency. The Bayesian methods gave more precise RIp estimates with smaller variation and nominal coverage probability offsetting a small negative bias in the point estimate. Incorporating historical control information in the Bayesian hierarchical model effectively uses the useful information from past similar experiments when estimating the RIp, and results in potency estimates that are more precise compared to frequentist methods.

  19. Root length of aquatic plant, Lemna minor L., as an optimal toxicity endpoint for biomonitoring of mining effluents.

    PubMed

    Gopalapillai, Yamini; Vigneault, Bernard; Hale, Beverley A

    2014-10-01

    Lemna minor, a free-floating macrophyte, is used for biomonitoring of mine effluent quality under the Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) of the Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program in Canada and is known to be sensitive to trace metals commonly discharged in mine effluents such as Ni. Environment Canada's standard toxicity testing protocol recommends frond count (FC) and dry weight (DW) as the 2 required toxicity endpoints-this is similar to other major protocols such as those by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-that both require frond growth or biomass endpoints. However, we suggest that similar to terrestrial plants, average root length (RL) of aquatic plants will be an optimal and relevant endpoint. As expected, results demonstrate that RL is the ideal endpoint based on the 3 criteria: accuracy (i.e., toxicological sensitivity to contaminant), precision (i.e., lowest variance), and ecological relevance (metal mining effluents). Roots are known to play a major role in nutrient uptake in conditions of low nutrient conditions-thus having ecological relevance to freshwater from mining regions. Root length was the most sensitive and precise endpoint in this study where water chemistry varied greatly (pH and varying concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, K, dissolved organic carbon, and an anthropogenic organic contaminant, sodium isopropyl xanthates) to match mining effluent ranges. Although frond count was a close second, dry weight proved to be an unreliable endpoint. We conclude that toxicity testing for the floating macrophyte should require average RL measurement as a primary endpoint.

  20. A fresh look at road salt: Aquatic toxicity and water-quality impacts on local, regional, and national scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, S.R.; Graczyk, D.J.; Geis, S.W.; Booth, N.L.; Richards, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    A new perspective on the severity of aquatic toxicity impact of road salt was gained by a focused research effort directed at winter runoff periods. Dramatic impacts were observed on local, regional, and national scales. Locally, samples from 7 of 13 Milwaukee, Wisconsin area streams exhibited toxicity in Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas bioassays during road-salt runoff. Another Milwaukee stream was sampled from 1996 to 2008 with 72% of 37 samples exhibiting toxicity in chronic bioassays and 43% in acute bioassays. The maximum chloride concentration was 7730 mg/L. Regionally, in southeast Wisconsin, continuous specific conductance was monitored as a chloride surrogate in 11 watersheds with urban land use from 6.0 to 100%. Elevated specific conductance was observed between November and April at all sites, with continuing effects between May and October at sites with the highest specific conductance. Specific conductance was measured as high as 30 800 ??S/cm (Cl = 11 200 mg/L). Chloride concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) acute (860 mg/L) and chronic (230 mg/L) water-quality criteria at 55 and 100% of monitored sites, respectively. Nationally, U.S. Geological Survey historical data were examined for 13 northern and 4 southern metropolitan areas. Chloride concentrations exceeded USEPA water-quality criteria at 55% (chronic) and 25% (acute) of the 168 monitoring locations in northern metropolitan areas from November to April. Only 16% (chronic) and 1% (acute) of sites exceeded criteria from May to October. At southern sites, very few samples exceeded chronic water-quality criteria, and no samples exceeded acute criteria. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. A Fresh Look at Road Salt: Aquatic Toxicity and Water-Quality Impacts on Local, Regional, and National Scales

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A new perspective on the severity of aquatic toxicity impact of road salt was gained by a focused research effort directed at winter runoff periods. Dramatic impacts were observed on local, regional, and national scales. Locally, samples from 7 of 13 Milwaukee, Wisconsin area streams exhibited toxicity in Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas bioassays during road-salt runoff. Another Milwaukee stream was sampled from 1996 to 2008 with 72% of 37 samples exhibiting toxicity in chronic bioassays and 43% in acute bioassays. The maximum chloride concentration was 7730 mg/L. Regionally, in southeast Wisconsin, continuous specific conductance was monitored as a chloride surrogate in 11 watersheds with urban land use from 6.0 to 100%. Elevated specific conductance was observed between November and April at all sites, with continuing effects between May and October at sites with the highest specific conductance. Specific conductance was measured as high as 30 800 μS/cm (Cl = 11 200 mg/L). Chloride concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) acute (860 mg/L) and chronic (230 mg/L) water-quality criteria at 55 and 100% of monitored sites, respectively. Nationally, U.S. Geological Survey historical data were examined for 13 northern and 4 southern metropolitan areas. Chloride concentrations exceeded USEPA water-quality criteria at 55% (chronic) and 25% (acute) of the 168 monitoring locations in northern metropolitan areas from November to April. Only 16% (chronic) and 1% (acute) of sites exceeded criteria from May to October. At southern sites, very few samples exceeded chronic water-quality criteria, and no samples exceeded acute criteria. PMID:20806974

  2. Determination of selected fate and aquatic toxicity characteristics of acrylic acid and a series of acrylic esters.

    PubMed

    Staples, C A; Murphy, S R; McLaughlin, J E; Leung, H W; Cascieri, T C; Farr, C H

    2000-01-01

    Acrylic acid, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, and butyl acrylate are commercially important and widely used materials. This paper reports the results of a series of fate and aquatic toxicity studies. The mobility in soil of acrylic acid and its esters ranged from 'medium' to 'very high'. Calculated bioconcentration factors ranged from 1 to 37, suggesting a low bioconcentration potential. Acrylic acid and methyl acrylate showed limited biodegradability in the five day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) test, while ethyl acrylate and butyl acrylate were degraded easily (77% and 56%, respectively). Using the OECD method 301D 28-d closed bottle test, degradability for acrylic acid was 81% at 28 days, while the acrylic esters ranged from 57% to 60%. Acrylic acid degraded rapidly to carbon dioxide in soil (t1/2 < 1 day). Toxicity tests were conducted using freshwater and marine fish, invertebrates, and algae. Acrylic acid effect concentrations for fish and invertebrates ranged from 27 to 236 mg/l. Effect concentrations (LC50 or EC50) for fish and invertebrates using methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, and butyl acrylate ranged from 1.1 to 8.2 mg/l. The chronic MATC for acrylic acid with Daphnia magna was 27 mg/l based on length and young produced per adult reproduction day and for ethyl acrylate was 0.29 mg/l based on both the reproductive and growth endpoints. Overall these studies show that acrylic acid and the acrylic esters studied can rapidly biodegrade, have a low potential for persistence or bioaccumulation in the environment, and have low to moderate toxicity.

  3. A Comparison of the Daphnids, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia ambigua, for their Utilization in Routine Toxicity Testing in the Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, S.M.; Chandler, G.T.; Specht, W.L.

    2003-02-18

    U.S. regulatory agencies commonly require effluent toxicity testing with Ceriodaphnia dubia- a practice which has led to the criticism that this species and test protocol often does not reflect local taxa nor site-specific conditions. Using an indigenous test species may produce a more realistic model of local effects and may minimize test endpoint variance due to regional differences in water quality. This study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with Daphnia ambigua for toxicity testing in the southeastern United States. This investigation determined that D. ambigua could be laboratory cultured with only minimal changes to established regulatory protocol, and that the life-cycle characteristics of this species were conducive to traditional acute and chronic aquatic toxicity test methods used with other daphnids. Acute toxicity tests showed that D. ambigua was less sensitive to some toxicants (sodium chloride, copper sulfate, and sodium lauryl sulfate) yet more sensitive to others (chlorpyrifos). Chronic tests with copper sulfate and sodium chloride resulted in lower EC50s for D. ambigua reproduction with both compounds. When exposed to low-alkalinity, low-pH stream waters typical of many southeastern United States watersheds, C. dubia demonstrated a significant reproductive depression in two of three streams tested, while D. ambigua experienced no chronic effect. These results suggest that D. ambigua may serve as a suitable surrogate for C. dubia as an toxicity indicator species in these types of receiving streams.

  4. A comparison of the daphnids Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia ambigua for their utilization in routine toxicity testing in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Harmon, S M; Specht, W L; Chandler, G T

    2003-07-01

    U.S. regulatory agencies commonly require effluent toxicity testing with Ceriodaphnia dubia--a practice that has led to the criticism that this species and test protocol often does not reflect local taxa or site-specific conditions. Using an indigenous test species may produce a more realistic model of local effects and may minimize test endpoint variance due to regional differences in water quality. This study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with Daphnia ambigua for toxicity testing in the southeastern United States. This investigation determined that D. ambigua could be laboratory cultured with only minimal changes to established regulatory protocol and that the life-cycle characteristics of this species were conducive to traditional acute and chronic aquatic toxicity test methods used with other daphnids. Acute toxicity tests showed that D. ambigua was less sensitive to some toxicants (sodium chloride, copper sulfate, and sodium lauryl sulfate) but more sensitive to others (chlorpyrifos). Chronic tests with copper sulfate and sodium chloride resulted in lower EC50S for D. ambigua reproduction with both compounds. When exposed to low-alkalinity, low-pH stream waters typical of many southeastern United States watersheds, C. dubia demonstrated a significant reproductive depression in two of three streams tested, whereas D. ambigua experienced no chronic effect. These results suggest that D. ambigua may serve as a suitable surrogate for C. dubia as an toxicity indicator species in these types of receiving streams.

  5. Multispecies toxicity test for silver nanoparticles to derive hazardous concentration based on species sensitivity distribution for the protection of aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jin Il; Cui, Rongxue; Nam, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Shin Woong; Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-01-01

    With increasing concerns about the release of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into the environment and the risks they pose to ecological and human health, a number of studies of AgNP toxicity to aquatic organisms have been conducted. USEPA and EU JRC have published risk assessment reports for AgNPs. However, most previous studies have focused on the adverse effects of AgNPs on individual species. Hazardous concentration (HC) of AgNPs for protection of aquatic ecosystems that are based on species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) have not yet been derived because sufficient data have not been available. In this study, we conducted multispecies toxicity tests, including acute assays using eight species from five different taxonomic groups (bacteria, algae, flagellates, crustaceans and fish) and chronic assays using six species from four different taxonomic groups (algae, flagellates, crustaceans and fish). Using the results of these assays, we used a SSD approach to derive an AgNP aquatic HC5 (Hazard concentrations at the 5% species) of 0.614 μg/L. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a proposed HC of AgNPs for the protection of aquatic ecosystems that is based on SSDs and uses chronic toxicity data.

  6. An insight into the mechanisms of nanoceria toxicity in aquatic photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Gonzalo, Soledad; Santiago-Morales, Javier; Leganés, Francisco; García-Calvo, Eloy; Rosal, Roberto; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

    2012-10-15

    The effect of nanoceria on two aquatic photosynthetic organisms of ecological relevance, a green alga and a cyanobacterium, is reported. The main bioenergetic process of these organisms, photosynthesis, was studied by measuring both oxygen evolution and chlorophyll a fluorescence emission parameters. Nanoceria significantly inhibited photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium in the entire range of concentrations tested (0.01-100 mg/L), while a dual effect of nanoceria was found in the green alga with slight stimulation at low concentrations and strong inhibition at the highest concentrations tested. Chlorophyll a fluorescence experiments indicated that nanoceria had a significant impact on the primary photochemical processes of photosystem II. The primary cause of the observed photosynthetic inhibition by nanoceria is an excessive level of ROS formation; the results indicated a strong generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which caused oxidative damage, as evidenced by lipid peroxidation in both photosynthetic organisms. It is proposed that nanoceria can increase the production of hydrogen peroxide (a normal ROS by-product of light-driven photosynthesis) in both the green alga and the cyanobacterium; through an oxidative reaction, these ROS cause lipid peroxidation, compromising membrane integrity and also seriously impairing photosynthetic performance, eventually leading to cell death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxic metals in aquatic plants surviving in surface water polluted by copper mining industry.

    PubMed

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kempers, A J

    2004-09-01

    Concentrations of the metals Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn, as well as the macronutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S were measured in water, sediments, and the aquatic macrophytes Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum, growing in surface water receiving sewages and solid wastes from a copper smelter and a copper ore processing factory located in the Legnica-Glogow copper district in Southwest Poland. The deposition of mineral wastes in this area belong to the largest repository in Europe. The plants were able to survive at heavily contaminated sites. The concentrations of Cd (up to 0.6-1.7 microg/L in water and up to 10.1-12.9 mg/kg in sediments), Cu (up to 29-48 microg/L in water and up to 4.6-5.6g/kg in sediments), Pb (up to 1.5-2.2 g/kg in sediments), and Zn (up to 167-200 microg/L in water and up to 1.4-1.8 g/kg in sediments) seriously exceeded background values. P. pectinatus was able to survive tissue concentrations (in mg/kg) of up to 920 Cu, 6240 Mn, 98 Co, and 59 Ni, while M. spicatum survived tissue concentrations up to 1040 Cu, 6660 Mn, and 57 Co for. Enrichment ratios of elements in plant tissue and in water were much higher than those between plant tissue and sediments.

  8. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Adalto; Grosell, Martin; Gregory, Sean M; Wood, Chris M

    2002-04-15

    On the basis of these facts about freshwater fish and invertebrates: (i) the Na+ turnover is a physiological process associated with the gill membranes; (ii) the key mechanism of acute silver toxicity consists of reduction in Na+ uptake by blockade of gill Na+,K+-ATPase; (iii) the mass-specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarusdiogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above hypothesis. Therefore, sensitivity to AgNO3, in terms of either total measured silver or free Ag+, was reliably predicted from the whole body Na+ uptake rate in animals with body mass ranging over 6 orders of magnitude (from micrograms to grams). A positive log-log correlation between acute AgNO3 toxicity and body mass of the same species was also observed. Furthermore, the whole body Na+ uptake rate was inversely related to body mass in unexposed animals. The combination of these last two results explains why the small animals in this study were more sensitive to Ag+ than the larger ones. Taken together, these results clearly point out the possibility of incorporating the Na+ uptake rate into the current version of the Biotic Ligand Model to improve the predictive capacity of this model. In the absence of information on Na+ uptake rate, then body mass may serve as a surrogate.

  9. Updated species sensitivity distribution evaluations for acute and chronic lead toxicity to saltwater aquatic life.

    PubMed

    Church, Brian G; Van Sprang, Patrick A; Chowdhury, M Jasim; DeForest, David K

    2017-05-19

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for lead (Pb) in salt water were developed in 1984. The acute and chronic criteria are 210 and 8.1 μg/L dissolved Pb, respectively. Because data were limited in 1984, the chronic criterion was derived using an acute-to-chronic ratio, but there are now sufficient toxicity data such that an acute-to-chronic ratio is no longer needed. Based on the data now available, the proposed updated acute and chronic salt water Pb AWQC (following USEPA methods) are 100 and 10 µg/L, respectively. In the European Union, a chronic salt water predicted no-effect concentration based on the median 5th percentile hazardous concentration (HC5-50) was developed in 2008 for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals program, which forms the basis for deriving chronic environmental quality standards for Pb in European marine waters. The salt water HC5-50 previously derived for Pb was 6.1 μg/L, whereas the proposed, updated chronic salt water HC5-50 derived following European Union methods is 11.0 µg/L. Thus, despite differences in derivation methodologies, the proposed AWQC and HC5-50 values are very consistent. Studies evaluating the effect of water quality factors on bioavailability and toxicity of Pb in salt water are limited; the effect of water quality on Pb toxicity in salt water should be considered in future studies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-7. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. Evaluation of graphite for environmental toxicity using the standard aquatic microcosm. Technical report, June 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, W.G.; Chester, N.A.; Haley, M.V.; Johnson, D.W.; Tauber, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    The impact of a graphite dust on an aquatic ecosystem model, the Standard Aquatic microcosm (SAM), was investigated. Graphite dust produced effects that resembled eutrophication in that a diversity decreased, ammonia increased, and a photosynthesis/respiration ratio of less than one was observed in the highest concentration. Compared to brass dust, graphite has much less potential to adversely impact aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Aquatic toxicity and biodegradability of a surfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis ICA56.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Darlane W F; Cara, Alejandro B; Lechuga-Villena, Manuela; García-Román, Miguel; Melo, Vania M M; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Vaz, Deisi A

    2017-01-28

    In this work, the environmental compatibility of a biosurfactant produced by a Bacillus subtilis strain isolated from the soil of a Brazilian mangrove was investigated. The biosurfactant, identified as surfactin, is able to reduce surface tension (ST) to 31.5 ± 0.1 mN m(-1) and exhibits a lowcritical micelle concentration (CMC) value (0.015 ± 0.003 g L(-1)). The highest crude biosurfactant concentration (224.3 ± 1.9 mg L(-1)) was reached at 72 h of fermentation. Acute toxicity tests, carried out with Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and Selenastrum capricornutum indicated that the toxicity of the biosurfactant is lower than that of its chemically derived counterparts. The results of the biodegradability tests demonstrated that the crude surfactin extract was degraded by both Pseudomonas putida and a mixed population from a sewage-treatment plant, in both cases the biodegradation efficiency being dependent on the initial concentration of the biosurfactant. Finally, as the biodegradation percentages obtained fall within the acceptance limits established by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, OECD 301E), crude surfactin can be classified as a "readily" biodegradable compound.

  12. Behavior persistence in defining threshold switch in stepwise response of aquatic organisms exposed to toxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zongming; Li, Shangge; Zhang, Tingting; Qi, Luhuizi; Xing, Na; Yu, Huimin; Jian, Jinfeng; Chon, Tae-Soo; Tang, Bo

    2016-12-01

    As a characteristic in bacterial colony, persistence model described the dynamics of two subpopulations (normal (n) and persister (p)). In order to illustrate the switch of "Threshold" in the stepwise behavior responses of organisms, it is hypothesized that total behavior (Bt) of organisms consists of two types in behavior tendency, intoxication (Bp) and normal/recovery behavior (Bn). Both Bp and Bn could be concurrently affected by environmental stress E, and behavior response modes (M) are decided by the relationship between E and toxicity threshold of test organisms (Ti). The results suggested stress constant λ was decided by the constant rates gnE,gpE, an and ap. Due to different stress constant λ, the behavior responses of indicators showed great difference in different M, which included 'safe mode' (Ms), 'acclimation mode' (Mac), 'adjustment mode' (Maj) and 'toxic effect' (Mte). Usually, Bt during Ms could maintain around 0.8, and Mte would happen once it is lower than 0.2. According to the relationship between Bt values and E changes in 7 Majs, behavior persistence relying on adjustment could reflect the behavior homeostasis of organisms under environmental stress and be regarded as a threshold switch for the stepwise behavior responses. The mathematical analysis of behavior persistence allows making a quantitative prediction on environment assessment that would promote the emergence of persistence, as well as evaluating its ecological implications.

  13. A Market-Basket Approach to Predict the Acute Aquatic Toxicity of Munitions and Energetic Materials.

    PubMed

    Burgoon, Lyle D

    2016-06-01

    An ongoing challenge in chemical production, including the production of insensitive munitions and energetics, is the ability to make predictions about potential environmental hazards early in the process. To address this challenge, a quantitative structure activity relationship model was developed to predict acute fathead minnow toxicity of insensitive munitions and energetic materials. Computational predictive toxicology models like this one may be used to identify and prioritize environmentally safer materials early in their development. The developed model is based on the Apriori market-basket/frequent itemset mining approach to identify probabilistic prediction rules using chemical atom-pairs and the lethality data for 57 compounds from a fathead minnow acute toxicity assay. Lethality data were discretized into four categories based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. Apriori identified toxicophores for categories two and three. The model classified 32 of the 57 compounds correctly, with a fivefold cross-validation classification rate of 74 %. A structure-based surrogate approach classified the remaining 25 chemicals correctly at 48 %. This result is unsurprising as these 25 chemicals were fairly unique within the larger set.

  14. Toxicity of organic UV-filters to the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Campos, Diana; Gravato, Carlos; Quintaneiro, Carla; Golovko, Oksana; Žlábek, Vladimír; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Pestana, João L T

    2017-09-01

    Despite the frequent detection of organic ultraviolet-filters (UV-filters) in freshwater sediments, there is a lack of ecotoxicological data undermining a correct risk assessment for these emerging contaminants. The present study assessed the effects of three of the most commonly used UV-filters (benzophenone-3 - BP3; 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor - 4-MBC and octocrylene - OC) on Chironomus riparius life history and biochemical responses. Standard ecotoxicological assays confirmed that all compounds impaired growth of C. riparius larvae and induced developmental effects such as delayed emergence and a reduction of imagoes weight. Concerning the biochemical responses analysed no evidences of oxidative damage in lipids or neurotoxicity (tested assessing acetylcholinesterase activity) were observed for any of the tested compounds. However, 4-MBC exposure induced a decrease in catalase activity and an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity at 14.13mg/Kg while OC exposure caused an increase in total glutathione levels at 0.23 and 18.23mg/Kg. Exposure to all UV-filters tested, increased energy consumption on C. riparius with significant differences above 1.00mg/Kg for BP3, 0.09mg/Kg for 4-MBC and 2.13mg/Kg for OC. These results suggest that environmental relevant concentrations of UV-filters can cause deleterious effects to aquatic benthic species, such as C. riparius, and call for further research concerning effects of organic UV-filters on natural invertebrate communities and ecosystem functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Prevalence and potential aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Austin K; Corsi, Steven R; De Cicco, Laura A; Lenaker, Peter L; Lutz, Michelle A; Sullivan, Daniel J; Richards, Kevin D

    2016-06-01

    Organic compounds used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewer overflows, among other sources. Concentrations of these organic waste compounds (OWCs) in some Great Lakes tributaries indicate a high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms. During 2010-13, 709 water samples were collected at 57 tributaries, together representing approximately 41% of the total inflow to the lakes. Samples were collected during runoff and low-flow conditions and analyzed for 69 OWCs, including herbicides, insecticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plasticizers, antioxidants, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, non-prescription human drugs, flavors/fragrances, and dyes. Urban-related land cover characteristics were the most important explanatory variables of concentrations of many OWCs. Compared to samples from nonurban watersheds (<15% urban land cover) samples from urban watersheds (>15% urban land cover) had nearly four times the number of detected compounds and four times the total sample concentration, on average. Concentration differences between runoff and low-flow conditions were not observed, but seasonal differences were observed in atrazine, metolachlor, DEET, and HHCB concentrations. Water quality benchmarks for individual OWCs were exceeded at 20 sites, and at 7 sites benchmarks were exceeded by a factor of 10 or more. The compounds with the most frequent water quality benchmark exceedances were the PAHs benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene, the detergent metabolite 4-nonylphenol, and the herbicide atrazine. Computed estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) using only nonsteroidal endocrine-active compounds indicated medium to high risk of estrogenic effects (intersex or vitellogenin induction) at 10 sites. EEQs at 3 sites were comparable to values reported in effluent. This multifaceted study is

  16. Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Prevalence and potential aquatic toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; De Cicco, Laura A.; Lenaker, Peter L.; Lutz, Michelle A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewer overflows, among other sources. Concentrations of these organic waste compounds (OWCs) in some Great Lakes tributaries indicate a high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms. During 2010–13, 709 water samples were collected at 57 tributaries, together representing approximately 41% of the total inflow to the lakes. Samples were collected during runoff and low-flow conditions and analyzed for 69 OWCs, including herbicides, insecticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plasticizers, antioxidants, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, non-prescription human drugs, flavors/fragrances, and dyes. Urban-related land cover characteristics were the most important explanatory variables of concentrations of many OWCs. Compared to samples from nonurban watersheds (< 15% urban land cover) samples from urban watersheds (> 15% urban land cover) had nearly four times the number of detected compounds and four times the total sample concentration, on average. Concentration differences between runoff and low-flow conditions were not observed, but seasonal differences were observed in atrazine, metolachlor, DEET, and HHCB concentrations. Water quality benchmarks for individual OWCs were exceeded at 20 sites, and at 7 sites benchmarks were exceeded by a factor of 10 or more. The compounds with the most frequent water quality benchmark exceedances were the PAHs benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene, the detergent metabolite 4-nonylphenol, and the herbicide atrazine. Computed estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) using only nonsteroidal endocrine-active compounds indicated medium to high risk of estrogenic effects (intersex or vitellogenin induction) at 10 sites. EEQs at 3 sites were comparable to values reported in effluent. This multifaceted study

  17. Effect of dumping and cleaning activities on the aquatic ecosystems of the Guadiamar River following a toxic flood.

    PubMed

    Prat, N; Toja, J; Solà, C; Burgos, M D; Plans, M; Rieradevall, M

    1999-12-06

    The main aim of the study was to document the recovery of the aquatic ecosystem after the release of toxic mining waste in the Guadiamar River Basin (Sevilla, SW Spain) in April 1998. Samples of water, plankton, periphyton and macroinvertebrates were taken once a month at nine sampling stations (six affected by the toxic release and three for control). Water hardness and pH recovered in a few weeks and did not change significantly thereafter in the river or in the marsh stations. Only the Agrio River (the tributary that received the initial waste dump) had a low pH (3-5) throughout the study period. High ammonia contents (up to 300 microM) were measured at two sampling stations due to sewage and oil mill pollution. Eutrophication was also common at most of the stations, including one reference site. The planktonic community did not differ substantially between reference and affected stations. On all occasions the small phytoplankton and zooplankton (rotifers) were dominant. Compared with the reference station, chlorophyll a in the riverine area increased, especially in the sewage-affected stations, while in the marsh area, no significant differences were found between affected and reference stations. After 6 months of cleaning operations, in November 1998 the macroinvertebrate community of the river was composed mainly of species of short life cycles typical of ponds (Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Odonata), while typical riverine species found at the upstream control station had not recolonized the river due to the transformation of the river into a series of artificial ponds constructed as sediment traps. An analysis of variance showed significantly higher values (P < 0.05) for all heavy metals analysed (Zn, Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Sb, Tl) in plankton and macroinvertebrate communities from impacted sites. Values found in invertebrates were highly variable, with a mean concentration of the most abundant metals, Zn and Cu, between two and three times those found in unpolluted

  18. No detected toxic concentrations in in situ algal growth inhibition tests--a convenient approach to aquatic ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changyou; Wang, Xiulin; Su, Rongguo; Liang, Shengkang; Yang, Shengpeng

    2011-03-01

    A newly proposed three-dimensional model for the effects of heavy metals on the growth of batch cultures of algae that allows the estimation of the no detected toxic effect concentration (NDEC) is presented. Two batch assays with exposure to copper were investigated in situ. As an endpoint in the in situ studies of ecotoxicology, the carrying capacity, a parameter of the logistic growth model, possesses higher sensitivity and reliability than the routine ecotoxicological endpoints in terms of the analysis based on the theoretical arguments and experimental results. Using the carrying capacity (B(f)) as the ecotoxicological endpoint, the NDEC from the proposed model is compared to the NOEC and EC(05) on the basis of field derived data. The results indicate that the NDEC is a promising possible alternative parameter to the NOEC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxicity of five forest insecticides to cutthroat trout and two species of aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, D.F.; Mauck, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Northern Rocky Mountain region has had scattered infestation of the western spruce budworm Christoneura occidentalis since the early 1900's (U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USDA) 1976b). On the basis of aerial surveys in 1975, TUNNOCK et al. (1976), estimated that budworm defoliation occurred on 2,278,804 acres of six National Forests in Montana. Since the use of DDT was banned in 1972, there has been a need to develop alternative insecticides with the efficacy of DDT but without its environmental risk. These insecticides must be effective in controlling the budworm, but should not persist in the environment or be toxic to other organisms. The organophosphate and carbamate insecticides are relatively nonpersistent and generally present only a moderate hazard to fish when applied according to label recommendations. The USDA Forest Service has been investigating the effectiveness of these two classes of insecticides against the budworm, and the Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has been cooperating with the Forest Service conducted pilot control projects in eastern Montana in 1975 and 1976 to determine the efficacy and environmental impact of acephate, carbaryl, and trichlorfon in controlling the western budworm (USDA 1976 b). In 1975, a similar type project was carried out in Maine with aminocarb, fenitrothion, and trichlorfon (USDA 1976 a).Acephate, fenitrothion, and trichlorfon (organophosphate insecticides) and aminocarb and carbaryl (carbamate insecticides) were selected for toxicity tests against cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki), a stonefly (Pteronarcella badia), and a freshwater amphipod (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus) edemic in streams of the northern Rocky Mountains. Populations of cutthroat trout inhabit lakes and streams in the Rocky Mountains which include some of the most pristine habitat and fisheries in North America. Pteronarcella and Gammarus provide forage for cutthroat trout and feed on decaying

  20. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from freshwater aquacultures and prediction of the persistence and toxicity of antimicrobials in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung J; Jang, Eunhee; Lee, Sang-Hun; Yoo, Byeong-Hak; Kim, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Tak-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from freshwater aquaculture effluents was investigated. The bacterial strains were collected from four different freshwater aquaculture effluents (catfish, trout, eel, and loach). Based on sequence of 16S rRNA, a total of 20 bacterial strains was isolated and one half of the isolated bacteria were Aeromonas sp. The antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed using the disc diffusion method. Individual antibiotic-resistant bacteria to antimicrobials were 41.7% and multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria were 58.3%. The disinfection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by electron beam (E-beam) irradiation was carried out using an electron accelerator. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were effectively disinfected by E-beam irradiation. The isolated bacteria were completely disinfected at a dose of less than 2 kGy. The persistence and toxicity of each antimicrobial in the aquatic environment was estimated due to the human health and ecosystems. In order to estimate the persistence and toxicity of antimicrobials in the aquatic environment, two quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were used. The persistence and toxicity of each antimicrobial were influenced on its hydrophobicity. In addition, QSAR models showed that isoelectric point and hydrogen bonding acceptor are key parameters to estimate the persistence and toxicity of antimicrobials in the aquatic environment.

  1. Improving the reliability of aquatic toxicity testing of hydrophobic chemicals via equilibrium passive dosing - A multiple trophic level case study on bromochlorophene.

    PubMed

    Stibany, Felix; Ewald, Franziska; Miller, Ina; Hollert, Henner; Schäffer, Andreas

    2017-01-28

    The main objective of the present study was to improve the reliability and practicability of aquatic toxicity testing of hydrophobic chemicals based upon the model substance bromochlorophene (BCP). Therefore, we adapted a passive dosing format to test the toxicity of BCP at different concentrations and in multiple test systems with aquatic organisms of various trophic levels. At the same time, the method allowed for the accurate determination of exposure concentrations (i.e., in the presence of exposed organisms; Ctest) and freely dissolved concentrations (i.e., without organisms present; Cfree) of BCP in all tested media. We report on the joint adaptation of three ecotoxicity tests - algal growth inhibition, Daphnia magna immobilization, and fish-embryo toxicity - to a silicone O-ring based equilibrium passive dosing format. Effect concentrations derived by passive dosing methods were compared with corresponding effect concentrations derived by standard co-solvent setups. The passive dosing format led to EC50-values in the lower μgL(-1) range for algae, daphnids, and fish embryos, whereas increased effect concentrations were measured in the co-solvent setups for algae and daphnids. This effect once more shows that passive dosing might offer advantages over standard methods like co-solvent setups when it comes to a reliable risk assessment of hydrophobic substances. The presented passive dosing setup offers a facilitated, practical, and repeatable way to test hydrophobic chemicals on their toxicity to aquatic organisms, and is an ideal basis for the detailed investigation of this important group of chemicals.

  2. Mechanisms of and defense against acute ammonia toxicity in the aquatic Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Ip, Y K; Lee, S M L; Wong, W P; Chew, S F

    2008-01-31

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of acute ammonia toxicity in the aquatic Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, and to examine how this turtle defended against a sublethal dose of NH(4)Cl injected into its peritoneal cavity. The ammonia and glutamine contents in the brains of turtles that succumbed within 3h to an intraperitoneal injection with a lethal dose (12.5 micromolg(-1) turtle) of NH(4)Cl were 21 and 4.4 micromolg(-1), respectively. Since the brain glutamine content increased to 8 micromolg(-1) at hour 6 and recovered thereafter in turtles injected with a sub-lethal dose of NH(4)Cl (7.5 micromolg(-1) turtle), it can be concluded that increased glutamine synthesis and accumulation was not the major cause of acute ammonia toxicity in P. sinensis. Indeed, the administration of l-methionine S-sulfoximine (MSO; 82 microgg(-1) turtle), a glutamine synthetase (GS) inhibitor, prior to the injection of a lethal dose of NH(4)Cl had no significant effect on the mortality rate. Although the prior administration of MSO led to an extension of the time to death, it was apparently a result of its effects on glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate formation, instead of glutamine synthesis and accumulation, in the brain. By contrast, a prior injection with MK801 (1.6 microgg(-1) turtle), a NMDA receptor antagonist, reduced the 24h mortality of turtles injected with a lethal dose of NH(4)Cl by 50%. Thus, acute ammonia toxicity in P. sinensis was probably a result of glutamate dysfunction and the activation of NMDA receptors. NMDA receptor activation could also be exacerbated through membrane depolarization caused by the extraordinarily high level of ammonia (21 micromolg(-1) brain) in the brain of turtles that succumbed to a lethal dose of NH(4)Cl. One hour after the injection with a sub-lethal dose of NH(4)Cl, the brain of P. sinensis exhibited an extraordinarily high tolerance of ammonia (16 micromolg(-1) brain). The transient nature of

  3. Toxicity and hazard of a mixture of SSRIs to zooplankton communities evaluated in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Laird, Brian D; Brain, Richard A; Johnson, David J; Wilson, Christian J; Sanderson, Hans; Solomon, Keith R

    2007-10-01

    The toxicity and hazard of a mixture of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline, to zooplankton communities were evaluated using 120,00l outdoor microcosms. Acute (day 4) and chronic (day 35) zooplankton abundance and species richness were assessed for Rotifera, Cladocera, and Copepoda. For acute SSRI exposures, rotifers were the most sensitive zooplankton taxa to changes in abundance (predicted no effect concentration (PNEC)=19 nM); however, no effects in zooplankton species richness were observed for this treatment period. A decrease in Copepoda abundance and species richness was observed following chronic exposures of SSRIs (PNEC=9.1 nM). A 99th-centile predicted environmental concentration (PEC=0.51 nM) yielded HQs at least two orders of magnitude below 1. Therefore, mixtures of SSRIs do not appear to present a hazard to zooplankton communities at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  4. Flowthrough fecundity test with Nitocra spinipes (Harpacticoidea Crustacea) for aquatic toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson, B.E.; Bergstroem, B.

    1987-12-01

    A sublethal flowthrough fecundity test with the euryhaline harpacticoid copepod, Nitocra spinipes, has been developed as a complement to the acute toxicity test (for 48 or 96 hr LC50) with the same species. Bacterial suspension as feed and test water are continuously fed by a peristaltic pump to the system. Newly fertilized females with ovigerous bands are harvested from laboratory cultures and put into the test vessels at the start of the experiment. They are then exposed to a series of concentrations of chemicals or industrial effluents for 13 days. The amount of live offspring (metanauplia and copepodids) are recorded and an EC50 for fecundity is calculated. The report gives a detailed technical description of the test system and presents the results from 11 tests with pure chemicals (Zn, Cd, As, and pentachlorophenate) and six industrial effluents (pulp industry, textile industry, and refinery) in salinities ranging from 3 to 25%.

  5. Acute, aquatic toxicity of selected mineral particles. Technical report, September 1985-October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Landis, W.G.

    1988-11-01

    Graphite fibers, nickel-graphite fibers, polycrystalline iron whiskers, and graphite Mirco-260 (M-260) were tested to determine their toxicities to Daphnia magna. The graphite fibers and nickel-graphite fibers were ground with a mortar and pestle before testing. The M-260 had an EC50 of 80.6 mg/L for four pooled replicates. None of the other compounds caused any deaths at concentrations up to 100 mg/L. All the bioassays were 48-hr acute studies. A 96-hr growth inhibition assay using Ankistrodesmus falcatus was performed with the graphite. No inhibition of A. falcatus was observed; however, the growth of the algae was enhanced by the two lowest test concentrations.

  6. Toxic Effect of a Marine Bacterium on Aquatic Organisms and Its Algicidal Substances against Phaeocystis globosa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiuchan; Chen, Lina; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ling; Yin, Pinghe; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms have caused enormous damage to the marine ecosystem and the coastal economy in China. In this paper, a bacterial strain B1, which had strong algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from the coastal waters of Zhuhai in China. The strain B1 was identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics. To evaluate the ecological safety of the algicidal substances produced by strain B1, their toxic effects on marine organisms were tested. Results showed that there were no adverse effects observed in the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Chaetoceros muelleri, and Isochrystis galbana after exposure to the algicidal substances at a concentration of 1.0% (v/v) for 96 h. The 48h LC50 values for Brachionus plicatilis, Moina mongolica Daday and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.7, 9.0 and 12.1% (v/v), respectively. Subsequently, the algicidal substances from strain B1 culture were isolated and purified by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PeakView Software, the purified substances were identified as prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine. Algicidal mechanism indicated that prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine inhibited the growth of P. globosa by disrupting the antioxidant systems. In the acute toxicity assessment using M. mongolica, 24h LC50 values of prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine were 7.0 and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The active substances produced by strain B1 can be considered as ecologically and environmentally biological agents for controlling harmful algal blooms. PMID:25646807

  7. Antibiotics and sweeteners in the aquatic environment: biodegradability, formation of phototransformation products, and in vitro toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bergheim, Marlies; Gminski, Richard; Spangenberg, Bernd; Debiak, Malgorzata; Bürkle, Alexander; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker; Kümmerer, Klaus; Gieré, Reto

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, in vitro toxicity as well as biopersistence and photopersistence of four artificial sweeteners (acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharine, and sucralose) and five antibiotics (levofloxacin, lincomycin, linezolid, marbofloxacin, and sarafloxacin) and of their phototransformation products (PTPs) were investigated. Furthermore, antibiotic activity was evaluated after UV irradiation and after exposure to inocula of a sewage treatment plant. The study reveals that most of the tested compounds and their PTPs were neither readily nor inherently biodegradable in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-biodegradability tests. The study further demonstrates that PTPs are formed upon irradiation with an Hg lamp (UV light) and, to a lesser extent, upon irradiation with a Xe lamp (mimics sunlight). Comparing the nonirradiated with the corresponding irradiated solutions, a higher chronic toxicity against bacteria was found for the irradiated solutions of linezolid. Neither cytotoxicity nor genotoxicity was found in human cervical (HeLa) and liver (Hep-G2) cells for any of the investigated compounds or their PTPs. Antimicrobial activity of the tested fluoroquinolones was reduced after UV treatment, but it was not reduced after a 28-day exposure to inocula of a sewage treatment plant. This comparative study shows that PTPs can be formed as a result of UV treatment. The study further demonstrated that UV irradiation can be effective in reducing the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics, and consequently may help to reduce antimicrobial resistance in wastewaters. Nevertheless, the study also highlights that some PTPs may exhibit a higher ecotoxicity than the respective parent compounds. Consequently, UV treatment does not transform all micropollutants into harmless compounds and may not be a large-scale effluent treatment option.

  8. Toxic effect of a marine bacterium on aquatic organisms and its algicidal substances against Phaeocystis globosa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiuchan; Chen, Lina; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ling; Yin, Pinghe; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms have caused enormous damage to the marine ecosystem and the coastal economy in China. In this paper, a bacterial strain B1, which had strong algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from the coastal waters of Zhuhai in China. The strain B1 was identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics. To evaluate the ecological safety of the algicidal substances produced by strain B1, their toxic effects on marine organisms were tested. Results showed that there were no adverse effects observed in the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Chaetoceros muelleri, and Isochrystis galbana after exposure to the algicidal substances at a concentration of 1.0% (v/v) for 96 h. The 48h LC50 values for Brachionus plicatilis, Moina mongolica Daday and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.7, 9.0 and 12.1% (v/v), respectively. Subsequently, the algicidal substances from strain B1 culture were isolated and purified by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PeakView Software, the purified substances were identified as prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine. Algicidal mechanism indicated that prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine inhibited the growth of P. globosa by disrupting the antioxidant systems. In the acute toxicity assessment using M. mongolica, 24h LC50 values of prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine were 7.0 and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The active substances produced by strain B1 can be considered as ecologically and environmentally biological agents for controlling harmful algal blooms.

  9. Bayesian approach to potency estimation for aquatic toxicology experiments when a toxicant affects both fecundity and survival.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Bailer, A John; Oris, James T

    2012-08-01

    Chemicals in aquatic systems may impact a variety of endpoints including mortality, growth, or reproduction. Clearly, growth or reproduction will only be observed in organisms that survive. Because it is common to observe mortality in studies focusing on the reproduction of organisms, especially in higher concentration conditions, the resulting observed numbers of young become a mixture of zeroes and positive counts. Zeroes are recorded for organisms that die before having any young and living organisms with no offspring. Positive counts are recorded for living organisms with offspring. Thus, responses reflect both fecundity and mortality of the organisms used in such tests. In the present study, the authors propose the estimation of the concentration associated with a specified level of reproductive inhibition (RIp) using a Bayesian zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression model. This approach allows any prior information and expert knowledge about the model parameters to be incorporated into the regression coefficients or RIp estimation. Simulation studies are conducted to compare the Bayesian ZIP regression model and classical methods. The Bayesian estimator outperforms the frequentist alternative by producing more precise point estimates with smaller mean square differences between RIp estimates and true values, narrower interval estimates with better coverage probabilities. The authors also applied their proposed model to a study of Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to a test toxicant.

  10. Bioconcentration and toxicity of dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C12LAS) to aquatic organisms exposed in experimental streams.

    PubMed

    Versteeg, D J; Rawlings, J M

    2003-02-01

    Fish, mollusks, and crustaceans were caged in the tail pool of streams during a C(12)LAS (dodecyl benzene sulfonate) model ecosystem experimental program. Bioconcentration of total C(12)LAS and individual isomers and acute and chronic toxicity were investigated during this study. Toxicity endpoints were based on water and tissue (i.e., body burden) concentrations at which adverse effects were observed. At 32 days, total C(12)LAS bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the fathead minnow and three invertebrate species ranged from 9 to 116. In general, bioconcentration was affected by isomer position, exposure concentration, and species. BCF values tended to decrease as isomer position moved from external (e.g., 2-phenyl) to internal (e.g., 5,6-phenyl). BCFs also decreased as exposure concentration increased. Mean acute 4-d LC(50) values ranged from 1.5 to >3.0 mg/L for the six species tested. Lethal body burdens associated with 50% mortality (LBB(50)) varied from 0.21 to 0.60 mmole/kg (wet weight). During the 32-day chronic exposures, the EC(20) values were 0.27 (0.204-0.352), 0.95 (0.597-1.29), and approximately 1.0 mg/L for Corbicula (length), Hyalella (survival), and fathead minnow (survival), respectively. At these EC(20) values, C(12)LAS body burdens were 0.035, 0.23, and 0.19 mmoles/kg wet weight in Corbicula, Hyalella, and fathead minnow, respectively. Fish exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent had total C(12)LAS tissue concentrations ranging from 0.0005 to 0.0039 mmoles/kg wet weight. These concentrations are approximately 45-360 times below the tissue concentration associated with subtle effects in the model ecosystem stream exposures. Total C(12)LAS body burdens in feral and caged Corbicula exposed to WWTP effluents were approximately 0.0013 mmoles/kg; approximately 25-fold below concentrations associated with effects in stream exposures.

  11. Aquatic toxicity assessment of single-walled carbon nanotubes using zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Huichin; Lin, Yu-Jun; Li, Meng-Wei; Chuang, Han-Ni; Chou, Cheng-Chung

    2011-07-01

    Zebrafish embryos selected at the 64-cell stage were exposed to various concentrations of amide functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) ranging from 1 to 10 μg/ml dissolved in 1% Pluronic F-68 (a cell culture grade surfactant), and the development of embryos was examined from 24 to 120 hours post fertilization (hpf). Incubation of embryos in 1% F-68 did not induce overt abnormal phenotype as compared to the wild-type; neither did it cause significant mortality during the exposure period. Generally, there was a slight developmental delay in larvae treated with SWCNTs of 5 μg/ml or above. Only larvae exposed to >= 5 μg/ml SWCNTs showed significantly reduced survival rates. About 50% of the embryos exposed to 5 μg/ml showed abnormal phenotypes at 24 hpf as compared to the control group. As development proceeds to 120 hpf, more embryos displayed defective morphology. A slight hatching delay was observed in embryos exposed to concentrations above 5 μg/ml. There was a general reduction of body axes, including narrowed somite and shortened yolk stalk. In addition, pigmentation in the ventral trunk area was less than that observed in control group. The body lengths of the exposed embryos were decreased significantly at 48 hpf (3.11 mm in control vs. 3.00 mm in SWCNTs-exposed embryos). However, exposure to SWCNTs did not affect the number of somites. Other features that were noticed in the SWCNTs-exposed embryos included edema and shrinkage and blebbling of the epidermal lining. Most of these observed phenotypes persisted from 48 hpf through 120 hpf. Overall, the aforementioned results indicate that soluble amide-functionalized SWCNTs are toxic to zebrafish embryos at a minimum concentration of 5 μg/ml.

  12. Aquatic toxicity of sertraline to Pimephales promelas at environmentally relevant surface water pH.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Theodore W; Perez-Hurtado, Pilar; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W

    2009-12-01

    Researchers recognize that ionization state may influence the biological activity of weak acids and bases. Dissociation in aqueous solutions is controlled by the pKa of a compound and the pH of the matrix. Because many pharmaceuticals are implicitly designed as ionizable compounds, site-specific variability in pH of receiving waters may introduce uncertainty to ecological risk assessments. The present study employed 48-h and 7-d toxicity tests with Pimephales promelas exposed to the model weak base pharmaceutical sertraline over a gradient of environmentally relevant surface water pHs. The 48-h experiments were completed in triplicate, and the average lethal concentration values were 647, 205, and 72 microL sertraline at pH 6.5, 7.5, and 8.5, respectively. Survivorship, growth, and feeding rate (a nontraditional endpoint linked by other researchers to sertraline's specific mode of action) were monitored during the 7-d experiment. Adverse effects were more pronounced when individuals were exposed to sertraline at pH 8.5 compared to pH 7.5 and 6.5. The pH-dependent toxicological relationships from these studies were related to in-stream pH data for two streams in the Brazos River basin of central Texas, USA. This predictive approach was taken because of the scarcity of environmental analytical data for sertraline. The results of this study emphasized temporal variability associated with in-stream pH linked to seasonal differences within and between these spatially related systems. Relating site-specific pH variability of surface waters to ionization state may allow researchers to reduce uncertainty during ecological risk assessment of pharmaceuticals by improving estimates of biological effects associated with exposure.

  13. Fate of ivermectin in the terrestrial and aquatic environment: mobility, degradation, and toxicity towards Daphnia similis.

    PubMed

    Rath, Susanne; Pereira, Leandro Alves; Bosco, Sandra Maria Dal; Maniero, Milena Guedes; Fostier, Anne Hélène; Guimarães, José Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug that is regularly employed in veterinary medicine. In this work, the sorption and desorption of IVM in two Brazilian soils (N1-sand and S2-clay) as well as its leaching capacity, dissipation under aerobic conditions, and degradation in aqueous solution by photocatalysis with TiO2 in suspension were evaluated. The kinetic sorption curves of IVM were adjusted to a pseudo-second-order model. The sorption and desorption data were well fitted with the Freundlich isotherms in the log form (r > 0.96). The Freundlich sorption coefficient (K F (ads) ) and the Freundlich desorption coefficient (K F (des) ) were 77.7 and 120 μg(1-1/n) (cm(3))(1/n) g(-1) and 74.5 and 138 μg(1-1/n) (cm(3))(1/n) g(-1), for soils N1 and S2, respectively. A greater leaching capacity of IVM was observed for the sandy soil N1 than for the clay soil S2. Under aerobic conditions, the dissipation (DT50) at 19.3 °C was 15.5 days (soil N1) and 11.5 days (soil S2). Photocatalysis with UVC and TiO2 in suspension resulted in the degradation of 98 % of IVM (500 μg L(-1)) in water in 600 s. The toxicity (Daphnia similis) of the solutions submitted to the photocatalytic process was completely eliminated after 10 min.

  14. Toxicity of an engineered nanoparticle (fullerene, C60) in two aquatic species, Daphnia and fathead minnow.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shiqian; Oberdörster, Eva; Haasch, Mary L

    2006-07-01

    Water-soluble fullerene (nC60) has been shown to induce lipid peroxidation (LPO) in brain of juvenile largemouth bass (LMB, Micropterus salmoides) [Oberdörster, E., 2004. Manufactured nanomaterials (fullerenes, c60) induce oxidative stress in brain of juvenile largemouth bass. Environ. Health Persp. 112, 1058-1062]; and upregulate genes related to the inflammatory response and metabolism, most notably CYP2K4 [. Nanotoxicology: an emerging discipline evolving from 116 studies of ultrafine particles. Environ. Health Persp. 113, 823-839]. The initial study in LMB was performed using tetrahydrofuran (THF)-solubilized nC60, although C60 can also be solubilized by stirring in water. The current study investigates differences in acute toxicity to Daphnia magna between THF-solubilized and water-stirred-nC60 as a range-find for further assays in adult male fathead minnow (FHM, Pimephales promelas). The daphnia 48-h LC50 for THF-nC60 was at least one order of magnitude less (0.8 ppm) than that for water-stirred-nC60 (> 35 ppm). FHM were dosed with either 0.5 ppm of THF- or water-stirred-nC60 for 48 h. There was 100% mortality in the THF-nC60-exposed fish between 6 and 18 h, while the water-stirred-nC60-exposed fish showed no obvious physical effects after 48 h. Water-stirred-nC60 elevated LPO in brain, significantly increased LPO in gill, and significantly increased expression of CYP2 family isozymes in liver as compared to control fish.

  15. Copper and zinc, but not other priority toxic metals, pose risks to native aquatic species in a large urban lake in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhiyou; Wu, Fengchang; Chen, Lulu; Xu, Bingbing; Feng, Chenglian; Bai, Yingchen; Liao, Haiqing; Sun, Siyang; Giesy, John P; Guo, Wenjing

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, global production of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) rank in the top three compared to other metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, As and Hg. However, due to the potential for exposure and toxicity to humans, more attention of environmental pollution was paid to other metals such as Cd and Hg. Aquatic organisms are sensitive to Cu and Zn. Even though internal concentrations of these required elements are homeostatically controlled, toxic effects can occur at the fish gill surface. In this work, concentrations in surface waters and toxic effects of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, As, Hg were determined and risk of various metals in Tai Lake, China were evaluated using both risk quotients and joint probability distributions. Two transition metals, Cu and Zn posed the greatest risks to aquatic organisms while measured concentrations of other metals were less than thresholds for adverse effects. Approximately 99.9% and 50.7% of the aquatic organisms were predicted to be affected by Cu and Zn in surface water of Tai Lake respectively. Our results highlight ecological risks of Cu and Zn in water of a typical, large, urban lake in Eastern China, which was ignored in the past. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the use of the AVS concept for the routine toxicity monitoring of contaminated freshwater sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Vangheluwe, M.L.; Janssen, C.R.; Goyvaerts, M.P.; Cooman, P.

    1995-12-31

    Acid volatile sulfides (AVS) have been shown to be an important factor mediating the bioavailability of heavy metals in sediments and have consequently been suggested as a possible predictive tool for toxicity assessment of these matrices. The potential use and limitations of the AVS method for predictive toxicity screening and priority setting was assessed in a large scale sediment monitoring study (Flanders, Belgium). The acute toxicity of 50 metal contaminated freshwater sediments, with varying metal concentrations and sediment characteristics, were tested using the Microtox{reg_sign} Solid Phase test and the 10 day test with Chironomus riparius and Hyalella azteca. Uni and multivariate statistical techniques were used to asses the relations between acute toxicity and SEM/AVS ratio`s and to evaluate the influence of sediment characteristics on metal bioavailability and toxicity. In general, the results of this study indicate that the AVS-toxicity relationship proposed in literature does have certain limitations. Finally, the potential use of a concentration-addition model for predicting metal-mixture toxicity in sediments will be presented and discussed.

  17. Aquatic toxicity evaluation of TiO2 nanoparticle produced from sludge of TiCl4 flocculation of wastewater and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. C.; Kim, S.; Shon, H. K.; Vigneswaran, S.; Kim, S. D.; Cho, J.; Kim, In S.; Choi, K. H.; Kim, J. B.; Park, H. J.; Kim, J.-H.

    2009-11-01

    Flocculation using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) as a coagulant is an efficient and economical application because the flocculated sludge can be recycled to produce a valuable byproduct, namely titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. However, toxicity of TiCl4 has not yet been assessed while it is used in water treatment. The aquatic toxicity of TiCl4 flocculation process was investigated to assess the environmental safety of the coagulant. D. magna and V. fischeri bioassays were carried out to evaluate the supernatant toxicity after TiCl4 flocculation. Artificial wastewater, biologically treated sewage effluent, and seawater were used to study the toxicity of TiCl4 flocculation. Results showed that supernatant toxicity was very low when TiCl4 flocculation was conducted (no observed effect concentration = 100 mg/L and lowest observed effect concentration = 150 mg/L exposed to D. magna and V. fischeri, respectively). Similarly, TiO2 nanoparticles recovered from wastewater and seawater flocculated sludge were also found to have low toxicity. The regenerated TiO2 nanoparticles indicated low toxicity values when compared to the commercial-TiO2 nanoparticle, P-25.

  18. The impact of increased oxygen conditions on metal-contaminated sediments part II: effects on metal accumulation and toxicity in aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    De Jonge, M; Teuchies, J; Meire, P; Blust, R; Bervoets, L

    2012-06-15

    The present study evaluated the effect of increasing oxygen concentrations in overlying surface water on the accumulation and toxicity of sediment-bound metals in the aquatic invertebrates Lumbriculus variegatus, Asellus aquaticus and Daphnia magna. A 54 days experiment using three experimental treatments (90% O(2) in overlying surface water, 40% O(2) and a non-polluted control) was conducted. At 6 different time points (after 0, 2, 5, 12, 32 and 54 days) acid volatile sulfides (AVS), simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) and total organic carbon (TOC) were measured in the superficial sediment layer (0-1 cm). At each time point, accumulated metal levels as well as the available energy stores were measured in L. variegatus and A. aquaticus and each time D. magna was exposed to surface water in a 24 h toxicity test. Additionally metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) induction was quantified in L. variegatus. Oxygen induced changes in sediment AVS resulted in faster accumulation of metals from contaminated sediments in A. aquaticus, while no differences in toxicity in this species were observed. Ag, Cr, As and Co accumulation as well as toxicity in water exposed D. magna were clearly enhanced after 54 days, caused by oxidation of metal-sulfide complexes. Due to their feeding and burrowing behaviour, metal accumulation and toxicity in L. variegatus was not influenced by geochemical characteristics. Nevertheless, a rapid induction of MTLP was observed in both the 90% O(2) and the 40% O(2) treatment. The present study showed that elevated oxygen concentrations in overlying surface water can directly enhance metal accumulation and toxicity in aquatic invertebrates, however this is highly dependent on the organisms ecology and most dominant metal exposure route (water vs. sediment). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Release of copper from sintered tungsten-bronze shot under different pH conditions and its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Vernon G; Santore, Robert C; McGill, Ian

    2007-03-01

    Sintered tungsten-bronze is a new substitute for lead shot, and is about to be deposited in and around the wetlands of North America. This material contains copper in the alloyed form of bronze. This in vitro study was performed according to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria to determine the dissolution rate of copper from the shot, and to assess the toxic risk that it may present to aquatic organisms. The dissolution of copper from tungsten-bronze shot, pure copper shot, and glass beads was measured in a buffered, moderately hard, synthetic water of pH 5.5, 6.6, and 7.8 over a 28-day period. The dissolution of copper from both the control copper shot and the tungsten-bronze shot was affected significantly by the pH of the water and the duration of dissolution (all p values<0.000). The rate of copper release from tungsten bronze shot was 30 to 50 times lower than that from the copper shot, depending on pH (p<0.0000). The observed expected environmental concentration of copper released from tungsten-bronze shot after 28 days was 0.02 microg/L at pH 7.8, and 0.4 microg/L at pH 5.6, using a loading and exposure scenario specific in a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protocol. Ratio Quotient values derived from the highest EEC observed in this study (0.4 microg/L), and the copper toxic effect levels for all aquatic species listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ambient water quality criteria database, were all far less than the 0.1 criterion value. Given the conditions stipulated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, heavy loading from discharged tungsten-bronze shot would not pose a toxic risk to potable water, or to soil. Consequently, it would appear that no toxic risks to aquatic organisms will attend the use of tungsten-bronze shot of the approved composition. Given the likelihood that sintered tungsten-bronze of the same formula will be used for fishing weights, bullets, and wheel balance weights, it

  20. Assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in aquatic species as a biomarker of exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.; George, W.; Preslan, J.

    1996-05-02

    This project discusses the following studies: identification and quantitation of heavy metals and petroleum products present in Bayou Trepagnier relative to control sites; assessment of the uptake and bioaccumulation of metals and organic contaminants of interest in aquatic species; establishment and use of polarographic methods for use in metal speciation studies to identify specific chemical forms present in sediments, waters and organism; and evaluation of contaminants on reproductive function of aquatic species as potential biomarkers of exposure. 14 refs.

  1. Chronic toxicity of an environmentally relevant mixture of pharmaceuticals to three aquatic organisms (alga, daphnid, and fish).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Haruna; Tamura, Ikumi; Abe, Ryoko; Takanobu, Hitomi; Nakamura, Ataru; Suzuki, Toshinari; Hirose, Akihiko; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2016-04-01

    Principles of concentration addition and independent action have been used as effective tools to predict mixture toxicity based on individual component toxicity. The authors investigated the toxicity of a pharmaceutical mixture composed of the top 10 detected active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the Tama River (Tokyo, Japan) in a relevant concentration ratio. Both individual and mixture toxicities of the 10 APIs were evaluated by 3 short-term chronic toxicity tests using the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the daphnid Ceriodaphnia dubia, and the zebrafish Danio rerio. With the exception of clarithromycin toxicity to alga, the no-observed-effect concentration of individual APIs for each test species was dramatically higher than the highest concentration of APIs found in the environment. The mixture of 10 APIs resulted in toxicity to alga, daphnid, and fish at 6.25 times, 100 times, and 15,000 times higher concentrations, respectively, than the environmental concentrations of individual APIs. Predictions by concentration addition and independent action were nearly identical for alga, as clarithromycin was the predominant toxicant in the mixture. Both predictions described the observed mixture toxicity to alga fairly well, whereas they slightly underestimated the observed mixture toxicity in the daphnid test. In the fish embryo test, the observed toxicity fell between the predicted toxicity by concentration addition and independent action. These results suggested that the toxicity of environmentally relevant pharmaceutical mixtures could be predicted by individual toxicity using either concentration addition or independent action. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Behavioural alterations from exposure to Cu, phenanthrene, and Cu-phenanthrene mixtures: linking behaviour to acute toxic mechanisms in the aquatic amphipod, Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Patrick T; Norwood, Warren P; Prepas, Ellie E; Pyle, Greg G

    2016-01-01

    Phenanthrene (PHE) and Cu are two contaminants commonly co-occurring in marine and freshwater environments. Mixtures of PHE and Cu have been reported to induce more-than-additive lethality in the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, a keystone aquatic invertebrate, yet little is understood regarding the interactive toxic mechanisms that mediate more-than-additive toxicity. Understanding the interactions among toxic mechanisms among Cu and PHE will allow for better predictive power in assessing the ecological risks of Cu-PHE mixtures in aquatic environments. Here we use behavioural impairment to help understand the toxic mechanisms of Cu, PHE, and Cu-PHE mixture toxicity in the aquatic amphipod crustacean, Hyalella azteca. Our principal objective was to link alterations in activity and ventilation with respiratory rates, oxidative stress, and neurotoxicity in adult H. azteca. Adult amphipods were used for all toxicity tests. Amphipods were tested at sublethal exposures of 91.8- and 195-μgL(-1) Cu and PHE, respectively, and a Cu-PHE mixture at the same concentrations for 24h. Neurotoxicity was measured as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, where malathion was used as a positive control. Oxidative stress was measured as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Phenanthrene-exposed amphipods exhibited severe behavioural impairment, being hyperstimulated to the extent that they were incapable of coordinating muscle movements. In addition, respiration and AChE activity in PHE-exposed amphipods were increased and reduced by 51% and 23% respectively. However, ROS did not increase following exposure to phenanthrene. In contrast, Cu had no effect on amphipod behaviour, respiration or AChE activity, but did lead to an increase in ROS. However, co-exposure to Cu antagonized the PHE-induced reduction in ventilation and negated any increase in respiration. The results suggest that PHE acts like an organophosphate pesticide (e.g., malathion) in H. azteca following 24h sublethal

  3. Aquatic toxicity of nine aircraft deicer and anti-icer formulations and relative toxicity of additive package ingredients alkylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, S.R.; Geis, S.W.; Loyo-Rosales, J. E.; Rice, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of the effects of aircraft deicer and anti-icer fluid (ADAF) runoff on aquatic organisms in receiving streams is a complex issue because the identities of numerous toxic additives are proprietary and not publicly available. Most potentially toxic and endocrine disrupting effects caused by ADAF are due to the numerous additive package ingredients which vary among manufacturers and types of ADAF formulation. Toxicity investigations of nine ADAF formulations indicate that endpoint concentrations for formulations of different manufacturers are widely variable. Type IV ADAF (anti-icers) are more toxic than Type I (deicers) for the four organisms tested (Vibrio fischeri, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Selenastrum capricornutum). Acute toxicity endpoint concentrations ranged from 347 to 7700 mg/L as ADAF for Type IV and from 1550 to 45 100 mg/L for Type I formulations. Chronic endpoint concentrations ranged from 70 to 1300 mg/L for Type IV and from 37 to 18 400 mg/L for Type I formulations. Alkylphenol ethoxylates and tolyltriazoles are two known classes of additives. Nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates, octylphenol, octylphenol ethoxylates, and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles were quantified in the nine ADAF formulations, and toxicity tests were conducted with nonylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles. Toxicity units computed for glycol and these additives, with respect to toxicity of the ADAF formulations, indicate that a portion of ADAF toxicity can be explained by the known additives and glycols, but much of the toxicity is due to unidentified additives. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  4. The toxicity of cadmium to three aquatic organisms (Photobacterium phosphoreum, Daphnia magna and Carassius auratus) under different pH levels.

    PubMed

    Qu, R-J; Wang, X-H; Feng, M-B; Li, Y; Liu, H-X; Wang, L-S; Wang, Z-Y

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of pH on cadmium toxicity to three aquatic organisms: Photobacterium phosphoreum, Daphnia magna and Carassius auratus. The acute toxicity of Cd(2+) to P. phosphoreum and D. magna at five pH values (5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0) was assessed by calculating EC50 values. We determined that Cd(2+) was least toxic under acidic conditions, and D. magna was more sensitive to the toxicity of Cd than P. phosphoreum. To evaluate Cd(2+)-induced hepatic oxidative stress in C. auratus at three pH levels (5.0, 7.25, 9.0), the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), the level of glutathione and the malondialdehyde content in the liver were measured. Oxidative damage was observed after 7d Cd exposure at pH 9.0. An important finding of the current research was that Cd(2+) was generally more toxic to the three test organisms in alkaline environments than in acidic environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative Toxicity of Eight Oil Dispersants, Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Aquatic Test Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach utilized consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispers...

  6. Comparative Toxicity of Eight Oil Dispersants, Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Aquatic Test Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach utilized consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispers...

  7. MOAtox: A comprehensive mode of action and acute aquatic toxicity database for predictive model development (SETAC abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of toxic action (MOA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity and as an alternative to chemical class-based predictive toxicity modeling. However, the development of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and other models has been limit...

  8. MOAtox: A comprehensive mode of action and acute aquatic toxicity database for predictive model development (SETAC abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of toxic action (MOA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity and as an alternative to chemical class-based predictive toxicity modeling. However, the development of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and other models has been limit...

  9. The aquatic toxicity of anionic surfactants to Daphnia magna--a comparative QSAR study of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates and ester sulphonates.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Geoff; Roberts, David W; Marshall, Stuart J; Dearden, John C

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) for the acute aquatic toxicity of the anionic surfactants linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) and ester sulphonates (ES) to Daphnia magna, the aim being to investigate the modes of action by comparing the QSARs for the two types of surfactant. The generated data for ES have been used to develop a QSAR correlating toxicity with calculated log P values: log(1/EC50)= 0.78 log P+1.37. This equation has an intercept 1.1 log units lower than a QSAR for linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS). The findings suggest that either ES surfactants act by a different mode of action to LAS and other anionic surfactants or the log P calculation method introduces a systematic overestimate when applied to ES.

  10. Organic waste compounds in streams: Occurrence and aquatic toxicity in different stream compartments, flow regimes, and land uses in southeast Wisconsin, 2006–9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; Richards, Kevin D.; Geis, Steven W.; Magruder, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of organic chemicals and aquatic toxicity in streams located near Milwaukee, Wisconsin, indicated high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms that could be related to organic waste compounds (OWCs). OWCs used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewage overflows, among other sources. Many of these compounds are toxic at elevated concentrations and (or) known to have endocrine-disrupting potential, and often they occur as complex mixtures. There is still much to be learned about the chronic exposure effects of these compounds on aquatic populations. During 2006–9, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD), conducted a study to determine the occurrence and potential toxicity of OWCs in different stream compartments and flow regimes for streams in the Milwaukee area. Samples were collected at 17 sites and analyzed for a suite of 69 OWCs. Three types of stream compartments were represented: water column, streambed pore water, and streambed sediment. Water-column samples were subdivided by flow regime into stormflow and base-flow samples. One or more compounds were detected in all 196 samples collected, and 64 of the 69 compounds were detected at least once. Base-flow samples had the lowest detection rates, with a median of 12 compounds detected per sample. Median detection rates for stormflow, pore-water, and sediment samples were more than double that of base-flow samples. Compounds with the highest detection rates include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), insecticides, herbicides, and dyes/pigments. Elevated occurrence and concentrations of some compounds were detected in samples from urban sites, as compared with more rural sites, especially during stormflow conditions. These include the PAHs and the domestic waste

  11. Aquatic toxicity of four alkylphenols (3-tert-butylphenol, 2-isopropylphenol, 3-isopropylphenol, and 4-isopropylphenol) and their binary mixtures to microbes, invertebrates, and fish.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyungho; Sweet, Leonard I; Meier, Peter G; Kim, Pan-Gyi

    2004-02-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of four simple alkylphenols with butyl and propyl substitutions was evaluated with aquatic microbes, invertebrates, and fish. These alkylphenols-3-tert-butylphenol, 2-isopropylphenol, 3-isopropylphenol, and 4-isopropylphenol-have been detected in various environmental media, but their impact on aquatic fauna has seldom been evaluated. Relative susceptibility to each phenolic varied by test species. The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri was the most susceptible to the alkylphenols, up to 3 orders of magnitude more sensitive than species of higher trophic levels. For 4-isopropylphenol, the 5-min Microtox EC(50) value was 0.01 mg/L, whereas the EC(50) for Ceriodaphnia after a 48-h exposure was 10.1 mg/L. Notable differences in sensitivity to the alkylphenols was also observed with the Microtox assay: 4-isopropylphenol was > 200 times more toxic to V. fischeri than was 2-isopropylphenol (EC(50) = 2.72 mg/L). For V. fischeri, the mixture toxicity of the alkylphenols was additive in nature and was predicted by a concentration addition model. The energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO) explained the observed toxicity of the individual alkylphenols to V. fischeri (r(2) = 0.92, p < 0.05). These results suggest that the mode of action of polar narcotic alkylphenols to V. fischeri is different than that of other test organisms, possibly because of the differences in the cell structure of the prokaryotic V. fischeri. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 19: 45-50, 2004.

  12. Longitudinal lactate levels from routine point-of-care monitoring in adult Malawian antiretroviral therapy patients: associations with stavudine toxicities.

    PubMed

    Chagoma, Newton; Mallewa, Jane; Kaunda, Symon; Njalale, Yasin; Kampira, Elizabeth; Mukaka, Mavuto; Heyderman, Robert S; van Oosterhout, Joep J

    2013-10-01

    Stavudine is still widely used in under-resourced settings such as Malawi due to its low price. It frequently causes peripheral neuropathy and lipodystrophy and increases the risk of lactic acidosis and other high lactate syndromes. We studied the association of longitudinal lactate levels, obtained by routine, 3-monthly point-of-care monitoring, with peripheral neuropathy, lipodystrophy and high lactate syndromes in adult Malawians who were in the second year of stavudine containing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Point-of-care lactate measurements were feasible in a busy urban ART clinic. Of 1170 lactate levels collected from 253 patients over the course of one year, 487 (41.8%) were elevated (>2.2mg/dl), 58 (5.0%) were highly elevated (>3.5mg/dl). At least one elevated lactate level occurred in 210 (83.0%) of patients and sustained hyperlactatemia in 65 (26.4%). In random effects analyses lipodystrophy and peripheral neuropathy were associated with higher lactate levels. Only five patients developed high lactate syndromes (one lactic acidosis) of whom no preceding lactate measurements were available because events had started before enrolment. Lactate levels significantly decreased over time and no high lactate syndromes were observed after the 15th month on ART. Lipodystrophy and peripheral neuropathy were associated with higher lactate levels. Lactate levels decreased over time, coinciding with absence of new high lactate syndromes after the 15th month on ART.

  13. The influence of mechanochemical modification on prevention of toxic ability of humic acids towards phenanthrene in aquatic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhovtsova, N. S.; Maltseva, E. V.; Glyzina, T. S.; Ovchinnikova, I. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the research work is to quantify interaction between phenanthrene with modified humic acids in aquatic environment. The changes in the structure and properties of humic acids after modifications were studied with 1H NMR spectroscopy and potentiometric titration methods. Our research demonstrates that the application of thiourea as a modified agent increases the binding capacity of humic acids towards phenanthrene.

  14. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) mixture toxicity to the macrophytes Myriophyllum spicatum and Myriophyllum sibiricum in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mark L; Sibley, Paul K; Mabury, Scott A; Solomon, Keith R; Muir, Derek C G

    2002-02-21

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) have been detected together in environmental water samples throughout the world. TCA may enter into aquatic systems via rainout as the degradation product of chlorinated solvents, herbicide use, as a by-product of water disinfection and from emissions of spent bleach liquor of kraft pulp mills. Sources of TFA include degradation of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) refrigerants and pesticides. These substances are phytotoxic and widely distributed in aquatic environments. A study to assess the risk of a binary mixture of TCA and TFA to macrophytes in aquatic microcosms was conducted as part of a larger study on haloacetic acids. M. spicatum and M. sibiricum were exposed to 0.1, 1, 3 and 10 mg/l of both TCA and TFA (neutralized with sodium hydroxide) in replicate (n = 3) 12000 l aquatic microcosms for 49 days in an one-way analysis of variance design. Each microcosm was stocked with 14 individual apical shoots per species. The plants were sampled at regular intervals and assessed for the somatic endpoints of plant length, root growth, number of nodes and wet and dry mass and the biochemical endpoints of chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, carotenoid content and citric acid levels. Results indicate that there were statistically significant effects of the TCA/TFA mixture on certain pigment concentrations immediately after the start of exposure (2-7 days), but the plants showed no signs of stress thereafter. These data suggest that TCA/TFA mixtures at environmentally relevant concentrations do not pose a significant risk to these aquatic macrophytes.

  15. Acute toxicity and hazard assessment of Rodeo®, X-77 Spreader®, and Chem-Trol® to aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, C. J.; Higgins, K. F.; Buhl, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The herbicide Rodeo® provides waterfowl managers with an effective chemical tool for creating open water habitats in wetlands if its use does not adversely affect native invertebrate communities. The survival of caged Chironomus spp. (midge), Hyalella azteca (amphipod),Stagnicola elodes (pond snail), and Nephelopsis obscura (leech) was assessed in prairie pothole wetlands treated by air with a tank mixture of Rodeo®, the surfactant X-77 Spreader®, and the drift retardant Chem-Trol® at a rate recommended for controlling cattails. Laboratory studies were then conducted to determine the acute toxicities of Rodeo®, X-77 Spreader®, and Chem-Trol®, individually and in simulated tank mixtures, to the same invertebrates and to Daphnia magna in reconstituted water representative of these wetlands. There was no difference in the survival of caged invertebrates between treated and reference wetlands after 21 days. Based on nominal concentrations of the formulations, X-77 Spreader® (LC50s=2.0–14.1 mg/L) was about 83–136 times more toxic than Rodeo® (LC50s=218–1216 mg/L) to aquatic invertebrates. Chem-Trol® killed ≤10% of the animals at 10,000 mg/L and ≤50% of the animals at 28,000 mg/L. Daphnia magna were more sensitive than the other species to X-77 Spreader®, Rodeo®, and the simulated Rodeo® tank mixture (RTM). The joint toxic action of the RTM was additive for amphipods and midges, greater than additive for leeches, and was less than additive for daphnids. X-77 Spreader® was the major toxic component in the RTM. Binary mixtures of X-77 Spreader®, Rodeo®, and Chem-Trol® at tank mixture and equitoxic ratios also showed additive toxicity to amphipods. The use of Rodeo® (applied as a tank mixture with X-77 Spreader® and Chem-Trol®) as a management tool in wetlands does not pose an acute hazard to native aquatic invertebrates because the concentrations of Rodeo®, X-77 Spreader®, and Chem-Trol® found to be acutely toxic to these invertebrates were

  16. Aquatic Toxicity and Fate of Nickel Coated Graphite Fibers, With Comparisons to Iron and Aluminum Coated Glass Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    The toxicity of nickel coated graphite was examined using Daphnia magna , the water flea (48 hr assay) and Cyprinodon variegatus, the sheepshead...signs up to 1000 mg/L nickel fibers. Fate studies (21 days) were conducted using various water hardness and salt water media. Daphnia magna , Sheepshead minnow, Environmental toxicity, EC50, Marine amphipods.

  17. Chlorodifluoroacetic acid fate and toxicity to the macrophytes Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Myriophyllum sibiricum in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Hanson, M L; Sibley, P K; Mabury, S A; Muir, D C; Solomon, K R

    2001-12-01

    Chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA) is a novel haloacetic acid (HAA) and has been recently documented in aquatic systems. It is a suspected degradation product of the refrigerants 1,1,2-trichloro-1,1-difluoroethane (CFC-113) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b). Haloacetic acids can be phytotoxic, putatively acting through inhibition of the citric acid cycle. Replicate (n = 3) 12,000-L model aquatic ecosystems (microcosms) were dosed once at 0.5, 1, 5, and 20 mg/L of neutralized CDFA. Three microcosms served as controls. Each microcosm was stocked with eight individual apical shoots of both Myriophyllum spicatum and Myriophyllum sibiricum and sampled at regular intervals over a 42-d exposure period. The plants were assessed for the somatic endpoints of plant length, root growth, node number, and wet and dry mass and the biochemical endpoints of chlorophyll-a/b and carotenoid content as well as citric acid levels. The duckweed Lemna gibba was also introduced into these systems and monitored over a period of 14 d for wet/dry mass, plant/frond number, chlorophyll content, and growth rate. Concentrations of CDFA remained constant in the water column over the course of the fate investigation (241 d), indicating that this compound undergoes little, if any, degradation in aquatic systems. Results showed few statistically significant differences from controls for all three plant species with exposure to CDFA but no biologically relevant impacts. Overall, CDFA does not appear to pose any risk to these aquatic macrophytes at current environmental concentrations.

  18. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and β-blocker transformation products may not pose a significant risk of toxicity to aquatic organisms in wastewater effluent-dominated receiving waters.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alistair K; Challis, Jonathan K; Wong, Charles S; Hanson, Mark L

    2015-10-01

    A probabilistic ecological risk assessment was conducted for the transformation products (TPs) of 3 β-blockers (atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol) and 5 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline) to assess potential threats to aquatic organisms in effluent-dominated surface waters. To this end, the pharmacokinetic literature, the University of Minnesota's Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database Pathway Prediction System aerobic microbial degradation software, and photolysis literature pertaining to β-blockers and SSRIs were used to determine their most likely TPs formed via human metabolism, aerobic biodegradation, and photolysis, respectively. Monitoring data from North American and European surface waters receiving human wastewater inputs were the basis of the exposure characterizations of the parent compounds and the TPs, where available. In most cases, where monitoring data for TPs did not exist, we assumed a conservative 1:1 parent-to-TP production ratio (i.e., 100% of parent converted). The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)'s EPISuite and ECOSAR v1.11 software were used to estimate acute and chronic toxicities to aquatic organisms. Hazard quotients, which were calculated using the 95(th) percentile of the exposure distributions, ranged from 10(-11) to 10(-3) (i.e., all significantly less than 1). Based on these results, the TPs of interest would be expected to pose little to no environmental risk in surface waters receiving wastewater inputs. Overall, we recommend developing analytical methods that can isolate and quantify human metabolites and TPs at environmentally relevant concentrations to confirm these predictions. Further, we recommend identifying the major species of TPs from classes of pharmaceuticals that could elicit toxic effects via specific modes of action (e.g., norfluoxetine via the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]1A receptors) and conducting aquatic toxicity

  19. Rapid aquatic toxicity assay using incorporation of tritiated-thymidine into sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata, embryo: evaluation of toxicant exposure procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Nacci, D.E.; Jackim, E.

    1985-01-01

    Toxicity of substances in seawater was measured using growth inhibition of embryonic sea urchins during a short period after fertilization. Growth of Arbacia punctulata embryos was monitored by incorporation of tritium-labeled thymidine. The paper presents a comparison of toxicant exposure procedures using the Arbacia embryo thymidine incorporation test. Toxicant exposure began before, at the time of, or after fertilization and continued for 4 h following fertilization. In addition to the eight organic chemicals tested for comparison to acute toxicity values for other species, several chemicals with embryotoxic potentials (tumor promoters and teratogens) were tested to determine differential sensitivities of exposed life-stages: unfertilized egg, fertilization, and early embryo. EC50 values for any one substance were not significantly changed by exposure modification. Toxicity values for exposures that included fertilization as well as early embryo growth were at least as sensitive as post-fertilization exposure values for all compounds tested except one. Because of technical ease and potential sensitivity, toxicant exposure that includes fertilization as well as early embryo growth (but not unfertilized egg exposure) is recommended for future testing.

  20. Standard operating procedures for conducting acute and chronic aquatic toxicity tests with Eurytemora affinis, a calanoid copepod

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegenfuss, M.C.; Hall, L.W.

    1998-10-01

    Eurytemora affinis, a calanoid copepod, was selected for standard toxicity testing protocol development subsequent to screening 25 resident Chesapeake Bay species including fish, invertebrates, and plants. Eurytemora was selected because of its ecological importance as an essential component in the trophic structure of the estuary, its relative practicability of culturing in the laboratory for year-round availability, and its sensitivity to toxic substances. The standards operating procedures described in this document provide detailed procedures for culturing, holding, and toxicity testing of E. affinis.

  1. The oxidative toxicity of Ag and ZnO nanoparticles towards the aquatic plant Spirodela punctuta and the role of testing media parameters.

    PubMed

    Thwala, Melusi; Musee, Ndeke; Sikhwivhilu, Lucky; Wepener, Victor

    2013-10-01

    The toxicity effects of silver (nAg) and zinc oxide (nZnO) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on the duckweed Spirodela punctuta were studied to investigate the potential risks posed by these ENPs towards higher aquatic plants. The influence of media abiotic factors on the stability of the ENPs was also evaluated. Marked agglomeration of ENPs was observed after introduction into testing media whereby large particles settled out of suspension and accumulated at the bottom of testing vessels. The high ionic strength (IS) promoted agglomeration of ENPs because it reduced the inter-particle repulsion caused by a reduction in their surface charge. Low dissolution was observed for nAg, reaching only 0.015% at 1000 mg L(-1), whilst improved dissolution was observed for nZnO, only falling below analytical quantification at 0.1 mg L(-1) and lower. The quantification of free radicals namely, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), indicated the induction of oxidative stress in plants exposed to the ENPs. A definite dose influence was observed for ROS/RNS volumes in plants exposed to nZnO for 14 days, a response not always observed. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plants indicated varying degrees of oxidative toxicity caused by exposure to ENPs. This toxicity was driven mainly by particulates in plants exposed to nAg, whilst dissolved Zn(2+) was the main driver for toxicity in plants exposed to nZnO. Our findings suggest that the toxicity of nAg and nZnO could be caused by both the particulates and ionic forms, as modified by media properties.

  2. Minimal levels of ultraviolet light enhance the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to two representative organisms of aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Z.; Castro, V. L.; Jonsson, C. M.; Fraceto, L. F.

    2014-08-01

    A number of studies have been published concerning the potential ecotoxicological risks of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), but the results still remain inconclusive. The characteristics of the diverse types of nano-TiO2 must be considered in order to establish experimental models to study their toxicity. TiO2 has important photocatalytic properties, and its photoactivation occurs in the ultraviolet (UV) range. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of nano-TiO2 to indicators organisms of freshwater and saline aquatic systems, under different illumination conditions (visible light, with or without UV light). Daphnia similis and Artemia salina were co-exposed to a sublethal dose of UV light and different concentrations of nano-TiO2 in the form of anatase (TA) or an anatase/rutile mixture (TM). Both products were considered practically non-toxic under visible light to D. similis and A. salina (EC5048h > 100 mg/L). Exposure to nano-TiO2 under visible and UV light enhanced the toxicity of both products. In the case of D. similis, TM was more toxic than TA, showing values of EC5048h = 60.16 and 750.55 mg/L, respectively. A. salina was more sensitive than D. similis, with EC5048h = 4 mg/L for both products. Measurements were made of the growth rates of exposed organisms, together with biomarkers of oxidative stress and metabolism. The results showed that the effects of nano-TiO2 depended on the organism, exposure time, crystal phase, and illumination conditions, and emphasized the need for a full characterization of nanoparticles and their behavior when studying nanotoxicity.

  3. Toxicity and transfer of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanowires in an aquatic food chain consisting of algae, water fleas, and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-04-01

    Nanomaterials of various shapes and dimensions are widely used in the medical, chemical, and electronic industries. Multiple studies have reported the ecotoxicological effects of nanaoparticles when released in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems; however, information on the toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs) to freshwater organisms and their transfer through the food webs is limited. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the toxicity of 10- and 20-μm-long AgNWs to the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the water flea Daphnia magna, and the zebrafish and study their movement through this three-species food chain using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods as well as optical techniques. We found that AgNWs directly inhibited the growth of algae and destroyed the digestive organs of water fleas. The results showed that longer AgNWs (20μm) were more toxic than shorter ones (10μm) to both algae and water fleas, but shorter AgNWs were accumulated more than longer ones in the body of the fish. Overall, this study suggests that AgNWs are transferred through food chains, and that they affect organisms at higher trophic levels, potentially including humans. Therefore, further studies that take into account environmental factors, food web complexity, and differences between nanomaterials are required to gain better understanding of the impact of nanomaterials on natural communities and human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impacts of low-molecular-weight organic acids on aquatic behavior of graphene nanoplatelets and their induced algal toxicity and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuang; Gao, Yucheng; Wang, Se; Fang, Hao; Xu, Defu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the interaction between graphene-based materials and low-molecular-weight organic acids (LOAs) is essential to understand fate and effects of graphene-based materials in the aquatic e