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Sample records for routine clinical practice

  1. Rate of occult specimen provenance complications in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, John D; Liu, Jingxia

    2013-01-01

    Occult specimen provenance complications (SPCs), which occur when there is an absence of any direct or indirect indication that a specimen switch or contamination may have occurred, constitute a significant patient safety and medical-legal problem because they can lead to misdiagnosis. However, the rate at which occult SPCs occur is unknown because, by definition, this category of errors is not identified by standard laboratory practices. In this study, we evaluated a data set comprising almost 13,000 prostate biopsies that were prospectively tested for specimen provenance errors as part of routine clinical practice. The frequency of occult type 1 errors (a complete transposition between patients) and type 2 errors (contamination of the patient's tissue with 1 or more unrelated patients) was 0.26% and 0.67%, respectively; every urology practice setting and surgical pathology laboratory type with a representative sample size experienced at least 1 type 1 and 1 type 2 error during the study period. Overall, the mean frequency of SPCs across practice settings was 0.22% for type 1 errors and 1.69% for type 2 errors. The type 1 rate showed no correlation with a surgical pathology laboratory setting or urologic practice group setting; the type 2 rate correlated solely with a surgical pathology laboratory setting. The occult SPC rate in this limited data set provides an estimate of the scope of the problem of potential misdiagnosis as a result of occult specimen provenance errors in routine clinical practice.

  2. Development of quality indicators to evaluate the monitoring of SLE patients in routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, M.; Tani, C.; Aringer, M.; Bombardieri, S.; Boumpas, D.; Cervera, R.; Doria, A.; Jayne, D.; Khamashta, M. A.; Kuhn, A.; Gordon, C.; Petri, M.; Schneider, M.; Shoenfeld, Y.; Smolen, J. S.; Talarico, R.; Tincani, A.; Ward, M. M.; Werth, V. P.; Carmona, L.

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in routine clinical practice is mainly based on the experience of the treating physician. This carries the risk of unwanted variability. Variability may have an impact on the quality of care offered to SLE patients, thereby affecting outcomes. Recommendations represent systematically developed statements to help practitioners in reducing variability. However, major difficulties arise in the application of recommendations into clinical practice. In this respect, the use of quality indicators may raise the awareness among rheumatologists regarding potential deficiencies in services and improve the quality of health care. The aim of this study was to develop a set of quality indicators (QI) for SLE by translating into QIs the recently developed EULAR Recommendations for monitoring SLE patients in routine clinical practice and observational studies. Eleven QIs have been developed referring to the use of validated activity and damage indices in routine clinical practice, general evaluation of drug toxicity, evaluation of comorbidities, eye evaluation, laboratory assessment, evaluation of the presence of chronic viral infections, documentation of vaccination and of antibody testing at baseline. A disease specific set of quality assessment tools should help physicians deliver high quality of care across populations. Routine updates will be needed. PMID:21224016

  3. 3D Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling in routine clinical practice: A review of clinically significant artifacts.

    PubMed

    Amukotuwa, Shalini A; Yu, Caroline; Zaharchuk, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a completely noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perfusion method for quantitatively measuring cerebral blood flow utilizing magnetically labeled arterial water. Advances in the technique have enabled the major MRI vendors to make the sequence available to the clinical neuroimaging community. Consequently, ASL is being increasingly incorporated into the routine neuroimaging protocol. Although a variety of ASL techniques are available, the ISMRM Perfusion Study Group and the European ASL in Dementia Consortium have released consensus guidelines recommending standardized implementation of 3D pseudocontinuous ASL with background suppression. The purpose of this review, aimed at the large number of neuroimaging clinicians who have either no or limited experience with this 3D pseudocontinuous ASL, is to discuss the common and clinically significant artifacts that may be encountered with this technique. While some of these artifacts hinder accurate interpretation of studies, either by degrading the images or mimicking pathology, there are other artifacts that are of clinical utility, because they increase the conspicuity of pathology. Cognizance of these artifacts will help the physician interpreting ASL to avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls, and increase their level of comfort with the technique.

  4. Incorporation of Pharmacogenomics into Routine Clinical Practice: the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline Development Process

    PubMed Central

    Caudle, Kelly E.; Klein, Teri E.; Hoffman, James M.; Müller, Daniel J.; Whirl-Carrillo, Michelle; Gong, Li; McDonagh, Ellen M.; Sangkuhl, Katrin; Thorn, Caroline F.; Schwab, Matthias; Agúndez, José A.G.; Freimuth, Robert R.; Huser, Vojtech; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Iwuchukwu, Otito F.; Crews, Kristine R.; Scott, Stuart A.; Wadelius, Mia; Swen, Jesse J.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Stein, C. Michael; Roden, Dan; Relling, Mary V.; Williams, Marc S.; Johnson, Samuel G.

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) publishes genotype-based drug guidelines to help clinicians understand how available genetic test results could be used to optimize drug therapy. CPIC has focused initially on well-known examples of pharmacogenomic associations that have been implemented in selected clinical settings, publishing nine to date. Each CPIC guideline adheres to a standardized format and includes a standard system for grading levels of evidence linking genotypes to phenotypes and assigning a level of strength to each prescribing recommendation. CPIC guidelines contain the necessary information to help clinicians translate patient-specific diplotypes for each gene into clinical phenotypes or drug dosing groups. This paper reviews the development process of the CPIC guidelines and compares this process to the Institute of Medicine’s Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines. PMID:24479687

  5. Incorporation of pharmacogenomics into routine clinical practice: the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guideline development process.

    PubMed

    Caudle, Kelly E; Klein, Teri E; Hoffman, James M; Muller, Daniel J; Whirl-Carrillo, Michelle; Gong, Li; McDonagh, Ellen M; Sangkuhl, Katrin; Thorn, Caroline F; Schwab, Matthias; Agundez, Jose A G; Freimuth, Robert R; Huser, Vojtech; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Iwuchukwu, Otito F; Crews, Kristine R; Scott, Stuart A; Wadelius, Mia; Swen, Jesse J; Tyndale, Rachel F; Stein, C Michael; Roden, Dan; Relling, Mary V; Williams, Marc S; Johnson, Samuel G

    2014-02-01

    The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) publishes genotype-based drug guidelines to help clinicians understand how available genetic test results could be used to optimize drug therapy. CPIC has focused initially on well-known examples of pharmacogenomic associations that have been implemented in selected clinical settings, publishing nine to date. Each CPIC guideline adheres to a standardized format and includes a standard system for grading levels of evidence linking genotypes to phenotypes and assigning a level of strength to each prescribing recommendation. CPIC guidelines contain the necessary information to help clinicians translate patient-specific diplotypes for each gene into clinical phenotypes or drug dosing groups. This paper reviews the development process of the CPIC guidelines and compares this process to the Institute of Medicine's Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines.

  6. Feasibility and Validity of the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index in Routine Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Jennifer L.; Crandall, Wallace V.; Zhang, Peixin; Forrest, Christopher B; Bailey, L. Charles; Colletti, Richard B.; Kappelman, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI) is a non-invasive disease activity index developed as a clinical trial endpoint. More recently, practice guidelines have recommended the use of PUCAI in routine clinical care. We therefore sought to evaluate the feasibility, validity and responsiveness of PUCAI in a large, diverse collection of pediatric gastroenterology practices. Methods We extracted data from the two most recent encounters for patients with ulcerative colitis in the ImproveCareNow registry. Feasibility was determined by the percent of patients for whom all PUCAI components were recorded, validity by correlation of PUCAI scores across Physician Global Assessment (PGA) categories, and responsiveness to change by the correlation between the change in PUCAI and PGA scores between visits. Results 2503 patients were included (49.5% male, age 15.2±4.1 years, disease duration 3.7±3.2 years). All items in the PUCAI were completed for 96% of visits. PUCAI demonstrated excellent discriminatory ability between remission, mild and moderate disease; discrimination between moderate and severe disease was less robust. There was good correlation with PGA [r=0.76 (p<0.001), weighted kappa k=0.73 (p<0.001)]. The PUCAI change scores correlated well with PGA change scores (p<0.001). Test-retest reliability of the PUCAI was good (intra-class correlation coefficient=0.72 [95% CI 0.70–0.75], p<0.001). Guyatt’s responsiveness statistic was 1.18 and the correlation of ΔPUCAI with ΔPGA was 0.69 (p<0.001). Conclusions The PUCAI is feasible to use in routine clinical settings. Evidence of its validity and responsiveness support its use as a clinical tool for monitoring disease activity for patients with ulcerative colitis. PMID:25221935

  7. Implementing multiplexed genotyping of non-small-cell lung cancers into routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Sequist, L. V.; Heist, R. S.; Shaw, A. T.; Fidias, P.; Rosovsky, R.; Temel, J. S.; Lennes, I. T.; Digumarthy, S.; Waltman, B. A.; Bast, E.; Tammireddy, S.; Morrissey, L.; Muzikansky, A.; Goldberg, S. B.; Gainor, J.; Channick, C. L.; Wain, J. C.; Gaissert, H.; Donahue, D. M.; Muniappan, A.; Wright, C.; Willers, H.; Mathisen, D. J.; Choi, N. C.; Baselga, J.; Lynch, T. J.; Ellisen, L. W.; Mino-Kenudson, M.; Lanuti, M.; Borger, D. R.; Iafrate, A. J.; Engelman, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Personalizing non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy toward oncogene addicted pathway inhibition is effective. Hence, the ability to determine a more comprehensive genotype for each case is becoming essential to optimal cancer care. Methods: We developed a multiplexed PCR-based assay (SNaPshot) to simultaneously identify >50 mutations in several key NSCLC genes. SNaPshot and FISH for ALK translocations were integrated into routine practice as Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified tests. Here, we present analyses of the first 589 patients referred for genotyping. Results: Pathologic prescreening identified 552 (95%) tumors with sufficient tissue for SNaPshot; 51% had ≥1 mutation identified, most commonly in KRAS (24%), EGFR (13%), PIK3CA (4%) and translocations involving ALK (5%). Unanticipated mutations were observed at lower frequencies in IDH and β-catenin. We observed several associations between genotypes and clinical characteristics, including increased PIK3CA mutations in squamous cell cancers. Genotyping distinguished multiple primary cancers from metastatic disease and steered 78 (22%) of the 353 patients with advanced disease toward a genotype-directed targeted therapy. Conclusions: Broad genotyping can be efficiently incorporated into an NSCLC clinic and has great utility in influencing treatment decisions and directing patients toward relevant clinical trials. As more targeted therapies are developed, such multiplexed molecular testing will become a standard part of practice. PMID:22071650

  8. The Effectiveness of Online Cognitive Behavioral Treatment in Routine Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ruwaard, Jeroen; Lange, Alfred; Schrieken, Bart; Dolan, Conor V.; Emmelkamp, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Context Randomized controlled trails have identified online cognitive behavioral therapy as an efficacious intervention in the management of common mental health disorders. Objective To assess the effectiveness of online CBT for different mental disorders in routine clinical practice. Design An uncontrolled before-after study, with measurements at baseline, posttest, 6-week follow-up, and 1-year follow-up. Participants & Setting 1500 adult patients (female: 67%; mean age: 40 years) with a GP referral for psychotherapy were treated at a Dutch online mental health clinic for symptoms of depression (n = 413), panic disorder (n = 139), posttraumatic stress (n = 478), or burnout (n = 470). Interventions Manualized, web-based, therapist-assisted CBT, of which the efficacy was previously demonstrated in a series of controlled trials. Standardized duration of treatment varied from 5 weeks (online CBT for Posttraumatic stress) to 16 weeks (online CBT for Depression). Main Outcome Measures Validated self-report questionnaires of specific and general psychopathology, including the Beck Depression Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale-Self Report, the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Results Treatment adherence was 71% (n = 1071). Study attrition was 21% at posttest, 33% at 6-week FU and 65% at 1-year FU. Mixed-model repeated measures regression identified large short-term reductions in all measures of primary symptoms (d = 1.9±0.2 to d = 1.2±0.2; P<.001), which sustained up to one year after treatment. At posttest, rates of reliable improvement and recovery were 71% and 52% in the completer sample (full sample: 55%/40%). Patient satisfaction was high. Conclusions Results suggest that online therapist-assisted CBT may be as effective in routine practice as it is in clinical trials. Although pre-treatment withdrawal and long-term outcomes require further study, results warrant

  9. Health related quality of life assessment in the routine clinical practice of a dermatology unit.

    PubMed

    Tabolli, Stefano; Baliva, Giannandrea; Lombardo, Giuseppe Alfonso; Sampogna, Francesca; Di Pietro, Cristina; Mannooranparampil, T J; Alvetreti, Gabriele; Abeni, Damiano

    2006-01-01

    A descriptive study in a Dermatological Research Institution in Rome, Italy, was conducted to test the feasibility and acceptability of health related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment in the daily routine. Quality of life, and psychosocial distress evaluations were obtained for each patient. Patients were invited to complete the Skindex-29, GHQ-12, and SF-36. Results were returned to the clinical staff using standardised feed-back forms with: a) "categories" of QoL scores to help interpreting Skindex-29 scores; b) "warnings" pointing out problems that patients experienced "all the time"; c) categories of GHQ-12 scores for minor psychiatric problems; d) the classical SF-36 graph depicting the patient's "QoL profile" with normative references. The clinical staff were trained, and then their attitudes and behaviours were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire. For all 170 participants enrolled (63% males, 35% age > 64 years), feed-back forms were provided within three hours from data collection. For patients with repeated hospitalisations time-trends in HRQoL measurements were also provided. The acceptability, both for patients and the clinical staff, was high but the actual impact on clinical activities was limited. The routine assessment of HRQoL in dermatology is feasible and well accepted both by patients and by the clinical staff. The application of these widely used questionnaires should be implemented in a larger scale and evaluated in different settings. PMID:16935800

  10. Noninvasive prenatal testing in routine clinical practice for a high-risk population

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Guijie; Yi, Jianping; Han, Baosheng; Liu, Heng; Guo, Wanru; Shi, Chong; Yin, Lirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to summarize the effects of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) on aneuploidy among high-risk participants in Tangshan Maternal and Children Health Hospital. NIPT or invasive prenatal diagnosis was recommended to patients with a high risk of fetal aneuploidy from February 2013 to February 2014. Patients who exhibited eligibility and applied for NIPT from January 2012 to January 2013 were included in a comparison group. The rates of patients who underwent invasive testing, declined to undergo further testing, and manifested trisomies 21, 18, and 13 were compared between two groups. Follow-up data were obtained from the participants who underwent NIPT from 2013 to 2014. A total of 7223 patients (3018 and 4205 individuals before and after NIPT) were eligible for analysis. After NIPT was introduced in 2013 to 2014, 727 patients (17.3%) underwent invasive testing, 2828 preferred NIPT (67.3%), and 650 declined to undergo further testing (15.5%). A total of 34 cases of trisomies 21, 18, and 13 (0.8%) were found. In 2012 to 2013, 565 patients (18.7%) underwent invasive testing and 2453 declined to undergo further testing (81.3%). A total of 7 cases of trisomies 21, 18, and 13 were documented (0.2%). Of these cases, 24 were found from NIPT and 10 cases were found from invasive testing. The number of participants who declined to undergo further testing significantly decreased after NIPT was introduced (81.3% vs. 15.5%, P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of NIPT for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 were 100% and 99.9%, respectively. The detection rates of NIPT for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 also significantly increased (0.2% vs. 0.8%, P < 0.001). By contrast, the overall rates of invasive testing remained unchanged (18.7% vs. 17.3%, P = 0.12). The positive predictive values of NIPT for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 were 100%, 83.3%, and 50.0%, respectively. The false positive rates of NIPT were 0% and 0.04%. With NIPT implementation in clinical

  11. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough*,**

    PubMed Central

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies. PMID:24473762

  12. Coronary artery calcification in clinical practice: what we have learned and why should it routinely be reported on chest CT?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The recent acceptance of low dose chest computed tomography (LDCT) as a screening modality for early lung cancer detection will significantly increase the number of LDCT among high risk population. The target subjects are at the same time at high risk to develop cardiovascular (CV) events. The routine report on coronary artery calcification (CAC) will therefore, enhances the screening benefit by providing the clinicians with an additive powerful risk stratification tool for the management or primary prevention of CV events. This review will provide the radiologists with helpful information for the daily practice regarding on what is CAC, its clinical applications and how to diagnose, quantify and report on CAC while reading the LDCT. PMID:27195277

  13. Coronary artery calcification in clinical practice: what we have learned and why should it routinely be reported on chest CT?

    PubMed

    Shemesh, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The recent acceptance of low dose chest computed tomography (LDCT) as a screening modality for early lung cancer detection will significantly increase the number of LDCT among high risk population. The target subjects are at the same time at high risk to develop cardiovascular (CV) events. The routine report on coronary artery calcification (CAC) will therefore, enhances the screening benefit by providing the clinicians with an additive powerful risk stratification tool for the management or primary prevention of CV events. This review will provide the radiologists with helpful information for the daily practice regarding on what is CAC, its clinical applications and how to diagnose, quantify and report on CAC while reading the LDCT. PMID:27195277

  14. Can higher end tonometers be used interchangeably in routine clinical practice?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kunjan Jayantilal; Jain, Saurabh P; Kapadia, Priti R; Patel, Nikunj V; Patel, Saurabh; Patel, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Context: Precise intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement is important in glaucoma practise. Various instruments are available today to accurately measure IOP. Thus, the question arises about which instrument to use and whether all of them can be used interchangeably. Aims: To assess the agreement between noncontact tonometer (NCT), rebound tonometer (RBT), Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), and dynamic contour tonometer (DCT) in measuring IOP. Subjects and Methods: 499 eyes of 250 patients were evaluated during a period of 24 months from September 2010 to August 2012 and measurement of IOP by NCT, RBT, GAT, and DCT was done in the given sequence. The agreement was assessed by use of the Bland–Altman plot keeping GAT as a gold standard technique. Results: The mean IOP value of NCT, RBT, GAT, and DCT was 15.9 ± 5.5, 15.9 ± 5.8, 15.9 ± 4.9, and 16.0 ± 4.7 mm of Hg, respectively. The limits of agreement of GAT with DCT, NCT, and RBT were found to be +5.4 to −5.2, −4.7 to +4.6, and −5.2 to +5.1 mm of Hg, respectively. Conclusions: A positive and strong correlation was found between newer tonometers and GAT, but the limit of agreement was clinically unacceptable. The use of a single tonometer should be practised at a glaucoma clinic for a patient at each follow-up. PMID:27050348

  15. Concealment of drugs by police detainees: lessons learned from adverse incidents and from 'routine' clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Havis, Siobhan; Best, David; Carter, Jane

    2005-10-01

    This is a collaborative piece of work undertaken between the PCA and a Principal FME. The study is based on 16 cases of internal drug concealment drawn from 43 drug-related deaths in custody in England and Wales between 1997 and 2002. These data are supplemented by three case studies from a county force involving non-fatal drug concealment to illustrate practical custody issues. The majority of the 16 deaths were white (n = 12) and male (n = 13) with a mean age of 34 years. In half of the cases, the deceased was known or believed to have concealed drugs orally at the point of initial contact with police. In 4/16 cases, the individual first showed signs of medical distress in a public place, a further 4 collapsed on arrival at the police station and two more detainees were subsequently found collapsed in their cell. Drug toxicity was the most common cause of death (10/16). In 5 cases death was caused by airway obstruction by swallowed packages. Both cocaine (14/16) and cannabis (8/16) traces were found in post-mortem samples. The report emphasises the need for a safety first approach.

  16. Dydrogesterone treatment for menstrual-cycle regularization in routine clinical practice: a multicenter observational study.

    PubMed

    Podzolkova, Natalia; Tatarchuk, Tetiana; Doshchanova, Aikerm; Eshimbetova, Gulsara; Pexman-Fieth, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Dydrogesterone is an oral retroprogesterone widely used to treat progesterone deficiencies, including irregular menstrual cycles (MCs). This prospective, non-interventional, single-arm, post-marketing, observational study evaluated the effects of dydrogesterone on MC regularization. Women aged 18-40 years who had been prescribed dydrogesterone to treat irregular MCs due to progesterone deficiency were enrolled across 64 centers in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Study objectives included: patients reporting ≥1 regular MC during treatment; the number of regular MCs after the end of treatment over a 6-month follow-up (FU) period. In total, 996 women were enrolled. Of those who completed treatment, 946/955 patients (99.1%) achieved ≥1 regular MC. During FU, 680/860 patients (79.1%) maintained ≥6 regular MCs. Patient grading of menstrual pain and anxiety decreased significantly during treatment (p ≤ 0.0001 versus baseline); this persisted during FU. Dydrogesterone was associated with high or very high patient satisfaction (856/955; 89.6%); the clinical response was considered good or excellent in 819/955 patients (85.8%). In total, 16/986 patients (1.6%) reported an adverse event (AE); two had serious AEs (SAEs) (unrelated to treatment) and three discontinued treatment due to non-SAEs. Dydrogesterone therapy was effective in achieving MC regularization and reducing menstrual pain and anxiety, during both treatment and 6-month FU. PMID:26613278

  17. Efficacy of Trastuzumab in Routine Clinical Practice and After Progression for Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients: The Observational Hermine Study

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, Eric C.; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Delozier, Thierry; Kerbrat, Pierre; Bethune-Volters, Anne; Guastalla, Jean-Paul; Spielmann, Marc; Mauriac, Louis; Misset, Jean-Louis; Serin, Daniel; Campone, Mario; Hebert, Christophe; Remblier, Céline; Bergougnoux, Loïc; Campana, Frank; Namer, Moïse

    2010-01-01

    Background. The Hermine study observed the use of trastuzumab for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in routine practice, including patients who received trastuzumab treatment beyond progression (TBP). Patients and Methods. The study observed 623 patients for ≥2 years. Treatment was given according to oncologists' normal clinical practices. Endpoints included duration of treatment, efficacy, and cardiac safety. The TBP subanalysis compared overall survival (OS) in 177 patients who received first-line trastuzumab and either continued trastuzumab for ≥30 days following progression or stopped at or before progression. Results. The median treatment duration was 13.3 months. In the first-, second-, and third-line or beyond treatment groups, the median time to progression (TTP) were 10.3 months, 9.0 months, and 6.3 months, and the median OS times were 30.3 months, 27.1 months, and 23.2 months, respectively. Heart failure was observed in 2.6% of patients, although no cardiac-associated deaths occurred. In the TBP subanalysis, the median OS duration from treatment initiation and time of disease progression were longer in patients who continued receiving trastuzumab TBP (>27.8 months and 21.3 months, respectively) than in those who stopped (16.8 months and 4.6 months, respectively). However, the groups were not completely comparable, because patients who continued trastuzumab TBP had better prognoses at treatment initiation. The median TTP was longer in patients who continued trastuzumab TBP (10.2 months) than in those who stopped (7.1 months). Conclusion. The Hermine findings confirm that the pivotal trials of first-line trastuzumab treatment in MBC patients are applicable in clinical practice. The subanalysis suggests that trastuzumab TBP offers a survival benefit to MBC patients treated with first-line trastuzumab. PMID:20671105

  18. Effectiveness of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with ADHD in Routine Clinical Practice: A Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Hoofdakker, Barbara J.; Van Der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Sytema, Sjoerd; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of behavioral parent training (BPT) as adjunct to routine clinical care (RCC). Method: After a first phase of RCC, 94 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ages 4-12, all referred to a Dutch outpatient mental health clinic, were randomly assigned to 5 months of BPT plus concurrent…

  19. Post-marketing surveillance study with iodixanol in 20 185 Chinese patients from routine clinical practices

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, B-C; Hou, L; Lv, B

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of immediate and delayed adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and to assess patient discomfort following administration of iodixanol during imaging examinations in routine clinical practice. Methods: A total of 20 185 patients across 95 clinical centres were enrolled in a prospective post-marketing surveillance registry with iodixanol. Patients were monitored for occurrence of ADRs immediately following iodixanol administration and for up to 7 days after administration. Results: The overall rate of ADRs was 1.52%, of which 0.58% was immediate and 0.97% was delayed onset. Two patients had non-fatal serious ADRs (0.01%). The ADRs were significantly more common in patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT/coronary CT angiography vs others (p < 0.001), in those receiving pre-heated iodixanol vs non-heating (p < 0.001), in those aged 70 years or younger (p < 0.001), in those in whom a power injector was used for contrast delivery (p < 0.001) and in those with a history of an allergic reaction to contrast (p = 0.024). Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, intravenous route of contrast injection, body weight ≥80 kg, age less than 65 years, contrast flow rate ≥4 ml s−1 and prior reaction to iodinated contrast medium were all significant and independent contributors to ADRs. Pre-treatment contrast volume and history of cardiac disease, gout, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or asthma did not affect the rate of ADRs. Discomfort was generally mild, with 94.8% of patients reporting a composite score of 0–3. Conclusion: The safety of iodixanol in routine clinical practice was shown to be similar to the published safety profiles of other non-ionic iodinated contrast agents. Patient discomfort during administration was mild or absent in most patients. Advances in knowledge: The major strength of this study is that it included 20 185 patients enrolled in various types of imaging examinations. The

  20. Promoting Early Presentation of Breast Cancer in Older Women: Implementing an Evidence-Based Intervention in Routine Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Lindsay J. L.; Forster, Alice S.; Dodd, Rachael H.; Tucker, Lorraine; Laming, Rachel; Sellars, Sarah; Patnick, Julietta; Ramirez, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Women over 70 with breast cancer have poorer one-year survival and present at a more advanced stage than younger women. Promoting early symptomatic presentation in older women may reduce stage cost effectively and is unlikely to lead to overdiagnosis. After examining efficacy in a randomised controlled trial, we piloted a brief health professional-delivered intervention to equip women to present promptly with breast symptoms, as an integral part of the final invited mammogram at age ~70, in the English National Health Service Breast Screening Programme. Methods. We trained mammographers, who then offered the intervention to older women in four breast screening services. We examined breast cancer awareness at baseline and one month in women receiving the intervention, and also in a service where the intervention was not offered. Results. We trained 27 mammographers to deliver the intervention confidently to a high standard. Breast cancer awareness increased 7-fold at one month in women receiving the intervention compared with 2-fold in the comparison service (odds ratio 15.2, 95% confidence interval 10.0 to 23.2). Conclusions. The PEP Intervention can be implemented in routine clinical practice with a potency similar to that achieved in a randomised controlled trial. It has the potential to reduce delay in diagnosis for breast cancer in older women. PMID:23213334

  1. Quality of life under oxycodone/naloxone, oxycodone, or morphine treatment for chronic low back pain in routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Ueberall, Michael A; Eberhardt, Alice; Mueller-Schwefe, Gerhard HH

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the quality of life of patients with moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain under treatment with the WHO-step III opioids oxycodone/naloxone, oxycodone, or morphine in routine clinical practice. Study design Prospective, 12-week, randomized, open-label, blinded end-point study in 88 medical centers in Germany. Patients and methods A total of 901 patients requiring around-the-clock pain treatment with a WHO-step III opioid were randomized to either morphine, oxycodone, or oxycodone/naloxone (1:1:1). Changes from baseline to week 12 in quality of life were assessed using different validated tools (EuroQoL-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D], Short Form 12 [SF-12], quality of life impairment by pain inventory [QLIP]). Results EQ-5D weighted index scores significantly improved over the 12-week treatment period under all three opioids (P<0.001) with significantly greater improvements under oxycodone/naloxone (65.2% vs 49.6% for oxycodone and 48.2% for morphine, P<0.001). The proportion of patients without EQ-5D complaints was also significantly higher under oxycodone/naloxone (P<0.001). Although quality of life ratings with the QLIP inventory showed significant improvements in all the three treatment arms, improvements were significantly higher under oxycodone/naloxone than under oxycodone and morphine (P<0.001): 90.7% of all oxycodone/naloxone patients achieved ≥30% improvements in quality of life, 72.8% had ≥50%, and 33.2% ≥70% improvements. Similarly, both physical and mental SF-12 component scores showed significantly greater improvements under oxycodone/naloxone with both scores close to the German population norm after 12 weeks. Conclusion Treatment with morphine, oxycodone, or oxycodone/naloxone under routine daily practice conditions significantly improved state of health and quality of life of patients with moderate-to-severe low back pain over a 12-week treatment period. Comparison between the treatment groups showed significantly greater

  2. Clinical Neuropathology practice news 1-2014: pyrosequencing meets clinical and analytical performance criteria for routine testing of MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Preusser, Matthias; Berghoff, Anna S; Manzl, Claudia; Filipits, Martin; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Pulverer, Walter; Dieckmann, Karin; Widhalm, Georg; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Knosp, Engelbert; Marosi, Christine; Hainfellner, Johannes A

    2014-01-01

    Testing of the MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastoma is relevant for clinical decision making and research applications. Two recent and independent phase III therapy trials confirmed a prognostic and predictive value of the MGMT promoter methylation status in elderly glioblastoma patients. Several methods for MGMT promoter methylation testing have been proposed, but seem to be of limited test reliability. Therefore, and also due to feasibility reasons, translation of MGMT methylation testing into routine use has been protracted so far. Pyrosequencing after prior DNA bisulfite modification has emerged as a reliable, accurate, fast and easy-to-use method for MGMT promoter methylation testing in tumor tissues (including formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded samples). We performed an intra- and inter-laboratory ring trial which demonstrates a high analytical performance of this technique. Thus, pyrosequencing- based assessment of MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastoma meets the criteria of high analytical test performance and can be recommended for clinical application, provided that strict quality control is performed. Our article summarizes clinical indications, practical instructions and open issues for MGMT promoter methylation testing in glioblastoma using pyrosequencing. PMID:24359605

  3. Clinical Neuropathology practice news 1-2014: Pyrosequencing meets clinical and analytical performance criteria for routine testing of MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Preusser, Matthias; Berghoff, Anna S.; Manzl, Claudia; Filipits, Martin; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Pulverer, Walter; Dieckmann, Karin; Widhalm, Georg; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Knosp, Engelbert; Marosi, Christine; Hainfellner, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    Testing of the MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastoma is relevant for clinical decision making and research applications. Two recent and independent phase III therapy trials confirmed a prognostic and predictive value of the MGMT promoter methylation status in elderly glioblastoma patients. Several methods for MGMT promoter methylation testing have been proposed, but seem to be of limited test reliability. Therefore, and also due to feasibility reasons, translation of MGMT methylation testing into routine use has been protracted so far. Pyrosequencing after prior DNA bisulfite modification has emerged as a reliable, accurate, fast and easy-to-use method for MGMT promoter methylation testing in tumor tissues (including formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples). We performed an intra- and inter-laboratory ring trial which demonstrates a high analytical performance of this technique. Thus, pyrosequencing-based assessment of MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastoma meets the criteria of high analytical test performance and can be recommended for clinical application, provided that strict quality control is performed. Our article summarizes clinical indications, practical instructions and open issues for MGMT promoter methylation testing in glioblastoma using pyrosequencing. PMID:24359605

  4. Considerations on the Improved Integration of Medical Guidelines into Routine Clinical Practice – a Review and Concept Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, M. W.; Schlieter, H.; Richter, P.; Wesselmann, S.

    2016-01-01

    Medical guidelines have become established as the standard for the comprehensive synopsis of all available information (scientific trials, expert opinion) on diagnosis and treatment recommendations. The transfer of guidelines to clinical practice and subsequent monitoring has however proven difficult. In particular the potential interaction between guideline developers and guideline users has not been fully utilised. This review article analyses the status quo and existing methodological and technical information solutions supporting the guideline life cycle. It is shown that there are numerous innovative developments that in isolation do not provide comprehensive support. The vision of the “Living Guidelines 2.0” is therefore presented. This outlines the merging of guideline development and implementation on the basis of clinical pathways and guideline-based quality control, and building on this, the generation of information for guideline development and research. PMID:27134291

  5. Can the Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 test substitute for the template bleeding time in routine clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Francis, J; Francis, D; Larson, L; Helms, E; Garcia, M

    1999-01-01

    The bleeding time (BT) is widely used in clinical medicine as a screening test of platelet function, although its deficiencies in such a role are well recognized. The Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 measures the ability of platelets activated in a high-shear environment to occlude an aperture in a membrane treated with collagen and epinephrine (CEPI) or collagen and ADP (CADP). The time taken for flow across the membrane to stop (closure time) is recorded. This study compared the PFA-100 with the BT as a screening test of platelet dysfunction in 113 hospital inpatients. The PFA-100 test was performed initially using the CEPI cartridge; CADP tests were performed on those with abnormal (> 163 s) CEPI closure times. Whole blood platelet aggregation studies and chart review were performed on patients in whom the BT and PFA-100 results did not agree.Abnormal bleeding times and PFA-100 results were obtained in 20.4% and 35.4% of patients, respectively. The results of BT and PFA-100 agreed in 74.3% of patients. Of the 29 patients in whom the BT and PFA-100 results were discordant, whole blood platelet aggregation studies supported the PFA-100 result in 25 (86.2%). The PFA-100 was more sensitive to aspirin-induced platelet dysfunction and was more rapidly and cheaply performed than the BT. Since the PFA-100 test reflects platelet function better than the BT, we conclude that this test could replace the BT as a first-line screening test for platelet dysfunction in clinical practice.

  6. Can the Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 test substitute for the template bleeding time in routine clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Francis, J; Francis, D; Larson, L; Helms, E; Garcia, M

    1999-01-01

    The bleeding time (BT) is widely used in clinical medicine as a screening test of platelet function, although its deficiencies in such a role are well recognized. The Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 measures the ability of platelets activated in a high-shear environment to occlude an aperture in a membrane treated with collagen and epinephrine (CEPI) or collagen and ADP (CADP). The time taken for flow across the membrane to stop (closure time) is recorded. This study compared the PFA-100 with the BT as a screening test of platelet dysfunction in 113 hospital inpatients. The PFA-100 test was performed initially using the CEPI cartridge; CADP tests were performed on those with abnormal (> 163 s) CEPI closure times. Whole blood platelet aggregation studies and chart review were performed on patients in whom the BT and PFA-100 results did not agree.Abnormal bleeding times and PFA-100 results were obtained in 20.4% and 35.4% of patients, respectively. The results of BT and PFA-100 agreed in 74.3% of patients. Of the 29 patients in whom the BT and PFA-100 results were discordant, whole blood platelet aggregation studies supported the PFA-100 result in 25 (86.2%). The PFA-100 was more sensitive to aspirin-induced platelet dysfunction and was more rapidly and cheaply performed than the BT. Since the PFA-100 test reflects platelet function better than the BT, we conclude that this test could replace the BT as a first-line screening test for platelet dysfunction in clinical practice. PMID:16801082

  7. Efficacy and safety of insulin degludec in Japanese patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: 24-week results from the observational study in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kobuke, Kazuhiro; Yoneda, Masayasu; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Ohno, Haruya; Maeda, Shusaku; Egusa, Genshi

    2016-01-01

    This is first observational prospective study of insulin degludec in routine clinical practice that we evaluated the effect on glycemic control and risk of hypoglycemia in basal-bolus insulin therapy. We found that insulin degludec can maintain glycemic control at a lower insulin dose and frequency of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes, while it can improve glycemic control at equally insulin dose in type 2 diabetes. These results mean that insulin degludec is of use in routine clinical practice. PMID:26816606

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of fesoterodine flexible dose in newly diagnosed patients with overactive bladder in routine clinical practice in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Peral, Carmen; Sánchez-Ballester, Francisco; García-Mediero, José M; Ramos, Jaime; Rejas, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To carry out cost-effectiveness analysis from the Spanish National Health System perspective, of treating overactive bladder (OAB), in newly diagnosed patients with two flexible doses of fesoterodine in routine clinical practice. Patients and methods Economic evaluation of flexible-dose fesoterodine in newly diagnosed patients, including two treatment groups: standard escalating from 4 to 8 mg or fast escalating to 8 mg. Costs were estimated from health care resources utilization related to OAB, and were expressed in 2015 Euros. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were obtained from overactive bladder questionnaire-short form. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results Three hundred and ninety symptomatic OAB patients treated with fesoterodine and newly diagnosed (141 in fast escalating group and 249 in standard escalating) were analyzed. Adjusted health care total costs were not statistically different; difference −€4.1 (confidence interval: −153.3; 25.1) P=0.842. QALYs were higher in fast escalating to high dose vs standard escalating group, resulting in a cost of −€16,020/QALY gained for fast escalating vs standard escalating group. Conclusion When the cost-effectiveness threshold is set at a maximum value of €30,000/QALY gained, fesoterodine fast escalating group was cost-effective vs standard escalating group 67.6% of the time. The treatment with fesoterodine, in female patients newly diagnosed, fast escalating to 8 mg was a cost-effective option relative to escalating traditionally from 4 to 8 mg, in the management of OAB in routine clinical practice, from the Spanish National Health System perspective. PMID:27713646

  9. The correlation between the number of eligible patients in routine clinical practice and the low recruitment level in clinical trials: a retrospective study using electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of clinical trials have encountered difficulties enrolling a sufficient number of patients upon initiating the trial. Recently, many screening systems that search clinical data warehouses for patients who are eligible for clinical trials have been developed. We aimed to estimate the number of eligible patients using routine electronic medical records (EMRs) and to predict the difficulty of enrolling sufficient patients prior to beginning a trial. Methods Investigator-initiated clinical trials that were conducted at Kyoto University Hospital between July 2004 and January 2011 were included in this study. We searched the EMRs for eligible patients and calculated the eligible EMR patient index by dividing the number of eligible patients in the EMRs by the target sample size. Additionally, we divided the trial eligibility criteria into corresponding data elements in the EMRs to evaluate the completeness of mapping clinical manifestation in trial eligibility criteria into structured data elements in the EMRs. We evaluated the correlation between the index and the accrual achievement with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results Thirteen of 19 trials did not achieve their original target sample size. Overall, 55% of the trial eligibility criteria were mapped into data elements in EMRs. The accrual achievement demonstrated a significant positive correlation with the eligible EMR patient index (r = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42 to 0.92). The receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed an eligible EMR patient index cut-off value of 1.7, with a sensitivity of 69.2% and a specificity of 100.0%. Conclusions Our study suggests that the eligible EMR patient index remains exploratory but could be a useful component of the feasibility study when planning a clinical trial. Establishing a step to check whether there are likely to be a sufficient number of eligible patients enables sponsors and investigators to concentrate their

  10. Spot scanning proton therapy plan assessment: design and development of a dose verification application for use in routine clinical practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Walsh, Timothy J.; Beltran, Chris J.; Stoker, Joshua B.; Mundy, Daniel W.; Parry, Mark D.; Bues, Martin; Fatyga, Mirek

    2016-04-01

    The use of radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been carried out clinically since the late 1800's. Early on however, it was discovered that a radiation dose sufficient to destroy cancer cells can also cause severe injury to surrounding healthy tissue. Radiation oncologists continually strive to find the perfect balance between a dose high enough to destroy the cancer and one that avoids damage to healthy organs. Spot scanning or "pencil beam" proton radiotherapy offers another option to improve on this. Unlike traditional photon therapy, proton beams stop in the target tissue, thus better sparing all organs beyond the targeted tumor. In addition, the beams are far narrower and thus can be more precisely "painted" onto the tumor, avoiding exposure to surrounding healthy tissue. To safely treat patients with proton beam radiotherapy, dose verification should be carried out for each plan prior to treatment. Proton dose verification systems are not currently commercially available so the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Mayo Clinic developed its own, called DOSeCHECK, which offers two distinct dose simulation methods: GPU-based Monte Carlo and CPU-based analytical. The three major components of the system include the web-based user interface, the Linux-based dose verification simulation engines, and the supporting services and components. The architecture integrates multiple applications, libraries, platforms, programming languages, and communication protocols and was successfully deployed in time for Mayo Clinic's first proton beam therapy patient. Having a simple, efficient application for dose verification greatly reduces staff workload and provides additional quality assurance, ultimately improving patient safety.

  11. [Radiologic medical desktop conferences--clinical evaluation of the KAMEDIN teleradiology system in routine practice of a radiologic institute].

    PubMed

    Bolte, R; Lehmann, K J; Walz, M; Loose, R; Lütgemeier, J; Seibert, F; Busch, C; Schinkmann, M; Georgi, M

    1996-07-01

    KAMEDIN is a teleradiology project of "Deutsche Telekom". ISDN based image transfer, visualisation and online-presentation of digital radiological images is performed. In this study the suitability of the KAMEDIN-system has been tested in a clinical environment. The software has been adapted to the requirements of radiological image visualisation. During 6 months over 50 conferences took place with an average of 36 CT-slices per patient. The amount of time was approximately 10 min for conference preparation, 20 min for image transfer and 8 min for conferencing. Software problems occurred and were solved. Image quality on the monitor as well as online presentation including "simultaneous cursors" showed high performance and achieved high acceptance by the clinicians. Thus KAMEDIN is a useful teleradiology system, especially if the system is adapted to the requirements of radiology departments. PMID:8924455

  12. Safety and effectiveness of controlled-release paroxetine in routine clinical practice: results of a postmarketing surveillance study of patients with depression

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masaki; Kimura, Toshifumi; Kimura, Takeshi; Hara, Terufumi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are commonly used in the pharmacotherapy of depression. However, adverse events can lead to their early discontinuation. This study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of paroxetine controlled-release (CR) tablets in Japanese patients with depression/depressive state (hereafter referred to as depression) in routine clinical practice in Japan. Patients and methods This was an open-label, noninterventional, prospective, postmarketing surveillance study. A total of 3,213 patients aged 12–92 years with depression were prescribed paroxetine CR for 8 weeks at the physician’s discretion. Safety was evaluated on the basis of the reporting of adverse drug reactions. Effectiveness was evaluated on the basis of the physician’s assessment using the Clinical Global Impression-Global Improvement (CGI-GI) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-SI) scales, as well as on the basis of the patients’ self-reported satisfaction. The primary effectiveness outcome was the improvement rate based on the physician’s assessment using the CGI-GI. Results The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 11.2% (359/3,213; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.1%–12.3%). The common adverse drug reactions that accounted for 1.0% or more of the incidence were nausea (3.5%) and somnolence (2.7%). The proportion of patients who continued paroxetine CR at week 8 was 80.2% (2,577/3,213; 95% CI: 78.8%–81.6%). The improvement rate at week 8 (last observation carried forward) was 72.8% (2,132/2,927; 95% CI: 71.2%–74.4%). The proportion of patients with CGI-SI scores of moderately or severely ill decreased from 63.6% at baseline to 17.9% at week 8. The proportion of patients who were satisfied with paroxetine CR treatment was 69.8% (2,040/2,921; 95% CI: 68.1%–71.5%). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that paroxetine CR is a well-tolerated and efficacious treatment for depression in routine clinical practice. PMID

  13. Guide to good practices for shift routines and operating practices

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices,`` Chapter 2 of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing shift routines and operating practices. ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices`` is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for a high standard of professional conduct and sound operating practices to promote safe and efficient operations. Recently, guidance pertaining to this element has been strengthened for nuclear power reactors. This additional guidance is given in Appendix C for information purposes. Though this guidance and good practices pertain to nuclear power reactors, DOE sites may choose to use a graded approach for implementing these in nuclear facilities.

  14. The challenge to bring personalized cancer medicine from clinical trials into routine clinical practice: the case of the Institut Gustave Roussy.

    PubMed

    Arnedos, Monica; André, Fabrice; Farace, Françoise; Lacroix, Ludovic; Besse, Benjamin; Robert, Caroline; Soria, Jean Charles; Eggermont, Alexander M M

    2012-04-01

    Research with high throughput technologies has propitiated the segmentation of different types of tumors into very small subgroups characterized by the presence of very rare molecular alterations. The identification of these subgroups and the apparition of new agents targeting these infrequent alterations are already affecting the way in which clinical trials are being conducted with an increased need to identify those patients harboring specific molecular alterations. In this review we describe some of the currently ongoing and future studies at the Institut Gustave Roussy that aim for the identification of potential therapeutic targets for cancer patients with the incorporation of high throughput technologies into daily practice including aCGH, next generation sequencing and the creation of a software that allows for target identification specific for each tumor. The initial intention is to enrich clinical trials with cancer patients carrying certain molecular alterations in order to increase the possibility of demonstrating benefit from a targeted agent. Mid and long term aims are to facilitate and speed up the process of drug development as well as to implement the concept of personalized medicine. PMID:22483534

  15. 29 CFR 18.406 - Habit; routine practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Relevancy and Its Limits § 18.406 Habit; routine practice. Evidence of the habit of a person or of the routine practice of an organization,...

  16. Modeling the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin on self-reported changes in sleep disturbances in outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder managed in routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Miguel A; Álvarez, Enrique; Carrasco, Jose L; Olivares, José M; Pérez, María; Rejas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being one of the most common. Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in GAD patients. While treatment with pregabalin has been found to be associated with significant improvement in GAD-related sleep disturbance across many controlled clinical trials, mediational analysis has suggested that a substantial portion of this effect could be the result of a direct effect of pregabalin. Thus, the objective of this study was to model the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin or usual care (UC) therapies on changes in sleep in outpatients with GAD under routine clinical practice. Methods Male and female GAD outpatients, aged 18 years or above, from a 6-month prospective noninterventional trial were analyzed. Direct and indirect effects of either pregabalin or UC changes in anxiety symptoms (assessed with Hamilton Anxiety Scale) and sleep disturbances (assessed with Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale [MOS-S]) were estimated by a conditional latent curve model applying structural equation modeling. Results A total of 1,546 pregabalin-naïve patients were analyzed, 984 receiving pregabalin and 562 UC. Both symptoms of anxiety and sleep disturbances were significantly improved in both groups, with higher mean (95% confidence interval) score reductions in subjects receiving pregabalin: −15.9 (−15.2; −16.6) vs −14.5 (−13.5; −15.5), P=0.027, in Hamilton Anxiety Scale; and −29.7 (−28.1; −31.3) vs −24.0 (−21.6; −26.4), P<0.001, in MOS-S. The conditional latent curve model showed that the pregabalin effect on sleep disturbances was significant (γ =−3.99, P<0.001), after discounting the effect on reduction in anxiety symptoms. A mediation model showed that 70% of the direct effect of pregabalin on sleep remained after discounting the mediated effect of anxiety improvement. Conclusion A substantial proportion of the incremental

  17. Effectiveness, durability, and safety of darunavir/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected patients in routine clinical practice in Italy: a postauthorization noninterventional study

    PubMed Central

    Antinori, Andrea; Meraviglia, Paola; Monforte, Antonella d’Arminio; Castagna, Antonella; Mussini, Cristina; Bini, Teresa; Gianotti, Nicola; Rusconi, Stefano; Colella, Elisa; Airoldi, Giuseppe; Mancusi, Daniela; Termini, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Current antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients provides long-term control of viral load (VL). Darunavir (DRV) is a nonpeptidomimetic protease inhibitor approved for use with a ritonavir booster (DRV/r). This study evaluated the effectiveness of DRV/r in combination with other ARV agents in routine clinical practice in Italy. In this descriptive observational study, data on utilization of DRV/r, under the conditions described in the marketing authorization, were collected from June 2009 to December 2012. Effectiveness (VL <50 copies/mL), tolerability, and durability in four patient groups (two DRV/r-experienced, one ARV-experienced DRV/r-naïve, and one ARV-naïve) were analyzed. Secondary objectives included immunological response, safety, and persistence/discontinuation rates. In total, 875 of 883 enrolled patients were included in the analysis: of these, 662 (75.7%) completed the follow-up until the end of 2012 and 213 (24.3%) withdrew from the study earlier. Initial DRV dose was 600 mg twice daily (67.1%) or 800 mg once daily (32.9%). Only 16 patients (1.8%) withdrew from the study due to virological failure. Virological response proportions were higher in patients virologically suppressed at study entry versus patients with baseline VL ≥50 copies/mL in each ARV-experienced group, while there was no consistent difference across study groups and baseline VL strata according to baseline CD4+ cell count. CD4+ cell count increased from study entry to last study visit in all the four groups. DRV/r was well tolerated, with few discontinuations due to study-emergent nonfatal adverse events (3.0% overall, including 2.1% drug-related) or deaths (3.0% overall, all non-drug-related); 35.3% of patients reported ≥1 adverse events. These observational data show that DRV/r was effective and well tolerated in the whole patient population described here. The DRV/r-containing regimen provided viral suppression

  18. Effectiveness, durability, and safety of darunavir/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected patients in routine clinical practice in Italy: a postauthorization noninterventional study.

    PubMed

    Antinori, Andrea; Meraviglia, Paola; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Castagna, Antonella; Mussini, Cristina; Bini, Teresa; Gianotti, Nicola; Rusconi, Stefano; Colella, Elisa; Airoldi, Giuseppe; Mancusi, Daniela; Termini, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Current antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients provides long-term control of viral load (VL). Darunavir (DRV) is a nonpeptidomimetic protease inhibitor approved for use with a ritonavir booster (DRV/r). This study evaluated the effectiveness of DRV/r in combination with other ARV agents in routine clinical practice in Italy. In this descriptive observational study, data on utilization of DRV/r, under the conditions described in the marketing authorization, were collected from June 2009 to December 2012. Effectiveness (VL <50 copies/mL), tolerability, and durability in four patient groups (two DRV/r-experienced, one ARV-experienced DRV/r-naïve, and one ARV-naïve) were analyzed. Secondary objectives included immunological response, safety, and persistence/discontinuation rates. In total, 875 of 883 enrolled patients were included in the analysis: of these, 662 (75.7%) completed the follow-up until the end of 2012 and 213 (24.3%) withdrew from the study earlier. Initial DRV dose was 600 mg twice daily (67.1%) or 800 mg once daily (32.9%). Only 16 patients (1.8%) withdrew from the study due to virological failure. Virological response proportions were higher in patients virologically suppressed at study entry versus patients with baseline VL ≥50 copies/mL in each ARV-experienced group, while there was no consistent difference across study groups and baseline VL strata according to baseline CD4(+) cell count. CD4(+) cell count increased from study entry to last study visit in all the four groups. DRV/r was well tolerated, with few discontinuations due to study-emergent nonfatal adverse events (3.0% overall, including 2.1% drug-related) or deaths (3.0% overall, all non-drug-related); 35.3% of patients reported ≥1 adverse events. These observational data show that DRV/r was effective and well tolerated in the whole patient population described here. The DRV/r-containing regimen provided viral

  19. Taking a new biomarker into routine use – A perspective from the routine clinical biochemistry laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Sturgeon, Catharine; Hill, Robert; Hortin, Glen L; Thompson, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing pressure to provide cost-effective healthcare based on “best practice.” Consequently, new biomarkers are only likely to be introduced into routine clinical biochemistry departments if they are supported by a strong evidence base and if the results will improve patient management and outcome. This requires convincing evidence of the benefits of introducing the new test, ideally reflected in fewer hospital admissions, fewer additional investigations and/or fewer clinic visits. Carefully designed audit and cost-benefit studies in relevant patient groups must demonstrate that introducing the biomarker delivers an improved and more effective clinical pathway. From the laboratory perspective, pre-analytical requirements must be thoroughly investigated at an early stage. Good stability of the biomarker in relevant physiological matrices is essential to avoid the need for special processing. Absence of specific timing requirements for sampling and knowledge of the effect of medications that might be used to treat the patients in whom the biomarker will be measured is also highly desirable. Analytically, automation is essential in modern high-throughput clinical laboratories. Assays must therefore be robust, fulfilling standard requirements for linearity on dilution, precision and reproducibility, both within- and between-run. Provision of measurements by a limited number of specialized reference laboratories may be most appropriate, especially when a new biomarker is first introduced into routine practice. PMID:21137030

  20. Arduous implementation: Does the Normalisation Process Model explain why it's so difficult to embed decision support technologies for patients in routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Elwyn, Glyn; Légaré, France; Weijden, Trudy van der; Edwards, Adrian; May, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Background Decision support technologies (DSTs, also known as decision aids) help patients and professionals take part in collaborative decision-making processes. Trials have shown favorable impacts on patient knowledge, satisfaction, decisional conflict and confidence. However, they have not become routinely embedded in health care settings. Few studies have approached this issue using a theoretical framework. We explained problems of implementing DSTs using the Normalization Process Model, a conceptual model that focuses attention on how complex interventions become routinely embedded in practice. Methods The Normalization Process Model was used as the basis of conceptual analysis of the outcomes of previous primary research and reviews. Using a virtual working environment we applied the model and its main concepts to examine: the 'workability' of DSTs in professional-patient interactions; how DSTs affect knowledge relations between their users; how DSTs impact on users' skills and performance; and the impact of DSTs on the allocation of organizational resources. Results A conceptual analysis using the Normalization Process Model provided insight on implementation problems for DSTs in routine settings. Current research focuses mainly on the interactional workability of these technologies, but factors related to divisions of labor and health care, and the organizational contexts in which DSTs are used, are poorly described and understood. Conclusion The model successfully provided a framework for helping to identify factors that promote and inhibit the implementation of DSTs in healthcare and gave us insights into factors influencing the introduction of new technologies into contexts where negotiations are characterized by asymmetries of power and knowledge. Future research and development on the deployment of DSTs needs to take a more holistic approach and give emphasis to the structural conditions and social norms in which these technologies are enacted. PMID

  1. A pragmatic study exploring the prevention of delirium among hospitalized older hip fracture patients: Applying evidence to routine clinical practice using clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M; Abelseth, Greg A; Khandwala, Farah; Silvius, James L; Hogan, David B; Schmaltz, Heidi N; Frank, Cyril B; Straus, Sharon E

    2010-10-22

    discharges to long-term care (6% post versus 13% pre; p = 0.20). Translation of evidence-based multi-component delirium prevention strategies into everyday clinical care, using the electronic medical record, was not found to be effective at decreasing delirium rates among hip facture patients.

  2. Comparison of AdvanSure TB/NTM PCR and COBAS TaqMan MTB PCR for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Routine Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Hyung; Won, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Kee, Seung-Jung; Shin, Jong-Hee; Ryang, Dong-Wook; Suh, Soon-Pal

    2015-05-01

    The AdvanSure tuberculosis/non-tuberculous mycobacterium (TB/NTM) PCR (LG Life Science, Korea) and COBAS TaqMan Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) PCR (Roche Diagnostics, USA) are commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. We aimed to evaluate these two commercial real-time PCR assays for detection of MTB in a large set of clinical samples over a two-year period. AdvanSure TB/NTM PCR and COBAS TaqMan MTB PCR were performed on 9,119 (75.2%) and 3,010 (24.8%) of 12,129 (9,728 respiratory and 2,401 non-respiratory) MTB specimens, with 361 (4.0%) and 102 (3.4%) acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive results, respectively. In MTB culture, 788 (6.5%) MTB and 514 (4.2%) NTM were identified. The total sensitivity and specificity of the AdvanSure assay were 67.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 63.9-71.6) and 98.3% (95% CI, 98.0-98.6), while those of the COBAS TaqMan assay were 67.2% (95% CI, 60.0-73.8) and 98.4% (95% CI, 97.9-98.9), respectively. The sensitivities and specificities of the AdvanSure and COBAS TaqMan assays for AFB-positive and AFB-negative samples were comparable. Furthermore, the AdvanSure assay showed fewer invalid results compared with the COBAS TaqMan assay (5.0 vs. 20.4 invalid results/1,000 tests, P<0.001). AdvanSure assay represents a comparable yet more reliable method than COBAS TaqMan for the identification of mycobacteria in routine clinical microbiology.

  3. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: a Fundamental Shift in the Routine Practice of Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kaleta, Erin J.; Arora, Amit

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the “nuts and bolts” of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care. PMID:23824373

  4. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: a fundamental shift in the routine practice of clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew E; Kaleta, Erin J; Arora, Amit; Wolk, Donna M

    2013-07-01

    Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the "nuts and bolts" of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care.

  5. Routines, Roles, and Responsibilities for Aligning Scientific and Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Michael J.; Wargo, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    Reform efforts in science education have focused on engaging students in authentic scientific practices. For these efforts to succeed, detailed articulations of scientific practice need to be linked to understandings of classroom practice. Here we characterize engagement in practice generally in terms of "3Rs": routines, roles, and…

  6. Usefulness of the Spanish version of the mood disorder questionnaire for screening bipolar disorder in routine clinical practice in outpatients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background According to some studies, almost 40% of depressive patients – half of them previously undetected – are diagnosed of bipolar II disorder when systematically assessed for hypomania. Thus, instruments for bipolar disorder screening are needed. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a self-reported questionnaire validated in Spanish in stable patients with a previously known diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate in the daily clinical practice the usefulness of the Spanish version of the MDQ in depressive patients. Methods Patients (n = 87) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for a major depressive episode, not previously known as bipolar were included. The affective module of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) was used as gold standard. Results MDQ screened 24.1% of depressive patients as bipolar, vs. 12.6% according to SCID. For a cut-off point score of 7 positive answers, sensitivity was 72.7% (95% CI = 63.3 – 82.1) and specificity 82.9% (95% CI = 74.9–90.9). Likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests were 4,252 y 0,329 respectively. Limitations The small sample size reduced the power of the study to 62%. Conclusion Sensitivity and specificity of the MDQ were high for screening bipolar disorder in patients with major depression, and similar to the figures obtained in stable patients. This study confirms that MDQ is a useful instrument in the daily clinical assessment of depressive patients. PMID:18498637

  7. An Element of Practical Knowledge in Education: Professional Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacourse, France

    2011-01-01

    The question of practical knowledge and its teaching has arisen more perceptibly since the appearance of the aim to professionalize teachers. How can imperceptible knowledge such as professional routines be taught? To establish a social fabric and effective class management, it is essential to call on creative and adaptive professional routines.…

  8. Changing Urban Bureaucracies: How New Practices Become Routinized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; And Others

    The goal of this report is to describe the process by which new service practices in urban bureaucracies become routinized. The routinization process is studied by examining the life histories of six types of innovations: computer-assisted instruction; police computer systems; mobile intensive care units; closed circuit television systems; breath…

  9. Long-Term Durability of Tenofovir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy in Relation to the Co-Administration of Other Drug Classes in Routine Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bonora, Stefano; Madeddu, Giordano; Maggiolo, Franco; Antinori, Andrea; Galli, Massimo; Di Perri, Giovanni; Viale, Pierluigi; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Gori, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background In clinical trials, toxicity leading to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) discontinuation is rare (3% by 2 years); however in clinical practice it seems to be higher, particularly when TDF is co-administered with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r). Aims of this study were to assess the rate of TDF discontinuations in clinical practice and to identify factors associated with the risk of stopping TDF. Methods All antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive patients initiating a TDF-based regimen were selected from the ICONA Foundation Study cohort. The primary outcome was TDF discontinuation regardless of the reason; secondary outcome measures were TDF discontinuation due to toxicity and selective TDF discontinuation (that is, TDF discontinuation or substitution, maintaining unchanged the remaining antiretroviral treatment). Results 3,618 ART-naïve patients were included: 54% started a PI/r-based and 46% a NNRTI-based based regimen. Two-hundred-seventy-seven patients discontinued TDF and reintroduced ART within 30 days without TDF. The probability of TDF discontinuation regardless of the reason was of 7.4% (95%CI:6.4–8.5) by 2 years and 14.1% (95%CI:12.2–16.1) by 5 years. The 5-year KM estimates in the PI/r vs. NNRTI group were 20.4% vs. 7.6%, respectively (log-rank p = 0.0001), for the outcome of stopping regardless of the reason, and 10.7% vs. 4.7% (p = 0.0001) for discontinuation due to toxicity. PI/r use and lower eGFR were associated with an increased risk of discontinuing TDF. Conclusion In our cohort, the frequency of TDF discontinuations was higher than that observed in clinical trials. Co-administration of TDF with PI/r was associated with an increased rate of TDF discontinuations. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms that might have led to this outcome. PMID:27716843

  10. Clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Machteld A. G.; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.

    2010-01-01

    The most important goal of introducing noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been to decrease the need for intubation and, therefore, mechanical ventilation in newborns. As a result, this technique may reduce the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In addition to nasal CPAP, improvements in sensors and flow delivery systems have resulted in the introduction of a variety of other types of NIV. For the optimal application of these novelties, a thorough physiological knowledge of mechanics of the respiratory system is necessary. In this overview, the modern insights of noninvasive respiratory therapy in newborns are discussed. These aspects include respiratory support in the delivery room; conventional and modern nCPAP; humidified, heated, and high-flow nasal cannula ventilation; and nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Finally, an algorithm is presented describing common practice in taking care of respiratory distress in prematurely born infants. PMID:20179966

  11. [Prostate biopsy: Procedure in the clinical routine].

    PubMed

    Enzmann, T; Tokas, T; Korte, K; Ritter, M; Hammerer, P; Franzaring, L; Heynemann, H; Gottfried, H-W; Bertermann, H; Meyer-Schwickerath, M; Wirth, B; Pelzer, A; Loch, T

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade there has been a 25% decrease in the mortality rates for prostate cancer. The reasons for this significant decrease are most likely associated with the application of urological screening tests. The main tools for early detection are currently increased public awareness of the disease, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided topographically assignable biopsy sampling. Together with the histopathological results these features provide essential information for risk stratification, diagnostics and therapy decisions. The evolution of prostate biopsy techniques as well as the use of PSA testing has led to an increased identification of asymptomatic men, where further clarification is necessary. Significant efforts and increased clinical research focus on determining the appropriate indications for a prostate biopsy and the optimal technique to achieve better detection rates. The most widely used imaging modality for the prostate is TRUS; however, there are no clearly defined standards for the clinical approach for each individual biopsy procedure, dealing with continuous technical optimization and in particular the developments in imaging. In this review the current principles, techniques, new approaches and instrumentation of prostate biopsy imaging control are presented within the framework of the structured educational approach. PMID:26704284

  12. Evaluation of red blood cell and platelet antigen genotyping platforms (ID CORE XT/ID HPA XT) in routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Finning, Kirstin; Bhandari, Radhika; Sellers, Fiona; Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Muñiz-Díaz, Eduardo; Nogués, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Background High-throughput genotyping platforms enable simultaneous analysis of multiple polymorphisms for blood group typing. BLOODchip® ID is a genotyping platform based on Luminex® xMAP technology for simultaneous determination of 37 red blood cell (RBC) antigens (ID CORE XT) and 18 human platelet antigens (HPA) (ID HPA XT) using the BIDS XT software. Materials and methods In this international multicentre study, the performance of ID CORE XT and ID HPA XT, using the centres’ current genotyping methods as the reference for comparison, and the usability and practicality of these systems, were evaluated under working laboratory conditions. DNA was extracted from whole blood in EDTA with Qiagen methodologies. Ninety-six previously phenotyped/genotyped samples were processed per assay: 87 testing samples plus five positive controls and four negative controls. Results Results were available for 519 samples: 258 with ID CORE XT and 261 with ID HPA XT. There were three “no calls” that were either caused by human error or resolved after repeating the test. Agreement between the tests and reference methods was 99.94% for ID CORE XT (9,540/9,546 antigens determined) and 100% for ID HPA XT (all 4,698 alleles determined). There were six discrepancies in antigen results in five RBC samples, four of which (in VS, N, S and Doa) could not be investigated due to lack of sufficient sample to perform additional tests and two of which (in S and C) were resolved in favour of ID CORE XT (100% accuracy). The total hands-on time was 28–41 minutes for a batch of 16 samples. Compared with the reference platforms, ID CORE XT and ID HPA XT were considered simpler to use and had shorter processing times. Discussion ID CORE XT and ID HPA XT genotyping platforms for RBC and platelet systems were accurate and user-friendly in working laboratory settings. PMID:26674823

  13. Effect of telehealth on hospital utilisation and mortality in routine clinical practice: a matched control cohort study in an early adopter site

    PubMed Central

    Steventon, Adam; Ariti, Cono; Fisher, Elizabeth; Bardsley, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of a home-based telehealth intervention on the use of secondary healthcare and mortality. Design Observational study of a mainstream telehealth service, using person-level administrative data. Time to event analysis (Cox regression) was performed comparing telehealth patients with controls who were matched using a machine-learning algorithm. Setting A predominantly rural region of England (North Yorkshire). Participants 716 telehealth patients were recruited from community, general practice and specialist acute care, between June 2010 and March 2013. Patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure or diabetes, and a history of associated inpatient admission. Patients were matched 1:1 to control patients, also selected from North Yorkshire, with respect to demographics, diagnoses of health conditions, previous hospital use and predictive risk score. Interventions Telehealth involved the remote exchange of medical data between patients and healthcare professionals as part of the ongoing management of the patient's health condition. Monitoring centre staff alerted healthcare professionals if the telemonitored data exceeded preset thresholds. Control patients received usual care, without telehealth. Primary and secondary outcome measures Time to the first emergency (unplanned) hospital admission or death. Secondary metrics included time to death and time to first admission, outpatient attendance and emergency department visit. Results Matched controls and telehealth patients were similar at baseline. Following enrolment, telehealth patients were more likely than matched controls to experience emergency admission or death (adjusted HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.56, p<0.001). They were also more likely to have outpatient attendances (adjusted HR=1.25, 1.11 to 1.40, p<0.001), but mortality rates were similar between groups. Sensitivity analyses showed that we were unlikely to have missed reductions in the

  14. Interpreted consultations as 'business as usual'? An analysis of organisational routines in general practices.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Voisey, Christopher; Robb, Nadia

    2007-09-01

    UK general practices operate in an environment of high linguistic diversity, because of recent large-scale immigration and of the NHS's commitment to provide a professional interpreter to any patient if needed. Much activity in general practice is co-ordinated and patterned into organisational routines (defined as repeated patterns of interdependent actions, involving multiple actors, bound by rules and customs) that tend to be stable and to persist. If we want to understand how general practices are responding to pressures to develop new routines, such as interpreted consultations, we need to understand how existing organisational routines change. This will then help us to address a second question, which is how the interpreted consultation itself is being enacted and changing as it becomes routinised (or not) in everyday general practice. In seeking answers to these two questions, we undertook a qualitative study of narratives of interpreted primary care consultations in three London boroughs with large minority ethnic populations. In 69 individual interviews and two focus groups, we sought accounts of interpreted consultations from service users, professional interpreters, family member interpreters, general practitioners, practice nurses, receptionists, and practice managers. We asked participants to tell us both positive and negative stories of their experiences. We analysed these data by searching for instances of concepts relating to the organisational routine, the meaning of the interpreted consultation to the practice, and the sociology of medical work. Our findings identified a number of general properties of the interpreted consultation as an organisational routine, including the wide variation in the form of adoption, the stability of the routine, the adaptability of the routine, and the strength of the routine. Our second key finding was that this variation could be partly explained by characteristics of the practice as an organisation, especially

  15. A survey of the value of routine intimate examination and related practices in subfertile couples.

    PubMed

    Desai, A K; Jaiyesimi, R A K

    2007-11-01

    The practice of undertaking routine intimate examinations in the management of subfertile couples varies among clinicians. An anonymous self-administered mailed questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the current practices followed by clinicians and the rationale supporting their practice. In the absence of large comparative studies, this survey provides expert opinion regarding this practice. The questionnaire was mailed to the Fellows and members of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in the Northern, Yorkshire, West Midlands and Wales regions in the UK. A total of 802 questionnaires were posted, of which 516 were returned, giving an overall response rate of 64%. The responses and comments varied. Some 62% of respondents would routinely perform a pelvic examination on all women presenting with subfertility; 23% would do so only in selected cases and 63% of the clinicians would perform a routine transvaginal ultrasound. The male partners are examined by only 19% of the clinicians. A total of 83% of the respondents were of the opinion that the survey made them think about the role and justification of intimate examinations in greater detail. The practice of intimate examination of subfertile couples varies among clinicians in the survey group. There is a need for large prospective comparative studies to study the value of this examination and related practices in the management of subfertile couples. In the absence of comparative trials, this survey provides expert opinion. It may be suggested that an intimate examination should not be carried out routinely in all subfertile couples. It could be done when it has potential to add value to the management of the patient. A pragmatic approach should be adopted in every clinical situation.

  16. Thinking Routines: Replicating Classroom Practices within Museum Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolberg, Rochelle Ibanez; Goff, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes thinking routines as tools to guide and support young children's thinking. These learning strategies, developed by Harvard University's Project Zero Classroom, actively engage students in constructing meaning while also understanding their own thinking process. The authors discuss how thinking routines can be used in both…

  17. Gamification of Clinical Routine: The Dr. Fill Approach.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Mark; Kühn, Martin; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Bettermann, Ralf; Jonas, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Gamification is used in clinical context in the health care education. Furthermore, it has shown great promises to improve the performance of the health care staff in their daily routine. In this work we focus on the medication sorting task, which is performed manually in hospitals. This task is very error prone and needs to be performed daily. Nevertheless, errors in the medication are crucial and lead to serious complications. In this work we present a real world gamification approach of the medication sorting task in a patient's daily pill organizer. The player of the game needs to sort the correct medication into the correct dispenser slots and is rewarded or punished in real time. At the end of the game, a score is given and the user can register in a leaderboard.

  18. Gamification of Clinical Routine: The Dr. Fill Approach.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Mark; Kühn, Martin; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Bettermann, Ralf; Jonas, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Gamification is used in clinical context in the health care education. Furthermore, it has shown great promises to improve the performance of the health care staff in their daily routine. In this work we focus on the medication sorting task, which is performed manually in hospitals. This task is very error prone and needs to be performed daily. Nevertheless, errors in the medication are crucial and lead to serious complications. In this work we present a real world gamification approach of the medication sorting task in a patient's daily pill organizer. The player of the game needs to sort the correct medication into the correct dispenser slots and is rewarded or punished in real time. At the end of the game, a score is given and the user can register in a leaderboard. PMID:27332203

  19. Toshiba General Hospital PACS for routine in- and outpatient clinics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toshimitsu, Akihiro; Okazaki, Nobuo; Kura, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Eitaro; Tsubura, Shinichi

    1996-05-01

    The Toshiba General Hospital introduced a departmental RIS/PACS (Radiology Information System/Picture Archiving and Communication System) in the radiology department in May, 1993. It has been used routinely since that time. In order to provide efficient means for clinicians to find and read many images, the system has been expanded to the neurosurgery and urology clinics and wards since May, 1995, and five image referring workstations now provide digital images to clinicians. In this paper we discuss an algorithm for image migration, one of the key issues to accomplish the expansion to outpatient clinics successfully, and propose the WYWIWYG (what you want is what you get) image transfer logic. This is the logic used to transfer images that physicians require refer without increasing the traffic between the image server and referring workstations. We accomplish the WYWIWYG logic by prioritizing exams the physicians have not yet viewed and by finding historical exams according to the modality, anatomy, and marking. Clinicians gave us comments from their first use of the system and suggested that the PACS enables clinicians to review images more efficiently compared to a film-based system. Our experience suggests that it is a key to the effective application of PACS in outpatient clinics to incorporate consideration patterns of clinicians on the migration algorithm.

  20. [Bioethics in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gonzaléz, Miguel; Herreros, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Bioethics has grown exponentially in recent decades. Its most important schools include principlism, casuistry, virtue ethics and the ethics of care. These schools are not exclusive. Within bioethics, clinical ethics addresses the inherent clinical practice ethical problems, problems which are many and very varied. Bioethics training is essential for clinicians to address these bioethics' problems. But even the professionals are trained, there are problems that cannot be solved individually and require advisory groups in clinical ethics: clinical ethics committees. These committees are also responsible for education in bioethics in health institutions. Clinical bioethics is a practical discipline, oriented to address specific problems, so its development is necessary to improve the decision making in such complex problems, inevitable problems in healthcare.

  1. Single-site Baseline and Short-term Outcomes of Clinical Characteristics and Life Quality Evaluation of Chinese Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration Patients in Routine Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Li; Liu, Wen-Jia; Liu, Hai-Yun; Xu, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss among the older population. In China, treatment of age-related ocular diseases is becoming a priority in eye care services. This study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and quality of life of Chinese patients with wet AMD and current treatment types, to evaluate short-term gains in different treatments, and to investigate associations between visual function and vision-related quality of life (VRQoL). Methods: A prospective, observational, noninterventional study was conducted. Basic data were collected from patients with clinical diagnoses of wet AMD before clinical assessments at baseline. VRQoL was measured with the Chinese version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25). Correlations of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale scores with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and between-group differences were analyzed. Results: A total of 80 wet AMD patients were enrolled, with the mean age of 68.40 years. About one-quarter of wet AMD patients received intravitreal (IVT) ranibizumab treatment, and 67% of them were treated on a pro re nata basis. The visual acuity of patients treated with IVT ranibizumab at month 3 after treatment was significantly increased, whereas patients treated with traditional Chinese medicine achieved no significant improvement. Cronbach's α for the NEI VFQ-25 subscales ranged from 0.697 to 0.843. Eight subscale and overall composite scores were moderately correlated with the BCVA of the better-seeing eye. Significant differences in the overall NEI VFQ-25 scores and other subscales were observed between patients with BCVA in the better-seeing eye of less than 50 letters and the others. Conclusions: Patients treated with IVT ranibizumab experienced better vision improvement at short-term follow-up. The Chinese version of the NEI VFQ-25 is a valid and reliable tool for assessing the VRQoL of Chinese wet AMD

  2. Rapid targeted somatic mutation analysis of solid tumors in routine clinical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Francaviglia, Ilaria; Dal Cin, Elena; Barbieri, Gianluca; Arrigoni, Gianluigi; Pecciarini, Lorenza; Doglioni, Claudio; Cangi, Maria Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Tumor genotyping is an essential step in routine clinical practice and pathology laboratories face a major challenge in being able to provide rapid, sensitive and updated molecular tests. We developed a novel mass spectrometry multiplexed genotyping platform named PentaPanel to concurrently assess single nucleotide polymorphisms in 56 hotspots of the 5 most clinically relevant cancer genes, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, EGFR and PIK3CA for a total of 221 detectable mutations. To both evaluate and validate the PentaPanel performance,we investigated 1025 tumor specimens of 6 different cancer types (carcinomas of colon, lung, breast, pancreas, and biliary tract, and melanomas), systematically addressing sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of our platform. Sanger sequencing was also performed for all the study samples. Our data showed that PentaPanel is a high throughput and robust tool, allowing genotyping for targeted therapy selection of 10 patients in the same run, with a practical turnaround time of 2 working days. Importantly, it was successfully used to interrogate different DNAs isolated from routinely processed specimens (formalin-fixed paraffin embedded, frozen, and cytological samples), covering all the requirements of clinical tests. In conclusion, the PentaPanel platform can provide an immediate, accurate and cost effective multiplex approach for clinically relevant gene mutation analysis in many solid tumors and its utility across many diseases can be particularly relevant in multiple clinical trials, including the new basket trial approach, aiming to identify appropriate targeted drug combination strategies. PMID:26435479

  3. Good Clinical Practice Training

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Jaime; Chuck, Tina; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Foltz, Bridget; Gorman, Colleen; Hinrichs, Heidi; McHale, Susan; Merchant, Kunal; Shapley, Stephanie; Wild, Gretchen

    2016-01-01

    Good Clinical Practice (GCP) is an international standard for the design, conduct, performance, monitoring, auditing, recording, analyses, and reporting of clinical trials. The goal of GCP is to ensure the protection of the rights, integrity, and confidentiality of clinical trial participants and to ensure the credibility and accuracy of data and reported results. In the United States, trial sponsors generally require investigators to complete GCP training prior to participating in each clinical trial to foster GCP and as a method to meet regulatory expectations (ie, sponsor’s responsibility to select qualified investigators per 21 CFR 312.50 and 312.53(a) for drugs and biologics and 21 CFR 812.40 and 812.43(a) for medical devices). This training requirement is often extended to investigative site staff, as deemed relevant by the sponsor, institution, or investigator. Those who participate in multiple clinical trials are often required by sponsors to complete repeated GCP training, which is unnecessarily burdensome. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative convened a multidisciplinary project team involving partners from academia, industry, other researchers and research staff, and government to develop recommendations for streamlining current GCP training practices. Recommendations drafted by the project team, including the minimum key training elements, frequency, format, and evidence of training completion, were presented to a broad group of experts to foster discussion of the current issues and to seek consensus on proposed solutions. PMID:27390628

  4. Are Genetic Tests for Atherosclerosis Ready for Routine Clinical Use?

    PubMed

    Paynter, Nina P; Ridker, Paul M; Chasman, Daniel I

    2016-02-19

    In this review, we lay out 3 areas currently being evaluated for incorporation of genetic information into clinical practice related to atherosclerosis. The first, familial hypercholesterolemia, is the clearest case for utility of genetic testing in diagnosis and potentially guiding treatment. Already in use for confirmatory testing of familial hypercholesterolemia and for cascade screening of relatives, genetic testing is likely to expand to help establish diagnoses and facilitate research related to most effective therapies, including new agents, such as PCSK9 inhibitors. The second area, adding genetic information to cardiovascular risk prediction for primary prevention, is not currently recommended. Although identification of additional variants may add substantially to prediction in the future, combining known variants has not yet demonstrated sufficient improvement in prediction for incorporation into commonly used risk scores. The third area, pharmacogenetics, has utility for some therapies today. Future utility for pharmacogenetics will wax or wane depending on the nature of available drugs and therapeutic strategies.

  5. [Guidelines for clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Vleugels, A M

    1997-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements that are intended to support medical decision making in well-defined clinical situations. Essentially, their object is to reduce the variability in medical practice, to improve quality, and to make appropriated control of the financial resources possible. Internationally, ever more organisations, associations, and institutions are concerned with the development of guidelines in many different areas of care. Making implicit knowledge explicit is one of the associated advantages of guidelines: they have a potential utility in training, in process evaluation, and in the reevaluation of outcome studies. In liability issues, their existence has a double effect: they can be used to justify medical behaviour, and they constitute a generally accepted reference point. A derivative problem is the legal liability of the compilers of the guidelines. The principle of the guideline approach can be challenged academically: science cannot give a definition of optimal care with absolute certainty. What is called objectivity often rests on methodologically disputable analyses; also the opinion of opinion leaders is not always a guarantee for scientific soundness. Moreover, patients are not all identical: biological variability, situational factors, patient expectations, and other elements play a role in this differentiation. Clinicians are often hesitant with respect to clinical guidelines: they are afraid of cookbook medicine and curtailment of their professional autonomy. Patients fear reduction of individualization of care and the use of guidelines as a rationing instrument. The effects of the introduction of clinical practice guidelines on medical practice, on the results and on the cost of care vary but are generally considered to be favourable. The choice of appropriate strategies in development, dissemination, and implementation turns out to be of critical importance. The article ends with concrete

  6. Myocarditis in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Sinagra, Gianfranco; Anzini, Marco; Pereira, Naveen L; Bussani, Rossana; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Bartunek, Jozef; Merlo, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Myocarditis is a polymorphic disease characterized by great variability in clinical presentation and evolution. Patients presenting with severe left ventricular dysfunction and life-threatening arrhythmias represent a demanding challenge for the clinician. Modern techniques of cardiovascular imaging and the exhaustive molecular evaluation of the myocardium with endomyocardial biopsy have provided valuable insight into the pathophysiology of this disease, and several clinical registries have unraveled the disease's long-term evolution and prognosis. However, uncertainties persist in crucial practical issues in the management of patients. This article critically reviews current information for evidence-based management, offering a rational and practical approach to patients with myocarditis. For this review, we searched the PubMed and MEDLINE databases for articles published from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2015, using the following terms: myocarditis, inflammatory cardiomyopathy, and endomyocardial biopsy. Articles were selected for inclusion if they represented primary data or were review articles published in high-impact journals. In particular, a risk-oriented approach is proposed. The different patterns of presentation of myocarditis are classified as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk syndromes according to the most recent evidence on prognosis, clinical findings, and both invasive and noninvasive testing, and appropriate management strategies are proposed for each risk class.

  7. Myocarditis in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Sinagra, Gianfranco; Anzini, Marco; Pereira, Naveen L; Bussani, Rossana; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Bartunek, Jozef; Merlo, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Myocarditis is a polymorphic disease characterized by great variability in clinical presentation and evolution. Patients presenting with severe left ventricular dysfunction and life-threatening arrhythmias represent a demanding challenge for the clinician. Modern techniques of cardiovascular imaging and the exhaustive molecular evaluation of the myocardium with endomyocardial biopsy have provided valuable insight into the pathophysiology of this disease, and several clinical registries have unraveled the disease's long-term evolution and prognosis. However, uncertainties persist in crucial practical issues in the management of patients. This article critically reviews current information for evidence-based management, offering a rational and practical approach to patients with myocarditis. For this review, we searched the PubMed and MEDLINE databases for articles published from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2015, using the following terms: myocarditis, inflammatory cardiomyopathy, and endomyocardial biopsy. Articles were selected for inclusion if they represented primary data or were review articles published in high-impact journals. In particular, a risk-oriented approach is proposed. The different patterns of presentation of myocarditis are classified as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk syndromes according to the most recent evidence on prognosis, clinical findings, and both invasive and noninvasive testing, and appropriate management strategies are proposed for each risk class. PMID:27489051

  8. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography in routine rheumatology practice: data from Central and Eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Mandl, Peter; Baranauskaite, Asta; Damjanov, Nemanja; Hojnik, Maja; Kurucz, Reka; Nagy, Orsolya; Nemec, Petr; Niedermayer, Dora; Perić, Porin; Petranova, Tzvetanka; Pille, Andres; Rednic, Simona; Vlad, Violeta; Zlnay, Martin; Balint, Peter V

    2016-06-01

    The main aim was to gain structured insight into the use of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) in routine rheumatology practices in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. In a cross-sectional, observational, international, multicenter survey, a questionnaire was sent to investigational sites in CEE countries. Data on all subsequent routine MSUS examinations, site characteristics, MSUS equipment, and investigators were collected over 6 months or up to 100 examinations per center. A total of 95 physicians at 44 sites in 9 countries provided information on a total of 2810 MSUS examinations. The most frequent diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (34.8 and 14.9 % of cases, respectively). Mean number of joints examined was 6.8. MSUS was most frequently performed for diagnostic purposes (58 %), particularly in patients with undifferentiated arthritis, suspected soft tissue disorders, or osteoarthritis (73.0-85.3 %). In RA patients, 56.3 % of examinations were conducted to monitor disease activity. Nearly all investigations (99 %) had clinical implications, while the results of 78.6 % of examinations (51.6-99.0 %) were deemed useful for patient education. This first standardized multicountry survey performed in CEEs provided a structured documentation of the routine MSUS use in participating countries. The majority of MSUS examinations were performed for diagnostic purposes, whereas one-third was conducted to monitor disease activity in RA. A majority of examinations had an impact on clinical decision making and were also found to be useful for patient education.

  9. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography in routine rheumatology practice: data from Central and Eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Mandl, Peter; Baranauskaite, Asta; Damjanov, Nemanja; Hojnik, Maja; Kurucz, Reka; Nagy, Orsolya; Nemec, Petr; Niedermayer, Dora; Perić, Porin; Petranova, Tzvetanka; Pille, Andres; Rednic, Simona; Vlad, Violeta; Zlnay, Martin; Balint, Peter V

    2016-06-01

    The main aim was to gain structured insight into the use of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) in routine rheumatology practices in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. In a cross-sectional, observational, international, multicenter survey, a questionnaire was sent to investigational sites in CEE countries. Data on all subsequent routine MSUS examinations, site characteristics, MSUS equipment, and investigators were collected over 6 months or up to 100 examinations per center. A total of 95 physicians at 44 sites in 9 countries provided information on a total of 2810 MSUS examinations. The most frequent diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (34.8 and 14.9 % of cases, respectively). Mean number of joints examined was 6.8. MSUS was most frequently performed for diagnostic purposes (58 %), particularly in patients with undifferentiated arthritis, suspected soft tissue disorders, or osteoarthritis (73.0-85.3 %). In RA patients, 56.3 % of examinations were conducted to monitor disease activity. Nearly all investigations (99 %) had clinical implications, while the results of 78.6 % of examinations (51.6-99.0 %) were deemed useful for patient education. This first standardized multicountry survey performed in CEEs provided a structured documentation of the routine MSUS use in participating countries. The majority of MSUS examinations were performed for diagnostic purposes, whereas one-third was conducted to monitor disease activity in RA. A majority of examinations had an impact on clinical decision making and were also found to be useful for patient education. PMID:26923691

  10. Real-Time Patient Survey Data During Routine Clinical Activities for Rapid-Cycle Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveying patients is increasingly important for evaluating and improving health care delivery, but practical survey strategies during routine care activities have not been available. Objective We examined the feasibility of conducting routine patient surveys in a primary care clinic using commercially available technology (Web-based survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, cloud-based management of survey data) to expedite and enhance several steps in data collection and management for rapid quality improvement cycles. Methods We used a Web-based data management tool (survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, real-time data accumulation and display of survey results) to conduct four patient surveys during routine clinic sessions over a one-month period. Each survey consisted of three questions and focused on a specific patient care domain (dental care, waiting room experience, care access/continuity, Internet connectivity). Results Of the 727 available patients during clinic survey days, 316 patients (43.4%) attempted the survey, and 293 (40.3%) completed the survey. For the four 3-question surveys, the average time per survey was overall 40.4 seconds, with a range of 5.4 to 20.3 seconds for individual questions. Yes/No questions took less time than multiple choice questions (average 9.6 seconds versus 14.0). Average response time showed no clear pattern by order of questions or by proctor strategy, but monotonically increased with number of words in the question (<20 words, 21-30 words, >30 words)—8.0, 11.8, 16.8, seconds, respectively. Conclusions This technology-enabled data management system helped capture patient opinions, accelerate turnaround of survey data, with minimal impact on a busy primary care clinic. This new model of patient survey data management is feasible and sustainable in a busy office setting, supports and engages clinicians in the quality improvement process, and harmonizes with the vision of a learning health

  11. Voriconazole in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Mikulska, Małgorzata; Novelli, Andrea; Aversa, Franco; Cesaro, Simone; de Rosa, Francesco Giuseppe; Girmenia, Corrado; Micozzi, Alessandra; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Viscoli, Claudio

    2012-12-01

    Invasive fungal diseases are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromized patients. Voriconazole is the first line treatment of invasive aspergillosis, and has been successfully used in other invasive fungal infections, such as candidiasis, fusariosis or scedosporidiosis. Voriconazole has non-linear pharmacokinetics and undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system that depends on age, genetic factors, and interactions with other drugs. Thus, significant interpatient variability is observed after administration of the same dose. Additionally, the therapeutic window is narrow, with high risk of side effects at serum levels 3-5 times higher than the minimal threshold for efficacy. Therefore, the knowledge of pharmacological properties, metabolism, interactions, dosage indications in various populations and side effects is crucial. Therapeutic drug monitoring can help maximize the efficacy and minimize the risk of toxicity. Pharmacological, mycological and clinical aspects of the treatment with voriconazole are summarized in order to optimize its use in daily clinical practice. PMID:23174096

  12. Towards the Implementation of Quality of Life Monitoring in Daily Clinical Routine: Methodological Issues and Clinical Implication

    PubMed Central

    Giesinger, Johannes; Kemmler, Georg; Meraner, Verena; Gamper, Eva-Maria; Oberguggenberger, Anne; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Holzner, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Summary Quality of life (QOL) has become a widely used outcome parameter in the evaluation of treatment modalities in clinical oncology research. By now, many of the practical problems associated with measuring QOL in clinical practice can be overcome by the use of computer-based assessment methods. QOL assessment in oncology is dominated by two measurement systems, the FACT scales and the EORTC QLQ-C30 with its modules. The amount of human resources required to implement routine data collection has been reduced significantly by advanced computer technology allowing data collection in busy clinical practice. Monitoring of QOL can contribute to oncologic care by facilitating detection of physical and psychological problems and tracking the course of disease and treatment over time. Furthermore, the integration of screening for psychosocial problems into QOL monitoring contributes to the identification of patients who are in need of psychooncologic interventions. Computer-based QOL monitoring does not replace the direct physician-patient communication but enables to identify specific impairments and symptoms including psychological problems. Beyond clinical practice, QOL data can be used for research purposes and may help health care planners to determine those patient services that should be maintained or ones that should be developed. PMID:20847874

  13. Thiamin in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Frank, Laura L

    2015-07-01

    Thiamin is a water-soluble vitamin also known as vitamin B1. Its biologically active form, thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), is a cofactor in macronutrient metabolism. In addition to its coenzyme roles, TPP plays a role in nerve structure and function as well as brain metabolism. Signs and symptoms of thiamin deficiency (TD) include lactic acidosis, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, and ocular changes (eg, nystagmus). More advanced symptoms include confabulation and memory loss and/or psychosis, resulting in Wernicke's encephalopathy and/or Wernicke's Korsakoff syndrome, respectively. The nutrition support clinician should be aware of patients who may be at risk for TD. Risk factors include those patients with malnutrition due to 1 or more nutrition-related etiologies: decreased nutrient intake, increased nutrient losses, or impaired nutrient absorption. Clinical scenarios such as unexplained heart failure or lactic acidosis, renal failure with dialysis, alcoholism, starvation, hyperemesis gravidarum, or bariatric surgery may increase the risk for TD. Patients who are critically ill and require nutrition support may also be at risk for TD, especially those who are given intravenous dextrose void of thiamin repletion. Furthermore, understanding thiamin's role as a potential therapeutic agent for diabetes, some inborn errors of metabolism, and neurodegenerative diseases warrants further research. This tutorial describes the absorption, digestion, and metabolism of thiamin. Issues pertaining to thiamin in clinical practice will be described, and evidence-based practice suggestions for the prevention and treatment of TD will be discussed.

  14. [Cartesian dualism or alchemy of medical routine practice].

    PubMed

    Thieme, K

    1993-01-01

    Whereas alchemy postulated the unity of body and soul as early as in the 15th century, René Descartes developed an artificial separation of the body from the soul in the 17th century, a challenge that today's doctors continue to face. This problematic nature of dualism seems to be suitable for complicating the doctor's relationship with patients of different age groups. With the help of a screening technique and a semi-standardized interview 100 patients (25 women with RA aged > 65; 25 women with RA aged < 55; 25 women aged < 65 without RA and 25 women aged < 55 without RA) were examined with regard to their basic needs in the relationships with their doctor. The patients older than 65 showed characteristic psychophysical particularities and, as compared with patients younger than 55, 86% of them articulated the needs for security as primary need in the relationship with their doctor. Seventy-six percent of the younger patients articulated the need for passing on of information as primary need. To understand the world of the elderly means the handling of pseudo-morbidity, reduced capability, social death and disease as normality, means the acceptance of the need for a mainly emotional doctor-patient relationship. From the results efficient psycho-therapeutical findings can be recommended for the doctor's practical work with regard to "pitfalls," as well as for use as the basis for talks and for a method to use in dealing with elderly people.

  15. Routine Clinical-Pathologic Correlation of Pigmented Skin Tumors Can Influence Patient Management

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Lallas, Aimilios; Moscarella, Elvira; Lombardi, Mara; Raucci, Margherita; Pellacani, Giovanni; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated the benefit of integrating clinical with pathologic information, to obtain a confident diagnosis for melanocytic tumors. However, all those studies were conducted retrospectively and no data are currently available about the role of a clinical-pathologic correlation approach on a daily basis in clinical practice. Aim of the Study In our study, we evaluated the impact of a routine clinical-pathologic correlation approach for difficult skin tumors seen over 3 years in a tertiary referral center. Results Interestingly, a re-appraisal was requested for 158 out of 2015 (7.7%) excised lesions because clinical-pathologic correlation was missing. Of note, in 0.6% of them (13 out of 2045) the first histologic diagnosis was revised in the light of clinical information that assisted the Pathologist to re-evaluate the histopathologic findings that might be bland or inconspicuous per se. Conclusion In conclusion, our study demonstrated that an integrated approach involving clinicians and pathologists allows improving management of selected patients by shifting from a simply disease-focused management (melanoma versus nevus) to a patient-centered approach. PMID:26325678

  16. UGT1A1 genotype and irinotecan therapy: general review and implementation in routine practice.

    PubMed

    Etienne-Grimaldi, Marie-Christine; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, Fabienne; Quaranta, Sylvie; Picard, Nicolas; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Narjoz, Céline; Poncet, Delphine; Gagnieu, Marie-Claude; Ged, Cécile; Broly, Franck; Le Morvan, Valérie; Bouquié, Régis; Gaub, Marie-Pierre; Philibert, Laurent; Ghiringhelli, François; Le Guellec, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    Irinotecan is a major drug in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. Its active form is the SN38 metabolite, which is cleared by the biliary route after glucuronidation by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1). UGT1A1 activity exhibits a wide intersubject variability, in part related to UGT1A1 gene polymorphisms. The present review on the impact of the deficient UGT1A1*28 variant on irinotecan efficacy and toxicity was produced by a French joint workgroup comprising the Group of Clinical Onco-pharmacology (GPCO-Unicancer) and the National Pharmacogenetics Network (RNPGx). It clearly emerges that for irinotecan doses at least equal to 180 mg/m(2) , patients homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele are at increased risk of developing hematological and/or digestive toxicities. Irinotecan dose reduction is thus recommended in homozygous *28/*28 patients. In addition, this personalized medicine strategy aims to secure high-dose irinotecan administration (≥240 mg/m(2) ) that have proven to be safe in homozygous *1/*1 patients only. The clinical relevance of this test is discussed in terms of treatment efficacy improvement, as increasing the irinotecan dose appears to be safe in patients not bearing a deficient allele. Best execution practices, cost-effectiveness, and result interpretation are discussed with the aim of facilitating the implementation of this analysis in clinical practice. The existence of networks of laboratories performing this test in routine hospital treatment, as in France, offers the prospect of widespread screening, thus guaranteeing equal access to safe treatment and optimized therapy for patients receiving irinotecan-based therapy in advanced colorectal cancer. PMID:25817555

  17. [Hydration in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Maristany, Cleofé Pérez-Portabella; Segurola Gurruchaga, Hegoi

    2011-01-01

    Water is an essential foundation for life, having both a regulatory and structural function. The former results from active and passive participation in all metabolic reactions, and its role in conserving and maintaining body temperature. Structurally speaking it is the major contributer to tissue mass, accounting for 60% of the basis of blood plasma, intracellular and intersticial fluid. Water is also part of the primary structures of life such as genetic material or proteins. Therefore, it is necessary that the nurse makes an early assessment of patients water needs to detect if there are signs of electrolyte imbalance. Dehydration can be a very serious problem, especially in children and the elderly. Dehydrations treatment with oral rehydration solution decreases the risk of developing hydration disorders, but even so, it is recommended to follow preventive measures to reduce the incidence and severity of dehydration. The key to having a proper hydration is prevention. Artificial nutrition encompasses the need for precise calculation of water needs in enteral nutrition as parenteral, so the nurse should be part of this process and use the tools for calculating the patient's requirements. All this helps to ensure an optimal nutritional status in patients at risk. Ethical dilemmas are becoming increasingly common in clinical practice. On the subject of artificial nutrition and hydration, there isn't yet any unanimous agreement regarding hydration as a basic care. It is necessary to take decisions in consensus with the health team, always thinking of the best interests of the patient.

  18. Integrating mobile technology with routine dietetic practice: the case of myPace for weight management.

    PubMed

    Harricharan, Michelle; Gemen, Raymond; Celemín, Laura Fernández; Fletcher, David; de Looy, Anne E; Wills, Josephine; Barnett, Julie

    2015-05-01

    The field of Mobile health (mHealth), which includes mobile phone applications (apps), is growing rapidly and has the potential to transform healthcare by increasing its quality and efficiency. The present paper focuses particularly on mobile technology for body weight management, including mobile phone apps for weight loss and the available evidence on their effectiveness. Translation of behaviour change theory into weight management strategies, including integration in mobile technology is also discussed. Moreover, the paper presents and discusses the myPace platform as a case in point. There is little clinical evidence on the effectiveness of currently available mobile phone apps in enabling behaviour change and improving health-related outcomes, including sustained body weight loss. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent these apps have been developed in collaboration with health professionals, such as dietitians, and the extent to which apps draw on and operationalise behaviour change techniques has not been explored. Furthermore, presently weight management apps are not built for use as part of dietetic practice, or indeed healthcare more widely, where face-to-face engagement is fundamental for instituting the building blocks for sustained lifestyle change. myPace is an innovative mobile technology for weight management meant to be embedded into and to enhance dietetic practice. Developed out of systematic, iterative stages of engagement with dietitians and consumers, it is uniquely designed to complement and support the trusted health practitioner-patient relationship. Future mHealth technology would benefit if engagement with health professionals and/or targeted patient groups, and behaviour change theory stood as the basis for technology development. Particularly, integrating technology into routine health care practice, rather than replacing one with the other, could be the way forward.

  19. Attending to Problems of Practice: Routines and Resources for Professional Learning in Teachers' Workplace Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Ilana Seidel; Little, Judith Warren

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigate how conversational routines, or the practices by which groups structure work-related talk, function in teacher professional communities to forge, sustain, and support learning and improvement. Audiotaped and videotaped records of teachers' work group interactions, supplemented by interviews and material artifacts, were…

  20. Improving an electronic system for measuring PROs in routine oncology practice

    PubMed Central

    White, Sharon M.; Blackford, Amanda L.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Carducci, Michael A.; Herman, Joseph M.; Snyder, Claire F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to study how patients and their clinicians evaluated the usability of PatientViewpoint, a webtool designed to allow patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures to be used in clinical practice. Methods As part of a two-round quality improvement study, breast and prostate cancer patients and their medical and radiation oncology clinicians completed semi-structured interviews about their use of PatientViewpoint. The patient interview addressed different phases of the PRO completion workflow: reminders, completing the survey, and viewing the results. The clinician interviews asked about use of PatientViewpoint, integration with the clinical workflow, barriers to use, and helpful and desired features. Responses were recorded, categorized, and reviewed. After both rounds of interviews, modifications were made to PatientViewpoint. Results Across the two rounds, 42 unique patients (n=19 in round 1, n=23 in round 2) and 12 clinicians (all in both rounds) completed interviews. For patients, median age was 65, 81% were white, 69% were college graduates, 80% had performance status of 0, 69% had loco-regional disease, and 81% were regular computer users. In the quality improvement interviews, patients identified numerous strengths of the system, including its ability to flag issues for discussion with their provider. Comments included confusion about how scores were presented and that the value of the system was diminished if the doctor did not look at the results. Requests included tailoring questions to be applicable to the individual and providing more explanation about the score meaning, including having higher scores consistently indicating either better or worse status. Clinicians also provided primarily positive feedback about the system, finding it helpful in some cases, and confirmatory in others. Their primary concern was with impact on their workflow. Conclusions Systematically collected feedback from patients and clinicians was useful to identify

  1. Dosimetric prerequisites for routine clinical use of photon emitting brachytherapy sources with average energy higher than 50 kev

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zuofeng; Das, Rupak K.; De Werd, Larry A.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Meigooni, Ali S.; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Rivard, Mark J.; Sloboda, Ronald S.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2007-01-15

    This paper presents the recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) on the dosimetric parameters to be characterized, and dosimetric studies to be performed to obtain them, for brachytherapy sources with average energy higher than 50 keV that are intended for routine clinical use. In addition, this document makes recommendations on procedures to be used to maintain vendor source strength calibration accuracy. These recommendations reflect the guidance of the AAPM and the ESTRO for its members, and may also be used as guidance to vendors and regulatory agencies in developing good manufacturing practices for sources used in routine clinical treatments.

  2. Clinic-based routine voluntary HIV testing in a refugee settlement in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    O’Laughlin, Kelli N.; Kasozi, Julius; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Parker, Robert A.; Faustin, Zikama M.; Doraiswamy, Sathyanarayanan; Owino, Chris Omara; Bassett, Ingrid V.

    2014-01-01

    We implemented and evaluated a clinic-based routine voluntary HIV testing intervention in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in Uganda. Comparing the SOC period (40 days) to the Intervention period (168 days), the mean HIV-infected clients identified per week increased from 0.9 to 5.6, and there was no significant difference between the HIV prevalence in the two periods (standard of care: 3.3%, intervention: 4.5%; p > 0.5). Clinic-based routine HIV testing in a refugee settlement is effective and should be considered for implementation in refugee settlements in other high prevalence regions in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25162817

  3. The Impact of Iterative Reconstruction on Computed Tomography Radiation Dosimetry: Evaluation in a Routine Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Moorin, Rachael E.; Gibson, David A. J.; Forsyth, Rene K.; Fox, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of introduction of iterative reconstruction as a mandated software upgrade on radiation dosimetry in routine clinical practice over a range of computed tomography examinations. Methods Random samples of scanning data were extracted from a centralised Picture Archiving Communication System pertaining to 10 commonly performed computed tomography examination types undertaken at two hospitals in Western Australia, before and after the introduction of iterative reconstruction. Changes in the mean dose length product and effective dose were evaluated along with estimations of associated changes to annual cancer incidence. Results We observed statistically significant reductions in the effective radiation dose for head computed tomography (22–27%) consistent with those reported in the literature. In contrast the reductions observed for non-contrast chest (37–47%); chest pulmonary embolism study (28%), chest/abdominal/pelvic study (16%) and thoracic spine (39%) computed tomography. Statistically significant reductions in radiation dose were not identified in angiographic computed tomography. Dose reductions translated to substantial lowering of the lifetime attributable risk, especially for younger females, and estimated numbers of incident cancers. Conclusion Reduction of CT dose is a priority Iterative reconstruction algorithms have the potential to significantly assist with dose reduction across a range of protocols. However, this reduction in dose is achieved via reductions in image noise. Fully realising the potential dose reduction of iterative reconstruction requires the adjustment of image factors and forgoing the noise reduction potential of the iterative algorithm. Our study has demonstrated a reduction in radiation dose for some scanning protocols, but not to the extent experimental studies had previously shown or in all protocols expected, raising questions about the extent to which iterative reconstruction achieves dose

  4. A practical approach to identifying maternal deaths missed from routine hospital reports: lessons from Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Qomariyah, Siti Nurul; Bell, Jacqueline S.; Pambudi, Eko S.; Anggondowati, Trisari; Latief, Kamaluddin; Achadi, Endang L.; Graham, Wendy J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate estimates of the number of maternal deaths in both the community and facility are important, in order to allocate adequate resources to address such deaths. On the other hand, current studies show that routine methods of identifying maternal deaths in facilities underestimate the number by more than one-half. Objective To assess the utility of a new approach to identifying maternal deaths in hospitals. Method Deaths of women of reproductive age were retrospectively identified from registers in two district hospitals in Indonesia over a 24-month period. Based on information retrieved, deaths were classified as ‘maternal’ or ‘non-maternal’ where possible. For deaths that remained unclassified, a detailed case note review was undertaken and the extracted data were used to facilitate classification. Results One hundred and fifty-five maternal deaths were identified, mainly from the register review. Only 67 maternal deaths were recorded in the hospitals’ routine reports over the same period. This underestimation of maternal deaths was partly due to the incomplete coverage of the routine reporting system; however, even in the wards where routine reports were made, the study identified twice as many deaths. Conclusion The RAPID method is a practical method that provides a more complete estimate of hospital maternal mortality than routine reporting systems. PMID:20027272

  5. Aphasia in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kertesz, Andrew

    1983-01-01

    Aphasia is a central language impairment with word finding and comprehension deficit and paraphasias. The highlights of the essential language tests and the classification based on a scorable assessment are presented. The clinical syndromes of Broca's, global, Wernicke, conduction, anomic and transcortical aphasias are detailed with definition, localization, and prognosis. Modality specific disorders associated with aphasic syndromes are discussed. The management of the aphasic patient, consisting of informed support and coordination of available services, is often the responsibility of the family physician. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21286589

  6. Mindfulness Meditation in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Paul; Sephton, Sandra; Weissbecker, Inka; Hoover, Katherine; Ulmer, Christi; Studts, Jamie L.

    2004-01-01

    The practice of mindfulness is increasingly being integrated into contemporary clinical psychology. Based in Buddhist philosophy and subsequently integrated into Western health care in the contexts of psychotherapy and stress management, mindfulness meditation is evolving as a systematic clinical intervention. This article describes…

  7. Development of clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hollon, Steven D; Areán, Patricia A; Craske, Michelle G; Crawford, Kermit A; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Magnavita, Jeffrey J; Ollendick, Thomas H; Sexton, Thomas L; Spring, Bonnie; Bufka, Lynn F; Galper, Daniel I; Kurtzman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are intended to improve mental, behavioral, and physical health by promoting clinical practices that are based on the best available evidence. The American Psychological Association (APA) is committed to generating patient-focused CPGs that are scientifically sound, clinically useful, and informative for psychologists, other health professionals, training programs, policy makers, and the public. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2011 standards for generating CPGs represent current best practices in the field. These standards involve multidisciplinary guideline development panels charged with generating recommendations based on comprehensive systematic reviews of the evidence. The IOM standards will guide the APA as it generates CPGs that can be used to inform the general public and the practice community regarding the benefits and harms of various treatment options. CPG recommendations are advisory rather than compulsory. When used appropriately, high-quality guidelines can facilitate shared decision making and identify gaps in knowledge.

  8. Reciproc vs. hand instrumentation in dental practice: a study in routine care.

    PubMed

    Bartols, Andreas; Reutter, Claudius A; Robra, Bernt-Peter; Walther, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the clinical impact of new root canal preparation systems in general dental practice under routine care conditions. Therefore, we compared hand instrumentation (H) with Reciproc (R) (VDW, Munich, Germany) preparation. The outcomes were endodontic related pain and oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL), evaluation of the procedures by the patients and the strain felt by the dentists during root canal therapy. Methods. Six dentists participated in the trial as practitioner-investigators. In the first phase of the trial they prepared root canals with H and in the second phase with R. The patients documented their pain felt with a visual analogue scale (VAS 100) and OHRQoL with the German short version of the oral health impact profile (OHIP-G-14) before treatment and before the completion of therapy and answered questions about how they experienced the treatment. The dentists documented their physical strain during treatment. Results. A total of 137 patients were included in the evaluation. 66 patients were treated with H, 71 with R. Pain reduction was 32.6 (SD 32.9) VAS (H) vs. 29.4 (SD 26.9) VAS (R) (p = 0.550), and the improvement of the OHIP-14 score was 5.5 (SD 9.2) (H) vs. 6.7 (SD 7.4) (R) (p = 0.383). There were no statistical differences in both groups. Significantly fewer patients felt stressed by the duration of treatment with R as with H (p = 0.018). Significantly more dentists reported that their general physical strain and the strain on their fingers were less severe with R than with H (p = 0.013 and p < 0.001). Discussion. H as well as R effectively reduced endodontic related pain and OHRQoL without statistical differences. R has advantages in terms of how patients experience the treatment and regarding the physical strain felt by the dentists. PMID:27375972

  9. Reciproc vs. hand instrumentation in dental practice: a study in routine care

    PubMed Central

    Reutter, Claudius A.; Robra, Bernt-Peter; Walther, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the clinical impact of new root canal preparation systems in general dental practice under routine care conditions. Therefore, we compared hand instrumentation (H) with Reciproc (R) (VDW, Munich, Germany) preparation. The outcomes were endodontic related pain and oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL), evaluation of the procedures by the patients and the strain felt by the dentists during root canal therapy. Methods. Six dentists participated in the trial as practitioner–investigators. In the first phase of the trial they prepared root canals with H and in the second phase with R. The patients documented their pain felt with a visual analogue scale (VAS 100) and OHRQoL with the German short version of the oral health impact profile (OHIP-G-14) before treatment and before the completion of therapy and answered questions about how they experienced the treatment. The dentists documented their physical strain during treatment. Results. A total of 137 patients were included in the evaluation. 66 patients were treated with H, 71 with R. Pain reduction was 32.6 (SD 32.9) VAS (H) vs. 29.4 (SD 26.9) VAS (R) (p = 0.550), and the improvement of the OHIP-14 score was 5.5 (SD 9.2) (H) vs. 6.7 (SD 7.4) (R) (p = 0.383). There were no statistical differences in both groups. Significantly fewer patients felt stressed by the duration of treatment with R as with H (p = 0.018). Significantly more dentists reported that their general physical strain and the strain on their fingers were less severe with R than with H (p = 0.013 and p < 0.001). Discussion. H as well as R effectively reduced endodontic related pain and OHRQoL without statistical differences. R has advantages in terms of how patients experience the treatment and regarding the physical strain felt by the dentists. PMID:27375972

  10. Reciproc vs. hand instrumentation in dental practice: a study in routine care.

    PubMed

    Bartols, Andreas; Reutter, Claudius A; Robra, Bernt-Peter; Walther, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the clinical impact of new root canal preparation systems in general dental practice under routine care conditions. Therefore, we compared hand instrumentation (H) with Reciproc (R) (VDW, Munich, Germany) preparation. The outcomes were endodontic related pain and oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL), evaluation of the procedures by the patients and the strain felt by the dentists during root canal therapy. Methods. Six dentists participated in the trial as practitioner-investigators. In the first phase of the trial they prepared root canals with H and in the second phase with R. The patients documented their pain felt with a visual analogue scale (VAS 100) and OHRQoL with the German short version of the oral health impact profile (OHIP-G-14) before treatment and before the completion of therapy and answered questions about how they experienced the treatment. The dentists documented their physical strain during treatment. Results. A total of 137 patients were included in the evaluation. 66 patients were treated with H, 71 with R. Pain reduction was 32.6 (SD 32.9) VAS (H) vs. 29.4 (SD 26.9) VAS (R) (p = 0.550), and the improvement of the OHIP-14 score was 5.5 (SD 9.2) (H) vs. 6.7 (SD 7.4) (R) (p = 0.383). There were no statistical differences in both groups. Significantly fewer patients felt stressed by the duration of treatment with R as with H (p = 0.018). Significantly more dentists reported that their general physical strain and the strain on their fingers were less severe with R than with H (p = 0.013 and p < 0.001). Discussion. H as well as R effectively reduced endodontic related pain and OHRQoL without statistical differences. R has advantages in terms of how patients experience the treatment and regarding the physical strain felt by the dentists.

  11. Clinical Practice. Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Black, Dennis M; Rosen, Clifford J

    2016-01-21

    Key Clinical Points Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Fractures and osteoporosis are common, particularly among older women, and hip fractures can be devastating. Treatment is generally recommended in postmenopausal women who have a bone mineral density T score of -2.5 or less, a history of spine or hip fracture, or a Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) score indicating increased fracture risk. Bisphosphonates (generic) and denosumab reduce the risk of hip, nonvertebral, and vertebral fractures; bisphosphonates are commonly used as first-line treatment in women who do not have contraindications. Teriparatide reduces the risk of nonvertebral and vertebral fractures. Osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures have been reported with treatment but are rare. The benefit-to-risk ratio for osteoporosis treatment is strongly positive for most women with osteoporosis. Because benefits are retained after discontinuation of alendronate or zoledronic acid, drug holidays after 5 years of alendronate therapy or 3 years of zoledronic acid therapy may be considered for patients at lower risk for fracture.

  12. Cherubism: best clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cherubism is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by bilateral and symmetric fibro-osseous lesions limited to the mandible and maxilla. In most patients, cherubism is due to dominant mutations in the SH3BP2 gene on chromosome 4p16.3. Affected children appear normal at birth. Swelling of the jaws usually appears between 2 and 7 years of age, after which, lesions proliferate and increase in size until puberty. The lesions subsequently begin to regress, fill with bone and remodel until age 30, when they are frequently not detectable. Fibro-osseous lesions, including those in cherubism have been classified as quiescent, non-aggressive and aggressive on the basis of clinical behavior and radiographic findings. Quiescent cherubic lesions are usually seen in older patients and do not demonstrate progressive growth. Non-aggressive lesions are most frequently present in teenagers. Lesions in the aggressive form of cherubism occur in young children and are large, rapidly growing and may cause tooth displacement, root resorption, thinning and perforation of cortical bone. Because cherubism is usually self-limiting, operative treatment may not be necessary. Longitudinal observation and follow-up is the initial management in most cases. Surgical intervention with curettage, contouring or resection may be indicated for functional or aesthetic reasons. Surgical procedures are usually performed when the disease becomes quiescent. Aggressive lesions that cause severe functional problems such as airway obstruction justify early surgical intervention. PMID:22640403

  13. [Implementation of therapeutic hypothermia into clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Himmel, Friederike; Desch, Steffen; Wolfrum, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Implementation of mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest into clinical practice is a continuing process. Although ILCOR recommendation was given in 2003, only 24% of the German hospitals reported the use of hypothermia in this setting in 2005. Growing evidence and most importantly the implementation of hypothermia into the guidelines led to a significant increase of acceptance of this therapeutic option leading to a user rate of 69% in 2009. Encouraged by the new guidelines from 2010 86% of German hospitals finally reported to use hypothermia after cardiac arrest routinely in 2012, a decade after publication of the mile stone studies. The phenomenon of a delayed implementation of hypothermia into clinical practice can be seen throughout the world as many surveys from different countries at different time points have shown. When hypothermia is used, hospitals go with the guidelines quite strictly with respect to indication, duration of treatment and target temperature. This strengthens the importance of guidelines in the process to implement new therapeutic options. However, although a recent study still promotes a strict target temperature management it questions the need for a markedly reduced target temperature of 33°C. It remains to be elucidated how this study will affect the daily routine in the hospitals and most interestingly how this study will change the coming guidelines in 2015. PMID:26261928

  14. [The latest recommendations on the use of new oral anticoagulants in routine practice].

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Michał; Witkowska, Magdalena; Smolewski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has become a breakthrough in anticoagulant treatment and it is expected to rise significantly in upcoming years. The use of conventional anticoagulants have several limitations: subcutaneous administration of heparin, or close monitoring of INR during application of vitamin K antagonists. In the last decade, target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOAC) including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban have been marketed for prophylaxis and treatment. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the potential uses, side effects, and management of these agents in routine practice. NOACs have major pharmacologic advantages, including a rapid onset and offset of action, fewer drug interactions than conventional anticoagulants, and predictable pharmacokinetics. These agents are gaining popularity among both physicians and patients because of their easiness of administration and the eliminating the requirement for regular coagulation monitoring. In this review, we focus on discussing practical recommendations for the use of NOACs and the risks and benefits of incorporating them into routine practice. PMID:26864063

  15. Clinical Decision Making and Outcome in Routine Care for People with Severe Mental Illness (CEDAR): Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A considerable amount of research has been conducted on clinical decision making (CDM) in short-term physical conditions. However, there is a lack of knowledge on CDM and its outcome in long-term illnesses, especially in care for people with severe mental illness. Methods/Design The study entitled "Clinical decision making and outcome in routine care for people with severe mental illness" (CEDAR) is carried out in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland and UK). First, CEDAR establishes a methodology to assess CDM in people with severe mental illness. Specific instruments are developed (and psychometric properties established) to measure CDM style, key elements of CDM in routine care, as well as CDM involvement and satisfaction from patient and therapist perspectives. Second, these instruments are being put to use in a multi-national prospective observational study (bimonthly assessments during a one-year observation period; N = 560). This study investigates the immediate, short- and long-term effect of CDM on crucial dimensions of clinical outcome (symptom level, quality of life, needs) by taking into account significant variables moderating the relationship between CDM and outcome. Discussion The results of this study will make possible to delineate quality indicators of CDM, as well as to specify prime areas for further improvement. Ingredients of best practice in CDM in the routine care for people with severe mental illness will be extracted and recommendations formulated. With its explicit focus on the patient role in CDM, CEDAR will also contribute to strengthening the service user perspective. This project will substantially add to improving the practice of CDM in mental health care across Europe. Trial register ISRCTN75841675. PMID:21062508

  16. “There Are Too Many, but Never Enough": Qualitative Case Study Investigating Routine Coding of Clinical Information in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Kathrin; Morrison, Zoe; Sheikh, Aziz; Kalra, Dipak

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to understand how clinical information relating to the management of depression is routinely coded in different clinical settings and the perspectives of and implications for different stakeholders with a view to understanding how these may be aligned. Materials and Methods Qualitative investigation exploring the views of a purposefully selected range of healthcare professionals, managers, and clinical coders spanning primary and secondary care. Results Our dataset comprised 28 semi-structured interviews, a focus group, documents relating to clinical coding standards and participant observation of clinical coding activities. We identified a range of approaches to coding clinical information including templates and order entry systems. The challenges inherent in clearly establishing a diagnosis, identifying appropriate clinical codes and possible implications of diagnoses for patients were particularly prominent in primary care. Although a range of managerial and research benefits were identified, there were no direct benefits from coded clinical data for patients or professionals. Secondary care staff emphasized the role of clinical coders in ensuring data quality, which was at odds with the policy drive to increase real-time clinical coding. Conclusions There was overall no evidence of clear-cut direct patient care benefits to inform immediate care decisions, even in primary care where data on patients with depression were more extensively coded. A number of important secondary uses were recognized by healthcare staff, but the coding of clinical data to serve these ends was often poorly aligned with clinical practice and patient-centered considerations. The current international drive to encourage clinical coding by healthcare professionals during the clinical encounter may need to be critically examined. PMID:22937106

  17. Population analysis of myelosuppression profiles using routine clinical data after the ICE (ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide) regimen for malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yoshitaka; Kodawara, Takaaki; Hongo, Haruyuki; Yano, Ikuko; Kishi, Yo; Takahashi, Jun; Inui, Ken-ichi

    2009-11-01

    We propose a simple and practical modeling approach for analysis of the data for myelosuppression after cancer chemotherapy, which can be applied when pharmacokinetic data are not available and several anticancer drugs were simultaneously administered. The model equation is based on the probability density function for the Erlang distribution. The data for cell counts of leukocytes (white blood cell, WBC), platelets (PLT), and reticulocytes (RET) obtained in routine clinical laboratory tests after the ICE (ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide) regimen for cancer chemotherapy were retrospectively collected from 28 patients, and a population analysis was applied. The time course profiles could be well explained by the proposed model. The individual values of the time to reach the nadir were obtained by the Bayesian method, and their medians (days) were 16.8 for WBC, 12.8 for PLT, and 8.2 for RET. Such information would be useful to determine the day of visit for outpatients especially for additional treatment to prevent side effects such as infections. The model is simple and applicable to explain the time course profiles for myelosuppression irrespective of cell types, and also practical because it requires only the data from routine clinical laboratory tests without any additional burden to patients.

  18. Comparative genomic hybridization: technical development and cytogenetic aspects for routine use in clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, J M; Cacheux, V; Da Silva, F; Collot, N; Hervy, N; Wiss, J; Tachdjian, G

    1998-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) offers a new global approach for detection of chromosomal material imbalances of the entire genome in a single experiment without cell culture. In this paper, we discuss the technical development and the cytogenetic aspects of CGH in a clinical laboratory. Based only on the visual inspection of CGH metaphase spreads, the correct identification of numerical and structural anomalies are reported. No commercial image analysis software was required in these experiments. We have demonstrated that this new technology can be set up easily for routine use in a clinical cytogenetics laboratory.

  19. Recovery and Identification of Anaerobes: a System Suitable for the Routine Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Ellner, Paul D.; Granato, Paul A.; May, Carolyn B.

    1973-01-01

    A system for the isolation of anaerobes based upon the use of reducible solid media is described. Plates of reducible media prepared and stored aerobically were reduced before use by incubation in a GasPak jar for 24 h. Clinical specimens for culture were carefully selected. The value of Amies transport medium was confirmed. Selective and nonselective formulations of reducible media were used for primary isolation. Abbreviated identification schemes based in part on gas-liquid chromatography are presented. The suitability of this system for improving the recovery and identification of anaerobes in a routine clinical laboratory is documented. PMID:4588198

  20. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Adriana; Feixas, Guillem; Bados, Arturo; García-Grau, Eugeni; Salla, Marta; Medina, Joan Carles; Montesano, Adrián; Soriano, José; Medeiros-Ferreira, Leticia; Cañete, Josep; Corbella, Sergi; Grau, Antoni; Lana, Fernando; Evans, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this paper is to assess the reliability and validity of the Spanish translation of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure, a 34-item self-report questionnaire that measures the client’s status in the domains of Subjective well-being, Problems/Symptoms, Life functioning, and Risk. Method Six hundred and forty-four adult participants were included in two samples: the clinical sample (n=192) from different mental health and primary care centers; and the nonclinical sample (n=452), which included a student and a community sample. Results The questionnaire showed good acceptability and internal consistency, appropriate test–retest reliability, and acceptable convergent validity. Strong differentiation between clinical and nonclinical samples was found. As expected, the Risk domain had different characteristics than other domains, but all findings were comparable with the UK referential data. Cutoff scores were calculated for clinical significant change assessment. Conclusion The Spanish version of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure showed acceptable psychometric properties, providing support for using the questionnaire for monitoring the progress of Spanish-speaking psychotherapy clients. PMID:27382288

  1. Recombinant erythropoietin in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Ng, T; Marx, G; Littlewood, T; Macdougall, I

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (RHuEPO) has revolutionised the treatment of patients with anaemia of chronic renal disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that RHuEPO is also useful in various non-uraemic conditions including haematological and oncological disorders, prematurity, HIV infection, and perioperative therapies. Besides highlighting both the historical and functional aspects of RHuEPO, this review discusses the applications of RHuEPO in clinical practice and the potential problems of RHuEPO treatment. PMID:12897214

  2. Handbook of clinical nursing practice

    SciTech Connect

    Asheervath, J.; Blevins, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Written in outline format, this reference will help nurses further their understanding of advanced nursing procedures. Information is provided on the physiological, psychological, environmental, and safety considerations of nursing activities associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Special consideration is given to the areas of pediatric nursing, nursing assessment, and selected radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures for each system. Contents: Clinical Introduction. Clinical Nursing Practice: Focus on Basics. Focus on Cardiovascular Function. Focus on Respiratory Function. Focus on Gastrointestinal Function. Focus on Renal and Genito-Urological Function. Focus on Neuro-Skeletal and Muscular Function. Appendices.

  3. Reflections in the clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Borrell-Carrió, F; Hernández-Clemente, J C

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze some models of expert decision and their impact on the clinical practice. We have analyzed decision-making considering the cognitive aspects (explanatory models, perceptual skills, analysis of the variability of a phenomenon, creating habits and inertia of reasoning and declarative models based on criteria). We have added the importance of emotions in decision making within highly complex situations, such as those occurring within the clinical practice. The quality of the reflective act depends, among other factors, on the ability of metacognition (thinking about what we think). Finally, we propose an educational strategy based on having a task supervisor and rectification scenarios to improve the quality of medical decision making.

  4. Fluorescence photodiagnosis in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, K; Stringer, M R; Dixon, Kate

    2008-12-01

    Fluorescence diagnosis has become an important method of investigation in clinical practice particularly in identification and localisation of pre and early cancerous lesions as well as image guided therapy. The method relies on the principle of differential fluorescence emission between abnormal and normal tissues in response to excitation by a specific wavelength of light within the visible spectrum range. In clinical practice two types of fluorescence diagnostic methods are used, namely autofluorescence and drug-induced fluorescence. The former relies on the differential fluorescence of "native" fluorophores whereas the latter requires a photosensitiser which enhances the differential fluorescence emission of the normal versus the abnormal tissues. Development and advances in fibreoptic, endoscopic instrumentation currently permit fluorescence endoscopy to be carried out in a number of situations. PMID:19356662

  5. Biomedical data mining in clinical routine: expanding the impact of hospital information systems.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marcel; Markó, Kornel; Daumke, Philipp; Paetzold, Jan; Roesner, Arnold; Klar, Rüdiger

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we want to describe how the promising technology of biomedical data mining can improve the use of hospital information systems: a large set of unstructured, narrative clinical data from a dermatological university hospital like discharge letters or other dermatological reports were processed through a morpho-semantic text retrieval engine ("MorphoSaurus") and integrated with other clinical data using a web-based interface and brought into daily clinical routine. The user evaluation showed a very high user acceptance - this system seems to meet the clinicians' requirements for a vertical data mining in the electronic patient records. What emerges is the need for integration of biomedical data mining into hospital information systems for clinical, scientific, educational and economic reasons.

  6. Is Transducer Hygiene sufficient when Vaginal Probes are used in the Clinical Routine?

    PubMed

    Merz, E

    2016-04-01

    Vaginal ultrasound probes are semi-critical Group A medical products which must be disinfected following the manufacturer's instructions after every patient examination. According to the "Essential Requirements for Medical Devices (Directive 93/42/EEC, Annex I, paragraph 13)" the manufacturer's instructions for use for reusable products must contain suitable instructions for preparation processes. This presumes both an effective and material-compatible method. Evidence of effectiveness must be validated.In the Editorial in issue 1 Ultraschall in der Medizin/European Journal of Ultrasound 2005 we discussed the topic of transducer hygiene and stated that proper handling and cleaning as well as disinfection of probes in daily use are indispensable. This applies particularly to vaginal ultrasound probes routinely used in gynecological and obstetrical clinics, gynecological practices as well as IVF centers Normally the probe used in a transvaginal ultrasound examination is covered with a latex protective cover (with CE marking) which contains a certain amount of ultrasound gel. After the examination, the cover is removed and disposed of, and the gel is removed from the transducer. Since handling of the probe, ultrasound gel and cover can result in smear infections and cross-contamination with various pathogens (e. g. MRSA, HBV, HCV, HIV, herpes papilloma and cytomegalic viruses), after the protective cover is removed, the probe must be cleaned and subjected to disinfection with a bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal effect. This is especially important in the event the cover ruptures during the vaginal examination, and the probe comes into direct contact with vaginal secretions or blood. The same likewise applies if the sterile protective cover is perforated during a follicular puncture. Usually special bactericidal, levurocidal and virucidal wipes or special submersion disinfection methods are available for disinfecting the vaginal ultrasound probes 11. Using

  7. Is Transducer Hygiene sufficient when Vaginal Probes are used in the Clinical Routine?

    PubMed

    Merz, E

    2016-04-01

    Vaginal ultrasound probes are semi-critical Group A medical products which must be disinfected following the manufacturer's instructions after every patient examination. According to the "Essential Requirements for Medical Devices (Directive 93/42/EEC, Annex I, paragraph 13)" the manufacturer's instructions for use for reusable products must contain suitable instructions for preparation processes. This presumes both an effective and material-compatible method. Evidence of effectiveness must be validated.In the Editorial in issue 1 Ultraschall in der Medizin/European Journal of Ultrasound 2005 we discussed the topic of transducer hygiene and stated that proper handling and cleaning as well as disinfection of probes in daily use are indispensable. This applies particularly to vaginal ultrasound probes routinely used in gynecological and obstetrical clinics, gynecological practices as well as IVF centers Normally the probe used in a transvaginal ultrasound examination is covered with a latex protective cover (with CE marking) which contains a certain amount of ultrasound gel. After the examination, the cover is removed and disposed of, and the gel is removed from the transducer. Since handling of the probe, ultrasound gel and cover can result in smear infections and cross-contamination with various pathogens (e. g. MRSA, HBV, HCV, HIV, herpes papilloma and cytomegalic viruses), after the protective cover is removed, the probe must be cleaned and subjected to disinfection with a bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal effect. This is especially important in the event the cover ruptures during the vaginal examination, and the probe comes into direct contact with vaginal secretions or blood. The same likewise applies if the sterile protective cover is perforated during a follicular puncture. Usually special bactericidal, levurocidal and virucidal wipes or special submersion disinfection methods are available for disinfecting the vaginal ultrasound probes 11. Using

  8. Can anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction be performed routinely in day clinic?

    PubMed

    De Beule, J; Vandenneucker, H; Claes, S; Bellemans, J

    2014-09-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is performed as an outpatient procedure in selected cases. Whether it can be safely performed on a routine basis in day clinic remains unclear. Our hypothesis was that routinely performing outpatient anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction would be equally safe as compared to inpatient procedures. A cohort of 355 patients who underwent outpatient primary reconstruction was analysed at an average follow-up of 3.8 years. Four patients (1.1%) could not be discharged or were readmitted within 24 hours. The 1-month readmission rate was 1.4%. The overall complication rate was 12.1% (43 cases) of which 4.2% (15 patients) occurred within the first 30 days. Performing anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions routinely in day clinic is associated with almost negligible readmission rates and has similar complication rates as for standard in-hospital anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Outpatient anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions can therefore be safely performed without specific preoperative patient selection protocols.

  9. Feasibility of integrating mental health screening and services into routine elder abuse practice to improve client outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sirey, Jo Anne; Berman, Jacquelin; Salamone, Aurora; DePasquale, Alyssa; Halkett, Ashley; Raeifar, Elmira; Banerjee, Samprit; Bruce, Martha L; Raue, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot program was to test the feasibility of mental health screening among elder abuse victims and of offering those victims a brief psychotherapy for depression and anxiety. Elder abuse victims who sought assistance from a large, urban elder abuse service were screened for depression and anxiety using standardized measures. Clients with clinically significant depression (PHQ-9) or anxiety (GAD-7) were randomized to receive one of three different interventions concurrent with abuse resolution services. Staff were able to screen 315 individuals, with 34% of clients scoring positive for depression or anxiety. Of those with mental health needs, only 15% refused all services. The mental health intervention (PROTECT) was successfully implemented in two different formats with collaboration between staff workers. These findings support both the need for mental health care among elder abuse victims and the feasibility of integrating mental health screening and treatment into routine elder abuse practice.

  10. Does routine breast screening practice over-ride display quality in reporting enriched test sets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Gale, Alastair G.; Evanoff, Michael

    2013-03-01

    The performance of a group of 16 American (US) breast screening radiologists in interpreting a number of cases from a recent PERFORMS self-assessment case set which had been carefully selected to exclude small calcifications, using sub-mammographic resolution displays, as compared to a British (UK) group of radiologists using mammographic displays has previously been reported. It was found that the UK group performed better, detecting more cancers with the US participants correctly recalling less. These results were interpreted as due to differences in the displays employed by each group as well as to routine screening differences between the two countries. This current study extended that work with 11 of these experienced US breast screening radiologists further interpreting 20 new PERFORMS mammographic cases using a suitable mammographic clinical workstation. The PERFORMS cases were selected so as to show a range of normal, benign and abnormal appearances. Data from these radiologists were compared to their earlier performance on different PERFORMS cases and sub-clinical displays. Their data were also compared to recent data of 11 UK radiologists reading the same cases, again on clinical workstations as well as to all UK screeners. Despite using equivalent clinical monitors, data indicate differences between the UK and US groups in recall decisions which is not just a function of the countries' screening approaches. Lower detection of abnormal cases by the US group was found here and reasons for this are explored.

  11. Can research influence clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Juan Pablo

    2007-06-01

    After briefly reviewing the unfavourable reception accorded empirical research by parts of the psychoanalytic community, as well as some of the benefits to clinical practice of analysts being involved in research activities, the author examines whether the findings of process and outcome research in psychotherapy and psychoanalysis can help identify the most appropriate forms of intervention for producing therapeutic change, given the specific condition of the patient and the relationship that the individual establishes with the analyst. He argues that research findings can influence clinical practice on various levels and in different areas, and goes on to examine a number of related issues: the specificity of therapeutic interventions versus the relevance of common curative factors; the dyadic conception of technique and ways of understanding the therapeutic action of the treatment alliance; and the strategic or heuristic conception in psychoanalytic therapy. Finally, the author presents clinical material with the aim of illustrating how the knowledge acquired through research can be applied to psychoanalytic treatment. PMID:17537698

  12. Standardisation of neonatal clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Z A; Giuliani, F; Haroon, A; Knight, H E; Albernaz, E; Batra, M; Bhat, B; Bertino, E; McCormick, K; Ochieng, R; Rajan, V; Ruyan, P; Cheikh Ismail, L; Paul, V

    2013-09-01

    The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21(st) Century (INTERGROWTH-21(st) ) is a large-scale, population-based, multicentre project involving health institutions from eight geographically diverse countries, which aims to assess fetal, newborn and preterm growth under optimal conditions. Given the multicentre nature of the project and the expected number of preterm births, it is vital that all centres follow the same standardised clinical care protocols to assess and manage preterm infants, so as to ensure maximum validity of the resulting standards as indicators of growth and nutrition with minimal confounding. Moreover, it is well known that evidence-based clinical practice guidelines can reduce the delivery of inappropriate care and support the introduction of new knowledge into clinical practice. The INTERGROWTH-21(st) Neonatal Group produced an operations manual, which reflects the consensus reached by members of the group regarding standardised definitions of neonatal morbidities and the minimum standards of care to be provided by all centres taking part in the project. The operational definitions and summary management protocols were developed by consensus through a Delphi process based on systematic reviews of relevant guidelines and management protocols by authoritative bodies. This paper describes the process of developing the Basic Neonatal Care Manual, as well as the morbidity definitions and standardised neonatal care protocols applied across all the INTERGROWTH-21(st) participating centres. Finally, thoughts about implementation strategies are presented.

  13. Are clinical practice guidelines impartial?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    In A Theory of Justice, John Rawls demands from citizens who decide upon principles of justice and the rules derived from such principles that they abstract from all particularities that constitute their identity as unique individuals. This demand is unrealistic in policy settings where actual policy-makers convene to provide guidance, establish rules regarding public good, and enact legislation. In practice, I argue, policy-makers, legislators, and others involved in developing social rules that pertain to distributive justice formulate such rules as reasonably partial spectators. To illustrate, I show how clinical practice guidelines are established and mediated by a reasonably partial expert panel whose partial action is publicly justifiable, yet whose claims to impartiality are not.

  14. Proton therapy in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy. PMID:21527064

  15. Metastatic colorectal cancer KRAS genotyping in routine practice: results and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Aude; Blanchard, France; Le Pessot, Florence; Sesboüé, Richard; Di Fiore, Frédéric; Bossut, Jessie; Fiant, Elodie; Frébourg, Thierry; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2011-08-01

    KRAS genotyping is mandatory before anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer, which is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States and in Europe. Thus, large-scale KRAS mutation screening is needed for efficient patient management and in the future metastatic colorectal cancer genotyping might also include the detection of the BRAF V600E mutation, which is a very strong negative prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. We report our experience of routine KRAS/BRAF mutation screening practice performed on 1130 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 992 colorectal cancer patients. DNA was extracted from macrodissected tumor areas highlighted by a pathologist, KRAS codons 12/13 and BRAF V600E mutations were assessed in a single SNaPshot® multiplex assay and each mutation was confirmed by an independent analysis. KRAS and BRAF mutations were, respectively, present in 41.8 and 6.5% of the tumor samples. If KRAS and BRAF mutations were mutually exclusive, four samples presented two concomitant KRAS mutations. Genotyping of paired primary tumors and metastases from 44 patients indicated that 5 patients (11.4%) presented discordant KRAS mutational status. KRAS genotype heterogeneity was also observed within primary tumor sites in seven cases. Non-reproducible KRAS artefactual mutations were detected in 53 samples (4.7%). We found that the prominent mechanism leading to these artefactual mutations was the fragmentation of DNA occurring during tissue processing. Routine KRAS genotyping performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues requires, therefore, the development of quality control scheme for molecular pathology, especially because of DNA damages induced by formalin fixation. The tumor heterogeneity observed in some patients indicates that it should be more appropriate to perform KRAS genotyping on metastases if sample is available.

  16. The challenges of implementing ADHD clinical guidelines and research best evidence in routine clinical care settings: Delphi survey and mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John A.; Newell, Karen; Baldwin, Laurence; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background The landmark US Multimodal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) study established the benefits of individualised medication titration and optimisation strategies to improve short- to medium-term outcomes in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This individualised medication management approach was subsequently incorporated into the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) ADHD Clinical Guidelines (NICE CG78). However, little is known about clinicians’ attitudes towards implementing these medication management strategies for ADHD in routine care. Aims To examine National Health Service (NHS) healthcare professionals’ consensus on ADHD medication management strategies. Method Using the Delphi method, we examined perceptions on the importance and feasibility of implementing 103 ADHD treatment statements from sources including the UK NICE ADHD guidelines and US medication management algorithms. Results Certain recommendations for ADHD medication management were judged as important and feasible to implement, including a stepwise titration of stimulant medication. Other recommendations were perceived as important but not feasible to implement in routine practice, such as weekly clinic follow-up with the family during titration and collection of follow-up symptom questionnaires. Conclusions Many of the key guideline recommendations for ADHD medication management are viewed by clinicians as important and feasible to implement. However, some recommendations present significant implementation challenges within the context of routine NHS clinical care in England. Declaration of interest C.H. and K.S. were members of the Guideline Development Group for the NICE ADHD Clinical Guideline (NICE CG78). Copyright and usage © 2016 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703750

  17. Positioning advanced practice nurses for financial success in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kennerly, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Advanced practice nurses (APNs) are well prepared for patient care, but not for the financial aspects of clinical practice. A lack of reimbursement knowledge and skills limits the prospects for APNs to be key players in business and practice ventures. Faculty are challenged to strengthen the advanced practice reimbursement component of the financial management core to promote the reimbursement competency of APNs. The author discusses 4 primary content categories that are critical to financial success in clinical practice.

  18. New practical treadmill protocol for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Wolthuis, R A; Froelicher, V F; Fischer, J; Noguera, I; Davis, G; Stewart, A J; Triebwasser, J H

    1977-05-01

    A new continuous treadmill protocol (USAFSAM) has been designed using a constant treadmill speed (3.3 miles/hour) and regular equal increments in treadmill grade (5%/3min). The constant treadmill speed requires only initial adaptation in patient stride, reduces technician adjustments and produces less electrocardiographic motion artifact than do protocols using multiple or higher treadmill speeds, or both. The regular equal increments in treadmill grade are easy to implement and provide a larger number of work loads than do protocols that are discontinuous or require larger changes in work load. The USAFSAM protocol was compared with the older Balke-Ware protocol in 26 healthy men (aged 30 to 59 years). Each fasting subject completed two maximal treadmill tests from each protocol. Measurements included minute heart rate from the electrocardiogram, auscultatory blood pressures and oxygen consumption obtained with standard techniques. Similarities in between-protocol measurements for submaximal and maximal treadmill efforts were impressive; differences were small and unimportant. Further, both protocols showed equal reproducibility for the measurements noted. Importantly, time to maximal effort was reduced by 24% with the USAFSAM protocol. The USAFSAM treadmill protocol has since been used in more than 500 clinical and screening examinations, thus confirming its advantages and practicality for routine clinical stress testing. Normal reference values previously established for the Balke-Ware protocol are shown to apply to the new USAFSAM protocol as well. PMID:857630

  19. Body composition in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice.

  20. The diagnostic contribution of CT volumetric rendering techniques in routine practice

    PubMed Central

    Perandini, Simone; Faccioli, N; Zaccarella, A; Re, TJ; Mucelli, R Pozzi

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) volumetric rendering techniques such as maximum intensity projection (MIP), minimum intensity projection (MinIP), shaded surface display (SSD), volume rendering (VR), and virtual endoscopy (VE) provide added diagnostic capabilities. The diagnostic value of such reconstruction techniques is well documented in literature. These techniques permit the exploration of fine anatomical detail that would be difficult to evaluate using axial reconstructions alone. Although these techniques are now widely available, many radiologists are either unfamiliar with them or do not fully utilize their potential in daily clinical practice. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the most common CT volumetric rendering techniques and their practical use in everyday diagnostics. PMID:20607017

  1. Is daily routine important for sleep? An investigation of social rhythms in a clinical insomnia population.

    PubMed

    Moss, Taryn G; Carney, Colleen E; Haynes, Patricia; Harris, Andrea L

    2015-02-01

    Social rhythms, also known as daily routines (e.g. exercise, of school or work, recreation, social activities), have been identified as potential time cues to help to regulate the biological clock. Past research has shown links between regularity and healthy sleep. This study examined the regularity and frequency of daytime activities in a clinical insomnia population and a good sleeper comparison group. Participants (N = 69) prospectively monitored their sleep and daily activities for a 2-week period. Although participants with insomnia and good sleepers had similar levels of activity, relative to good sleepers, those with insomnia were less regular in their activities. Findings from this study add to the growing number of studies that highlight the relative importance of the regularity of daytime activities on sleep. Accordingly, future research should test treatment components that focus on regulating daytime activities, which would likely improve treatment outcomes.

  2. Evidence Based Surgery: How Difficult is the Implication in Routine Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Gaurav; Maheshwari, Namrata

    2012-01-01

    Surgery as a discipline has perhaps been slower than other specialties to embrace evidence based principles. Today, surgeons all over Asia are prepared to challenge the dogma of yesterday. Surgical science which rests on a strong foundation of laboratory and clinical research can now be broadened to include the armamentarium of evidence based practice to advance surgical knowledge. The sheer volume of easily accessed information creates a new challenge. This article discusses keeping up with new information and finding the best available answers to specific questions amidst all the other information. PMID:22359733

  3. High prevalence of cervical dysplasia in STD clinic patients warrants routine cytologic screening.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, R M; Holmes, K K; Kiviat, N; Barker, E; Eschenbach, D A; DeJong, R

    1980-01-01

    The results of routine cervical cytology screening at a Planned Parenthood Center (PPC) clinic were compared to those at a nearby sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Seattle. Cervical cytologic findings were consistent with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), grades 1 (mild dysplasia), 2 (moderate dysplasia), or 3 (severe dysplasia to carcinoma in situ) in 502 (5.9 per cent) of 8,504 PPC patients and 87 (11.4 per cent) of 764 STD patients (p = .001). This rate for STD patients is five times that reported for the general population. Sixty-three PPC patients and 31 STD patients with screening smears consistent with CIN 1 or 2 underwent further prospective study by us, including repeated cytologic and colposcopic examinations. Thirty-seven (59 per cent) of 63 PPC patients and 26 (84 per cent) of 31 STD patients (p = .02) had at least on additional smear or colposcopy consistent with CIN and were advised to undergo cervical biopsy. Among those who underwent recommended biopsy, CIN was confirmed histologically in 15 (50 per cent) of 30 PPC patients and 11 (61 per cent) of 18 STD patients. Thus, the proportion of patients who had screening cytologic findings consistent with CIN, the proportion with persistent cytologic or colposcopic findings consistent with CIN on retesting, and the proportion of those biopsied who had histologically confirmed CIN, all were higher for STD than for PPC patients. There is a serious need for cytologic screening in STD clinics throughout the nation. PMID:6893526

  4. Agreement on diagnoses of mental health problems between an online clinical assignment and a routine clinical assignment.

    PubMed

    Brøndbo, Per Håkan; Mathiassen, Børge; Martinussen, Monica; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Kvernmo, Siv

    2013-02-01

    We examined the agreement between diagnoses assigned based on the Development and Well Being Assessment (DAWBA) information collected online, and ordinary day-to-day diagnostic assignment by Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) clinicians. Diagnoses were compared for 286 patients. Raw agreement for diagnostic categories was 74-90%, resulting in kappa values of 0.41-0.49. Multinomial regression models for 'emotional diagnosis' and 'hyperkinetic/conduct diagnosis' were significant (P < 0.001). Age, gender and number of informants significantly contributed to the explanation of agreement and disagreement. Agreement on mental health diagnoses may be sufficient to replace routine clinical assignment of diagnoses with an online clinical assignment, thereby saving time and resources.

  5. Factors affecting urine specific gravity in apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice for routine evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rishniw, Mark; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that apparently healthy cats presenting for routine evaluation should have a randomly sampled urine specific gravity (USG) >1.035. A USG <1.035 might reflect inappropriate concentrating ability warranting further investigation. We measured the USG of 1040 apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice in an observational study, using either in-clinic refractometers or measurements provided by reference laboratories, and examined factors that might affect USG. In-clinic refractometers were calibrated using distilled water (specific gravity = 1.000). The USG was >1.030 in 91% of cats and >1.035 in 88% of cats; 121 adult cats (⩾6 months old) and five young cats (<6 months old) had USGs of <1.035. Of these 126 cats, a pathological cause was identified in 27 adult cats - of these, 26 were >9 years old - but no young cats. No cause was identified in 43 adult cats, and further investigation was not pursued in 51 adult cats. Factors that affected USG included age, diet type, sex, fasting status, drinking avidity, refractometer type, and the interaction between sex and diet - increasing dietary moisture content lowered USG only in female cats. Most factors minimally affected USG. The odds of having a USG <1.035 without apparent pathology included age and dietary moisture content. Drinking avidity decreased with increasing dietary moisture content. Our results show that most apparently healthy cats presenting to first-opinion practice should have a USG >1.035. Dietary management strategies to lower USG might be less effective than anticipated, and warrant monitoring of USG to determine efficacy. Older cats with USG <1.035 are more likely to have pathological causes identified, although clinicians are more likely to examine these cats for possible pathology. A lack of stringent refractometer calibration could have caused some errors in estimates of USG by some observers, but would be unlikely to alter markedly the findings.

  6. Career pathways in research: clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Foxcroft, K J

    This article, the first in a five-part series on career pathways, discusses the facility for nurses to develop their clinical expertise to consultant level, which is an exciting development on the career pathway for nurses in clinical practice. The introduction of consultant nurses has re-emphasised the need for experienced leadership in research and practice development in clinical settings.

  7. Is tissue an issue? Current practice and opinion in Western Australia for routine histopathology on products of conception.

    PubMed

    Yap, Shui-Jean; Watts, Jared C; Faithfull, Tiffany J; Wong, Sabrina Z; Wylde, Kate L; McGurgan, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    An anonymous questionnaire-based survey was used to determine current practices and opinions of senior health professionals working in Western Australian (WA) hospitals performing gynaecological procedures, regarding the routine use of histopathology for products of conception (POC) obtained either from the surgical management of miscarriage or termination of pregnancy. Sixty-one senior health professionals completed the survey. Tissue histopathology on POC was routinely requested for miscarriage and termination of pregnancy (TOP) by 87 and 59% of respondents, respectively. Respondents listed the main reasons for requesting routine histopathology as avoidance of misdiagnosis, medico-legal and quality assurance. There were inconsistent practices among WA health professionals regarding sending POC for histopathology; 63% of gynaecology head of departments recommend the introduction of state or national guidelines for the use of histopathology in the surgical management of miscarriages or terminations of pregnancy.

  8. [ECG mapping in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Boudík, F; Aschermann, M; Anger, Z

    2002-12-01

    First the authors present a review of important cornerstones in the history of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and ECG mapping. The first to describe the electric cardiac field based on twenty ECGs was A.D. Waller in 1889. The decisive cornerstone for practical use was the introduction of a string galvanometer in 1901 by W. Einthoven and his triaxial lead system. Another very important cornerstone in the development of ECG were the findings of F.N. Wilson. Merits as regards the development and application of ECG mapping are due to B. Taccardi. Workers of the Second Medical Clinic in Prague enhanced after 15 years of studies and comparison of ECG maps with coronarographic findings in subjects with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and microvascular coronary dysfunction (syndrome X--SyX) substantially the specificity of this method in impaired myocardial vascularization. Better diagnosis was achieved by introduction of diagnostic tests which influence coronary vascularization such as e.g. hyperventilation, as well as other tests. After their application progression of chronic myocardial ischaemia occurs, e.g. by the mechanism of the "steal phenomenon" or restriction of the microcirculation after hyperventilation in patients with SyX. Furthermore the authors present examples of ECG maps after PTCA, after application of diagnostic tests in IHD and SyX and also regression of myocardial ischaemia after marked reduction of total cholesterol. PMID:12744039

  9. Clinical routine operation of a filmless radiology department: three years experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, Hans M.; Paertan, Gerald; Hruby, Walter

    1995-05-01

    This paper communicates the operational implementation of filmless digital radiology in clinical routine, its feasibility and its effect on the radiology profession, based on the three years clinical experience from the filmless digital radiology department of the Danube Hospital, a major teaching hospital in Vienna, Austria, with currently 850 acute-care beds. Since April 1992 all radiological modalities are reported from the monitors of 16 reporting consoles in the radiology department. Images and reports are distributed by the hospital-wide network (Sienet, Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen), and can be viewed on 60 display consoles throughout the hospital. Filmless radiology primarily is an efficient hospital-wide infrastructure to deliver radiological services along with other medical information, providing safe and fast access to this information anytime and anywhere, necessary for the conduct of the diagnostic and therapeutic task of patient care. In a comparative study of the Danube Hospital with the film based Rudolfstiftung Hospital in Vienna, we found a significant decrease of the mean patient length of hospital stay (1.99 to 3.72 days) that partially might be attributed to the implementation of filmless radiology.

  10. Feasibility of Integrating Mental Health Screening and Services Into Routine Elder Abuse Practice to Improve Client Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sirey, Jo Anne; Berman, Jacquelin; Salamone, Aurora; DePasquale, Alyssa; Halkett, Ashley; Raeifar, Elmira; Banerjee, Samprit; Bruce, Martha L.; Raue, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this pilot program was to test the feasibility of mental health screening among elder abuse victims and enrolling those victims into a brief psychotherapy useful with both depression and anxiety. Methods Elder abuse victims who sought assistance from a large, urban elder abuse service were screened for depression and anxiety using standardized measures. Clients with clinically significant depression (PHQ-9) or anxiety (GAD-7) were randomized to receive one of three different mental health interventions concurrent with abuse resolution services. This design helped determine the acceptability of each intervention offered and thus the optimal format for service delivery. Results Staff were able to integrate mental health screening for 315 individuals, with 34% of clients scoring positive for depression or anxiety. Of those with mental health needs, only 15% refused all services. The mental health intervention (PROTECT) was able to be implemented in two different formats, with collaboration between elder abuse and mental health staff workers. Discussion These findings support both the need for mental health care among elder abuse victims and the feasibility of integrating mental health screening and treatment into routine elder abuse practice. PMID:25611116

  11. Rate of Proven Rheumatic Diseases in a Large Collective of Referrals to an Outpatient Rheumatology Clinic Under Routine Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Feuchtenberger, Martin; Nigg, Axel Philipp; Kraus, Michael Rupert; Schäfer, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic significance of early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention in inflammatory rheumatic diseases has been well documented. However, a shortage of rheumatologists often impedes this approach in clinical practice. Therefore, it is of importance to identify those patients referred for diagnosis who would benefit most from a specialist’s care. We applied a telephone-based triage for appointment allocation during routine care. This retrospective, monocentric analysis evaluated the efficacy of our triage to identify patients with rheumatic disease with special regard to initial appointment category (elective, early arthritis clinic (EAC), or emergency appointment). Of the 1,782 patients assessed, 718 (40.3%) presented with an inflammatory rheumatic disease, and there were significant discrepancies between the appointment categories: elective 26.2%, EAC 49.2% (P < 0.001) and emergency appointment 56.6% (P < 0.001). We found that 61.2% of patients were allocated to the correct diagnostic category (inflammatory or noninflammatory) solely based on the telephone-based triage and 67.1% based on the combination of triage and C-reactive protein (CRP) count. PMID:27721659

  12. Implementation of Cognitive Therapy for PTSD in routine clinical care: Effectiveness and moderators of outcome in a consecutive sample☆

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Anke; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Stott, Richard; Liness, Sheena; Deale, Alicia; Handley, Rachel; Albert, Idit; Cullen, Deborah; Hackmann, Ann; Manley, John; McManus, Freda; Brady, Francesca; Salkovskis, Paul; Clark, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Trauma-focused psychological treatments are recommended as first-line treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), but clinicians may be concerned that the good outcomes observed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) may not generalize to the wide range of traumas and presentations seen in clinical practice. This study investigated whether Cognitive Therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD) can be effectively implemented into a UK National Health Service Outpatient Clinic serving a defined ethnically mixed urban catchment area. Method A consecutive sample of 330 patients with PTSD (age 17–83) following a wide range of traumas were treated by 34 therapists, who received training and supervision in CT-PTSD. Pre and post treatment data (PTSD symptoms, anxiety, depression) were collected for all patients, including dropouts. Hierarchical linear modeling investigated candidate moderators of outcome and therapist effects. Results CT-PTSD was well tolerated and led to very large improvement in PTSD symptoms, depression and anxiety. The majority of patients showed reliable improvement/clinically significant change: intent-to-treat: 78.8%/57.3%; completer: 84.5%/65.1%. Dropouts and unreliable attenders had worse outcome. Statistically reliable symptom exacerbation with treatment was observed in only 1.2% of patients. Treatment gains were maintained during follow-up (M = 280 days, n = 220). Few of the selection criteria used in some RCTs, demographic, diagnostic and trauma characteristics moderated treatment outcome, and only social problems and needing treatment for multiple traumas showed unique moderation effects. There were no random effects of therapist on symptom improvement, but therapists who were inexperienced in CT-PTSD had more dropouts than those with greater experience. Conclusions The results support the effectiveness of CT-PTSD and suggest that trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy can be successfully implemented in routine clinical services

  13. Clinical Instruction for Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Greg; Sexton, Patrick; Guyer, M. Susan; Willeford, K. Sean; Levy, Linda S.; Barnum, Mary G.; Fincher, A. Louise

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present the principles of adult learning and mentoring to help clinical instructors better educate athletic training students (ATSs) during their clinical experiences, with the end result being a better prepared, competent entry-level practitioner. Background: The principles of adult learning must be applied to ATS clinical education…

  14. Practice nurse involvement in general practice clinical care: policy and funding issues need resolution.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Hossein Haji Ali; Karnon, Jonathan; Beilby, Justin; Gray, Jodi; Holton, Christine; Banham, David

    2014-06-01

    In Australia, primary care-based funding initiatives have been implemented to encourage general practices to employ practice nurses. The aim of this paper is to discuss limitations of the current funding and policy arrangements in enhancing the clinical role of practice nurses in the management of chronic conditions. This paper draws on the results of a real-world economic evaluation, the Primary Care Services Improvement Project (PCSIP). The PCSIP linked routinely collected clinical and resource use data to undertake a risk-adjusted cost-effectiveness analysis of increased practice nurse involvement in clinical-based activities for the management of diabetes and obesity. The findings of the PCSIP suggested that the active involvement of practice nurses in collaborative clinical-based activities is cost-effective, as well as addressing general practice workforce issues. Although primary healthcare organisations (e.g. Medicare Locals) can play a key role in supporting enhanced practice nurse roles, improvements to practice nurse funding models could further encourage more efficient use of an important resource. PMID:24870661

  15. The Quality of Clinical Maternal and Neonatal Healthcare – A Strategy for Identifying ‘Routine Care Signal Functions’

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Stephan; De Allegri, Manuela; Gabrysch, Sabine; Chinkhumba, Jobiba; Sarker, Malabika; Muula, Adamson S.

    2015-01-01

    Background A variety of clinical process indicators exists to measure the quality of care provided by maternal and neonatal health (MNH) programs. To allow comparison across MNH programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a core set of essential process indicators is needed. Although such a core set is available for emergency obstetric care (EmOC), the ‘EmOC signal functions’, a similar approach is currently missing for MNH routine care evaluation. We describe a strategy for identifying core process indicators for routine care and illustrate their usefulness in a field example. Methods We first developed an indicator selection strategy by combining epidemiological and programmatic aspects relevant to MNH in LMICs. We then identified routine care process indicators meeting our selection criteria by reviewing existing quality of care assessment protocols. We grouped these indicators into three categories based on their main function in addressing risk factors of maternal or neonatal complications. We then tested this indicator set in a study assessing MNH quality of clinical care in 33 health facilities in Malawi. Results Our strategy identified 51 routine care processes: 23 related to initial patient risk assessment, 17 to risk monitoring, 11 to risk prevention. During the clinical performance assessment a total of 82 cases were observed. Birth attendants’ adherence to clinical standards was lowest in relation to risk monitoring processes. In relation to major complications, routine care processes addressing fetal and newborn distress were performed relatively consistently, but there were major gaps in the performance of routine care processes addressing bleeding, infection, and pre-eclampsia risks. Conclusion The identified set of process indicators could identify major gaps in the quality of obstetric and neonatal care provided during the intra- and immediate postpartum period. We hope our suggested indicators for essential routine care processes

  16. Procedures for Using Clinical Practice Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Patricia; Griffer, Mona; Lund, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides information about clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to facilitate their application to the practice of speech-language pathology. CPGs are sets of recommendations based on evidence, including expert clinical opinion, that have been developed by a panel of reviewers. In this article, CPGs are defined and their…

  17. Tissue spectrophotometry and thermographic imaging applied to routine clinical prediction of amputation level viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Jon M.; Harrison, David K.; Hawthorn, Ian E.

    2002-06-01

    About 5% of British males over 50 years develop peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Of these about 2% ultimately require lower limb amputation. In 1995 we proposed a new technique using lightguide spectrophotometry to measure the oxygen saturation level of haemoglobin (SO2) in the skin as a method for predicting tissue viability. This technique, in combination with thermographic imaging, was compared with skin blood flow measurements using the I125)4- Iodoantipyrine (IAP) clearance technique. The optical techniques gave a sensitivity and selectivity of 1.0 for the prediction of successful outcome of a below knee amputation compared with a specificity of 93% using the traditional IAP technique at a below knee to above knee amputation ratio (BKA:AKA) of 75%. The present study assesses the routine clinical application of these optical techniques. The study is ongoing, but the data to date comprises 22 patients. 4 patients were recommended for above knee amputation (AKA) and 18 patients for below knee amputation on the basis of thermographic and tissue SO2 measurements. All but one of the predicted BKA amputations healed. The study to date produces evidence of 94% healing rate (specificity) for a BKA:AKA ratio of 82%. This compares favorably with the previous figures given above.

  18. Prospective evaluation of the VITEK MS for the routine identification of bacteria and yeast in the clinical microbiology laboratory: assessment of accuracy of identification and turnaround time.

    PubMed

    Charnot-Katsikas, Angella; Tesic, Vera; Boonlayangoor, Sue; Bethel, Cindy; Frank, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of bacterial and yeast identification using the VITEK MS, and the time to reporting of isolates before and after its implementation in routine clinical practice. Three hundred and sixty-two isolates of bacteria and yeast, consisting of a variety of clinical isolates and American Type Culture Collection strains, were tested. Results were compared with reference identifications from the VITEK 2 system and with 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The VITEK MS provided an acceptable identification to species level for 283 (78 %) isolates. Considering organisms for which genus-level identification is acceptable for routine clinical care, 315 isolates (87 %) had an acceptable identification. Six isolates (2 %) were identified incorrectly, five of which were Shigella species. Finally, the time for reporting the identifications was decreased significantly after implementation of the VITEK MS for a total mean reduction in time of 10.52 h (P<0.0001). Overall, accuracy of the VITEK MS was comparable or superior to that from the VITEK 2. The findings were also comparable to other studies examining the accuracy of the VITEK MS, although differences exist, depending on the diversity of species represented as well as on the versions of the databases used. The VITEK MS can be incorporated effectively into routine use in a clinical microbiology laboratory and future expansion of the database should provide improved accuracy for the identification of micro-organisms.

  19. Routine chest radiographs in the surgical intensive care unit: can we change clinical habits with no proven benefit?

    PubMed

    Velicković, Jelena V; Hajdarević, Sanela A; Palibrk, Ivan G; Janić, Natasa R; Djukanović, Marija; Miljković, Bojana; Velicković, Dejan M; Bumbasirević, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Daily routine chest radiographs (CR) are commonly performed in surgical ICU. Unnecessary CR increase costs and expose the staff and the patients to radiation risk. The goal of our study was to estimate the value of daily routine CR in the ICU and to determine the correlation between CR and physical findings in surgical ICU patients. Prospective observational study was conducted during period of two months at the ICU department at the Clinic for Digestive Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade. It included 97 consecutive patients who underwent digestive surgery and stayed at the ICU for at least two days. During their ICU stay, CRs were obtained as a clinical routine or to monitor lung pathology. Patients were followed daily, and CRs (as the proportion of positive findings) were compared with physical examination and clinical presentation. A total of 717 CRs were obtained, median number per patient was 4.0 (2.0-7.0). Proportion of positive findings was significantly higher comparing to auscultation until the sixth day of ICU stay. There was no difference in CR findings from day to day after the sixth day. Therapeutic efficacy of CRs was low as only 56 (7.8%) resulted in a change of patient management. We conclude that daily routine CRs are justified in the first six days of ICU stay, and after that time they show no advantages over clinical examination. PMID:24669579

  20. Step 6: Does Not Routinely Employ Practices, Procedures Unsupported by Scientific Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Goer, Henci; Sagady Leslie, Mayri; Romano, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Step 6 of the Ten Steps of Mother-Friendly Care addresses two issues: 1) the routine use of interventions (shaving, enemas, intravenous drips, withholding food and fluids, early rupture of membranes, and continuous electronic fetal monitoring; and 2) the optimal rates of induction, episiotomy, cesareans, and vaginal births after cesarean. Rationales for compliance and systematic reviews are presented. PMID:18523680

  1. Promoting Early Literacy via Practicing Invented Spelling: A Comparison of Different Mediation Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Iris; Aram, Dorit

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of different mediation routines provided to kindergartners from families of low socioeconomic status on the students' invented spelling attempts and on their gains obtained on spelling and other early literacy skills (letter naming, sounds of letters, word segmentation, and word decoding). The effects of…

  2. Reliability of routine clinical measurements of neonatal circumferences and research measurements of neonatal skinfold thicknesses: findings from the Born in Bradford study.

    PubMed

    West, Jane; Manchester, Ben; Wright, John; Lawlor, Debbie A; Waiblinger, Dagmar

    2011-03-01

    Assessing neonatal size reliably is important for research and clinical practice. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of routine clinical measurements of neonatal circumferences and of skinfold thicknesses assessed for research purposes. All measurements were undertaken on the same population of neonates born in a large maternity unit in Bradford, UK. Technical error of measurement (TEM), relative TEM and the coefficient of reliability are reported. Intra-observer TEMs for routine circumference measurements were all below 0.4 cm and were generally within ± 2-times the mean. Inter-observer TEM ranged from 0.20 to 0.36 cm for head circumference, 0.19 to 0.39 cm for mid upper arm circumference and from 0.39 to 0.77 cm for abdominal circumference. Intra and inter-observer TEM for triceps skinfold thickness ranged from 0.22 to 0.35 mm and 0.15 to 0.54 mm, respectively. Subscapular skinfold thickness TEM values were 0.14 to 0.25 mm for intra-observer measurements and 0.17 to 0.63 mm for inter-observer measurements. Relative TEM values for routine circumferences were all below 4.00% but varied between 2.88% and 14.23% for research skinfold measurements. Reliability was mostly between 80% and 99% for routine circumference measurements and ≥ 70% for most research skinfold measurements. Routine clinical measurements of neonatal circumferences are reliably assessed in Bradford. Assessing skinfolds in neonates has variable reliability, but on the whole is good. The greater intra-observer, compared with inter-observer, reliability for both sets of measurements highlights the importance of having a minimal number of assessors whenever possible.

  3. Image-based Biomarkers in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bayouth, John E.; Casavant, Thomas L.; Graham, Michael M.; Sonka, Milan; Muruganandham, Manickam; Buatti, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of functional and metabolically informative imaging is eclipsing anatomic imaging alone, in clinical practice. The recognition that MR and PET-based treatment planning and response assessment are essential components of clinical practice and furthermore offer the potential of quantitative analysis is important. To extract the greatest benefit from these imaging techniques will require refining the best combinations of multimodality imaging through well designed clinical trials that employ robust image-analysis tools and require substantial computer based infrastructure. Through these changes and enhancements, image-based biomarkers will enhance clinical decision making and accelerate the progress that is made through clinical trial research. PMID:21356483

  4. Performance Evaluation of an Automated ELISA System for Alzheimer's Disease Detection in Clinical Routine.

    PubMed

    Chiasserini, Davide; Biscetti, Leonardo; Farotti, Lucia; Eusebi, Paolo; Salvadori, Nicola; Lisetti, Viviana; Baschieri, Francesca; Chipi, Elena; Frattini, Giulia; Stoops, Erik; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Calabresi, Paolo; Parnetti, Lucilla

    2016-07-22

    The variability of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers undermines their full-fledged introduction into routine diagnostics and clinical trials. Automation may help to increase precision and decrease operator errors, eventually improving the diagnostic performance. Here we evaluated three new CSF immunoassays, EUROIMMUNtrademark amyloid-β 1-40 (Aβ1-40), amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ1-42), and total tau (t-tau), in combination with automated analysis of the samples. The CSF biomarkers were measured in a cohort consisting of AD patients (n = 28), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 77), and neurological controls (OND, n = 35). MCI patients were evaluated yearly and cognitive functions were assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination. The patients clinically diagnosed with AD and MCI were classified according to the CSF biomarkers profile following NIA-AA criteria and the Erlangen score. Technical evaluation of the immunoassays was performed together with the calculation of their diagnostic performance. Furthermore, the results for EUROIMMUN Aβ1-42 and t-tau were compared to standard immunoassay methods (INNOTESTtrademark). EUROIMMUN assays for Aβ1-42 and t-tau correlated with INNOTEST (r = 0.83, p < 0.001 for both) and allowed a similar interpretation of the CSF profiles. The Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratio measured with EUROIMMUN was the best parameter for AD detection and improved the diagnostic accuracy of Aβ1-42 (area under the curve = 0.93). In MCI patients, the Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratio was associated with cognitive decline and clinical progression to AD.The diagnostic performance of the EUROIMMUN assays with automation is comparable to other currently used methods. The variability of the method and the value of the Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratio in AD diagnosis need to be validated in large multi-center studies. PMID:27447425

  5. When Choosing Wisely meets clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Strech, Daniel; Follmann, Markus; Klemperer, David; Lelgemann, Monika; Ollenschläger, Günter; Raspe, Heiner; Nothacker, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation launched the Choosing Wisely campaign in 2012 and until today convinced more than 50 US specialist societies to develop lists of interventions that may not improve people's health but are potentially harmful. We suggest combining these new efforts with the already existing efforts in clinical practice guideline development. Existing clinical practice guidelines facilitate a more participatory and evidence-based approach to the development of top 5 lists. In return, adding top 5 lists (for overuse and underuse) to existing clinical practice guidelines nicely addresses a neglected dimension to clinical practice guideline development, namely explicit information on which Do or Don't do recommendations are frequently disregarded in practice. PMID:25499114

  6. When Choosing Wisely meets clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Strech, Daniel; Follmann, Markus; Klemperer, David; Lelgemann, Monika; Ollenschläger, Günter; Raspe, Heiner; Nothacker, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation launched the Choosing Wisely campaign in 2012 and until today convinced more than 50 US specialist societies to develop lists of interventions that may not improve people's health but are potentially harmful. We suggest combining these new efforts with the already existing efforts in clinical practice guideline development. Existing clinical practice guidelines facilitate a more participatory and evidence-based approach to the development of top 5 lists. In return, adding top 5 lists (for overuse and underuse) to existing clinical practice guidelines nicely addresses a neglected dimension to clinical practice guideline development, namely explicit information on which Do or Don't do recommendations are frequently disregarded in practice.

  7. Fission reactor based epithermal neutron irradiation facilities for routine clinical application in BNCT--Hatanaka memorial lecture.

    PubMed

    Harling, Otto K

    2009-07-01

    Based on experience gained in the recent clinical studies at MIT/Harvard, the desirable characteristics of epithermal neutron irradiation facilities for eventual routine clinical BNCT are suggested. A discussion of two approaches to using fission reactors for epithermal neutron BNCT is provided. This is followed by specific suggestions for the performance and features needed for high throughput clinical BNCT. An example of a current state-of-the-art, reactor based facility, suited for routine clinical use is discussed. Some comments are provided on the current status of reactor versus accelerator based epithermal neutron sources for BNCT. This paper concludes with a summary and a few personal observations on BNCT by the author.

  8. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of a Short Onset REM Period (SOREMP) during Routine PSG

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Alyssa; Bogan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    (PSG) short onset REM peroid (SOREMP) for the diagnosis of narcolepsy may be altered by a history of shift/night work and/ or other factors that may allow for a rebound of REM sleep (e.g., undergoing a positive airway pressure titration), supporting published guidelines that other sleep disorders and insufficient and/or poorly timed sleep should be ruled out and/or adequately controlled for prior to conducting sleep testing. Further research is needed to understand racial differences in PSG SOREMP and narcolepsy. This study was limited in that data on cataplexy (with exception to that in final diagnosis) and habitual sleep duration were not available. Citation: Cairns A, Bogan R. Prevalence and clinical correlates of a short onset REM period (SOREMP) during routine PSG. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1575–1581. PMID:26039966

  9. Impact of routine bedside infectious disease consultation on clinical management and outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Saunderson, R.B.; Gouliouris, T.; Nickerson, E.K.; Cartwright, E.J.P.; Kidney, A.; Aliyu, S.H.; Brown, N.M.; Limmathurotsakul, D.; Peacock, S.J.; Török, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is a common, serious infection that is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Evidence suggests that infectious disease consultation (IDC) improves clinical management in patients with SAB. We examined whether the introduction of a routine bedside IDC service for adults with SAB improved clinical management and outcomes compared to telephone consultation. We conducted an observational cohort study of 571 adults with SAB at a teaching hospital in the United Kingdom between July 2006 and December 2012. A telephone consultation was provided on the day of positive blood culture in all cases, but an additional bedside IDC was provided after November 2009 (routine IDC group). Compared to patients in the pre-IDC group, those in the routine IDC group were more likely to have a removable focus of infection identified, echocardiography performed and follow-up blood cultures performed. They also received longer courses of antimicrobial therapy, were more likely to receive combination antimicrobial therapy and were more likely to have SAB recorded in the hospital discharge summary. There was a trend towards lower mortality at 30 days in the routine IDC group compared to the pre-IDC group (12% vs. 22%, p 0.07). Our findings suggest that routine bedside IDC should become the standard of care for adults with SAB. PMID:26033668

  10. Leading Horses to Water: Lessons from a Decade of Helping Psychological Therapy Services Use Routine Outcome Measurement to Improve Practice.

    PubMed

    Mellor-Clark, John; Cross, Simone; Macdonald, James; Skjulsvik, Tommy

    2016-05-01

    We summarise the recent reflections of five thought leaders in the field of routine outcome measurement (ROM) for psychological therapy, and then add our own experience of introducing a national ROM system in the UK. We highlight, in particular, the post-implementation challenge of securing data of sufficient reliability to help inform service quality improvements. We ground our conclusions and recommendations in the rapidly evolving discipline of implementation science, and offer a best practice model for applying research recommendations in practice settings. In this context we portray ROM implementation as significant organizational change that benefits from rigorous process and clearly defined, well-communicated targets. PMID:25179755

  11. Family practice clinics. Survey of family practice residents' attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, H.; Levitt, C.

    1993-01-01

    All residents of McGill University's Department of Family Medicine were surveyed by mail about their family practice clinic experience. Residents were generally satisfied with their training site and their supervision, but noted problems with volume and diversity of patients, learning certain procedures, and knowledge of community resources. They did not want more family medicine clinic time. PMID:8219838

  12. Routine HIV Testing in Botswana: A Population-Based Study on Attitudes, Practices, and Human Rights Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Sheri D; Heisler, Michele; Leiter, Karen; Percy-de Korte, Fiona; Tlou, Sheila; DeMonner, Sonya; Phaladze, Nthabiseng; Bangsberg, David R; Iacopino, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Background The Botswana government recently implemented a policy of routine or “opt-out” HIV testing in response to the high prevalence of HIV infection, estimated at 37% of adults. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward routine testing, correlates of HIV testing, and barriers and facilitators to testing, 11 months after the introduction of this policy. Most participants (81%) reported being extremely or very much in favor of routine testing. The majority believed that this policy would decrease barriers to testing (89%), HIV-related stigma (60%), and violence toward women (55%), and would increase access to antiretroviral treatment (93%). At the same time, 43% of participants believed that routine testing would lead people to avoid going to the doctor for fear of testing, and 14% believed that this policy could increase gender-based violence related to testing. The prevalence of self-reported HIV testing was 48%. Adjusted correlates of testing included female gender (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1–1.9), higher education (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5–2.7), more frequent healthcare visits (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3–2.7), perceived access to HIV testing (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1–2.5), and inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2–2.1). Individuals with stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV and AIDS were less likely to have been tested for HIV/AIDS (AOR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5–0.9) or to have heard of routine testing (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.45–0.76). While experiences with voluntary and routine testing overall were positive, 68% felt that they could not refuse the HIV test. Key barriers to testing included fear of learning one's status (49%), lack of perceived HIV risk (43%), and fear of having to change sexual practices with a positive HIV test (33%). Conclusions Routine testing appears to be widely supported and may

  13. Routine primary care management of acute low back pain: adherence to clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    González-Urzelai, Violeta; Palacio-Elua, Loreto; López-de-Munain, Josefina

    2003-12-01

    One of the major challenges for general practitioners is to manage individuals with acute low back pain appropriately to reduce the risk of chronicity. A prospective study was designed to assess the actual management of acute low back pain in one primary care setting and to determine whether existing practice patterns conform to published guidelines. Twenty-four family physicians from public primary care centers of the Basque Health Service in Bizkaia, Basque Country (Spain), participated in the study. A total of 105 patients aged 18-65 years presenting with acute low back pain over a 6-month period were included. Immediately after consultation, a research assistant performed a structured clinical interview. The patients' care provided by the general practitioner was compared with the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) guidelines and guidelines issued by the Royal College of General Practitioners. The diagnostic process showed a low rate of appropriate use of history (27%), physical examination (32%), lumbar radiographs (31%), and referral to specialized care (33%). Although the therapeutic process showed a relatively high rate of appropriateness in earlier mobilization (77%) and educational advice (65%), only 23% of patients were taught about the benign course of back pain. The study revealed that management of acute low back pain in the primary care setting is far from being in conformance with published clinical guidelines. PMID:14605973

  14. Clinical and administrative review in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Stott, N. C. H.; Davis, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Clinical and administrative review in primary medical care can be an enjoyable and creative part of group-practice life. A series of such reviews are described which improve internal or external communication for the primary care team. PMID:1223278

  15. Clinical practice guidelines in hypertension: a review.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Vargas, Mayita Lizbeth; Galvez-Olortegui, José Kelvin; Galvez-Olortegui, Tomas Vladimir; Sosa-Rosado, José Manuel; Camacho-Saavedra, Luis Arturo

    2015-10-23

    The aim of this study is the methodological evaluation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in hypertension. This is the first in a series of review articles, analysis, assessment in methodology and content of clinical practice guidelines in Cardiology. Of all clinical practice guidelines, three were selected and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument was used to assess each guide. The guidelines obtained the lowest score in the domain of applicability (mean 43.8%); while the highest score was for clarity of presentation (mean 81.5%). The lowest percentage was found in the applicability domain (European guideline) and the highest of all scores was found in two domains: scope and purpose, and clarity of presentation (Canadian guideline). Assessing the quality of the clinical practice guidelines analyzed, the Canadian is one with the best scores obtained by applying the AGREE II instrument, and it is advised to be used without modifications.

  16. Genetics of Epilepsy in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Genetics should now be part of everyday clinical epilepsy practice. Good data exist to provide empiric risks based on epilepsy syndrome diagnosis. Investigation of the molecular basis of some epilepsies is now a practical clinical task and is of clear value to the patient and family. In some cases, specific therapeutic decisions can now be made based on genetic findings, and this scenario of precision therapy is likely to increase in the coming years. PMID:26316866

  17. Botulinum toxin in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Jankovic, J

    2004-01-01

    Botulinum toxin, the most potent biological toxin, has become a powerful therapeutic tool for a growing number of clinical applications. This review draws attention to new findings about the mechanism of action of botulinum toxin and briefly reviews some of its most frequent uses, focusing on evidence based data. Double blind, placebo controlled studies, as well as open label clinical trials, provide evidence that, when appropriate targets and doses are selected, botulinum toxin temporarily ameliorates disorders associated with excessive muscle contraction or autonomic dysfunction. When injected not more often than every three months, the risk of blocking antibodies is slight. Long term experience with this agent suggests that it is an effective and safe treatment not only for approved indications but also for an increasing number of off-label indications. PMID:15201348

  18. Loop Diuretics in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se Won; Han, Sang Youb

    2015-06-01

    Diuretics are commonly used to control edema across various clinical fields. Diuretics inhibit sodium reabsorption in specific renal tubules, resulting in increased urinary sodium and water excretion. Loop diuretics are the most potent diuretics. In this article, we review five important aspects of loop diuretics, in particular furosemide, which must be considered when prescribing this medicine: (1) oral versus intravenous treatment, (2) dosage, (3) continuous versus bolus infusion, (4) application in chronic kidney disease patients, and (5) side effects. The bioavailability of furosemide differs between oral and intravenous therapy. Additionally, the threshold and ceiling doses of furosemide differ according to the particular clinical condition of the patient, for example in patients with severe edema or chronic kidney disease. To maximize the efficiency of furosemide, a clear understanding of how the mode of delivery will impact bioavailability and the required dosage is necessary.

  19. Loop Diuretics in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se Won

    2015-01-01

    Diuretics are commonly used to control edema across various clinical fields. Diuretics inhibit sodium reabsorption in specific renal tubules, resulting in increased urinary sodium and water excretion. Loop diuretics are the most potent diuretics. In this article, we review five important aspects of loop diuretics, in particular furosemide, which must be considered when prescribing this medicine: (1) oral versus intravenous treatment, (2) dosage, (3) continuous versus bolus infusion, (4) application in chronic kidney disease patients, and (5) side effects. The bioavailability of furosemide differs between oral and intravenous therapy. Additionally, the threshold and ceiling doses of furosemide differ according to the particular clinical condition of the patient, for example in patients with severe edema or chronic kidney disease. To maximize the efficiency of furosemide, a clear understanding of how the mode of delivery will impact bioavailability and the required dosage is necessary. PMID:26240596

  20. Empirical Clinical Practice from a Feminist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanoff, Andre; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews criticism of empirical clinical practice which uses gender differences and conflict between quantitative and qualitative research methodologies to describe rift between practitioners and researchers. Offers alternative view emphasizing view's congruence with ethics of good practice and feminist perspectives. Addresses criticism of use of…

  1. When Will I Be Special? Rethinking Developmentally Appropriate Practice in a Classroom Routine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dora.; Battin-Sacks, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    When the parents of a preschooler at a university lab school questioned the classroom practice of Leader of the Day, with its "special privileges," it gave two teachers pause to think. They share their reflections about the purpose of the practice; what it means to the children; and what the children learn from it. Following guidelines from the…

  2. Implementation and spread of interventions into the multilevel context of routine practice and policy: implications for the cancer care continuum.

    PubMed

    Yano, Elizabeth M; Green, Lawrence W; Glanz, Karen; Ayanian, John Z; Mittman, Brian S; Chollette, Veronica; Rubenstein, Lisa V

    2012-05-01

    The promise of widespread implementation of efficacious interventions across the cancer continuum into routine practice and policy has yet to be realized. Multilevel influences, such as communities and families surrounding patients or health-care policies and organizations surrounding provider teams, may determine whether effective interventions are successfully implemented. Greater recognition of the importance of these influences in advancing (or hindering) the impact of single-level interventions has motivated the design and testing of multilevel interventions designed to address them. However, implementing research evidence from single- or multilevel interventions into sustainable routine practice and policy presents substantive challenges. Furthermore, relatively few multilevel interventions have been conducted along the cancer care continuum, and fewer still have been implemented, disseminated, or sustained in practice. The purpose of this chapter is, therefore, to illustrate and examine the concepts underlying the implementation and spread of multilevel interventions into routine practice and policy. We accomplish this goal by using a series of cancer and noncancer examples that have been successfully implemented and, in some cases, spread widely. Key concepts across these examples include the importance of phased implementation, recognizing the need for pilot testing, explicit engagement of key stakeholders within and between each intervention level; visible and consistent leadership and organizational support, including financial and human resources; better understanding of the policy context, fiscal climate, and incentives underlying implementation; explication of handoffs from researchers to accountable individuals within and across levels; ample integration of multilevel theories guiding implementation and evaluation; and strategies for long-term monitoring and sustainability. PMID:22623601

  3. The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in Norwegian clinical and non-clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) is a 34-item instrument developed to monitor clinically significant change in out-patients. The CORE-OM covers four domains: well-being, problems/symptoms, functioning and risk, and sums up in two total scores: the mean of All items, and the mean of All non-risk items. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translation of the CORE-OM. Methods A clinical sample of 527 out-patients from North Norwegian specialist psychiatric services, and a non-clinical sample of 464 persons were obtained. The non-clinical sample was a convenience sample consisting of friends and family of health personnel, and of students of medicine and clinical psychology. Students also reported psychological stress. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was employed in half the clinical sample. Confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses modelling the theoretical sub-domains were performed in the remaining half of the clinical sample. Internal consistency, means, and gender and age differences were studied by comparing the clinical and non-clinical samples. Stability, effect of language (Norwegian versus English), and of psychological stress was studied in the sub-sample of students. Finally, cut-off scores were calculated, and distributions of scores were compared between clinical and non-clinical samples, and between students reporting stress or no stress. Results The results indicate that the CORE-OM both measures general (g) psychological distress and sub-domains, of which risk of harm separates most clearly from the g factor. Internal consistency, stability and cut-off scores compared well with the original English version. No, or only negligible, language effects were found. Gender differences were only found for the well-being domain in the non-clinical sample and for the risk domain in the clinical sample. Current patient status explained differences between clinical and non-clinical

  4. Thymomas: Review of Current Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszek, Sandra; Wigle, Dennis A.; Keshavjee, Shaf; Fischer, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Thymomas are the most common tumors of the mediastinum. The introduction of multimodality treatment strategies, as well as novel approaches to the diagnosis of these tumors, has led to changes in the clinical management of thymomas. Here we review the literature for current clinical practice in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of thymomas. PMID:19463649

  5. [Genomic Tests: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice].

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Kaname; Mochiki, Ikuyo

    2015-03-01

    Advanced genomic analytical technologies are developing and challenging the current framework of clinical laboratory testing. However, most genomic tests have been devised as laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) without sufficient validation of their analytical validity. Quality assurance (QA) of tests is mandatory for routine clinical practice. External quality management systems such as ISO add QA. Other than QAs of pre-analysis, analytical procedures, reports, and laboratory personnel should be regularly assessed using appropriate best practices and guidelines for analytical validity. Moreover, ethical, legal, and social issues concerning genomic information should be resolved in genomic tests. Taken together, clinicians and health care policymakers must consider the accuracy with which a test identifies a patient's clinical status and the risks and benefits resulting from test use. Genomic tests in current use vary in terms of their accuracy and potential to improve health outcomes. Recently, high-throughput analysis using next-generation sequencing and microarrays is being developed and introduced into clinical practice. As analysis of these data sets is a huge challenge, it requires novel analytical processes that include data quality assessment, comprehensive analysis, interpretation of the results, and presenting the results to users. Especially, human resources are required to develop genome informatics to interpret large amounts of data. Another issue is to regulate Direct To Consumers (DTC) genetic tests by medical institutions as a salutary health service. Although advanced genomic analytical technologies present some issues, they are useful and powerful tools in clinical practice. Thus, they will be properly introduced into clinical practices in a step by step manner. PMID:26524861

  6. [Genomic Tests: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice].

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Kaname; Mochiki, Ikuyo

    2015-03-01

    Advanced genomic analytical technologies are developing and challenging the current framework of clinical laboratory testing. However, most genomic tests have been devised as laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) without sufficient validation of their analytical validity. Quality assurance (QA) of tests is mandatory for routine clinical practice. External quality management systems such as ISO add QA. Other than QAs of pre-analysis, analytical procedures, reports, and laboratory personnel should be regularly assessed using appropriate best practices and guidelines for analytical validity. Moreover, ethical, legal, and social issues concerning genomic information should be resolved in genomic tests. Taken together, clinicians and health care policymakers must consider the accuracy with which a test identifies a patient's clinical status and the risks and benefits resulting from test use. Genomic tests in current use vary in terms of their accuracy and potential to improve health outcomes. Recently, high-throughput analysis using next-generation sequencing and microarrays is being developed and introduced into clinical practice. As analysis of these data sets is a huge challenge, it requires novel analytical processes that include data quality assessment, comprehensive analysis, interpretation of the results, and presenting the results to users. Especially, human resources are required to develop genome informatics to interpret large amounts of data. Another issue is to regulate Direct To Consumers (DTC) genetic tests by medical institutions as a salutary health service. Although advanced genomic analytical technologies present some issues, they are useful and powerful tools in clinical practice. Thus, they will be properly introduced into clinical practices in a step by step manner.

  7. The Clinical Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Routine, Voluntary HIV Screening in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Walensky, Rochelle P.; Wood, Robin; Fofana, Mariam O.; Martinson, Neil A.; Losina, Elena; April, Michael D.; Bassett, Ingrid V.; Morris, Bethany L.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Paltiel, A. David

    2010-01-01

    Background Although 900,000 HIV-infected South Africans receive antiretroviral therapy (ART), the majority of South Africans with HIV remain undiagnosed. Methods We use a published simulation model of HIV case detection and treatment to examine three HIV screening scenarios, in addition to current practice: 1) one-time; 2) every five years; and 3) annually. South African model input data include: 16.9% HIV prevalence, 1.3% annual incidence, 49% test acceptance rate, HIV testing costs of $6.49/patient, and a 47% linkage-to-care rate (including two sequential ART regimens) for identified cases. Outcomes include life expectancy, direct medical costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness. Results HIV screening one-time, every five years, and annually increase HIV-infected quality-adjusted life expectancy (mean age 33 years) from 180.6 months (current practice) to 184.9, 187.6 and 197.2 months. The incremental cost-effectiveness of one-time screening is dominated by screening every five years. Screening every five years and annually each have incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $1,570/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and $1,720/QALY. Screening annually is very cost-effective even in settings with the lowest incidence/prevalence, with test acceptance and linkage rates both as low as 20%, or when accounting for a stigma impact at least four-fold that of the base case. Conclusions In South Africa, annual voluntary HIV screening offers substantial clinical benefit and is very cost-effective, even with highly constrained access to care and treatment. PMID:21068674

  8. A framework for advanced clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukvinder; Radford, Mark; Arblaster, Gillian

    The NHS needs a skilled, knowledgeable workforce of advanced clinical practitioners, who require multidisciplinary approach to their postgraduate development. To meet these demands we set up a regional programme to help clinical practitioners move into these new and demanding roles. As a result, health professionals who want to progress their career and advance their practice have an opportunity in the West Midlands to qualify as advanced clinical practitioners. PMID:27328598

  9. Clinical digital photography: implementation of clinical photography for everyday practice.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Robert; Moore, Kenneth

    2009-03-01

    Clinical photography requires a regimented system of image acquisition similar to the regimentation needed for dental radiographs. Clinical digital photographic equipment is rapidly advancing. To achieve the best image quality and resolution, digital single-lens reflex systems are necessary. DSLR clinical systems are made of three components: camera body, macro lens, and flash attachment. Other ancillary equipment is necessary to achieve appropriate clinical image reveals and composition. Recommendations are given to assist in the implementation of clinical photography in the dental practice. PMID:19830983

  10. Follow up policy after treatment for Hodgkin's disease: too many clinic visits and routine tests? A review of hospital records.

    PubMed Central

    Radford, J. A.; Eardley, A.; Woodman, C.; Crowther, D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of routine clinic review in detecting relapse after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. DESIGN: Review of hospital records. SETTING: Regional centre for cancer treatment and research. SUBJECTS: 210 patients with Hodgkin's disease recruited to a chemotherapy trial protocol between 1984 and the end of 1990 who had achieved a complete or partial remission after treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of clinic visits made by patients over the period of observation, the number of relapses occurring during that time, and the route by which relapse was detected. RESULTS: The 210 patients generated 2512 outpatient reviews, and 37 relapses were detected. Thirty relapses (81%) were diagnosed in patients who described symptoms, which in 15 cases had resulted in an earlier appointment being arranged. In only four cases (11%; 95% confidence interval 4% to 25%) was relapse detected as a result of routine physical examination on investigation of a patient who did not have symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Relapse of Hodgkin's disease after treatment is usually detected as a result of the investigation of symptoms rather than by routine screening of asymptomatic patients. It is therefore proposed that the frequency of routine follow up visits should be reduced and greater emphasis placed on patient education. This should underline the importance of symptoms and encourage patients to arrange an earlier appointment if these develop. PMID:9040326

  11. Mayo Clinic Jacksonville electronic radiology practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Richard L.; Berquist, Thomas H.; Rueger, Wolfgang

    1996-05-01

    We have begun a project to implement an Electronic (Filmless) Radiology Practice (ERP) at Mayo Clinic Jacksonville. This project is integrated with the implementation of a project (Automated Clinical Practice--ACP) to eliminate circulation and archival of the current paper Medical Record. The ERP will result in elimination of screen/film radiography and the transmittal of film throughout the institution by the end of 1996. In conjunction with the ACP, paper and film will not circulate within the clinic by the end of this year.

  12. Highly Sensitive PCR Assay for Routine Diagnosis of African Swine Fever Virus in Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Agüero, M.; Fernández, J.; Romero, L.; Sánchez Mascaraque, C.; Arias, M.; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    This work provides a novel, highly sensitive, hot start PCR method for rapid and specific detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) that can be used as a routine diagnostic test for ASFV in surveillance, control, and eradication programs. A confirmatory test of the specificity of this method based on restriction endonuclease analysis was also developed. PMID:12958285

  13. Peer review practicalities in clinical medicine

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Matthew J; Farrant, MAL; Farrant, JM

    2010-01-01

    Peer review processes in teaching requires a reviewer to observe a teacher’s practice in a planned manner. Conversation between the two enables the teacher to reflect on their own teaching, promoting self-improvement. Although a central part of the teaching process, and despite its crucial role in continuing professional development, peer review is not widely practiced in hospital settings. This article explains the process and its benefits. Practical implementations of the process in busy clinical settings are suggested. Its evaluation and incorporation into undergraduate learning and postgraduate clinical practice are described. With enthusiastic support for colleagues and allowances for its implementation, it should become part of the regular teaching practice, improving the quality of teaching delivered. PMID:23745062

  14. An investigation of general predictors for cognitive–behavioural therapy outcome for anxiety disorders in a routine clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Vangkilde, Signe; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B; Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective for treating anxiety disorders and is offered in most mental health services around the world. However, a relatively large number of patients with anxiety disorders do not benefit from CBT, experience relapses or drop out. Reliable predictors of treatment effects are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of emotion regulation and attentional control for CBT outcome in a routine setting. Methods and analysis In this prospective and practice-based study, 112 patients with anxiety disorders referred for manual-based group CBT at two psychiatric outpatient clinics will be recruited. Emotion regulation, severity of anxiety and attentional control will be assessed with self-report measures and with an experimental computer-based attentional control task at baseline, post-treatment and at a 6-month follow-up. Emotion regulation will be measured with Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, severity of anxiety will be assessed with Beck Anxiety Inventory and attentional control will be measured with the self-report questionnaire, Attention Control Scale, and with an experimental computer-based attentional control task based on theory of visual attention. Data will be analysed using multilevel mixed-effects modelling. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Danish National Ethical Board, the Department of Psychology Ethical Board, University of Copenhagen and by the Danish Data Protection Agency. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal publications and conference presentations. The Danish Committee System on Health Research Ethics has been notified about the project. Trial registration number NCT02638363. PMID:27016248

  15. Hemodialysis safety: Evaluation of clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Fadili, Wafaa; Adnouni, Adil; Laouad, Inass

    2016-05-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) safety has become a clinical priority; therefore, the use of checklists for making the dialysis session safe is now widely adopted. The aim of our study was to assess different shortcomings in the clinical practice of nurses working in different Moroccan dialysis centers and to discuss the interest of using such checklists. This cross-sectional study was performed in 13 chronic HD centers. Clinical practice of nurses was evaluated through checklists used in European outpatient dialysis units. We noted several deficiencies mainly related to the clinical evaluation of dialysis patients and to aspects related to hygiene and protection measures against contamination. Optimal safety of dialysis sessions requires the use of simple and reproducible means that improve clinical skills of the health staff. PMID:27215249

  16. Prospective assessment of quality of life in adult patients with primary brain tumors in routine neurooncology practice.

    PubMed

    Budrukkar, Ashwini; Jalali, Rakesh; Dutta, Debnarayan; Sarin, Rajiv; Devlekar, Rashmi; Parab, Sachin; Kakde, Anagha

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate and assess the impact of various factors on quality of life (QOL) in adult patients with primary brain tumors seen consecutively in routine neurooncology practice. Two hundred and fifty-seven adult patients, after undergoing surgical intervention and histologically proven primary brain neoplasms were registered in the NeuroOncology Clinic at our centre during 1 full calendar year. The study included detailed neurological assessment, evaluation of QOL using EORTC questionnaire (QLQ-30) and specific Brain Cancer module (BN 20). In the present analysis, QOL scores before starting adjuvant treatment were measured and impact of patient and tumor related factors were analyzed. Baseline global QOL data of all patients (available in 243) was relatively low including in all histological tumor types. Physical function, role function, emotion function, cognitive and social function scores were 80, 78, 65.7, 70 and 70.5 (higher values better), respectively. Domains of future uncertainty, visual disorder, motor deficit, communication deficit, headache, seizures and drowsiness scores were 19.6, 18.2, 28.5, 30.7, 21, 31.8 and 16 (lower values better), respectively. Elderly patients had poorer global score (21 points difference; p = 0.161). Patients with lower performance status (KPS < 70) had a lower global QOL (KPS >or= 80 vs.

  17. Routine Quality Control of Clinical Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation: A Brief Review*

    PubMed Central

    Zanzonico, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews routine quality-control (QC) procedures for current nuclear medicine instrumentation, including the survey meter, dose calibrator, well counter, intraoperative probe, organ (“thyroid”) uptake probe, γ-camera, SPECT and SPECT/CT scanner, and PET and PET/CT scanner. It should be particularly useful for residents, fellows, and other trainees in nuclear medicine, nuclear cardiology, and radiology. The procedures described and their respective frequencies are presented only as general guidelines. PMID:18587088

  18. Organizational structure of the Croatian family practice: a longitudinal study based on routinely collected data.

    PubMed

    Keglević, Mladenka Vrcić; Balint, Ines; Cvetković, Ivica; Gaćina, Ana

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken with the main aim of determining the trends in the number of family doctors' (FD), gender and educational structure, working status and the number of patients per FD between 1995 and 2013. As the main source of data collection served the Croatian Health Service Yearbooks and Croatian Health Insurance Fund (CHIF) databases on practices and FDs contracting in 2013. Obtained results indicated that the number of contracted FDs increased until 2007, then decreased, and again increased until 2350 in 2013. Average number of patients on FDs list was 1987 in 2012. Less than 50% FDs were specialist in family medicine, 70.3% of them were self-employed with the CHIF contract, and 81% were women. 123 practices planned by the Network did not have contracting FD in 2013. The lack of FDs, the huge number of patients over the standard number, and the location of the missing practices within the rural communities, together make Croatian FM practices less accessible.

  19. Application of The APA Practice Guidelines on Suicide to Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Douglas G; Brewer, Margaret L

    2006-06-01

    This article presents charts from The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline for the Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Behaviors, part of the Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders Compendium, and a summary of the assessment information in a format that can be used in routine clinical practice. Four steps in the assessment process are presented: the use of a thorough psychiatric examination to obtain information about the patient's current presentation, history, diagnosis, and to recognize suicide risk factors therein; the necessity of asking very specific questions about suicidal ideation, intent, plans, and attempts; the process of making an estimation of the patient's level of suicide risk is explained; and the use of modifiable risk and protective factors as the basis for treatment planning is demonstrated. Case reports are used to clarify use of each step in this process. PMID:16816784

  20. The Influence of Race and Socioeconomic Status on Routine Screening Practices of Physician Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, DeShana Ann

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in minorities and those of low socioeconomic status persist despite efforts to eliminate potential causes. Differences in the delivery of services can result in different healthcare outcomes and therefore, a health disparity. Some of this difference in care may attribute to discrimination resulting from clinical biases and…

  1. Implementing human factors in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Methods Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have received aviation-derived human factors training. Results The human factors training was evaluated positively, and thought to be both acceptable and relevant to practice. However, the staff found it harder to implement what they had learned in their own clinical areas, and this was principally attributed to features of the informal organisational cultures. Conclusions In order to successfully apply human factors approaches in hospital, careful consideration needs to be given to the local context and informal culture of clinical practice. PMID:24631959

  2. A clinical academic practice partnership: a clinical education redesign.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Pamela R; Rose, Linda; Belcher, Anne E; Dang, Deborah; Hochuli, Jo Fava; Fleischmann, Debbie; Gerson, Linda; Greene, Mary Ann; Jordan, Elizabeth Betty T; Krohn, Vicki L; Sartorius-Merganthaler, Susan; Walrath, Jo M

    2013-01-01

    The clinical academic practice partnership (CAPP), a clinical redesign based on the dedicated education unit concept, was developed and implemented by large, private school of nursing in collaboration with 4 clinical partners to provide quality clinical education, to explore new clinical models for the future, and to test an innovative clinical education design. An executive steering committee consisting of nursing leaders and educators from the school of nursing and the clinical institutions was established as the decision-making and planning components, with several collaborative task forces initiated to conduct the work and to accomplish the goals. This article will describe methods to initiate and to organize the key elements of this dedicated education unit-type clinical model, providing examples and an overview of the steps and elements needed as the development proceeded. After 18 months of implementation in 4 different nursing programs in 4 different clinical institutions, the clinical redesign has shown to be a positive initiative, with students actively requesting CAPP units for their clinical experiences. Preliminary findings and outcomes will be discussed, along with nursing education implications for this new clinical redesign.

  3. Antianemic Treatment of Cancer Patients in German Routine Practice: Data from a Prospective Cohort Study—The Tumor Anemia Registry

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Tilman; Schröder, Jan; Plath, Margarete; Link, Hartmut; Vogt, Michèle; Frank, Melanie; Marschner, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to assess current antianemic treatment of cancer patients in German routine practice, including diagnostics, treatments, and quality of life (QoL). 88 study sites recruited 1018 patients at the start of antianemic treatment with hemoglobin (Hb) levels <11 g/dL (females) or <12 g/dL (males). Patients were followed up for 12 weeks. 63% of the patients had inoperable solid tumors, 22% operable solid tumors, and 15% hematological malignancies. Over 85% received chemotherapy. Median age was 67 years; 48% were male. Red blood cell transfusions (RBCTx) were given to 59% of all patients and to 55% of the patients with Hb ≥8 g/dL on day 1 of the observation period (day 1 treatment). Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were the second most frequently applied day 1 treatment (20%), followed by intravenous (IV) iron (15%) and ESA + IV iron (6%). Only about a third of patients were tested for blood serum iron parameters at the start of treatment. Overall, more than half of the patients had long-term responses to antianemic therapy. Our data suggest that in routine practice diagnostics for treatable causes of anemia are underused. A high proportion of cancer patients receive RBCTx. It should be discussed whether thorough diagnostics and earlier intervention could decrease the need for RBCTx. This trial is registered with NCT01795690. PMID:26966573

  4. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colon carcinoma with positive lymph nodes: use and benefit in routine health care practice.

    PubMed

    Bouchardy, C; Queneau, P E; Fioretta, G; Usel, M; Zellweger, M; Neyroud, I; Raymond, L; de Wolf, C; Sappino, A P

    2001-11-01

    In 1990, an international consensus was reached on the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy for lymph node positive (stage III) colon carcinoma (CC). This study evaluates the use and benefit of such therapy in routine health care practice. The study includes all patients with stage III CC treated by putative curative surgery (n = 182) recorded at the Geneva cancer registry between 1990 and 1996. Factors modifying chemotherapy use were determined by logistic regression, considering patients with chemotherapy as cases (n = 55) and others as controls (n = 127). The effect of chemotherapy on the 5-year survival was evaluated by the Cox model. Analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. The use of chemotherapy increased over the period (P(trend) < 0.001). Age strongly modulated chemotherapy use. In 1996, 54% of eligible patients received chemotherapy, this proportion fell to 13% after age 70. Decisions to use chemotherapy significantly depended on stage, grade and cancer site. The chance to be treated was non-significantly lower among individuals of low social class, widowed and foreigners. Chemotherapy significantly decreased mortality rates (Hazard ratio: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.18-0.68), independently of the prognostic factors and with similar benefit regardless of stage and age group. Strong beneficial effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on stage III CC can be achieved in routine practice. However, this study shows that it is probably not optimally utilised in Switzerland, particularly among the elderly.

  5. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colon carcinoma with positive lymph nodes: use and benefit in routine health care practice

    PubMed Central

    Bouchardy, C; Queneau, P-E; Fioretta, G; Usel, M; Zellweger, M; Neyroud, I; Raymond, L; Wolf, C de; Sappino, A P

    2001-01-01

    In 1990, an international consensus was reached on the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy for lymph node positive (stage III) colon carcinoma (CC). This study evaluates the use and benefit of such therapy in routine health care practice. The study includes all patients with stage III CC treated by putative curative surgery (n= 182) recorded at the Geneva cancer registry between 1990 and 1996. Factors modifying chemotherapy use were determined by logistic regression, considering patients with chemotherapy as cases (n= 55) and others as controls (n= 127). The effect of chemotherapy on the 5-year survival was evaluated by the Cox model. Analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. The use of chemotherapy increased over the period (Ptrend < 0.001). Age strongly modulated chemotherapy use. In 1996, 54% of eligible patients received chemotherapy, this proportion fell to 13% after age 70. Decisions to use chemotherapy significantly depended on stage, grade and cancer site. The chance to be treated was non-significantly lower among individuals of low social class, widowed and foreigners. Chemotherapy significantly decreased mortality rates (Hazard ratio: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.18–0.68), independently of the prognostic factors and with similar benefit regardless of stage and age group. Strong beneficial effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on stage III CC can be achieved in routine practice. However, this study shows that it is probably not optimally utilised in Switzerland, particularly among the elderly. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11720457

  6. Antianemic Treatment of Cancer Patients in German Routine Practice: Data from a Prospective Cohort Study-The Tumor Anemia Registry.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Tilman; Schröder, Jan; Plath, Margarete; Link, Hartmut; Vogt, Michèle; Frank, Melanie; Marschner, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to assess current antianemic treatment of cancer patients in German routine practice, including diagnostics, treatments, and quality of life (QoL). 88 study sites recruited 1018 patients at the start of antianemic treatment with hemoglobin (Hb) levels <11 g/dL (females) or <12 g/dL (males). Patients were followed up for 12 weeks. 63% of the patients had inoperable solid tumors, 22% operable solid tumors, and 15% hematological malignancies. Over 85% received chemotherapy. Median age was 67 years; 48% were male. Red blood cell transfusions (RBCTx) were given to 59% of all patients and to 55% of the patients with Hb ≥8 g/dL on day 1 of the observation period (day 1 treatment). Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were the second most frequently applied day 1 treatment (20%), followed by intravenous (IV) iron (15%) and ESA + IV iron (6%). Only about a third of patients were tested for blood serum iron parameters at the start of treatment. Overall, more than half of the patients had long-term responses to antianemic therapy. Our data suggest that in routine practice diagnostics for treatable causes of anemia are underused. A high proportion of cancer patients receive RBCTx. It should be discussed whether thorough diagnostics and earlier intervention could decrease the need for RBCTx. This trial is registered with NCT01795690. PMID:26966573

  7. Health-related quality of life assessment in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Meers, C; Singer, M A

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of biochemical responses to therapy is routine in the management of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), however, is less common. Previous research indicates that HRQOL is a meaningful indicator that should be integrated into clinical practice. HRQOL is longitudinally evaluated in in-centre hemodialysis patients using the RAND 36-item Health Survey 1.0. Caregivers incorporate scores from this instrument into their assessment of patient functioning and well-being. HRQOL scores can be utilized to evaluate responses to changes in therapy, and to direct clinical decision-making, adding an important dimension to holistic, quality care for ESRD patients. PMID:8900807

  8. The inherent paternalism in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Wulff, H R

    1995-06-01

    It is sometimes suggested that the physician should offer the patient "just the facts," preferably in a "value-free manner," explain the different options, and then leave it to the patient to make the choice. This paper explores the extent to which this adviser model is realistic. The clinical decision process and the various components of clinical reasoning are discussed, and a distinction is made between the biological, empirical, empathic/hermeneutic and ethical components. The discussion is based on the ethical norms of the public health services in the Nordic countries, and the problems are illustrated by a clinical example. It is concluded that the adviser model is unrealistic. Patient information is important, but the complexity of clinical reasoning makes it impossible to separate facts and value judgments. It is claimed that there is an inherent element of paternalism in clinical decision-making and that clinical practice presupposes a mutual trust between physician and patient. PMID:7658175

  9. George Engel's Epistemology of Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Saraga, Michael; Fuks, Abraham; Boudreau, J Donald

    2014-01-01

    George Engel's (1913-1999) biopsychosocial model, one of the most significant proposals for the renewal of medicine in the latter half of the 20th century, has been understood primarily as a multi-factorial approach to the etiology of disease and as a call to re-humanize clinical practice. This common reading of Engel's model misses the central aspect of his proposal, that the biopsychosocial model is an epistemology for clinical work. By stating the simple fact that the clinician is not dealing directly with a body, but first, and inevitably, with a person, Engel challenged the epistemology implicit in the classical clinical method-a method predicated on the possibility of direct access to the body. Framed in epistemological terms, the issue at stake is not the need to complement medical science with humane virtues, but rather to acknowledge that the object of clinical practice is not the body but the patient.

  10. Psychodynamic psychotherapy with adolescents and young adults: Outcome in routine practice.

    PubMed

    Nemirovski Edlund, Julia; Carlberg, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    This naturalistic study examined the outcome of psychodynamic psychotherapy with 218 adolescents and young adults aged 14-24 years. Analysis of variance showed significant improvement of general functioning on Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and decreased symptom severity on Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90) upon completion of psychotherapy, as well as a clinically significant improvement in a large percentage of cases. Effect sizes were equivalent to those evident in a clinical comparison group and larger than in prior research. The main limitation of this study was the lack of a control group, partially compensated for through the use of comparison groups and high external validity. The study seeks to fill a gap in an important yet overlooked field of research.

  11. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing in routine practice: economic and organizational advantages

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Very seldom, if ever, a single laboratory test has provided such a paradigm shift in the managed care as cardiac troponin (cTn) testing. More than twenty years of improvements in test design and analytical features have contributed to revolutionize the clinical recommendations and guidelines, and the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) is now highly dependent upon the kinetics of cTn within a suggestive clinical setting. Despite the advent of high-sensitivity cTn (HS-cTn) immunoassays has allowed a more accurate and timely diagnosis as well as a higher prognostic accuracy, the focus is now shifting on the most suitable algorithms and on a comprehensive approach to the clinical management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In this article we aim to discuss the implications of HS-cTn testing for ruling out and ruling in ACS. In the latter instance, main improvements are related to ACS diagnosis in women, in whom this pathology is still often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. A quick and accurate rule out will also regarded as a great advantage from both an organizational and economic standpoint. The advantages that will stem from this new approach have been recently assessed, and shortening of repeated testing 1 or 2 h from conventional algorithms entailing blood sampling at 3 and 6 h seems attainable. The larger benefits will definitely occur in clinical settings where the actual diagnosis rate of MI among patients with suspect ACS is lower and, consequently, the negative predictive value (NPV) of HS-cTn is the highest. PMID:27500158

  12. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing in routine practice: economic and organizational advantages.

    PubMed

    Galli, Claudio; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Very seldom, if ever, a single laboratory test has provided such a paradigm shift in the managed care as cardiac troponin (cTn) testing. More than twenty years of improvements in test design and analytical features have contributed to revolutionize the clinical recommendations and guidelines, and the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) is now highly dependent upon the kinetics of cTn within a suggestive clinical setting. Despite the advent of high-sensitivity cTn (HS-cTn) immunoassays has allowed a more accurate and timely diagnosis as well as a higher prognostic accuracy, the focus is now shifting on the most suitable algorithms and on a comprehensive approach to the clinical management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In this article we aim to discuss the implications of HS-cTn testing for ruling out and ruling in ACS. In the latter instance, main improvements are related to ACS diagnosis in women, in whom this pathology is still often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. A quick and accurate rule out will also regarded as a great advantage from both an organizational and economic standpoint. The advantages that will stem from this new approach have been recently assessed, and shortening of repeated testing 1 or 2 h from conventional algorithms entailing blood sampling at 3 and 6 h seems attainable. The larger benefits will definitely occur in clinical settings where the actual diagnosis rate of MI among patients with suspect ACS is lower and, consequently, the negative predictive value (NPV) of HS-cTn is the highest. PMID:27500158

  13. The Turning Point Social Marketing National Excellence Collaborative: integrating social marketing into routine public health practice.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Sylvia; Reizes, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Social marketing can be an effective tool for achieving public health goals. Social marketing uses concepts from commercial marketing to plan and implement programs designed to bring about behavior change that will benefit individuals and society. Although social marketing principles have been used to address public health problems, efforts have been dominated by message-based, promotion-only strategies, and effective implementation has been hampered by both lack of understanding of and use of all of the components of a social marketing approach and lack of training. The Turning Point initiative's Social Marketing National Excellence Collaborative (SMNEC) was established to promote social marketing principles and practices to improve public health across the nation. After 4 years, the Collaborative's work has resulted in improved understanding of social marketing among participating members and the development of new tools to strengthen the social marketing skills among public health practitioners. The Collaborative has also made advances in incorporating and institutionalizing the practice of social marketing within public health in participating states.

  14. Clinical Question: Does Medical Evidence Support Routine Oronasopharyngeal Suction at Delivery?

    PubMed

    Evans, M Blake; Po, William D

    2016-01-01

    Oronasopharyngeal suction (ONPS) is regularly performed in neonates at delivery in many hospitals across the country today. Although ONPS is a technique that has essentially become habitual for most obstetricians, its theorized usefulness to help promote expeditious lung aeration after delivery by removal of amniotic fluid, meconium, mucus and blood that may otherwise be aspirated by the newborn, is currently not recommended. ONPS can cause vagal stimulation-induced bradycardia and thus hypercapnea, iatrogenic infection due to mucous membrane injury, and development of subsequent neonatal brain injury due to changes in cerebral blood flow regulation, particularly in premature infants. Multiple studies that have been performed comparing routine use of ONPS to no intervention controls indicate that newborns receiving ONPS took a longer time to achieve normal oxygen saturations, caused apneic episodes, and caused disturbances in heart rate (mainly bradycardia) compared to the control groups. Although the ONPS groups revealed no significantly different APGAR scores at 1 and 5 minutes, the ONPS groups took longer than the control group to reach an arterial oxygen saturation greater than or equal to 92% in the first minutes of life. Currently, Neonatal Resuscitation Program guidelines discourage the use of or meconium-stained amniotic fluid and in the absence of obvious obstruction. Furthermore, this manuscript highlights various literature sources revealing that the routine use of ONPS at the time of delivery can cause more harm than good, if any good at all.

  15. Utility of multispectral imaging for nuclear classification of routine clinical histopathology imagery

    PubMed Central

    Boucheron, Laura E; Bi, Zhiqiang; Harvey, Neal R; Manjunath, BS; Rimm, David L

    2007-01-01

    Background We present an analysis of the utility of multispectral versus standard RGB imagery for routine H&E stained histopathology images, in particular for pixel-level classification of nuclei. Our multispectral imagery has 29 spectral bands, spaced 10 nm within the visual range of 420–700 nm. It has been hypothesized that the additional spectral bands contain further information useful for classification as compared to the 3 standard bands of RGB imagery. We present analyses of our data designed to test this hypothesis. Results For classification using all available image bands, we find the best performance (equal tradeoff between detection rate and false alarm rate) is obtained from either the multispectral or our "ccd" RGB imagery, with an overall increase in performance of 0.79% compared to the next best performing image type. For classification using single image bands, the single best multispectral band (in the red portion of the spectrum) gave a performance increase of 0.57%, compared to performance of the single best RGB band (red). Additionally, red bands had the highest coefficients/preference in our classifiers. Principal components analysis of the multispectral imagery indicates only two significant image bands, which is not surprising given the presence of two stains. Conclusion Our results indicate that multispectral imagery for routine H&E stained histopathology provides minimal additional spectral information for a pixel-level nuclear classification task than would standard RGB imagery. PMID:17634098

  16. Clinical Question: Does Medical Evidence Support Routine Oronasopharyngeal Suction at Delivery?

    PubMed

    Evans, M Blake; Po, William D

    2016-01-01

    Oronasopharyngeal suction (ONPS) is regularly performed in neonates at delivery in many hospitals across the country today. Although ONPS is a technique that has essentially become habitual for most obstetricians, its theorized usefulness to help promote expeditious lung aeration after delivery by removal of amniotic fluid, meconium, mucus and blood that may otherwise be aspirated by the newborn, is currently not recommended. ONPS can cause vagal stimulation-induced bradycardia and thus hypercapnea, iatrogenic infection due to mucous membrane injury, and development of subsequent neonatal brain injury due to changes in cerebral blood flow regulation, particularly in premature infants. Multiple studies that have been performed comparing routine use of ONPS to no intervention controls indicate that newborns receiving ONPS took a longer time to achieve normal oxygen saturations, caused apneic episodes, and caused disturbances in heart rate (mainly bradycardia) compared to the control groups. Although the ONPS groups revealed no significantly different APGAR scores at 1 and 5 minutes, the ONPS groups took longer than the control group to reach an arterial oxygen saturation greater than or equal to 92% in the first minutes of life. Currently, Neonatal Resuscitation Program guidelines discourage the use of or meconium-stained amniotic fluid and in the absence of obvious obstruction. Furthermore, this manuscript highlights various literature sources revealing that the routine use of ONPS at the time of delivery can cause more harm than good, if any good at all. PMID:27328554

  17. Evaluation of the role of antibiotics in preventing postoperative complication after routine periodontal surgery: A comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Rosh Radhika; Doraswamy, Dwarakanath Chinni; Hussain, Ahad M.; Gundannavar, Gayatri; Subbaiah, Shobha Krishna; Jayaprakash, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Aim of this randomly controlled clinical study was to evaluate the role of antibiotics to prevent postoperative complications after routine periodontal surgery and also to determine whether their administration improved the surgical outcome. Materials and Methods: Forty-five systemically healthy patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis requiring flap surgery were enrolled in the study. They were randomly allocated to Amoxicillin, Doxycycline, and control groups. Surgical procedures were carried out with complete asepsis as per the protocol. Postoperative assessment of patient variables like swelling, pain, temperature, infection, ulceration, necrosis, and trismus was performed at intervals of 24 h, 48 h, 1 week, and 3 months. Changes in clinical parameters such as gingival index, plaque index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were also recorded. Results: There was no incidence of postoperative infection in any of the patients. Patient variables were comparable in all the three groups. Though there was significant improvement in the periodontal parameters in all the groups, no statistically significant result was observed for any group over the others. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that when periodontal surgical procedures were performed following strict asepsis, the incidence of clinical infection was not significant among all the three groups, and also that antibiotic administration did not influence the outcome of surgery. Therefore, prophylactic antibiotics for patients who are otherwise healthy administered following routine periodontal surgery to prevent postoperative infection are unnecessary and have no demonstrable additional benefits. PMID:24872630

  18. Obstetrics in a Time of Violence: Mexican Midwives Critique Routine Hospital Practices.

    PubMed

    Zacher Dixon, Lydia

    2015-12-01

    Mexican midwives have long taken part in a broader Latin American trend to promote "humanized birth" as an alternative to medicalized interventions in hospital obstetrics. As midwives begin to regain authority in reproductive health and work within hospital units, they come to see the issue not as one of mere medicalization but of violence and violation. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with midwives from across Mexico during a time of widespread social violence, my research examines an emergent critique of hospital birth as a site of what is being called violencia obstétrica (obstetric violence). In this critique, women are discussed as victims of explicit abuse by hospital staff and by the broader health care infrastructures. By reframing obstetric practices as violent-as opposed to medicalized-these midwives seek to situate their concerns about women's health care in Mexico within broader regional discussions about violence, gender, and inequality.

  19. [Psychological aspects in surgery--surgical aspects in psychology: psychosomatic medicine in routine practice?].

    PubMed

    Hontschik, B

    1999-01-01

    Medicine appears to have reached a standstill, in particular surgery: While progress in apparative diagnostics and therapy, e.g. by ultrasound, endoscopy, laparoscopy, and arthroscopy, has reached in some areas "breathtaking speed", the parties concerned-surgeons and patients-lose in reserve air to breathe: no time for any profound consideration, no chance for in-depth talking before surgical procedures are performed, no training for giving real support after surgery. Do we see a brand of surgery which feels responsible only for a human machine without soul? Meanwhile discussions have begun inside medicine in general about a change of paradigms, ways of thinking, the model of the world. Surgery can even make substantial contributions to this change of paradigms. Surgery for the human machine? Psychosomatic ways of thinking are first seen not applicable for surgery. Substantial anxiety exists to take notice of each other. Three concrete examples from everyday practice in surgery demonstrate, how psychosomatic thinking can change and enrich surgical practice: From the area of indications reflections about appendectomy, from the operative-surgical area the phenomenon of self-destructive behaviour, from the restitutive area experiences in treatment of osteomyelitis. Back to the interpersonal area! Psychosomatics must be recognised as a way of thinking and be integrated as such into surgery. A so-called "integrated surgery" will arise. The examples demonstrate also, that it is not some anonymous surgical medicine, which must and can change, but that only the individual surgeon as a concrete person can bring back his work into the interpersonal area.

  20. Enhancing reflective practice through online learning: impact on clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Sim, J; Radloff, A

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Traditionally, radiographers and radiation therapists function in a workplace environment that is protocol-driven with limited functional autonomy. The workplace promotes a culture of conformity and discourages practitioners from reflective and critical thinking, essential attributes for continuing learning and advancing workplace practices. As part of the first author’s doctoral study, a continuing professional development (CPD) educational framework was used to design and implement an online module for radiation therapists’ CPD activities. The study aimed to determine if it is possible to enhance healthcare practitioners’ reflective practice via online learning and to establish the impact of reflective learning on clinical practice. Materials and methods The objectives of the online module were to increase radiation therapists’ knowledge in planning for radiation therapy for the breast by assisting them engage in reflective practice. The cyclical process of action research was used to pilot the module twice with two groups of volunteer radiation therapists (twenty-six participants) from Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Results The online module was evaluated using Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model. Evidence indicated that participants were empowered as a result of participation in the module. They began reflecting in the workplace while assuming a more proactive role and increased clinical responsibilities, engaged colleagues in collaborative reflections and adopted evidence-based approaches in advancing clinical practices. Conclusion The study shows that it is possible to assist practitioners engage in reflective practice using an online CPD educational framework. Participants were able to apply the reflective learning they had developed in their workplace. As a result of their learning, they felt empowered to continue to effect changes in their workplace beyond the cessation of the online module. PMID:21614319

  1. Moving from Efficacy to Effectiveness in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis: A Randomized Clinical Practice Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Tania M.; Ziegler, Michael; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lullmann, Eva; Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Randomized controlled trials have attested the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing psychotic symptoms. Now, studies are needed to investigate its effectiveness in routine clinical practice settings. Method: Eighty patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who were seeking outpatient treatment were randomized…

  2. [Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac computed tomography in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Barone-Rochette, G; Jankowski, A; Rodiere, M

    2014-11-01

    Technological advances have enabled the rapid development of cardiovascular imaging techniques. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have become diagnostic and prognostic tools for the management of patients in routine clinical practice. This review gives the main indications and describes the performance of both techniques.

  3. Building a Vita for the Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tentoni, Stuart C.

    Vita review is used by most prospective employers to determine which applicants will be interviewed for a particular position opening in clinical practice. Most graduate students have little knowledge and no training in this topic, which is vital for professional development. Specific examples of vitae construction are provided for one of the…

  4. Balancing Certainty and Uncertainty in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this epilogue, I respond to each of the five commentaries, discussing in some depth a central issue raised in each commentary. In the final section, I discuss how my thinking about certainty and uncertainty in clinical practice has evolved since I wrote the initial article. Method: Topics addressed include the similarities/differences…

  5. Balancing Certainty and Uncertainty in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, I question how practitioners can balance the certainty and confidence that they can help their patients with the uncertainty that makes them continually question their beliefs and assumptions. Method: I compare the mechanisms of science and models of clinical practice that may help practitioners achieve the right balance…

  6. How Physicians Integrate Advances into Clinical Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockyer, Jocelyn M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Family physicians and specialists were asked to identify the sources of information they used in the process of making changes in their clinical practices. An average of 3.08 sources of information were utilized for each change and over 50 percent of the changes were complete in less than one year. (CT)

  7. The University of Wisconsin Clinical Practice Plan.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, P D; Detmer, D E

    1982-06-01

    The evolution and structure of the University of Wisconsin Clinical Practice Plan (CPP) is described, along with political and economic factors that have influenced its development. Comparison of clinical faculty numbers, average clinical earnings, average clinical base salaries, and average research funding per clinical faculty member in 1958, 1968, and 1978 (all in 1978 dollars) reveals a trend of rapid initial growth followed by a marked slowing of growth. This suggests that the CPP is reaching a stage of continued slow growth. Further analysis of the data also suggests the effect on the CPP of changes in federal and state government funding of medical research, medical education, and health care for indigents. The effects of these fluctuations in federal and state government funding of these three areas on CPP income and expenses have made long-range planning and budgeting for the CPP difficult.

  8. [Clinical practice guideline. Drug prescription in elderly].

    PubMed

    Peralta-Pedrero, María Luisa; Valdivia-Ibarra, Francisco Javier; Hernández-Manzano, Mario; Medina-Beltrán, Gustavo Rodrigo; Cordero-Guillén, Miguel Angel; Baca-Zúñiga, José; Cruz-Avelar, Agles; Aguilar-Salas, Ismael; Avalos-Mejía, Annia Marisol

    2013-01-01

    The process of prescribing a medication is complex and includes: deciding whether it is indicated, choosing the best option, determining the dose and the appropriate management scheme to the physiological condition of the patient, and monitoring effectiveness and toxicity. We have to inform patients about the expected side effects and indications for requesting a consultation. Specific clinical questions were designed based on the acronym PICOST. The search was made in the specific websites of clinical practice guidelines, was limited to the population of older adults, in English or Spanish. We used 10 related clinical practice guidelines, eight systematic reviews and five meta-analyses. Finally, we made a search of original articles or clinical reviews for specific topics. The development and validation of clinical practice guidelines for "rational drug prescriptions in the elderly" is intended to promote an improvement in the quality of prescription through the prevention and detection of inappropriate prescribing in the elderly and, as a result of this, a decrease in the adverse events by drugs, deterioration of health of patients and expenditure of resources.

  9. Evidenced based practice: classroom to clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Landin, Cecelia W

    2013-01-01

    Evidence based practice (EBP) can be incorporated into the curriculum of Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) Programs. Current components of curriculum can include EBP in pre-analytic, analytic, and post-analytic topics. Discussion of EBP topics in the classroom using practices assessed through the Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Initiative (LMBP) of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will give students a clear understanding of EBP and how it is used in the clinical laboratory for improved health care quality. Student involvement in Quality Improvement projects to improve laboratory performance and patient outcomes can be developed through capstone projects. Examples of clinical projects and application of EBP into the MLS curriculum are discussed.

  10. Physicians Reentering Clinical Practice: Characteristics and Clinical Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Elizabeth S.; Korinek, Elizabeth J.; Weitzel, Lindsay B.; Wentz, Dennis K.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Limited information exists to describe physicians who return to practice after absences from patient care. The Center for Personalized Education for Physicians (CPEP) is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides clinical competency assessment and educational programs for physicians, including those reentering…

  11. Physicians Reentering Clinical Practice: Characteristics and Clinical Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Elizabeth S.; Korinek, Elizabeth J.; Weitzel, Lindsay B.; Wentz, Dennis K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Limited information exists to describe physicians who return to practice after absences from patient care. The Center for Personalized Education for Physicians (CPEP) is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides clinical competency assessment and educational programs for physicians, including those reentering…

  12. The use of risk sharing tools for post adoption surveillance of a non pharmacological technology in routine practice: results after one year

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To report results obtained by combining risk sharing tools with post-adoption surveillance mechanisms in order to control quality of care and implement a value-based reimbursement scheme for Neuro-reflexotherapy (NRT), a non-pharmacological treatment proven effective for neck pain (NP), thoracic pain (TP) and low back pain (LBP). Methods Pre-post prospective cohort study in routine clinical practice, carried out in primary care centers in the Spanish National Health Service in the Balearic Islands (Ib-Salut). Eight-hundred and seventy-one subacute and chronic NP, TP and LBP patients treated in Ib-Salut, who underwent NRT during 2011. A shared risk contract (SRC) was developed, where payments for NRT were linked to results on patients’ clinical evolution, reduction in medication and proportion of patients undergoing spinal surgery. Main outcome measures were local pain (NP, TP or LBP), referred pain, LBP-related disability and NP-related disability, measured using previously validated instruments at referral and 3 months later, use of medication assessed at referral and discharge, and rates of spinal surgery prescription after undergoing NRT. Results Median improvements at discharge corresponded to 57.1% of baseline value for local pain, 75.0% for referred pain, 53.8% for LBP-related disability and 45.0% for NP-related disability. Patients taking medication at discharge represented 29.0% of those taking it at referral. The proportion of patients in whom spinal surgery was prescribed after undergoing NRT was 0%. These results were consistent with those from previous randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and studies in routine practice, and complied with the standards set in the SRC. Conclusions It is feasible and effective to enhance post adoption surveillance methods with risk sharing tools to improve quality control and support value-based reimbursement decisions for NRT. The feasibility of generalising this approach to other settings and to other non

  13. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Clinically Driven versus Routine Laboratory Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Medina Lara, Antonieta; Kigozi, Jesse; Amurwon, Jovita; Muchabaiwa, Lazarus; Nyanzi Wakaholi, Barbara; Mujica Mota, Ruben E.; Walker, A. Sarah; Kasirye, Ronnie; Ssali, Francis; Reid, Andrew; Grosskurth, Heiner; Babiker, Abdel G.; Kityo, Cissy; Katabira, Elly; Munderi, Paula; Mugyenyi, Peter; Hakim, James; Darbyshire, Janet; Gibb, Diana M.; Gilks, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite funding constraints for treatment programmes in Africa, the costs and economic consequences of routine laboratory monitoring for efficacy and toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have rarely been evaluated. Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted in the DART trial (ISRCTN13968779). Adults in Uganda/Zimbabwe starting ART were randomised to clinically-driven monitoring (CDM) or laboratory and clinical monitoring (LCM); individual patient data on healthcare resource utilisation and outcomes were valued with primary economic costs and utilities. Total costs of first/second-line ART, routine 12-weekly CD4 and biochemistry/haematology tests, additional diagnostic investigations, clinic visits, concomitant medications and hospitalisations were considered from the public healthcare sector perspective. A Markov model was used to extrapolate costs and benefits 20 years beyond the trial. Results 3316 (1660LCM;1656CDM) symptomatic, immunosuppressed ART-naive adults (median (IQR) age 37 (32,42); CD4 86 (31,139) cells/mm3) were followed for median 4.9 years. LCM had a mean 0.112 year (41 days) survival benefit at an additional mean cost of $765 [95%CI:685,845], translating into an adjusted incremental cost of $7386 [3277,dominated] per life-year gained and $7793 [4442,39179] per quality-adjusted life year gained. Routine toxicity tests were prominent cost-drivers and had no benefit. With 12-weekly CD4 monitoring from year 2 on ART, low-cost second-line ART, but without toxicity monitoring, CD4 test costs need to fall below $3.78 to become cost-effective (<3xper-capita GDP, following WHO benchmarks). CD4 monitoring at current costs as undertaken in DART was not cost-effective in the long-term. Conclusions There is no rationale for routine toxicity monitoring, which did not affect outcomes and was costly. Even though beneficial, there is little justification for routine 12-weekly CD4 monitoring of ART at current test costs in low-income African

  14. Clinical writing: additional ethical and practical issues.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Susan S

    2012-03-01

    The recommendations by Sieck (2011, Obtaining clinical writing informed consent versus using client disguise and recommendations for practice, Psychotherapy, 49, pp. 3-11.) are a helpful starting point for considering the ethical issues involved in the decision to seek or not to seek informed consent from clients before writing about them. Sieck makes a compelling case for the idea that there are circumstances in which the most ethical choice would be to engage in clinical writing about a client without seeking informed consent, but instead disguising the client's identity. The present response raises a number of questions not considered in the article by Sieck. First, how should one disguise a case? Moreover, how should one assess whether the disguise is sufficient to preserve confidentiality while not distorting the clinical material to the point that the material is no longer useful to the field? Second, how can we estimate the likelihood of clients reading clinical writing, particularly in the age of the Internet? Given that psychologist-authored blogs that include reference to clinical material are beginning to emerge, it is crucial that we engage in a much deeper dialogue about the ethics of clinical writing. Third, how does the presentation of clinical material influence public perceptions of psychotherapy and confidentiality? If these public perceptions, in turn, could influence the likelihood of seeking psychotherapy, might these attitudes be important to consider in ethical thinking about clinical writing? Finally, where do we draw the line between clinical writing and single case study research (which requires informed consent)?

  15. Good clinical practices in phase I studies.

    PubMed

    Decousus, H; Perpoint, B; Mismetti, P; Ollagnier, M; Queneau, P

    1990-01-01

    In France, official guidelines for good clinical practices in clinical trials were issued in 1987. In December 1988, a law was passed that fixed the requirements for carrying out experiments in healthy subjects. It will be completed by official guidelines for the structures in which experiments on healthy subjects (and patients as well, when the investigation would not benefit the health of the patients) may be conducted. Hence a battery of recent legal instructions precisely state what good clinical practices are in the setting of phase I studies. Of particular importance are: subject recruitment and selection methods and procedures; specific competence of the investigator, in particular to interpret the pre-trial data; necessary and sufficient facilities to guarantee the subjects' safety; careful quality control to check all laboratory procedures; necessity of written standard operating procedures.

  16. Lexical concept distribution reflects clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Breydo, Eugene; Shubina, Maria; Shalaby, James W; Einbinder, Jonathan S; Turchin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    It is not known whether narrative medical text directly reflects clinical reality. We have tested the hypothesis that the pattern of distribution of lexical concept of medication intensification in narrative provider notes correlates with clinical practice as reflected in electronic medication records. Over 29,000 medication intensifications identified in narrative provider notes and 444,000 electronic medication records for 82 anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic medications were analyzed. Pearson correlation coefficient between the fraction of dose increases among all medication intensifications and therapeutic range calculated from EMR medication records was 0.39 (p = 0.0003). Correlations with therapeutic ranges obtained from two medication dictionaries, used as a negative control, were not significant. These findings provide evidence that narrative medical documents directly reflect clinical practice and constitute a valid source of medical data.

  17. Optimising the use of routine immunisation clinics for early childhood development in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O

    2009-06-01

    There is now ample evidence that factors that account for high infant and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and other developing regions are also associated with lifelong developmental impairments in the survivors from early childhood. Of all routine immunisation programmes widely administered soon after birth, bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) offer effective platforms to implement a package of interventions that extend beyond child survival to include the early detection and prompt management of developmental disabilities as recently demonstrated in some pilot programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. This paradigm shift is consistent with the Global Immunisation Vision and Strategy (GIVS) of UNICEF/WHO for integrated interventions. It also accords with the current early childhood development policies of all major UN organisations and the World Bank. Such integrated programmes should now be widely encouraged throughout the region by its developmental partners.

  18. On the reliability of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation in routine clinical acid-base chemistry.

    PubMed

    Maas, A H; Rispens, P; Siggaard-Andersen, O; Zijlstra, W G

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with the variability of the practical coefficient of the first ionisation equilibrium of carbonic acid as related to the CO2 in the liquid phase (Henderson-Hasselbalch equation) (Formula: see text) and that of the practical coefficient of the first ionisation equilibrium of carbonic acid as related to the CO2 in the gas phase (modified Henderson-Hasselbalch equation) (Formula: see text).

  19. Comparative efficacy evaluation of disinfectants routinely used in hospital practice: India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Malkit; Sharma, Rahul; Gupta, Pramod K; Rana, Jatinder K; Sharma, Meera; Taneja, Neelam

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare practically achieved disinfection efficacy of some locally available disinfectants on surfaces and infectious microbiological hospital waste. Materials and Methods: Seven disinfectants were tested at concentrations recommended by manufacturers on rough and smooth surfaces that were contaminated experimentally by locally circulating isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, standard isolate of Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. Reduction in microbial counts before and after surface disinfection was expressed as log reduction. A very heavy microbial waste load was simulated by immersing culture plates with heavy microbial growth in disinfectants. Daily, a sample of disinfectant was taken and subjected to in-use test. Results: The highest average log reduction of test microbes on the rough surface was given by DesNet (5.05) and Bacillocid special (5.02). A comparable average log reduction of test microbes on a smooth steel surface was noted (5.68, 5.67, 5.50) for Lysol, Bacillocid sp. and DesNet, respectively. In the discard jars, Bacillocid special worked satisfactorily for 4 days, DesNet for 3 days and Hi-giene Germitol for 1 day. The remainder of the disinfectants failed in the in-use test on Day 1. Phenolics, although widely used in our settings, may not be as good surface disinfectants as newer formulations like DesNet and Bacillocid special. Conclusions: Newer quaternary ammonium compounds and aldehyde formulations were found to be the best disinfectants for disinfection of heavy contamination. PMID:23188950

  20. Effects of probiotic supplementation over 5 months on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults.

    PubMed

    Cox, A J; West, N P; Horn, P L; Lehtinen, M J; Koerbin, G; Pyne, D B; Lahtinen, S J; Fricker, P A; Cripps, A W

    2014-11-01

    Use of probiotic-containing foods and probiotic supplements is increasing; however, few studies document safety and tolerability in conjunction with defined clinical end points. This paper reports the effects of 150 days of supplementation with either a single- (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04) or a double-strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07) probiotic on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults. Pre- to post-intervention changes in laboratory measures were determined and compared between supplement and placebo groups. Overall there were few differences in routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures between supplement and placebo groups post-intervention. Exceptions included plasma calcium (P=0.03) and urea (P=0.015); however, observed changes were small and within assay-specific laboratory reference ranges. These data provide evidence supporting the use of these probiotic supplements over a period of 5 months in healthy active adults without obvious safety or tolerability issues.

  1. Vascular access and infection prevention and control: a national survey of routine practices in Irish haemodialysis units

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Margaret; Clarke, Michael; Mellotte, George; Plant, Liam; Fitzpatrick, Fidelma

    2013-01-01

    Background National and international guidelines recommend the use of effective vascular access (VA) and infection prevention and control practices within the haemodialysis environment. Establishing an arterio-venous fistula (AVF) and preventing central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections are ongoing challenges for all dialysis settings. We surveyed VA and routine infection prevention and control practices in dialysis units, to provide national data on these practices in Ireland. Methods A descriptive survey was emailed to nurse managers at all adult (n = 19) and children (n = 1) outpatient haemodialysis units in the Republic of Ireland. Data collected included AVF formation, CVC insertion and maintenance practices, VA use and surveillance of infection and screening protocols. Nineteen of the 20 units responded to the survey. Results The AVF prevalence was 49% for 1370 patients in 17 units who provided these data [mean prevalence per unit: 45.7% (SD 16.2)]; the CVC mean prevalence per unit was 52.5% (SD 16.0). Fourteen dialysis units experienced inadequate access to vascular surgical procedures either due to a lack of dedicated theatre time or hospital beds. Six units administered intravenous prophylactic antimicrobials prior to CVC insertion with only two units using a CVC insertion checklist at the time of catheter insertion. Conclusion In general, dialysis units in Ireland show a strong adherence to national guidelines. Compared with the 12 countries participating in the Dialysis Outcomes Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS 4), in 2010, AVF prevalence in Irish dialysis units is the second lowest. Recommendations include establishing an AVF national prevalence target rate, discontinuing the administration of intravenous prophylactic antimicrobials prior to CVC insertion and promoting the use of CVC insertion checklists. PMID:26019846

  2. Routine feedback of test results to participants in clinic- and survey-based surveillance of HIV.

    PubMed

    Baggaley, Rachel; Johnson, Cheryl; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Sabin, Keith; Obermeyer, Carla; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Zaba, Basia; El-Hayek, Carol; Singh, Jerome Amir

    2015-05-01

    Surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in low- and middle-income countries started in the 1980s. However, the questions of whether the results of HIV tests should be given to participants, and if so how, has still not been resolved. In the absence of effective treatment, it was considered acceptable to withhold results from HIV-positive participants. However, when antiretroviral treatment is available, some argue for beneficence - that it is the researcher's duty to return the test results to all those who provide samples for surveillance. The corollary is that only participants who wish to receive their test results would be eligible to participate in surveys. Others argue for autonomy - that to obtain a more representative result for the general population, surveys should not exclude participants who do not wish to receive their test results. This round table discussion takes a closer look at those two arguments. We believe that the global community should work towards routine feedback of HIV surveillance while ensuring that participants receive and understand their test results.

  3. Assessing quantitative chimerism longitudinally: technical considerations, clinical applications and routine feasibility.

    PubMed

    Kristt, D; Stein, J; Yaniv, I; Klein, T

    2007-03-01

    In this review, we describe the current laboratory approach to quantitative chimerism testing based on short tandem repeats (STRs), focusing on a longitudinal analysis. The latter is based on relative changes appearing in the course of sequential samples, and as such exploits the ultimate potential of this intrinsically semiquantitative platform. Such an analysis is more informative than single static values, less likely to be confused with platform artifacts, and is individualized to the particular patient. It is particularly useful with non-myeloablative conditioning, where mixed chimerism is common. Importantly, longitudinal monitoring is a routinely feasible laboratory option because multiplex STR-polymerase chain reaction kits are available commercially, and modern software can be used to perform computation, reliability testing and longitudinal tracking in a rapid, easy to use format. The ChimerTrack application, a shareware, user friendly program developed for this purpose, produces a report that automatically summarizes and illustrates the quantitative temporal course of the patient's chimeric status. Such a longitudinal perspective enhances the value of quantitative chimerism monitoring for decisions regarding immunomodulatory post transplant therapy. This information also provides unique insights into the biological dynamics of engraftment underlying the fluctuations in the temporal course of a patient's chimeric status.

  4. Binge eating disorder: from clinical research to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Goracci, Arianna; Casamassima, Francesco; Iovieno, Nadia; di Volo, Silvia; Benbow, Jim; Bolognesi, Simone; Fagiolini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the clinical course of a young woman suffering from binge eating disorder (BED) associated with obesity. It illustrates the efficacy of different medications in the treatment of BED and related conditions and is followed by the comments and clinical observations of 2 practicing psychiatrists. The issues described in this paper have important clinical implications and are topical, given that BED is now recognized as a specific disorder in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition classification system, but neither the US Food and Drug Administration nor any other regulatory agency has yet approved a drug for treatment of this disease, despite its very prevalent and disabling nature. Growing evidence from the fields of psychopathology and neurobiology, including preclinical and clinical studies, converges to support the idea that "overeating" has much in common with other behavioral addictions, and substance abuse treatment agents may show promise for the treatment of BED.

  5. Treating to target in psoriatic arthritis: how to implement in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Coates, Laura C; Helliwell, Philip S

    2016-04-01

    Treating to target is becoming the standard of care in many medical specialities, including rheumatology. The Tight Control of Psoriatic Arthritis (TICOPA) trial has recently provided evidence of the benefit of treating to target in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and the revised European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations on the management of PsA suggest this approach. However, the question of the optimal measure to use and the practicalities of incorporating this into routine clinical practice remain problematic.

  6. Clinical photography in the dermatology practice.

    PubMed

    Witmer, William K; Lebovitz, Peter J

    2012-09-01

    Photography has been accepted for decades as a standard means for documenting dermatologic conditions and as an adjunct to their treatment, in both medical practice and research. The emergence of low-cost easy-to-use digital imaging systems has made good-quality photography more accessible to practitioners, while providing improved functionality in the clinical environment. Primary concerns are controlling lighting and positioning to provide a clear record of the patients skin condition and maintaining consistency over time to assure meaningful comparison of clinical end points.

  7. Concordance between Clinical Practice and Published Evidence: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Wynne E.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Makhija, Sonia K.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Bader, James D.; Rindal, D. Brad; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Documenting the gap between what is occurring in clinical practice and what published research suggests is an important step toward improving care. This study quantified concordance between clinical practice and published evidence across preventive, diagnostic and treatment procedures among a sample of dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. Methods. Network dentists completed one questionnaire about their demographic characteristics and another about how they treat patients across 12 scenarios/clinical practice behaviors. Responses to each clinical practice were coded as consistent (i.e., ‘1’) or inconsistent (i.e., ‘0’) with published evidence, summed, and divided by the number of all non-missing to create an overall ‘concordance’ score, calculated as the mean percent of responses that were consistent with published evidence. Results. Analyses were limited to participants in the United States (N = 591). Mean concordance at the practitioner level was 62% (SD = 18); procedure-specific concordance ranged from 8-100%. Affiliation with a large group practice, being a female practitioner, and receiving a dental degree before 1990 were independently associated with high concordance (≥75%). Conclusions. Dentists reported a medium-range concordance between practice and evidence. Clinical Implications. Efforts to bring research findings into routine practice are needed. PMID:24379327

  8. Accuracy and Robustness Improvements of Echocardiographic Particle Image Velocimetry for Routine Clinical Cardiac Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Brett; Vlachos, Pavlos; Charonko, John; Giarra, Matthew; Goergen, Craig

    2015-11-01

    Echo Particle Image Velocimetry (echoPIV) is a recent development in flow visualization that provides improved spatial resolution with high temporal resolution in cardiac flow measurement. Despite increased interest a limited number of published echoPIV studies are clinical, demonstrating that the method is not broadly accepted within the medical community. This is due to the fact that use of contrast agents are typically reserved for subjects whose initial evaluation produced very low quality recordings. Thus high background noise and low contrast levels characterize most scans, which hinders echoPIV from producing accurate measurements. To achieve clinical acceptance it is necessary to develop processing strategies that improve accuracy and robustness. We hypothesize that using a short-time moving window ensemble (MWE) correlation can improve echoPIV flow measurements on low image quality clinical scans. To explore the potential of the short-time MWE correlation, evaluation of artificial ultrasound images was performed. Subsequently, a clinical cohort of patients with diastolic dysfunction was evaluated. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons between echoPIV measurements and Color M-mode scans were carried out to assess the improvements delivered by the proposed methodology.

  9. Family planning: general practice and clinic services.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, S

    1985-04-01

    The growing trend in the UK toward family planning provision by general practitioners rather than physicians at community family planning clinics has been accompanied by a lack of cooperation and communication--even competition--between these 2 services. In general, clinics provide a wider range of contraceptive methods and personnel are more likely to have special training in counseling for psychosexual problems, abortion, and sterilization. On the other hand, general practitioners are often preferred because of their knowledge of a woman's medical history and longer office hours. Courses to update knowledge about contraception are an important asset for general practitioners. At times, however, it is in the best interests of the patient to be referred to a clinic by a general practitioner. If community clinics are to remain open, they must provide modern contraceptive technology and be able to deal with difficult problems. Pregnancy testing facilities should be available on the premises. Bureaucratic rules that make it difficult for individual clinic physicians to prescribe Depo-Provera, postcoital pills, or IUDs should be abolished. In addition, men should be welcomed. The future of the clinics is further dependent on the establishment of a proper career structure in community health. It is concluded that professionals working in both clinics and general practice should seek to improve their standards and work in greater cooperation.

  10. Ministry of Health clinical practice guidelines: depression.

    PubMed

    Chua, H C; Chan, L L; Chee, K S; Chen, Y H; Chin, S A; Chua, P L W; Fones, S L C; Fung, D; Khoo, C L; Kwek, S K D; Lim, E C L; Ling, J; Poh, P; Sim, K; Tan, B L; Tan, C H; Tan, L L; Tan, Y H C; Tay, W K; Yeo, C; Su, H C A

    2012-02-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) have updated the clinical practice guidelines on Depression to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for depression. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the MOH clinical practice guidelines on Depression, for the information of readers of the Singapore Medical Journal. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/home/Publications/guidelines/cpg/2012/depression.html. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines.

  11. Sorafenib: from literature to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, V; De Vita, F; Koskinas, J; Semela, D; Toniutto, P; Verslype, C

    2013-04-01

    Sorafenib is considered the standard systemic therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in patients with well-preserved liver function (Child-Pugh A class) and advanced-stage HCC (BCLC-C) or in patients with HCC progressing after locoregional therapies, with a high grade of recommendation. The approval of sorafenib for this indication was grounded on the efficacy and the safety results reported by two international randomized, controlled trials, the SHARP and the Asia-Pacific studies. In addition, the efficacy and the safety of sorafenib in clinical practice are addressed by several field-practice experiences, including the multinational GIDEON study and the SOFIA study. Finally, further research on sorafenib is ongoing to optimize the use of this molecule. This review aims to provide an overview of the most relevant clinical data on the efficacy and the safety of sorafenib in patients with HCC.

  12. [Clinical practice guidelines and knowledge management in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Ollenschläger, Günter

    2013-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are key tools for the translation of scientific evidence into everyday patient care. Therefore guidelines can act as cornerstones of evidence based knowledge management in healthcare, if they are trustworthy, and its recommendations are not biased by authors' conflict of interests. Good medical guidelines should be disseminated by means of virtual (digital/electronic) health libraries - together with implementation tools in context, such as guideline based algorithms, check lists, patient information, a.s.f. The article presents evidence based medical knowledge management using the German experiences as an example. It discusses future steps establishing evidence based health care by means of combining patient data, evidence from medical science and patient care routine, together with feedback systems for healthcare providers.

  13. [Clinical practice guidelines and knowledge management in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Ollenschläger, Günter

    2013-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are key tools for the translation of scientific evidence into everyday patient care. Therefore guidelines can act as cornerstones of evidence based knowledge management in healthcare, if they are trustworthy, and its recommendations are not biased by authors' conflict of interests. Good medical guidelines should be disseminated by means of virtual (digital/electronic) health libraries - together with implementation tools in context, such as guideline based algorithms, check lists, patient information, a.s.f. The article presents evidence based medical knowledge management using the German experiences as an example. It discusses future steps establishing evidence based health care by means of combining patient data, evidence from medical science and patient care routine, together with feedback systems for healthcare providers. PMID:24326702

  14. Use of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues for diagnosis and therapy in routine clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Berg, Daniela; Malinowsky, Katharina; Reischauer, Bilge; Wolff, Claudia; Becker, Karl-Friedrich

    2011-01-01

    Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are used routinely everyday in hospitals world-wide for histopathological diagnosis of diseases like cancer. Due to formalin-induced cross-linking of proteins, FFPE tissues present a particular challenge for proteomic analysis. Nevertheless, there has been recent progress for extraction-based protein analysis in these tissues. Novel tools developed in the last few years are urgently needed because precise protein biomarker quantification in clinical FFPE tissues will be crucial for treatment decisions and to assess success or failure of current and future personalized molecular therapies. Furthermore, they will help to conceive why only a subset of patients responds to individualized treatments. Reverse phase protein array (RPPA) is a very promising new technology for quick and simultaneous analysis of many patient samples allowing relative and absolute protein quantifications. In this chapter, we show how protein extraction from FFPE tissues might facilitate the implementation of RPPA for therapy decisions and discuss challenges for application of RPPA in clinical trials and routine settings.

  15. Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Manolopoulos, Vangelis G; Dechairo, Bryan; Huriez, Alain; Kühn, Alexander; Llerena, Adrián; van Schaik, Ron H; Yeo, Kiang-Teck J; Ragia, Georgia; Siest, Gerard

    2011-05-01

    The Santorini Conference on prospective biology, genomics and pharmacogenomics occurs every 2 years. On 30 September to 2nd October 2010, the fifth meeting in this series took place in Santorini, Greece. This conference has established a tradition of organizing a workshop each time to address the most recent developments and key issues in pharmacogenomics. This year, the workshop was chaired by Bryan Dechairo and Alain Huriez, and was titled 'Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine in clinical practice'.

  16. [Medical errors and conflicts in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Doskin, V A; Dorinova, E A; Kartoeva, R A; Sokolova, M S

    2014-01-01

    The number of medical errors is increasing. Medical errors have negative impact on the professional activities of physicians. Analysis of the causes and incidence of medical errors and conflicts in clinical practice of foreign and domestic doctors is presented based on the author's observations and didactic materials recommended for training doctors to prevent conflict situations in their professional work and for developing a common strategy for the prevention of medical errors.

  17. Real-Time PCR in Clinical Microbiology: Applications for Routine Laboratory Testing

    PubMed Central

    Espy, M. J.; Uhl, J. R.; Sloan, L. M.; Buckwalter, S. P.; Jones, M. F.; Vetter, E. A.; Yao, J. D. C.; Wengenack, N. L.; Rosenblatt, J. E.; Cockerill, F. R.; Smith, T. F.

    2006-01-01

    Real-time PCR has revolutionized the way clinical microbiology laboratories diagnose many human microbial infections. This testing method combines PCR chemistry with fluorescent probe detection of amplified product in the same reaction vessel. In general, both PCR and amplified product detection are completed in an hour or less, which is considerably faster than conventional PCR detection methods. Real-time PCR assays provide sensitivity and specificity equivalent to that of conventional PCR combined with Southern blot analysis, and since amplification and detection steps are performed in the same closed vessel, the risk of releasing amplified nucleic acids into the environment is negligible. The combination of excellent sensitivity and specificity, low contamination risk, and speed has made real-time PCR technology an appealing alternative to culture- or immunoassay-based testing methods for diagnosing many infectious diseases. This review focuses on the application of real-time PCR in the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:16418529

  18. Roadblocks for integration of novel biomarker concepts into clinical routine: the peptoid approach.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichele, Hugo; Kodadek, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In the field of Alzheimer's disease, the development of novel biomarker assays is critically needed to improve the early diagnosis of the disease, to estimate the risk of developing the disease, to predict the rate of cognitive decline, and to monitor the response or effectiveness of a therapy. The molecular mechanisms of the disease are becoming more evident. This basic knowledge has yet to be translated into novel biomarker tools with a clinical value for general use by the community. There is therefore high interest in evaluating new technological approaches beside the classical immunoassay approach. The present paper discusses the hypothesis that there might be an adaptive immune response, unique to Alzheimer's disease, which can be visualized by the presence in body fluids of antibodies against specific analytes. Current technologies to identify such antibodies are reviewed. In addition, the major challenges to transfer discovery results of the novel antibody-based biomarker assays to a clinically relevant test will be discussed.

  19. Quantification of Unmethylated Alu (QUAlu): a tool to assess global hypomethylation in routine clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    Buj, Raquel; Mallona, Izaskun; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Barrera, Víctor; Mauricio, Dídac; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Reverter, Jordi L.; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Azuara, Daniel; Ramírez, Jose L.; Alonso, Sergio; Rosell, Rafael; Capellà, Gabriel; Perucho, Manuel; Robledo, Mercedes; Peinado, Miguel A.; Jordà, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    Hypomethylation of DNA is a hallmark of cancer and its analysis as tumor biomarker has been proposed, but its determination in clinical settings is hampered by lack of standardized methodologies. Here, we present QUAlu (Quantification of Unmethylated Alu), a new technique to estimate the Percentage of UnMethylated Alu (PUMA) as a surrogate for global hypomethylation. QUAlu consists in the measurement by qPCR of Alu repeats after digestion of genomic DNA with isoschizomers with differential sensitivity to DNA methylation. QUAlu performance has been evaluated for reproducibility, trueness and specificity, and validated by deep sequencing. As a proof of use, QUAlu has been applied to a broad variety of pathological examination specimens covering five cancer types. Major findings of the preliminary application of QUAlu to clinical samples include: (1) all normal tissues displayed similar PUMA; (2) tumors showed variable PUMA with the highest levels in lung and colon and the lowest in thyroid cancer; (3) stools from colon cancer patients presented higher PUMA than those from control individuals; (4) lung squamous cell carcinomas showed higher PUMA than lung adenocarcinomas, and an increasing hypomethylation trend associated with smoking habits. In conclusion, QUAlu is a simple and robust method to determine Alu hypomethylation in human biospecimens and may be easily implemented in research and clinical settings. PMID:26859682

  20. On transcending the impasse of respiratory motion correction applications in routine clinical imaging - a consideration of a fully automated data driven motion control framework.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Adam L; Schleyer, Paul J; Büther, Florian; Walter, Martin A; Schäfers, Klaus P; Koo, Phillip J

    2014-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used for the detection, characterization, and follow-up of tumors located in the thorax. However, patient respiratory motion presents a unique limitation that hinders the application of high-resolution PET technology for this type of imaging. Efforts to transcend this limitation have been underway for more than a decade, yet PET remains for practical considerations a modality vulnerable to motion-induced image degradation. Respiratory motion control is not employed in routine clinical operations. In this article, we take an opportunity to highlight some of the recent advancements in data-driven motion control strategies and how they may form an underpinning for what we are presenting as a fully automated data-driven motion control framework. This framework represents an alternative direction for future endeavors in motion control and can conceptually connect individual focused studies with a strategy for addressing big picture challenges and goals. PMID:26501450

  1. Clinical writing: additional ethical and practical issues.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Susan S

    2012-03-01

    The recommendations by Sieck (2011, Obtaining clinical writing informed consent versus using client disguise and recommendations for practice, Psychotherapy, 49, pp. 3-11.) are a helpful starting point for considering the ethical issues involved in the decision to seek or not to seek informed consent from clients before writing about them. Sieck makes a compelling case for the idea that there are circumstances in which the most ethical choice would be to engage in clinical writing about a client without seeking informed consent, but instead disguising the client's identity. The present response raises a number of questions not considered in the article by Sieck. First, how should one disguise a case? Moreover, how should one assess whether the disguise is sufficient to preserve confidentiality while not distorting the clinical material to the point that the material is no longer useful to the field? Second, how can we estimate the likelihood of clients reading clinical writing, particularly in the age of the Internet? Given that psychologist-authored blogs that include reference to clinical material are beginning to emerge, it is crucial that we engage in a much deeper dialogue about the ethics of clinical writing. Third, how does the presentation of clinical material influence public perceptions of psychotherapy and confidentiality? If these public perceptions, in turn, could influence the likelihood of seeking psychotherapy, might these attitudes be important to consider in ethical thinking about clinical writing? Finally, where do we draw the line between clinical writing and single case study research (which requires informed consent)? PMID:22369079

  2. Implementing RapidArc into clinical routine: A comprehensive program from machine QA to TPS validation and patient QA

    SciTech Connect

    Van Esch, Ann; Huyskens, Dominique P.; Behrens, Claus F.; Samsoee, Eva; Sjoelin, Maria; Bjelkengren, Ulf; Sjoestroem, David; Clermont, Christian; Hambach, Lionel; Sergent, Francois

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: With the increased commercial availability of intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) comes the need for comprehensive QA programs, covering the different aspects of this newly available technology. This manuscript proposes such a program for the RapidArc (RA) (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto) IMAT solution. Methods: The program was developed and tested out for a Millennium120 MLC on iX Clinacs and a HighDefinition MLC on a Novalis TX, using a variety of measurement equipment including Gafchromic film, 2D ion chamber arrays (Seven29 and StarCheck, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) with inclinometer and Octavius phantom, the Delta4 systam (ScandiDos, Uppsala, Sweden) and the portal imager (EPID). First, a number of complementary machine QA tests were developed to monitor the correct interplay between the accelerating/decelerating gantry, the variable dose rate and the MLC position, straining the delivery to the maximum allowed limits. Second, a systematic approach to the validation of the dose calculation for RA was adopted, starting with static gantry and RA specific static MLC shapes and gradually moving to dynamic gantry, dynamic MLC shapes. RA plans were then optimized on a series of artificial structures created within the homogeneous Octavius phantom and within a heterogeneous lung phantom. These served the double purpose of testing the behavior of the optimization algorithm (PRO) as well as the precision of the forward dose calculation. Finally, patient QA on a series of clinical cases was performed with different methods. In addition to the well established in-phantom QA, we evaluated the portal dosimetry solution within the Varian approach. Results: For routine machine QA, the ''Snooker Cue'' test on the EPID proved to be the most sensitive to overall problem detection. It is also the most practical one. The ''Twinkle'' and ''Sunrise'' tests were useful to obtain well differentiated information on the individual treatment delivery components. The AAA8

  3. Comparison of lyophilized and frozen microtiter systems for routine MIC testing in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Polk, E A; Starr, A J; Friedman, H; Erb, L

    1982-08-01

    Frozen microtiter plates (Micro-Media Systems, Inc.) and lyophilized microtiter plates (Sensititre--Seward Laboratory/Gibco Diagnostics) were used to perform simultaneous MIC determinations. Specimens were obtained from blood, urine and other clinical isolates. The authors found that there was good correspondence of results with the frozen microtiter MIC plates and the lyophilized microtiter MIC plates. After careful evaluation, the authors conclude that the lyophilized product is as stable and as reproducible as the frozen product. The lyophilized product is more easily and conveniently stored, has a longer shelf life and is more flexible. PMID:7048941

  4. Towards the routine use of brain imaging to aid the clinical diagnosis of disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M R; Davis, M H; Rodd, J M; Robson, T; Ali, A; Owen, A M; Pickard, J D

    2009-09-01

    Clinical audits have highlighted the many challenges and dilemmas faced by clinicians assessing persons with disorders of consciousness (vegetative state and minimally conscious state). The diagnostic decision-making process is highly subjective, dependent upon the skills of the examiner and invariably dictated by the patients' ability to move or speak. Whilst a considerable amount has been learnt since Jennett and Plum coined the term 'vegetative state', the assessment process remains largely unchanged; conducted at the bedside, using behavioural assessment tools, which are susceptible to environmental and physiological factors. This has created a situation where the rate of misdiagnosis is unacceptably high (up to 43%). In order to address these problems, various functional brain imaging paradigms, which do not rely upon the patient's ability to move or speak, have been proposed as a source of additional information to inform the diagnostic decision making process. Although accumulated evidence from brain imaging, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has been encouraging, the empirical evidence is still based on relatively small numbers of patients. It remains unclear whether brain imaging is capable of informing the diagnosis beyond the behavioural assessment and whether brain imaging has any prognostic utility. In this study, we describe the functional brain imaging findings from a group of 41 patients with disorders of consciousness, who undertook a hierarchical speech processing task. We found, contrary to the clinical impression of a specialist team using behavioural assessment tools, that two patients referred to the study with a diagnosis of vegetative state did in fact demonstrate neural correlates of speech comprehension when assessed using functional brain imaging. These fMRI findings were found to have no association with the patient's behavioural presentation at the time of investigation and thus provided additional diagnostic

  5. An estimation of the clinical mastitis incidence per 100 cows per year based on routinely collected herd data.

    PubMed

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Lam, T J G M; Keurentjes, J; van Schaik, G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether it was possible to (1) estimate the clinical mastitis incidence rate (CMI) for all Dutch dairy herds and (2) to detect farms with a high CMI based on routinely collected herd data. For this study, 240 dairy farms with a conventional milking system that participated in the milk recording program every 4 to 6 wk were randomly selected and agreed to participate. From the initial 240 herds, data of clinical mastitis (CM) registrations and routinely collected herd data of 227 herds were complete and could be used for analysis. Routinely collected herd data consisted of identification and registration records, antimicrobial usage, test-day records from the milk recording program, bulk tank milk (BTM) somatic cell count data and results of diagnostic tests on BTM samples. For each of the 227 herds, the CMI per 100 cows per year was calculated per quarter of the year and was combined with the available herd data. Two models were developed to predict the CMI for all dairy herds and to detect individual herds that belonged to the 25% herds with the highest CMI. Records of 156 (67%) herds were used for development of the models and the remaining 71 (33%) were used for validation. The model that estimated the CMI in all herds consisted of 11 explanatory variables. The observed and predicted averages of the validation herds were not significantly different. The model estimated a CMI per 100 cows per year of 32.5 cases (95% confidence interval=30.2-34.8), whereas the farmers registered 33.4 cases (95% confidence interval=29.5-37.4). The model that aimed at detecting individual herds with a high CMI contained 6 explanatory variables and could correctly classify 77% of all validation herds at the quarter-year level. The most important variables in the model were antibiotic usage for treating CM and BTM somatic cell count. In conclusion, models based on routinely collected herd data gave an accurate prediction of CMI for all Dutch dairy

  6. Validation of antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines in a routine clinical microbiology laboratory exemplifies general key challenges in setting clinical breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Hombach, Michael; Courvalin, Patrice; Böttger, Erik C

    2014-07-01

    This study critically evaluated the new European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines on the basis of a large set of disk diffusion diameters determined for clinical isolates. We report several paradigmatic problems that illustrate key issues in the selection of clinical susceptibility breakpoints, which are of general importance not only for EUCAST but for all guidelines systems, i.e., (i) the need for species-specific determinations of clinical breakpoints/epidemiological cutoffs (ECOFFs), (ii) problems arising from pooling data from various sources, and (iii) the importance of the antibiotic disk content for separating non-wild-type and wild-type populations.

  7. Diagnostic Methods for Bile Acid Malabsorption in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Vijayvargiya, Priya; Camilleri, Michael; Shin, Andrea; Saenger, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Altered bile acid (BA) concentrations in the colon may cause diarrhea or constipation. BA malabsorption (BAM) accounts for >25% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea and chronic diarrhea in Western countries. As BAM is increasingly recognized, proper diagnostic methods are desired in clinical practice to help direct the most effective treatment course for the chronic bowel dysfunction. This review appraises the methodology, advantages and disadvantages of 4 tools that directly measure BAM: 14C-glycocholate breath and stool test, 75Selenium HomotauroCholic Acid Test (SeHCAT), 7 α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and fecal BAs. 14C-glycocholate is a laborious test no longer widely utilized. 75SeHCAT is validated, but not available in the United States. Serum C4 is a simple, accurate method that is applicable to a majority of patients, but requires further clinical validation. Fecal measurements to quantify total and individual fecal BAs are technically cumbersome and not widely available. Regrettably, none of these tests are routinely available in the U.S., and a therapeutic trial with a BA binder is used as a surrogate for diagnosis of BAM. Recent data suggest there is an advantage to studying fecal excretion of the individual BAs and their role in BAM; this may constitute a significant advantage of the fecal BA method over the other tests. Fecal BA test could become a routine addition to fecal fat measurement in patients with unexplained diarrhea. In summary, availability determines the choice of test among C4, SeHCAT and fecal BA; more widespread availability of such tests would enhance clinical management of these patients. PMID:23644387

  8. Clinical roundtable monograph: a multidisciplinary approach to the use of oncotype DX in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gradishar, William J; Hansen, Nora M; Susnik, Barbara

    2009-04-01

    Recently, recommendations for the use of the Oncotype DX assay in estrogen receptor-positive node-negative breast cancer patients were incorporated into guidelines from both the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. The Oncotype DX assay is a diagnostic test which measures changes in a set of 21 genes in order to predict the likelihood of disease recurrence and also to predict which patients are most likely to respond to chemotherapy. Oncotype DX has been available commercially since January 2004 and has been used for more than 85,000 patients. Drs. William J. Gradishar, Nora M. Hansen, and Barbara Susnik answered questions regarding the incorporation of the Oncotype DX breast cancer assay into routine clinical practice. This expert dialog offers an update and clinical insights into when, how, and why clinicians might incorporate the Oncotype DX assay into the management of their breast cancer patients. Also, the latest research into the benefit of the Oncotype DX assay in node-positive patients is discussed. Finally, sample case studies offer clinically relevant examples of the practical application of the Oncotype DX assay.

  9. Prospective randomized clinical study of arterial pumps used for routine on pump coronary bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Keyser, Andreas; Hilker, Michael K; Diez, Claudius; Philipp, Alois; Foltan, Maik; Schmid, Christof

    2011-05-01

    In a number of studies, centrifugal blood pumps--in comparison with roller pumps--have been shown to attenuate trauma to blood components. Nevertheless, the impact of these results on the postoperative course needs to be discussed controversially. In a prospective randomized study, 240 consecutive adult patients underwent elective myocardial revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass employing five different pumps (Roller, Avecor, Sarns, Rotaflow, Bio-Medicus). We analyzed clinical course, blood loss, damage of blood components, and impairment of the hemostatic system. The study population was homogenous with respect to age, gender, myocardial function, and operative data. No differences were found with respect to time of ventilation, duration of intensive care stay, hospitalization, and laboratory data. The choice of arterial pump during standard extracorporeal bypass for elective coronary artery bypass grafting is no matter of concern.

  10. Clinical practice is not applied scientific method.

    PubMed

    Cox, K

    1995-08-01

    Practice is often described as applied science, but real life is far too complex and interactive to be handled by analytical scientific methods. The limitations of usefulness of scientific method in clinical practice result from many factors. The complexity of the large number of ill-defined variables at many levels of the problem. Scientific method focuses on one variable at a time across a hundred identical animals to extract a single, generalizable 'proof' or piece of 'truth'. Clinical practice deals with a hundred variables at one time within one animal from among a clientele of non-identical animals in order to optimize a mix of outcomes intended to satisfy that particular animal's current needs and desires. Interdependence among the variables. Most factors in the illness, the disease, the patient and the setting are interdependent, and cannot be sufficiently isolated to allow their separate study. Practice as a human transaction involving at least two people is too complex to be analysed one factor at a time when the interaction stimulates unpredictable responses. Ambiguous data. Words have many usages. People not only assign different interpretations to the same words, they assign different 'meanings', especially according to the threat or hope they may imply. The perceptual data gleaned from physical examination may be difficult to specify exactly or to confirm objectively. The accuracy and precision of investigational data and their reporting can be low, and are frequently unknown. Differing goals between science and practice. Science strives for exact points of propositional knowledge, verifiable by logical argument using objective data and repetition of the experiment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7661793

  11. Clinical Utility of Routine Cardiac Monitoring in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Christine C.; Zelnak, Amelia; Eley, J. William; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; McKibbin, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background Trastuzumab targets the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Cardiotoxicity is a potential adverse effect, manifesting as either an asymptomatic decline in left-ventricular ejection fraction or infrequently as largely reversible symptomatic heart failure (HF). Monitoring recommendations differ between product labeling and 2012 guidelines, and the clinical utility of serial cardiac monitoring in patients with metastatic breast cancer remains controversial. Objective The objectives of this study were to describe the frequency of monitoring, incidence of symptomatic or asymptomatic HF, overall effect on treatment, and cost of monitoring for cardiotoxicity. Methods We preformed an institutional review board–approved retrospective chart review of breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab from January 1, 2009, through January 1, 2014, at an academic medical center. Results Out of 154 treatments, 72% were adjuvant, and 28% were metastatic. In the adjuvant setting, a mean of 4.5 (interquartile range [IQR] = 4–5) echocardiograms (echos) over a mean of 11.5 (IQR = 11–12) months were performed. In the metastatic setting, a mean of 3.1 (IQR = 1–5) echos over a mean of 20.2 (IQR = 9–31) months were performed. Symptomatic HF events occurred in 4 adjuvant (3.6%) and 2 metastatic patients (6.5%); 10 patients (6.5%) had a treatment interruption, with 9 (90%) tolerating restart of trastuzumab. Two patients (1.3%) changed treatment as a result of cardiotoxicity. Using population incidence of HER2-positive breast cancer, $13 million could be saved if monitoring were reduced by 1 echo per patient. Conclusions Given the low incidence of clinically significant HF and cost of monitoring, less frequent monitoring may be justified. PMID:27307412

  12. ‘Indirect’ challenges from science to clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Sandra D.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect challenges act to provoke bronchoconstriction by causing the release of endogenous mediators and are used to identify airway hyper-responsiveness. This paper reviews the historical development of challenges, with exercise, eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) of dry air, wet hypertonic saline, and with dry powder mannitol, that preceded their use in clinical practice. The first challenge developed for clinical use was exercise. Physicians were keen for a standardized test to identify exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and to assess the effect of drugs such as disodium cromoglycate. EVH with dry air became a surrogate for exercise to increase ventilation to very high levels. A simple test was developed with EVH and used to identify EIA in defence force recruits and later in elite athletes. The research findings with different conditions of inspired air led to the conclusion that loss of water by evaporation from the airway surface was the stimulus to EIA. The proposal that water loss caused a transient increase in osmolarity led to the development of the hypertonic saline challenge. The wet aerosol challenge with 4.5% saline, provided a known osmotic stimulus, to which most asthmatics were sensitive. To simplify the osmotic challenge, a dry powder of mannitol was specially prepared and encapsulated. The test pack with different doses and an inhaler provided a common operating procedure that could be used at the point of care. All these challenge tests have a high specificity to identify currently active asthma. All have been used to assess the benefit of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. Over the 50 years, the methods for testing became safer, less complex, and less expensive and all used forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to measure the response. Thus, they became practical to use routinely and were recommended in guidelines for use in clinical practice. PMID:26908255

  13. Code of practice for clinical proton dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Vynckier, S; Bonnett, D E; Jones, D T

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this document is to make recommendations for the determination of absorbed dose to tissue for clinical proton beams and to achieve uniformity in proton dosimetry. A Code of Practice has been chosen, providing specific guidelines for the choice of the detector and the method of determination of absorbed dose for proton beams only. This Code of Practice is confined specifically to the determination of absorbed dose and is not concerned with the biological effects of proton beams. It is recommended that dosimeters be calibrated by comparison with a calorimeter. If this is not available, a Faraday cup, or alternatively, an ionization chamber, with a 60Co calibration factor should be used. Physical parameters for determining the dose from tissue-equivalent ionization chamber measurements are given together with a worksheet. It is recommended that calibrations be carried out in water at the centre of the spread-out-Bragg-peak and that dose distributions be measured in a water phantom. It is estimated that the error in the calibrations will be less than +/- 5% (1 S.D.) in all cases. Adoption and implementation of this Code of Practice will facilitate the exchange of clinical information.

  14. [Computer-aided reconstruction of the facial skeleton : Planning and implementation in clinical routine].

    PubMed

    Wilde, F; Schramm, A

    2016-09-01

    In computer-aided reconstruction of the facial skeleton, a workflow has been established involving the following steps: > diagnosis → planning and simulation → surgical procedure → validation and quality control <. In addition to clinical findings, the focus of diagnosis is on three-dimensional (3D) imaging, particularly computed tomography. Planning and simulation involves creation of a virtual model of the desired surgical outcome using special planning software. The accuracy of implant fit can be virtually verified before surgery. 3D models and virtual reconstructions can be used for manufacturing patient-specific implants. During the surgical procedure, planning must be transferred to the surgical site as accurately as possible. A number of techniques are available for this purpose, e. g., closed reduction, open reduction with the placement of anatomically preformed or patient-specific implants in combination with surgical guides, and the additional use of navigation. Validation and quality control require postprocedural 3D imaging. After reconstructions of the midface, 3D imaging should be performed even before surgery is completed. Malpositions can thus be directly corrected and unnecessary open reconstructions avoided. Mobile 3D c-arms are particularly useful for intraoperative 3D imaging. Whereas intraoperative imaging makes postoperative imaging after midface reconstruction unnecessary in many cases, postoperative 3D imaging in addition to intraoperative imaging may still be recommended after complex reconstructions of the facial skeleton. PMID:27525666

  15. [Computer-aided reconstruction of the facial skeleton : Planning and implementation in clinical routine].

    PubMed

    Wilde, F; Schramm, A

    2016-09-01

    In computer-aided reconstruction of the facial skeleton, a workflow has been established involving the following steps: > diagnosis → planning and simulation → surgical procedure → validation and quality control <. In addition to clinical findings, the focus of diagnosis is on three-dimensional (3D) imaging, particularly computed tomography. Planning and simulation involves creation of a virtual model of the desired surgical outcome using special planning software. The accuracy of implant fit can be virtually verified before surgery. 3D models and virtual reconstructions can be used for manufacturing patient-specific implants. During the surgical procedure, planning must be transferred to the surgical site as accurately as possible. A number of techniques are available for this purpose, e. g., closed reduction, open reduction with the placement of anatomically preformed or patient-specific implants in combination with surgical guides, and the additional use of navigation. Validation and quality control require postprocedural 3D imaging. After reconstructions of the midface, 3D imaging should be performed even before surgery is completed. Malpositions can thus be directly corrected and unnecessary open reconstructions avoided. Mobile 3D c-arms are particularly useful for intraoperative 3D imaging. Whereas intraoperative imaging makes postoperative imaging after midface reconstruction unnecessary in many cases, postoperative 3D imaging in addition to intraoperative imaging may still be recommended after complex reconstructions of the facial skeleton.

  16. Best practices for veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology, with emphasis on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Lindsay; Boone, Laura I; Ramaiah, Lila; Penraat, Kelley A; von Beust, Barbara R; Ameri, Mehrdad; Poitout-Belissent, Florence M; Weingand, Kurt; Workman, Heather C; Aulbach, Adam D; Meyer, Dennis J; Brown, Diane E; MacNeill, Amy L; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Bounous, Denise I

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this paper by the Regulatory Affairs Committee (RAC) of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) is to review the current regulatory guidances (eg, guidelines) and published recommendations for best practices in veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, and to utilize the combined experience of ASVCP RAC to provide updated recommendations. Discussion points include (1) instrumentation, validation, and sample collection, (2) routine laboratory variables, (3) cytologic laboratory variables, (4) data interpretation and reporting (including peer review, reference intervals and statistics), and (5) roles and responsibilities of clinical pathologists and laboratory personnel. Revision and improvement of current practices should be in alignment with evolving regulatory guidance documents, new technology, and expanding understanding and utility of clinical pathology. These recommendations provide a contemporary guide for the refinement of veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology best practices.

  17. Litigations and the Obstetrician in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Adinma, JIB

    2016-01-01

    The expectation of obstetrics is a perfect outcome. Obstetrics malpractice can cause morbidity and mortality that may engender litigation. Globally, increasing trend to litigation in obstetrics practice has resulted in high indemnity cost to the obstetrician with consequent frustration and overall danger to the future of obstetrics practice. The objective was to review litigations and the Obstetrician in Clinical Practice, highlighting medical ethics, federation of gynecology and obstetrics (FIGO’s) ethical responsibility guideline on women's sexual and reproductive health and right; examine the relationship between medical ethics and medical laws; X-ray medical negligence and litigable obstetrics malpractices; and make recommendation towards the improvement of obstetrics practices to avert misconduct that would lead to litigation. Review involves a literature search on the internet in relevant journals, textbooks, and monographs. Knowledge and application of medical ethics are important to the obstetricians to avert medical negligence that will lead to litigation. A medical negligence can occur in any of the three triads of medicare viz: Diagnosis, advice/counseling, and treatment. Lawsuits in obstetrics generally center on errors of omission or commission especially in relation to the failure to perform caesarean section or to perform the operation early enough. Fear of litigation, high indemnity cost, and long working hours are among the main reasons given by obstetricians for ceasing obstetrics practice. Increasing global trend in litigation with high indemnity cost to the obstetrician is likely to jeopardize the future of obstetrics care especially in countries without medical insurance coverage for health practitioners. Litigation in obstetrics can be prevented through the Obstetrician's mindfulness of its possibility; acquainting themselves of the medical laws and guidelines related to their practice; ensuring adequate communication with, and consent of

  18. Litigations and the Obstetrician in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Adinma, Jib

    2016-01-01

    The expectation of obstetrics is a perfect outcome. Obstetrics malpractice can cause morbidity and mortality that may engender litigation. Globally, increasing trend to litigation in obstetrics practice has resulted in high indemnity cost to the obstetrician with consequent frustration and overall danger to the future of obstetrics practice. The objective was to review litigations and the Obstetrician in Clinical Practice, highlighting medical ethics, federation of gynecology and obstetrics (FIGO's) ethical responsibility guideline on women's sexual and reproductive health and right; examine the relationship between medical ethics and medical laws; X-ray medical negligence and litigable obstetrics malpractices; and make recommendation towards the improvement of obstetrics practices to avert misconduct that would lead to litigation. Review involves a literature search on the internet in relevant journals, textbooks, and monographs. Knowledge and application of medical ethics are important to the obstetricians to avert medical negligence that will lead to litigation. A medical negligence can occur in any of the three triads of medicare viz: Diagnosis, advice/counseling, and treatment. Lawsuits in obstetrics generally center on errors of omission or commission especially in relation to the failure to perform caesarean section or to perform the operation early enough. Fear of litigation, high indemnity cost, and long working hours are among the main reasons given by obstetricians for ceasing obstetrics practice. Increasing global trend in litigation with high indemnity cost to the obstetrician is likely to jeopardize the future of obstetrics care especially in countries without medical insurance coverage for health practitioners. Litigation in obstetrics can be prevented through the Obstetrician's mindfulness of its possibility; acquainting themselves of the medical laws and guidelines related to their practice; ensuring adequate communication with, and consent of

  19. Evaluation of a High Resolution Genotyping Method for Chlamydia trachomatis Using Routine Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yibing; Skilton, Rachel J.; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Andrews, Emma; Clarke, Ian N.; Marsh, Pete

    2011-01-01

    Background Genital chlamydia infection is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the UK. C. trachomatis genital infections are usually caused by strains which fall into two pathovars: lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and the genitourinary genotypes D–K. Although these genotypes can be discriminated by outer membrane protein gene (ompA) sequencing or multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), neither protocol affords the high-resolution genotyping required for local epidemiology and accurate contact-tracing. Principal Findings We evaluated variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) and ompA sequencing (now called multi-locus VNTR analysis and ompA or “MLVA-ompA”) to study local epidemiology in Southampton over a period of six months. One hundred and fifty seven endocervical swabs that tested positive for C. trachomatis from both the Southampton genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic and local GP surgeries were tested by COBAS Taqman 48 (Roche) PCR for the presence of C. trachomatis. Samples tested as positive by the commercial NAATs test were genotyped, where possible, by a MLVA-ompA sequencing technique. Attempts were made to isolate C. trachomatis from all 157 samples in cell culture, and 68 (43%) were successfully recovered by repeatable passage in culture. Of the 157 samples, 93 (i.e. 59%) were fully genotyped by MLVA-ompA. Only one mixed infection (E & D) in a single sample was confirmed. There were two distinct D genotypes for the ompA gene. Most frequent ompA genotypes were D, E and F, comprising 20%, 41% and 16% of the type-able samples respectively. Within all genotypes we detected numerous MLVA sub-types. Conclusions Amongst the common genotypes, there are a significant number of defined MLVA sub-types, which may reflect particular background demographics including age group, geography, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexual networks. PMID:21347295

  20. [Asthma clinical practice guidelines: advantages and pitfalls].

    PubMed

    Plaza, Vicente; Bellido-Casado, Jesús; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Rodrigo, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The Clinical Practice Guidelines on asthma have contributed towards unifying concepts and reaching a consensus on performances between different professional groups. However, they have failed in the overall improvement in the management of asthma, the final objective that they are meant to achieve. Today, almost 20 years after they appeared, the majority of asthmatic patients are still inadequately controlled, partly due to lack of follow up by doctors and the rest of health care staff who have to look after them. This lack of follow up of these recommendations is probably associated with a lack of well structured planning in their circulation and implementation. Also, although the recommendations of these guidelines agree in what is essential, they differ in other aspects, which in turn could be determining factors in clinical practice. The purpose of this article has been to establish the main differences in the recommendations that the principal clinical practice guidelines on the disease propose on the diagnosis, classification and treatment of asthma. To do this we have compared, The British Guideline on the Management of Asthma 2007, The Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention/Global Initiative for Asthma 2006 (GINA), the National Prevention program for Education on Asthma (Programa Nacional de Prevención para la Educación del Asma) (NAEPP), the Spanish Guide for the Management of Asthma (Guía Española para el Manejo del Asma 2003) (GEMA) and the ALAT y SEPAR guides, Latin-America and Spain. Recommendations for the Prevention and Treatment of Asthma Exacerbation (América Latina y España. Recomendaciones para la Prevención y el Tratamiento de la Exacerbación Asmática 2008) (ALERTA).

  1. Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. Conclusions Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a

  2. The Sherlock Holmes method in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Sopeña, B

    2014-04-01

    This article lists the integral elements of the Sherlock Holmes method, which is based on the intelligent collection of information through detailed observation, careful listening and thorough examination. The information thus obtained is analyzed to develop the main and alternative hypotheses, which are shaped during the deductive process until the key leading to the solution is revealed. The Holmes investigative method applied to clinical practice highlights the advisability of having physicians reason through and seek out the causes of the disease with the data obtained from acute observation, a detailed review of the medical history and careful physical examination.

  3. Biosensors in Clinical Practice: Focus on Oncohematology

    PubMed Central

    Fracchiolla, Nicola S.; Artuso, Silvia; Cortelezzi, Agostino

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors are devices that are capable of detecting specific biological analytes and converting their presence or concentration into some electrical, thermal, optical or other signal that can be easily analysed. The first biosensor was designed by Clark and Lyons in 1962 as a means of measuring glucose. Since then, much progress has been made and the applications of biosensors are today potentially boundless. This review is limited to their clinical applications, particularly in the field of oncohematology. Biosensors have recently been developed in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by hematological malignancies, such as the biosensor for assessing the in vitro pre-treatment efficacy of cytarabine in acute myeloid leukemia, and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensor for assessing the efficacy of imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia. The review also considers the challenges and future perspectives of biosensors in clinical practice. PMID:23673681

  4. KRAS mutation testing in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Perincheri, Sudhir; Hui, Pei

    2015-03-01

    Activating mutation of KRAS plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of common human malignancies and molecular testing of KRAS mutation has emerged as an essential biomarker in the current practice of clinical oncology. The presence of KRAS mutation is generally associated with clinical aggressiveness of the cancer and reduced survival of the patient. Therapeutically, KRAS mutation testing has maximum utility in stratifying metastatic colorectal carcinoma and lung cancer patients for treatment with targeted therapy. Diagnostically, KRAS mutation testing is useful in the workup of pancreaticobiliary and thyroid cancers, particularly using cytological specimens. In the era of precision medicine, the role of KRAS mutation testing is poised to expand, likely in a setting of combinatorial therapeutic strategy and requiring additional mutation testing of its upstream and/or downstream effectors.

  5. Integrating Pain Management in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Robert N.; Edwards, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    There is much evidence to suggest that psychological and social issues are predictive of pain severity, emotional distress, work disability, and response to medical treatments among persons with chronic pain. Psychologists can play an important role in the identification of psychological and social dysfunction and in matching personal characteristics to effective interventions as part of a multidisciplinary approach to pain management, leading to a greater likelihood of treatment success. The assessment of different domains using semi-structured clinical interviews and standardized self-report measures permits identification of somatosensory, emotional, cognitive, behavioral and social issues in order to facilitate treatment planning. We briefly describe measures to assess constructs related to pain and intervention strategies for the behavioral treatment of chronic pain and discuss related psychiatric and substance abuse issues. Finally, we offer a future look at the role of integrating pain management in clinical practice in the psychological assessment and treatment for persons with chronic pain. PMID:22383018

  6. Evidence of dose saving in routine CT practice using iterative reconstruction derived from a national diagnostic reference level survey

    PubMed Central

    Hayton, A; Beveridge, T; Marks, P; Wallace, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence and significance of the use of iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on patient dose in CT in Australia. Methods: We examined survey data submitted to the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) National Diagnostic Reference Level Service (NDRLS) during 2013 and 2014. We compared median survey dose metrics with categorization by scan region and use of IR. Results: The use of IR results in a reduction in volume CT dose index of between 17% and 44% and a reduction in dose–length product of between 14% and 34% depending on the specific scan region. The reduction was highly significant (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon rank-sum test) for all six scan regions included in the NDRLS. Overall, 69% (806/1167) of surveys included in the analysis used IR. Conclusion: The use of IR in CT is achieving dose savings of 20–30% in routine practice in Australia. IR appears to be widely used by participants in the ARPANSA NDRLS with approximately 70% of surveys submitted employing this technique. Advances in knowledge: This study examines the impact of the use of IR on patient dose in CT on a national scale. PMID:26133224

  7. A mixed-method investigation of patient monitoring and enhanced feedback in routine practice: Barriers and facilitators

    PubMed Central

    Lucock, Mike; Halstead, Jeremy; Leach, Chris; Barkham, Michael; Tucker, Samantha; Randal, Chloe; Middleton, Joanne; Khan, Wajid; Catlow, Hannah; Waters, Emma; Saxon, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the barriers and facilitators of an effective implementation of an outcome monitoring and feedback system in a UK National Health Service psychological therapy service. Method: An outcome monitoring system was introduced in two services. Enhanced feedback was given to therapists after session 4. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used, including questionnaires for therapists and patients. Thematic analysis was carried out on written and verbal feedback from therapists. Analysis of patient outcomes for 202 episodes of therapy was compared with benchmark data of 136 episodes of therapy for which feedback was not given to therapists. Results: Themes influencing the feasibility and acceptability of the feedback system were the extent to which therapists integrated the measures and feedback into the therapy, availability of administrative support, information technology, and complexity of the service. There were low levels of therapist actions resulting from the feedback, including discussing the feedback in supervision and with patients. Conclusions: The findings support the feasibility and acceptability of setting up a routine system in a complex service, but a number of challenges and barriers have to be overcome and therapist differences are apparent. More research on implementation and effectiveness is needed in diverse clinical settings. PMID:26436605

  8. Clinical trials and the new good clinical practice guideline in Japan. An economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Ono, S; Kodama, Y

    2000-08-01

    Japanese clinical trials have been drastically changing in response to the implementation of the International Conference on Harmonisation-Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP) guideline in 1997. The most important aim of the new guideline is to standardise the quality of clinical trials in the US, European Union and Japan, but it inevitably imposes substantial costs on investigators, sponsors and even patients in Japan. The study environment in Japan differs from that in the US in several ways: (i) historical lack of a formal requirement for informed consent; (ii) patients' attitudes to clinical trials in terms of expectation of positive outcomes; (iii) the implications of universal health insurance for trial participation; (iv) the historical absence of on-site monitoring by the sponsor, with the attendant effects on study quality; and (v) the lack of adequate financial and personnel support for the conduct of trials. Implementation of the new GCP guideline will improve the ethical and scientific quality of trials conducted in Japan. It may also lead to an improved relationship between medical professionals and patients if the requirement for explicit informed consent in clinical trials leads to the provision of a similar level of patient information in routine care and changes the traditional paternalistic attitude of physicians to patients. The initial response of the Japanese 'market' for clinical trials to the implementation of the ICH-GCP guideline has been clinical trial price increases and a decrease in the number of study contracts. These changes can be explained by applying a simple demand-supply scheme. Whether clinical trials undertaken in Japan become more or less attractive to the industry in the long term will depend on other factors such as international regulations on the acceptability of foreign clinical trials and the reform of domestic healthcare policies. PMID:11067647

  9. Implications of the concept of minimal risk in research on informed choice in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kyoko; Nisker, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    The concept of a minimal risk threshold in research, beneath which exception to informed consent and ethics review processes may occur, has been codified for over 30 years in many national research regulations and by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. Although minimal risk in research constitutes one of the criteria for allowing waiver of informed consent or modification to the consent process and a large body of literature exists, discussion of a minimal risk threshold in clinical practice has not occurred. One reason for lack of discussion may be that implicit consent is accepted for a wide range of routine clinical practices. Extending the role of minimal risk in research to clinical practice might assist clinicians in identifying circumstances for which implicit consent is indeed sufficient and circumstances in which it is not. Further, concepts from minimal risk in research might assist clinicians regarding when information provision in health promotion is required. We begin by reviewing concepts in both minimal risk in research and informed choice in clinical practice. We then explore how a clinical minimal risk concept may clarify recommendations for information provision in clinical practice and support the patient's informed choice regarding therapeutic and diagnostic procedures and also health promotion. Given that clinical practice involves a broad scope of health information, professional practice guidelines on information provision based on the application of the minimal risk threshold in research could be developed to guide clinicians in what information must be provided to their patients.

  10. Taking PDT into mainstream clinical practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bown, Stephen G.

    2009-06-01

    Many individuals in the field are frustrated by the slow progress getting PDT established in mainstream clinical practice. The five key reasons are: 1. Lack of adequate evidence of safety and efficacy and optimization of dosimetry. These are fundamental. The number of randomized controlled studies is still small. For some cancer applications, it is difficult to get patients to agree to be randomised, so different approaches must be taken. Anecdotal results are not acceptable to sceptics and regulators. 2. The regulatory processes. The rules get more complex every day, but there is no choice, they must be met. The full bureaucratic strength of the pharmaceutical industry is needed to address these issues. 3. Conservatism of the medical profession. Established physicians are reluctant to change practice, especially if it means referring patients to different specialists. 4. Lack of education. It is amazing how few physicians have even heard of PDT and many that have, are sceptical. The profile of PDT to both the medical profession and the general public needs to be raised dramatically. Patient demand works wonders! 5. Money. Major investment is required to run clinical trials. Pharmaceutical companies may see PDT as a threat (eg reduced market for chemotherapy agents). Licensed photosensitisers are expensive. Why not reduce the price initially, to get the technique established and stimulate demand? PDT has the potential for enormous cost savings for health service providers. With appropriate motivation and resources these problems can be addressed. Possible routes forward will be suggested.

  11. Oblique Chest Views as a Routine Part of Skeletal Surveys Performed for Possible Physical Abuse--Is This Practice Worthwhile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karen Kirhofer; Prince, Jeffrey S.; Nixon, G. William

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of oblique chest views in the diagnosis of rib fractures when used as a routine part of the skeletal survey performed for possible physical abuse. Methods: Oblique chest views have been part of the routine skeletal survey protocol at Primary Children's Medical Center since October 2002. Dictated radiology reports…

  12. Practical Clinical Training in Skills Labs: Theory and Practice.

    PubMed

    Bugaj, T J; Nikendei, C

    2016-01-01

    Today, skills laboratories or "skills labs", i.e. specific practical skill training facilities, are a firmly established part of medical education offering the possibility of training clinical procedures in a safe and fault-forging environment prior to real life application at bedside or in the operating room. Skills lab training follows a structured teaching concept, takes place under supervision and in consideration of methodological-didactic concepts, ideally creating an atmosphere that allows the repeated, anxiety- and risk-free practice of targeted skills. In this selective literature review, the first section is devoted to (I) the development and dissemination of the skills lab concept. There follows (II) an outline of the underlying idea and (III) an analysis of key efficacy factors. Thereafter, (IV) the training method's effectiveness and transference are illuminated, before (V) the use of student tutors, in the sense of peer-assisted-learning, in skills labs is discussed separately. Finally, (VI) the efficiency of the skills lab concept is analyzed, followed by an outlook on future developments and trends in the field of skills lab training. PMID:27579363

  13. Practical Clinical Training in Skills Labs: Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bugaj, T. J.; Nikendei, C.

    2016-01-01

    Today, skills laboratories or “skills labs”, i.e. specific practical skill training facilities, are a firmly established part of medical education offering the possibility of training clinical procedures in a safe and fault-forging environment prior to real life application at bedside or in the operating room. Skills lab training follows a structured teaching concept, takes place under supervision and in consideration of methodological-didactic concepts, ideally creating an atmosphere that allows the repeated, anxiety- and risk-free practice of targeted skills. In this selective literature review, the first section is devoted to (I) the development and dissemination of the skills lab concept. There follows (II) an outline of the underlying idea and (III) an analysis of key efficacy factors. Thereafter, (IV) the training method’s effectiveness and transference are illuminated, before (V) the use of student tutors, in the sense of peer-assisted-learning, in skills labs is discussed separately. Finally, (VI) the efficiency of the skills lab concept is analyzed, followed by an outlook on future developments and trends in the field of skills lab training. PMID:27579363

  14. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis II. Surgical management.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Toepfner, Nicole; Steffen, Gregor; Waldfahrer, Frank; Berner, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    morbidity in terms of pain and bleeding. Although tonsillar tissue remains along the capsule, the outcome appears not to differ from TE, at least in the pediatric population and young adults. Age and a history of tonsillitis are not a contraindication, abscess formation in the tonsillar remnants is an extremely rare finding. The volume of the tonsils should be graded according to Brodsky and a grade >1 is considered to be eligible for TT. The number of episodes during 12 months prior to presentation is crucial to indicate either TE or TT. While surgery is not indicated in patients with less than three episodes, a wait-and-see policy for 6 months is justified to include the potential of a spontaneous healing before surgery is considered. Six or more episodes appear to justify tonsil surgery. (2) Needle aspiration, incision and drainage, and abscess tonsillectomy are effective methods to treat patients with peritonsillar abscess. Compliance and ability of the patient to cooperate must be taken into account when choosing the surgical method. Simultaneous antibiotic therapy is recommended but still subject of scientific research. Abscess tonsillectomy should be preferred, if complications have occurred or if alternative therapeutic procedures had failed. Simultaneous TE of the contralateral side should only be performed when criteria for elective TE are matched or in cases of bilateral peritonsillar abscess. Needle aspiration or incision and drainage should be preferred if co-morbidities exist or an increased surgical risk or coagulation disorders are present. Recurrences of peritonsillar abscesses after needle aspiration or incision and drainage are rare. Interval TE should not be performed, the approach is not supported by contemporary clinical studies. (3) In patients with infectious mononucleosis TE should not be performed as a routine procedure for symptom control. TE is indicated in cases with clinically significant upper airway obstruction resulting from inflammatory

  15. Putting Research Findings into Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Deepa; Al-Lawatia, Zainab; Al-Abri, Rashid; Bhargava, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A perception exists that clinicians in Oman are reluctant to adopt evidence-based practice (EBP). This pilot study was undertaken to study the feasibility of using EBP pathways at the point of care in otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery. The ultimate aim was to facilitate EBP with the probability of developing a new system for implementing research findings/translational research at the clinical point of care. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective questionnaire pilot survey of clinicians at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, a tertiary care medical centre, was undertaken. Respondents included 135 physicians and surgeons with between 3 months and 25 years of clinical experience and included personnel ranging from interns to senior consultants, in areas ranging from primary care to specialist care. Results: Of those polled, 90% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85–95%) either strongly agreed or agreed that evidence-based practice protocols (EBPP) could help in decision making. A total of 87.4% of participants (95% CI 81.8–93%) either strongly agreed or agreed that EBPPs can improve clinical outcomes; 91.8% of participants (95% CI 87.2–96.4%) would use and apply EBPP in day-to-day care if they were available at the point of care and embedded in the hospital information system. Conclusions: The perception that clinicians at SQUH are reluctant to adopt EBP is incorrect. The introduction of EBP pathways is very feasible at the primary care level. Institutional support for embedding EBP in hospital information systems is needed as well as further outcome research to assess the improvement in quality of care. PMID:22548137

  16. Pragmatic and scientific advantages of MDHAQ/ RAPID3 completion by all patients at all visits in routine clinical care.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Theodore; Yazici, Yusuf; Castrejón, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The patient history often provides the most important information in diagnosis and management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other rheumatic diseases. A multidimensional health assessment questionnaire (MDHAQ)-with templates to score RAPID3 (routine assessment the patient index data), an index of three patient self-report measures, physical function, pain, and patient global estimate-pro- vides a "scientific" patient history. MDHAQ/RAPID3 scores meet criteria for the scientific method seen for laboratory tests: standard format, quantitative data, protocol for col- lection, and recognition of prognostic implications of levels for management decisions. Extensive evidence supports a scientific rationale for MDHAQ/RAPID3 scores, which are as efficient as joint counts, laboratory tests, DAS28, and CDAI to distinguish active from control treatments in clinical trials and correlated significantly with DAS28 and CDAI scores in clinical trials and usual clinical care, including categories for high, moderate, low severity, and remission. Pragmatic advantages of MDHAQ/RAPID3 include that the patient does almost all the work and prepares for the encounter to focus on concerns to discuss with the doctor. MDHAQ/RAPID3 improves doctor-patient communication and saves time for the doctor with a 10 to 15 second overview of medical history data that otherwise would require 10 to 15 minutes of conversation. RAPID3 is scored in 5 seconds, compared to almost 2 minutes for a CDAI or DAS28, and can be used effectively for treat-to-target in RA. MDHAQ/ RAPID3 is informative in all rheumatic diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, fibromyalgia, gout, and others. All rheumatologists may include MDHAQ/RAPID3 in all patients in the infrastructure of clinical care. PMID:23259656

  17. PRACTICAL CHRONIC PAIN ASSESSMENT TOOLS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE.

    PubMed

    Loncarić-Katušin, Mirjana; Milošević, Milan; Žilić, Antonio; Mišković, Petar; Majerić-Kogler, Višnja; Žunić, Josip

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to show the role of tools in the evaluation of chronic pain (CP) in general practitioner (GP) everyday clinical practice. The study was done by analyzing electronic database of the first visits of 1090 CP patients referred to the Pain Clinic of the Karlovac General Hospital, Karlovac, Croatia, by their GPs. All patient records were analyzed according to the cause of CP, strongest pain a week before the examination, quality of sleep, and the Patients' Global Impression of Change scale. All statistical analyses were done using the IBM SPSS Statistics version 19.0.0.1 (www.spss.com). CP predominantly occurs in older age group. Patients with musculoskeletal pain accounted for the highest percentage (n = 316; 29%), followed by those with neuropathic pain (n = 253; 23.20%) and those with low back pain (n = 225; 20.60%). The mean pain intensity rating scale score was 8.3 ± 1.8 a week before the examination and the mean quality of sleep score was 6.8 ± 1.9. Moderate and severe sleep quality disorder was significantly present in patients over 65 years of age (p = 0.007), patients with musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain, back pain, and those having rated Patients' Global Impression of Change scale as worsening (p = 0.001). The severity of pain and poor quality of sleep are the leading causes of deterioration of the Patients' Global Impression of Change scale in patients suffering from musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain. In order to treat CP comprehensively, it is important for GPs to evaluate the outcomes of clinical treatment using tools for CP assessment. PMID:27276768

  18. Standardized serum GM-CSF autoantibody testing for the routine clinical diagnosis of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kanji; Nakata, Koh; Carey, Brenna; Chalk, Claudia; Suzuki, Takuji; Sakagami, Takuro; Koch, Diana E; Stevens, Carrie; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Trapnell, Bruce C

    2014-01-15

    Autoantibodies against granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMAbs) cause autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and measurement of the GMAb level in serum is now commonly used to identify this disease, albeit, in a clinical research setting. The present study was undertaken to optimize and standardize serum GMAb concentration testing using a GMAb enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (GMAb ELISA) to prepare for its introduction into routine clinical use. The GMAb ELISA was evaluated using serum specimens from autoimmune PAP patients, healthy people, and GMAb-spiked serum from healthy people. After optimizing assay components and procedures, its accuracy, precision, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and ruggedness were evaluated. The coefficient of variation in repeated measurements was acceptable (<15%) for well-to-well, plate-to-plate, day-to-day, and inter-operator variation, and was not affected by repeated freeze-thaw cycles of serum specimens or the reference standards, or by storage of serum samples at -80°C. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the PAP patient-derived polyclonal GMAb reference standard (PCRS) was 0.78ng/ml. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a serum GMAb level of 5μg/ml (based on PCRS) as the optimal cut off value for distinguishing autoimmune PAP serum from normal serum. A pharmaceutical-grade, monoclonal GMAb reference standard (MCRS) was developed as the basis of a new unit of measure for GMAb concentration: one International Unit (IU) of GMAb is equivalent to 1μg/ml of MCRS. The median [interquartile range] serum GMAb level was markedly higher in autoimmune PAP patients than in healthy people (21.54 [12.83-36.38] versus 0.08 [0.05-0.14] IU; n=56, 38; respectively; P<0.0001). Results demonstrate that serum GMAb measurement using the GMAb ELISA was accurate, precise, reliable, had an acceptable LLOQ, and could be accurately expressed in standardized units. These findings support the

  19. Gastrointestinal cancer screening: screening may release new research funding to improve health service also in routine clinics.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Geir

    2015-06-01

    We are far from having seen the ideal method of screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and the downsides of screening have not been fully addressed. Funding of adequately sized screening trials with a 10-15-year perspective for endpoints CRC mortality and incidence is difficult to get. Also, with such time horizons, there will always be an ongoing study to be awaited before feeling obliged to invest in the next. New, promising screening methods may, however, emerge far more often than every 10th year, and the knowledge gap may easily widen unless research is made a key responsibility for any ongoing cancer screening program. Previous lost battles on screening research may be won if accepting that scientific evidence may be obtained within the framework of screening programs - provided that they are designed as platforms for Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER). Accepting that CER-based screening programs should be preferred to non-CER programs and seriously compete for their funding sources, then CER screening programs may not be considered so much as contenders for ordinary clinical research funds. Also, CER within a screening framework may benefit patients in routine clinics as shown by screening research in Nordic countries. The Nordic countries have been early contributors to research on CRC screening, but slow in implementing screening programs. PMID:25857737

  20. Data Resource Profile: Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)

    PubMed Central

    Herrett, Emily; Gallagher, Arlene M; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Forbes, Harriet; Mathur, Rohini; van Staa, Tjeerd; Smeeth, Liam

    2015-01-01

    The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is an ongoing primary care database of anonymised medical records from general practitioners, with coverage of over 11.3 million patients from 674 practices in the UK. With 4.4 million active (alive, currently registered) patients meeting quality criteria, approximately 6.9% of the UK population are included and patients are broadly representative of the UK general population in terms of age, sex and ethnicity. General practitioners are the gatekeepers of primary care and specialist referrals in the UK. The CPRD primary care database is therefore a rich source of health data for research, including data on demographics, symptoms, tests, diagnoses, therapies, health-related behaviours and referrals to secondary care. For over half of patients, linkage with datasets from secondary care, disease-specific cohorts and mortality records enhance the range of data available for research. The CPRD is very widely used internationally for epidemiological research and has been used to produce over 1000 research studies, published in peer-reviewed journals across a broad range of health outcomes. However, researchers must be aware of the complexity of routinely collected electronic health records, including ways to manage variable completeness, misclassification and development of disease definitions for research. PMID:26050254

  1. Standardized clinical outcome rating scale for depression for use in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Posternak, Michael A; Chelminski, Iwona; Friedman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The integration of research into clinical practice to conduct effectiveness studies faces multiple obstacles. One obstacle is the burden of completing research measures of outcome. A simple, reliable, and valid measure that could be rated at every visit, incorporated into a clinician's progress note, and reflect the DSM-IV definition of a major depressive episode (including partial and full remission from the episode) would enhance the ability to conduct effectiveness research. The goal of the present study was to examine the reliability and validity of such a measure. Three hundred and three psychiatric outpatients who were being treated for a DSM-IV major depressive episode were rated on the Standardized Clinical Outcome Rating for Depression (SCOR-D), 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning. We examined the correlation between the SCOR-D and the other measures, and conducted an analyses of variance to compare mean values on these measures for each rating point on the SCOR-D. The inter-rater reliability of the SCOR-D dimensional ratings and categorical determination of remission were high. The SCOR-D was highly correlated with the other scales, and there were significant differences on the other measures of depression severity between each adjacent rating level of the SCOR-D. The SCOR-D is a brief standardized outcome measure linked to the DSM-IV approach toward defining remission that can be incorporated into routine clinical practice without adding undue burden to the treating clinician with some evidence of reliability and validity. This measure could make it more feasible to conduct effectiveness studies in clinical practice.

  2. The Spatial QRS-T Angle: Implications in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Voulgari, Christina; Pagoni, Stamatina; Tesfaye, Solomon; Tentolouris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The ventricular gradient (VG) as a concept was conceived in the 1930s and its calculation yielded information that was not otherwise obtainable. The VG was not utilized by clinicians at large because it was not easy to understand and its computation time-consuming. The contemporary spatial QRS-T angle is based on the concept of the VG and defined as its mathematical and physiological integral. Its current major clinical use is to assess the cardiac primary repolarization abnormalities in 3-dimensional spatial vectorial plans which are normally untraced in the presence of secondary electrophysiological activity in a 2-dimensional routine electrocardiogram (ECG). Currently the calculation of the spatial QRS-T angle can be easily computed on the basis of a classical ECG and contributes to localization of arrhythmogenic areas in the heart by assessing overall and local heterogeneity of the myocardial ventricular action potention duration. Recent population-based studies suggest that the spatial QRS-T angle is a dominant ECG predictor of future cardiovascular events and death and it is superior to more conventional ECG parameters. Its assessment warrants consideration for intensified primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention efforts and should be included in everyday clinical practice. This review addresses the nature and diagnostic potential of the spatial QRS-T angle. The main focus is its role in ECG assessment of dispersion of repolarization, a key factor in arrythmogeneity. PMID:23909632

  3. A clinical evaluation of the Cobas Fara clinical chemistry analyzer for some routine serum enzymes and glucose.

    PubMed

    Moses, G C; Lightle, G O; Tuckerman, J F; Henderson, A R

    1987-11-01

    The authors evaluated the Cobas FARA centrifugal analyzer with respect to pipetting precision and accuracy, instrument temperature, spectrophotometric response, and analytic performance for the assay of five serum enzymes and glucose. Spectrophotometric response, temperature response, pipetting precision, and accuracy were satisfactory. However, sufficient time must be allowed for cuvet contents to reach a stable temperature before measurements are made. Total day-to-day imprecision (within plus between run) was less than 5% (coefficient of variation) for aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST; Enzyme Commission classification number [EC] EC 2.6.1.1; and ALT; EC 2.6.1.2); alkaline phosphatase (AP; EC 3.1.3.1); gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT; EC 2.3.1.2); lactate dehydrogenase (LD; EC 1.1.1.17); creatine kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.1); and glucose assays. Results compare well with those obtained with other current clinical chemistry analyzers; correlation coefficients were greater than 0.993. Sample-to-sample carryover was negligible, and method linearity was satisfactory for all tests.

  4. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fukudo, Shin; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Akiho, Hirotada; Inamori, Masahiko; Endo, Yuka; Okumura, Toshikatsu; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Kamiya, Takeshi; Sato, Ken; Chiba, Toshimi; Furuta, Kenji; Yamato, Shigeru; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Azuma, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Mine, Tetsuya; Miura, Soichiro; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    New strategies for the care of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are developing and several novel treatments have been globally produced. New methods of care should be customized geographically because each country has a specific medical system, life style, eating habit, gut microbiota, genes and so on. Several clinical guidelines for IBS have been proposed and the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) subsequently developed evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for IBS. Sixty-two clinical questions (CQs) comprising 1 definition, 6 epidemiology, 6 pathophysiology, 10 diagnosis, 30 treatment, 4 prognosis, and 5 complications were proposed and statements were made to answer to CQs. A diagnosis algorithm and a three-step treatment was provided for patients with chronic abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort and/or abnormal bowel movement. If more than one alarm symptom/sign, risk factor and/or routine examination is positive, colonoscopy is indicated. If all of them, or the subsequent colonoscopy, are/is negative, Rome III or compatible criteria is applied. After IBS diagnosis, step 1 therapy consisting of diet therapy, behavioral modification and gut-targeted pharmacotherapy is indicated for four weeks. Non-responders to step 1 therapy proceed to the second step that includes psychopharmacological agents and simple psychotherapy for four weeks. In the third step, for patients non-responsive to step 2 therapy, a combination of gut-targeted pharmacotherapy, psychopharmacological treatments and/or specific psychotherapy is/are indicated. Clinical guidelines and consensus for IBS treatment in Japan are well suited for Japanese IBS patients; as such, they may provide useful insight for IBS treatment in other countries around the world. PMID:25500976

  5. Pharmacogenomics in clinical practice and drug development

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Andrew R; Topol, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of responses to drugs, including clopidogrel, pegylated-interferon and carbamazepine, have led to the identification of specific patient subgroups that benefit from therapy. However, the identification and replication of common sequence variants that are associated with either efficacy or safety for most prescription medications at odds ratios (ORs) >3.0 (equivalent to >300% increased efficacy or safety) has yet to be translated to clinical practice. Although some of the studies have been completed, the results have not been incorporated into therapy, and a large number of commonly used medications have not been subject to proper pharmacogenomic analysis. Adoption of GWAS, exome or whole genome sequencing by drug development and treatment programs is the most striking near-term opportunity for improving the drug candidate pipeline and boosting the efficacy of medications already in use. PMID:23138311

  6. [From clinical practice guidelines towards quality assurance].

    PubMed

    Kopp, I B

    2011-02-01

    Clinical practice guidelines have been introduced to assist decision making at the bedside of individual patients. Guidelines are also increasingly regarded as being an indispensable part of professional quality systems. Guidelines are important tools to improve knowledge-management, processes and outcomes in healthcare. They aim to assist professional and patient decisions especially in those areas of healthcare where considerable variation or potential for improvement exist and they can provide a foundation for assessing and evaluating the quality and effectiveness of healthcare in terms of measuring processes and outcomes. Quality indicators or performance measures based on guideline recommendations are necessary to evaluate the usefulness of guidelines and the appropriateness of healthcare delivery. Guideline recommendations are the tools for healthcare professionals to develop strategies for quality improvement in case deviations from desired processes or outcomes are identified by the measurement of quality indicators.

  7. Clinical practice guideline: tinnitus executive summary.

    PubMed

    Tunkel, David E; Bauer, Carol A; Sun, Gordon H; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Cunningham, Eugene R; Archer, Sanford M; Blakley, Brian W; Carter, John M; Granieri, Evelyn C; Henry, James A; Hollingsworth, Deena; Khan, Fawad A; Mitchell, Scott; Monfared, Ashkan; Newman, Craig W; Omole, Folashade S; Phillips, C Douglas; Robinson, Shannon K; Taw, Malcolm B; Tyler, Richard S; Waguespack, Richard; Whamond, Elizabeth J

    2014-10-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Tinnitus. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 13 recommendations developed address the evaluation of patients with tinnitus, including selection and timing of diagnostic testing and specialty referral to identify potential underlying treatable pathology. It will then focus on the evaluation and treatment of patients with persistent primary tinnitus, with recommendations to guide the evaluation and measurement of the impact of tinnitus and to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for tinnitus sufferers. PMID:25274374

  8. Reboxetine in clinical practice: a review.

    PubMed

    Sepede, G; Corbo, M; Fiori, F; Martinotti, G

    2012-07-01

    Reboxetine is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NaRI), the first drug of a new antidepressant class. Reboxetine has been approved for the treatment of Major Depression in many European countries, but the application for approval was rejected in the United States. It has been found useful in Narcolepsy, ADHD, Panic Attack Disorder, treatment of depression in patients with Parkinson' s Disease. Moreover reboxetine has been proposed as an effective and safe therapeutic option for Cocaine Dependence Disorder. Despite a large number of studies have documented that reboxetine was equally effective in treating major depressive illness compared to other antidepressants, recent reports argue reboxetine to be ineffective and potentially harmful for the treatment of acute depression. Aim of the present review is to summarize and discuss the last literature findings, comparing risks and benefits of reboxetine usage in everyday clinical practice. PMID:23007832

  9. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy - questions in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Geleneky, Markéta

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy is a serious disease that may significantly affect fetal development and cause irreversible or therapeutically hardly influenced damage to the newborn. Early and correct diagnosis of the disease in the mother is essential for determining prognosis and further diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The case study combines a number of factors to be encountered in clinical practice which may complicate diagnostic considerations. One of them is the existence of a rare phenomenon of reinfection - its possible effects on prenatal screening and other interpretations of such findings. Another problem is the evaluation of the origin of sonographically confirmed fetopathy in relation to Toxoplasma etiology and the choice of next steps that should follow in this situation. Finally, the text discusses the selection of postnatal examinations so that they sufficiently contribute to decision-making about the newborn's treatment initiation.

  10. Self-compassion in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Germer, Christopher K; Neff, Kristin D

    2013-08-01

    Self-compassion is conceptualized as containing 3 core components: self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation, and mindfulness versus overidentification, when relating to painful experiences. Research evidence demonstrates that self-compassion is related to psychological flourishing and reduced psychopathology. Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) is an 8-week training program, meeting 2.5 hours each week, designed to help participants cultivate self-compassion. MSC contains a variety of meditations (e.g., loving-kindness, affectionate breathing) as well as informal practices for use in daily life (e.g., soothing touch, self-compassionate letter writing). A detailed clinical case illustrates the journey of a client through the 8 weeks of MSC training, describing the key features of each session and the client's response.

  11. Nurses' intention to apply clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Ella; Tabak, Nili

    2012-12-01

    Using Ajzen and Madden's Theory of Planned Behavior, this study investigates factors which influence nurses' intention to apply clinical practice guidelines in their daily ward work. A convenience sample of 91 nurses in internal medicine wards in three Israeli hospitals answered four questionnaires. Data were processed by Pearson correlation coefficients and multivariate regression. The main findings were that burnout was negatively correlated with the intention to work according to guidelines and that professionalism (in the sense of a tendency to follow taught procedure rather than personal judgment) was positively correlated with it. Furthermore, nurses who perceive their behavioral control and subjective norms to be positive will be the most determined to work according to guidelines, provided they personally command the necessary resources to do so. PMID:23447906

  12. Critical Evaluation of Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Reames, Bradley N.; Krell, Robert W.; Ponto, Sarah N.; Wong, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Significant concerns exist regarding the content and reliability of oncology clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report “Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust” established standards for developing trustworthy CPGs. By using these standards as a benchmark, we sought to evaluate recent oncology guidelines. Methods CPGs and consensus statements addressing the screening, evaluation, or management of the four leading causes of cancer-related mortality in the United States (lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers) published between January 2005 and December 2010 were identified. A standardized scoring system based on the eight IOM standards was used to critically evaluate the methodology, content, and disclosure policies of CPGs. All CPGs were given two scores; points were awarded for eight standards and 20 subcriteria. Results No CPG fully met all the IOM standards. The average overall scores were 2.75 of 8 possible standards and 8.24 of 20 possible subcriteria. Less than half the CPGs were based on a systematic review. Only half the CPG panels addressed conflicts of interest. Most did not comply with standards for inclusion of patient and public involvement in the development or review process, nor did they specify their process for updating. CPGs were most consistent with IOM standards for transparency, articulation of recommendations, and use of external review. Conclusion The vast majority of oncology CPGs fail to meet the IOM standards for trustworthy guidelines. On the basis of these results, there is still much to be done to make guidelines as methodologically sound and evidence-based as possible. PMID:23752105

  13. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Cardiology Practice: A Concise Guide to Image Acquisition and Clinical Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Valbuena-López, Silvia; Hinojar, Rocío; Puntmann, Valentina O

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance plays an increasingly important role in routine cardiology clinical practice. It is a versatile imaging modality that allows highly accurate, broad and in-depth assessment of cardiac function and structure and provides information on pertinent clinical questions in diseases such as ischemic heart disease, nonischemic cardiomyopathies, and heart failure, as well as allowing unique indications, such as the assessment and quantification of myocardial iron overload or infiltration. Increasing evidence for the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance, together with the spread of knowledge and skill outside expert centers, has afforded greater access for patients and wider clinical experience. This review provides a snapshot of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in modern clinical practice by linking image acquisition and postprocessing with effective delivery of the clinical meaning.

  14. Respiratory microbiota: addressing clinical questions, informing clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Geraint B; Shaw, Dominick; Marsh, Robyn L; Carroll, Mary P; Serisier, David J; Bruce, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances have revolutionised efforts to understand the role played by microbes in airways disease. With the application of ever more sophisticated techniques, the literature has become increasingly inaccessible to the non-specialist reader, potentially hampering the translation of these gains into improvements in patient care. In this article, we set out the key principles underpinning microbiota research in respiratory contexts and provide practical guidance on how best such studies can be designed, executed and interpreted. We examine how an understanding of the respiratory microbiota both challenges fundamental assumptions and provides novel clinical insights into lung disease, and we set out a number of important targets for ongoing research.

  15. Republished: Respiratory microbiota: addressing clinical questions, informing clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Geraint B; Shaw, Dominick; Marsh, Robyn L; Carroll, Mary P; Serisier, David J; Bruce, Kenneth D

    2015-08-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances have revolutionised efforts to understand the role played by microbes in airways disease. With the application of ever more sophisticated techniques, the literature has become increasingly inaccessible to the non-specialist reader, potentially hampering the translation of these gains into improvements in patient care. In this article, we set out the key principles underpinning microbiota research in respiratory contexts and provide practical guidance on how best such studies can be designed, executed and interpreted. We examine how an understanding of the respiratory microbiota both challenges fundamental assumptions and provides novel clinical insights into lung disease, and we set out a number of important targets for ongoing research.

  16. Application and Evaluation of Interactive 3D PDF for Presenting and Sharing Planning Results for Liver Surgery in Clinical Routine

    PubMed Central

    Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda; Schenk, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the de-facto standard for the exchange of electronic documents. It is platform-independent, suitable for the exchange of medical data, and allows for the embedding of three-dimensional (3D) surface mesh models. In this article, we present the first clinical routine application of interactive 3D surface mesh models which have been integrated into PDF files for the presentation and the exchange of Computer Assisted Surgery Planning (CASP) results in liver surgery. We aimed to prove the feasibility of applying 3D PDF in medical reporting and investigated the user experience with this new technology. Methods We developed an interactive 3D PDF report document format and implemented a software tool to create these reports automatically. After more than 1000 liver CASP cases that have been reported in clinical routine using our 3D PDF report, an international user survey was carried out online to evaluate the user experience. Results Our solution enables the user to interactively explore the anatomical configuration and to have different analyses and various resection proposals displayed within a 3D PDF document covering only a single page that acts more like a software application than like a typical PDF file (“PDF App”). The new 3D PDF report offers many advantages over the previous solutions. According to the results of the online survey, the users have assessed the pragmatic quality (functionality, usability, perspicuity, efficiency) as well as the hedonic quality (attractiveness, novelty) very positively. Conclusion The usage of 3D PDF for reporting and sharing CASP results is feasible and well accepted by the target audience. Using interactive PDF with embedded 3D models is an enabler for presenting and exchanging complex medical information in an easy and platform-independent way. Medical staff as well as patients can benefit from the possibilities provided by 3D PDF. Our results open the door for a

  17. SMARTWheel: From Concept to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Rory A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Wheelchair prescription is complex with thousands of choices and options. Theoretically, a higher quality or innovative wheelchair that is appropriately matched to the user and their unique needs will increase participation. It is well accepted that there is an alarmingly high incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome, and rotator cuff injuries among manual wheelchair users. Development Since the initial conceptualization, the SMARTWheel was intended to better understand the physiological and physical effects of wheelchair propulsion on the body. Initially, little was known about wheelchair propulsion and the SMARTWheel transformed the nascent field of wheelchair propulsion biomechanics. Impact Although still an important area of clinical research, the SMARTWheel has been critical to the study of the relationship between the type of wheelchair, set-up, activity, technique, anatomy, and physiology and repetitive strain injury. There has been growing evidence that the wheelchair-user interaction explains a substantial portion of the risk of developing a degenerative injury and on community participation. A noteworthy contribution of this work was the release of the clinical practice guideline, entitled, Preservation of Upper Limb Function Following Spinal Cord Injury in 2005. Discussion The SMARTWheel has been used by other scientists in areas that were not originally envisioned to be applications. It has been used to support the design of tools for developing a trail mapping rating and description system. It has also supported the design of accessible pedestrian walkways standards, accessible playground surfaces, and to evaluate carpets for wheelchair accessibility. It is likely that there are more new areas of exploration to emerge. This article describes the evolution of the SMARTWheel as new technologies became available and its applications in the field of wheelchair biomechanics and clinical service delivery. PMID:19658010

  18. Clinical Practice Guidelines: Whose Practice Are We Guiding?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Morgan; Bowe, Sarah N; Laury, Adrienne M

    2016-09-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has just released an update to the clinical practice guideline (CPG) on otitis media with effusion. This common condition is frequently managed by primary care providers; however, their awareness and utilization of the AAO-HNSF CPGs are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey to assess familiarity with otologic diagnoses, evaluation skills, and guidelines. Only 38.5% of respondents use pneumatic otoscopy, and roughly 50% utilize a CPG for management of otitis media or for referral for tympanostomy tube insertion. Providers predominantly use the acute otitis media guideline from the American Academy of Pediatrics. In this single-institution study, providers are largely unaware of the AAO-HNSF CPGs and could benefit from additional training, including workshops taught by otolaryngologists within individual health care systems or development of a national otolaryngology medical student curriculum. A more immediate option includes referencing our CPGs on specialty societies' websites or newsletters. PMID:27329423

  19. Bioethics in practice: Addressing ethically sensitive requests in a Dutch fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Gerrits, Trudie; Reis, Ria; Braat, Didi D M; Kremer, Jan A M; Hardon, Anita P

    2013-12-01

    This article provides insight into how ethically sensitive requests for the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are dealt within the daily practice of a Dutch fertility clinic. The findings presented are part of an ethnographic study conducted in this clinic from September 2003 until April 2005. Information for this article was gathered by attending the multidisciplinary ethics meetings and conversations with clinic staff. By looking at 'bioethics in practice', this article provides insight into the complex and dynamic interplay between particular couples' situations, contextual features, bioethical principles, doctors' subjective feelings and views, and the employment of medical practices. Our study suggests that personal views to a certain extent inform the agenda of the ethics meetings, but in the end neither these views nor bioethical principles fully determine the decisions made. Clinic staff members employ routine medical practices with the intention to carefully resolve ethically sensitive cases. These practices include: collegial consultation, searching for scientific evidence in the literature, obtaining more medical information, offering medical tests, referring couples to other clinics and ensuring informed consent. Rather than examining hypothetical cases, which evoke principles, observations of practices regarding real life cases of which many details are known, allowed us to identify the influence of routine medical practice on ethical decisions. Despite initial concerns from the side of the medical professionals (some of which might be regarded as paternalistic), at the end the reproductive autonomy of most couples seeking ARTs was not jeopardized. The format of the multidisciplinary ethics meetings seems to be promising as it provides a space for clinic staff members to express and reflect on their subjective views and feelings of unease regarding certain requests for ARTs, while at the same time it diminishes the risk that decision

  20. Disability related to COPD tool (DIRECT): towards an assessment of COPD-related disability in routine practice

    PubMed Central

    Aguilaniu, B; Gonzalez-Bermejo, J; Regnault, A; Barbosa, C Dias; Arnould, B; Mueser, M; Granet, G; Bonnefoy, M; Similowski, T

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a worldwide public health concern. It is also a major source of disability that is often overlooked, depriving patients of effective treatments. This study describes the development and validation of a questionnaire specifically assessing COPD-related disability. Methods The DIsability RElated to COPD Tool (DIRECT) was developed according to reference methods, including literature review, patient and clinician interviews and test in a pilot study. A 12-item questionnaire was included for finalization and validation in an observational cross-sectional study conducted by 60 French pulmonologists, who recruited 275 COPD patients of stage II, III and IV according to the GOLD classification. Rasch modeling was conducted and psychometric properties were assessed (internal consistency reliability; concurrent and clinical validity). Results The DIRECT score was built from the 10 items retained in the Rasch model. Their internal consistency reliability was excellent (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.95). The score was highly correlated with the Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire Activity score (r = 0.83) and the London Handicap Scale (r = −0.70), a generic disability measure. It was highly statistically significantly associated to four clinical parameters (P < 0.001): GOLD classification, BODE index, FEV1 and 6-minute walk distance. Conclusion DIRECT is a promising tool that could help enhance the management of COPD patients by integrating an evaluation of the COPD-related disability into daily practice. PMID:21760726

  1. Innovation sustainability in challenging health-care contexts: embedding clinically led change in routine practice

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Graham P; Weaver, Simon; Currie, Graeme; Finn, Rachael; McDonald, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The need for organizational innovation as a means of improving health-care quality and containing costs is widely recognized, but while a growing body of research has improved knowledge of implementation, very little has considered the challenges involved in sustaining change – especially organizational change led ‘bottom-up’ by frontline clinicians. This study addresses this lacuna, taking a longitudinal, qualitative case-study approach to understanding the paths to sustainability of four organizational innovations. It highlights the importance of the interaction between organizational context, nature of the innovation and strategies deployed in achieving sustainability. It discusses how positional influence of service leads, complexity of innovation, networks of support, embedding in existing systems, and proactive responses to changing circumstances can interact to sustain change. In the absence of cast-iron evidence of effectiveness, wider notions of value may be successfully invoked to sustain innovation. Sustainability requires continuing effort through time, rather than representing a final state to be achieved. Our study offers new insights into the process of sustainability of organizational change, and elucidates the complement of strategies needed to make bottom-up change last in challenging contexts replete with competing priorities. PMID:23554445

  2. Innovation sustainability in challenging health-care contexts: embedding clinically led change in routine practice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Graham P; Weaver, Simon; Currie, Graeme; Finn, Rachael; McDonald, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    The need for organizational innovation as a means of improving health-care quality and containing costs is widely recognized, but while a growing body of research has improved knowledge of implementation, very little has considered the challenges involved in sustaining change - especially organizational change led 'bottom-up' by frontline clinicians. This study addresses this lacuna, taking a longitudinal, qualitative case-study approach to understanding the paths to sustainability of four organizational innovations. It highlights the importance of the interaction between organizational context, nature of the innovation and strategies deployed in achieving sustainability. It discusses how positional influence of service leads, complexity of innovation, networks of support, embedding in existing systems, and proactive responses to changing circumstances can interact to sustain change. In the absence of cast-iron evidence of effectiveness, wider notions of value may be successfully invoked to sustain innovation. Sustainability requires continuing effort through time, rather than representing a final state to be achieved. Our study offers new insights into the process of sustainability of organizational change, and elucidates the complement of strategies needed to make bottom-up change last in challenging contexts replete with competing priorities.

  3. The use of rapid dengue diagnostic tests in a routine clinical setting in a dengue-endemic area of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Lyda; Uribe, Marcela; Ardila, Gloria Ines; Orejuela, Yaneth; Velasco, Margarita; Bonelo, Anilza; Parra, Beatriz

    2015-06-01

    There is insufficient evidence of the usefulness of dengue diagnostic tests under routine conditions. We sought to analyse how physicians are using dengue diagnostics to inform research and development. Subjects attending 14 health institutions in an endemic area of Colombia with either a clinical diagnosis of dengue or for whom a dengue test was ordered were included in the study. Patterns of test-use are described herein. Factors associated with the ordering of dengue diagnostic tests were identified using contingency tables, nonparametric tests and logistic regression. A total of 778 subjects were diagnosed with dengue by the treating physician, of whom 386 (49.5%) were tested for dengue. Another 491 dengue tests were ordered in subjects whose primary diagnosis was not dengue. Severe dengue classification [odds ratio (OR) 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.5], emergency consultation (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.5) and month of the year (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.7-5.5) were independently associated with ordering of dengue tests. Dengue tests were used both to rule in and rule out diagnosis. The latter use is not justified by the sensitivity of current rapid dengue diagnostic tests. Ordering of dengue tests appear to depend on a combination of factors, including physician and institutional preferences, as well as other patient and epidemiological factors.

  4. An innovative clinical practicum to teach evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Brancato, Vera C

    2006-01-01

    A clinical practicum was successfully implemented for RN to BSN students to apply evidence-based practice to actual clinical problems affecting nursing practice. The author describes how this practicum was implemented and the requisite resources and support systems. This senior-level capstone course enabled students to understand and value a lifelong learning approach to evidence-based practice.

  5. Monthly continuous erythropoietin receptor activator treatment maintains stable hemoglobin levels in routine clinical management of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, Thomas; Leistikow, Frank; Hartmann, Hagen-Georg; Vollgraf, Günter; Dellanna, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Once-monthly administration of CERA, a continuous erythropoietin receptor activator, has shown equivalent efficacy to shorter-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) that require more frequent dosing, but data on routine use of once-monthly CERA in hemodialysis patients are lacking. Study on Efficacy, Safety and Applicability of Mircera (SESAM) was a prospective, multicenter, noninterventional trial with a duration of up to 9 months (month 0-5 "titration phase"; month 6-8 "evaluation phase") to test the stability of Hb control in hemodialysis patients under routine conditions. Patient selection, Hb targets and CERA dosing were at the discretion of the local nephrologist. 918 patients from 92 German nephrology centers were included. Ninety-three percent were on ESA treatment prior to study entry. The mean number of CERA dose changes during the study was 1.9 ± 1.9 per patient. Mean Hb level was 11.4 ± 1.2 g/dL at baseline and 11.7 ± 1.4 g/dL at the end of the 8-month study. During the evaluation phase (months 6-8), 15.6%, 40.3%, and 66.0% of patients had stable Hb (i.e., at least two values) in the ranges 11-12, 10-12, and 10-13 g/dL, respectively. The mean intra-individual fluctuation in Hb was 1.4 ± 0.7 g/dL during the study (0.5 ± 0.4 g/dL during the 3-month evaluation phase). More than 90% of patients, and > 80% of physicians, rated CERA therapy as "very good" or "good" throughout the study. Four patients (0.4%) discontinued prematurely due to adverse drug reactions. Once-monthly CERA therapy maintains stable Hb values with low intra-individual variability and few dose adaptations in hemodialysis patients when administered entirely according to local practice, and the regimen was well-tolerated.

  6. Clinical Practice Patterns of Canadian Couple/Marital/Family Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, John; Dienhart, Anna; Schmidt, Jonathan; Turner, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This clinical practice pattern survey had two unique aspects. It was a national survey of American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) members in Canada that included all AAMFT membership categories, including student, affiliate, associate, clinical, and supervisor. It compared practice pattern data for clinical members from Canada…

  7. Applying Research on Family Violence to Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Considers whether research on family violence can be applied to clinical practice. Suggests limitations of the knowledge base constrain the application of research on family violence to clinical work, and certain aspects of the research paradigm also limit the transfer of research knowledge to clinical practice. (Author)

  8. Feasibility study of high-resolution DCE-MRI for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement in a routine clinical modal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Dong; Wu, Chen-Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Shi, Hai-Bin

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MR renography has been identified as an interesting tool to determine single-kidney GFR. However, a fundamental issue for the applicability of MR-based estimate of single-kidney GFR is selecting a balance between spatial and temporal resolution of DCE-MRI data. The purpose is to assess the feasibility of GFR estimate from high-resolution (HR) dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in a routine clinical modal. Standard MR renography (2.4s/phase, total 4min; 4-ml Gd) and five-phase, HR-based imaging protocol (0, 30, 70, 120, and 240s; 0.05mmol/kg Gd) were prospectively performed in twelve volunteers who were scheduled for routine renal MRI. Data were plotted with Patlak, two-compartment modified Tofts model (2CTM), and two-compartment filtration model (2CFM) for GFR estimate. During all the measurements, only the signal intensities in the aorta and whole kidney parenchyma were considered. Standard 2CFM and 2CTM produced lower residuals over the fitted interval than HR-based measures (p<0.05); and HR-bases 2CFM and 2CTM did not reflect significant correlation to standard values. Standard Patlak plots with 0-240s data points produced significantly lower GFR and higher residuals than that plots with 0-120s data points (p<0.05). HR-based Patlak plots with 0, 30, 70, and 120s data points significantly correlated with reference values (Pearson ρ=0.97, p<0.01), and produced a 33.2% underestimation of reference value, which was better than that plots with 0, 30, 70, 120, and 240s data points (ρ=0.92, p<0.01; 58.6% underestimation of reference value). It concludes that it is feasible to estimate GFR with HR-based DCE-MRI and appreciate kinetic model. Patlak plots from 0, 30, 70, and 120s data points is better than plots from 0, 30, 70, 120, and 240s data points.

  9. Indices of serum tonicity in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rohrscheib, Mark; Rondon-Berrios, Helbert; Argyropoulos, Christos; Glew, Robert H; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-06-01

    Although disturbances of serum tonicity (effective osmolality) may have dire consequences, only surrogate indices of tonicity are available in practice. This report identifies the appropriate index for expressing clinical states of dystonicity. Serum sodium concentration ([Na]S) and osmolality ([Osm]S) may be incongruent. When the tonicity state shown by [Osm]S is higher than [Na]S and the difference between the 2 indices is caused by an excess of solute that distributes in total body water, tonicity is described by [Na]S. When this difference results from a gain of solute with extracellular distribution like mannitol or a decrease in serum water content, causing a falsely low measurement of [Na]S, [Osm]S accurately reflects tonicity. Two indices of tonicity are applicable during hyperglycemia: the tonicity formula (2 ·[Na]S + [Glucose]S/18) and the corrected [Na]S ([Na]S corrected to a normal [Glucose]S using an empirically derived coefficient). Clinicians should understand the uses and limitations of the tonicity indices. PMID:26002851

  10. Clinical practice guideline: Bell's Palsy executive summary.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William

    2013-11-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Bell's Palsy. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 11 recommendations developed encourage accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment and, when applicable, facilitate patient follow-up to address the management of long-term sequelae or evaluation of new or worsening symptoms not indicative of Bell's palsy. There are myriad treatment options for Bell's palsy; some controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of several of these options, and there are consequent variations in care. In addition, there are numerous diagnostic tests available that are used in the evaluation of patients with Bell's palsy. Many of these tests are of questionable benefit in Bell's palsy. Furthermore, while patients with Bell's palsy enter the health care system with facial paresis/paralysis as a primary complaint, not all patients with facial paresis/paralysis have Bell's palsy. It is a concern that patients with alternative underlying etiologies may be misdiagnosed or have an unnecessary delay in diagnosis. All of these quality concerns provide an important opportunity for improvement in the diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy.

  11. Levosimendan: from basic science to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Parissis, John T; Rafouli-Stergiou, Pinelopi; Paraskevaidis, Ioannis; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2009-12-01

    Levosimendan is a new cardiac enhancer that exerts positive inotropic effects on the failing heart mediated by calcium sensitization of contractile proteins as well as peripheral vasodilatory effects mediated by opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth-muscle cells. Levosimendan is the most well-studied calcium sensitizer in the real clinical practice, producing greater hemodynamic and symptomatic improvement in patients with acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) than those with traditional inotropes. Immunomodulatory and anti-apoptotic properties of levosimendan may be an additional biologic mechanism that prevents further cytotoxic and hemodynamic consequences of abnormal immune and neurohormonal responses in AHFS. Recent mortality trials showed that levosimendan does not improve short- and long-term prognosis in AHFS in comparison to dobutamine or placebo. However, in patients with a previous history of CHF and on beta-blocker on admission, levosimendan seems to have a beneficial effect on short-term mortality. According to the recent guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology, levosimendan is indicated in patients with symptomatic low cardiac output HF secondary to cardiac systolic dysfunction without severe hypotension (Class IIa, Level of Evidence B).

  12. Clinical practice guideline: Bell's Palsy executive summary.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William

    2013-11-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Bell's Palsy. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 11 recommendations developed encourage accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment and, when applicable, facilitate patient follow-up to address the management of long-term sequelae or evaluation of new or worsening symptoms not indicative of Bell's palsy. There are myriad treatment options for Bell's palsy; some controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of several of these options, and there are consequent variations in care. In addition, there are numerous diagnostic tests available that are used in the evaluation of patients with Bell's palsy. Many of these tests are of questionable benefit in Bell's palsy. Furthermore, while patients with Bell's palsy enter the health care system with facial paresis/paralysis as a primary complaint, not all patients with facial paresis/paralysis have Bell's palsy. It is a concern that patients with alternative underlying etiologies may be misdiagnosed or have an unnecessary delay in diagnosis. All of these quality concerns provide an important opportunity for improvement in the diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy. PMID:24190889

  13. "Age-Appropriate Development" as Measure and Norm: An Ethnographic Study of the Practical Anthropology of Routine Paediatric Checkups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelle, Helga

    2010-01-01

    The article provides an ethnographic study of the logic of conducting routine paediatric checkups in children from birth to the age of 5 in Germany (U1 to U9). These checkups are meant as a continual evaluation of a child's developmental process and progress, and their outcomes inform decisions on children's careers in educational institutions.…

  14. Automated versus Manual Sample Inoculations in Routine Clinical Microbiology: a Performance Evaluation of the Fully Automated InoqulA Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Froment, P.; Marchandin, H.; Vande Perre, P.

    2014-01-01

    The process of plate streaking has been automated to improve the culture readings, isolation quality, and workflow of microbiology laboratories. However, instruments have not been well evaluated under routine conditions. We aimed to evaluate the performance of the fully automated InoqulA instrument (BD Kiestra B.V., The Netherlands) in the automated seeding of liquid specimens and samples collected using swabs with transport medium. We compared manual and automated methods according to the (i) within-run reproducibility using Escherichia coli-calibrated suspensions, (ii) intersample contamination using a series of alternating sterile broths and broths with >105 CFU/ml of either E. coli or Proteus mirabilis, (iii) isolation quality with standardized mixed bacterial suspensions of diverse complexity and a 4-category standardized scale (very poor, poor, fair to good, or excellent), and (iv) agreement of the results obtained from 244 clinical specimens. By involving 15 technicians in the latter part of the comparative study, we estimated the variability in the culture quality at the level of the laboratory team. The instrument produced satisfactory reproducibility with no sample cross-contamination, and it performed better than the manual method, with more colony types recovered and isolated (up to 11% and 17%, respectively). Finally, we showed that the instrument did not shorten the seeding time over short periods of work compared to that for the manual method. Altogether, the instrument improved the quality and standardization of the isolation, thereby contributing to a better overall workflow, shortened the time to results, and provided more accurate results for polymicrobial specimens. PMID:24353001

  15. Clinical practice guideline: management of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Joshua A.; Hsu, Jonathan; Bawazeer, Mohammad; Marshall, John; Friedrich, Jan O.; Nathens, Avery; Coburn, Natalie; May, Gary R.; Pearsall, Emily; McLeod, Robin S.

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in the incidence of acute pancreatitis reported worldwide. Despite improvements in access to care, imaging and interventional techniques, acute pancreatitis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis, recent studies auditing the clinical management of the condition have shown important areas of noncompliance with evidence-based recommendations. This underscores the importance of creating understandable and implementable recommendations for the diagnosis and management of acute pancreatitis. The purpose of the present guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of both mild and severe acute pancreatitis as well as the management of complications of acute pancreatitis and of gall stone–induced pancreatitis. Une hausse de l’incidence de pancréatite aiguë a été constatée à l’échelle mondiale. Malgré l’amélioration de l’accès aux soins et aux techniques d’imagerie et d’intervention, la pancréatite aiguë est toujours associée à une morbidité et une mortalité importantes. Bien qu’il existe des guides de pratique clinique pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, des études récentes sur la vérification de la prise en charge clinique de cette affection révèlent des lacunes importantes dans la conformité aux recommandations fondées sur des données probantes. Ces résultats mettent en relief l’importance de formuler des recommandations compréhensibles et applicables pour le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë. La présente ligne directrice vise à fournir des recommandations fondées sur des données probantes pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, qu’elle soit bénigne ou grave, ainsi que de ses complications et de celles de la pancréatite causée par un calcul biliaire. PMID:27007094

  16. Breast ultrasound tomography: bridging the gap to clinical practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steven; Janer, Roman; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Goll, Jeffrey; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Greenway, William

    2012-03-01

    Conventional sonography, which performs well in dense breast tissue and is comfortable and radiation-free, is not practical for screening because of its operator dependence and the time needed to scan the whole breast. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can significantly improve on these limitations, it is also not practical because it has long been prohibitively expensive for routine use. There is therefore a need for an alternative breast imaging method that obviates the constraints of these standard imaging modalities. The lack of such an alternative is a barrier to dramatically impacting mortality (about 45,000 women in the US per year) and morbidity from breast cancer because, currently, there is a trade-off between the cost effectiveness of mammography and sonography on the one hand and the imaging accuracy of MRI on the other. This paper presents a progress report on our long term goal to eliminate this trade-off and thereby improve breast cancer survival rates and decrease unnecessary biopsies through the introduction of safe, cost-effective, operatorindependent sonography that can rival MRI in accuracy. The objective of the study described in this paper was to design and build an improved ultrasound tomography (UST) scanner in support of our goals. To that end, we report on a design that builds on our current research prototype. The design of the new scanner is based on a comparison of the capabilities of our existing prototype and the performance needed for clinical efficacy. The performance gap was quantified by using clinical studies to establish the baseline performance of the research prototype, and using known MRI capabilities to establish the required performance. Simulation software was used to determine the basic operating characteristics of an improved scanner that would provide the necessary performance. Design elements focused on transducer geometry, which in turn drove the data acquisition system and the image reconstruction engine

  17. Pareto Fronts in Clinical Practice for Pinnacle

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, Tomas; Kesteren, Zdenko van; Franssen, Gijs; Damen, Eugène; Vliet, Corine van

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Our aim was to develop a framework to objectively perform treatment planning studies using Pareto fronts. The Pareto front represents all optimal possible tradeoffs among several conflicting criteria and is an ideal tool with which to study the possibilities of a given treatment technique. The framework should require minimal user interaction and should resemble and be applicable to daily clinical practice. Methods and Materials: To generate the Pareto fronts, we used the native scripting language of Pinnacle{sup 3} (Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA). The framework generates thousands of plans automatically from which the Pareto front is generated. As an example, the framework is applied to compare intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for prostate cancer patients. For each patient and each technique, 3000 plans are generated, resulting in a total of 60,000 plans. The comparison is based on 5-dimensional Pareto fronts. Results: Generating 3000 plans for 10 patients in parallel requires on average 96 h for IMRT and 483 hours for VMAT. Using VMAT, compared to IMRT, the maximum dose of the boost PTV was reduced by 0.4 Gy (P=.074), the mean dose in the anal sphincter by 1.6 Gy (P=.055), the conformity index of the 95% isodose (CI{sub 95%}) by 0.02 (P=.005), and the rectal wall V{sub 65} {sub Gy} by 1.1% (P=.008). Conclusions: We showed the feasibility of automatically generating Pareto fronts with Pinnacle{sup 3}. Pareto fronts provide a valuable tool for performing objective comparative treatment planning studies. We compared VMAT with IMRT in prostate patients and found VMAT had a dosimetric advantage over IMRT.

  18. Developing a Critical Practice of Clinical Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, W. John

    1985-01-01

    The etymology of the term "clinical supervision" is discussed. How clinical supervision can be used with teachers as an active force toward reform and change is then examined. Through clinical supervision teachers can assist each other to gain control over their own professional lives and destinies. (RM)

  19. 'A routine thing': clinician strategies for implementing HIV testing for at-risk patients in a busy healthcare organisation (and implications for implementation of other new practice recommendations).

    PubMed

    Sobo, Elisa J; Bowman, Candice; Halloran, James; Asch, Steven M; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Gifford, Allen L

    2008-12-01

    Increasing HIV testing is a necessary step toward control of the disease. Many experts suggest routinely offering HIV testing to specific population segments. We explore provider discourse regarding an HIV test implementation project with the aim of illuminating a structurally emergent clinician strategy for promoting testing and the socio-cultural factors underlying it. Twenty US Veterans Affairs Healthcare System clinical care providers were interviewed. Using standard anthropological text analysis techniques, themes, their relationships, and the significance of these for increasing appropriately targeted HIV test offers were established. Presenting the HIV test offer to their patients as if routine ('routinisation') supported providers' desire to do no harm by lessening the test's potential stigma. Offering the test helped providers maintain professional integrity: it empowered veterans to realise access to care and fit with providers' sense of honour and duty. Routinising HIV testing also helped providers to manage scarce time effectively. Findings can be leveraged to support routine screening's successful roll-out. The carefully managed introduction of routine HIV test offering policies will formalise and legitimise productive strategies of destigmatisation already being enacted by some front-line providers. The fact that routinisation strategies are in use although HIV testing is not actually routine attests to the potential power routinisation has to reduce HIV's stigma, increase HIV test uptake, and thereby improve access to care. What I've learned about tough questions is: The more routine you make them, the easier it is to get the questions answered, the less destructive it is to the relationship and that's the sort of paradigm I've come to believe in and will use now into the future. (Marvin K, MD).

  20. Ethical preferences for the clinical practice of empowerment social work.

    PubMed

    Miley, Karla; DuBois, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Social workers in health care and mental health benefit from interventions that integrate principles of contextual social work practice with standards for clinical practice. The authors articulate a conceptual framework for the ethical practice of social work that complements the social justice purpose. The sixteen ethical preferences in this framework are the ethics of care, autonomy, power, change, respect, critical thinking, praxis, discourse, critique, justice, contextual practice, inclusion, anti-oppression, advocacy, collaboration, and politicized practice.

  1. 42 CFR 21.44 - Clinical or other practical demonstration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinical or other practical demonstration. 21.44 Section 21.44 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.44 Clinical or other practical demonstration. In the discretion of...

  2. Experience with a Family-Practice-Resident-Directed Obstetrical Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jerry L.; Snyder, Frank

    1980-01-01

    At Toledo Hospital, family practice residents have assumed responsibility for the normal obstetrics clinic. Specialty consultations are provided by the hospital's obstetrics residency program. A medical audit of the clinic indicates that the family practice residents obtained consultations and made referrals at the appropriate times. (JMD)

  3. Defining Clinical Excellence in Adult Infectious Disease Practice.

    PubMed

    Chida, Natasha M; Ghanem, Khalil G; Auwaerter, Paul G; Wright, Scott M; Melia, Michael T

    2016-09-01

    Clinical excellence should be recognized, particularly in the current climate that appropriately prioritizes relationship-centered care. In order to develop a recognition model, a definition of clinical excellence must be created and agreed upon. A paradigm recently suggested by C. Christmas describes clinical excellence through the following domains: diagnostic acumen, professionalism and humanism, communication and interpersonal skills, skillful negotiation of the healthcare system, knowledge, taking a scholarly approach to clinical practice, and having passion for clinical medicine. This work references examples of infectious disease (ID) clinical excellence across Christmas' domains and, in doing so, both examines how the definition of clinical excellence applies to ID practice and highlights the importance of ID physicians. Emphasizing such aspirational standards may not only inspire trainees and practicing physicians to pursue their own fulfilling clinical ID careers, it may also encourage health systems to fully value outstanding ID physicians who labor tirelessly to provide patients with exceptional care. PMID:27419186

  4. Defining Clinical Excellence in Adult Infectious Disease Practice

    PubMed Central

    Chida, Natasha M.; Ghanem, Khalil G.; Auwaerter, Paul G.; Wright, Scott M.; Melia, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical excellence should be recognized, particularly in the current climate that appropriately prioritizes relationship-centered care. In order to develop a recognition model, a definition of clinical excellence must be created and agreed upon. A paradigm recently suggested by C. Christmas describes clinical excellence through the following domains: diagnostic acumen, professionalism and humanism, communication and interpersonal skills, skillful negotiation of the healthcare system, knowledge, taking a scholarly approach to clinical practice, and having passion for clinical medicine. This work references examples of infectious disease (ID) clinical excellence across Christmas' domains and, in doing so, both examines how the definition of clinical excellence applies to ID practice and highlights the importance of ID physicians. Emphasizing such aspirational standards may not only inspire trainees and practicing physicians to pursue their own fulfilling clinical ID careers, it may also encourage health systems to fully value outstanding ID physicians who labor tirelessly to provide patients with exceptional care. PMID:27419186

  5. Defining Clinical Excellence in Adult Infectious Disease Practice.

    PubMed

    Chida, Natasha M; Ghanem, Khalil G; Auwaerter, Paul G; Wright, Scott M; Melia, Michael T

    2016-09-01

    Clinical excellence should be recognized, particularly in the current climate that appropriately prioritizes relationship-centered care. In order to develop a recognition model, a definition of clinical excellence must be created and agreed upon. A paradigm recently suggested by C. Christmas describes clinical excellence through the following domains: diagnostic acumen, professionalism and humanism, communication and interpersonal skills, skillful negotiation of the healthcare system, knowledge, taking a scholarly approach to clinical practice, and having passion for clinical medicine. This work references examples of infectious disease (ID) clinical excellence across Christmas' domains and, in doing so, both examines how the definition of clinical excellence applies to ID practice and highlights the importance of ID physicians. Emphasizing such aspirational standards may not only inspire trainees and practicing physicians to pursue their own fulfilling clinical ID careers, it may also encourage health systems to fully value outstanding ID physicians who labor tirelessly to provide patients with exceptional care.

  6. Can Native T1 Mapping Differentiate between Healthy and Diffuse Diseased Myocardium in Clinical Routine Cardiac MR Imaging?

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, Juliane; Seifert, Ingmar; Nensa, Felix; Schemuth, Haemi P.; Maderwald, Stefan; Quick, Harald H.; Schlosser, Thomas; Jensen, Christoph; Bruder, Oliver; Nassenstein, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives T1 mapping allows quantitative myocardial assessment, but its value in clinical routine remains unclear. We investigated, whether the average native myocardial T1 value can be used as a diagnostic classifier between healthy and diffuse diseased myocardium. Methods Native T1 mapping was performed in 54 persons with healthy hearts and in 150 patients with diffuse myocardial pathologies (coronary artery disease (CAD): n = 76, acute myocarditis: n = 19, convalescent myocarditis: n = 26, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): n = 12, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM): n = 17) at 1.5 Tesla in a mid-ventricular short axis slice using a modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence. The average native myocardial T1 value was measured using dedicated software for each patient. The mean as well as the range of the observed average T1 values were calculated for each group, and compared using t-test. The ability of T1 mapping to differentiate between healthy and diffuse diseased myocardium was assessed using receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC). Results The mean T1 value of the group “healthy hearts” (955±34ms) differed significantly from that of the groups DCM (992±37ms, p<0.001), HCM (980±44ms, p = 0.035), and acute myocarditis (974±36ms, p = 0.044). No significant difference was observed between the groups “healthy hearts” and CAD (951±37ms, p = 0.453) or convalescent myocarditis (965±40ms, p = 0.240). The average native T1 value varied considerably within all groups (range: healthy hearts, 838-1018ms; DCM, 882-1034ms; HCM, 897-1043ms; acute myocarditis, 925-1025ms; CAD, 867-1082ms; convalescent myocarditis, 890-1071ms) and overlapped broadly between all groups. ROC analysis showed, that the average native T1 value does not allow for differentiating between healthy and diffuse diseased myocardium, except for the subgroup of DCM. Conclusions The average native T1 value in cardiac MR imaging does not allow differentiating between healthy

  7. Routine PHQ-9 Depression Screening in Home Health Care: Depression Prevalence, Clinical and Treatment Characteristics and Screening Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Ell, Kathleen; Unützer, Jurgen; Aranda, Maria; Sanchez, Kathleen; Lee, Pey-Jiuan

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to examine: the prevalence and correlates of depression among adults 65 and over on admission to diverse home health care programs; nurse compliance with routine screening using the PHQ-9; and concordance between the number of depressed individuals identified by the PHQ-9 and Medicare mandated nursing assessment following targeted nurse training in identifying depression among the elderly using a standard diagnostic screen. Data are drawn from routine screening of 9,178 patients (a 77% screening compliance rate). Of all patients screened, 782 (8.5%) met criteria for probable major depression and 148 (1.6%) for mild depression. Concordance between nurse identified depression via PHQ-9 vs OASIS depression assessment improved over that reported in previous studies. Findings suggest that the use of a routine screening tool for depression can be implemented with minimal in-house training and improves detection of depression among older adults with significant physical and functional impairment. PMID:16446263

  8. Best practice in clinical facilitation of undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Needham, Judith; McMurray, Anne; Shaban, Ramon Z

    2016-09-01

    Clinical facilitation is critical to successful student clinical experience. The research reported in this paper used an interpretive case study to explore perspectives of clinical facilitators on what constitutes best practice in clinical facilitation of undergraduate nursing students. Eleven clinical facilitators from South East Queensland, Australia, participated in focus groups, interviews and a concept mapping exercise to gather their perspectives on best practice. The data gathered information regarding their prior and current experiences as registered nurses and facilitators, considering reasons they became clinical facilitators, their educational background and self-perceived adequacy of their knowledge for clinical facilitation. Analysis was through constant comparison. Findings of the study provided in-depth insight into the role of clinical facilitators, with best practice conceptualised via three main themes; 'assessing', 'learning to facilitate' and 'facilitating effectively'. While they felt there was some autonomy in the role, the clinical facilitators sought a closer liaison with academic staff and feedback about their performance, in particular their assessment of the students. Key strategies identified for improving best practice included educational support for the clinical facilitators, networking, and mentoring from more experienced clinical facilitators. When implemented, these strategies will help develop the clinical facilitators' skills and ensure quality clinical experiences for undergraduate nursing students. PMID:27580169

  9. A Cost-Consequences analysis of the effect of Pregabalin in the treatment of peripheral Neuropathic Pain in routine medical practice in Primary Care settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain (NeP) is a common symptom of a group of a variety of conditions, including diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, or postherpetic neuralgia. Prevalence of NeP has been estimated to range between 5-7.5%, and produces up to 25% of pain clinics consultations. Due to its severity, chronic evolution, and associated co-morbidities, NeP has an important individual and social impact. The objective was to analyze the effect of pregabalin (PGB) on pain alleviation and longitudinal health and non-health resources utilization and derived costs in peripheral refractory NeP in routine medical practice in primary care settings (PCS) in Spain. Methods Subjects from PCS were older than 18 years, with peripheral NeP (diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia or trigeminal neuralgia), refractory to at least one previous analgesic, and included in a prospective, real world, and 12-week two-visit cost-of-illness study. Measurement of resources utilization included both direct healthcare and indirect expenditures. Pain severity was measured by the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Results One-thousand-three-hundred-fifty-four PGB-naive patients [58.8% women, 59.5 (12.7) years old] were found eligible for this secondary analysis: 598 (44%) switched from previous therapy to PGB given in monotherapy (PGBm), 589 (44%) received PGB as add-on therapy (PGB add-on), and 167 (12%) patients changed previous treatments to others different than PGB (non-PGB). Reductions of pain severity were higher in both PGBm and PGB add-on groups (54% and 51%, respectively) than in non-PGB group (34%), p < 0.001. Incremental drug costs, particularly in PGB subgroups [€34.6 (80.3), €160.7 (123.9) and €154.5 (133.0), for non-PGB, PGBm and PGBadd-on, respectively (p < 0.001)], were off-set by higher significant reductions in all other components of health costs yielding to a greater total cost reductions: -€1,045.3 (1,989.6),-€1,312.9 (1,543.0), and -€1

  10. Schools as Clinics: Learning about Practice in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Robin; Rong, Yuhang

    2014-01-01

    The Neag School of Education at the University of Connecticut is committed to the intentionality of interweaving course work and practice in its 5-year teacher preparation program, the Integrated Bachelor's and Master's program. It offers a wide range of field experiences to teacher candidates. Teacher candidates enter the program at the…

  11. inPractice: A Practical Nursing Package for Clinical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Barry; Cavanna, Annlouise; Corbett, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the recent development of a computer-assisted learning program--in Practice--at the School of Health Science, in the University of Wales Swansea. The project, which began in 2001, was developed in close collaboration with The Meningitis Trust, the aim being to produce a software package to increase nursing students' knowledge…

  12. Assessment of Clinical Skills in Medical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoles, Peter V.; Hawkins, Richard E.; LaDuca, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of a clinical skills examination (CSE) to Step 2 of the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) has focused attention on the design and delivery of large-scale standardized tests of clinical skills and raised the question of the appropriateness of evaluation of these competencies across the span of a physician's career. This…

  13. Are Routinely Collected NHS Administrative Records Suitable for Endpoint Identification in Clinical Trials? Evidence from the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Sarah J. E.; Dinnett, Eleanor; Kean, Sharon; Gaw, Allan; Ford, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Background Routinely collected electronic patient records are already widely used in epidemiological research. In this work we investigated the potential for using them to identify endpoints in clinical trials. Methods The events recorded in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS), a large clinical trial of pravastatin in middle-aged hypercholesterolaemic men in the 1990s, were compared with those in the record-linked deaths and hospitalisations records routinely collected in Scotland. Results We matched 99% of fatal study events by date. We showed excellent matching (97%) of the causes of fatal endpoint events and good matching (>80% for first events) of the causes of nonfatal endpoint events with a slightly lower rate of mismatching of record linkage than study events (19% of first study myocardial infarctions (MI) and 4% of first record linkage MIs not matched as MI). We also investigated the matching of non-endpoint events and showed a good level of matching, with >78% of first stroke/TIA events being matched as stroke/TIA. The primary reasons for mismatches were record linkage data recording readmissions for procedures or previous events, differences between the diagnoses in the routinely collected data and the conclusions of the clinical trial expert adjudication committee, events occurring outside Scotland and therefore being missed by record linkage data, miscoding of cardiac events in hospitalisations data as ‘unspecified chest pain’, some general miscoding in the record linkage data and some record linkage errors. Conclusions We conclude that routinely collected data could be used for recording cardiovascular endpoints in clinical trials and would give very similar results to rigorously collected clinical trial data, in countries with unified health systems such as Scotland. The endpoint types would need to be carefully thought through and an expert endpoint adjudication committee should be involved. PMID:24058681

  14. Wound healing: translating theory into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Cuzzell, J

    1995-04-01

    Skin care clinicians must accurately assess progress towards wound healing and identify appropriate therapies to hasten wound closure. Perhaps the most practical method for facilitating assessment and guiding intervention is the red, yellow, black (RYB) classification system.

  15. A case of depressive personality disorder: aligning theory, practice, and clinical research.

    PubMed

    Maddux, Rachel E; Johansson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Depressive personality disorder (DPD) is highly studied and common in clinical settings. Nevertheless, it is rife with controversies and often overshadowed by major depression and dysthymia with which it shares many similarities but also is clinically distinct. Possibly as a result, DPD is underdiagnosed and misunderstood in clinical care. Thus the goal of this practice review is to present a case from psychiatric clinical work illustrating how DPD may be commonly overlooked in routine care, and how the conceptualization of this case and its treatment plan changed course once DPD was considered by treating staff, ultimately contributing to the successful outcome of the case. Questions elicited by the case are subsequently discussed in the context of the empirical literature on DPD, allowing for a clearer picture to emerge on DPD and its role in the development, course, and treatment of depression.

  16. Value of FFR in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Anil; Mohan, Bishav

    2015-01-01

    Fractional flow reserve is an important tool in the cardiac catheterization lab to assess the physiological significance of coronary lesions. This article discusses the basic concepts about FFR and its utility in clinical decision making. PMID:25820058

  17. Implications of Look AHEAD for Clinical Trials and Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Look AHEAD was a randomized clinical trial designed to examine the long-term health effects of weight loss in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. The primary result was that the incidence of cardiovascular events over a median follow up of 9.6 years was not reduced in the intensive lifestyle group relative to the control group. This finding is discussed, with emphasis on its implications for design of clinical trials and clinical treatment of obese people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24853636

  18. In defense of clinical judgment, credentialed clinicians, and reflective practice.

    PubMed

    Zeldow, Peter B

    2009-03-01

    Although clinical psychology is rightly characterized by its commitment to science, the author argues that clinical practice cannot rely entirely or primarily on scientific evidence and empirically supported treatments. Too many of the problems that clinicians encounter will invariably fall outside the purview of scientific evidence. Whether grounded in questions of value or the particularities of human experience, clinicians inevitably deal with uncertainty and cannot avoid clinical judgment. An overly narrow and hyperskeptical approach to clinical practice would impoverish clinical training and would both disenfranchise and impose excessive restrictions on conscientious clinicians. A more inclusive definition of evidence-based practice is necessary, one that values scientific and clinical evidence and reasoning equally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Implementation of chronic illness care in German primary care practices – how do multimorbid older patients view routine care? A cross-sectional study using multilevel hierarchical modeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In primary care, patients with multiple chronic conditions are the rule rather than the exception. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an evidence-based framework for improving chronic illness care, but little is known about the extent to which it has been implemented in routine primary care. The aim of this study was to describe how multimorbid older patients assess the routine chronic care they receive in primary care practices in Germany, and to explore the extent to which factors at both the practice and patient level determine their views. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data from an observational cohort study involving 158 general practitioners (GP) and 3189 multimorbid patients. Standardized questionnaires were employed to collect data, and the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire used to assess the quality of care received. Multilevel hierarchical modeling was used to identify any existing association between the dependent variable, PACIC, and independent variables at the patient level (socio-economic factors, weighted count of chronic conditions, instrumental activities of daily living, health-related quality of life, graded chronic pain, no. of contacts with GP, existence of a disease management program (DMP) disease, self-efficacy, and social support) and the practice level (age and sex of GP, years in current practice, size and type of practice). Results The overall mean PACIC score was 2.4 (SD 0.8), with the mean subscale scores ranging from 2.0 (SD 1.0, subscale goal setting/tailoring) to 3.5 (SD 0.7, delivery system design). At the patient level, higher PACIC scores were associated with a DMP disease, more frequent GP contacts, higher social support, and higher autonomy of past occupation. At the practice level, solo practices were associated with higher PACIC values than other types of practice. Conclusions This study shows that from the perspective of multimorbid patients receiving care in German

  20. [Nonconvulsive status epilepticus: clinical practice and pathophysiology].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Masao

    2013-05-01

    The clinical spectrum of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is rapidly expanding from classical manifestations, such as staring, repetitive blinking, chewing, swallowing, and automatism to novel manifestations, such as acute and protracted coma, apnea, cognitive impairment, higher brain dysfunction, and cardiac arrest. It is only in the last decade that these novel NCSE manifestations have been revealed, which is certainly reflective of modern advances in critical care neurology, such as the introduction and spread of continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) monitoring. Although NCSE is a relatively frequent, treatable condition but with a high mortality rate, physicians are still unfamiliar with its clinical manifestations, thus leading to underdiagnosis. In this review, the clinical manifestations, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of NCSE are critically described using the best available evidence and perspectives, including my hypothesis on epileptic organ dysfunction; in particular, the possible causal relationship between NCSE and cardiac arrhythmia, such as atrial fibrillation is also discussed. PMID:23667121

  1. Refining sorafenib therapy: lessons from clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bolondi, Luigi; Craxi, Antonio; Trevisani, Franco; Daniele, Bruno; Di Costanzo, Giovan Giuseppe; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Cammà, Calogero; Bruzzi, Paolo; Danesi, Romano; Spandonaro, Federico; Boni, Corrado; Santoro, Armando; Colombo, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the best use of sorafenib is essential in order to maximize clinical benefit in hepatocellular carcinoma. Based on Phase III and noninterventional study data, as well as our extensive experience, we discuss dose modification in order to manage adverse events, disease response evaluation and how to maximize treatment benefit. Sorafenib should be initiated at the approved dose (400 mg twice daily) and reduced/interrupted as appropriate in order to manage adverse events. Dose modification should be considered before discontinuation. Appropriate tumor response assessment is critical. Focusing on radiologic response may result in premature sorafenib discontinuation; symptomatic progression should also be considered. If second-line therapies or trials are unavailable, continuing sorafenib beyond radiologic progression may provide a clinical benefit. Our recommendations enable the maximization of treatment duration, and hence clinical benefit, for patients.

  2. Neurobiology of Addictions: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T., Ed.; DiNitto, Diana M., Ed.; Straussner, Shulamith Lala Ashenberg, Ed.

    This book offers helping professionals an introduction to the neurobiological aspects of substance abuse. It presents the basic information on the subject, including the various neurobiological theories of addiction, and places them in a psychosocial context. In addition to connecting the theoretical information with practical applications, the…

  3. Imperfection, practice and humility in clinical ethics.

    PubMed

    Garchar, Kim

    2012-10-01

    In this essay, I provide a description of the discipline of ethics using the philosophies of Aristotle and the American pragmatist John Dewey. Specifically, I argue that ethics is an active undertaking that is ambiguous and pluralistic. I then normatively prescribe the way in which clinical ethicists ought to approach their work in medicine. Rather than endeavouring to become, or behaving as if they are, experts, clinical ethicists must be humble. They must practise ethics. That is, they must admit ethics is the study and pursuit of the good life but that this study and pursuit occurs imperfectly in the face of problematic situations.

  4. Towards knowledge-based systems in clinical practice: development of an integrated clinical information and knowledge management support system.

    PubMed

    Kalogeropoulos, Dimitris A; Carson, Ewart R; Collinson, Paul O

    2003-09-01

    Given that clinicians presented with identical clinical information will act in different ways, there is a need to introduce into routine clinical practice methods and tools to support the scientific homogeneity and accountability of healthcare decisions and actions. The benefits expected from such action include an overall reduction in cost, improved quality of care, patient and public opinion satisfaction. Computer-based medical data processing has yielded methods and tools for managing the task away from the hospital management level and closer to the desired disease and patient management level. To this end, advanced applications of information and disease process modelling technologies have already demonstrated an ability to significantly augment clinical decision making as a by-product. The wide-spread acceptance of evidence-based medicine as the basis of cost-conscious and concurrently quality-wise accountable clinical practice suffices as evidence supporting this claim. Electronic libraries are one-step towards an online status of this key health-care delivery quality control environment. Nonetheless, to date, the underlying information and knowledge management technologies have failed to be integrated into any form of pragmatic or marketable online and real-time clinical decision making tool. One of the main obstacles that needs to be overcome is the development of systems that treat both information and knowledge as clinical objects with same modelling requirements. This paper describes the development of such a system in the form of an intelligent clinical information management system: a system which at the most fundamental level of clinical decision support facilitates both the organised acquisition of clinical information and knowledge and provides a test-bed for the development and evaluation of knowledge-based decision support functions.

  5. Adjunctive mecA PCR for Routine Detection of Methicillin Susceptibility in Clinical Isolates of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Nijjar, Chandanjit Kaur; Smith, Melvyn Howard

    2014-01-01

    Concerns over the reliability of routine sensitivity testing in coagulase-negative staphylococci often lead to the use of potentially less-effective antibiotics as few laboratories have access to routine tests for the mecA resistance gene. Although previous studies have shown a reasonable correlation between oxacillin disc and automated sensitivity testing, changing epidemiology and methodology dictate periodic reappraisal of these methods. In the present study, we evaluated two real-time PCR assays against novel targets in the mecA gene as an adjunct to routine susceptibility testing using the Vitek II AST-P620 card. All samples were further examined for the presence of the mecC gene. Of 118 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci tested, 81 were oxacillin resistant and 37 oxacillin susceptible by the Vitek II assay compared with 103 positive and 15 negative by mecA PCR. In-house PCR results correlated well with a previously published reference PCR, though little correlation was found between mecA PCR or Vitek II and PBP 2a latex agglutination. Incubation conditions may have affected the accuracy of the latter test. None of the strains tested were mecC PCR positive. The inclusion of dual-target PCRs in the testing algorithm was inexpensive and offered the safest strategy for determining beta-lactam susceptibility in coagulase-negative staphylococci in our laboratory. PMID:24622101

  6. Classroom to clinic: incorporating adolescent spiritual/faith assessment into nurse practitioner education & practice.

    PubMed

    Haley, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    Although nursing is well grounded in the conceptualization of person as body-mind-spirit, there is little evidence that advanced practice nurses routinely address the spirit in giving patient care, especially with adolescents in the outpatient setting. The neglect of spiritual aspects of care may be related to lack of a framework, or education/incorporation into nurse practitioner preparation. This article describes one method of integrating adolescent spiritual/faith assessment into a nurse practitioner clinical course. Readings, assignments, and a grading rubric are offered.

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol to Evaluate the Effectiveness of an Integrated Care Management Approach to Improve Adherence Among HIV-Infected Patients in Routine Clinical Care: Rationale and Design

    PubMed Central

    Fredericksen, Rob J; Church, Anna; Harrington, Anna; Ciechanowski, Paul; Magnani, Jennifer; Nasby, Kari; Brown, Tyler; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Harrington, Robert D; Lober, William B; Simoni, Jane; Safren, Stevan A; Edwards, Todd C; Patrick, Donald L; Saag, Michael S; Crane, Paul K; Kitahata, Mari M

    2016-01-01

    Background Adherence to antiretroviral medications is a key determinant of clinical outcomes. Many adherence intervention trials investigated the effects of time-intensive or costly interventions that are not feasible in most clinical care settings. Objective We set out to evaluate a collaborative care approach as a feasible intervention applicable to patients in clinical care including those with mental illness and/or substance use issues. Methods We developed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating an integrated, clinic-based care management approach to improve clinical outcomes that could be integrated into the clinical care setting. This is based on the routine integration and systematic follow-up of a clinical assessment of patient-reported outcomes targeting adherence, depression, and substance use, and adapts previously developed and tested care management approaches. The primary health coach or care management role is provided by clinic case managers allowing the intervention to be generalized to other human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics that have case managers. We used a stepped-care approach to target interventions to those at greatest need who are most likely to benefit rather than to everyone to maintain feasibility in a busy clinical care setting. Results The National Institutes of Health funded this study and had no role in study design, data collection, or decisions regarding whether or not to submit manuscripts for publication. This trial is currently underway, enrollment was completed in 2015, and follow-up time still accruing. First results are expected to be ready for publication in early 2017. Discussion This paper describes the protocol for an ongoing clinical trial including the design and the rationale for key methodological decisions. There is a need to identify best practices for implementing evidence-based collaborative care models that are effective and feasible in clinical care. Adherence efficacy trials have not led to

  8. Clinical Scientists Improving Clinical Practices: In Thoughts and Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apel, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the author comments on aspects of Kamhi's (2014) article, which caused the author to think more deeply about definitions of language, theories of learning, and how these two core components of intervention prepare clinical scientists as they search the literature for new knowledge. Interprofessional collaborative…

  9. Lessons learned from the implementation of an online infertility community into an IVF clinic's daily practice.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Johanna W M; Faber, Marjan J; Cohlen, Ben J; Van Oers, Anne; Nelen, WillianNe L D M; Kremer, Jan A M

    2015-01-01

    The Internet is expected to innovate healthcare, in particular patient-centredness of care. Within fertility care, information provision, communication with healthcare providers and support from peers are important components of patient-centred care. An online infertility community added to an in vitro fertilisation or IVF clinic's practice provides tools to healthcare providers to meet these. This study's online infertility community facilitates peer-to-peer support, information provision to patients and patient provider communication within one clinic. Unfortunately, these interventions often fail to become part of clinical routines. The analysis of a first introduction into usual care can provide lessons for the implementation in everyday health practice. The aim was to explore experiences of professionals and patients with the implementation of an infertility community into a clinic's care practice. We performed semi-structured interviews with both professionals and patients to collect these experiences. These interviews were analyzed using the Normalisation Process Model. Assignment of a community manager, multidisciplinary division of tasks, clear instructions to staff in advance and periodical evaluations could contribute to the integration of this online community. Interviews with patients provided insights into the possible impact on daily care. This study provides lessons to healthcare providers on the implementation of an online infertility community into their practice.

  10. A Postdoctoral Fellowship in Industrial Clinical Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Joseph; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A postdoctoral pharmacy fellowship is described that provides training in industrial clinical pharmacy practice and related tasks associated with the development of new pharmaceuticals, through experience in industrial and hospital settings and in research projects. (MSE) PUBTYPE[141

  11. A qualitative study of nursing student experiences of clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Farkhondeh; Masoumi, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Background Nursing student's experiences of their clinical practice provide greater insight to develop an effective clinical teaching strategy in nursing education. The main objective of this study was to investigate student nurses' experience about their clinical practice. Methods Focus groups were used to obtain students' opinion and experiences about their clinical practice. 90 baccalaureate nursing students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery) were selected randomly from two hundred students and were arranged in 9 groups of ten students. To analyze the data the method used to code and categories focus group data were adapted from approaches to qualitative data analysis. Results Four themes emerged from the focus group data. From the students' point of view," initial clinical anxiety", "theory-practice gap"," clinical supervision", professional role", were considered as important factors in clinical experience. Conclusion The result of this study showed that nursing students were not satisfied with the clinical component of their education. They experienced anxiety as a result of feeling incompetent and lack of professional nursing skills and knowledge to take care of various patients in the clinical setting. PMID:16280087

  12. [Hypnotic communication and hypnosis in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Wehrli, Hans

    2014-07-01

    In addition to usual medical care it is often critical to consider the patient's inner world in order to sensitively differentiate between harmful and helpful suggestive elements. The respective abilities in terms of hypnotic communication can be easily learned. Confident, empathic attention and a calm, understanding and figurative language narrowing the focus on positive emotions and positive change, which have been shown to improve the patient's chances of healing, are of particular importance. Proper clinical hypnosis goes one step further: it makes explicit use of suggestions, trance, and trance phenomena. The major clinical indications for hypnosis include psychosomatic disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, depression, and pain syndromes. Hypnosis can also be employed as an adjunct for surgical therapy.

  13. Evaluating clinical dermatology practice in medical undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Casanova, J M; Sanmartín, V; Martí, R M; Morales, J L; Soler, J; Purroy, F; Pujol, R

    2014-06-01

    The acquisition of competences (the set of knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform a job to a professional level) is considered a fundamental part of medical training. Dermatology competences should include, in addition to effective clinical interviewing and detailed descriptions of skin lesions, appropriate management (diagnosis, differentiation, and treatment) of common skin disorders and tumors. Such competences can only be acquired during hospital clerkships. As a way of certifying these competences, we propose evaluating the different components as follows: knowledge, via clinical examinations or critical incident discussions; communication and certain instrumental skills, via structured workplace observation and scoring using a set of indicators; and attitudes, via joint evaluation by staff familiar with the student.

  14. Meditation on ethics in clinical engineering practice.

    PubMed

    Dyro, J F

    1988-01-01

    The author reflects on clinical engineering situations that require consideration of ethical behavior rather than providing a prescription for what decisions should be made. Situations are proposed and questions raised. Among the issues considered are employee safety, working out of title, cost effectiveness and productivity, unpopular causes, standards and regulations, quality assurance, and whistle blowing. To gain insight into how one performs these duties it is suggested that an examination of one's personal characteristics is helpful.

  15. Rethinking the Role of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel L

    2015-12-25

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) play a major role in pharmacy education. Students learn to locate, retrieve, and apply CPGs in didactic coursework and practice experiences. However, they often memorize and quote recommendations without critical analysis, which tends to undermine their clinical growth. Students should become genuine drug experts, based on strong critical-thinking skills and the ability to assimilate extensive clinical and scientific knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines improve health care, and students should be familiar with them, but there are legitimate criticisms of CPGs, stemming largely from potential conflicts of interest and limitations in the quality and scope of available evidence. Despite such flaws, CPGs can be used to facilitate the clinical growth of students if the emphasis is placed on critically analyzing and evaluating CPG recommendations, as opposed to blindly accepting them. From that perspective, the role that CPGs have come to play in education may need to be reconsidered.

  16. Rethinking the Role of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) play a major role in pharmacy education. Students learn to locate, retrieve, and apply CPGs in didactic coursework and practice experiences. However, they often memorize and quote recommendations without critical analysis, which tends to undermine their clinical growth. Students should become genuine drug experts, based on strong critical-thinking skills and the ability to assimilate extensive clinical and scientific knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines improve health care, and students should be familiar with them, but there are legitimate criticisms of CPGs, stemming largely from potential conflicts of interest and limitations in the quality and scope of available evidence. Despite such flaws, CPGs can be used to facilitate the clinical growth of students if the emphasis is placed on critically analyzing and evaluating CPG recommendations, as opposed to blindly accepting them. From that perspective, the role that CPGs have come to play in education may need to be reconsidered. PMID:26889060

  17. Multicentre randomised double bind crossover trial on contamination of conventional ties and bow ties in routine obstetric and gynaecological practice.

    PubMed Central

    Biljan, M M; Hart, C A; Sunderland, D; Manasse, P R; Kingsland, C R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess level of contamination of neckwear worn by gynaecologists and obstetricians during routine working week. DESIGN--Multicentre randomised double blind crossover trial. Participants wore the same conventional ties for three days in one week and bow ties for the same period in second week. SETTING--Two teaching and three district general hospitals in the midlands, Wales, and north England. SUBJECTS--15 registrars and senior registrars. INTERVENTIONS--A swab soaked in sterile saline was taken from specific area on ties at end of first and third working days and sent in transport medium for culture on chocolatised blood and MacConkey agar for 48 hours. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Level of bacteriological growth assessed semiquantitatively (0 for no contamination; for heavy contamination) after swabs had been cultured. At end of study the participants completed a questionnaire to assess their attitude toward wearing different types of necktie. RESULTS--12 doctors (80%) completed the study. Although bow ties were significantly less contaminated at end of first working day (z = -2.354, p = 0.019), this difference was not maintained; there was no difference in level of contamination on third day. Level of contamination did not increase between first and third day of wearing the same garment. One of the 10 doctors who returned the questionnaire found the bow tie very uncomfortable. All participants would consider wearing a bow tie if it proved to be less contaminated than a conventional tie. CONCLUSIONS--Although a significant difference in contamination was established between conventional and bow ties on first day of study, this difference was not confirmed on third day and there is unlikely to be any real association between tie type and bacterial contamination. Because of its negative image and difficulty to tie, the bow tie will probably remain a minority fashion. Images p1583-a PMID:8292945

  18. Clinical placements in general practice: relationships between practice nurses and tertiary institutions.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kathleen; Halcomb, Elizabeth J; McInnes, Susan

    2013-05-01

    As a practice-based discipline a key component of undergraduate nurse education is clinical practice experience. The quality of clinical experiences has a significant impact on the students' ability to function competently post graduation. The relationship between higher education institutions (HEIs) and health service placement providers impacts upon the quality of clinical placements. In Australia, the growth of primary care nursing and the shortage of acute clinical places has prompted HEIs to explore the placement of students in general practice. Given the increasing attention being paid to non-traditional clinical placements, it is timely to explore how universities are establishing relationships and models of clinical placement. This paper uses qualitative research methods to explore the perspectives of 12 Australian general practice nurses who have experience in facilitating undergraduate clinical placements about the relationships between HEIs and nurses. Findings are presented in the following three themes: (1) Appropriate preparation for placement: They don't know what primary health really means, (2) Seeking greater consultation in the organisation of clinical placements: they've got to do it one way for everyone, and (3) Uncertainty and lack of support: I had no contact with the university. Clinical placements in general practice can be an innovative strategy providing non-traditional, yet high quality, teaching and learning experiences for undergraduate nursing students. To optimise the quality of these placements, however, it is essential that HEIs provide appropriate support to the practice nurses mentoring these students. PMID:23069694

  19. Bridging the Gap between Ethics and Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamric, Ann B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes attitude sets characterized as ethics as intuition, ethics as foreign language, and ethics as irrelevant to practice among nurses and physicians and the consequences they engender. Addresses strategies to bridge the gap between ethics knowledge and clinical practice, including interdisciplinary ethics education. (JOW)

  20. Active Interventions in Clinical Practice: Contributions of Gestalt Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammert, Marilyn; Dolan, Mary M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes two dimensions of Gestalt therapy that can enhance clinical practice--orientation to the present and active-experimental style--and examines them in relation to some traditional principles of practice. Gestalt theory offers a method of discovery that is a combination of phenomenology and behaviorism. (JAC)

  1. Characteristics and Clinical Practices of Rural Marriage and Family Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, James

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a subset of data collected from the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) Practice Research Network project conducted in 2002. A sample of 47 clinical members of AAMFT who indicated they practiced in a rural community provided descriptive information on demographic characteristics, training, clinical…

  2. Re-engineering opportunities in clinical research using workflow analysis in community practice settings.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sharib A; Kukafka, Rita; Bigger, J Thomas; Johnson, Stephen B

    2008-11-06

    In this paper we examine frequently performed clinical research activities with the objective of identifying aspects of workflow that could be amenable to informatics-based re-engineering. This paper is part of a series of studies under the NIH Roadmap initiative, which examines workflow of clinical research in community practices. We describe three common work activities, detailing the main actors involved, the tools used and the challenges faced. These activities illustrate inefficiencies in the clinical research workflow which include: a) lack of supporting tools to perform routine work activities, b) redundancy, low reuse of data and poor interoperability between systems and c) the fragmented and distributed nature of the workflow. We identify opportunities for re-engineering at both a micro (activity) and macro level (organization).

  3. Literature and medicine: contributions to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Charon, R; Banks, J T; Connelly, J E; Hawkins, A H; Hunter, K M; Jones, A H; Montello, M; Poirer, S

    1995-04-15

    Introduced to U.S. medical schools in 1972, the field of literature and medicine contributes methods and texts that help physicians develop skills in the human dimensions of medical practice. Five broad goals are met by including the study of literature in medical education: 1) Literary accounts of illness can teach physicians concrete and powerful lessons about the lives of sick people; 2) great works of fiction about medicine enable physicians to recognize the power and implications of what they do; 3) through the study of narrative, the physician can better understand patients' stories of sickness and his or her own personal stake in medical practice; 4) literary study contributes to physicians' expertise in narrative ethics; and 5) literary theory offers new perspectives on the work and the genres of medicine. Particular texts and methods have been found to be well suited to the fulfillment of each of these goals. Chosen from the traditional literary canon and from among the works of contemporary and culturally diverse writers, novels, short stories, poetry, and drama can convey both the concrete particularity and the metaphorical richness of the predicaments of sick people and the challenges and rewards offered to their physicians. In more than 20 years of teaching literature to medical students and physicians, practitioners of literature and medicine have clarified its conceptual frameworks and have identified the means by which its studies strengthen the human competencies of doctoring, which are a central feature of the art of medicine. PMID:7887555

  4. Clinical review: Checklists - translating evidence into practice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Checklists are common tools used in many industries. Unfortunately, their adoption in the field of medicine has been limited to equipment operations or part of specific algorithms. Yet they have tremendous potential to improve patient outcomes by democratizing knowledge and helping ensure that all patients receive evidence-based best practices and safe high-quality care. Checklist adoption has been slowed by a variety of factors, including provider resistance, delays in knowledge dissemination and integration, limited methodology to guide development and maintenance, and lack of effective technical strategies to make them available and easy to use. In this article, we explore some of the principles and possible strategies to further develop and encourage the implementation of checklists into medical practice. We describe different types of checklists using examples and explore the benefits they offer to improve care. We suggest methods to create checklists and offer suggestions for how we might apply them, using some examples from our own experience, and finally, offer some possible directions for future research. PMID:20064195

  5. Literature and medicine: contributions to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Charon, R; Banks, J T; Connelly, J E; Hawkins, A H; Hunter, K M; Jones, A H; Montello, M; Poirer, S

    1995-04-15

    Introduced to U.S. medical schools in 1972, the field of literature and medicine contributes methods and texts that help physicians develop skills in the human dimensions of medical practice. Five broad goals are met by including the study of literature in medical education: 1) Literary accounts of illness can teach physicians concrete and powerful lessons about the lives of sick people; 2) great works of fiction about medicine enable physicians to recognize the power and implications of what they do; 3) through the study of narrative, the physician can better understand patients' stories of sickness and his or her own personal stake in medical practice; 4) literary study contributes to physicians' expertise in narrative ethics; and 5) literary theory offers new perspectives on the work and the genres of medicine. Particular texts and methods have been found to be well suited to the fulfillment of each of these goals. Chosen from the traditional literary canon and from among the works of contemporary and culturally diverse writers, novels, short stories, poetry, and drama can convey both the concrete particularity and the metaphorical richness of the predicaments of sick people and the challenges and rewards offered to their physicians. In more than 20 years of teaching literature to medical students and physicians, practitioners of literature and medicine have clarified its conceptual frameworks and have identified the means by which its studies strengthen the human competencies of doctoring, which are a central feature of the art of medicine.

  6. Sports Neurology in Clinical Practice: Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Tad

    2016-08-01

    With regard to persistent posttraumatic headache, there is legitimate concern that duration of symptoms may have an impact on the efficacy of future treatment attempts. Without neuropathologic confirmation, a clinical diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy cannot be made with a high degree of confidence. Sport-related headaches are challenging in a return-to-play context, because it is often unclear whether an athlete has an exacerbation of a primary headache disorder, has new-onset headache unrelated to trauma, or is in the recovery phase after concussion. Regular physical exercise may prove beneficial to multiple neurologic disease states. PMID:27445251

  7. Erring and learning in clinical practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Brian

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses error type their possible consequences and the doctors who make them. There is no single, all-encompassing typology of medical errors. They are frequently multifactorial in origin and use from the mental processes of individuals; from defects in perception, thinking reasoning planning and interpretation and from failures of team-working omissions and poorly executed actions. They also arise from inadequately designed and operated healthcare systems or procedures. The paper considers error-truth relatedness, the approach of UK courts to medical errors, the learning opportunities which flow from error recognition and the need for personal and professional self awareness of clinical fallibilities. PMID:12389767

  8. Improving Clinical Practices for Children with Language and Learning Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This lead article of the Clinical Forum addresses some of the gaps that exist between clinical practice and current knowledge about instructional factors that influence learning and language development. Method: Topics reviewed and discussed include principles of learning, generalization, treatment intensity, processing interventions,…

  9. Clinical Practice Guideline for Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D and its metabolites have clinical significance because they play a critical function in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Although not all of the pathologic mechanisms have been adequately described, vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, as measured by low levels of 25-OH vitamin D, are associated with a variety of clinical conditions including osteoporosis, falls and fractures in the elderly, decreased immune function, bone pain, and possibly colon cancer and cardiovascular health.2 Apart from inadequate dietary intake, patients may present with low levels of vitamin D if they receive inadequate sunlight. The astronaut population is potentially vulnerable to low levels of vitamin D for several reasons. Firstly, they may train for long periods in Star City, Russia, which by virtue of its northern latitude receives less sunlight in winter months. Secondly, astronauts are deprived of sunlight while aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In addition, ISS crew members are exposed to microgravity for prolonged durations and are likely to develop low bone mineral density despite the use of countermeasures. Therefore, closely monitoring and maintaining adequate vitamin D levels is important for the astronaut corps.

  10. Potential Uses of Probiotics in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Gregor; Jass, Jana; Sebulsky, M. Tom; McCormick, John K.

    2003-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. There is now mounting evidence that selected probiotic strains can provide health benefits to their human hosts. Numerous clinical trials show that certain strains can improve the outcome of intestinal infections by reducing the duration of diarrhea. Further investigations have shown benefits in reducing the recurrence of urogenital infections in women, while promising studies in cancer and allergies require research into the mechanisms of activity for particular strains and better-designed trials. At present, only a small percentage of physicians either know of probiotics or understand their potential applicability to patient care. Thus, probiotics are not yet part of the clinical arsenal for prevention and treatment of disease or maintenance of health. The establishment of accepted standards and guidelines, proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization, represents a key step in ensuring that reliable products with suitable, informative health claims become available. Based upon the evidence to date, future advances with single- and multiple-strain therapies are on the horizon for the management of a number of debilitating and even fatal conditions. PMID:14557292

  11. Translating Regenerative Biomaterials Into Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Stace, Edward T; Dakin, Stephanie G; Mouthuy, Pierre-Alexis; Carr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Globally health care spending is increasing unsustainably. This is especially true of the treatment of musculoskeletal (MSK) disease where in the United States the MSK disease burden has doubled over the last 15 years. With an aging and increasingly obese population, the surge in MSK related spending is only set to worsen. Despite increased funding, research and attention to this pressing health need, little progress has been made toward novel therapies. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies could provide the solutions required to mitigate this mounting burden. Biomaterial-based treatments in particular present a promising field of potentially cost-effective therapies. However, the translation of a scientific development to a successful treatment is fraught with difficulties. These barriers have so far limited translation of TERM science into clinical treatments. It is crucial for primary researchers to be aware of the barriers currently restricting the progression of science to treatments. Researchers need to act prospectively to ensure the clinical, financial, and regulatory hurdles which seem so far removed from laboratory science do not stall or prevent the subsequent translation of their idea into a treatment. The aim of this review is to explore the development and translation of new treatments. Increasing the understanding of these complexities and barriers among primary researchers could enhance the efficiency of biomaterial translation.

  12. Nutritional aspects of detoxification in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Cline, John C

    2015-01-01

    Detoxification is a vital cellular task that, if lacking, can lead to early morbidity and mortality. The process of detoxification involves the mobilization, biotransformation, and elimination of toxicants of exogenous and endogenous origin. This article discusses the phase I and phase II detoxification and biotransformation pathways and promotes using food to support these highly complex processes. The author identifies the comprehensive elimination diet as a useful therapeutic tool for clinicians and patients to use to achieve detoxification. Using this diet, the patient removes the most common allergenic foods and beverages from the diet and replaces them with nonallergenic choices for a period of 4 wk, gradually adding back the eliminated foods and observing their effects. Another effective clinical tool that the author discusses is the detox-focused core food plan, which identifies the variety of foods required to supply key nutrients that can maximize the effectiveness of detoxification. Finally, the author provides a case study in which these tools were used to help a patient suffering from major, debilitating illnesses that resulted from exposure to malathion, including severe vomiting and diarrhea, headaches, night sweats, severe arthralgias and myalgias, episcleritis, and shortness of breath. The article details the interventions used and the clinical results (ie, successful resolution of most issues after 3 mo). PMID:26026145

  13. Sufficient trial size to inform clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Manski, Charles F; Tetenov, Aleksey

    2016-09-20

    Medical research has evolved conventions for choosing sample size in randomized clinical trials that rest on the theory of hypothesis testing. Bayesian statisticians have argued that trials should be designed to maximize subjective expected utility in settings of clinical interest. This perspective is compelling given a credible prior distribution on treatment response, but there is rarely consensus on what the subjective prior beliefs should be. We use Wald's frequentist statistical decision theory to study design of trials under ambiguity. We show that ε-optimal rules exist when trials have large enough sample size. An ε-optimal rule has expected welfare within ε of the welfare of the best treatment in every state of nature. Equivalently, it has maximum regret no larger than ε We consider trials that draw predetermined numbers of subjects at random within groups stratified by covariates and treatments. We report exact results for the special case of two treatments and binary outcomes. We give simple sufficient conditions on sample sizes that ensure existence of ε-optimal treatment rules when there are multiple treatments and outcomes are bounded. These conditions are obtained by application of Hoeffding large deviations inequalities to evaluate the performance of empirical success rules. PMID:27601679

  14. [Implementing clinical pathways: some practical notes].

    PubMed

    Raggi, F; Montella, M T; Lazzari, C; Ciotti, E; Longanesi, A; Nardacchione, V; Bernardi, R; Cacciari, P

    2012-01-01

    The traditional biomedical paradigm is no longer a guarantee of quality for health care, facing increasingly difficult challenges caused by chronic diseases and increasingly fragmented resources that current healthcare systems are dealing with. Health care organizations, considered to be the most complex enterprises of the modern era, must be able to focus on the flow of patients, integrating primary and secondary care through tools such as the Integrated Care Pathways (ICP). This brief discussion attempts to define the ICP its purposes, the elements that characterize it, its limitations and the mechanisms to push for a successful implementation. In order to highlight the elements and basic steps for the creation of an ICP, the authors have compared five different clinical pathways, whose implementation they have contributed to. The comparison was made using two grids: the first showing the essential elements for the definition of lCP and the second one with features that can facilitate their effectiveness. The conclusions of the work show what, pursuing the construction of a pathway, we must never forget: to analyze the gap between the clinical-care activities performed and the theoretical framework provided by the evidence; to see the barriers to change that may impede the implementation; to involve all actors in the system, with particular attention to patients and their associations, and finally to provide a plan for information and education, addressed to health professionals and patients as well. PMID:22755502

  15. Optical coherence tomography: potentialities in clinical practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagaynova, Elena; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Shakhov, Andrey; Terentjeva, Anna; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Kuznetzova, Irina A.; Streltzova, Olga; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Myakov, Alex

    2004-08-01

    Clinical studies using OCT involved 2000 patients in various fields of medicine such as gastroenterology, urology, laryngology, gynecology, dermatology, stomatology, etc. Layered high-contrast images were typical for benign epithelial conditions. OCT distinguish in mucosae: epithelium, connective tissue layer, and smooth-muscle layer. Various benign processes occurring in mucosa manifest in OCT images as changes in the epithelial height, scattering properties and the course of the basement membrane. Lack of the layered structural pattern is the main criterion for dysplastic / malignant images. In clinic: OCT data may be critical for choosing a tissue site for excisional biopsy, OCT can detect tumor borders and their linear dimensions, OCT can be used to plan a resection line in operations and to control adequacy of resection, to monitor whether reparative processes are timely and adequate. OCT sensitivity of the uterine cervix, urinary bladder and larynx is 82, 98, 77%, respectively, specificity - 78, 71, 96%, diagnostic accuracy - 81, 85, 87% with significantly good agreement index of clinicians kappa - 0.65, 0.79, 0.83 (confidence intervals: 0.57-0.73; 0.71-0.88; 0.74-0.91). Error in detection of high grade dysplasia and microinvasive cancer is 21.4% in average. Additional modification of OCT (cross-polarisation OCT, OCM), development of the procedure (biotissue compression, application of chemical agents) can improve the specificity and sensitivity of traditional modality.

  16. Biosimilar safety considerations in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Choy, Edwin; Jacobs, Ira Allen

    2014-02-01

    Biologics are important treatments for a number of cancers. Patents for several biologics will expire over the next decade, removing a barrier to the development and commercialization of biosimilars. As biologics differ from small-molecule drugs due to their size and complexity, multifaceted manufacturing process, and their potential for immunogenicity, biosimilars cannot be considered "generic versions" of currently approved biologics. In highly regulated markets, biosimilars can be authorized only if they are demonstrated to be highly similar to the original drug from an analytical and clinical perspective. Any differences must be justified and shown to have no clinically meaningful effect on the safety and efficacy of the biosimilar. The European Medicines Agency has approved a number of biosimilars and the recent approval of the biosimilar infliximab monoclonal antibody is another regulatory milestone. This article will provide context regarding key safety issues addressed in biosimilar development, approval, and delivery, as well as inform oncologists on matters of safety to consider when prescribing biosimilars. Pertinent issues about safety from countries or regions where biosimilars are currently in use also will be reviewed. PMID:24560025

  17. Should mortality data for the elderly be collected routinely in emergencies? The practical challenges of age-disaggregated surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    du Cros, Philipp; Venis, Sarah; Karunakara, Unni

    2013-11-01

    Data on the elderly are rarely collected in humanitarian emergencies. During a refugee crisis in South Sudan, Médecins Sans Frontières developed a prospective mortality surveillance system collecting data for those aged ≥50 years and found that the elderly were dying at five times the rate of those aged 5-49 years. Practical and ethical issues arose. Were reported ages accurate? Since no baseline exists, what does the mortality rate mean? Should programmatic changes be made without evidence that these would reduce the elderly mortality rate? We outline issues to be addressed to enable informed decisions on response to elderly populations in emergency settings. PMID:24114674

  18. [Comorbidities and psoriasis. Impact on clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Gerdes, S; Mrowietz, U

    2012-03-01

    Psoriasis is a genetically determined, chronic inflammatory systemic disease. Besides skin symptoms, patients with moderate to severe forms of psoriasis show an association with other diseases, referred to as comorbidities. Metabolic disorders (e.g. diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia mainly in obese patients) and cardiovascular diseases (e.g. arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction and stroke) are of importance as they can increase patients' mortality. In addition, psychiatric diseases are more frequent in psoriasis patients and influence the therapeutic approach. The dermatologist in most cases is the primarily consulted physician for patients with psoriasis and therefore plays the role as a gatekeeper managing therapy. He is responsible for the early diagnosis of comorbidities and insuring their appropriate management. The anti-psoriatic treatment has to be adapted to existing comorbidities and their systemic treatments. The following article provides information on psoriatic comorbidities and their consequences for daily practice.

  19. Translating social justice into clinical nurse specialist practice.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sue Ellen; Hulbert, James R

    2008-01-01

    Translating social justice into clinical nurse specialist (CNS) practice involves not only facilitating equitable access to healthcare resources but also changing the definition of health from individual centric to population based. Clinical nurse specialists working within hospitals or healthcare systems generally have not explored the ethical conflicts between demand and available healthcare resources. Application of social justice to CNS practice requires microallocation decisions in direct patient care and macroallocation decisions in the distribution of all societal goods that alleviate health disparities. This article reviews the meaning, history, and current basis for the application of the principle of social justice to CNS practice.

  20. Increased cellularity and expression of adhesion molecules in muscle biopsy specimens from patients with rheumatoid arthritis with clinical suspicion of vasculitis, but negative routine histology

    PubMed Central

    Verschueren, P.; Voskuyl, A.; Smeets, T; Zwinderman, K.; Breedveld, F.; Tak, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Histological analysis of random quadriceps muscle biopsy specimens can be used to detect vasculitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed at determining the immunohistological features in patients with clinical suspicion of rheumatoid vasculitis, but without a transmural infiltrate or fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel wall on routine histology.
METHODS—Three groups of patients with RA were studied: (a) without clinical signs of vasculitis (n=6); (b) with recent onset of extra-articular features and a clinical suspicion of vasculitis but normal routine histology (n=11); and (c) with recent onset of extra-articular features and vasculitis, histologically proved either in muscle or other biopsy specimens (n=14). A control group of patients with osteoarthritis was also included (n=5). Frozen sections from quadriceps muscle biopsy specimens were analysed with monoclonal antibodies to detect CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and HLA-DR. The slides were evaluated using a semiquantitative scoring system (0-4).
RESULTS—The mean scores gradually increased from group 1 to 3, leading to significant differences between groups 1 and 2, but not between groups 2 and 3 for most markers (p< 0.05). Thus the pathological changes were similar for the two groups with clinical signs of vasculitis, even when the conventional histological evaluation was negative. Higher immunohistological scores were associated with perivascular infiltrates on routine histology.
CONCLUSION—The pathophysiological events leading to vasculitis are reflected by the changes in the quadriceps muscle biopsy specimens. The data indicate that the sensitivity of examination of muscle biopsy specimens for the diagnosis of rheumatoid vasculitis can be increased by the use of new criteria.

 PMID:10913056

  1. Impact of a Routine, Opt-Out HIV Testing Program on HIV Testing and Case Detection in North Carolina Sexually-Transmitted Disease Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Pamela W.; Messer, Lynne C.; Myers, Evan R.; Weber, David J.; Leone, Peter A.; Miller, William C.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of routine, opt-out HIV testing programs in clinical settings is inconclusive. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of an expanded, routine HIV testing program in North Carolina sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics on HIV testing and case detection. Adults aged 18–64 who received an HIV test in a North Carolina STD clinic July 1, 2005 through June 30, 2011 were included in this analysis, dichotomized at the date of implementation on November 1, 2007. HIV testing and case detection counts and rates were analyzed using interrupted time series analysis, and Poisson and multilevel logistic regression. Pre-intervention, 426 new HIV-infected cases were identified from 128,029 tests (0.33%), whereas 816 new HIV-infected cases were found from 274,745 tests post-intervention (0.30%). Pre-intervention, HIV testing increased by 55 tests per month (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41, 72), but only 34 tests per month (95% CI: 26, 42) post-intervention. Increases in HIV testing rates were most pronounced in females and non-Hispanic whites. A slight pre-intervention decline in case detection was mitigated by the intervention (mean difference [MD]=0.01; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.05). Increases in case detection rates were observed among females and non-Hispanic blacks. The impact of a routine HIV screening in North Carolina STD clinics was marginal, with the greatest benefit among persons not traditionally targeted for HIV testing. The use of a pre-intervention comparison period identified important temporal trends that otherwise would have been ignored. PMID:24825338

  2. A practical guide to writing clinical articles for publication.

    PubMed

    Happell, B

    2012-04-01

    The sharing of nursing knowledge between clinicians can strengthen the profession. Clinicians often underestimate the relevance and importance of what they may contribute and feel daunted by the idea of writing for publication. This article presents a practical approach to writing clinical articles for publication in professional journals such as Nursing Older People. It considers: what is a clinical article; the structure of a clinical article (Why? Where? How? What? What now?); choosing the journal; and understanding the editorial process.

  3. Implementation of a clinical workstation for general practice.

    PubMed

    Lovell, N H; Celler, B G

    1995-01-01

    It is now well recognized that achieving international best practice in the primary health sector will require the development of methods based on a fundamental integration of communications and information technologies with clinical practice. This will have far reaching effects, both on the pattern of medical practice and domiciliary care and on patient outcomes. In the past, information and communications technology has been presented as a tool for management, rather than as a tool for supporting, improving, and making more efficient the professional practice of medicine and the delivery of health care to the patient and the community. In this paper, we propose that an essential element for the achievement of international best practice in the health sector is the development and widespread use of information, measurement, and communications technology targeted towards the clinical practice of medicine, the provision of health services and domiciliary care in the community, and the analysis of morbidity patterns and health care outcomes. A key element of this strategy is the development of an integrated Clinical Workstation specifically designed for the general practitioner, practice nurses, and domiciliary care nurses in their professional tasks of measurement, diagnosis, management, and delivery of health care to the community. We will present our work on the design of an integrated Clinical Workstation for Primary Health Care. The Workstation is Windows based, has a sophisticated user interface, and supports a wide range of computing platforms, from desktop to laptop to hand-held notebook computers. The Workstation will be modular and expandable, both in its software and hardware components, so that users may select only those modules appropriate to their own roles, clinical practice, and levels of expertise. The design will focus on the provision of clinical services and will integrate the following key components: Patient records and basic practice

  4. RNA and DNA bacteriophages as molecular diagnosis controls in clinical virology: a comprehensive study of more than 45,000 routine PCR tests.

    PubMed

    Ninove, Laetitia; Nougairede, Antoine; Gazin, Celine; Thirion, Laurence; Delogu, Ilenia; Zandotti, Christine; Charrel, Remi N; De Lamballerie, Xavier

    2011-02-09

    Real-time PCR techniques are now commonly used for the detection of viral genomes in various human specimens and require for validation both external and internal controls (ECs and ICs). In particular, ICs added to clinical samples are necessary to monitor the extraction, reverse transcription, and amplification steps in order to detect false-negative results resulting from PCR-inhibition or errors in the technical procedure. Here, we performed a large scale evaluation of the use of bacteriophages as ICs in routine molecular diagnosis. This allowed to propose simple standardized procedures (i) to design specific ECs for both DNA and RNA viruses and (ii) to use T4 (DNA) or MS2 (RNA) phages as ICs in routine diagnosis. Various technical formats for using phages as ICs were optimised and validated. Subsequently, T4 and MS2 ICs were evaluated in routine real-time PCR or RT-PCR virological diagnostic tests, using a series of 8,950 clinical samples (representing 36 distinct specimen types) sent to our laboratory for the detection of a variety of DNA and RNA viruses. The frequency of inefficient detection of ICs was analyzed according to the nature of the sample. Inhibitors of enzymatic reactions were detected at high frequency in specific sample types such as heparinized blood and bone marrow (>70%), broncho-alveolar liquid (41%) and stools (36%). The use of T4 and MS2 phages as ICs proved to be cost-effective, flexible and adaptable to various technical procedures of real-time PCR detection in virology. It represents a valuable strategy for enhancing the quality of routine molecular diagnosis in laboratories that use in-house designed diagnostic systems, which can conveniently be associated to the use of specific synthetic ECs. The high rate of inhibitors observed in a variety of specimen types should stimulate the elaboration of improved technical protocols for the extraction and amplification of nucleic acids.

  5. Exploring accountability of clinical ethics consultants: practice and training implications.

    PubMed

    Weise, Kathryn L; Daly, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Clinical ethics consultants represent a multidisciplinary group of scholars and practitioners with varied training backgrounds, who are integrated into a medical environment to assist in the provision of ethically supportable care. Little has been written about the degree to which such consultants are accountable for the patient care outcome of the advice given. We propose a model for examining degrees of internally motivated accountability that range from restricted to unbounded accountability, and support balanced accountability as a goal for practice. Finally, we explore implications of this model for training of clinical ethics consultants from diverse academic backgrounds, including those disciplines that do not have a formal code of ethics relating to clinical practice.

  6. The role of MRI in musculoskeletal practice: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dean Deyle, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This clinical perspective presents an overview of current and potential uses for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in musculoskeletal practice. Clinical practice guidelines and current evidence for improved outcomes will help providers determine the situations when an MRI is indicated. The advanced competency standard of examination used by physical therapists will be helpful to prevent overuse of musculoskeletal imaging, reduce diagnostic errors, and provide the appropriate clinical context to pathology revealed on MRI. Physical therapists are diagnostically accurate and appropriately conservative in their use of MRI consistent with evidence-based principles of diagnosis and screening. PMID:22851878

  7. Ketamine use in current clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mei; Rejaei, Damoon; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    After nearly half a century on the market, ketamine still occupies a unique corner in the medical armamentarium of anesthesiologists or clinicians treating pain. Over the last two decades, much research has been conducted highlighting the drug's mechanisms of action, specifically those of its enantiomers. Nowadays, ketamine is also being utilized for pediatric pain control in emergency department, with its anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects being revealed in acute and chronic pain management. Recently, new insights have been gained on ketamine's potential anti-depressive and antisuicidal effects. This article provides an overview of the drug's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics while also discussing the potential benefits and risks of ketamine administration in various clinical settings. PMID:27018176

  8. Obligate anaerobes in clinical veterinary practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, D C; Biberstein, E L; Jang, S S

    1979-01-01

    Clinical specimens obtained from domestic animals were examined to determine the relative prevalence of obligate anaerobic bacteria and the species represented. Of 3,167 samples cultured anaerobically as well as aerobically, 2,234 were bacteriologically positive. Of these positive samples, 583 (26%) contained species of obligate anaerobic bacteria in a total of 641 isolates. Most positive samples contained anaerobes admixed with aerobic species, although 6% of such samples yielded pure cultures of obligate anaerobes. The most common sites from which anaerobes were isolated were abscesses (32% of abscesses cultured contained species of obligate anaerobes), peritoneal exudates (24%), and pleural effusions (20%). Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and Bacteroides ruminicola accounted in the aggregate for approximately 50% of all anaerobic isolates. Bacteroides fragilis accounted for 1% of all the isolates, and members of the genus Clostridium accounted for 8%. PMID:511987

  9. Cars, CONSORT 2010, and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Hywel C

    2010-03-24

    Just like you would not buy a car without key information such as service history, you would not "buy" a clinical trial report without key information such as concealment of allocation. Implementation of the updated CONSORT 2010 statement enables the reader to see exactly what was done in a trial, to whom and when. A fully "CONSORTed" trial report does not necessarily mean the trial is a good one, but at least the reader can make a judgement. Clear reporting is a pre-requisite for judgement of study quality. The CONSORT statement evolves as empirical research moves on. CONSORT 2010 is even clearer than before and includes some new items with a particular emphasis on selective reporting of outcomes. The challenge is for everyone to use it.

  10. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cutaneous Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Angela M; Hurley, M Yadira

    2015-01-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which are broadly divided into cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and cutaneous B-cell lymphomas. These classifications include numerous distinct entities, all with varying clinical presentations and disease courses. Herein, we will review the cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, including Mycosis Fungoides, Sézary syndrome, CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders, as well as other less common entities. Cutaneous B-cell lymphomas will also be discussed, including primary cutaneous marginal zoned lymphoma, cutaneous follicle-center lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type, as well as other less common entities. Accurate and early diagnosis is key, as the treatment and prognosis varies significantly between conditions. PMID:26455060

  11. Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Rosacea.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yuka; Tan, Jerry; Baibergenova, Akerke; Barankin, Benjamin; Cochrane, Chris L; Humphrey, Shannon; Lynde, Charles W; Marcoux, Danielle; Poulin, Yves; Rivers, Jason K; Sapijaszko, Mariusz; Sibbald, R Gary; Toole, John; Ulmer, Marcie; Zip, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial inflammatory dermatosis characterized by background facial erythema and flushing and may be accompanied by inflammatory papules and pustules, cutaneous fibrosis and hyperplasia known as phyma, and ocular involvement. These features can have adverse impact on quality of life, and ocular involvement can lead to visual dysfunction. The past decade has witnessed increased research into pathogenic pathways involved in rosacea and the introduction of novel treatment innovations. The objective of these guidelines is to offer evidence-based recommendations to assist Canadian health care providers in the diagnosis and management of rosacea. These guidelines were developed by an expert panel of Canadian dermatologists taking into consideration the balance of desirable and undesirable outcomes, the quality of supporting evidence, the values and preferences of patients, and the costs of treatment. The 2015 Cochrane review "Interventions in Rosacea" was used as a source of clinical trial evidence on which to base the recommendations. PMID:27207355

  12. In search of the good: narrative reasoning in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Mattingly, C

    1998-09-01

    Based on ethnographic work among North American occupational therapists, I compare two forms of everyday clinical talk. One, "chart talk," conforms to normative conceptions of clinical rationality. The second, storytelling, permeates clinical discussions but has no formal status as a vehicle for clinical reasoning. I argue that both modes of discourse provide avenues for reasoning about clinical problems. However, these discourses construct very different clinical objects and different phenomena to reason about. Further, the clinical problems created through storytelling point toward a more radically distinct conception of rationality than the one underlying biomedicine as it is formally conceived. Clinical storytelling is more usefully understood as a mode of Aristotle's "practical rationality" than the technical rationality of modern (enlightenment) conceptions of reasoning. PMID:9746895

  13. A model for reflection for good clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Balla, John I; Heneghan, Carl; Glasziou, Paul; Thompson, Matthew; Balla, Margaret E

    2009-12-01

    Rationale and aim The rapidly changing knowledge base of clinical practice highlights the need to keep abreast of knowledge changes that are most relevant for the practitioner. We aimed to develop a model for reflection on clinical practice that identified the key elements of medical knowledge needed for good medical practice. Method The dual theory of cognition, an integration of intuitive and analytic processes, provided the framework for the study. The design looked at the congruence between the clinical thinking process and the dual theory. A one-year study was conducted in general practice clinics in Oxfordshire, UK. Thirty-five general practitioners participated in 20-minute interviews to discuss how they worked through recently seen clinical cases. Over a one-year period 72 cases were recorded from 35 interviews. These were categorized according to emerging themes, which were manually coded and substantiated with verbatim quotations. Results There was a close fit between the dual theory and participants' clinical thinking processes. This included instant problem framing, consistent with automatic intuitive thinking, focusing on the risk and urgency of the case. Salient features accounting for these choices were recognizable. There was a second reflective phase, leading to the review of initial judgements. Conclusions The proposed model highlights the critical steps in decision making. This allows regular recalibration of knowledge that is most critical at each of these steps. In line with good practice, the model also links the crucial knowledge used in decision making, to value judgments made in relation to the patient. PMID:20367693

  14. Clozapine Monitoring in Clinical Practice: Beyond the Mandatory Requirement

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Nilamadhab; Barreto, Socorro; Chandavarkar, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Clozapine is effective in treatment resistant schizophrenia; however, it is underutilised probably because of its side effects. The side effects are also the potential reasons for clozapine discontinuation. A mandatory requirement for its use is regular monitoring of white blood cell count and absolute neutrophil count. However there are many side effects that need monitoring in clinical practice considering their seriousness. This article tries to summarise the clinical concerns surrounding the serious side effects of clozapine some of which are associated with fatalities and presents a comprehensive way to monitor patients on clozapine in clinical practice. It emphasizes the need to broaden the monitoring beyond the mandatory investigations. This may help in improving the safety in clinical practice and increasing clinician confidence for greater and appropriate use of this effective intervention. PMID:27776383

  15. Telehematopathology in a clinical consultative practice.

    PubMed

    Fisher, S I; Nandedkar, M A; Williams, B H; Abbondanzo, S L

    2001-12-01

    We studied a series of 60 telepathology cases sent in consultation to the Department of Hematopathology from January 1, 1995, through July 31, 2000. Cases from the United States and the world representing academic, private, military, and federal sectors were reviewed. Ninety percent of patients were adults (54 of 60), and male patients outnumbered female patients 2 to 1. Ages were from 1 to 79 years (mean, 42 years). Forty-three cases were lymph nodes (72%), 14 were bone marrow or peripheral blood (23%), and 3 were from other sites (5%). Twenty-seven of the consultant diagnoses were benign (27 of 60). Twenty-nine were malignant (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and "other malignancy" groups), and 4 were nondiagnostic. Glass slide/paraffin tissue blocks were available in only 35 (58%) of 60 cases. The concordance rate for diagnostic telehematopathology cases with subsequent glass slide/paraffin block follow-up was 91% (29 of 32 cases). The discordance rate was 9% (3 of 32). This finding shows a high degree of diagnostic accuracy for consultative telehematopathology. Of 118 images analyzed, 58 were considered very good/good (49%), 32 were poor/very poor (27%), and 28 were fair (24%). Poor images had suboptimal resolution, color, or technical quality of transmission, and most poor images were low-power images. Additional case problems included insufficient immunoperoxidase stain availability, selection, and labeling; transmitted field selection; specimen preparation and staining; presence or absence of accompanying clinical data; and availability of ancillary studies such as flow cytometric, cytogenetic, and molecular data. From this analysis, the following recommendations are offered. To optimize telehematopathology consultation, include any additional information that have a significant influence on the final consultant diagnosis. Include any pertinent clinical information, laboratory data, special stains, immunoperoxidase stains, and molecular data. Select

  16. Impact of cerebro-spinal fluid biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease in clinical practice: a multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Mouton-Liger, François; Wallon, David; Troussière, Anne-Cécile; Yatimi, Rachida; Dumurgier, Julien; Magnin, Eloi; de la Sayette, Vincent; Duron, Emannuelle; Philippi, Nathalie; Beaufils, Emilie; Gabelle, Audrey; Croisile, Bernard; Robert, Philippe; Pasquier, Florence; Hannequin, Didier; Hugon, Jacques; Paquet, Claire

    2014-01-01

    CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease are well validated in clinical research; however, their pragmatic utility in daily practice is still unappreciated. These biomarkers are used in routine practice according to Health Authority Recommendations. In 604 consecutive patients explored for cognitive disorders, questionnaires were prospectively proposed and filled. Before and after CSF biomarker results, clinicians provided a diagnosis and an estimate of their diagnostic confidence. Analysis has compared the frequency of diagnosis before and after CSF biomarker results using the net reclassification improvement (NRI) method. We have evaluated external validity comparing with data of French Bank National of AD (BNA). A total of 561 patients [Alzheimer's disease (AD), n = 253; non-AD, n = 308] were included (mean age, 68.6 years; women, 52 %). Clinically suspected diagnosis and CSF results were concordant in 65.2 % of cases. When clinical hypothesis and biological results were discordant, a reclassification occurred in favour of CSF biomarkers results in 76.9 %. The NRI was 39.5 %. In addition, the results show a statistically significant improvement in clinician confidence for their diagnosis. In comparison with BNA data, patients were younger and more frequently diagnosed with AD. Clinicians tend to heavily rely on the CSF AD biomarkers results and are more confident in their diagnoses using CSF AD biomarkers. Thus, these biomarkers appear as a key tool in clinical practice.

  17. Comparison of Diagnostic Algorithms for Detecting Toxigenic Clostridium difficile in Routine Practice at a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hee-Won; Kim, Hyeong Nyeon; Hur, Mina; Shim, Hee Sook; Kim, Heejung; Yun, Yeo-Min

    2016-01-01

    Since every single test has some limitations for detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile, multistep algorithms are recommended. This study aimed to compare the current, representative diagnostic algorithms for detecting toxigenic C. difficile, using VIDAS C. difficile toxin A&B (toxin ELFA), VIDAS C. difficile GDH (GDH ELFA, bioMérieux, Marcy-l’Etoile, France), and Xpert C. difficile (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, California, USA). In 271 consecutive stool samples, toxigenic culture, toxin ELFA, GDH ELFA, and Xpert C. difficile were performed. We simulated two algorithms: screening by GDH ELFA and confirmation by Xpert C. difficile (GDH + Xpert) and combined algorithm of GDH ELFA, toxin ELFA, and Xpert C. difficile (GDH + Toxin + Xpert). The performance of each assay and algorithm was assessed. The agreement of Xpert C. difficile and two algorithms (GDH + Xpert and GDH+ Toxin + Xpert) with toxigenic culture were strong (Kappa, 0.848, 0.857, and 0.868, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of algorithms (GDH + Xpert and GDH + Toxin + Xpert) were 96.7%, 95.8%, 85.0%, 98.1%, and 94.5%, 95.8%, 82.3%, 98.5%, respectively. There were no significant differences between Xpert C. difficile and two algorithms in sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. The performances of both algorithms for detecting toxigenic C. difficile were comparable to that of Xpert C. difficile. Either algorithm would be useful in clinical laboratories and can be optimized in the diagnostic workflow of C. difficile depending on costs, test volume, and clinical needs. PMID:27532104

  18. Comparison of Diagnostic Algorithms for Detecting Toxigenic Clostridium difficile in Routine Practice at a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hee-Won; Kim, Hyeong Nyeon; Hur, Mina; Shim, Hee Sook; Kim, Heejung; Yun, Yeo-Min

    2016-01-01

    Since every single test has some limitations for detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile, multistep algorithms are recommended. This study aimed to compare the current, representative diagnostic algorithms for detecting toxigenic C. difficile, using VIDAS C. difficile toxin A&B (toxin ELFA), VIDAS C. difficile GDH (GDH ELFA, bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Etoile, France), and Xpert C. difficile (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, California, USA). In 271 consecutive stool samples, toxigenic culture, toxin ELFA, GDH ELFA, and Xpert C. difficile were performed. We simulated two algorithms: screening by GDH ELFA and confirmation by Xpert C. difficile (GDH + Xpert) and combined algorithm of GDH ELFA, toxin ELFA, and Xpert C. difficile (GDH + Toxin + Xpert). The performance of each assay and algorithm was assessed. The agreement of Xpert C. difficile and two algorithms (GDH + Xpert and GDH+ Toxin + Xpert) with toxigenic culture were strong (Kappa, 0.848, 0.857, and 0.868, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of algorithms (GDH + Xpert and GDH + Toxin + Xpert) were 96.7%, 95.8%, 85.0%, 98.1%, and 94.5%, 95.8%, 82.3%, 98.5%, respectively. There were no significant differences between Xpert C. difficile and two algorithms in sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. The performances of both algorithms for detecting toxigenic C. difficile were comparable to that of Xpert C. difficile. Either algorithm would be useful in clinical laboratories and can be optimized in the diagnostic workflow of C. difficile depending on costs, test volume, and clinical needs.

  19. Varicocele: Ultrasonographic assessment in daily clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Pauroso, S.; Di Leo, N.; Fulle, I.; Di Segni, M.; Alessi, S.; Maggini, E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Varicoceles are abnormal dilatations of the pampiniform venous plexus. They are classified as primary or secondary, depending on their cause, and staged clinically on the basis of their extension and on the presence or the absence of spontaneous or induced reversal of blood flow. Materials and methods We examined 95 patients (age range: 3–77 years) using Color Doppler ultrasound with settings optimized for the study of slow flow. All patients found to have varicoceles underwent ultrasonographic assessment of the kidneys and retroperitoneum. Findings were classified with a simplified version of the Sarteschi system. Results 41 (43.1%) of the patients were found to have varicoceles, which were classified as grade 1 in 11 cases, grade 2 in 13, grade 3 in 10, and grade 4 in 7 according to the simplified Sarteschi classification. Discussion Our results are with those reported in the literature. They confirm that varicoceles are a frequent finding and ultrasonography is currently the best imaging technique for its diagnosis and also for the post-surgery follow-up. PMID:23396816

  20. Clinical practice: Obstructive renal candidiasis in infancy.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Veena; Voort, Judith VanDer

    2011-10-01

    Renal candidiasis is an increasingly common condition affecting predominantly premature infants receiving neonatal intensive care or term infants with urogenital tract anomalies. Multiple risk factors are usually present. Although rare, some infants develop an obstructive uropathy due to fungal balls, and this requires prompt detection and intervention to preserve kidney function. The management of obstructive renal bezoars is challenging and not well summarised in the past. This is mainly due to scarce literature confined to case reports or case series only. This review clarifies various definitions used in relation to renal candidiasis and identifies infants particularly at risk of obstruction. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and the role of imaging are discussed. A summary of the recent literature is provided to outline the range of existing treatment options available with published drug dosages and mode of delivery used. No single approach is successful in all cases and clinicians need to be aware of the different options available: apart from adequate urinary drainage and use of systemic +/- local antifungal agents, additional treatment with fibrinolytic agents and/or endoscopic or open surgical removal may be required. A new simplified algorithm for use in management is proposed. We hope this review will help clinicians in their management of patients presenting with this complex and challenging diagnosis.

  1. Innovation in clinical pharmacy practice and opportunities for academic--practice partnership.

    PubMed

    Gubbins, Paul O; Micek, Scott T; Badowski, Melissa; Cheng, Judy; Gallagher, Jason; Johnson, Samuel G; Karnes, Jason H; Lyons, Kayley; Moore, Katherine G; Strnad, Kyle

    2014-05-01

    Clinical pharmacy has a rich history of advancing practice through innovation. These innovations helped to mold clinical pharmacy into a patient-centered discipline recognized for its contributions to improving medication therapy outcomes. However, innovations in clinical pharmacy practice have now waned. In our view, the growth of academic–practice partnerships could reverse this trend and stimulate innovation among the next generation of pioneering clinical pharmacists. Although collaboration facilitates innovation,academic institutions and health care systems/organizations are not taking full advantage of this opportunity. The academic–practice partnership can be optimized by making both partners accountable for the desired outcomes of their collaboration, fostering symbiotic relationships that promote value-added clinical pharmacy services and emphasizing continuous quality improvement in the delivery of these services. Optimizing academic–practice collaboration on a broader scale requires both partners to adopt a culture that provides for dedicated time to pursue innovation, establishes mechanisms to incubate ideas, recognizes where motivation and vision align, and supports the purpose of the partnership. With appropriate leadership and support, a shift in current professional education and training practices, and a commitment to cultivate future innovators, the academic–practice partnership can develop new and innovative practice advancements that will improve patient outcomes.

  2. Translation of clinical research into practice: defining the clinician scientist.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Niharika; Nesbitt, Laquandra; Roghmann, Mary-Claire; Tacket, Carol

    2009-06-01

    Family medicine has evolved into a specialty deeply rooted in clinical service. Because of high demands for clinical practice productivity, family physicians have drifted away from participation in scientific inquiry. There is even an effort in some institutions to reinvent family medicine as a community-based ambulatory specialty, resulting in a further "disconnect" between research and family physicians. A new movement for the efficient translation of laboratory science into clinical applications in the community supports the need for trained community-based clinician scientists. This translational science seeks to take the findings from bench research and clinical trials and study their introduction and dissemination into community-based clinical practice. There is an opportunity for family physicians to become involved in translational research. But, to develop a cadre of translational researchers within the family medicine community, education programs need to train and develop those researchers. Residency education may be an ideal time to begin that training and development.

  3. Academic physiatry. Balancing clinical practice and academic activities.

    PubMed

    Grabois, M

    1992-04-01

    The need for continued and diversified growth of both scholarly and clinical activities within academic physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) departments is discussed with reference to the demands placed on academic departments by the various components of their mission, such as administration, clinical service, education and research. The expansion and improvement of clinical services should include the following components: program development, resources needed, finances required and marketing. Clinical subspecialization of faculty and solid affiliation with nonacademic hospitals and rehabilitation facilities is essential for academic PM&R. The faculty should include three categories: clinical faculty, clinical-research faculty and research faculty. Adequate financial resources must comprise an appropriate balance of academic funds, clinical income and grant sources. Clinical funds will play a greater role as other sources of funds diminish. Any practice plan must recognize the equality of the differing faculty members' practices, whether their interests are clinical, educational or research-oriented. The expansion and intensification of clinical programs by academy PM&R departments could increase competition in the medical community. Sensitivity to the perceptions of other practitioners and institutions, careful planning and cooperation will help the field grow and improve levels of care for the patients we serve in light of the changing medical care environment.

  4. Assessing the need for change in clinical education practices.

    PubMed

    Strohschein, Jennifer; Hagler, Paul; May, Laura

    2002-02-01

    The purposes of this perspective article are to identify areas of need within clinical education, to describe various models and tools that are proposed and utilized in clinical education, and to explore the extent to which these models and tools might meet the identified needs of clinical education. A synthesis of the literature suggests that the clinical education process in physical therapy currently is characterized by 7 primary needs and that 10 models currently exist to guide the general process or to provide specific tools and practices to enhance its effectiveness. Roles and relationships are critical components in successful clinical education. Theory suggests that clinical educators and students should engage in an intentional, structured process of changing roles during the course of the clinical education experience and that nontechnical competencies such as communication, collaboration, and reflection are crucial for effective practice and may be developed in the clinical education setting. Developing a clearer understanding of the current status of physical therapy clinical education can assist clinical educators in the use of the available models and tools or in developing a new model that addresses potentially unique needs.

  5. Performances of the Vitek MS Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Rapid Identification of Bacteria in Routine Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Grare, Marion; Prere, Marie-Françoise; Segonds, Christine; Marty, Nicole; Oswald, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and cost-effective matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based systems will replace conventional phenotypic methods for routine identification of bacteria. We report here the first evaluation of the new MALDI-TOF MS-based Vitek MS system in a large clinical microbiology laboratory. This system uses an original spectrum classifier algorithm and a specific database designed for the identification of clinically relevant species. We have tested 767 routine clinical isolates representative of 50 genera and 124 species. Vitek MS-based identifications were performed by means of a single deposit on a MALDI disposable target without any prior extraction step and compared with reference identifications obtained mainly with the VITEK2 phenotypic system; if the identifications were discordant, molecular techniques provided reference identifications. The Vitek MS system provided 96.2% correct identifications to the species level (86.7%), to the genus level (8.2%), or within a range of species belonging to different genera (1.3%). Conversely, 1.3% of isolates were misidentified and 2.5% were unidentified, partly because the species was not included in the database; a second deposit provided a successful identification for 0.8% of isolates unidentified with the first deposit. The Vitek MS system is a simple, convenient, and accurate method for routine bacterial identification with a single deposit, considering the high bacterial diversity studied and as evidenced by the low prevalence of species without correct identification. In addition to a second deposit in uncommon cases, expanding the spectral database is expected to further enhance performances. PMID:22593596

  6. Performances of the Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system for rapid identification of bacteria in routine clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Damien; Grare, Marion; Prere, Marie-Françoise; Segonds, Christine; Marty, Nicole; Oswald, Eric

    2012-08-01

    Rapid and cost-effective matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based systems will replace conventional phenotypic methods for routine identification of bacteria. We report here the first evaluation of the new MALDI-TOF MS-based Vitek MS system in a large clinical microbiology laboratory. This system uses an original spectrum classifier algorithm and a specific database designed for the identification of clinically relevant species. We have tested 767 routine clinical isolates representative of 50 genera and 124 species. Vitek MS-based identifications were performed by means of a single deposit on a MALDI disposable target without any prior extraction step and compared with reference identifications obtained mainly with the VITEK2 phenotypic system; if the identifications were discordant, molecular techniques provided reference identifications. The Vitek MS system provided 96.2% correct identifications to the species level (86.7%), to the genus level (8.2%), or within a range of species belonging to different genera (1.3%). Conversely, 1.3% of isolates were misidentified and 2.5% were unidentified, partly because the species was not included in the database; a second deposit provided a successful identification for 0.8% of isolates unidentified with the first deposit. The Vitek MS system is a simple, convenient, and accurate method for routine bacterial identification with a single deposit, considering the high bacterial diversity studied and as evidenced by the low prevalence of species without correct identification. In addition to a second deposit in uncommon cases, expanding the spectral database is expected to further enhance performances.

  7. DYNAMICALLY EVOLVING CLINICAL PRACTICES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PREDICTING MEDICAL DECISIONS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jonathan H; Goldstein, Mary K; Asch, Steven M; Altman, Russ B

    2016-01-01

    Automatically data-mining clinical practice patterns from electronic health records (EHR) can enable prediction of future practices as a form of clinical decision support (CDS). Our objective is to determine the stability of learned clinical practice patterns over time and what implication this has when using varying longitudinal historical data sources towards predicting future decisions. We trained an association rule engine for clinical orders (e.g., labs, imaging, medications) using structured inpatient data from a tertiary academic hospital. Comparing top order associations per admission diagnosis from training data in 2009 vs. 2012, we find practice variability from unstable diagnoses with rank biased overlap (RBO)<0.35 (e.g., pneumonia) to stable admissions for planned procedures (e.g., chemotherapy, surgery) with comparatively high RBO>0.6. Predicting admission orders for future (2013) patients with associations trained on recent (2012) vs. older (2009) data improved accuracy evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) 0.89 to 0.92, precision at ten (positive predictive value of the top ten predictions against actual orders) 30% to 37%, and weighted recall (sensitivity) at ten 2.4% to 13%, (P<10(-10)). Training with more longitudinal data (2009-2012) was no better than only using recent (2012) data. Secular trends in practice patterns likely explain why smaller but more recent training data is more accurate at predicting future practices. PMID:26776186

  8. DYNAMICALLY EVOLVING CLINICAL PRACTICES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PREDICTING MEDICAL DECISIONS

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JONATHAN H; GOLDSTEIN, MARY K; ASCH, STEVEN M; ALTMAN, RUSS B

    2015-01-01

    Automatically data-mining clinical practice patterns from electronic health records (EHR) can enable prediction of future practices as a form of clinical decision support (CDS). Our objective is to determine the stability of learned clinical practice patterns over time and what implication this has when using varying longitudinal historical data sources towards predicting future decisions. We trained an association rule engine for clinical orders (e.g., labs, imaging, medications) using structured inpatient data from a tertiary academic hospital. Comparing top order associations per admission diagnosis from training data in 2009 vs. 2012, we find practice variability from unstable diagnoses with rank biased overlap (RBO)<0.35 (e.g., pneumonia) to stable admissions for planned procedures (e.g., chemotherapy, surgery) with comparatively high RBO>0.6. Predicting admission orders for future (2013) patients with associations trained on recent (2012) vs. older (2009) data improved accuracy evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) 0.89 to 0.92, precision at ten (positive predictive value of the top ten predictions against actual orders) 30% to 37%, and weighted recall (sensitivity) at ten 2.4% to 13%, (P<10−10). Training with more longitudinal data (2009-2012) was no better than only using recent (2012) data. Secular trends in practice patterns likely explain why smaller but more recent training data is more accurate at predicting future practices. PMID:26776186

  9. Legislating Clinical Practice: Counselor Responses to an Evidence-Based Practice Mandate

    PubMed Central

    Rieckmann, Traci; Bergmann, Luke; Rasplica, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    The demand to connect research findings with clinical practice for patients with substance use disorders has accelerated state and federal efforts focused on implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). One unique state driven strategy is Oregon’s Evidence-Based Practice mandate, which ties state funds to specific treatment practices. Clinicians play an essential role in implementation of shifts in practice patterns and use of EBPs, but little is understood about how legislative efforts impact clinicians’ sentiments and decision-making. This study presents longitudinal data from focus groups and interviews completed during the planning phase (n = 66) and early implementation of the mandate (n = 73) to investigate provider attitudes toward this policy change. Results reflect three emergent themes: (1) concern about retaining individualized treatment and clinical latitude, (2) distrust of government involvement in clinical care, and (3) the need for accountability and credibility for the field. We conclude with recommendations for state agencies considering EBP mandates. PMID:22185037

  10. Routine versus clinically driven laboratory monitoring and first-line antiretroviral therapy strategies in African children with HIV (ARROW): a 5-year open-label randomised factorial trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background No trials have investigated routine laboratory monitoring for children with HIV, nor four-drug induction strategies to increase durability of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods In this open-label parallel-group trial, Ugandan and Zimbabwean children or adolescents with HIV, aged 3 months to 17 years and eligible for ART, were randomly assigned in a factorial design. Randomisation was to either clinically driven monitoring or routine laboratory and clinical monitoring for toxicity (haematology and biochemistry) and efficacy (CD4 cell counts; non-inferiority monitoring randomisation); and simultaneously to standard three-drug or to four-drug induction first-line ART, in three groups: three-drug treatment (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [NNRTI], lamivudine, abacavir; group A) versus four-drug induction (NNRTI, lamivudine, abacavir, zidovudine; groups B and C), decreasing after week 36 to three-drug NNRTI, lamivudine, plus abacavir (group B) or lamivudine, abacavir, plus zidovudine (group C; superiority ART-strategy randomisation). For patients assigned to routine laboratory monitoring, results were returned every 12 weeks to clinicians; for clinically driven monitoring, toxicity results were only returned for requested clinical reasons or if grade 4. Children switched to second-line ART for WHO stage 3 or 4 events or (routine laboratory monitoring only) age-dependent WHO CD4 criteria. Randomisation used computer-generated sequentially numbered tables incorporated securely within the database. Primary efficacy endpoints were new WHO stage 4 events or death for monitoring and change in CD4 percentage at 72 and 144 weeks for ART-strategy randomisations; the co-primary toxicity endpoint was grade 3 or 4 adverse events. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, ISRCTN24791884. Findings 1206 children were randomly assigned to clinically driven (n=606) versus routine laboratory monitoring (n=600), and

  11. Routine clinical mutation profiling using next generation sequencing and a customized gene panel improves diagnostic precision in myeloid neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Stephan; Schipper, Elisa; Hasemeier, Britta; Kreipe, Hans; Lehmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic examination of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) may be challenging because morphological features can overlap with those of reactive states. Demonstration of clonal hematopoiesis provides a diagnostic clue and has become possible by comprehensive mutation profiling of a number of frequently mutated genes, some of them with large coding regions. To emphasize the potential benefit of NGS in hematopathology we present sequencing results from routinely processed formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) bone marrow trephines (n = 192). A customized amplicon-based gene panel including 23 genes frequently mutated in myeloid neoplasms was established and implemented. Thereby, 629,691 reads per sample (range 179,847–1,460,412) and a mean coverage of 2,702 (range 707–6,327) could be obtained, which are sufficient for comprehensive mutational profiling. Seven samples failed in sequencing (3.6%). In 185 samples we found in total 269 pathogenic variants (mean 1.4 variants per patient, range 0-5), 125 Patients exhibit at least one pathogenic mutation (67.6%). Variants show allele frequencies ranging from 6.7% up to 95.7%. Most frequently mutated genes were TET2 (28.7%), SRSF2 (19.5%), ASXL1 (8.6%) and U2AF1 (8.1%). The mutation profiling increases the diagnostic precision and adds prognostic information. PMID:27029036

  12. Routine clinical mutation profiling using next generation sequencing and a customized gene panel improves diagnostic precision in myeloid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Stephan; Schipper, Elisa; Hasemeier, Britta; Kreipe, Hans; Lehmann, Ulrich

    2016-05-24

    Microscopic examination of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) may be challenging because morphological features can overlap with those of reactive states. Demonstration of clonal hematopoiesis provides a diagnostic clue and has become possible by comprehensive mutation profiling of a number of frequently mutated genes, some of them with large coding regions.To emphasize the potential benefit of NGS in hematopathology we present sequencing results from routinely processed formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) bone marrow trephines (n = 192). A customized amplicon-based gene panel including 23 genes frequently mutated in myeloid neoplasms was established and implemented. Thereby, 629,691 reads per sample (range 179,847-1,460,412) and a mean coverage of 2,702 (range 707-6,327) could be obtained, which are sufficient for comprehensive mutational profiling. Seven samples failed in sequencing (3.6%). In 185 samples we found in total 269 pathogenic variants (mean 1.4 variants per patient, range 0-5), 125 Patients exhibit at least one pathogenic mutation (67.6%). Variants show allele frequencies ranging from 6.7% up to 95.7%. Most frequently mutated genes were TET2 (28.7%), SRSF2 (19.5%), ASXL1 (8.6%) and U2AF1 (8.1%). The mutation profiling increases the diagnostic precision and adds prognostic information. PMID:27029036

  13. Routine Outcome Monitoring and Clinical Decision-Making in Forensic Psychiatry Based on the Instrument for Forensic Treatment Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    van der Veeken, Frida C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rehabilitation in forensic psychiatry is achieved gradually with different leave modules, in line with the Risk Need Responsivity model. A forensic routine outcome monitoring tool should measure treatment progress based on the rehabilitation theory, and it should be predictive of important treatment outcomes in order to be usable in decision-making. Therefore, this study assesses the predictive validity for both positive (i.e., leave) and negative (i.e., inpatient incidents) treatment outcomes with the Instrument for Forensic Treatment Evaluation (IFTE). Methods Two-hundred and twenty-four patients were included in this study. ROC analyses were conducted with the IFTE factors and items for three leave modules: guided, unguided and transmural leave for the whole group of patients. Predictive validity of the IFTE for aggression in general, physical aggression specifically, and urine drug screening (UDS) violations was assessed for patients with the main diagnoses in Dutch forensic psychiatry, patients with personality disorders and the most frequently occurring co-morbid disorders: those with combined personality and substance use disorders. Results and Conclusions Results tentatively imply that the IFTE has a reasonable to good predictive validity for inpatient aggression and a marginal to reasonable predictive value for leave approvals and UDS violations. The IFTE can be used for information purposes in treatment decision-making, but reports should be interpreted with care and acknowledge patients’ personal risk factors, strengths and other information sources. PMID:27517721

  14. Clinical education in private practice: an interdisciplinary project.

    PubMed

    Doubt, Lorna; Paterson, Margo; O'Riordan, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Education of rehabilitation professionals traditionally has occurred in acute care hospitals, rehabilitation centres, and other publicly funded institutions, but increasing numbers of rehabilitation professionals are now working in the community in private agencies and clinics. These privately owned clinics and community agencies represent underutilized resources for the clinical training of students. Historically, private practitioners have been less likely to participate in clinical education because of concerns over patient satisfaction and quality of care, workload, costs, and liability. Through a program funded by the Ministry of Health of Ontario, we conducted a series of interviews and focus groups with private practitioners, which identified that several incentives could potentially increase the numbers of clinical placements in private practices, including participation in the development of student learning objectives related to private practice, professional recognition, and improved relationships with the university departments. Placement in private practices can afford students skills in administration, business management, marketing and promotion, resource development, research, consulting, networking, and medical-legal assessments and processes. This paper presents a discussion of clinical education issues from the perspective of private practitioners, based on the findings of a clinical education project undertaken at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, and previous literature.

  15. Clinical Photography for Trichology Practice: Tips and Tricks

    PubMed Central

    Ashique, KT; Kaliyadan, Feroze

    2011-01-01

    Clinical photography of hair disorders is an extension of photography in dermatology practice. Some points should be kept in mind while taking images of the hair and hair bearing areas in view of the reflection of light and the subsequent glare that may spoil the result. For documentation of most conditions of the hair, the same general rules of dermatological photography apply. The correct lighting is the most important aspect of clinical photography in trichology practice and can be achieved by reflected light than direct light. Special care should be taken in conditions requiring serial images to document progress/response to treatment and the most important factor in this context is consistency with respect to patient positioning, lighting, camera settings and background. Dermoscopy/trichoscopy can also be incorporated in clinical practice for image documentation. PMID:21769229

  16. Current clinical practice guidelines in atrial fibrillation: a review.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Olortegui, José Kelvin; Álvarez-Vargas, Mayita Lizbeth; Galvez-Olortegui, Tomas Vladimir; Godoy-Palomino, Armando; Camacho-Saavedra, Luis

    2016-01-14

    The aim of this study is the methodological evaluation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in atrial fibrillation. This is the second in a series of articles of review, analysis, assessment in methodology and content of clinical practice guidelines in Cardiology. Among all clinical practice guidelines, we selected the American, Canadian and NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) guidelines. We used the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) II instrument for the assessment. In general, the guidelines obtained the lowest score in the applicability domain (mean 36.1%); while the highest score was for clarity of presentation (mean 93.5%). The lowest percentage was found in the editorial independence domain (Canadian guideline) and the highest of all scores in the applicability domain (NICE guideline). Regarding global quality, the NICE guideline obtained the AGREE II instrument best scores, followed by the American guideline, both recommended for use without modifications.

  17. Current clinical practice guidelines in atrial fibrillation: a review.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Olortegui, José Kelvin; Álvarez-Vargas, Mayita Lizbeth; Galvez-Olortegui, Tomas Vladimir; Godoy-Palomino, Armando; Camacho-Saavedra, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the methodological evaluation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in atrial fibrillation. This is the second in a series of articles of review, analysis, assessment in methodology and content of clinical practice guidelines in Cardiology. Among all clinical practice guidelines, we selected the American, Canadian and NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) guidelines. We used the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) II instrument for the assessment. In general, the guidelines obtained the lowest score in the applicability domain (mean 36.1%); while the highest score was for clarity of presentation (mean 93.5%). The lowest percentage was found in the editorial independence domain (Canadian guideline) and the highest of all scores in the applicability domain (NICE guideline). Regarding global quality, the NICE guideline obtained the AGREE II instrument best scores, followed by the American guideline, both recommended for use without modifications. PMID:26939036

  18. Feedback: an essential element of student learning in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Clynes, Mary P; Raftery, Sara E C

    2008-11-01

    Clinical practice is an essential component of the nursing curriculum. In order for the student to benefit fully from the experience regular performance feedback is required. Feedback should provide the student with information on current practice and offer practical advice for improved performance. The importance of feedback is widely acknowledged however it appears that there is inconsistency in its provision to students. The benefits of feedback include increased student confidence, motivation and self-esteem as well as improved clinical practice. Benefits such as enhanced interpersonal skills and a sense of personal satisfaction also accrue to the supervisor. Barriers to the feedback process are identified as inadequate supervisor training and education, unfavourable ward learning environment and insufficient time spent with students. In addition to the appropriate preparation of the supervisor effective feedback includes an appreciation of the steps of the feedback process, an understanding of the student response to feedback and effective communication skills.

  19. New approaches to the Doppler echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function: from research laboratory to clinical practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasquet, A.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decade, Doppler echocardiography has become a well-established tool for the diagnosis of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Unfortunately, in many clinical situations traditional Doppler indices of transmittal and pulmonary venous flow are inconclusive, primarily due to their dependence on left atrial pressure. Recently, new Doppler indices that are much less dependent on preload have been developed, based on intraventricular flow propagation and intrinsic myocardial velocity. These methodologies provide direct assessment of ventricular relaxation and the small intraventricular pressure gradients essential to efficient filling of the ventricle. We review in this article the theoretical and experiment background of these new echo techniques as well as how they can be implemented in routine clinical practice.

  20. Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography in major psychiatric disorders: From basics to clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Santra, Amburanjan; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a well-established and reliable method to assess brain function through measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). It can be used to define a patient's pathophysiological status when neurological or psychiatric symptoms cannot be explained by anatomical neuroimaging findings. Though there is ample evidence validating brain SPECT as a technique to track human behavior and correlating psychiatric disorders with dysfunction of specific brain regions, only few psychiatrists have adopted brain SPECT in routine clinical practice. It can be utilized to evaluate the involvement of brain regions in a particular patient, to individualize treatment on basis of SPECT findings, to monitor the treatment response and modify treatment, if necessary. In this article, we have reviewed the available studies in this regard from existing literature and tried to present the evidence for establishing the clinical role of brain SPECT in major psychiatric illnesses. PMID:25400359

  1. Capturing and Incorporating Patient-Reported Outcomes into Clinical Trials: Practical Considerations for Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Botero, Juliana Perez; Thanarajasingam, Gita; Warsame, Rahma

    2016-10-01

    Patient centeredness as the focus of healthcare delivery requires the incorporation of patient-reported outcomes into clinical trials. Clearly defining measurable outcomes as well as selecting the most appropriate validated collection tool to use is imperative for success. Creating and validating one's own instrument is also possible, albeit more cumbersome. Meticulous data collection to avoid missing data is key, as is limiting the number of data collection points to prevent survey fatigue and using electronic systems to facilitate data gathering and analysis. Working in a multidisciplinary team that includes statisticians with expertise in patient reported outcomes is essential to navigate the complexities of statistical analysis of these variables. Use of available and emerging technologies for data collection and analysis as well as data sharing will greatly facilitate the process of incorporating patient-reported outcomes into trials and routine clinical practice. PMID:27525737

  2. The Brave New World of clinical cancer research: Adaptive biomarker-driven trials integrating clinical practice with clinical research.

    PubMed

    Berry, Donald A

    2015-05-01

    Clinical trials are the final links in the chains of knowledge and for determining the roles of therapeutic advances. Unfortunately, in an important sense they are the weakest links. This article describes two designs that are being explored today: platform trials and basket trials. Both are attempting to merge clinical research and clinical practice.

  3. Investigation of benefits and costs of an ophthalmic outreach clinic in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Gillam, S J; Ball, M; Prasad, M; Dunne, H; Cohen, S; Vafidis, G

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the advent of general practitioner fundholding, there has been growth in outreach clinics covering many specialties. The benefits and costs of this model of service provision are unclear. AIM: A pilot study aimed to evaluate an outreach model of ophthalmic care in terms of its impact on general practitioners, their use of secondary ophthalmology services, patients' views, and costs. METHOD: A prospective study, from April 1992 to March 1993, of the introduction of an ophthalmic outreach service in 17 general practices in London was undertaken. An ophthalmic outreach team, comprising an ophthalmic medical practitioner and an ophthalmic nurse, held clinics in the practices once a month. Referral rates to Edgware General Hospital ophthalmology outpatient department over one year from the study practices were compared with those from 17 control practices. General practitioners' assessments of the scheme and its impact on their knowledge and practice of ophthalmology were sought through a postal survey of all partners and interviews with one partner in each practice. Patient surveys were conducted using self-administered structured questionnaires. A costings exercise compared the outreach model with the conventional hospital ophthalmology outpatient clinic. RESULTS: Of 1309 patients seen by the outreach team in the study practices, 480 (37%) were referred to the ophthalmology outpatient department. The annual referral rate to this department from control practices was 9.5 per 10,000 registered patients compared with 3.8 per 10,000 registered patients from study practices. A total of 1187 patients were referred to the outpatient department from control practices. An increase in knowledge of ophthalmology was reported by 18 of 47 general practitioners (38%). Nineteen (40%) of 47 general practitioners took advantage of the opportunity for inservice training with the outreach team; they were more likely to change their routine practice for ophthalmic care

  4. Good Clinical Practice Guidance and Pragmatic Clinical Trials: Balancing the Best of Both Worlds.

    PubMed

    Mentz, Robert J; Hernandez, Adrian F; Berdan, Lisa G; Rorick, Tyrus; O'Brien, Emily C; Ibarra, Jenny C; Curtis, Lesley H; Peterson, Eric D

    2016-03-01

    Randomized, clinical trials are commonly regarded as the highest level of evidence to support clinical decisions. Good Clinical Practice guidelines have been constructed to provide an ethical and scientific quality standard for trials that involve human subjects in a manner aligned with the Declaration of Helsinki. Originally designed to provide a unified standard of trial data to support submission to regulatory authorities, the principles may also be applied to other studies of human subjects. Although the application of Good Clinical Practice principles generally led to improvements in the quality and consistency of trial operations, these principles have also contributed to increasing trial complexity and costs. Alternatively, the growing availability of electronic health record data has facilitated the possibility for streamlined pragmatic clinical trials. The central tenets of Good Clinical Practice and pragmatic clinical trials represent potential tensions in trial design (stringent quality and highly efficient operations). In the present article, we highlight potential areas of discordance between Good Clinical Practice guidelines and the principles of pragmatic clinical trials and suggest strategies to streamline study conduct in an ethical manner to optimally perform clinical trials in the electronic age.

  5. Utilization of FibroScan in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bonder, Alan; Afdhal, Nezam

    2014-02-01

    The evaluation of liver fibrosis is critical, particularly to rule out cirrhosis. Novel non-invasive tests such as transient ultrasound elastography are widely used to stage liver fibrosis as an alternative to liver biopsy, and this technology has recently been approved in the US. In this review, we discuss the performance characteristics of elastography for a variety of liver diseases and highlight practical appropriate suggestions for how to incorporate this technology into clinical practice.

  6. [GRADE: Methodology for formulating and grading recommendations in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Andrea Juliana; Rigau, David; Rotaeche, Rafael; Selva, Anna; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) provide recommendations on the benefits and harms of different healthcare interventions. Proper CPG development and implementation can potentially reduce variability in clinical practice while improving its quality and safety. The GRADE system is used to assess the quality of evidence and to grade the strength of recommendations in the context of the development of CPGs, systematic reviews or health technology assessments. The aim of this article is to describe the main characteristics of the GRADE system through relevant examples in the context of primary care. PMID:24684818

  7. The psychiatric cultural formulation: translating medical anthropology into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2012-03-01

    This article reviews proposed revisions to the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation for clinical practice. The author begins by exploring the theoretical development of and assumptions involved in the Cultural Formulation. A case presentation is then used to demonstrate shortcomings in the current implementation of the Cultural Formulation based on older definitions of culture. Finally, the author recommends practical questions based on the growing anthropological literature concerning the interpersonal elements of culture and the social course of illness. A simple clear format that clinically translates social science concepts has the potential to increase use of the Cultural Formulation by all psychiatrists, not just those specializing in cultural psychiatry.

  8. [GRADE: Methodology for formulating and grading recommendations in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Andrea Juliana; Rigau, David; Rotaeche, Rafael; Selva, Anna; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) provide recommendations on the benefits and harms of different healthcare interventions. Proper CPG development and implementation can potentially reduce variability in clinical practice while improving its quality and safety. The GRADE system is used to assess the quality of evidence and to grade the strength of recommendations in the context of the development of CPGs, systematic reviews or health technology assessments. The aim of this article is to describe the main characteristics of the GRADE system through relevant examples in the context of primary care.

  9. Prediction of the hematocrit of dried blood spots via potassium measurement on a routine clinical chemistry analyzer.

    PubMed

    Capiau, Sara; Stove, Veronique V; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2013-01-01

    The potential of dried blood spot (DBS) sampling as an alternative for classical venous sampling is increasingly recognized, with multiple applications in, e.g., therapeutic drug monitoring and toxicology. Although DBS sampling has many advantages, it is associated with several issues, the hematocrit (Hct) issue being the most widely discussed challenge, given its possible strong impact on DBS-based quantitation. Hitherto, no approaches allow Hct prediction from nonvolumetrically applied DBS. Following a simple and rapid extraction protocol, K(+) levels from 3 mm DBS punches were measured via indirect potentiometry, using the Roche Cobas 8000 routine chemistry analyzer. The extracts' K(+) concentrations were used to calculate the approximate Hct of the blood used to generate DBS. A linear calibration line was established, with a Hct range of 0.19 to 0.63 (lower limit of quantification, LLOQ, to upper limit of quantification, ULOQ). The procedure was fully validated; the bias and imprecision of quality controls (QCs) at three Hct levels and at the LLOQ and ULOQ was less than 5 and 12%, respectively. In addition, the influence of storage (pre- and postextraction), volume spotted, and punch homogeneity was evaluated. Application on DBS from patient samples (n = 111), followed by Bland and Altman, Passing and Bablok, and Deming regression analysis, demonstrated a good correlation between the "predicted Hct" and the "actual Hct". After correcting for the observed bias, limits of agreement of ±0.049 were established. Incurred sample reanalysis demonstrated assay reproducibility. In conclusion, potassium levels in extracts from 3 mm DBS punches can be used to get a good prediction of the Hct, one of the most important "unknowns" in DBS analysis.

  10. Impact of routine PCV7 (Prevenar) vaccination of infants on the clinical and economic burden of pneumococcal disease in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pneumococcal disease is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. The World Health Organization recommends pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as a priority for inclusion into national childhood immunization programmes. Pneumococcal vaccine has yet to be included as part of the national vaccination programme in Malaysia although it has been available in the country since 2005. This study sought to estimate the disease burden of pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and to assess the cost effectiveness of routine infant vaccination with PCV7. Methods A decision model was adapted taking into consideration prevalence, disease burden, treatment costs and outcomes for pneumococcal disease severe enough to result in a hospital admission. Disease burden were estimated from the medical records of 6 hospitals. Where local data was unavailable, model inputs were obtained from international and regional studies and from focus group discussions. The model incorporated the effects of herd protection on the unvaccinated adult population. Results At current vaccine prices, PCV7 vaccination of 90% of a hypothetical 550,000 birth cohort would incur costs of RM 439.6 million (US$128 million). Over a 10 year time horizon, vaccination would reduce episodes of pneumococcal hospitalisation by 9,585 cases to 73,845 hospitalisations with cost savings of RM 37.5 million (US$10.9 million) to the health system with 11,422.5 life years saved at a cost effectiveness ratio of RM 35,196 (US$10,261) per life year gained. Conclusions PCV7 vaccination of infants is expected to be cost-effective for Malaysia with an incremental cost per life year gained of RM 35,196 (US$10,261). This is well below the WHO's threshold for cost effectiveness of public health interventions in Malaysia of RM 71,761 (US$20,922). PMID:21936928

  11. Dual Perspectives on Theory in Clinical Practice: Practice Makes Perfect: The Incompatibility of Practicing Speech and Meaningful Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses a case study to suggest that some children view speech-language therapy as a separate situation for learning practicing new sounds and language forms whereas the purpose of talking outside of therapy is meaningful communication. Clinical implications of this potential incompatibility between practicing speech and communicating…

  12. Twenty-four mini-pool HCV RNA screening in a routine clinical virology laboratory setting: a six-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Seme, Katja; Mocilnik, Tina; Poljak, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of combined anti-HCV and 24 mini-pool HCV RNA screening strategy was re-evaluated after a six-year continuous routine use in a clinical virology laboratory, at which more than half of newly diagnosed hepatitis C patients are intravenous drug users. Pools of 24 samples were prepared from 20,448 anti-HCV negative serum samples and tested using an automated commercial PCR assay with a lower limit of detection of 50 IU/ml. After detection of anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive patients, responsible physicians provided follow-up samples. Thirty-eight (0.19%) anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive samples from 30 patients (28 intravenous drug users) were detected. Follow-up samples were available for 27/30 patients. Twenty, six and one patient seroconverted in the second, third and fourth available samples, respectively. The interval between the first HCV RNA positive and the first available anti-HCV positive sample was 17-517 days. The costs of detecting a single anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive patient were 1227 Euros. Combined anti-HCV and 24 mini-pool HCV RNA screening is a useful and cost effective strategy, not only in blood-transfusion settings but also in a routine clinical virology laboratory, at which a significant proportion of the tested population belongs to a high-risk population.

  13. A model for ethical practices in clinical phonetics and linguistics.

    PubMed

    Powell, Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of clinical phonetics and linguistics as an area of scientific inquiry gives rise to the need for guidelines that define ethical and responsible conduct. The diverse membership of the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association (ICPLA) and the readership of this journal are uniquely suited to consider ethical issues from diverse perspectives. Accordingly, this paper introduces a multi-tiered six-factor model for ethical practices to stimulate discussion of ethical issues.

  14. Writing and publishing clinical articles: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda

    2012-04-01

    The sharing of knowledge among nurses and clinicians can strengthen the healthcare professions. In this context, many clinicians underestimate the relevance and importance of what they can contribute, and find the idea of writing for publication daunting. This article presents a practical approach to writing clinical articles for publication in professional journals such as Emergency Nurse. It covers the characteristics of clinical articles, their structure, choosing a journal and how the editorial process should be understood.

  15. Development and clinical trial of a practical vessel imaging system for vessel punctures in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuper, Natasha J.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; de Roode, Rowland; Septer, Erica

    2008-02-01

    Venipunctures to draw blood for diagnostics can be cumbersome. Multiple puncture attempts are distressing, painful and traumatic, especially for small children. Drawing blood from babies, in particular, is a problem, due to the cutaneous baby fat, tiny veins and, worst case, a pigmented skin. We developed a practical vein viewing system based on IR translumination that, contrary to commercial systems available, has the advantage of: a) low cost, b) easily implemented in routine practice, c) normal and IR image simultaneously available, d) small add-on, e) child friendly IR illuminator and f) efficient IR light coupling. Before introducing the vessel viewer for clinical application in the children's department, parameters were measured in 194 patients (age 0-17 yrs): time to draw blood, number of attempts, skin characteristics, discomfort of patient, and experience of nurse. In this control group, time to draw blood increases significantly with decreasing age of the children. The instant feedback from the nurses has been valuable for the improvements of especially the illumination sources. A clinical trial has been performed in 125 patients (age 0-6 yrs) to prove effectivity of the system in the blood withdrawal procedure. There was a significant decrease from 13% to 2% in failure rate. Also time needed to search for a vein was significantly decreased. A practical and accessible vein viewing system has been developed and is being introduced for clinical application. Although the concept of patient friendliness is already accepted, measurements need to show the effectiveness for particular groups of patients.

  16. Evaluation of clinical teaching models for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Croxon, Lyn; Maginnis, Cathy

    2009-07-01

    Clinical placements provide opportunities for student nurses to learn experientially. To create a constructive learning environment staff need to be friendly, approachable, available and willing to teach. There must be adequate opportunities for students to develop confidence and competence in clinical skills with a focus on student learning needs rather than service needs of facilities. A popular model for clinical teaching of nursing students is the preceptor model. This model involves a student working under the supervision of individual registered nurses who are part of the clinical staff. This model was failing to meet students' needs in acute nursing practice areas, largely due to Registered Nurse staff shortages and demanding workloads. The students' evaluations led to the trial of a 'cluster' or group model of eight students, with a clinical facilitator who is paid by the university, in each acute nursing ward. Evaluation of twenty nursing students' perceptions of their acute nursing practice clinical placements was conducted using a mixed method approach to evaluate the two models of student supervision. Results indicate that the students prefer small groups with the clinical facilitator in one area. Thus evaluation and feedback from students and the perceptions of their clinical placement is essential. PMID:18722161

  17. Radial artery blood pressure measurement in neonates: an accurate and convenient technique in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gevers, M; van Genderingen, H R; Lafeber, H N; Hack, W W

    1995-01-01

    To achieve accurate blood pressure measurement through radial artery catheters in infants, we previously developed an experimental high-fidelity catheter-manometer system (CMS). As this system lacks facilities for flushing and for blood sampling, we aimed to further develop this technique in order to make the system suitable for clinical practice. In addition, we aimed to develop methods to automate processing of the pressure wave forms. The high-fidelity system to be improved consisted of a 24 Gauge catheter, a threeway stopcock and a tip-manometer. We inserted this system in the catheter-manometer system as routinely used i.e. the remaining end of the stopcock was connected to the fluid-filled CMS as used routinely. This combined system became clinically applicable, since blood samples could be obtained and flushing could be performed. The measurement chain was completed by application of a modified physiological monitor and a computerized method to analyze pressure wave forms. In this manner accurate beat-to-beat pressure parameters were obtained. This technique was applied to 25 neonates admitted for intensive care and requiring arterial access. Gestational age of these infants ranged from 25-40 (median 29) weeks and birth weight ranges from 500-3375 (median 1060) grams. In all infants the technique was found to be convenient and the high-fidelity blood pressure measurements were performed without any problems. The advantage of the present system is the potential for both correct intermittent recordings of arterial wave forms in close relation to clinical condition and for the establishment of accurate radial artery beat-to-beat pressure values in clinical practice.

  18. Evaluating walking in patients with multiple sclerosis: which assessment tools are useful in clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Bethoux, Francois; Bennett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Walking limitations are among the most visible manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS). Regular walking assessments should be a component of patient management and require instruments that are appropriate from the clinician's and the patient's perspectives. This article reviews frequently used instruments to assess walking in patients with MS, with emphasis on their validity, reliability, and practicality in the clinical setting. Relevant articles were identified based on PubMed searches using the following terms: "multiple sclerosis AND (walking OR gait OR mobility OR physical activity) AND (disability evaluation)"; references of relevant articles were also searched. Although many clinician- and patient-driven instruments are available, not all have been validated in MS, and some are not sensitive enough to detect small but clinically important changes. Choosing among these depends on what needs to be measured, psychometric properties, the clinical relevance of results, and practicality with respect to space, time, and patient burden. Of the instruments available, the clinician-observed Timed 25-Foot Walk and patient self-report 12-Item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale have properties that make them suitable for routine evaluation of walking performance. The Dynamic Gait Index and the Timed Up and Go test involve other aspects of mobility, including balance. Tests of endurance, such as the 2- or 6-Minute Walk, may provide information on motor fatigue not captured by other tests. Quantitative measurement of gait kinetics and kinematics, and recordings of mobility in the patient's environment via accelerometry or Global Positioning System odometry, are currently not routinely used in the clinical setting.

  19. [Construction of terminology subsets: contributions to clinical nursing practice].

    PubMed

    Clares, Jorge Wilker Bezerra; de Freitas, Maria Célia; Guedes, Maria Vilaní Cavalcante; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam Lima

    2013-08-01

    The International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®) is a classification system that unifies the elements of nursing practice (diagnoses, interventions and outcomes), enabling elucidation of elements of a specific nursing language through the construction of terminology subsets. In this reflective essay, aspects relevant to the construction of ICNP® terminology subsets are highlighted, as well as their contributions to clinical nursing practice. The development of subsets as a tool that contributes to making nursing language universal, facilitates the communication process, as well as the scientific and technological advancement of the profession, is discussed. Therefore, its use by nurses worldwide is encouraged.

  20. [Clinical practice as an arborescent and rhizomorphic practice in surgical nursing work].

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Lenice Dutra; Lunardi, Wilson Danilo Filho; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Figueiredo, Paula Pereira

    2013-12-01

    A qualitative and exploratory case study was conducted in a surgery unit of a university hospital. The study aimed to analyze the nurses' work from the perspective of health care production and clinical practice. The subjects of the study were six nurses. Non-participant observations, documentary research and in-depth interviews were carried out, followed by discursive textual analysis. Nursing work is organized according to two interconnected and interdependent perspectives: a clinical model, which forms the central structure of its practice, and a structure formed by multiple and heterogeneous elements. in this way, the clinical model of health care is organized as a centered structure that enables the fulfillment of biological needs and acts as a basis for connecting disparate knowledge and practices that expand practice through interconnections with the work environment. PMID:24626366

  1. [Quality assurance and quality improvement in medical practice. Part 3: Clinical audit in medical practice].

    PubMed

    Godény, Sándor

    2012-02-01

    The first two articles in the series were about the definition of quality in healthcare, the quality approach, the importance of quality assurance, the advantages of quality management systems and the basic concepts and necessity of evidence based medicine. In the third article the importance and basic steps of clinical audit are summarised. Clinical audit is an integral part of quality assurance and quality improvement in healthcare, that is the responsibility of any practitioner involved in medical practice. Clinical audit principally measures the clinical practice against clinical guidelines, protocols and other professional standards, and sometimes induces changes to ensure that all patients receive care according to principles of the best practice. The clinical audit can be defined also as a quality improvement process that seeks to identify areas for service improvement, develop and carry out plans and actions to improve medical activity and then by re-audit to ensure that these changes have an effect. Therefore, its aims are both to stimulate quality improvement interventions and to assess their impact in order to develop clinical effectiveness. At the end of the article key points of quality assurance and improvement in medical practice are summarised.

  2. Musculoskeletal clinic in general practice: study of one year's referrals.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D; Davies, P; Pietroni, P

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. A musculoskeletal clinic, staffed by a general practitioner trained in osteopathy, medical acupuncture and intralesional injections, was set up in an inner London general practice in 1987. AIM. A retrospective study was undertaken of one year's referrals to the clinic in 1989-90 to determine how general practitioners were using the clinic in terms of problems referred; consultation patterns of patients attending the clinic and 12 months after initially being seen; and how access to the clinic influenced referrals to relevant hospital departments. METHOD. Day sheets were studied which recorded information on demographic characteristics of patients referred to the clinic and their problems, diagnoses made, duration of symptoms, number and range of treatments given, and recurrence of problems. Use of secondary referral sources was also examined. RESULTS. During the study year 154 of 3264 practice patients were referred to the musculoskeletal clinic, and attended a mean of 3.5 times each. Of all the attenders 64% were women and 52% were 30-54 years old. Eighty one patients (53%) presented with neck, back or sciatic pain. A specific traumatic, inflammatory or other pathological process could be ascribed to only 19% of patients. Regarding treatment, 88% of patients received osteopathic manual treatment or acupuncture, or a combination of these treatments and 4% received intralesional injections. Nine patients from the clinic (6%) were referred to an orthopaedic specialist during the year, two with acute back pain. Referrals to orthopaedic specialists by the practice as a whole were not significantly lower than the national average, although the practice made fewer referrals to physiotherapy and rheumatology departments than national figures would have predicted. Seventeen patients (11%) returned to the clinic with a recurrence of their main complaint within a year of their initial appointment; second courses of treatment were usually brief. CONCLUSION. The

  3. Best practices for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Young, Jamie K; Hall, Robert L; O'Brien, Peter; Strauss, Volker; Vahle, John L

    2011-02-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASCVP) convened a Clinical Pathology in Carcinogenicity Studies Working Group to recommend best practices for inclusion of clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. Regulatory guidance documents and literature were reviewed, and veterinary pathologists from North America, Japan, and Europe were surveyed regarding current practices, perceived value, and recommendations for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. For two-year rodent carcinogenicity studies, the Working Group recommends that clinical pathology testing be limited to collection of blood smears at scheduled and unscheduled sacrifices to be examined only if indicated to aid in the diagnosis of possible hematopoietic neoplasia following histopathologic evaluation. Additional clinical pathology testing is most appropriately used to address specific issues from prior toxicity studies or known test article-related class effects. Inadequate data were available to make a recommendation concerning clinical pathology testing for alternative six-month carcinogenicity assays using genetically modified mice, although the Working Group suggests that it may be appropriate to use the same approach as for two-year carcinogenicity studies since the study goal is the same.

  4. Semi-Spontaneous Oral Text Production: Measurements in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Marianne; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil; Moen, Inger; Simonsen, Hanne Gram

    2009-01-01

    Functionally relevant assessment of the language production of speakers with aphasia should include assessment of connected speech production. Despite the ecological validity of everyday conversations, more controlled and monological types of texts may be easier to obtain and analyse in clinical practice. This article discusses some simple…

  5. Clinical Vignettes Improve Performance in Anatomy Practical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikah, December S. K.; Finn, Gabrielle M.; Swamy, Meenakshi; White, Pamela M.; McLachlan, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Although medical curricula now adopt an integrated teaching approach, this is not adequately reflected in assessment of anatomy knowledge and skills. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of the addition of clinical vignette to item stems on students' performance in anatomy practical examinations. In this study, 129 undergraduate medical…

  6. Esthetic restorations for posterior teeth: practical and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Magne, P; Dietschi, D; Holz, J

    1996-04-01

    The current abundance of posterior esthetic restorative materials and techniques may be confusing. This paper describes a simple and logical global concept that assists clinicians in choosing the appropriate therapeutic modality according to well-defined clinical criteria. Practical considerations about cavity preparation, base-lining, filling, luting, and finishing procedures are reviewed.

  7. Good manufacturing practice production of adenoviral vectors for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lusky, Monika

    2005-03-01

    The increasing importance of recombinant adenoviral vectors for gene therapy, cancer therapy, and the development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines has led to worldwide efforts toward scalable process development suitable for commercial manufacturing of replication-deficient adenoviral vectors. This review focuses on the manufacturing of adenovirus for clinical trials in the context of good manufacturing practice conditions and regulations. PMID:15812223

  8. Supporting Clinical Practice Candidates in Learning Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJarnette, Nancy K.; Sudeck, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to monitor pre-service teacher candidates' progression and implementation of the learning community philosophy along with classroom management strategies. The study took place during their final semester of clinical practice. Data were collected from self-reports, surveys, university supervisor…

  9. Application of PCR and High-Resolution Melting for Rapid Identification of Yeasts Routinely Isolated in a Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Ninghui, Guo; Bing, Wang; Wei, Ren; Mengmeng, Liu; Meiling, Chu; Dongya, Meng; Liqiong, Yao; Wencheng, Xue

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a method for rapid and accurate identification of yeasts obtained in the clinic, especially from immunocompromised patients, in order to provide a timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. A total of 112 Candida isolates were analyzed in this study; 28 of them were used to validate the PCR-HRM method in species identification in a blinded manner. Strains were identified by conventional techniques that use VITEK 2 YST cards and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). These methods were compared to the newly developed technique based on real-time polymerase-chain reaction high-resolution melting (PCR-HRM). Discordant results were resolved with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene sequencing, the "golden standard" used to evaluate the reliability of all methods in identifying yeasts at the species level. PCR-HRM sensitivity was assessed with the isolated strains. VITEK 2, MALDI-TOF-MS, and PCR-HRM accurately identified 89.2% (74/83), 97.6% (81/83), 100% (83/83) of the isolates, respectively. PCR-HRM detection limit was 1fg/μl of yeasts. In validation assays, a 100% accuracy rate was achieved by the use of PCR-HRM. Therefore, the PCR-HRM method is a rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic approach, which provides a cost-effective and more suitable alternative for yeast identification in a clinical laboratory. Future research is needed for automation of data acquisition.

  10. Reconsidering sore throats. Part I: Problems with current clinical practice.

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, W. J.; Goel, V.; Slaughter, P. M.; Parsons, G. W.; Woolnough, K. V.; Weir, P. T.; Ennet, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence-based answers to clinical questions posed by family physicians about Group A streptococcus pharyngitis and to further understanding of why management is controversial. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Evidence from randomized trials was not found for most questions. The most critical information came from high-quality community prevalence studies and criterion standard studies of physician clinical judgement. MAIN FINDINGS: Expert recommendations for physician management are not likely to help prevent rheumatic fever, as most people with sore throats do not seek medical care. Current clinical practices result in overuse of antibiotics because accuracy of clinical judgment is limited. CONCLUSIONS: Costs associated with visits for upper respiratory infections as well as increasing antibiotic resistance necessitate reconsidering the current clinical approach. An alternative management strategy is presented in part 2. PMID:9116520

  11. Theory and practice of clinical pharmacodynamics in oncology drug development.

    PubMed

    Parchment, Ralph E; Doroshow, James H

    2016-08-01

    The clinical development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies is enhanced by proof of mechanism of action as well as proof of concept, which relate molecular pharmacodynamics to efficacy via changes in cancer cell biology and physiology resulting from drug action on its intended target. Here, we present an introduction to the field of clinical pharmacodynamics, its medical and laboratory aspects, and its practical incorporation into clinical trials. We also describe key success factors that are useful for judging the quality of clinical pharmacodynamic studies, including biopsy quality and suitability, specimen handling, assay fitness-for-purpose, and reagent quality control. This introduction provides not only context for the following articles in this issue, but also an appreciation of the role of well-conducted clinical pharmacodynamic studies in oncology drug development. PMID:27663474

  12. Grading journals in clinical practice: a delicate issue.

    PubMed

    Holmes, V

    1997-12-01

    Offering students opportunities to gain a strong sense of self, a positive professional image, and a chance to articulate their clinical practice is a challenge for nurse educators. Writing journals in clinical placements is one way in which students can create a dialogue with their teacher and reflect upon and explore their clinical experiences in the context in which these experiences occur. However, grading journals according to numerous predetermined criteria can sabotage the benefits and opportunities of writing journals. Judgment and control are two aspects of evaluation and subsequent grading that can sabotage the benefits. Limiting predetermined criteria and not assigning grades to students' journals are two answers to this delicate issue. To function as competent practitioners, nursing students must be able to meet standards of practice; they must achieve a strong sense of self and a positive professional image. Clinical placements offer students the opportunity to explore the experience of clinical nursing and the context in which these experiences unfold. As students acquire skills and explore the practice of nursing, they also face the reality that their instructors will award a judgment of worth to their efforts. This evaluation is necessary to determine whether students have met the required standards. Evaluation and subsequent grades, therefore, must be an integral part of the students' clinical experience. Writing journals is often used as a method of exploring experiences in clinical nursing. Journals are also used as a method of clinical evaluation. Assigning a grade to student journals has a detrimental effect on the purpose of the assignment. An emphasis on exploring the purpose of writing journals and an analysis of the impact that grading has on this exercise will expose the incompatibility between writing and grading journals.

  13. Clinical audit: Development of the criteria of good practices.

    PubMed

    Soimakallio, S; Alanen, A; Järvinen, H; Ahonen, A; Ceder, K; Lyyra-Laitinen, T; Paunio, M; Sinervo, T; Wigren, T

    2011-09-01

    Clinical audit is a systematic review of the procedures in order to improve the quality and the outcome of patient care, whereby the procedures are examined against agreed standards for good medical RADIOLOGICAL procedures. The criteria of good procedures (i.e. the good practice) are thus the cornerstones for development of clinical audits: these should be the basis of assessments regardless of the type of the audit--external, internal, comprehensive or partial. A lot of criteria for good practices are available through the recommendations and publications by international and national professional societies and other relevant organisations. For practical use in clinical audits, the criteria need to be compiled, sorted out and agreed on for the particular aims of an audit (comprehensive or partial, external or internal). The national professional and scientific societies can provide valuable contribution to this development. For examination--or treatment-specific criteria--preliminary consensus needs to be obtained with the help of clinical experts, while clinical audits can be useful as a benchmarking tool to improve the criteria.

  14. The frontline clinical manager identifying direct reports' level of practice.

    PubMed

    Longo, M Anne; Roussel, Linda; Pennington, Sandra L; Hoying, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Patricia Benner applied the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition to describe and interpret skill acquisition and clinical judgment in nursing practice. Operational definitions for the 5 levels of her original Novice to Expert Theory were used by the study participants in a large Midwestern pediatric hospital to self-identify their level of practice. The frontline clinical managers of these direct care registered nurses (RNs) used the same tool to rate their direct reports. The aim of this portion of a larger study was to determine if the clinical manager's perception of their direct reports was the same as that of the RNs. The results of this study are being used by one study unit's clinical managers as the basis for implementing the Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model. The clinical managers work with their direct reports depending on the level of practice and the details of the task to be performed. One example is creating therapeutic relationships with each other and with families to ensure a safe environment for all.

  15. Lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes. Relevance for clinical practice.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Stewart B.; Petrella, Robert J.; Leadbetter, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review evidence from literature on type 2 diabetes pertinent to physical activity and diet and lifestyle modification, and to determine the relevance of this evidence to clinical practice. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Direct (level I) evidence supports interventions for physical activity and diet modification for primary prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Few studies examine the effectiveness of primary health care providers' making such interventions. MAIN MESSAGE: Family physicians have an important role in identifying people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes and managing those diagnosed with the disease, yet they struggle to deliver practice-based interventions that promote sustainable behaviour change among their patients. CONCLUSION: It is evident that supporting patients to make changes in their physical activity and dietary habits can prevent onset of type 2 diabetes. Translating this finding into effective recommendations for clinical practice requires further effort and evaluation. PMID:14708927

  16. Routine clinical inspections in Norwegian marine salmonid sites: A key role in surveillance for freedom from pathogenic viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS).

    PubMed

    Lyngstad, Trude Marie; Hellberg, Hege; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Bang Jensen, Britt; Brun, Edgar; Sergeant, Evan; Tavornpanich, Saraya

    2016-02-01

    Since the mid-1980s, clinical inspections of aquaculture sites carried out on a regular basis by authorized veterinarians and fish health biologists (known as fish health services: FHS) have been an essential part of aquatic animal health surveillance in Norway. The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the performance of FHS routine clinical inspections for the detection of VHS and (2) to explore the effectiveness of risk-based prioritisation of FHS inspections for demonstrating freedom from VHS in marine salmonid sites in Norway. A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate site sensitivity (SeS), population sensitivity (SeP), and probability of freedom (PFree). The estimation of SeS takes into consideration the probability that FHS submit samples if a site is infected, the probability that a sample is tested if submitted, the effective probability of infection in fish with clinical signs, laboratory test sensitivity, and the number of tested samples. SeP and PFree were estimated on a monthly basis over a 12 month period for six alternative surveillance scenarios and included the risk factors: region, species, area production density, and biosecurity level. Model results indicate that the current surveillance system, based on routine inspections by the FHS has a high capability for detecting VHS and that there is a high probability of freedom from VHS in Norwegian marine farmed salmonids (PFree >95%). Sensitivity analysis identified the probabilities that samples are submitted and submitted samples are tested, as the most influential input variables. The model provides a supporting tool for evaluation of potential changes in the surveillance strategy, and can be viewed as a platform for similar exotic viral infectious diseases in marine salmonid farming in Norway, if they share similar risk factors. PMID:26754927

  17. Hearing threshold estimation by auditory steady-state responses with narrow-band chirps and adaptive stimulus patterns: implementation in clinical routine.

    PubMed

    Seidel, David Ulrich; Flemming, Tobias Angelo; Park, Jonas Jae-Hyun; Remmert, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective hearing threshold estimation by auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) can be accelerated by the use of narrow-band chirps and adaptive stimulus patterns. This modification has been examined in only a few clinical studies. In this study, clinical data is validated and extended, and the applicability of the method in audiological diagnostics routine is examined. In 60 patients (normal hearing and hearing impaired), ASSR and pure tone audiometry (PTA) thresholds were compared. ASSR were evoked by binaural multi-frequent narrow-band chirps with adaptive stimulus patterns. The precision and required testing time for hearing threshold estimation were determined. The average differences between ASSR and PTA thresholds were 18, 12, 17 and 19 dB for normal hearing (PTA ≤ 20 dB) and 5, 9, 9 and 11 dB for hearing impaired (PTA > 20 dB) at the frequencies of 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, respectively, and the differences were significant in all frequencies with the exception of 1 kHz. Correlation coefficients between ASSR and PTA thresholds were 0.36, 0.47, 0.54 and 0.51 for normal hearing and 0.73, 0.74, 0.72 and 0.71 for hearing impaired at 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, respectively. Mean ASSR testing time was 33 ± 8 min. In conclusion, auditory steady-state responses with narrow-band-chirps and adaptive stimulus patterns is an efficient method for objective frequency-specific hearing threshold estimation. Precision of threshold estimation is most limited for slighter hearing loss at 500 Hz. The required testing time is acceptable for the application in everyday clinical routine. PMID:24305781

  18. An image-analysis system based on support vector machines for automatic grade diagnosis of brain-tumour astrocytomas in clinical routine.

    PubMed

    Glotsos, D; Spyridonos, P; Cavouras, D; Ravazoula, P; Dadioti, P Arapantoni; Nikiforidis, G

    2005-09-01

    An image-analysis system based on the concept of Support Vector Machines (SVM) was developed to assist in grade diagnosis of brain tumour astrocytomas in clinical routine. One hundred and forty biopsies of astrocytomas were characterized according to the WHO system as grade II, III and IV. Images from biopsies were digitized, and cell nuclei regions were automatically detected by encoding texture variations in a set of wavelet, autocorrelation and parzen estimated descriptors and using an unsupervised SVM clustering methodology. Based on morphological and textural nuclear features, a decision-tree classification scheme distinguished between different grades of tumours employing an SVM classifier. The system was validated for clinical material collected from two different hospitals. On average, the SVM clustering algorithm correctly identified and accurately delineated 95% of all nuclei. Low-grade tumours were distinguished from high-grade tumours with an accuracy of 90.2% and grade III from grade IV with an accuracy of 88.3% The system was tested in a new clinical data set, and the classification rates were 87.5 and 83.8%, respectively. Segmentation and classification results are very encouraging, considering that the method was developed based on every-day clinical standards. The proposed methodology might be used in parallel with conventional grading to support the regular diagnostic procedure and reduce subjectivity in astrocytomas grading. PMID:16403707

  19. Monitoring outcomes of arthritis and longitudinal data collection in routine care using a patient questionnaire that incorporates a clinical note on one piece of paper.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Yusuf

    2007-08-01

    Patient questionnaires are the quantitative tools available to rheumatologists to monitor their patients' health status and responses to therapy. The Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and its derivatives have been shown to be the most significant predictors of functional and work disability, costs, joint replacement surgery, and mortality; generally at higher levels of significance than joint counts, radiographs, and laboratory tests. Every encounter of a patient with a rheumatologist provides an opportunity to collect data. Yet patient questionnaires, which can be used in all rheumatic diseases, including osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, fibromyalgia, scleroderma, and ankylosing spondylitis, are not included in routine care by most rheumatologists. Questionnaires can be adapted to include a simple subjective-objective-assessment-plan (SOAP) clinical encounter note that helps with data entry and also provides all the necessary information for clinical decision making in one sheet of paper. Data that are feasible to collect in clinical care provide the optimal approach to assessing quantitatively how patients are doing. If data are not collected and recorded, that opportunity, on that day, is lost forever. Rheumatologists would find it valuable to adapt questionnaires to the care they provide for all their patients, to document and improve the care they provide, and add quantitative data to standard clinical care.

  20. Core Practice Outcomes for Clinical Nurse Specialists: A Revalidation Study.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Janet S; Mayo, Ann M; Walker, Jane A; Urden, Linda D

    2016-01-01

    Measuring outcomes of clinical nurse specialist (CNS) practice is essential for demonstrating accountability. Literature is limited with respect to the scope of reported CNS outcomes. The National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists' (NACNS) published listing of CNS outcomes could serve as an outcome measurement framework. Revalidation of these outcomes is an important step in creating a structured outcome measurement approach. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess CNSs' perceptions of the ongoing validity of NACNS published outcomes. A Web-based survey asked participants to describe, for each of 42 outcomes, the frequency of outcome accountability, importance to practice, and frequency of monitoring. Of the 427 surveys returned, 347 (81%) were included in analysis. Findings demonstrated concordance between identified outcomes and actual CNS practice. When job descriptions included the CNS outcomes, more CNSs reported using the outcomes in practice. Both accountability and importance predicted the monitoring of outcomes (p < .001). This study demonstrated the ongoing validity of NACNS outcomes. Nurse educators must ensure that CNS program curricula are based on the NACNS framework and that successful achievement of program outcomes are congruent with the framework. These outcomes have potential for use as a conceptual framework for guiding future CNS outcome investigations and ongoing monitoring systems. Finally, the findings of this study give voice to CNS practice and provide knowledge about expectations for practice outcomes. PMID:27424927

  1. Oral chronic graft-versus-host disease: report from the International Consensus Conference on clinical practice in cGVHD.

    PubMed

    Meier, Johannes K-H; Wolff, Daniel; Pavletic, Steve; Greinix, Hildegard; Gosau, Martin; Bertz, Hartmut; Lee, Stefanie J; Lawitschka, Anita; Elad, Sharon

    2011-04-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a multi-organ disease that occurs post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with the mouth being one of the most frequently affected organs. In 2009, the German-Austrian-Swiss working party on bone marrow and blood stem cell transplantation held a consensus conference to define clinical management of cGVHD. The consensus conference aimed to summarize the literature on diagnosis and topical treatment options for oral cGVHD and to provide recommendations for clinical practice, including routine dental and oral care as well as monitoring for secondary malignancies and bisphophonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw.

  2. Clinical value of routine serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen in follow-up of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radiation or chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jinju; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Tae Sung; Kim, Ju Hyun; Koh, Suk Bong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefits of routine squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) monitoring of patients with locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiation or chemoradiation. Methods A total of 53 patients with recurrent cervical squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiation were enrolled in this study. A retrospective review of medical records was conducted. The role of routine monitoring of serum SCC-Ag was evaluated in terms of cost effectiveness and effect on survival after diagnosis of recurrence. Results Serum SCC-Ag abnormality (≥2.5 ng/mL) was observed in 62.3% of patients when recurrent disease was diagnosed. The first indicator of relapse was abnormal serum SCC-Ag level in 21 patients (39.6%), 10 of whom had asymptomatic recurrent disease amenable to salvage therapy. Adding SCC-Ag measurement to the basic follow up protocol improved the sensitivity for detecting recurrence (The sensitivity of the basic protocol vs. addition of SCC-Ag: 49.1% vs. 88.7%, P<0.001). Twenty-three patients who were candidates for salvage therapy with curative intent showed better survival compared with those who were not candidates for therapy (5-year survival: 36.6% vs. 0%, P=0.012). Conclusion Surveillance with routine serum SCC-Ag monitoring can better detect asymptomatic recurrent disease that is potentially amenable to salvage therapy with curative intent. Early diagnosis of recurrent disease that can be treated with salvage therapy may lead to better survival. PMID:27462593

  3. Practical way to develop 10-color flow cytometry protocols for the clinical laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárnok, Attila; Bocsi, Jozsef

    2010-02-01

    The latest development of commercial routine flow cytometers (FCM) is that they are equipped with three (blue, red, violet) or more lasers and many PMT detectors. Nowadays routine clinical instruments are capable of detecting 10 or more fluorescence colors simultaneously. Thereby, presenting opportunities for getting detailed information on the single cell level for cytomics and systems biology for improve diagnostics and monitoring of patients. The University Leipzig, Germany) recently started a cluster of excellence to study the molecular background of life style and environment associated diseases, enrolling 25000 individuals (LIFE). To this end the most comprehensive FCM protocol has to be developed for this study. We aimed to optimize fluorochrome and antibody combinations to the characteristics of the instrument for successful 10-color FCM. Systematic review of issues related to sampling, preparation, instrument settings, spillover and compensation matrix, reagent performance, and general principles of panel construction was performed. 10-color FCM enables for increased accuracy in cell subpopulation identification, the ability to obtain detailed information from blood specimens, improved laboratory efficiency, and the means to consistently detect major and rare cell populations. Careful attention to details of instrument and reagent performance allows for the development of panels suitable for screening of samples from healthy and diseased donors. The characteristics of this technique are particularly well suited for the analysis of broad human population cohorts and have the potential to reach the everyday practice in a standardized way for the clinical laboratory.

  4. Surrogate decision making: reconciling ethical theory and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jeffrey T; DeRenzo, Evan G; Schwartz, Jack

    2008-07-01

    The care of adult patients without decision-making abilities is a routine part of medical practice. Decisions for these patients are typically made by surrogates according to a process governed by a hierarchy of 3 distinct decision-making standards: patients' known wishes, substituted judgments, and best interests. Although this framework offers some guidance, it does not readily incorporate many important considerations of patients and families and does not account for the ways in which many patients and surrogates prefer to make decisions. In this article, the authors review the research on surrogate decision making, compare it with normative standards, and offer ways in which the 2 can be reconciled for the patient's benefit.

  5. Performance of mass spectrometric identification of bacteria and yeasts routinely isolated in a clinical microbiology laboratory using MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiping; Xi, Haiyan; Huang, Mei; Wang, Jie; Fan, Ming; Chen, Yong; Shao, Haifeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging technology newly applied to identifying bacterial and yeast strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the VITEK® MS system in the identification of bacteria and yeast strains routinely isolated from clinical samples. Methods We prospectively analyzed routine MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification in parallel with conventional phenotypic identification of bacteria and yeasts regardless of phylum or source of isolation. Discordant results were resolved with 16S rDNA or internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene sequencing. Colonies (a single deposit on a MALDI disposable target without any prior extraction step) were analyzed using the VITEK® MS system. Peptide spectra acquired by the system were compared with the VITEK® MS IVD database Version 2.0, and the identification scores were recorded. Results Of the 1,181 isolates (1,061 bacterial isolates and 120 yeast isolates) analyzed, 99.5% were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; 95.7% identified to the species level, 3.6% identified to the genus level, and 0.3% identified within a range of species belonging to different genera. Conversely, 0.1% of isolates were misidentified and 0.4% were unidentified, partly because the species were not included in the database. Re-testing using a second deposit provided a successful identification for 0.5% of isolates unidentified with the first deposit. Our results show that the VITEK® MS system has exceptional performance in identifying bacteria and yeast by comparing acquired peptide spectra to those contained in its database. Conclusions MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is a rapid, accurate, and relatively inexpensive method for bacterial and yeast identification. Our results demonstrate that the VITEK® MS system is a fast and reliable technique, and has the potential to replace conventional phenotypic

  6. Molecular Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections by Semi-Quantitative Detection of Uropathogens in a Routine Clinical Hospital Setting

    PubMed Central

    van der Zee, Anneke; Roorda, Lieuwe; Bosman, Gerda; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of our study was the development of a semi-quantitative real-time PCR to detect uropathogens. Two multiplex PCR reactions were designed to detect Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 16S based PCR was performed in parallel to detect Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Firstly to identify non-targeted agents of infection in the same urine specimen, and secondly to quantify background flora. The method was evaluated in comparison with standard bacterial culture, and a commercial PCR kit for detection of uropathogens. Findings Analysis with a known panel of 116 clinical isolates yielded a PCR specificity of 100%. Analysis of urine specimens from 211 patients revealed a high correlation of PCR Cq values with both culture positivity and quantity. Concordance between PCR and culture was 98% when both methods yielded results. PCR was found to be more sensitive than culture. With a cut-off Cq value of 33, the negative predictive value of PCR was 94%. The 16S PCR confirmed most results. One specimen was positive by 16S PCR suggesting another cause of infection not detected by the specific PCR assays. Conclusion We conclude that it is feasible to detect and identify uropathogens by multiplex real-time PCR assay. PMID:26954694

  7. CYP2C19 Phenoconversion by Routinely Prescribed Proton Pump Inhibitors Omeprazole and Esomeprazole: Clinical Implications for Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Klieber, Martin; Oberacher, Herbert; Hofstaetter, Silvia; Beer, Beate; Neururer, Martin; Amann, Anton; Alber, Hannes; Modak, Anil

    2015-09-01

    The phenotype pantoprazole-(13)C breath test (Ptz-BT) was used to evaluate the extent of phenoconversion of CYP2C19 enzyme activity caused by commonly prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPI) omeprazole and esomprazole. The Ptz-BT was administered to 26 healthy volunteers and 8 stable cardiovascular patients twice at baseline and after 28 days of PPI therapy to evaluate reproducibility of the Ptz-BT and changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity (phenoconversion) after PPI therapy. The average intrapatient interday variability in CYP2C19 phenotype (n = 31) determined by Ptz-BT was considerably low (coefficient of variation, 17%). Phenotype conversion resulted in 25 of 26 (96%) nonpoor metabolizer (non-PM) volunteers/patients as measured by the Ptz-BT at baseline and after PPI therapy. The incidence of PM status by phenotype following administration of omeprazole/esomeprazole (known inhibitors of CYP2C19) was 10-fold higher than those who are genetically PMs in the general population, which could have critical clinical implications for personalizing medications primarily metabolized by CYP2C19, such as clopidogrel, PPI, cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, citalopram, clonazepam, diazepam, phenytoin, etc. The Ptz-BT can rapidly (30 minutes) evaluate CYP2C19 phenotype and, more importantly, can identify patients with phenoconversion in CYP2C19 enzyme activity caused by nongenetic factors such as concomitant drugs. PMID:26159874

  8. A call for comparative effectiveness research to learn whether routine clinical care decisions can protect from dementia and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Dacks, Penny A; Armstrong, Joshua J; Brannan, Stephen K; Carman, Aaron J; Green, Allan M; Kirkman, M Sue; Krakoff, Lawrence R; Kuller, Lewis H; Launer, Lenore J; Lovestone, Simon; Merikle, Elizabeth; Neumann, Peter J; Rockwood, Kenneth; Shineman, Diana W; Stefanacci, Richard G; Velentgas, Priscilla; Viswanathan, Anand; Whitmer, Rachel A; Williamson, Jeff D; Fillit, Howard M

    2016-01-01

    Common diseases like diabetes, hypertension, and atrial fibrillation are probable risk factors for dementia, suggesting that their treatments may influence the risk and rate of cognitive and functional decline. Moreover, specific therapies and medications may affect long-term brain health through mechanisms that are independent of their primary indication. While surgery, benzodiazepines, and anti-cholinergic drugs may accelerate decline or even raise the risk of dementia, other medications act directly on the brain to potentially slow the pathology that underlies Alzheimer's and other dementia. In other words, the functional and cognitive decline in vulnerable patients may be influenced by the choice of treatments for other medical conditions. Despite the importance of these questions, very little research is available. The Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation convened an advisory panel to discuss the existing evidence and to recommend strategies to accelerate the development of comparative effectiveness research on how choices in the clinical care of common chronic diseases may protect from cognitive decline and dementia.

  9. A call for comparative effectiveness research to learn whether routine clinical care decisions can protect from dementia and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Dacks, Penny A; Armstrong, Joshua J; Brannan, Stephen K; Carman, Aaron J; Green, Allan M; Kirkman, M Sue; Krakoff, Lawrence R; Kuller, Lewis H; Launer, Lenore J; Lovestone, Simon; Merikle, Elizabeth; Neumann, Peter J; Rockwood, Kenneth; Shineman, Diana W; Stefanacci, Richard G; Velentgas, Priscilla; Viswanathan, Anand; Whitmer, Rachel A; Williamson, Jeff D; Fillit, Howard M

    2016-01-01

    Common diseases like diabetes, hypertension, and atrial fibrillation are probable risk factors for dementia, suggesting that their treatments may influence the risk and rate of cognitive and functional decline. Moreover, specific therapies and medications may affect long-term brain health through mechanisms that are independent of their primary indication. While surgery, benzodiazepines, and anti-cholinergic drugs may accelerate decline or even raise the risk of dementia, other medications act directly on the brain to potentially slow the pathology that underlies Alzheimer's and other dementia. In other words, the functional and cognitive decline in vulnerable patients may be influenced by the choice of treatments for other medical conditions. Despite the importance of these questions, very little research is available. The Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation convened an advisory panel to discuss the existing evidence and to recommend strategies to accelerate the development of comparative effectiveness research on how choices in the clinical care of common chronic diseases may protect from cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:27543171

  10. Can Bayesian Theories of Autism Spectrum Disorder Help Improve Clinical Practice?

    PubMed

    Haker, Helene; Schneebeli, Maya; Stephan, Klaas Enno

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis and individualized treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represent major problems for contemporary psychiatry. Tackling these problems requires guidance by a pathophysiological theory. In this paper, we consider recent theories that re-conceptualize ASD from a "Bayesian brain" perspective, which posit that the core abnormality of ASD resides in perceptual aberrations due to a disbalance in the precision of prediction errors (sensory noise) relative to the precision of predictions (prior beliefs). This results in percepts that are dominated by sensory inputs and less guided by top-down regularization and shifts the perceptual focus to detailed aspects of the environment with difficulties in extracting meaning. While these Bayesian theories have inspired ongoing empirical studies, their clinical implications have not yet been carved out. Here, we consider how this Bayesian perspective on disease mechanisms in ASD might contribute to improving clinical care for affected individuals. Specifically, we describe a computational strategy, based on generative (e.g., hierarchical Bayesian) models of behavioral and functional neuroimaging data, for establishing diagnostic tests. These tests could provide estimates of specific cognitive processes underlying ASD and delineate pathophysiological mechanisms with concrete treatment targets. Written with a clinical audience in mind, this article outlines how the development of computational diagnostics applicable to behavioral and functional neuroimaging data in routine clinical practice could not only fundamentally alter our concept of ASD but eventually also transform the clinical management of this disorder. PMID:27378955

  11. Can Bayesian Theories of Autism Spectrum Disorder Help Improve Clinical Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Haker, Helene; Schneebeli, Maya; Stephan, Klaas Enno

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis and individualized treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represent major problems for contemporary psychiatry. Tackling these problems requires guidance by a pathophysiological theory. In this paper, we consider recent theories that re-conceptualize ASD from a “Bayesian brain” perspective, which posit that the core abnormality of ASD resides in perceptual aberrations due to a disbalance in the precision of prediction errors (sensory noise) relative to the precision of predictions (prior beliefs). This results in percepts that are dominated by sensory inputs and less guided by top-down regularization and shifts the perceptual focus to detailed aspects of the environment with difficulties in extracting meaning. While these Bayesian theories have inspired ongoing empirical studies, their clinical implications have not yet been carved out. Here, we consider how this Bayesian perspective on disease mechanisms in ASD might contribute to improving clinical care for affected individuals. Specifically, we describe a computational strategy, based on generative (e.g., hierarchical Bayesian) models of behavioral and functional neuroimaging data, for establishing diagnostic tests. These tests could provide estimates of specific cognitive processes underlying ASD and delineate pathophysiological mechanisms with concrete treatment targets. Written with a clinical audience in mind, this article outlines how the development of computational diagnostics applicable to behavioral and functional neuroimaging data in routine clinical practice could not only fundamentally alter our concept of ASD but eventually also transform the clinical management of this disorder. PMID:27378955

  12. Can Bayesian Theories of Autism Spectrum Disorder Help Improve Clinical Practice?

    PubMed

    Haker, Helene; Schneebeli, Maya; Stephan, Klaas Enno

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis and individualized treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represent major problems for contemporary psychiatry. Tackling these problems requires guidance by a pathophysiological theory. In this paper, we consider recent theories that re-conceptualize ASD from a "Bayesian brain" perspective, which posit that the core abnormality of ASD resides in perceptual aberrations due to a disbalance in the precision of prediction errors (sensory noise) relative to the precision of predictions (prior beliefs). This results in percepts that are dominated by sensory inputs and less guided by top-down regularization and shifts the perceptual focus to detailed aspects of the environment with difficulties in extracting meaning. While these Bayesian theories have inspired ongoing empirical studies, their clinical implications have not yet been carved out. Here, we consider how this Bayesian perspective on disease mechanisms in ASD might contribute to improving clinical care for affected individuals. Specifically, we describe a computational strategy, based on generative (e.g., hierarchical Bayesian) models of behavioral and functional neuroimaging data, for establishing diagnostic tests. These tests could provide estimates of specific cognitive processes underlying ASD and delineate pathophysiological mechanisms with concrete treatment targets. Written with a clinical audience in mind, this article outlines how the development of computational diagnostics applicable to behavioral and functional neuroimaging data in routine clinical practice could not only fundamentally alter our concept of ASD but eventually also transform the clinical management of this disorder.

  13. Fast and simple one-step preparation of ⁶⁸Ga citrate for routine clinical PET.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Svend B; Nielsen, Karin M; Mewis, Dennis; Kaufmann, Jens

    2013-08-01

    The imaging of infectious and inflammatory diseases using gallium-67 (⁶⁷Ga) citrate scintigraphy has been a well-established diagnostic tool for decades. In recent times, interest has focused on PET using the short-lived positron emitting radioisotope ⁶⁸Ga. ⁶⁸Ga is not only more readily available, it also provides better quality images whose high resolution permits quantitative analyses, thus improving the management of patients suffering from infections or inflammation. The purpose of our study was to develop a fast and reliable synthesis protocol for the preparation of ⁶⁸Ga citrate under good manufacturing practice aspects without the use of organic solvents. A commercially available synthesis module was used to perform 10 syntheses with an average yield of 768 ± 31 MBq (mean ± SD) within 10 min; 92.04 ± 1.23% of the radioactivity was located in the product vial, and the rest on the cation exchange cartridge (7.48 ± 1.23%) and in the waste vial (0.47 ± 0.28%). The radiochemical purity of the product determined by instant thin-layer chromatography was greater than 99%. The products have been proven to be sterile and pyrogen-free. Variations were made in several critical synthesis parameters, and the results are presented herein. By eliminating the use of organic solvents, the previously required quality control testing of the final product by gas chromatography can be abandoned. This novel, high-yielding method allows for a more efficient synthesis of ⁶⁸Ga citrate with both shorter production time and high radiochemical purity.

  14. Methods for diagnosis of bile acid malabsorption in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Vijayvargiya, Priya; Camilleri, Michael; Shin, Andrea; Saenger, Amy

    2013-10-01

    Altered concentrations of bile acid (BA) in the colon can cause diarrhea or constipation. More than 25% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea or chronic diarrhea in Western countries have BA malabsorption (BAM). As BAM is increasingly recognized, proper diagnostic methods are needed to help direct the most effective course of treatment for the chronic bowel dysfunction. We review the methodologies, advantages, and disadvantages of tools that directly measure BAM: the (14)C-glycocholate breath and stool test, the (75)selenium homotaurocholic acid test (SeHCAT), and measurements of 7 α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and fecal BAs. The (14)C-glycocholate test is laborious and no longer widely used. The (75)SeHCAT has been validated but is not available in the United States. Measurement of serum C4 is a simple and accurate method that can be used for most patients but requires further clinical validation. Assays to quantify fecal BA (total and individual levels) are technically cumbersome and not widely available. Regrettably, none of these tests are routinely available in the United States; assessment of the therapeutic effects of a BA binder is used as a surrogate for diagnosis of BAM. Recent data indicate the advantages to studying fecal excretion of individual BAs and their role in BAM; these could support the use of the fecal BA assay, compared with other tests. Measurement of fecal BA levels could become a routine addition to the measurement of fecal fat in patients with unexplained diarrhea. Availability ultimately determines whether the C4, SeHCAT, or fecal BA test is used; more widespread availability of such tests would enhance clinical management of these patients.

  15. Clinical nurse specialists driving research and practice through Research Roundtables.

    PubMed

    Harne-Britner, Sarah; Schafer, Deborah J

    2009-01-01

    Providing patient care based on the best evidence is a priority for healthcare institutions across the country to improve practice and patient outcomes. Creating a culture of evidence-based practice (EBP) within an organization can be a challenging task. Literature has identified numerous barriers to EBP including negative attitudes and perceptions among nurses and lack of organizational support, time, resources, and confidence with these skills. Creating programs that help nurses appreciate the value and importance of nursing research for practice can be an effective approach in changing the culture. Research Roundtable is a collaborative partnership between a healthcare system and a baccalaureate nursing program to promote EBP and research skills in nurses and nursing students. Initial goals of the program focused on increasing the nurses' knowledge base of the research process and applying research to actual clinical problems. Over the course of 3 years, Roundtable evolved from development and implementation of research projects to concentrating on the identification of clinical problems that could be analyzed and solved through the use of EBP processes. The program has resulted in the completion of research studies, implementation of practice changes based on evidence uncovered in group work, and the approval of research projects in data collection phases. The positive impacts of Roundtable have been identified at the level of the staff nurse and the organization as a whole. This article describes the role of the clinical nurse specialist in the development and implementation of the Research Roundtable. PMID:19858901

  16. Evaluation of methods for trace-element determination with emphasis on their usability in the clinical routine laboratory.

    PubMed

    Bolann, B J; Rahil-Khazen, R; Henriksen, H; Isrenn, R; Ulvik, R J

    2007-01-01

    Commonly used techniques for trace-element analysis in human biological material are flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elements that form volatile hydrides, first of all mercury, are analysed by hydride generation techniques. In the absorption techniques the samples are vaporized into free, neutral atoms and illuminated by a light source that emits the atomic spectrum of the element under analysis. The absorbance gives a quantitative measure of the concentration of the element. ICP-AES and ICP-MS are multi-element techniques. In ICP-AES the atoms of the sample are excited by, for example, argon plasma at very high temperatures. The emitted light is directed to a detector, and the optical signals are processed to values for the concentrations of the elements. In ICP-MS a mass spectrometer separates and detects ions produced by the ICP, according to their mass-to-charge ratio. Dilution of biological fluids is commonly needed to reduce the effect of the matrix. Digestion using acids and microwave energy in closed vessels at elevated pressure is often used. Matrix and spectral interferences may cause problems. Precautions should be taken against trace-element contamination during collection, storage and processing of samples. For clinical problems requiring the analysis of only one or a few elements, the use of FAAS may be sufficient, unless the higher sensitivity of GFAAS is required. For screening of multiple elements, however, the ICP techniques are preferable. PMID:17558890

  17. Aripiprazole versus haloperidol in combination with clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenia in routine clinical care: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Barbui, Corrado; Accordini, Simone; Nosè, Michela; Stroup, Scott; Purgato, Marianna; Girlanda, Francesca; Esposito, Eleonora; Veronese, Antonio; Tansella, Michele; Cipriani, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    This multisite study was conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of combination treatment with clozapine plus aripiprazole versus combination treatment with clozapine plus haloperidol in patients with schizophrenia who do not have an optimal response to clozapine. Patients continued to take clozapine and were randomly assigned to receive daily augmentation with aripiprazole or haloperidol. Physicians prescribed the allocated treatments according to usual clinical care. Withdrawal from allocated treatment within 3 months was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included severity of symptoms on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and antipsychotic subjective tolerability on the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale. A total of 106 patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to treatment. After 3 months, we found no difference in the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment between the aripiprazole and haloperidol groups (13.2% vs 15.1%, P = 0.780). The 3-month change of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score was similar in the aripiprazole and haloperidol groups (-5.9 vs -4.4 points, P = 0.523), whereas the 3-month decrease of the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale total score was significantly higher in the aripiprazole group than in the haloperidol group (-7.4 vs -2.0 points, P = 0.006). These results suggest that augmentation of clozapine with aripiprazole offers no benefit with regard to treatment withdrawal and overall symptoms in schizophrenia compared with augmentation with haloperidol. However, an advantage in the perception of adverse effects with aripiprazole treatment may be meaningful for patients.

  18. The financial impact of a clinical academic practice partnership.

    PubMed

    Greene, Mary Ann; Turner, James

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to provide clinical experiences for nursing students have caused nursing schools and hospitals to evaluate program costs. A Microsoft Excel model, which captures costs and associated benefits, was developed and is described here. The financial analysis shows that the Clinical Academic Practice Program framework for nursing clinical education, often preferred by students, can offer financial advantages to participating hospitals and schools of nursing. The model is potentially a tool for schools of nursing to enlist hospitals and to help manage expenses of clinical education. Hospitals may also use the Hospital Nursing Unit Staffing and Expense Worksheet in planning staffing when students are assigned to units and the cost/benefit findings to enlist management support.

  19. The Reliability of a Novel Automated System for ANA Immunofluorescence Analysis in Daily Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Alsuwaidi, Mohammed; Dollinger, Margit; Fleck, Martin; Ehrenstein, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Automated interpretation (AI) systems for antinuclear antibody (ANA) analysis have been introduced based on assessment of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) patterns. The diagnostic performance of a novel automated IIF reading system was compared with visual interpretation (VI) of IIF in daily clinical practice to evaluate the reduction of workload. ANA-IIF tests of consecutive serum samples from patients with suspected connective tissue disease were carried out using HEp-2 cells according to routine clinical care. AI was performed using a visual analyser (Zenit G-Sight, Menarini, Germany). Agreement rates between ANA results by AI and VI were calculated. Of the 336 samples investigated, VI yielded 205 (61%) negative, 42 (13%) ambiguous, and 89 (26%) positive results, whereas 82 (24%) were determined to be negative, 176 (52%) ambiguous, and 78 (24%) positive by AI. AI displayed a diagnostic accuracy of 175/336 samples (52%) with a kappa coefficient of 0.34 compared to VI being the gold standard. Solely relying on AI, with VI only performed for all ambiguous samples by AI, would have missed 1 of 89 (1%) positive results by VI and misclassified 2 of 205 (1%) negative results by VI as positive. The use of AI in daily clinical practice resulted only in a moderate reduction of the VI workload (82 of 336 samples: 24%). PMID:27247573

  20. The Self-Reported Clinical Practice Behaviors of Australian Optometrists as Related to Smoking, Diet and Nutritional Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Downie, Laura Elizabeth; Keller, Peter Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to examine the self-reported, routine clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists with respect to advice regarding smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. The study also sought to assess the potential influence of practitioner age, gender, practice location (major city versus regional), therapeutic-endorsement status and personal nutritional supplementation habits upon management practices in these areas. Methods A survey was electronically distributed to Australian optometrists (n = 4,242). Respondents anonymously provided information about their personal demographics and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., age, gender, practice location, therapeutic-endorsement status, smoking status, nutritional supplement intake) and routine patient management practices with respect to advice across three domains: smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess for potential effects of the listed factors on practitioner behavior. Results A total of 283 completed surveys were received (completed survey response rate: 6.7%). Fewer than half of respondents indicated routinely asking their patients about smoking status. Younger practitioners were significantly (p < 0.05) less likely to enquire about patients’ smoking behaviors, but this did not extend to counseling for smoking cessation. Almost two-thirds of respondents indicated routinely counseling patients about diet. About half of practitioners specified routinely asking their patients about nutritional supplement intake; this form of questioning was significantly more likely if the respondent was female (p < 0.05). Practitioners who recommended nutritional supplements most commonly did so for age-related macular degeneration (91.2%) and dry eye disease (63.9%). The primary source of evidence used to guide practitioners’ nutrition-related patient management was reported to be peer-reviewed publications

  1. Practical clinical trials in psychopharmacology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Benedetto

    2015-04-01

    Practical clinical trials (PCTs) are randomized experiments under typical practice conditions with the aim of testing the "real-life" benefits and risks of therapeutic interventions. Influential PCTs have been conducted in cardiology, oncology, and internal medicine. Psychotropic medications are widely and increasingly used in medical practice. This review examines recent progress in conducting PCTs in psychopharmacology. The January 2000 to October 2014 MEDLINE, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for peer-reviewed publications of PCTs with at least 100 subjects per treatment arm. Most PCTs in psychiatry evaluated mental health services or psychosocial interventions rather than specific pharmacotherapies. Of 157 PCTs in psychiatry, 30 (19%) were in psychopharmacology, with a median of 2 publications per year and no increase during the period of observation. Sample size ranged from 200 to 18,154; only 11 studies randomized 500 patients or more. Psychopharmacology PCTs were equally likely to be funded by industry as by public agencies. There were 10 PCTs of antidepressants, for a total of 4206 patients (in comparison with at least 46 PCTs of antihypertensive medications, for a total of 208,014 patients). Some psychopharmacology PCTs used suicidal behavior, treatment discontinuation, or mortality as primary outcome and produced effectiveness and safety data that have influenced both practice guidelines and regulatory decisions. Practical clinical trials can constitute an important source of information for clinicians, patients, regulators, and policy makers but have been relatively underused in psychopharmacology. Electronic medical records and integrated practice research networks offer promising platforms for a more efficient conduct of PCTs.

  2. The practice of clinical handover: a respite perspective.

    PubMed

    Croos, Solomon

    This article aims to reflect on handovers that take place in respite settings-a healthcare setting with little mention in the literature. The author presents a reflective account of the practice of handover in one respite unit in south-east England. As these are the author's own observations and experience, no reflective model has been used as a guide. The article also reports on the findings of a small web-based survey conducted by Facebook and email contacts that aimed to understand the attitudes of health professionals, mainly from the respite-care setting, towards the practice of clinical handover. The findings showed that handover is an important part of safer care practice and is highly valued by the respondents as being a planning and organising mechanism for better management of shifts. This paper concludes by raising awareness of the lack of information available about the practice of clinical handover in respite settings. It also suggests the need for an in-depth study on handover practice in respite care.

  3. Changing clinical practice: views about the management of adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, S.; Sutherland, K.; Dopson, S.; Miller, R.

    1999-01-01

    A case study of clinical practice in adult asthma is presented. The case is part of a larger project, funded by the North Thames NHS Executive Research and Development Programme, that sought to explore the part played by clinicians in the implementation of research and development into practice in two areas: adult asthma and glue ear in children. The first case of glue ear in children was reported in a previous issue of this journal (Quality in Health Care 1999;8:99-107). Background information from secondary sources on the condition, treatment, and organisation and location of care is followed by an account of the results of semistructured interviews with 159 clinicians. The findings are reported in two sections: clinical management and the organisation of care, and clinicians' accounts of what, why, and how they introduce changes into their practice. The way clinicians talk about their learning, their expressed views on acceptable practice, and their willingness to change were shown to be informed by construction of legitimate and sufficient evidence, respected colleagues, and accumulated individual experience. There was little open acknowledgment of the influence of organisational factors in influencing practice. To investigate whether relationships between task performance and organisational arrangements found in other sectors apply to UK health, more robust measures by which performance can be evaluated are needed. PMID:10847888

  4. The practice of clinical handover: a respite perspective.

    PubMed

    Croos, Solomon

    This article aims to reflect on handovers that take place in respite settings-a healthcare setting with little mention in the literature. The author presents a reflective account of the practice of handover in one respite unit in south-east England. As these are the author's own observations and experience, no reflective model has been used as a guide. The article also reports on the findings of a small web-based survey conducted by Facebook and email contacts that aimed to understand the attitudes of health professionals, mainly from the respite-care setting, towards the practice of clinical handover. The findings showed that handover is an important part of safer care practice and is highly valued by the respondents as being a planning and organising mechanism for better management of shifts. This paper concludes by raising awareness of the lack of information available about the practice of clinical handover in respite settings. It also suggests the need for an in-depth study on handover practice in respite care. PMID:25072335

  5. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee.

    PubMed

    Rossini, P M; Burke, D; Chen, R; Cohen, L G; Daskalakis, Z; Di Iorio, R; Di Lazzaro, V; Ferreri, F; Fitzgerald, P B; George, M S; Hallett, M; Lefaucheur, J P; Langguth, B; Matsumoto, H; Miniussi, C; Nitsche, M A; Pascual-Leone, A; Paulus, W; Rossi, S; Rothwell, J C; Siebner, H R; Ugawa, Y; Walsh, V; Ziemann, U

    2015-06-01

    These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on "Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application" (Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some of whom were in the panel of the 1994 "Report", was selected to produce a current state-of-the-art review of non-invasive stimulation both for clinical application and research in neuroscience. Since 1994, the international scientific community has seen a rapid increase in non-invasive brain stimulation in studying cognition, brain-behavior relationship and pathophysiology of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. New paradigms of stimulation and new techniques have been developed. Furthermore, a large number of studies and clinical trials have demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation, especially for TMS. Recent guidelines can be found in the literature covering specific aspects of non-invasive brain stimulation, such as safety (Rossi et al., 2009), methodology (Groppa et al., 2012) and therapeutic applications (Lefaucheur et al., 2014). This up-dated review covers theoretical, physiological and practical aspects of non-invasive stimulation of brain, spinal cord, nerve roots and peripheral nerves in the light of more updated knowledge, and include some recent extensions and developments. PMID:25797650

  6. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee.

    PubMed

    Rossini, P M; Burke, D; Chen, R; Cohen, L G; Daskalakis, Z; Di Iorio, R; Di Lazzaro, V; Ferreri, F; Fitzgerald, P B; George, M S; Hallett, M; Lefaucheur, J P; Langguth, B; Matsumoto, H; Miniussi, C; Nitsche, M A; Pascual-Leone, A; Paulus, W; Rossi, S; Rothwell, J C; Siebner, H R; Ugawa, Y; Walsh, V; Ziemann, U

    2015-06-01

    These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on "Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application" (Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some of whom were in the panel of the 1994 "Report", was selected to produce a current state-of-the-art review of non-invasive stimulation both for clinical application and research in neuroscience. Since 1994, the international scientific community has seen a rapid increase in non-invasive brain stimulation in studying cognition, brain-behavior relationship and pathophysiology of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. New paradigms of stimulation and new techniques have been developed. Furthermore, a large number of studies and clinical trials have demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation, especially for TMS. Recent guidelines can be found in the literature covering specific aspects of non-invasive brain stimulation, such as safety (Rossi et al., 2009), methodology (Groppa et al., 2012) and therapeutic applications (Lefaucheur et al., 2014). This up-dated review covers theoretical, physiological and practical aspects of non-invasive stimulation of brain, spinal cord, nerve roots and peripheral nerves in the light of more updated knowledge, and include some recent extensions and developments.

  7. Impact of Direct-to-Consumer Predictive Genomic Testing on Risk Perception and Worry Among Patients Receiving Routine Care in a Preventive Health Clinic

    PubMed Central

    James, Katherine M.; Cowl, Clayton T.; Tilburt, Jon C.; Sinicrope, Pamela S.; Robinson, Marguerite E.; Frimannsdottir, Katrin R.; Tiedje, Kristina; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) predictive genomic risk information on perceived risk and worry in the context of routine clinical care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients attending a preventive medicine clinic between June 1 and December 18, 2009, were randomly assigned to receive either genomic risk information from a DTC product plus usual care (n=74) or usual care alone (n=76). At intervals of 1 week and 1 year after their clinic visit, participants completed surveys containing validated measures of risk perception and levels of worry associated with the 12 conditions assessed by the DTC product. RESULTS: Of 345 patients approached, 150 (43%) agreed to participate, 64 (19%) refused, and 131 (38%) did not respond. Compared with those receiving usual care, participants who received genomic risk information initially rated their risk as higher for 4 conditions (abdominal aneurysm [P=.001], Graves disease [P=.04], obesity [P=.01], and osteoarthritis [P=.04]) and lower for one (prostate cancer [P=.02]). Although differences were not significant, they also reported higher levels of worry for 7 conditions and lower levels for 5 others. At 1 year, there were no significant differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Predictive genomic risk information modestly influences risk perception and worry. The extent and direction of this influence may depend on the condition being tested and its baseline prominence in preventive health care and may attenuate with time. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00782366 PMID:21964170

  8. Internet-delivered treatment for older adults with anxiety and depression: implementation of the Wellbeing Plus Course in routine clinical care and comparison with research trial outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Lauren G.; Fogliati, Vincent J.; Dear, Blake F.; Nielssen, Olav

    2016-01-01

    Background The Wellbeing Plus Course is an internet-delivered psychological intervention for older adults with anxiety or depression. Aims To compare the effectiveness of the Wellbeing Plus Course in a public health setting (clinic group) with its efficacy in a randomised controlled trial (research group). Method Participants (n=949) were Australian adults aged 60 and above. Primary outcome measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). Results Initial symptom severity was higher in the clinic group and course completion was lower. Both groups showed significant symptom reductions at post-treatment and were satisfied with the treatment. Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Within-group symptom changes were comparable between settings; there were no between-group differences on primary outcomes or satisfaction. Conclusions The Wellbeing Plus Course is as effective and acceptable in routine clinical care, as it is in controlled research trials. Declaration of interest N.T. and B.F.D developed the Wellbeing Plus Course but derived no financial benefit from it. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27703794

  9. Ten tips for receiving feedback effectively in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Algiraigri, Ali H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite being recognized as a fundamental part of the educational process and emphasized for several decades in medical education, the influence of the feedback process is still suboptimal. This may not be surprising, because the focus is primarily centered on only one half of the process – the teachers. The learners are the targets of the feedback process and improvement needs to be shifted. Learners need to be empowered with the skills needed to receive and utilize feedback and compensate for less than ideal feedback delivery due to the busy clinical environment. Methods Based on the available feedback literature and clinical experience regarding feedback, the author developed 10 tips to empower learners with the necessary skills to seek, receive, and handle feedback effectively, regardless of how it is delivered. Although, most of the tips are directed at the individual clinical trainee, this model can be utilized by clinical educators involved in learner development and serve as a framework for educational workshops or curriculum. Results Ten practical tips are identified that specifically address the learner's role in the feedback process. These tips not only help the learner to ask, receive, and handle the feedback, but will also ease the process for the teachers. Collectively, these tips help to overcome most, if not all, of the barriers to feedback and bridge the gaps in busy clinical practices. Conclusions Feedback is a crucial element in the educational process and it is shown that we are still behind in the optimal use of it; thus, learners need to be taught how to better receive and utilize feedback. The focus in medical education needs to balance the two sides of the feedback process. It is time now to invest on the learner's development of skills that can be utilized in a busy day-to-day clinical practice. PMID:25079664

  10. Clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicines for chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shufei; Zhang, Junhua; Gao, Xiumei; Xia, Ye; Ferrelli, Rita; Fauci, Alice; Guerra, Ranieri; Hu, Limin

    2010-01-01

    Background Chinese medicines have been used for chronic heart failure (CHF) for thousands of years; however, the status of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) used for CHF has not been reported. This review was carried out in the framework of a joint Sino-Italian Laboratory. Objective To investigate the baseline of clinical practice of TCMs for CHF, and to provide valuable information for research and clinical practice. Methods The authors included articles about the use of TCMs for the treatment of CHF by searching the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (1994 to November 2007). Results In all, 1029 papers were included, with 239 herbs retrieved from these. The most commonly used herbs included Huangqi (Radix Astragali), Fuling (Poria), Danshen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae), Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata) and Tinglizi (Semen Lepidii). Modern Chinese patent medicines (produced by pharmaceutical companies) and traditional prescriptions (comprising several herbs) are the application forms of these drugs. Shenmai, Shengmai and Astragalus injections were the most commonly used Chinese patent medicines. Some classic prescriptions (including Zhenwu decoction, Shengmai powder and Lingguizhugan decoction) were also frequently used. The effectiveness and safety of the TCMs were both satisfactory, and the traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine therapy could significantly improve the clinical effectiveness and reduce some of the adverse reactions from western medicines used alone. Conclusion The authors have acquired overall information about the clinical application of TCMs for CHF. Modern pharmacology has provided limited evidence for the rationality of this clinical use. Further research is needed to provide more evidence. PMID:27325938

  11. Clinical coaching--an innovative role to improve marginal nursing students' clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kelton, Moira F

    2014-11-01

    In order for undergraduate nursing students to demonstrate their ability to achieve the required level of competency with practice they must be able to integrate both the clinical skills and knowledge that are pivotal to safe and competent nursing practice. In response to ongoing concerns about students' level of competency expressed by the supervising clinical staff, one School of Nursing and Midwifery created a Clinical Coach (CC) role. The purpose of this paper is to present the data collected including outcomes achieved and the coaching strategies used when a CC role was implemented to support and develop nursing practice for the marginal performer or 'at risk' student. A literature review of the application of coaching to nursing, a detailed analysis and discussion of the outcomes identified from auditing of collected data and the specific coaching strategies that resulted in successful outcomes for students is presented. This model of Clinical Coaching for nursing students could readily be adopted by other Schools of Nursing and Midwifery. This account of the regime of coaching practices may also offer a transferable, adaptable and flexible approach for other health professions who require their undergraduate students to complete clinical placements in preparation for professional practice. PMID:25066808

  12. Analysis and Presentation of Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Data – The Influence of Different Parameters in a Routine Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmann, Rebekka; Gatermann, Sören G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many clinical microbiology laboratories report on cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (cAST) data on a regular basis. Criteria for generation of cAST reports, however, are often obscure and inconsistent. Whereas the CLSI has published a guideline for analysis and presentation of cAST data, national guidelines directed at clinical microbiology laboratories are not available in Europe. Thus, we sought to describe the influence of different parameters in the process of cAST data analysis in the setting of a German routine clinical microbiology laboratory during 2 consecutive years. Material and Methods We developed various program scripts to assess the consequences ensuing from different algorithms for calculation of cumulative antibiograms from the data collected in our clinical microbiology laboratory in 2013 and 2014. Results One of the most pronounced effects was caused by exclusion of screening cultures for multi-drug resistant organisms which decreased the MRSA rate in some cases to one third. Dependent on the handling of duplicate isolates, i.e. isolates of the same species recovered from successive cultures on the same patient during the time period analyzed, we recorded differences in resistance rates of up to 5 percentage points for S. aureus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae and up to 10 percentage points for P. aeruginosa. Stratification by site of care and specimen type, testing of antimicrobials selectively on resistant isolates, change of interpretation rules and analysis at genus level instead of species level resulted in further changes of calculated antimicrobial resistance rates. Conclusion The choice of parameters for cAST data analysis may have a substantial influence on calculated antimicrobial resistance rates. Consequently, comparability of cAST reports from different clinical microbiology laboratories may be limited. We suggest that laboratories communicate the strategy used for cAST data analysis as long as national

  13. A review of clinical practice guidelines for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ball, David; Silvestri, Gerard A.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are important evidence-based resources to guide complex clinical decision making. However, it is challenging for health professionals to keep abreast available guidelines and to know how and where to access relevant guidelines. This review examines currently available guidelines for lung cancer published in the English language. Important key features are listed for each identified guideline. The methodology, approaches to dissemination and implementation, and associated resources are summarised. General challenges in the area of guideline development are highlighted. The potential to collaborate more widely across lung cancer guideline developers by sharing literature searches and assessments is discussed. PMID:24163752

  14. Clinical trials litigation: practical realities as seen from the trenches.

    PubMed

    Morreim, E Haavi

    2005-01-01

    Litigation involving human clinical research trials has escalated rapidly in the past few years. Whereas these suits raise many important theoretical questions, they also have important practical and human dimensions of which many people are unlikely to be aware until, by some unfortunate turn, they must live the reality. From the vantage of a fairly close view on one recent lawsuit, this article offers some ground-level observations and reflections that, it is hoped, may be of use to people in clinical research who might one day find themselves in a similar position. PMID:16021792

  15. [Legal responsibility in the exercising of the neurology clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Siso Martín, J

    2004-12-01

    The importance of responsibility in the clinical practice is derived from the transcendency of what they affect (life and health) and the risk implicit to it. The clinical performance does not require curing. The obligations that are derived from them are means and not results. It is also not correct to associate error and responsibility. Responsibility of the professional may be claimed by civil, patrimony, corporative, disciplinary and penal routes based on the reasons and according to who is making the claim. These claims may be presented individually or jointly based on whether the modality of the professional practice is free or carried out by others, whether in public health or private health care. The professional has different alternatives to respond to the possible lawsuits that are presented, both penal and civil action or protection have the common problem of the difficulty of proof.

  16. Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Goh, S Y; Ang, S B; Bee, Y M; Chen, Y T; Gardner, D S; Ho, E T; Adaikan, K; Lee, Y C; Lee, C H; Lim, F S; Lim, H B; Lim, S C; Seow, J; Soh, A W; Sum, C F; Tai, E S; Thai, A C; Wong, T Y; Yap, F

    2014-