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Sample records for routine flow linear

  1. CULA: hybrid GPU accelerated linear algebra routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, John R.; Price, Daniel K.; Spagnoli, Kyle E.; Paolini, Aaron L.; Kelmelis, Eric J.

    2010-04-01

    The modern graphics processing unit (GPU) found in many standard personal computers is a highly parallel math processor capable of nearly 1 TFLOPS peak throughput at a cost similar to a high-end CPU and an excellent FLOPS/watt ratio. High-level linear algebra operations are computationally intense, often requiring O(N3) operations and would seem a natural fit for the processing power of the GPU. Our work is on CULA, a GPU accelerated implementation of linear algebra routines. We present results from factorizations such as LU decomposition, singular value decomposition and QR decomposition along with applications like system solution and least squares. The GPU execution model featured by NVIDIA GPUs based on CUDA demands very strong parallelism, requiring between hundreds and thousands of simultaneous operations to achieve high performance. Some constructs from linear algebra map extremely well to the GPU and others map poorly. CPUs, on the other hand, do well at smaller order parallelism and perform acceptably during low-parallelism code segments. Our work addresses this via hybrid a processing model, in which the CPU and GPU work simultaneously to produce results. In many cases, this is accomplished by allowing each platform to do the work it performs most naturally.

  2. Use of a high-frequency linear transducer and MTI filtered color flow mapping in the assessment of fetal heart anatomy at the routine 11 to 13 + 6-week scan: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Votino, C; Kacem, Y; Dobrescu, O; Dessy, H; Cos, T; Foulon, W; Jani, J

    2012-02-01

    To prospectively assess the contribution of a high-frequency linear transducer and of moving target indicator (MTI) filtered color flow mapping in the visualization of cardiac fetal anatomy at the routine 11 to 13 + 6-week scan. This was a cross-sectional prospective study, including 300 singleton fetuses at 11 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation. Patients were randomized into four groups and a detailed fetal cardiac examination was conducted transabdominally using either a conventional curvilinear transducer, a conventional curvilinear transducer and MTI filtered color flow mapping, a high-frequency linear transducer or a high-frequency linear transducer and MTI filtered color flow mapping. Regression analysis was used to investigate the effect on the ability to visualize different cardiac structures of the following parameters: gestational age at ultrasound examination; fetal crown-rump length (CRL); maternal body mass index (BMI); transducer-heart distance; the technique used at ultrasound; and the position of the placenta. The four-chamber view was visualized in 89.0% of fetuses and regression analysis showed this rate was correlated with CRL and the use of MTI filtered color flow mapping during ultrasonography, and inversely correlated with BMI and transducer-heart distance. Use of a conventional curvilinear transducer and MTI filtered color flow mapping allowed visualization of the four-chamber view in 97.3% of fetuses, while this was only possible in 84.0% of fetuses using a high-frequency linear transducer. The left and right outflow tracts were visualized in 62.3 and 57.7% of fetuses, respectively. Regression analysis showed that the ability to visualize the left or the right outflow tract was correlated with the use of MTI filtered color flow mapping during scanning and was inversely correlated with transducer-heart distance. The use of a conventional curvilinear transducer and MTI filtered color flow mapping allowed visualization of the left and right outflow

  3. Optimization techniques for OpenCL-based linear algebra routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozacik, Stephen; Fox, Paul; Humphrey, John; Kuller, Aryeh; Kelmelis, Eric; Prather, Dennis W.

    2014-06-01

    The OpenCL standard for general-purpose parallel programming allows a developer to target highly parallel computations towards graphics processing units (GPUs), CPUs, co-processing devices, and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The computationally intense domains of linear algebra and image processing have shown significant speedups when implemented in the OpenCL environment. A major benefit of OpenCL is that a routine written for one device can be run across many different devices and architectures; however, a kernel optimized for one device may not exhibit high performance when executed on a different device. For this reason kernels must typically be hand-optimized for every target device family. Due to the large number of parameters that can affect performance, hand tuning for every possible device is impractical and often produces suboptimal results. For this work, we focused on optimizing the general matrix multiplication routine. General matrix multiplication is used as a building block for many linear algebra routines and often comprises a large portion of the run-time. Prior work has shown this routine to be a good candidate for high-performance implementation in OpenCL. We selected several candidate algorithms from the literature that are suitable for parameterization. We then developed parameterized kernels implementing these algorithms using only portable OpenCL features. Our implementation queries device information supplied by the OpenCL runtime and utilizes this as well as user input to generate a search space that satisfies device and algorithmic constraints. Preliminary results from our work confirm that optimizations are not portable from one device to the next, and show the benefits of automatic tuning. Using a standard set of tuning parameters seen in the literature for the NVIDIA Fermi architecture achieves a performance of 1.6 TFLOPS on an AMD 7970 device, while automatically tuning achieves a peak of 2.7 TFLOPS

  4. Thermocapillary flow without return flow-linear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospennikov, N. A.; Schwabe, D.

    The experimental realization of thermocapillary flow without return flow is reported. This type of flow (linear flow) was proposed and analyzed theoretically by Smith and Davis (J. Fluid Mech., 132:119-144, 1983). We suppressed the return flow by providing channels and side channels with lower flow resistance compared to that of the return flow. Cooling the layer with linear flow from above results in the Marangoni instability of longitudinal rolls as the most dangerous mode. Strong linear flow stabilizes the system against longitudinal rolls. We report preliminary results on the threshold and on the wavelength of the longitudinal rolls.

  5. Efficient linear algebra routines for symmetric matrices stored in packed form.

    PubMed

    Ahlrichs, Reinhart; Tsereteli, Kakha

    2002-01-30

    Quantum chemistry methods require various linear algebra routines for symmetric matrices, for example, diagonalization or Cholesky decomposition for positive matrices. We present a small set of these basic routines that are efficient and minimize memory requirements.

  6. Approximate Controllability Results for Linear Viscoelastic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Shirshendu; Mitra, Debanjana; Ramaswamy, Mythily; Renardy, Michael

    2017-09-01

    We consider linear viscoelastic flow of a multimode Maxwell or Jeffreys fluid in a bounded domain with smooth boundary, with a distributed control in the momentum equation. We establish results on approximate and exact controllability.

  7. Channel entrance flow and its linear stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hifdi, Ahmed; Ouazzani Touhami, Mohammed; Khalid Naciri, Jaâfar

    2004-06-01

    In this work, we present a temporal linear stability analysis of developing channel flow. For the main flow, the considered solution is analytic. It is based on the hypothesis of small disturbances from fully developed flow and it is valid for intermediate Reynolds numbers. The disturbances are separated into symmetric and anti-symmetric eigenmodes of the velocity. We deal subsequently with the linear stability of this main flow, taking into account the nearly parallel flow assumption. The stability problem formulation leads to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. This equation is then resolved using the Chebyshev spectral collocation method. The stability results depend essentially on the shape and amplitude of the velocity profiles imposed at the channel entry.

  8. Linear control of oscillator and amplifier flows*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Peter J.; Sipp, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Linear control applied to fluid systems near an equilibrium point has important applications for many flows of industrial or fundamental interest. In this article we give an exposition of tools and approaches for the design of control strategies for globally stable or unstable flows. For unstable oscillator flows a feedback configuration and a model-based approach is proposed, while for stable noise-amplifier flows a feedforward setup and an approach based on system identification is advocated. Model reduction and robustness issues are addressed for the oscillator case; statistical learning techniques are emphasized for the amplifier case. Effective suppression of global and convective instabilities could be demonstrated for either case, even though the system-identification approach results in a superior robustness to off-design conditions.

  9. Monitoring Daily QA 3 constancy for routine quality assurance on linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Binny, Diana; Lancaster, Craig M; Kairn, Tanya; Trapp, Jamie V; Crowe, Scott B

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the Daily QA 3 (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, USA) device as a safe quality assurance device for control of machine specific parameters, such as linear accelerator output, beam quality and beam flatness and symmetry. Measurements were performed using three Varian 2300iX linear accelerators. The suitability of Daily QA 3 as a device for quality control of linear accelerator parameters was investigated for both 6 and 10MV photons and 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18MeV electrons. Measurements of machine specific using the Daily QA 3 device were compared to corresponding measurements using a simpler constancy meter, Farmer chamber and plane parallel ionisation chamber in a water tank. The Daily QA 3 device showed a linear dose response making it a suitable device for detection of output variations during routine measurements. It was noted that over estimations of variations compared with Farmer chamber readings were seen if the Daily QA 3 wasn't calibrated for output and sensitivity on a regular eight to ten monthly basis. Temperature-pressure correction factors calculated by Daily QA 3 also contributed towards larger short term variations seen in output measurements. Energy, symmetry and flatness variations detected by Daily QA 3 were consistent with measurements performed in water tank using a parallel plate chamber. It was concluded that the Daily QA 3 device is suitable for routine daily and fortnightly quality assurance of linear accelerator beam parameters however a regular eight-ten monthly dose and detector array calibration will improve error detection capabilities of the device.

  10. The use of computed radiography for routine linear accelerator and simulator quality control.

    PubMed

    Patel, I; Natarajan, T; Hassan, S S; Kirby, M C

    2009-10-01

    Computed radiography (CR) systems were originally developed for the purpose of clinical imaging, and there has been much work published on its effectiveness as a film replacement for this end. However, there has been little published on its use for routine linear accelerator and simulator quality control, and therefore we have evaluated the use of the Kodak 2000RT system with large Agfa CR plates as a replacement for film for this function. A prerequisite for any such use is a detailed understanding of the system behaviour, hence characteristics such as spatial uniformity of response, reproducibility of spatial accuracy, plate signal decay with time and the dose-response of plates were investigated. Finally, a comparison of results obtained using CR for the measurement of radiation field dimensions was made against those from radiographic film, and found to be in agreement within 0.1 mm (mean difference for high-resolution images, 0.3 mm root mean square difference) for megavoltage images and 0.3 mm (maximum difference) for simulator images. In conclusion, the CR system has been shown to be a good alternative to radiographic film for routine quality control of linear accelerators and simulators.

  11. The calculation of steady non-linear transonic flow over finite wings with linear theory aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, A. M., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of calculating steady mean flow solutions for nonlinear transonic flow over finite wings with a linear theory aerodynamic computer program is studied. The methodology is based on independent solutions for upper and lower surface pressures that are coupled through the external flow fields. Two approaches for coupling the solutions are investigated which include the diaphragm and the edge singularity method. The final method is a combination of both where a line source along the wing leading edge is used to account for blunt nose airfoil effects; and the upper and lower surface flow fields are coupled through a diaphragm in the plane of the wing. An iterative solution is used to arrive at the nonuniform flow solution for both nonlifting and lifting cases. Final results for a swept tapered wing in subcritical flow show that the method converges in three iterations and gives excellent agreement with experiment at alpha = 0 deg and 2 deg. Recommendations are made for development of a procedure for routine application.

  12. INTERP3: A computer routine for linear interpolation of trivariate functions defined by nondistinct unequally spaced variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. C.; Morris, S. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A report on the computer routine INTERP3 is presented. The routine is designed to linearly interpolate a variable which is a function of three independent variables. The variables within the parameter arrays do not have to be distinct, or equally spaced, and the array variables can be in increasing or decreasing order.

  13. The Piecewise Linear Reactive Flow Rate Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P; Souers, P C

    2005-07-22

    Conclusions are: (1) Early calibrations of the Piece Wise Linear reactive flow model have shown that it allows for very accurate agreement with data for a broad range of detonation wave strengths. (2) The ability to vary the rate at specific pressures has shown that corner turning involves competition between the strong wave that travels roughly in a straight line and growth at low pressure of a new wave that turns corners sharply. (3) The inclusion of a low pressure de-sensitization rate is essential to preserving the dead zone at large times as is observed.

  14. SINDA/SINFLO computer routine, volume 1, revision A. [for fluid flow system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The SINFLO package was developed to modify the SINDA preprocessor to accept and store the input data for fluid flow systems analysis and adding the FLOSOL user subroutine to perform the flow solution. This reduced and simplified the user input required for analysis of flow problems. A temperature calculation method, the flow-hybrid method which was developed in previous VSD thermal simulator routines, was incorporated for calculating fluid temperatures. The calculation method accuracy was improved by using fluid enthalpy rather than specific heat for the convective term of the fluid temperature equation. Subroutines and data input requirements are described along with user subroutines, flow data storage, and usage of the plot program.

  15. A linearized Euler analysis of unsteady transonic flows in turbomachinery

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, K.C.; Clark, W.S.; Lorence, C.B. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science)

    1994-07-01

    A computational method for efficiently predicting unsteady transonic flows in two- and three-dimensional cascades is presented. The unsteady flow is modeled using a linearized Euler analysis whereby the unsteady flow field is decomposed into a nonlinear mean flow plus a linear harmonically varying unsteady flow. The equations that govern the perturbation flow, the linearized Euler equations, are linear variable coefficient equations. For transonic flows containing shocks, shock capturing is used to model the shock impulse (the unsteady load due to the harmonic motion of the shock). A conservative Lax-Wendroff scheme is used to obtain a set of linearized finite volume equations that describe the harmonic small disturbance behavior of the flow. Conditions under which such a discretization will correctly predict the shock impulse are investigated. Computational results are presented that demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the present method as well as the essential role of unsteady shock impulse loads on the flutter stability of fans.

  16. The Piece Wise Linear Reactive Flow Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P; Souers, P C

    2005-08-18

    For non-ideal explosives a wide range of behavior is observed in experiments dealing with differing sizes and geometries. A predictive detonation model must be able to reproduce many phenomena including such effects as: variations in the detonation velocity with the radial diameter of rate sticks; slowing of the detonation velocity around gentle corners; production of dead zones for abrupt corner turning; failure of small diameter rate sticks; and failure for rate sticks with sufficiently wide cracks. Most models have been developed to explain one effect at a time. Often, changes are made in the input parameters used to fit each succeeding case with the implication that this is sufficient for the model to be valid over differing regimes. We feel that it is important to develop a model that is able to fit experiments with one set of parameters. To address this we are creating a new generation of models that are able to produce better fitting to individual data sets than prior models and to simultaneous fit distinctly different regimes of experiments. Presented here are details of our new Piece Wise Linear reactive flow model applied to LX-17.

  17. High-Order Automatic Differentiation of Unmodified Linear Algebra Routines via Nilpotent Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, Benjamin Z.

    This work presents a new automatic differentiation method, Nilpotent Matrix Differentiation (NMD), capable of propagating any order of mixed or univariate derivative through common linear algebra functions--most notably third-party sparse solvers and decomposition routines, in addition to basic matrix arithmetic operations and power series--without changing data-type or modifying code line by line; this allows differentiation across sequences of arbitrarily many such functions with minimal implementation effort. NMD works by enlarging the matrices and vectors passed to the routines, replacing each original scalar with a matrix block augmented by derivative data; these blocks are constructed with special sparsity structures, termed "stencils," each designed to be isomorphic to a particular multidimensional hypercomplex algebra. The algebras are in turn designed such that Taylor expansions of hypercomplex function evaluations are finite in length and thus exactly track derivatives without approximation error. Although this use of the method in the "forward mode" is unique in its own right, it is also possible to apply it to existing implementations of the (first-order) discrete adjoint method to find high-order derivatives with lowered cost complexity; for example, for a problem with N inputs and an adjoint solver whose cost is independent of N--i.e., O(1)--the N x N Hessian can be found in O(N) time, which is comparable to existing second-order adjoint methods that require far more problem-specific implementation effort. Higher derivatives are likewise less expensive--e.g., a N x N x N rank-three tensor can be found in O(N2). Alternatively, a Hessian-vector product can be found in O(1) time, which may open up many matrix-based simulations to a range of existing optimization or surrogate modeling approaches. As a final corollary in parallel to the NMD-adjoint hybrid method, the existing complex-step differentiation (CD) technique is also shown to be capable of

  18. Dilatonic non-linear sigma models and Ricci flow extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carfora, M.; Marzuoli, A.

    2016-09-01

    We review our recent work describing, in terms of the Wasserstein geometry over the space of probability measures, the embedding of the Ricci flow in the renormalization group flow for dilatonic non-linear sigma models.

  19. A study on springback of bending linear flow split profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, P.; Taplick, C.; Özel, M.; Groche, P.

    2016-11-01

    The bending of linear flow split profiles made up of high strength materials involves high bending loads leading to high springback and geometrical defects. In addition, the linear flow split profiles are made stronger due to the high plastic deformation applied by the process itself. The bending method proposed in this paper combines the linear flow splitting process with a movable bending tool. The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of superimposed stresses exerted by the linear flow splitting process on bending load and springback of the profile by using a finite element model. The latter was validated by means of experimental results. The results show that the bending loads and the springback were reduced by increasing the superposition of stress applied by the linear flow splitting process. The reduction in the bending loads leads to a reduction in the cross-sectional distortion. Furthermore, the springback was compensated by controlling the amount of superimposed stress.

  20. A linearized Euler analysis of unsteady flows in turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Kenneth C.; Crawley, Edward F.

    1987-01-01

    A method for calculating unsteady flows in cascades is presented. The model, which is based on the linearized unsteady Euler equations, accounts for blade loading shock motion, wake motion, and blade geometry. The mean flow through the cascade is determined by solving the full nonlinear Euler equations. Assuming the unsteadiness in the flow is small, then the Euler equations are linearized about the mean flow to obtain a set of linear variable coefficient equations which describe the small amplitude, harmonic motion of the flow. These equations are discretized on a computational grid via a finite volume operator and solved directly subject to an appropriate set of linearized boundary conditions. The steady flow, which is calculated prior to the unsteady flow, is found via a Newton iteration procedure. An important feature of the analysis is the use of shock fitting to model steady and unsteady shocks. Use of the Euler equations with the unsteady Rankine-Hugoniot shock jump conditions correctly models the generation of steady and unsteady entropy and vorticity at shocks. In particular, the low frequency shock displacement is correctly predicted. Results of this method are presented for a variety of test cases. Predicted unsteady transonic flows in channels are compared to full nonlinear Euler solutions obtained using time-accurate, time-marching methods. The agreement between the two methods is excellent for small to moderate levels of flow unsteadiness. The method is also used to predict unsteady flows in cascades due to blade motion (flutter problem) and incoming disturbances (gust response problem).

  1. Planning Student Flow with Linear Programming: A Tunisian Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezeau, Lawrence

    A student flow model in linear programming format, designed to plan the movement of students into secondary and university programs in Tunisia, is described. The purpose of the plan is to determine a sufficient number of graduating students that would flow back into the system as teachers or move into the labor market to meet fixed manpower…

  2. Two-dimensional motion of Brownian swimmers in linear flows.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Mario; Jimenez, Alonso

    2016-03-01

    The motion of viruses and bacteria and even synthetic microswimmers can be affected by thermal fluctuations and by external flows. In this work, we study the effect of linear external flows and thermal fluctuations on the diffusion of those swimmers modeled as spherical active (self-propelled) particles moving in two dimensions. General formulae for their mean-square displacement under a general linear flow are presented. We also provide, at short and long times, explicit expressions for the mean-square displacement of a swimmer immersed in three canonical flows, namely, solid-body rotation, shear and extensional flows. These expressions can now be used to estimate the effect of external flows on the displacement of Brownian microswimmers. Finally, our theoretical results are validated by using Brownian dynamics simulations.

  3. Thermal and flow analysis subroutines for the SINDA-version 9 computer routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Fluid flow analysis, special thermal analysis and input/output capabilities of the MOTAR routine were incorporated into the SINDA routine. All the capabilities were added in the form of user subroutines so that they may be added to different versions of SINDA with a minimum of programmer effort. Two modifications were made to the existing subroutines of SINDA/8 to incorporate the above subroutines. These were: (1) A modification to the preprocessor to permit actual values of array numbers, conductor numbers, node numbers or constant numbers supplied as array data to be converted to relative numbers. (2) Modifications to execution subroutine CNFAST to make it compatible with the radiant interchange user subroutine, RADIR. This modified version of SINDA has been designated SINDA/version 9. A detailed discussion of the methods used for the capabilities added is presented. The modifications for the SINDA subroutines are described, as well as user subroutines. All subroutines added or modified are listed.

  4. Linear instability in Rayleigh-stable Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Kengo

    2017-02-01

    Rayleigh's stability criterion describes the inviscid stability of rotating fluid flows. Despite the limitations of the criterion due to the assumptions used, it has been widely viewed as a general stability barrier in various rapidly rotating flows. However, contrary to previous belief, a linear instability is identified in Rayleigh-stable Taylor-Couette flow. The instability is found in cyclonic rapid rotation regime, for almost the entire range of the radius ratio of the cylinders.

  5. Linear instability in Rayleigh-stable Taylor-Couette flow.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Kengo

    2017-02-01

    Rayleigh's stability criterion describes the inviscid stability of rotating fluid flows. Despite the limitations of the criterion due to the assumptions used, it has been widely viewed as a general stability barrier in various rapidly rotating flows. However, contrary to previous belief, a linear instability is identified in Rayleigh-stable Taylor-Couette flow. The instability is found in cyclonic rapid rotation regime, for almost the entire range of the radius ratio of the cylinders.

  6. Development of flow/steric field-flow fractionation as a routine process control method

    SciTech Connect

    Barman, B.N.

    1988-08-30

    Researchers studied the feasibility of using the Flow/Steric Field-Flow Fractionation (Flow/StFFF) method for the characterization of particulate materials with diameters in the 1-100 micrometers range. Studies on the optimization of the method for the separation and characterization of different size particulate samples, as well as on the role of the crossflow field and channel flowrate on the separation and resolution, were performed with a number of spherical polystyrene divinylbenzene latex standards and included in the report. Applicability of the method as a fast and reliable practical tool for industrial process control, particularly for grinding operations, was examined by analyzing a number of samples obtained by grinding. Examples of materials considered include coal, limestone and glass.

  7. Controlling a Linear Process in Turbulent Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Junwoo; Kim, John

    1999-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that controllers developed based on a linear system theory work surprisingly well in reducing the viscous drag in turbulent boundary layers, suggesting that the essential dynamics of near-wall turbulence may well be approximated by the linearized model. Of particular interest is the linear process due to the coupling term between the wall-normal velocity and wall-normal vorticity terms in the linearized Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations, which enhances non-normality of the linearized system. This linear process is investigated through numerical simulations of a turbulent channel flow. It is shown that the linear coupling term plays an important role in fully turbulent -- and hence, nonlinear -- flows. Near-wall turbulence is shown to decay in the absence of the linear coupling term. The fact that the coupling term plays an essential role in maintaining near-wall turbulence suggests that an effective control algorithm for the drag reduction in turbulent flows should be aimed at reducing the effect of the coupling term in the wall region. Designing a control algorithm that directly accounts for the coupling term in a cost to be minimized will be discussed.

  8. Many-core graph analytics using accelerated sparse linear algebra routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozacik, Stephen; Paolini, Aaron L.; Fox, Paul; Kelmelis, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Graph analytics is a key component in identifying emerging trends and threats in many real-world applications. Largescale graph analytics frameworks provide a convenient and highly-scalable platform for developing algorithms to analyze large datasets. Although conceptually scalable, these techniques exhibit poor performance on modern computational hardware. Another model of graph computation has emerged that promises improved performance and scalability by using abstract linear algebra operations as the basis for graph analysis as laid out by the GraphBLAS standard. By using sparse linear algebra as the basis, existing highly efficient algorithms can be adapted to perform computations on the graph. This approach, however, is often less intuitive to graph analytics experts, who are accustomed to vertex-centric APIs such as Giraph, GraphX, and Tinkerpop. We are developing an implementation of the high-level operations supported by these APIs in terms of linear algebra operations. This implementation is be backed by many-core implementations of the fundamental GraphBLAS operations required, and offers the advantages of both the intuitive programming model of a vertex-centric API and the performance of a sparse linear algebra implementation. This technology can reduce the number of nodes required, as well as the run-time for a graph analysis problem, enabling customers to perform more complex analysis with less hardware at lower cost. All of this can be accomplished without the requirement for the customer to make any changes to their analytics code, thanks to the compatibility with existing graph APIs.

  9. Retrograde blood flow in the brachial and axillary arteries during routine radial arterial catheter flushing.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Glenn S; Szokol, Joseph W; Marymont, Jesse H; Avram, Michael J; Vender, Jeffery S; Kubasiak, John

    2006-09-01

    Flushing of radial arterial catheters may be associated with retrograde embolization of air or thrombus into the cerebral circulation. For embolization into the central circulation to occur, sufficient pressure must be generated during the flushing process to reverse antegrade blood flow in the arterial blood vessels of the upper extremity. This ultrasound study was designed to examine whether routine radial catheter flushing practices produce retrograde blood flow patterns in the brachial and proximal axillary arteries. Duplex ultrasound examinations of the brachial and axillary arteries were conducted in 100 surgical patients to quantify direction and velocity of blood flow during catheter flushing. After obtaining Doppler spectral images of brachial and axillary arterial flow patterns, manual flushing was performed by injecting 10 ml flush solution using a syringe at a rate reflecting standard clinical practices. The flow-regulating device on the pressurized (300 mmHg) arterial flushing-sampling system was then opened for 10 s to deliver a rapid bolus of fluid (flush valve opening). The rate of manual flush solution injection through the radial arterial catheter was related to the probability of retrograde flow in the axillary artery (P < 0.001). Reversed arterial flow was noted in the majority of subjects (33 of 51) at a manual flush rate of less than 9 s and in no subjects (0 of 48) at a rate 9 s or greater. Retrograde flow was observed less frequently during flush valve opening (2 of 99 patients; P < 0.001 vs. manual flushing). Rapid manual flushing of radial arterial catheters at rates faster than 1 ml/s produces retrograde flow in the proximal axillary artery.

  10. Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A.; Lu, R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalent linear multi-input-single-output (MISO) system is developed for the identification problem. The unknown transfer functions of the MISO system are identified by assembling a system of linear equations in the frequency domain. This system is solved by performing the Cholesky decomposition of a related matrix. It is shown that the proposed identification method can be interpreted as a {open_quotes}Gram-Schmidt{close_quotes} type of orthogonal decomposition of the input-output quantities of the equivalent MISO system. A numerical example involving the identification of unknown parameters of flow (ocean wave) induced forces on offshore structures elucidates the applicability of the proposed method.

  11. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    PubMed

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-04-10

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (P<0.05) in all the studied variables. Milk emission flow variables were similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Milking parameters were adequate in most of the farms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking

  12. Linear instability of plane Couette and Poiseuille flows

    SciTech Connect

    Chefranov, S. G.; Chefranov, A. G.

    2016-05-15

    It is shown that linear instability of plane Couette flow can take place even at finite Reynolds numbers Re > Re{sub th} ≈ 139, which agrees with the experimental value of Re{sub th} ≈ 150 ± 5 [16, 17]. This new result of the linear theory of hydrodynamic stability is obtained by abandoning traditional assumption of the longitudinal periodicity of disturbances in the flow direction. It is established that previous notions about linear stability of this flow at arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers relied directly upon the assumed separation of spatial variables of the field of disturbances and their longitudinal periodicity in the linear theory. By also abandoning these assumptions for plane Poiseuille flow, a new threshold Reynolds number Re{sub th} ≈ 1035 is obtained, which agrees to within 4% with experiment—in contrast to 500% discrepancy for the previous estimate of Re{sub th} ≈ 5772 obtained in the framework of the linear theory under assumption of the “normal” shape of disturbances [2].

  13. Shallow water dynamics on linear shear flows and plane beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørnestad, Maria; Kalisch, Henrik

    2017-07-01

    Long waves in shallow water propagating over a background shear flow towards a sloping beach are being investigated. The classical shallow-water equations are extended to incorporate both a background shear flow and a linear beach profile, resulting in a non-reducible hyperbolic system. Nevertheless, it is shown how several changes of variables based on the hodograph transform may be used to transform the system into a linear equation which may be solved exactly using the method of separation of variables. This method can be used to investigate the run-up of a long wave on a planar beach including the development of the waterline.

  14. The linear and nonlinear stability of thread-annular flow.

    PubMed

    Walton, Andrew G

    2005-05-15

    The surgical technique of thread injection of medical implants is modelled by the axial pressure-gradient-driven flow between concentric cylinders with a moving core. The linear stability of the flow to both axisymmetric and asymmetric perturbations is analysed asymptotically at large Reynolds number, and computationally at finite Reynolds number. The existence of multiple regions of instability is predicted and their dependence upon radius ratio and thread velocity is determined. A discrepancy in critical Reynolds numbers and cut-off velocity is found to exist between experimental results and the predictions of the linear theory. In order to account for this discrepancy, the high Reynolds number, nonlinear stability properties of the flow are analysed and a nonlinear, equilibrium critical layer structure is found, which leads to an enhanced correction to the basic flow. The predictions of the nonlinear theory are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  15. Lattice Boltzmann method for linear oscillatory noncontinuum flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yong; Yap, Ying Wan; Sader, John E.

    2014-03-01

    Oscillatory gas flows are commonly generated by micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. Due to their small size and high operating frequencies, these devices often produce noncontinuum gas flows. Theoretical analysis of such flows requires solution of the unsteady Boltzmann equation, which can present a formidable challenge. In this article, we explore the applicability of the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method to such linear oscillatory noncontinuum flows; this method is derived from the linearized Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation. We formulate four linearized LB models in the frequency domain, based on Gaussian-Hermite quadratures of different algebraic precision (AP). The performance of each model is assessed by comparison to high-accuracy numerical solutions to the linearized Boltzmann-BGK equation for oscillatory Couette flow. The numerical results demonstrate that high even-order LB models provide superior performance over the greatest noncontinuum range. Our results also highlight intrinsic deficiencies in the current LB framework, which is incapable of capturing noncontinuum behavior at high oscillation frequencies, regardless of quadrature AP and the Knudsen number.

  16. Lattice Boltzmann method for linear oscillatory noncontinuum flows.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong; Yap, Ying Wan; Sader, John E

    2014-03-01

    Oscillatory gas flows are commonly generated by micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. Due to their small size and high operating frequencies, these devices often produce noncontinuum gas flows. Theoretical analysis of such flows requires solution of the unsteady Boltzmann equation, which can present a formidable challenge. In this article, we explore the applicability of the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method to such linear oscillatory noncontinuum flows; this method is derived from the linearized Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation. We formulate four linearized LB models in the frequency domain, based on Gaussian-Hermite quadratures of different algebraic precision (AP). The performance of each model is assessed by comparison to high-accuracy numerical solutions to the linearized Boltzmann-BGK equation for oscillatory Couette flow. The numerical results demonstrate that high even-order LB models provide superior performance over the greatest noncontinuum range. Our results also highlight intrinsic deficiencies in the current LB framework, which is incapable of capturing noncontinuum behavior at high oscillation frequencies, regardless of quadrature AP and the Knudsen number.

  17. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring.

    PubMed

    Van Nevel, S; Koetzsch, S; Proctor, C R; Besmer, M D; Prest, E I; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Knezev, A; Boon, N; Hammes, F

    2017-04-15

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically < 1% of all bacteria). FCM measurements are reproducible with relative standard deviations below 3% and can be available within 15 min of samples arriving in the laboratory. High throughput sample processing and complete automation are feasible and FCM analysis is arguably less expensive than HPC when measuring more than 15 water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mining routinely collected acute data to reveal non-linear relationships between nurse staffing levels and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Leary, Alison; Cook, Rob; Jones, Sarahjane; Smith, Judith; Gough, Malcolm; Maxwell, Elaine; Punshon, Geoffrey; Radford, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Nursing is a safety critical activity but not easily quantified. This makes the building of predictive staffing models a challenge. The aim of this study was to determine if relationships between registered and non-registered nurse staffing levels and clinical outcomes could be discovered through the mining of routinely collected clinical data. The secondary aim was to examine the feasibility and develop the use of ‘big data’ techniques commonly used in industry for this area of healthcare and examine future uses. Setting The data were obtained from 1 large acute National Health Service hospital trust in England. Routinely collected physiological, signs and symptom data from a clinical database were extracted, imported and mined alongside a bespoke staffing and outcomes database using Mathmatica V.10. The physiological data consisted of 120 million patient entries over 6 years, the bespoke database consisted of 9 years of daily data on staffing levels and safety factors such as falls. Primary and secondary outcomes To discover patterns in these data or non-linear relationships that would contribute to modelling. To examine feasibility of this technique in this field. Results After mining, 40 correlations (p<0.00005) emerged between safety factors, physiological data (such as the presence or absence of nausea) and staffing factors. Several inter-related factors demonstrated step changes where registered nurse availability appeared to relate to physiological parameters or outcomes such as falls and the management of symptoms. Data extraction proved challenging as some commercial databases were not built for extraction of the massive data sets they contain. Conclusions The relationship between staffing and outcomes appears to exist. It appears to be non-linear but calculable and a data-driven model appears possible. These findings could be used to build an initial mathematical model for acute staffing which could be further tested. PMID:27986733

  19. On the linear stability of compressible plane Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

    1991-01-01

    The linear stability of compressible plane Couette flow is investigated. The correct and proper basic velocity and temperature distributions are perturbed by a small amplitude normal mode disturbance. The full small amplitude disturbance equations are solved numerically at finite Reynolds numbers, and the inviscid limit of these equations is then investigated in some detail. It is found that instability can occur, although the stability characteristics of the flow are quite different from unbounded flows. The effects of viscosity are also calculated, asymptotically, and shown to have a stabilizing role in all the cases investigated. Exceptional regimes to the problem occur when the wavespeed of the disturbances approaches the velocity of either of the walls, and these regimes are also analyzed in some detail. Finally, the effect of imposing radiation-type boundary conditions on the upper (moving) wall (in place of impermeability) is investigated, and shown to yield results common to both bounded and unbounded flows.

  20. An improved higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, F. E.; Epton, M. A.; Johnson, F. T.; Magnus, A. E.; Rubbert, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow is described. Each panel, defined by four points on the surface, is divided into eight subpanels in such a way that all subpanel and panel edges are contiguous. By prescribing a quadratic distribution of the doublet on each subpanel, the doublet strength is made strictly continuous on the paneled surface. A linear source distribution is also used. Numerical results are smoother and in better agreement with experiment than the previous method with less strict continuity. A brief discussion of superinclined panels used to eliminate interior interference in nacelles is included.

  1. An improved higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, F. E.; Epton, M. A.; Johnson, F. T.; Magnus, A. E.; Rubbert, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow is described. Each panel, defined by four points on the surface, is divided into eight subpanels in such a way that all subpanel and panel edges are contiguous. By prescribing a quadratic distribution of the doublet on each subpanel, the doublet strength is made strictly continuous on the paneled surface. A linear source distribution is also used. Numerical results are smoother and in better agreement with experiment than the previous method with less strict continuity. A brief discussion of superinclined panels used to eliminate interior interference in nacelles is included.

  2. Linearized compressible-flow theory for sonic flight speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Lomax, Harvard; Spreiter, John R

    1950-01-01

    The partial differential equation for the perturbation velocity potential is examined for free-stream Mach numbers close to and equal to one. It is found that, under the assumptions of linearized theory, solutions can be found consistent with the theory for lifting-surface problems both in stationary three-dimensional flow and in unsteady two-dimensional flow. Several examples are solved including a three dimensional swept-back wing and two dimensional harmonically-oscillating wing, both for a free stream Mach number equal to one. Momentum relations for the evaluation of wave and vortex drag are also discussed. (author)

  3. Linearized simulation of flow over wind farms and complex terrains.

    PubMed

    Segalini, Antonio

    2017-04-13

    The flow over complex terrains and wind farms is estimated here by numerically solving the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are linearized around the unperturbed incoming wind profile, here assumed logarithmic. The Boussinesq approximation is used to model the Reynolds stress with a prescribed turbulent eddy viscosity profile. Without requiring the boundary-layer approximation, two new linear equations are obtained for the vertical velocity and the wall-normal vorticity, with a reduction in the computational cost by a factor of 8 when compared with a primitive-variables formulation. The presence of terrain elevation is introduced as a vertical coordinate shift, while forestry or wind turbines are included as body forces, without any assumption about the wake structure for the turbines. The model is first validated against some available experiments and simulations, and then a simulation of a wind farm over a Gaussian hill is performed. The speed-up effect of the hill is clearly beneficial in terms of the available momentum upstream of the crest, while downstream of it the opposite can be said as the turbines face a decreased wind speed. Also, the presence of the hill introduces an additional spanwise velocity component that may also affect the turbines' operations. The linear superposition of the flow over the hill and the flow over the farm alone provided a first estimation of the wind speed along the farm, with discrepancies of the same order of magnitude for the spanwise velocity. Finally, the possibility of using a parabolic set of equations to obtain the turbulent kinetic energy after the linearized model is investigated with promising results.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  4. Linearized simulation of flow over wind farms and complex terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalini, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    The flow over complex terrains and wind farms is estimated here by numerically solving the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are linearized around the unperturbed incoming wind profile, here assumed logarithmic. The Boussinesq approximation is used to model the Reynolds stress with a prescribed turbulent eddy viscosity profile. Without requiring the boundary-layer approximation, two new linear equations are obtained for the vertical velocity and the wall-normal vorticity, with a reduction in the computational cost by a factor of 8 when compared with a primitive-variables formulation. The presence of terrain elevation is introduced as a vertical coordinate shift, while forestry or wind turbines are included as body forces, without any assumption about the wake structure for the turbines. The model is first validated against some available experiments and simulations, and then a simulation of a wind farm over a Gaussian hill is performed. The speed-up effect of the hill is clearly beneficial in terms of the available momentum upstream of the crest, while downstream of it the opposite can be said as the turbines face a decreased wind speed. Also, the presence of the hill introduces an additional spanwise velocity component that may also affect the turbines' operations. The linear superposition of the flow over the hill and the flow over the farm alone provided a first estimation of the wind speed along the farm, with discrepancies of the same order of magnitude for the spanwise velocity. Finally, the possibility of using a parabolic set of equations to obtain the turbulent kinetic energy after the linearized model is investigated with promising results. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  5. Linear and radial flow targets for characterizing downhole flow in perforations

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, M. ); Tariq, S.M. ); Halleck, P.M. )

    1989-08-01

    Two types of sandstone targets are commonly used to test flow efficiency of shaped-charge jet perforations: linear targets, in which flow enters only the unperforated end of the cylindrical sample, and radial targets, in which flow enters through the end and sides of the sample. To determine which of these targets best represents downhole conditions, the flow distribution along the length of a perforation has been studied by three-dimensional (3D) finite-element analyses. Linear and radial laboratory targets have been compared with downhole perforations under varying conditions. For ideal perforations, the low-shot-density (LSD) case is adequately represented by the radial target, while the high-shot-density (HSD) case falls between the two targets. With realistic crushed and damaged zones, the HSD closely matches the linear target, and the LSD case falls between the two targets.

  6. Flow Localization in Non-Linear Random Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donev, Aleksandar; Phillip, Duxbury

    2001-03-01

    Local instabilities occur in the flow-potential characterstics of many complex materials, such as superconductors, dielectrics and porous materials. We describe a study of large networks in which each bond has a flow-potential characteristic having a threshold behavior. The thresholds vary randomly with values drawn from a variety of probability distributions. These large networks also exhibit a threshold-type response. The macroscopic onset occurs through a geometrical localization of the flow in the networks. For superconducting materials the critical current occurs when a surface of saturated arcs occurs transverse to the direction of flow. For porous materials on the other hand, at the macroscopic critical pressure a linear flow path begins across the network. We find these geometrical structures at the critical threshold using combinatorial graph algoritmhs (such as Dijkstra or push-relabel algorithms). The overall macroscopic problem is a convex, separable, minimal-cost network optimization problem. We have developed an efficient parallel algorithm for this problem and describe some preliminary results.

  7. Regulation of cyclic and linear electron flow in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Joliot, Pierre; Johnson, Giles N.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic electron flow is increasingly recognized as being essential in plant growth, generating a pH gradient across thylakoid membrane (ΔpH) that contributes to ATP synthesis and triggers the protective process of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) under stress conditions. Here, we report experiments demonstrating the importance of that ΔpH in protecting plants from stress and relating to the regulation of cyclic relative to linear flow. In leaves infiltrated with low concentrations of nigericin, which dissipates the ΔpH without significantly affecting the potential gradient, thereby maintaining ATP synthesis, the extent of NPQ was markedly lower, reflecting the lower ΔpH. At the same time, the photosystem (PS) I primary donor P700 was largely reduced in the light, in contrast to control conditions where increasing light progressively oxidized P700, due to down-regulation of the cytochrome bf complex. Illumination of nigericin-infiltrated leaves resulted in photoinhibition of PSII but also, more markedly, of PSI. Plants lacking ferredoxin (Fd) NADP oxidoreductase (FNR) or the polypeptide proton gradient regulation 5 (PGR5) also show reduction of P700 in the light and increased sensitivity to PSI photoinhibition, demonstrating that the regulation of the cytochrome bf complex (cyt bf) is essential for protection of PSI from light stress. The formation of a ΔpH is concluded to be essential to that regulation, with cyclic electron flow playing a vital, previously poorly appreciated role in this protective process. Examination of cyclic electron flow in plants with a reduced content of FNR shows that these antisense plants are less able to maintain a steady rate of this pathway. This reduction is suggested to reflect a change in the distribution of FNR from cyclic to linear flow, likely reflecting the formation or disassembly of FNR–cytochrome bf complex. PMID:21784980

  8. Regulation of cyclic and linear electron flow in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Joliot, Pierre; Johnson, Giles N

    2011-08-09

    Cyclic electron flow is increasingly recognized as being essential in plant growth, generating a pH gradient across thylakoid membrane (ΔpH) that contributes to ATP synthesis and triggers the protective process of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) under stress conditions. Here, we report experiments demonstrating the importance of that ΔpH in protecting plants from stress and relating to the regulation of cyclic relative to linear flow. In leaves infiltrated with low concentrations of nigericin, which dissipates the ΔpH without significantly affecting the potential gradient, thereby maintaining ATP synthesis, the extent of NPQ was markedly lower, reflecting the lower ΔpH. At the same time, the photosystem (PS) I primary donor P700 was largely reduced in the light, in contrast to control conditions where increasing light progressively oxidized P700, due to down-regulation of the cytochrome bf complex. Illumination of nigericin-infiltrated leaves resulted in photoinhibition of PSII but also, more markedly, of PSI. Plants lacking ferredoxin (Fd) NADP oxidoreductase (FNR) or the polypeptide proton gradient regulation 5 (PGR5) also show reduction of P700 in the light and increased sensitivity to PSI photoinhibition, demonstrating that the regulation of the cytochrome bf complex (cyt bf) is essential for protection of PSI from light stress. The formation of a ΔpH is concluded to be essential to that regulation, with cyclic electron flow playing a vital, previously poorly appreciated role in this protective process. Examination of cyclic electron flow in plants with a reduced content of FNR shows that these antisense plants are less able to maintain a steady rate of this pathway. This reduction is suggested to reflect a change in the distribution of FNR from cyclic to linear flow, likely reflecting the formation or disassembly of FNR-cytochrome bf complex.

  9. Linearized pipe flow to Reynolds number 10 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer, Á.; Trefethen, L. N.

    2003-03-01

    A Fourier-Chebyshev Petrov-Galerkin spectral method is described for high-accuracy computation of linearized dynamics for flow in an infinite circular pipe. Our code is unusual in being based on solenoidal velocity variables and in being written in MATLAB. Systematic studies are presented of the dependence of eigenvalues, transient growth factors, and other quantities on the axial and azimuthal wave numbers and the Reynolds number R for R ranging from 10 2 to the idealized (physically unrealizable) value 10 7. Implications for transition to turbulence are considered in the light of recent theoretical results of S.J. Chapman.

  10. Complex Dynamics of Compound Vesicles in Linear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levant, Michael; Steinberg, Victor

    2014-04-01

    We report first experimental observations of dynamics of compound vesicles in linear flow realized in a microfluidic four-roll mill. We show that while a compound vesicle undergoes the same main tank-treading, trembling (TR), and tumbling regimes, its dynamics are far richer and more complex than that of unilamellar vesicles. A new swinging motion of the inner vesicle is found in TR in accord with simulations. The inner and outer vesicles can exist simultaneously in different dynamical regimes and can undergo either synchronized or unsynchronized motions depending on the filling factor. A compound vesicle can be used as a physical model to study white blood cell dynamics in flow similar to a unilamellar vesicle used successfully to model anucleate cells.

  11. Linear theory of Richtmyer-Meshkov like flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouchuk, J. G.; Cobos-Campos, F.

    2017-01-01

    The hydrodynamic flow generated by rippled shocks and rarefactions (Richtmyer-Meshkov like flows) is presented. When a corrugated shock travels inside an homogeneous fluid, it leaves pressure, density and velocity perturbations in the compressed fluid. The velocity perturbations generated in the composed fluid are inherently rotational. Vorticity is an important quantity in order to determine the asymptotic rate of growth in the linear stage. The size of the strongest vortices generated by the rippled shocks is analyzed as a function of the shock Mach number for different boundary conditions downstream. Comparison to experiments and simulations is provided for the RMI in the shock and rarefaction reflected cases and the validity of the growth law {{\\psi}∞}+δ vi∞t is emphasized.

  12. Trends in the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention with the routine incorporation of fractional flow reserve in real practice.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Jung; Ahn, Jung-Min; Park, Gyung-Min; Cho, Young-Rak; Lee, Jong-Young; Kim, Won-Jang; Han, Seungbong; Kang, Soo-Jin; Park, Duk-Woo; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol Whan; Mintz, Gary S; Park, Seong-Wook

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the impact of the routine use of fractional flow reserve (FFR) on the practice and outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Between January 2008 and December 2011, the rate of FFR use during PCI increased from 1.9 to 50.7% after the introduction of routine FFR use (P < 0.001). A total of 5097 patients (2699 patients before and 2398 after the routine use of FFR) underwent PCI at an academic hospital in Korea; of those, stent implantation was deferred in 475 patients. We used propensity score (PS) matching to compare the rates of the primary endpoint [death, myocardial infarction (MI), or repeat revascularization] at 1 year the cohort before and after the routine use of FFR. In the PS-matched cohort (2178 pairs), the median number of lesions per patient was 2 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 1-2] before vs. 2 (IQR 1-2) after the routine FFR use (P = 0.68); the median number of stents implanted per patient was 2 (IQR 1-3) vs. 1 (IQR 1-2), respectively (P < 0.001). The rates of the primary endpoint at 1 year was significantly lower in patients after the routine FFR use vs. patients before the routine use of FFR (hazard ratio 0.55; 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.70; P < 0.001). This was primarily due to a reduction in peri-procedural MI and repeat revascularization. Routine measurement of FFR in daily practice appeared to be associated with less use of stents and an improvement in clinical outcomes. NCT 01788592.

  13. The Linear Study of Zonally Asymmetric Barotropic Flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zuojun

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The loss of orthogonality between unstable normal modes is general for any kind of eigen-analysis. In particular for an observed climatological mean flow this is found to be very significant for the development of perturbations. A small perturbation can have a very large projection onto the most unstable normal mode. The adjoint eigenmode is most efficient at exciting the normal mode. The "gain" on projection is described by the projectibility. In general, growthrate and frequency information should be augmented with the projectibility and eigenvectors should be augmented by the corresponding adjoint eigenvectors. For the 300mb January climatological mean flow, the maximum projectibility is found to be 7.8 and the adjoint mode corresponding to the most unstable normal mode has large amplitude over the subtropical Indian Ocean and southeast Asia. The adjoint mode when used as an initial perturbation yields an energy increase of a factor of 50 within 10 days even when a damping is added to make the system stable. Both the initial value problems and forcing problems show that the linear barotropic vorticity equation gives important ideas on atmospheric low-frequency variability and the role of the tropics. The sensitivity of linear analysis to details of flow is studied. It is found that the instability is much more sensitive to the strength of the zonal flow component than to that of the wave components. The variation of leading unstable modes with respect to the strength of the waves is easily traced, as it is also in a simple system which contains only a zonal flow and a wave. Instability depends upon the assumption of the maintenance of the basic state. The sensitivity to basic states maintained by a divergent wind forcing and an equivalent orographic forcing are studied. It is found that the instability is more sensitive to the equivalent orographic forcing than to the divergent wind forcing. The

  14. Asymptotic behavior of linearized pipe flow and implications for transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer, Alvaro; Trefethen, Lloyd N.

    2000-11-01

    A solenoidal Petrov-Galerkin MATLAB spectral code is described for high-accuracy computation of linearized dynamics for Hagen-Poiseuille flow in an infinite circular pipe. Systematic studies are presented of the dependence of eigenvalues, transient growth factors, and other quantities on the discretization parameters, the axial and azimuthal wave numbers, and the Reynolds number Re for Re ranging from 10^2 to the idealized (physically unrealizable) value 10^7. Implications for transition to turbulence are considered in the light of the recent theoretical results of S. J. Chapman. Our computations are in agreement with Chapman's predicted threshold amplitude for transition of order Re-3/2 as Re --> ∞.

  15. Unsteady linearized transonic flow analysis for slender bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, D. D.; Platzer, M. F.; Ruo, S. Y.

    1977-01-01

    An unsteady linearized formulation based on Oswatitsch-Keune's parabolic method is developed to analyze transonic flow past oscillating slender bodies. In contrast to the widely used integral transform method, it is shown that all solutions can be derived by a simpler method directly in the physical plane. By various expansion procedures, low-frequency solutions then are derived according to two clearly defined frequency ranges. Adams-Sears' iteration is employed to account for the second-order effects. Stability derivatives are compared with available theories and data. It is found that the derivatives depend more sensitively on thickness than on the reduced frequency. Finally, a critical assessment of the present method is given.

  16. Detection of linear ego-acceleration from optic flow.

    PubMed

    Festl, Freya; Recktenwald, Fabian; Yuan, Chunrong; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2012-07-20

    Human observers are able to estimate various ego-motion parameters from optic flow, including rotation, translational heading, time-to-collision (TTC), time-to-passage (TTP), etc. The perception of linear ego-acceleration or deceleration, i.e., changes of translational velocity, is less well understood. While time-to-passage experiments indicate that ego-acceleration is neglected, subjects are able to keep their (perceived) speed constant under changing conditions, indicating that some sense of ego-acceleration or velocity change must be present. In this paper, we analyze the relation of ego-acceleration estimates and geometrical parameters of the environment using simulated flights through cylindrical and conic (narrowing or widening) corridors. Theoretical analysis shows that a logarithmic ego-acceleration parameter, called the acceleration rate ρ, can be calculated from retinal acceleration measurements. This parameter is independent of the geometrical layout of the scene; if veridical ego-motion is known at some instant in time, acceleration rate allows updating of ego-motion without further depth-velocity calibration. Results indicate, however, that subjects systematically confuse ego-acceleration with corridor narrowing and ego-deceleration with corridor widening, while veridically judging ego-acceleration in straight corridors. We conclude that judgments of ego-acceleration are based on first-order retinal flow and do not make use of acceleration rate or retinal acceleration.

  17. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) ground cold flow test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph shows a ground cold flow test of the linear aerospike rocket engine mounted on the rear fuselage of an SR-71. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the aerodynamic flow with the engine plume could create drag; design refinements looked at minimizing this

  18. Study of real heating profiles in routine TLD readout: influences of temperature lags and non-linearities in the heating profiles on the glow curve shape.

    PubMed

    Stadtmann, H; Delgado, A; Gómez-Ros, J M

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a heating profile analysis using a commercial routine read-out system with non-contact hot nitrogen heating, using linear heating gas profiles. Glow curves of TLD-100 were analysed for different linear heating gas rates from 1 degree C x s(-1) to 30 degrees C x s(-1). The analysis of the individual peak maxima (Peak 2-5) leads to an approximation of the real heating profile in the TL detector. It was found that the real heating profile deviates strongly from linearity, and that the temperature lag between the heating gas and the detector reaches values up to some tens of degrees C. The consequences of this non-linearity, with respect to the resulting glow curves, are discussed in this paper. These results lead to a better understanding of the shape of routine TL glow curves and help to improve the use of glow curves analysis in routine services. In addition, a simple procedure is described which allows calculation of the real heating profile based on the heating gas temperature profile. This model shows a very good match between experimental data and calculated values.

  19. Simulating annual glacier flow with a linear reservoir model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Span, Norbert; Kuhn, Michael

    2003-05-01

    In this paper we present a numerical simulation of the observation that most alpine glaciers have reached peak velocities in the early 1980s followed by nearly exponential decay of velocity in the subsequent decade. We propose that similarity exists between precipitation and associated runoff hydrograph in a river basin on one side and annual mean specific mass balance of the accumulation area of alpine glaciers and ensuing changes in ice flow on the other side. The similarity is expressed in terms of a linear reservoir with fluctuating input where the year to year change of ice velocity is governed by two terms, a fraction of the velocity of the previous year as a recession term and the mean specific balance of the accumulation area of the current year as a driving term. The coefficients of these terms directly relate to the timescale, the mass balance/altitude profile, and the geometric scale of the glacier. The model is well supported by observations in the upper part of the glacier where surface elevation stays constant to within ±5 m over a 30 year period. There is no temporal trend in the agreement between observed and modeled horizontal velocities and no difference between phases of acceleration and phases of deceleration, which means that the model is generally valid for a given altitude on a given glacier.

  20. Linear stability of general magnetically insulated electron flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swegle, J. A.; Mendel, C. W., Jr.; Seidel, D. B.; Quintenz, J. P.

    1984-03-01

    A linear stability theory for magnetically insulated systems was formulated by linearizing the general 3-D, time dependent theory of Mendel, Seidel, and Slut. It is found that, case of electron trajectories which are nearly laminar, with only small transverse motion, several suggestive simplifications occur in the eigenvalue equations.

  1. ILUBCG2-11: Solution of 11-banded nonsymmetric linear equation systems by a preconditioned biconjugate gradient routine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-M.; Koniges, A. E.; Anderson, D. V.

    1989-10-01

    The biconjugate gradient method (BCG) provides an attractive alternative to the usual conjugate gradient algorithms for the solution of sparse systems of linear equations with nonsymmetric and indefinite matrix operators. A preconditioned algorithm is given, whose form resembles the incomplete L-U conjugate gradient scheme (ILUCG2) previously presented. Although the BCG scheme requires the storage of two additional vectors, it converges in a significantly lesser number of iterations (often half), while the number of calculations per iteration remains essentially the same.

  2. Linear stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1992-01-01

    A temporal stability analysis of compressible Taylor-Couette flow is presented. The viscous flow studied in this paper is contained between two concentric cylinders of infinite length, which are rotating with different angular velocities and are kept at different surface temperatures. The effects of differential rotation and temperature difference on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow are contrasted for a range of Mach numbers ranging from incompressible to Mach 3.0. The relative motion of the cylinders dramatically affects the characteristics of the Couette flow at the onset of instability. The flow is stabilized or destabilized depending upon the temperature ratio and speeds of the two cylinders. Independent of Mach number and temperature ratio, increasing Reynolds number generally promotes a destabilizing effect, indicating the inviscid nature of the Taylor-Couette flow.

  3. Linear stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1992-01-01

    A temporal stability analysis of compressible Taylor-Couette flow is presented. The viscous flow studied in this paper is contained between two concentric cylinders of infinite length, which are rotating with different angular velocities and are kept at different surface temperatures. The effects of differential rotation and temperature difference on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow are contrasted for a range of Mach numbers ranging from incompressible to Mach 3.0. The relative motion of the cylinders dramatically affects the characteristics of the Couette flow at the onset of instability. The flow is stabilized or destabilized depending upon the temperature ratio and speeds of the two cylinders. Independent of Mach number and temperature ratio, increasing Reynolds number generally promotes a destabilizing effect, indicating the inviscid nature of the Taylor-Couette flow.

  4. Leukoflow: multiparameter extended white blood cell differentiation for routine analysis by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    van de Geijn, Gert-Jan; van Rees, Vincent; van Pul-Bom, Natasja; Birnie, Erwin; Janssen, Hans; Pegels, Hans; Beunis, Marlène; Njo, Tjin

    2011-09-01

    Differential white blood cell count (dWBC) is a frequently used diagnostic tool. For most patient samples an automated blood counter produces a five-part differential count. If this dWBC does not meet pre-set criteria, microscopic dWBC is performed. Microscopy is labor intensive and requires sustained training of technicians. Inter-observer variation and statistical variation are significant, due to limited numbers of cells counted. Flow cytometry is a candidate reference method for dWBC. Advantages are immunological definitions and large number of measured cells. Our goal was to replace (part of) the microscopic dWBC by a flow cytometric dWBC, that gives additional information on blasts, myeloid precursors, and lymphocyte subsets. We designed a cocktail of antibodies (CD4, CD14, CD34, CD16, CD56, CD19, CD45, CD138, CD3, and CD71) combined with a gating strategy and flow cytometric protocol for easy identification of leukocyte populations. This assay, called Leukoflow, requires low sample volume, has few manual handling steps, and a potential turn-around-time shorter than 2 h. We determine percentages and absolute concentrations of at least 13 different cell populations. For quantification of normoblasts a second flow cytometric staining was designed. We compared microscopic dWBC with that of the automated blood counter and Leukoflow for normal and abnormal blood samples. Leukoflow results correlate well with the automated blood counter for leukocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Correlation with manual dWBC is lower. Blast counts reported by Leukoflow suffer less from inter-observer variation compared to manual dWBC. In addition to microscopic or cytometric dWBC-techniques T-lymphocytes, CD4-T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, NK-cells, myeloid progenitors, plasma cells, and blasts are determined by Leukoflow. These populations give potential useful clinical information and are subject for future studies focusing on the additional clinical

  5. An optimized method for routine HLA-B27 screening using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Hulstaert, F; Albrecht, J; Hannet, I; Lancaster, P; Buchner, L; Kunz, J; Falkenrodt, A; Tongio, M; De Keyser, F; Veys, E M

    1994-03-15

    Flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies are promising tools for HLA-antigen detection. Previous approaches have been hampered by the lack of a carefully standardized system for calibration and sample analysis. A new system for HLA-B27 screening was developed using a FACScan flow cytometer, software for automated calibration and analysis, calibration beads, and the anti-HLA-B27-FITC/anti-Leu4-PE (CD3) monoclonal antibodies. The median fluorescence channel result for the HLA-B27-FITC signal of CD3+ T lymphocytes is compared to a decision marker. Values lower than this threshold are read as HLA-B27 negative and those above are recommended for retesting with the classic microcytotoxicity assay on the presumption of HLA-B27 positivity. The anti-HLA-B27 antibody reacts with all six HLA-B27 subtypes and shows a weaker binding to HLA-B7. The screening test results were compared with those from the microcytotoxicity assay for HLA-typing in studies involving several European centers. The observed sensitivity was 100% (95% Cl:98.6-100) and the specificity was 97.4% (95% Cl: 96.4-98.3). Other performance studies verified the reproducibility and reliability of results obtained with the screening system.

  6. Understanding heat and fluid flow in linear GTA welds

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.

    1992-12-31

    A transient heat flow and fluid flow model was used to predict the development of gas tungsten arc (GTA) weld pools in 1.5 mm thick AISI 304 SS. The welding parameters were chosen so as to correspond to an earlier experimental study which produced high-resolution surface temperature maps. The motivation of the present study was to verify the predictive capability of the computational model. Comparison of the numerical predictions and experimental observations indicate good agreement.

  7. Understanding heat and fluid flow in linear GTA welds

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    A transient heat flow and fluid flow model was used to predict the development of gas tungsten arc (GTA) weld pools in 1.5 mm thick AISI 304 SS. The welding parameters were chosen so as to correspond to an earlier experimental study which produced high-resolution surface temperature maps. The motivation of the present study was to verify the predictive capability of the computational model. Comparison of the numerical predictions and experimental observations indicate good agreement.

  8. Enhancing the linear flow of fine granules through the addition of elongated particles

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiguo; Chen, Xueli; Xu, Yang; Liu, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Sandglasses have been used to record time for thousands of years because of their constant flow rates; however, they now are drawing attention for their substantial scientific importance and extensive industrial applications. The presence of elongated particles in a binary granular system is believed to result in undesired flow because their shape implies a larger resistance to flow. However, our experiments demonstrate that the addition of elongated particles can substantially reduce the flow fluctuation of fine granules and produce a stable linear flow similar to that in an hourglass. On the basis of experimental data and previous reports of flow dynamics, we observed that the linear flow is driven by the “needle particle effect,” including flow orientation, reduced agglomeration, and local perturbation. This phenomenon is observed in several binary granular systems, including fine granules and secondary elongated particles, which demonstrates that our simple method can be widely applied to the accurate measurement of granular flows in industry. PMID:26551736

  9. The linear stability of Hunt-Rayleigh-Bénard flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Tian-Yu; Liu, Chan; Ni, Ming-Jiu; Yang, Juan-Cheng

    2017-06-01

    The stability of a pressure driven flow in a duct heated from below and subjected to a vertical magnetic field (Hunt-Rayleigh-Bénard flow) is studied. We use the Chebyshev collocation approach to solve the eigenvalue problem for the small-amplitude perturbations. It is demonstrated that the magnetic field can stabilize the flow, while the temperature field can disturb the flow. There exists a threshold for the Hartmann number below which the growth rate changes with the Prandtl number non-monotonously (first increases and then decreases) with a critical Prandtl number for the maximum growth rate. By comparing the R e - α neutral curves at different Rayleigh numbers, we find that the critical Reynolds number decreases with the increase in the Rayleigh number, which has an obvious influence on the long-wave instability and a little influence on the short-wave instability. The dominant mode of the long-wave instability changes from the boundary layer instability to the inflectional instability with the increase in the growth rate, which forms a new flow map. We also compare the R a - α curves and find that the critical Rayleigh number decreases with the increase in the Reynolds number. The obtained results gain an insight into the flow stability affected by the temperature field and the magnetic field.

  10. Influence of routine assessment of fractional flow reserve on decision making during coronary interventions.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Fernando M; Silva, Expedito E R; Batista, Leonardo Alves; Ventura, Fábio Machado; Barrozo, Carlos Alberto Mussel; Pijls, Nico H J

    2007-02-15

    In complex coronary artery disease, it is sometimes difficult to determine which lesions are associated with reversible ischemia and should be stented. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an established objective methodology to indicate which lesions produce ischemia. Despite this, the selection of lesions to be stented is often based on the subjectively interpreted angiogram alone. The aim of this study in patients admitted for elective percutaneous intervention (PCI) was to evaluate the change in strategy if the decision to intervene was based on FFR measurement rather than on angiographic assessment. Two hundred fifty consecutive patients (471 arteries) scheduled for PCI were included in this study. All stenoses >or=50% by visual estimation and initially selected to be stented by 3 independent reviewers were assessed by FFR measurements. If FFR was <0.75, stenting was performed; if FFR was >or=0.75, no interventional treatment was given. Optimal pressure measurements were obtained in 452 lesions (96%). Diameter stenosis was 62 +/- 12%, and FFR was 0.67 +/- 0.17 for the entire group. In 68% of the stenoses, initial strategy as assessed from the angiogram was followed, and in 32%, there was a change in the planned approach based on FFR. In 48% of the patients, there was >or=1 lesion in which the treatment decision was changed after physiologic measurements. In conclusion, in this prospective, nonselective, but complete study representing the real world of PCI, 32% of the coronary stenoses and 48% of patients would have received a different treatment if the decision had been based on angiography only, stressing the utility of physiologic assessment in refining decision making during PCI.

  11. Two-Dimensional, Supersonic, Linearized Flow with Heat Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Harvard

    1959-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the forces on a thin supersonic wing underneath which the air is heated. The analysis is limited principally to linearized theory but nonlinear effects are considered. It is shown that significant advantages to external heating would exist if the heat were added well below and ahead of the wing.

  12. Linear stability and control of swept Hiemenz flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guegan, Alan; Schmid, Peter; Huerre, Patrick

    2004-11-01

    Perturbations at the leading edge of swept wings may feed the downstream flow and trigger early boundary layer transition. Control strategies focusing on the leading edge boundary layer may provide significant improvement of flow stability over the wing surface. To this end, a gradient-based optimization algorithm is implemented to find the perturbations that experience the highest energy growth in swept Hiemenz flow over a finite time interval, under the Görtler-Hämmerlin assumption. A two-dimensional mechanism resembling the Orr-mechanism in the spanwise-wall-normal plane is shown to generate energy growth of up to three orders of magnitude for a Reynolds number Re=2000 and a spanwise wavenumber k=0.1. A similar algorithm is used to compute the wall-normal blowing/sucking sequence that most efficiently damps the energy amplification. The maximum energy is then found to decrease by more than 70%.

  13. Linear coupling of acoustic and cyclotron waves in plasma flows

    SciTech Connect

    Rogava, Andria; Gogoberidze, Grigol

    2005-05-15

    It is found that in magnetized electrostatic plasma flows the velocity shear couples ion-acoustic waves with ion-cyclotron waves and leads, under favorable conditions, to their efficient reciprocal transformations. It is shown that in a two-dimensional setup this coupling has a remarkable feature: it is governed by equations that are mathematically equal to the ones describing coupling of sound waves with internal gravity waves [Rogava and Mahajan, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1185 (1997)] in neutral fluids. For flows with low shearing rates a fully analytic, quantitative description of the coupling efficiency, based on a noteworthy quantum-mechanical analogy, is given and transformation coefficients are calculated.

  14. Linearized numerical solution method for rotating coaxial disk flows at moderate Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Delgado, A.; Rath, H. J.

    A linearized solution method for rotating coaxial disk flows at moderate Reynolds numbers is discussed below. The analytical or numerical linearized similarity solutions agree with the nonlinear ones for infinite disk flows of the Stewartson-type as well as of the Batchelor-type with a small difference between angular velocities of both the disks. Over the inner portion of shrouded flows the computed results of the linearized partial differential equations have, overall, a good agreement with the solutions of the nonlinear von Karman similarity one and also with the complete Navier-Stokes solution.

  15. A higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, F. E.; Epton, M. A.; Johnson, F. T.; Magnus, A. E.; Rubbert, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The basic integral equations of linearized supersonic theory for an advanced supersonic panel method are derived. Methods using only linear varying source strength over each panel or only quadratic doublet strength over each panel gave good agreement with analytic solutions over cones and zero thickness cambered wings. For three dimensional bodies and wings of general shape, combined source and doublet panels with interior boundary conditions to eliminate the internal perturbations lead to a stable method providing good agreement experiment. A panel system with all edges contiguous resulted from dividing the basic four point non-planar panel into eight triangular subpanels, and the doublet strength was made continuous at all edges by a quadratic distribution over each subpanel. Superinclined panels were developed and tested on s simple nacelle and on an airplane model having engine inlets, with excellent results.

  16. Prediction of Undsteady Flows in Turbomachinery Using the Linearized Euler Equations on Deforming Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, William S.; Hall, Kenneth C.

    1994-01-01

    A linearized Euler solver for calculating unsteady flows in turbomachinery blade rows due to both incident gusts and blade motion is presented. The model accounts for blade loading, blade geometry, shock motion, and wake motion. Assuming that the unsteadiness in the flow is small relative to the nonlinear mean solution, the unsteady Euler equations can be linearized about the mean flow. This yields a set of linear variable coefficient equations that describe the small amplitude harmonic motion of the fluid. These linear equations are then discretized on a computational grid and solved using standard numerical techniques. For transonic flows, however, one must use a linear discretization which is a conservative linearization of the non-linear discretized Euler equations to ensure that shock impulse loads are accurately captured. Other important features of this analysis include a continuously deforming grid which eliminates extrapolation errors and hence, increases accuracy, and a new numerically exact, nonreflecting far-field boundary condition treatment based on an eigenanalysis of the discretized equations. Computational results are presented which demonstrate the computational accuracy and efficiency of the method and demonstrate the effectiveness of the deforming grid, far-field nonreflecting boundary conditions, and shock capturing techniques. A comparison of the present unsteady flow predictions to other numerical, semi-analytical, and experimental methods shows excellent agreement. In addition, the linearized Euler method presented requires one or two orders-of-magnitude less computational time than traditional time marching techniques making the present method a viable design tool for aeroelastic analyses.

  17. The linear stability of plane stagnation-point flow against general disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brattkus, K.; Davis, S. H.

    1991-02-01

    The linear-stability theory of plane stagnation-point flow against an infinite flat plate is re-examined. Disturbances are generalized from those of Goertler type to include other types of variations along the plate. It is shown that Hiemenz flow is linearly stable and that the Goertler-type modes are those that decay slowest. This work then rationalizes the use of such self-similar disturbances on Hiemenz flow and shows how questions of disturbance structure can be approached on other self-similar flows.

  18. The linear stability of plane stagnation-point flow against general disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brattkus, K.; Davis, S. H.

    1991-01-01

    The linear-stability theory of plane stagnation-point flow against an infinite flat plate is re-examined. Disturbances are generalized from those of Goertler type to include other types of variations along the plate. It is shown that Hiemenz flow is linearly stable and that the Goertler-type modes are those that decay slowest. This work then rationalizes the use of such self-similar disturbances on Hiemenz flow and shows how questions of disturbance structure can be approached on other self-similar flows.

  19. The linear stability of plane stagnation-point flow against general disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brattkus, K.; Davis, S. H.

    1991-01-01

    The linear-stability theory of plane stagnation-point flow against an infinite flat plate is re-examined. Disturbances are generalized from those of Goertler type to include other types of variations along the plate. It is shown that Hiemenz flow is linearly stable and that the Goertler-type modes are those that decay slowest. This work then rationalizes the use of such self-similar disturbances on Hiemenz flow and shows how questions of disturbance structure can be approached on other self-similar flows.

  20. Linear flow dynamics near a T/NT interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Miguel; Silva, Carlos

    2011-11-01

    The characteristics of a suddenly-inserted T/NT interface separating a homogeneous and isotropic shear-free turbulence region from a non-turbulent flow region are investigated using rapid distortion theory (RDT), taking full account of viscous effects. Profiles of the velocity variances, TKE, viscous dissipation rate, turbulence length scales, and pressure statistics are derived, showing very good agreement with DNS. The normalized inviscid flow statistics at the T/NT interface do not depend on the form of the assumed TKE spectrum. In the non-turbulent region, where the flow is irrotational (except within a thin viscous boundary layer), the dissipation rate decays as z-6, where z is distance from the T/NT interface. The mean pressure exhibits a decrease towards the turbulence due to the associated velocity fluctuations, consistent with the generation of a mean entrainment velocity. The vorticity variance and dissipation rate display large maxima at the T/NT interface due to the existing inviscid discontinuities of the tangential velocity, and these maxima are quantitatively related to the thickness of the viscous boundary layer (VBL). At equilibrium, RDT suggests that the thickness of the T/NT interface scales on the Kolmogorov microscale. We acknowledge the financial support of FCT under Project PTDC/EME-MFE/099636/2008.

  1. Investigation of linear coupling between single-event blood flow responses and interictal discharges in a model of experimental epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Vanzetta, Ivo; Flynn, Corey; Ivanov, Anton I; Bernard, Christophe; Bénar, Christian G

    2010-06-01

    A successful outcome of epilepsy neurosurgery relies on an accurate delineation of the epileptogenic region to be resected. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) would allow doing this noninvasively at high spatial resolution. However, a clear, quantitative description of the relationship between hemodynamic changes and the underlying epileptiform neuronal activity is still missing, thereby preventing the systematic use of fMRI for routine epilepsy surgery planning. To this aim, we used a local epilepsy model to record simultaneously cerebral blood flow (CBF) with laser Doppler (LD) and local field potentials (LFP) in rat frontal cortex. CBF responses to individual interictal-like spikes were large and robust. Their amplitude correlated linearly with spike amplitude. Moreover, the CBF response added linearly in time over a large range of spiking rates. CBF responses could thus be predicted by a linear model of the kind currently used for the interpretation of fMRI data, but including also the spikes' amplitudes as additional information. Predicted and measured CBF responses matched accurately. For high spiking frequencies (above approximately 0.2 Hz), the responses saturated but could eventually recover, indicating the presence of multiple neurovascular coupling mechanisms, which might act at different spatiotemporal scales. Spatially, CBF responses peaked at the center of epileptic activity and displayed a spatial specificity at least as good as the millimeter. These results suggest that simultaneous electroencephalographic and blood flow-based fMRI recordings should be suitable for the noninvasive precise localization of hyperexcitable regions in epileptic patients candidate for neurosurgery.

  2. The routine leukocyte differential flow cytometry HematoFlow™ method: A new flagging system for automatic validation.

    PubMed

    Allou, Kaoutar; Vial, Jean-Philippe; Béné, Marie C; Lacombe, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The complete blood cell count and white blood cell differential are the first step in the biological diagnosis of hematological diseases. Both are currently performed by automated instruments which control data and produce alerts. If such flags are activated, the automated differential cannot be validated and the operator must activate a visual blood smear review. Microscopic examination is still today the reference method despite its lack of sensitivity and reproducibility. The HematoFlow™ (Beckman Coulter) system is the first flow cytometry commercialized method designed for the routine differential. Using six markers in five colors and an automated gating strategy, it provides differentials proven to be reliable for 17 leukocyte subpopulations detection. Relying first on a retrospective analysis of 6,462 blood samples processed by HematoFlow™, thresholds were determined to detect the presence of immature granulocytes and/or blast cells. All possible gating strategy misclassifications of leukocyte subpopulations were then summarized in a systematic nomenclature leading to the development of an original flag system based on the detection of aberrant localization of cell events in specific new bivariate histograms. Ultimately, more than 50% of the results could be automatically validated using the HematoFlow™ system, without any false negative, thereby dramatically contributing to an important decrease of technicians' workload. Moreover a noticeable help was given for smear review interpretation and new immunological flags led to the confirmation of blood disease after classical immunophenotyping. These results were confirmed in a second prospective study including 15,335 cases, where more than 50% of the results were automatically validated by this new flag system. MFC stands as being more and more essential for analyzing differentials in routine and this new flag system could greatly improve its implementation. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry

  3. Non-linear effects on solute transfer between flowing water and a sediment bed.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Makoto; Stefan, Heinz G

    2011-11-15

    A previously developed model of periodic pore water flow in space and time, and associated solute transport in a stream bed of fine sand is extended to coarse sand and fine gravel. The pore water flow immediately below the sediment/water interface becomes intermittently a non-Darcy flow. The periodic pressure and velocity fluctuations considered are induced by near-bed coherent turbulent motions in the stream flow; they penetrate from the sediment/water interface into the sediment pore system and are described by a wave number (χ) and a period (T) that are given as functions of the shear velocity (U(∗)) between the flowing water and the sediment bed. The stream bed has a flat surface without bed forms. The flow field in the sediment pore system is described by the continuity equation and a resistance law that includes both viscous (Darcy) and non-linear (inertial) effects. Simulation results show that non-linear (inertial) effects near the sediment/water interface increase flow resistance and reduce mean flow velocities. Compared to pure Darcy flow, non-linear (inertial) effects reduce solute exchange rates between overlying water and the sediment bed but only by a moderate amount (less than 50%). Turbulent coherent flow structures in the stream flow enhance solute transfer in the pore system of a stream bed compared to pure molecular diffusion, but by much less than standing surface waves or bed forms.

  4. Stochastic Estimation and Non-Linear Wall-Pressure Sources in a Separating/Reattaching Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naguib, A.; Hudy, L.; Humphreys, W. M., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous wall-pressure and PIV measurements are used to study the conditional flow field associated with surface-pressure generation in a separating/reattaching flow established over a fence-with-splitter-plate geometry. The conditional flow field is captured using linear and quadratic stochastic estimation based on the occurrence of positive and negative pressure events in the vicinity of the mean reattachment location. The results shed light on the dominant flow structures associated with significant wall-pressure generation. Furthermore, analysis based on the individual terms in the stochastic estimation expansion shows that both the linear and non-linear flow sources of the coherent (conditional) velocity field are equally important contributors to the generation of the conditional surface pressure.

  5. Linear stability analysis of flows in a grooved channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Floryan, Jerzy Maciej

    2015-11-01

    It is known that longitudinal grooves which are parallel to the flow direction may either stabilize or destabilize the travelling wave instability in a pressure-gradient-driven channel flow depending on the groove wave number. These waves reduce to the classical Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves in the smooth channel limit. It is shown that another class of travelling wave instability exists if grooves with sufficiently high amplitude and proper wavelengths are used. It is demonstrated that the new instability is driven by inviscid mechanisms, with the disturbance motion having the form of a wave propagating in the streamwise direction with the phase speed approximately four times larger than the TS wave speed and with its streamwise wavelength being approximately twice the spanwise groove wavelength. The instability motion is concentrated mostly in the middle of the channel and has a primarily planar character, i.e. the dominant velocity components are parallel to the walls. A significant reduction of the corresponding critical Reynolds number can be achieved by increasing the groove amplitude. This mode reduces to the highly attenuated Squire mode in the smooth channel limit. This work has been carried out with support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada.

  6. Influence of non-linear flow on the pumping tests in karstified and fractured aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas-Karay, Gyöngyi; Birk, Steffen; Vasvári, Vilmos; Hajnal, Géza; Mayaud, Cyril

    2017-04-01

    When evaluating pumping test data in karstified or fractured aquifers remarkable deviations from the theoretically estimated curves can be observed. The assumptions of the commonly used evaluation methods (Theis, Cooper-Jacob, Papadopulus-Cooper) usually do not fit to properties in hard rock aquifers, where often non-linear, heterogeneous and non-isotropic conditions can appear. The analysis of the effect of these conditions helps to better evaluate the pumping test data and to avoid the mistakes caused by the use of traditional methods. In this study the influence of non-linear flow was analysed based on field data and computer-generated time series. Using Non-Linear Flow Process for MODFLOW (Mayaud, C., Walker, P., Hergarten, S. and Birk, S., 2015, Nonlinear Flow Process: A New Package to Compute Nonlinear Flow in MODFLOW. Groundwater, 53: 645-650) allowed the simulation of non-linear flow in aquifers based on the Forchheimer equation. The analysis showed that the detection of non-linear flow can be subserved by separate evaluation of drawdown and recovery time series or by using additional observation wells. Recovery data and data from observation wells far enough from the pumped well are not disturbed by nonlinearity; the comparison with drawdown data of observation wells and the pumped well therefore can show whether or not non-linear flow appears. In particular, proper results of aquifer parameters can be obtained from recovery data. If only drawdown data from the pumped well are available it is helpful to replace the losses caused by non-linear flow by non-linear well losses (see also Mathias, S. A., and L. C. Todman, 2010, Step-drawdown tests and the Forchheimer equation, Water Resour. Res., 46, W07514). The applicability of the Jacob's step-drawdown-test evaluation in Forchheimer-flow cases is demonstrated by comparison with the numerical non-linear flow model. Inaccurate parameter estimates resulting from neglecting non-linear flow demonstrate the

  7. Application of Crunch-Flow Routines to Constrain Present and Past Carbon Fluxes at Gas-Hydrate Bearing Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Marta

    2014-01-31

    In November 2012, Oregon State University initiated the project entitled: Application of Crunch-Flow routines to constrain present and past carbon fluxes at gas-hydrate bearing sites. Within this project we developed Crunch-Flow based modeling modules that include important biogeochemical processes that need to be considered in gas hydrate environments. Our modules were applied to quantify carbon cycling in present and past systems, using data collected during several DOE-supported drilling expeditions, which include the Cascadia margin in US, Ulleung Basin in South Korea, and several sites drilled offshore India on the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. Specifically, we completed modeling efforts that: 1) Reproduce the compositional and isotopic profiles observed at the eight drilled sites in the Ulleung Basin that constrain and contrast the carbon cycling pathways at chimney (high methane flux) and non-chimney sites (low methane, advective systems); 2) Simulate the Ba record in the sediments to quantify the past dynamics of methane flux in the southern Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia margin; and 3) Provide quantitative estimates of the thickness of individual mass transport deposits (MTDs), time elapsed after the MTD event, rate of sulfate reduction in the MTD, and time required to reach a new steady state at several sites drilled in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) Basin off India. In addition we developed a hybrid model scheme by coupling a home-made MATLAB code with CrunchFlow to address the methane transport and chloride enrichment at the Ulleung Basins chimney sites, and contributed the modeling component to a study focusing on pore-scale controls on gas hydrate distribution in sediments from the Andaman Sea. These efforts resulted in two manuscripts currently under review, and contributed the modeling component of another pare, also under review. Lessons learned from these efforts are the basis of a mini-workshop to be held at Oregon State University (Feb 2014) to instruct

  8. Calculation of three-dimensional unsteady flows in turbomachinery using the linearized harmonic Euler equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, K.C.; Lorence, C.B. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science)

    1993-10-01

    An efficient three-dimensional Euler analysis of unsteady flows in turbomachinery is presented. The unsteady flow is modeled as the sun of a steady or mean flow field plus a harmonically varying small perturbation flow. The linearized Euler equations, which describe the small perturbation unsteady flow, are found to be linear, variable coefficient differential equations whose coefficients depend on the mean flow. A pseudo-time time-marching finite-volume Lax-Wendroff scheme is used to discretize and solve the linearized equations for the unknown perturbation flow quantities. Local time stepping and multiple-grid acceleration techniques are used to speed convergence. For unsteady flow problems involving blade motion, a harmonically deforming computational grid, which conforms to the motion of the vibrating blades, is used to eliminate large error-producing extrapolation terms that would otherwise appear in the airfoil surface boundary conditions and in the evaluation of the unsteady surface pressure. Results are presented for both linear and annular cascade geometries, and for the latter, both rotating and nonrotating blade row.

  9. The Hagen-Poiseuille, Plane Couette and Poiseuille Flows Linear Instability and Rogue Waves Excitation Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chefranov, Sergey; Chefranov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Linear hydrodynamic stability theory for the Hagen-Poiseuille (HP) flow yields a conclusion of infinitely large threshold Reynolds number, Re, value. This contradiction to the observation data is bypassed using assumption of the HP flow instability having hard type and possible for sufficiently high-amplitude disturbances. HP flow disturbance evolution is considered by nonlinear hydrodynamic stability theory. Similar is the case of the plane Couette (PC) flow. For the plane Poiseuille (PP) flow, linear theory just quantitatively does not agree with experimental data defining the threshold Reynolds number Re= 5772 ( S. A. Orszag, 1971), more than five-fold exceeding however the value observed, Re=1080 (S. J. Davies, C. M. White, 1928). In the present work, we show that the linear stability theory conclusions for the HP and PC on stability for any Reynolds number and evidently too high threshold Reynolds number estimate for the PP flow are related with the traditional use of the disturbance representation assuming the possibility of separation of the longitudinal (along the flow direction) variable from the other spatial variables. We show that if to refuse from this traditional form, conclusions on the linear instability for the HP and PC flows may be obtained for finite Reynolds numbers (for the HP flow, for Re>704, and for the PC flow, for Re>139). Also, we fit the linear stability theory conclusion on the PP flow to the experimental data by getting an estimate of the minimal threshold Reynolds number as Re=1040. We also get agreement of the minimal threshold Reynolds number estimate for PC with the experimental data of S. Bottin, et.al., 1997, where the laminar PC flow stability threshold is Re = 150. Rogue waves excitation mechanism in oppositely directed currents due to the PC flow linear instability is discussed. Results of the new linear hydrodynamic stability theory for the HP, PP, and PC flows are published in the following papers: 1. S.G. Chefranov, A

  10. Iterative solution of large, sparse linear systems on a static data flow architecture - Performance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, D. A.; Patrick, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of static data flow architectures to the iterative solution of sparse linear systems of equations is investigated. An analytic performance model of a static data flow computation is developed. This model includes both spatial parallelism, concurrent execution in multiple PE's, and pipelining, the streaming of data from array memories through the PE's. The performance model is used to analyze a row partitioned iterative algorithm for solving sparse linear systems of algebraic equations. Based on this analysis, design parameters for the static data flow architecture as a function of matrix sparsity and dimension are proposed.

  11. Linear stability of a nonorthogonal axisymmetric stagnation flow on a rotating cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaouche, Mustapha; Bouda, Faïçal Nait; Sadat, Hamou

    2006-12-01

    The present analysis deals with the onset of instability in an axisymmetric stagnation flow obliquely impinging on a uniformly rotating circular cylinder. The basic flow is described by an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, discovered by Weidmann and Putkaradze [Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids 22, 123 (2003)]. An eigenvalue problem for the linear stability is formulated, regardless of the free stream obliqueness, and then solved numerically by means of a collocation method using Laguerre's polynomials. It is established that the basic stagnation flow is stable for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers. This is in conformity with the unconditional linear stability of two-dimensional Hiemenz stagnation flow. Instability occurs for Reynolds numbers smaller than some threshold value that increases with the rotation rate of the cylinder. At criticality, the flow undergoes a Hopf bifurcation, leading then to an oscillatory secondary motion.

  12. Mechanical picture of the linear transient growth of vortical perturbations in incompressible smooth shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagelishvili, George; Hau, Jan-Niklas; Khujadze, George; Oberlack, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The linear dynamics of perturbations in smooth shear flows covers the transient exchange of energies between (1) the perturbations and the basic flow and (2) different perturbations modes. Canonically, the linear exchange of energies between the perturbations and the basic flow can be described in terms of the Orr and the lift-up mechanisms, correspondingly for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) perturbations. In this paper the mechanical basis of the linear transient dynamics is introduced and analyzed for incompressible plane constant shear flows, where we consider the dynamics of virtual fluid particles in the framework of plane perturbations (i.e., perturbations with plane surfaces of constant phase) for the 2D and 3D case. It is shown that (1) the formation of a pressure perturbation field is the result of countermoving neighboring sets of incompressible fluid particles in the flow, (2) the keystone of the energy exchange mechanism between the basic flow and perturbations is the collision of fluid particles with the planes of constant pressure in accordance with the classical theory of elastic collision of particles with a rigid wall, making the pressure field the key player in this process, (3) the interplay of the collision process and the shear flow kinematics describes the transient growth of plane perturbations and captures the physics of the growth, and (4) the proposed mechanical picture allows us to reconstruct the linearized Euler equations in spectral space with a time-dependent shearwise wave number, the linearized Euler equations for Kelvin modes. This confirms the rigor of the presented analysis, which, moreover, yields a natural generalization of the proposed mechanical picture of the transient growth to the well-established linear phenomenon of vortex-wave-mode coupling.

  13. Linear Instability of a Uni-Directional Transversely Sheared Mean Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wundrow, David W.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of spanwise-periodic mean-flow distortions (i.e. streamwise-vortex structures) on the evolution of small-amplitude, single-frequency instability waves in an otherwise two-dimensional shear flow is investigated. The streamwise-vortex structures are taken to be just weak enough so that the spatially growing instability waves behave (locally) like linear perturbations about a uni-directional transversely sheared mean flow. Numerical solutions are computed and discussed for both the mean flow and the instability waves. The influence of the streamwise-vortex wavelength on the properties of the most rapidly growing instability wave is also discussed.

  14. Motor Flow Instabilities - Part 2. Intrinsic Linear Stability of the Flow Induced by Wall Injection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    omitted boundary condition is satisfied. Code written in Matlab A small program written using the commercial software Matlab is given below. The five...Representation of five Matlab routines for solving a stability problem with the spectral collocation method either with a shooting method (upper line...pour l’écoulement dans un conduit plan à parois débitantes. % perturbation en forme de mode normal, % formulation en fonction de courant % % global

  15. Numerical simulation of blood flow through a capillary using a non-linear viscoelastic model.

    PubMed

    Shariatkhah, Amin; Norouzi, Mahmood; Nobari, Mohammad Reza Heyrani

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a periodic developing blood flow in a capillary is simulated using a non-linear viscoelastic model for the first time. Here, the Giesekus model is used as the constitutive equation, and based on the experimental data, the best value for the mobility factor and zero shear rate viscosity are derived. The numerical solution of the problem is obtained using the finite volume method. The algorithm of the solution is pressure implicit with splitting of operators (PISO). The simulation carried out using the Giesekus, Oldroyd-B and Newtonian models and the results indicate that the Giesekus model presents a more accurate solution for the stress and velocity fields than the Newtonian and Oldroyd-B models. The previous studies on this problem were restricted to the linear and quasi-linear viscoelastic models. It is shown that only non-linear viscoelastic models can accurately describe the experimental data of unsteady blood flow in capillaries.

  16. Thermocapillary-Driven Convection in a Thin Liquid Layer with a Inclined Temperature Gradient in Linear and Return Flow Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Takafumi; Ueno, Ichiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    Thermocapillary-driven convection in a thin liquid layer of up to 2mm in depth heated from below was experimentally investigated. Temperature gradient inclined to the free surface was applied to the liquid layer. Two different base flows were considered; linear- and return flows. In the case of the return base flow, five stationary flow patterns were observed depending upon the relative magnitude of the perpendicular and parallel temperature gradients; that is, stationary and flowing Benard cellular patterns, streak convection, horizontal circulation without upflow and Stagnation. In the linear flow case, also, quite similar flow patterns were observed despite of the difference in base flow structure. The streak convection indicated the same flow structure as the longitudinal roll predicted by Smith& Davis (1983) in their linear flow case. Flow pattern maps were obtained and compared for the two base flows.

  17. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part i: Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    1999-08-01

    The study presented is an investigation of the non-linear dynamics and stability of simply supported, circular cylindrical shells containing inviscid incompressible fluid flow. Non-linearities due to large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using the non-linear Donnell's shallow shell theory, with account taken of the effect of viscous structural damping. Linear potential flow theory is applied to describe the fluid-structure interaction. The system is discretiszd by Galerkin's method, and is investigated by using a model involving seven degrees of freedom, allowing for travelling wave response of the shell and shell axisymmetric contraction. Two different boundary conditions are applied to the fluid flow beyond the shell, corresponding to: (i) infinite baffles (rigid extensions of the shell), and (ii) connection with a flexible wall of infinite extent in the longitudinal direction, permitting solution by separation of variables; they give two different kinds of dynamical behaviour of the system, as a consequence of the fact that axisymmetric contraction, responsible for the softening non-linear dynamical behaviour of shells, is not allowed if the fluid flow beyond the shell is constrained by rigid baffles. Results show that the system loses stability by divergence.

  18. Numerical solutions of the linearized Euler equations for unsteady vortical flows around lifting airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.; Atassi, Hafiz M.

    1990-01-01

    A linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis is presented for unsteady, subsonic vortical flows around lifting airfoils. The analysis fully accounts for the distortion effects of the nonuniform mean flow on the imposed vortical disturbances. A frequency domain numerical scheme which implements this linearized approach is described, and numerical results are presented for a large variety of flow configurations. The results demonstrate the effects of airfoil thickness, angle of attack, camber, and Mach number on the unsteady lift and moment of airfoils subjected to periodic vortical gusts. The results show that mean flow distortion can have a very strong effect on the airfoil unsteady response, and that the effect depends strongly upon the reduced frequency, Mach number, and gust wave numbers.

  19. Subcritical transition in plane Poiseuille flow as a linear instability process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roizner, Federico; Karp, Michael; Cohen, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a transition scenario is demonstrated, in which most of the stages are followed analytically. The transition is initiated by the linear transient growth mechanism in plane Poiseuille flow subjected to an infinitesimally small secondary disturbance. A novel analytical approximation of the linear transient growth mechanism enables us to perform a secondary linear stability analysis of the modified base-flow. Two possible routes to transition are highlighted here, both correspond to a small secondary disturbance superimposed on a linear transient growth. The first scenario is initiated by four decaying odd normal modes which form a counter-rotating vortex pair; the second is initiated by five even decaying modes which form a pair of counter-rotating pairs. The approximation of the linear transient growth stage by a combination of minimal number of modes allows us to follow the transition stages analytically by employing the multiple time scale method. In particular, the secondary instability stage is followed analytically using linear tools, and is verified by obtaining transition in a direct numerical simulation initiated by conditions dictated by the transient growth analytical expressions. Very good agreement is observed, verifying the theoretical model. The similarities between the two transition routes are discussed and the results are compared with similar results obtained for plane Couette flow.

  20. Competition between linear and cyclic electron flow in plants deficient in Photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Hald, Simon; Pribil, Mathias; Leister, Dario; Gallois, Patrick; Johnson, Giles N

    2008-09-01

    Photosynthetic electron transport can involve either a linear flow from water to NADP, via Photosystems (PS) II and I or a cyclic flow just involving PSI. Little is known about factors regulating the relative flow through each of these pathways. We have examined photosynthetic electron transport through each system in plants of Arabidopsis thaliana in which either the PSI-D1 or PSI-E1 subunits of PSI have been knocked out. In both cases, this results in an imbalance in the turnover of PSI and PSII, such that PSII electron transport is limited by PSI turnover. Phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) and its migration to PSI is enhanced but only partially reversible and not sufficient to balance photosystem turnover. In spite of this, cyclic electron flow is able to compete efficiently with PSI across a range of conditions. In dark-adapted leaves, the efficiency of cyclic relative to linear flow induced by far-red light is increased, implying that the limiting step of cyclic flow lies in the re-injection of electrons into the electron transport chain. Illumination of leaves with white light resulted in transient induction of a significant non-photochemical quenching in knockout plants which is probably high energy state quenching induced by cyclic electron flow. At high light and at low CO(2), non-photochemical quenching was greater in the knockout plants than in the wildtype. Comparison of PSI and PSII turnover under such conditions suggested that this is generated by cyclic electron flow around PSI. We conclude that, when the concentration of PSI is limiting, cyclic electron flow is still able to compete effectively with linear flow to maintain a high DeltapH to regulate photosynthesis.

  1. Nonlinear behavior of weakly unstable linear modes in plasmas with aligned equilibrium mass flow

    SciTech Connect

    Peredo, M.; Tataronis, J.A. )

    1990-09-01

    The nonlinear evolution of weakly unstable linear magnetohydrodynamic waves in plasma configurations characterized by equilibrium mass flow aligned parallel to the magnetic field is investigated. The analysis is based on field representations expressed as expansions in Fourier harmonics and computation of modifications to the linear theory (first harmonic) arising from the nonlinear coupling between the zeroth and second harmonics. It is found that Landau's equation governs the nonlinear evolution of the system. A correction to the linearized theory appears at third order in the mode amplitude and is proportional to the linear growth rate. Furthermore, the conditions under which the nonlinearities provide a saturation mechanism to limit the growth of the linear instabilities is explored. Finally, this saturation phenomenon for a specific configuration consisting of a Z pinch with a small axial magnetic field is illustrated.

  2. Trends in Outcomes of Revascularization for Left Main Coronary Disease or Three-Vessel Disease With the Routine Incorporation of Fractional Flow Reserve in Real Practice.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jung-Min; Yoon, Sung-Han; Roh, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Pil Hyung; Chang, Mineok; Park, Hyun Woo; Lee, Jong-Young; Kang, Soo-Jin; Park, Duk-Woo; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol Whan; Han, Seungbong; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung

    2015-10-15

    Impact of fractional flow reserve guidance on revascularization strategies and outcomes for severe coronary artery disease was unclear. We evaluate changes in treatment strategy and clinical outcomes and to compare the effectiveness between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with second-generation drug-eluting stents and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in severe coronary artery disease patients before and after routine use of FFR. From January 2008 to December 2011, we enrolled 2,612 patients with significant left main coronary artery disease or 3-vessel disease. We obtained data of patients before (from January 2008 to December 2009) and after (January 2010 to December 2011) the routine use of FFR. We used propensity score matching to compare the rate of primary outcomes (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or repeat revascularization [Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral event; MACCE]) at 1 year. Introduction of routine FFR use reduced the proportion of patients receiving CABG from 54% to 43% (p <0.001). The risk of MACCE before routine FFR use was significantly higher in the PCI group than the CABG group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 3.03, p = 0.021), whereas that after routine FFR use was not significantly different between the groups (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.59 to 2.52, p = 0.59). The risk of MACCE in patients receiving revascularization lowered after routine FFR use compared with that before (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.85, p = 0.005). In conclusion, routine incorporation of FFR resulted in improved PCI outcomes, comparable with concurrent CABG in patients with severe coronary artery disease who received revascularization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Calculation of linearized supersonic flow over slender cones of arbitrary cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.

    1972-01-01

    Supersonic linearized conical-flow theory is used to determine the flow over slender pointed cones having horizontal and vertical planes of symmetry. The geometry of the cone cross sections and surface velocities are expanded in Fourier series. The symmetry condition permits the uncoupling of lifting and nonlifting solutions. The present method reduces to Ward's theory for flow over a cone of elliptic cross section. Results are also presented for other shapes. Results by this method diverge for cross-sectional shapes where the maximum thickness is large compared with the minimum thickness. However, even for these slender-body shapes, lower order solutions are good approximations to the complete solution.

  4. Linear and nonlinear stability of a thermally stratified magnetically driven rotating flow in a cylinder.

    PubMed

    Grants, Ilmars; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2010-07-01

    The stability of a thermally stratified liquid metal flow is considered numerically. The flow is driven by a rotating magnetic field in a cylinder heated from above and cooled from below. The stable thermal stratification turns out to destabilize the flow. This is explained by the fact that a stable stratification suppresses the secondary meridional flow, thus indirectly enhancing the primary rotation. The instability in the form of Taylor-Görtler rolls is consequently promoted. These rolls can only be excited by finite disturbances in the isothermal flow. A sufficiently strong thermal stratification transforms this nonlinear bypass instability into a linear one reducing, thus, the critical value of the magnetic driving force. A weaker temperature gradient delays the linear instability but makes the bypass transition more likely. We quantify the non-normal and nonlinear components of this transition by direct numerical simulation of the flow response to noise. It is observed that the flow sensitivity to finite disturbances increases considerably under the action of a stable thermal stratification. The capabilities of the random forcing approach to identify disconnected coherent states in a general case are discussed.

  5. Effect of density ratio on the performance of purge flow in linear cascade arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Kamil; Hassan, Haswira; Pauzi, Muzzammil

    2017-08-01

    Purge flow has been recognized as potential solution to provide cooling protection at the end wall region of a turbine blade arrangement. The present paper investigates the effects of density ratio on the performance of purge flow in linear cascade arrangement. Computational fluid dynamics has been manipulate to investigate the pressure loss coefficient and the film cooling effectiveness produces by purge flow at three different density ratio value. Two mass flow rate of the purge have been considered in the present study. The investigation indicates no influence of density ratio on aerodynamic losses of the purge flow however petite improvement in terms of area average film cooling effectiveness have been observed at higher density ratio value.

  6. Linear and nonlinear effect of sheared plasma flow on resistive tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qiming Hu, Xiwei; Yu, Q.

    2014-12-15

    The effect of sheared plasma flow on the m/n = 2/1 tearing mode is studied numerically (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers). It is found that in the linear phase the plasma flow with a weak or moderate shear plays a stabilizing effect on tearing mode. However, the mode is driven to be more unstable by sufficiently strong sheared flow when approaching the shear Alfvén resonance (AR). In the nonlinear phase, a moderate (strong) sheared flow leads to a smaller (larger) saturated island width. The stabilization of tearing modes by moderate shear plasma flow is enhanced for a larger plasma viscosity and a lower Alfvén velocity. It is also found that in the nonlinear phase AR accelerates the plasma rotation around the 2/1 rational surface but decelerates it at the AR location, and the radial location satisfying AR spreads inwards towards the magnetic axis.

  7. Constitutive models for linear compressible viscoelastic flows of simple liquids at nanometer length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Debadi; Sader, John E.

    2015-05-01

    Simple bulk liquids such as water are commonly assumed to be Newtonian. While this assumption holds widely, the fluid-structure interaction of mechanical devices at nanometer scales can probe the intrinsic molecular relaxation processes in a surrounding liquid. This was recently demonstrated through measurement of the high frequency (20 GHz) linear mechanical vibrations of bipyramidal nanoparticles in simple liquids [Pelton et al., "Viscoelastic flows in simple liquids generated by vibrating nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 244502 (2013)]. In this article, we review and critically assess the available constitutive equations for compressible viscoelastic flows in their linear limits—such models are required for analysis of the above-mentioned measurements. We show that previous models, with the exception of a very recent proposal, do not reproduce the required response at high frequency. We explain the physical origin of this recent model and show that it recovers all required features of a linear viscoelastic flow. This constitutive equation thus provides a rigorous foundation for the analysis of vibrating nanostructures in simple liquids. The utility of this model is demonstrated by solving the fluid-structure interaction of two common problems: (1) a sphere executing radial oscillations in liquid, which depends strongly on the liquid compressibility and (2) the extensional mode vibration of bipyramidal nanoparticles in liquid, where the effects of liquid compressibility are negligible. This highlights the importance of shear and compressional relaxation processes, as a function of flow geometry, and the impact of the shear and bulk viscosities on nanometer scale flows.

  8. A novel crowd flow model based on linear fractional stable motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Juan; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhenya; He, Junlin; Guo, Yangyong

    2016-03-01

    For the evacuation dynamics in indoor space, a novel crowd flow model is put forward based on Linear Fractional Stable Motion. Based on position attraction and queuing time, the calculation formula of movement probability is defined and the queuing time is depicted according to linear fractal stable movement. At last, an experiment and simulation platform can be used for performance analysis, studying deeply the relation among system evacuation time, crowd density and exit flow rate. It is concluded that the evacuation time and the exit flow rate have positive correlations with the crowd density, and when the exit width reaches to the threshold value, it will not effectively decrease the evacuation time by further increasing the exit width.

  9. [Flow field test on the tangential section of polypropylene tubular membrane module annular gap in rotating linear tangential flow].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengduan; Chen, Wenmei; Li, Jianming; Jiang, Guangming

    2002-07-01

    A new type of polypropylene tubular membrane apparatus of rotating cross flow was designed to study experimentally the flow field characteristics of the tangential section of the membrane annular gap. The authors designed rotary linear tangential flow tubular membrane separator and its test system for the first time. Through the system, the flow field of rotary linear tangential flow with the advanced Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was tested for the first time. A lot of streamlines and vorticity maps of the tangential section of separator in different operation conditions were obtained. The velocity distribution characteristics were analyzed quantitatively: 1. At non-vortex area, no matter how the operation parameters change, the velocity near to rotary tangential flow entrance was higher than the velocity far from entrance at the same radial coordinates. At vortex area, generally the flow velocity of inner vortex was lower than the outer vortex. At the vortex center, the velocity was lowest, the tangential velocity were equal to zero generally. At the vortex center zone, the tangential velocity was less than the axial velocity. 2. Under test operations, the tangential velocity and axial velocity of vortices borders are 1-2 times of average axial velocity of membrane module annular gap. The maximum tangential velocity and axial velocity of ellipse vortices were 2-6 times of average axial velocity of membrane module annular gap. 3. The vortices that are formed on the tangential section, there existed mass transfer between inner and outer parts of fluid. Much fluid of outer vortices got into the inner ones, which was able to prevent membrane tube from particles blocking up very soon.

  10. Linear growth rates of resistive tearing modes with sub-Alfvénic streaming flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, L. N.; Ma, Z. W.

    2014-07-15

    The tearing instability with sub-Alfvénic streaming flow along the external magnetic field is investigated using resistive MHD simulation. It is found that the growth rate of the tearing mode instability is larger than that without the streaming flow. With the streaming flow, there exist two Alfvén resonance layers near the central current sheet. The larger perturbation of the magnetic field in two closer Alfvén resonance layers could lead to formation of the observed cone structure and can largely enhance the development of the tearing mode for a narrower streaming flow. For a broader streaming flow, a larger separation of Alfvén resonance layers reduces the magnetic reconnection. The linear growth rate decreases with increase of the streaming flow thickness. The growth rate of the tearing instability also depends on the plasma beta (β). When the streaming flow is embedded in the current sheet, the growth rate increases with β if β < β{sub s}, but decreases if β > β{sub s}. The existence of the specific value β{sub s} can be attributed to competition between the suppressing effect of β and the enhancing effect of the streaming flow on the magnetic reconnection. The critical value β{sub s} increases with increase of the streaming flow strength.

  11. Linear permeability evolution of expanding conduits due to feedback between flow and fast phase change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lichun; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2017-05-01

    Conduits are ubiquitous and critical pathways for many fluids relevant for geophysical processes such as magma, water, and gases. Predicting flow through conduits is challenging when the conduit geometry coevolves with the flow. We theoretically show that the permeability (k) of a conduit whose walls are eroding due to fast phase change increases linearly with time because of a self-reinforcing mechanism. This simple result is surprising given complex feedbacks between flow, transport, and phase change. The theory is congruent with previous experimental observations of fracture dissolution in calcite. Supporting computational fracture dissolution experiments showed that k only slightly increases until the dissolution front reaches the narrowest conduit constriction, after which the linear evolution of k manifests. The theory holds across multiple scales and a broad range of Peclet and Damkohler numbers and thus advances the prediction of dynamic mass fluxes through expanding conduits in various geologic and environmental settings.Plain Language SummaryGeological conduits are ubiquitous present in the subsurface. In many situations, these conduits may enlarge through time due to erosion of its walls by dissolution and melting. This leads to strongly coupled <span class="hlt">flow</span> and reactive transport processes where the <span class="hlt">flow</span> dictates the wall's erosion and vice versa. As the conduit expands, so does its permeability and thus <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Thus, predicting fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span> and relevant transport processes through expanding conduits is challenging. In this study, we presented a theory for the <span class="hlt">linear</span> time dependence of permeability for expanding conduits. The theory is congruent with previous observations from fracture dissolution in calcite. An additional series of our own computational experiments also aligns with the theory. The theory will be of interest to geoscientists and engineers in many fields such as hydrology, glaciology, and petroleum</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026722','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026722"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> model describing three components of <span class="hlt">flow</span> in karst aquifers using 18O data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Long, A.J.; Putnam, L.D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The stable isotope of oxygen, 18O, is used as a naturally occurring ground-water tracer. Time-series data for ??18O are analyzed to model the distinct responses and relative proportions of the conduit, intermediate, and diffuse <span class="hlt">flow</span> components in karst aquifers. This analysis also describes mathematically the dynamics of the transient fluid interchange between conduits and diffusive networks. Conduit and intermediate <span class="hlt">flow</span> are described by <span class="hlt">linear</span>-systems methods, whereas diffuse <span class="hlt">flow</span> is described by mass-balance methods. An automated optimization process estimates parameters of lognormal, Pearson type III, and gamma distributions, which are used as transfer functions in <span class="hlt">linear</span>-systems analysis. Diffuse <span class="hlt">flow</span> and mixing parameters also are estimated by these optimization methods. Results indicate the relative proximity of a well to a main conduit flowpath and can help to predict the movement and residence times of potential contaminants. The three-component <span class="hlt">linear</span> model is applied to five wells, which respond to changes in the isotopic composition of point recharge water from a sinking stream in the Madison aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota. <span class="hlt">Flow</span> velocities as much as 540 m/d and system memories of as much as 71 years are estimated by this method. Also, the mean, median, and standard deviation of traveltimes; time to peak response; and the relative fraction of <span class="hlt">flow</span> for each of the three components are determined for these wells. This analysis infers that <span class="hlt">flow</span> may branch apart and rejoin as a result of an anastomotic (or channeled) karst network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H21D1398S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H21D1398S"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Modeling and Evaluation of Controls on <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Response in Western Post-Fire Watersheds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saxe, S.; Hogue, T. S.; Hay, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This research investigates the impact of wildfires on watershed <span class="hlt">flow</span> regimes throughout the western United States, specifically focusing on evaluation of fire events within specified subregions and determination of the impact of climate and geophysical variables in post-fire <span class="hlt">flow</span> response. Fire events were collected through federal and state-level databases and streamflow data were collected from U.S. Geological Survey stream gages. 263 watersheds were identified with at least 10 years of continuous pre-fire daily streamflow records and 5 years of continuous post-fire daily <span class="hlt">flow</span> records. For each watershed, percent changes in runoff ratio (RO), annual seven day low-<span class="hlt">flows</span> (7Q2) and annual seven day high-<span class="hlt">flows</span> (7Q10) were calculated from pre- to post-fire. Numerous independent variables were identified for each watershed and fire event, including topographic, land cover, climate, burn severity, and soils data. The national watersheds were divided into five regions through K-clustering and a lasso <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression model, applying the Leave-One-Out calibration method, was calculated for each region. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) was used to determine the accuracy of the resulting models. The regions encompassing the United States along and west of the Rocky Mountains, excluding the coastal watersheds, produced the most accurate <span class="hlt">linear</span> models. The Pacific coast region models produced poor and inconsistent results, indicating that the regions need to be further subdivided. Presently, RO and HF response variables appear to be more easily modeled than LF. Results of <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression modeling showed varying importance of watershed and fire event variables, with conflicting correlation between land cover types and soil types by region. The addition of further independent variables and constriction of current variables based on correlation indicators is ongoing and should allow for more accurate <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H43E1072L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H43E1072L"><span>On the Applicability of <span class="hlt">Linearization</span> Method of Vapor <span class="hlt">Flow</span> in Porous Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, J.; Zhan, H.; Huang, G.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>For decades, <span class="hlt">linearization</span> treatment has been commonly applied in vapor <span class="hlt">flow</span> problems in natural gas engineering, soil vapor extraction (SVE) design, barometric and pneumatic pumping in order to make the governing equation of vapor <span class="hlt">flow</span> tractable for analytical solutions. In this study, we will particularly investigate two <span class="hlt">linearization</span> methods: one is the standard <span class="hlt">linearization</span> method using the squared pressure as the dependent variable (method A), and the other is using the history-dependent averaged pressure to calculate the diffusivity of <span class="hlt">flow</span> as proposed by Wu et al. (1998) (method B). Although attempts were tried to enhance the confidence for applications of the <span class="hlt">linearization</span> methods, errors caused by such approximations have not been analyzed to great details. In this work, we validate the <span class="hlt">linearization</span> methods A and B based on a numerical solution, which is obtained using stiff integrator ODE15s to deal with the temporal derivative and finite-difference to deal with the spatial derivative. This numerical solution is obtained with sufficiently fine temporal and spatial resolutions to make the numerical errors negligible, thus is regarded as the “exact solution”. Two scenarios, the one-dimensional vapor <span class="hlt">flow</span> under constant pressure difference and radial vapor <span class="hlt">flow</span> under constant extraction rate, are investigated respectively. A new <span class="hlt">linearization</span> method is proposed to reduce the error of pressure estimation in methods A and B. This study shows a few features of the <span class="hlt">linearization</span> methods A and B. First, both methods A and B provide adequate pressure evaluation at early times under relatively small constant pressure difference or gas injection rate, otherwise large discrepancy from the exact solution becomes significant. Second, the maximum value of error of the method A is relatively insensitive to time for either scenarios investigated. Third, the pressure evaluation of the method B shows a transition from underestimate to overestimate (or from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990deiv.symp...17R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990deiv.symp...17R"><span>Characterization of electron <span class="hlt">flow</span> in positive-polarity <span class="hlt">linear</span>-induction accelerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosenthal, S. E.</p> <p></p> <p>Experiments at Sandia National Laboratories have studied the operation of the <span class="hlt">linear</span>-induction accelerators, HELIA and Hermes 3, in positive polarity. These experiments have provided a unique opportunity to explore the consequences of multiple-cathode electron emission in magnetically insulated transmission lines. An examination of the total energy-canonical momentum distribution of the electrons explains the features of the magnetically insulated <span class="hlt">flow</span> exhibited by these systems. Simple analysis based on the basic concept of pressure balance, in conjunction with particle-in-cell numerical simulations, shows how the line voltage is related to the anode and cathode currents. Two <span class="hlt">flow</span> designations are introduced that can apply to multiple-cathode magnetically insulated transmission lines: full-gap <span class="hlt">flow</span> (FGF), and locally emitted <span class="hlt">flow</span> (LEF).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000115613','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000115613"><span>Wave Driven Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Oscillator for the 22-Year Solar Cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mayr, Hans G.; Wolff, Charles L.; Hartle, Richard E.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>In the Earth's atmosphere, a zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> oscillation is observed with periods between 20 and 32 months, the Quasi Biennial Oscillation. This oscillation does not require external time dependent forcing but is maintained by non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> wave momentum deposition. It is proposed that such a mechanism also drives long-period oscillations in planetary and stellar interiors. We apply this mechanism to generate a <span class="hlt">flow</span> oscillation for the 22-year solar cycle. The oscillation would occur just below the convective envelope where waves can propagate. Using scale analysis, we present results from a simplified model that incorporates Hines' gravity wave parameterization. Wave amplitudes less than 10 m/s can produce reversing zonal <span class="hlt">flows</span> of 25 m/s that should be sufficient to generate a corresponding oscillation in the poloidal magnetic field. Low buoyancy frequency and the associated increase in turbulence help to produce the desired oscillation period of the <span class="hlt">flow</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493820','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493820"><span>Plasma <span class="hlt">flow</span> in peripheral region of detached plasma in <span class="hlt">linear</span> plasma device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hayashi, Y. Ohno, N.; Kajita, S.; Tanaka, H.</p> <p>2016-01-15</p> <p>A plasma <span class="hlt">flow</span> structure is investigated using a Mach probe under detached plasma condition in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> plasma device NAGDIS-II. A reverse <span class="hlt">flow</span> along the magnetic field is observed in a steady-state at far-peripheral region of the plasma column in the upstream side from the recombination front. These experimental results indicate that plasma near the recombination front should strongly diffuse across the magnetic field, and it should be transported along the magnetic field in the reverse <span class="hlt">flow</span> direction. Furthermore, bursty plasma density fluctuations associated with intermittent convective plasma transport are observed in the far-peripheral region of the plasma column in both upstream and downstream sides from the recombination front. Such a nondiffusive transport can contribute to the intermittent reverse plasma <span class="hlt">flow</span>, and the experimental results indicate that intermittent transports are frequently produced near the recombination front.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88c2702H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88c2702H"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> surface roughness growth and <span class="hlt">flow</span> smoothening in a three-dimensional biofilm model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Head, D. A.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The sessile microbial communities known as biofilms exhibit varying architectures as environmental factors are varied, which for immersed biofilms includes the shear rate of the surrounding <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Here we modify an established agent-based biofilm model to include affine <span class="hlt">flow</span> and employ it to analyze the growth of surface roughness of single-species, three-dimensional biofilms. We find <span class="hlt">linear</span> growth laws for surface geometry in both horizontal and vertical directions and measure the thickness of the active surface layer, which is shown to anticorrelate with roughness. <span class="hlt">Flow</span> is shown to monotonically reduce surface roughness without affecting the thickness of the active layer. We argue that the rapid roughening is due to nonlocal surface interactions mediated by the nutrient field, which are curtailed when advection competes with diffusion. We further argue the need for simplified models to elucidate the underlying mechanisms coupling <span class="hlt">flow</span> to growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSV...331.3809M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSV...331.3809M"><span>A piecewise <span class="hlt">linear</span> mean <span class="hlt">flow</span> model for studying stability in a lined channel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marx, David</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Acoustic liners are used to reduce sound emission by turbofan engines. Under grazing <span class="hlt">flow</span> they may sustain hydrodynamic instabilities and these are studied using a stability analysis, based on a simplified model: the liner is a mass-spring-damper system, the base channel <span class="hlt">flow</span> is piecewise <span class="hlt">linear</span>, and the inviscid, incompressible Rayleigh equation is used. The model is an extension to the channel case of a boundary layer model by Rienstra and Darau. The piecewise <span class="hlt">linear</span> profile introduces a finite boundary layer thickness which ensures well-posedness, allowing an initial value problem to be conducted to investigate absolute stability. For typical values in aeronautics the <span class="hlt">flow</span> above the liner is unstable. Absolute instability is obtained for somewhat extreme values of the mean <span class="hlt">flow</span> (tiny boundary layer thickness), and under realistic conditions the <span class="hlt">flow</span> is convectively unstable. The effect of finite channel height is investigated in both cases. In particular, for large boundary layer thicknesses associated with convective instability the channel height has little effect on the unstable mode. Favorable outcomes and failures of the model are shown by comparison to a published experimental work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000070491','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000070491"><span>Prediction of Transonic Vortex <span class="hlt">Flows</span> Using <span class="hlt">Linear</span> and Nonlinear Turbulent Eddy Viscosity Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bartels, Robert E.; Gatski, Thomas B.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional transonic <span class="hlt">flow</span> over a delta wing is investigated with a focus on the effect of transition and influence of turbulence stress anisotropies. The performance of <span class="hlt">linear</span> eddy viscosity models and an explicit algebraic stress model is assessed at the start of vortex <span class="hlt">flow</span>, and the results compared with experimental data. To assess the effect of transition location, computations that either fix transition or are fully turbulent are performed. To assess the effect of the turbulent stress anisotropy, comparisons are made between predictions from the algebraic stress model and the <span class="hlt">linear</span> eddy viscosity models. Both transition location and turbulent stress anisotropy significantly affect the 3D <span class="hlt">flow</span> field. The most significant effect is found to be the modeling of transition location. At a Mach number of 0.90, the computed solution changes character from steady to unsteady depending on transition onset. Accounting for the anisotropies in the turbulent stresses also considerably impacts the <span class="hlt">flow</span>, most notably in the outboard region of <span class="hlt">flow</span> separation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23005418','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23005418"><span>Hydrodynamic interaction between two vesicles in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>: asymptotic study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gires, P Y; Danker, G; Misbah, C</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Interactions between two vesicles in an imposed <span class="hlt">linear</span> shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> are studied theoretically, in the limit of almost spherical vesicles, with a large intervesicle distance, in a strong <span class="hlt">flow</span>, with a large inner to outer viscosity ratio. This allows to derive a system of ordinary equations describing the dynamics of the two vesicles. We provide an analytic expression for the interaction law. We find that when the vesicles are in the same shear plane, the hydrodynamic interaction leads to a repulsion. When they are not, the interaction may turn into attraction instead. The interaction law is discussed and analyzed as a function of relevant parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..543..625C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..543..625C"><span>Probability density functions of the stream <span class="hlt">flow</span> discharge in <span class="hlt">linearized</span> diffusion wave models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Ching-Min; Yeh, Hund-Der</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This article considers stream <span class="hlt">flow</span> discharge moving through channels subject to the lateral inflow and described by a <span class="hlt">linearized</span> diffusion wave equation. The variability of lateral inflow is manifested by random fluctuations in time, which is the only source of uncertainty as to <span class="hlt">flow</span> discharge quantification. The stochastic nature of stream <span class="hlt">flow</span> discharge is described by the probability density function (PDF) obtained using the theory of distributions. The PDF of the stream <span class="hlt">flow</span> discharge depends on the hydraulic properties of the stream <span class="hlt">flow</span>, such as the wave celerity and hydraulic diffusivity as well as the temporal correlation scale of the lateral inflow rate fluctuations. The focus in this analysis is placed on the influence of the temporal correlation scale and the wave celerity coefficient on the PDF of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> discharge. The analysis demonstrates that a larger temporal correlation scale causes an increase of PDF of the lateral inflow rate and, in turn, the PDF of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> discharge which is also affected positively by the wave celerity coefficient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhFl...28d4106A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhFl...28d4106A"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> and weakly nonlinear global instability of a fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span> through a collapsible channel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amaouche, Mustapha; Di Labbio, Giuseppe</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Interactions between an internal <span class="hlt">flow</span> and wall deformation occur in many biological systems. Such interactions can involve a complex and rich dynamical behavior and a number of peculiarities which depend on the <span class="hlt">flow</span> parameter range. The aim of this paper is to present a variant (obtained via a weighted residual approach) of the averaged one-dimensional model derived by Stewart et al. ["Local and global instabilities of <span class="hlt">flow</span> in a flexible-walled channel," Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids 28, 541-557 (2009)]. The asymptotic expansions for small Reynolds numbers of these two models, compared to the exact solution obtained from the lubrication approach, reveal some quantitative difference, even at higher Reynolds numbers. Qualitatively, the two models give similar results at least at a <span class="hlt">linear</span> level. It is shown that for relatively low membrane tension (T), there are distinct regions in the (T, R) parameter space where steady bifurcating <span class="hlt">flows</span> may occur. These <span class="hlt">flows</span> can also be observed at vanishingly small Reynolds numbers combined with relatively high membrane tension. At sufficiently high T and R, the bifurcating <span class="hlt">flow</span> is rather time periodic. A weakly nonlinear analysis is then performed in both cases leading to the derivation of evolution equations for the amplitudes of the bifurcating <span class="hlt">flows</span>. The amplitude equations show that the saddle node bifurcation has a transcritical character while the Hopf bifurcation is either subcritical or supercritical, depending both on the mode number and membrane tension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhFl...28d2102S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhFl...28d2102S"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> and nonlinear instability in vertical counter-current laminar gas-liquid <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Patrick; Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We consider the genesis and dynamics of interfacial instability in vertical gas-liquid <span class="hlt">flows</span>, using as a model the two-dimensional channel <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a thin falling film sheared by counter-current gas. The methodology is <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability theory (Orr-Sommerfeld analysis) together with direct numerical simulation of the two-phase <span class="hlt">flow</span> in the case of nonlinear disturbances. We investigate the influence of two main <span class="hlt">flow</span> parameters on the interfacial dynamics, namely the film thickness and pressure drop applied to drive the gas stream. To make contact with existing studies in the literature, the effect of various density contrasts is also examined. Energy budget analyses based on the Orr-Sommerfeld theory reveal various coexisting unstable modes (interfacial, shear, internal) in the case of high density contrasts, which results in mode coalescence and mode competition, but only one dynamically relevant unstable interfacial mode for low density contrast. A study of absolute and convective instability for low density contrast shows that the system is absolutely unstable for all but two narrow regions of the investigated parameter space. Direct numerical simulations of the same system (low density contrast) show that <span class="hlt">linear</span> theory holds up remarkably well upon the onset of large-amplitude waves as well as the existence of weakly nonlinear waves. For high density contrasts, corresponding more closely to an air-water-type system, <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability theory is also successful at determining the most-dominant features in the interfacial wave dynamics at early-to-intermediate times. Nevertheless, the short waves selected by the <span class="hlt">linear</span> theory undergo secondary instability and the wave train is no longer regular but rather exhibits chaotic motion. The same <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability theory predicts when the direction of travel of the waves changes — from downwards to upwards. We outline the practical implications of this change in terms of loading and flooding. The change in direction of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22599000','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22599000"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> and nonlinear instability in vertical counter-current laminar gas-liquid <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Patrick; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant; Ó Náraigh, Lennon</p> <p>2016-04-15</p> <p>We consider the genesis and dynamics of interfacial instability in vertical gas-liquid <span class="hlt">flows</span>, using as a model the two-dimensional channel <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a thin falling film sheared by counter-current gas. The methodology is <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability theory (Orr-Sommerfeld analysis) together with direct numerical simulation of the two-phase <span class="hlt">flow</span> in the case of nonlinear disturbances. We investigate the influence of two main <span class="hlt">flow</span> parameters on the interfacial dynamics, namely the film thickness and pressure drop applied to drive the gas stream. To make contact with existing studies in the literature, the effect of various density contrasts is also examined. Energy budget analyses based on the Orr-Sommerfeld theory reveal various coexisting unstable modes (interfacial, shear, internal) in the case of high density contrasts, which results in mode coalescence and mode competition, but only one dynamically relevant unstable interfacial mode for low density contrast. A study of absolute and convective instability for low density contrast shows that the system is absolutely unstable for all but two narrow regions of the investigated parameter space. Direct numerical simulations of the same system (low density contrast) show that <span class="hlt">linear</span> theory holds up remarkably well upon the onset of large-amplitude waves as well as the existence of weakly nonlinear waves. For high density contrasts, corresponding more closely to an air-water-type system, <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability theory is also successful at determining the most-dominant features in the interfacial wave dynamics at early-to-intermediate times. Nevertheless, the short waves selected by the <span class="hlt">linear</span> theory undergo secondary instability and the wave train is no longer regular but rather exhibits chaotic motion. The same <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability theory predicts when the direction of travel of the waves changes — from downwards to upwards. We outline the practical implications of this change in terms of loading and flooding. The change in direction of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvF...2a2601L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvF...2a2601L"><span>Quasilaminar regime in the <span class="hlt">linear</span> response of a turbulent <span class="hlt">flow</span> to wall waviness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luchini, Paolo; Charru, François</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">linear</span> response of the wall-shear stress of a turbulent <span class="hlt">flow</span> to wall waviness is analyzed in the context of a comparison between existing experiments, direct numerical simulations, and analytical approximations. The spectral region where the response is largest is found to be amenable to a simplified quasilaminar analysis. The end result is a parameterless description of this phenomenon that completely captures its physics in a single analytical formula, a Padé approximation of the response function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IJNMF..17..291S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IJNMF..17..291S"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability of swirling <span class="hlt">flows</span> computed as solutions to the quasi-cylindrical equations of motion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spall, Robert E.</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of numerical solutions to the quasi-cylindrical equations of motion for swirling <span class="hlt">flows</span> is investigated. Initial conditions are derived from Batchelor's similarity solution for a trailing line vortex. The stability calculations are performed using a second-order-accurate finite-difference scheme on a staggered grid, with the accuracy of the computed eigenvalues enhanced through Richardson extrapolation. The streamwise development of both viscous and inviscid instability modes is presented. The possible relationship to vortex breakdown is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16794725','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16794725"><span>Rotational transformations and transverse energy <span class="hlt">flow</span> in paraxial light beams: <span class="hlt">linear</span> azimuthons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bekshaev, Aleksandr; Soskin, Marat</p> <p>2006-07-15</p> <p>Paraxial beams whose transverse structure rotates upon free propagation (spiral beams) can be treated as analogs of azimuthons recently found in nonlinear media [Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 203904 (2005)]. These <span class="hlt">linear</span> azimuthons have essentially a nonlocalized character and can possess an almost arbitrary rotation rate independent of the angular momentum of the beam. Such beams can be assimilated into fluent mechanical bodies with intrinsic mass <span class="hlt">flows</span> determined by transverse energy redistribution over the beam cross section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvF...1c3202A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvF...1c3202A"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> drag law for high-Reynolds-number <span class="hlt">flow</span> past an oscillating body</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agre, Natalie; Childress, Stephen; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>An object immersed in a fast <span class="hlt">flow</span> typically experiences fluid forces that increase with the square of speed. Here we explore how this high-Reynolds-number force-speed relationship is affected by unsteady motions of a body. Experiments on disks that are driven to oscillate while progressing through air reveal two distinct regimes: a conventional quadratic relationship for slow oscillations and an anomalous scaling for fast flapping in which the time-averaged drag increases <span class="hlt">linearly</span> with <span class="hlt">flow</span> speed. In the <span class="hlt">linear</span> regime, <span class="hlt">flow</span> visualization shows that a pair of counterrotating vortices is shed with each oscillation and a model that views a train of such dipoles as a momentum jet reproduces the <span class="hlt">linearity</span>. We also show that appropriate scaling variables collapse the experimental data from both regimes and for different oscillatory motions into a single drag-speed relationship. These results could provide insight into the aerodynamic resistance incurred by oscillating wings in flight and they suggest that vibrations can be an effective means to actively control the drag on an object.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94f2412L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94f2412L"><span>Intermediate regime and a phase diagram of red blood cell dynamics in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levant, Michael; Steinberg, Victor</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In this paper we investigate the in vitro dynamics of a single rabbit red blood cell (RBC) in a planar <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> as a function of a shear stress σ and the dynamic viscosity of outer fluid ηo. A <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> is a generalization of previous studies dynamics of soft objects including RBC in shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> and is realized in the experiment in a microfluidic four-roll mill device. We verify that the RBC stable orientation dynamics is found in the experiment being the in-shear-plane orientation and the RBC dynamics is characterized by observed three RBC dynamical states, namely tumbling (TU), intermediate (INT), and swinging (SW) [or tank-treading (TT)] on a single RBC. The main results of these studies are the following. (i) We completely characterize the RBC dynamical states and reconstruct their phase diagram in the case of the RBC in-shear-plane orientation in a planar <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> and find it in a good agreement with that obtained in early experiments in a shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> for human RBCs. (ii) The value of the critical shear stress σc of the TU-TT(SW) transition surprisingly coincides with that found in early experiments in spite of a significant difference in the degree of RBC shape deformations in both the SW and INT states. (iii) We describe the INT regime, which is stationary, characterized by strong RBC shape deformations and observed in a wide range of the shear stresses. We argue that our observations cast doubts on the main claim of the recent numerical simulations that the only RBC spheroidal stress-free shape is capable to explain the early experimental data. Finally, we suggest that the amplitude dependence of both θ and the shape deformation parameter D on σ can be used as the quantitative criterion to determine the RBC stress-free shape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..96a3119D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..96a3119D"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability of layered two-phase <span class="hlt">flows</span> through parallel soft-gel-coated walls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dinesh, B.; Pushpavanam, S.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of layered two-phase Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flows</span> through soft-gel-coated parallel walls is studied in this work. The focus is on determining the effect of the elastohydrodynamic coupling between the fluids and the soft-gel layers on the different instabilities observed in <span class="hlt">flows</span> between parallel plates. The fluids are assumed Newtonian and incompressible, while the soft gels are modeled as <span class="hlt">linear</span> viscoelastic solids. A long-wave asymptotic analysis is used to obtain an analytical expression for the growth rate of the disturbances. A Chebyshev collocation method is used to numerically solve the general <span class="hlt">linearized</span> equations. Three distinct instability modes are identified in the <span class="hlt">flow</span>: (a) a liquid-liquid long-wave mode; (b) a liquid-liquid short-wave mode; (c) a gel-liquid short-wave mode. The effect of deformability of the soft gels on these three modes is analyzed. From the long-wave analysis of the liquid-liquid mode a stability map is obtained, in which four different regions are clearly demarcated. It is shown that introducing a gel layer near the more viscous fluid has a predominantly stabilizing effect on this mode seen in <span class="hlt">flows</span> between rigid plates. For parameters where this mode is stable for <span class="hlt">flow</span> between rigid plates, introducing a gel layer near the less viscous and thinner fluid has a predominantly destabilizing effect. The liquid-liquid short-wave mode is destabilized by the introduction of soft-gel layers. Additional instability modes at the gel-liquid interfaces induced by the deformability of the soft-gel layers are identified. We show that these can be controlled by varying the thickness of the gel layers. Insights into the physical mechanism driving different instabilities are obtained using an energy budget analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28085369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28085369"><span>Intermediate regime and a phase diagram of red blood cell dynamics in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levant, Michael; Steinberg, Victor</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In this paper we investigate the in vitro dynamics of a single rabbit red blood cell (RBC) in a planar <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> as a function of a shear stress σ and the dynamic viscosity of outer fluid η_{o}. A <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> is a generalization of previous studies dynamics of soft objects including RBC in shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> and is realized in the experiment in a microfluidic four-roll mill device. We verify that the RBC stable orientation dynamics is found in the experiment being the in-shear-plane orientation and the RBC dynamics is characterized by observed three RBC dynamical states, namely tumbling (TU), intermediate (INT), and swinging (SW) [or tank-treading (TT)] on a single RBC. The main results of these studies are the following. (i) We completely characterize the RBC dynamical states and reconstruct their phase diagram in the case of the RBC in-shear-plane orientation in a planar <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> and find it in a good agreement with that obtained in early experiments in a shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> for human RBCs. (ii) The value of the critical shear stress σ_{c} of the TU-TT(SW) transition surprisingly coincides with that found in early experiments in spite of a significant difference in the degree of RBC shape deformations in both the SW and INT states. (iii) We describe the INT regime, which is stationary, characterized by strong RBC shape deformations and observed in a wide range of the shear stresses. We argue that our observations cast doubts on the main claim of the recent numerical simulations that the only RBC spheroidal stress-free shape is capable to explain the early experimental data. Finally, we suggest that the amplitude dependence of both θ and the shape deformation parameter D on σ can be used as the quantitative criterion to determine the RBC stress-free shape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25469957','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25469957"><span><span class="hlt">Routine</span> bacterial screening of platelet concentrates by <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry and its impact on product safety and supply.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Müller, B; Walther-Wenke, G; Kalus, M; Alt, T; Bux, J; Zeiler, T; Schottstedt, V</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Bacterial contamination represents the major infectious hazard associated with transfusion of platelet concentrates (PCs). As bacterial screening of PCs is not mandatory in Germany, the Bacti<span class="hlt">Flow</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry test has been introduced as a rapid detection method to increase product safety. During a period of 25 months, a total of 34 631 PCs (26 411 pooled and 8220 apheresis-derived PCs) were tested at the end of day 3 of their shelf life using the Bacti<span class="hlt">Flow</span> system. PCs initially reactive in Bacti<span class="hlt">Flow</span> testing and expired PCs not reactive in Bacti<span class="hlt">Flow</span> on day 3 were also investigated by the BacT/ALERT system and by microbiological cultivation in order to identify the contaminating bacterial species and to confirm reactive Bacti<span class="hlt">Flow</span> results. Two hundred and twenty-eight PCs (0.7%) had an initially reactive result, 24 of them remained reactive in a second test run. Out of these reproducible reactive Bacti<span class="hlt">Flow</span> results, 12 could not be verified by parallel BacT/ALERT culturing, resulting in a confirmed false-positive rate of 0.03%. The bacterial species were identified as S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis and B. cereus. In 10 out of 9017 expired PCs (0.11%), a confirmed-positive result was obtained in the BacT/ALERT system which had a negative result in the Bacti<span class="hlt">Flow</span> system. Testing of PCs by Bacti<span class="hlt">Flow</span> was successfully implemented in our blood donation service and proved sufficient as a rapid and reliable screening method. False reactive results are in an acceptable range since the transfusion of 12 bacterially contaminated PCs was prevented. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAMTP..57..247G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAMTP..57..247G"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability of the Couette <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a vibrationally excited gas. 2. viscous problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grigor'ev, Yu. N.; Ershov, I. V.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Based on the <span class="hlt">linear</span> theory, stability of viscous disturbances in a supersonic plane Couette <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a vibrationally excited gas described by a system of <span class="hlt">linearized</span> equations of two-temperature gas dynamics including shear and bulk viscosity is studied. It is demonstrated that two sets are identified in the spectrum of the problem of stability of plane waves, similar to the case of a perfect gas. One set consists of viscous acoustic modes, which asymptotically converge to even and odd inviscid acoustic modes at high Reynolds numbers. The eigenvalues from the other set have no asymptotic relationship with the inviscid problem and are characterized by large damping decrements. Two most unstable viscous acoustic modes (I and II) are identified; the limits of these modes were considered previously in the inviscid approximation. It is shown that there are domains in the space of parameters for both modes, where the presence of viscosity induces appreciable destabilization of the <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Moreover, the growth rates of disturbances are appreciably greater than the corresponding values for the inviscid <span class="hlt">flow</span>, while thermal excitation in the entire considered range of parameters increases the stability of the viscous <span class="hlt">flow</span>. For a vibrationally excited gas, the critical Reynolds number as a function of the thermal nonequilibrium degree is found to be greater by 12% than for a perfect gas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CMaPh.tmp....7A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CMaPh.tmp....7A"><span>Integrable Magnetic Geodesic <span class="hlt">Flows</span> on 2-Torus: New Examples via Quasi-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> System of PDEs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agapov, S. V.; Bialy, M.; Mironov, A. E.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>For a magnetic geodesic <span class="hlt">flow</span> on the 2-torus the only known integrable example is that of a <span class="hlt">flow</span> integrable for all energy levels. It has an integral <span class="hlt">linear</span> in momenta and corresponds to a one parameter group preserving the Lagrangian function of the magnetic <span class="hlt">flow</span>. In this paper the problem of integrability on a single energy level is considered. Then, in addition to the example mentioned above, a few other explicit examples with quadratic in momenta integrals can be constructed by means of the Maupertuis' principle. Recently we proved that such an integrability problem can be reduced to a remarkable semi-Hamiltonian system of quasi-<span class="hlt">linear</span> PDEs and to the question of the existence of smooth periodic solutions for this system. Our main result of the present paper states that any Liouville metric with the zero magnetic field on the 2-torus can be analytically deformed to a Riemannian metric with a small magnetic field so that the magnetic geodesic <span class="hlt">flow</span> on an energy level is integrable by means of an integral quadratic in momenta.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CMaPh.351..993A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CMaPh.351..993A"><span>Integrable Magnetic Geodesic <span class="hlt">Flows</span> on 2-Torus: New Examples via Quasi-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> System of PDEs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agapov, S. V.; Bialy, M.; Mironov, A. E.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>For a magnetic geodesic <span class="hlt">flow</span> on the 2-torus the only known integrable example is that of a <span class="hlt">flow</span> integrable for all energy levels. It has an integral <span class="hlt">linear</span> in momenta and corresponds to a one parameter group preserving the Lagrangian function of the magnetic <span class="hlt">flow</span>. In this paper the problem of integrability on a single energy level is considered. Then, in addition to the example mentioned above, a few other explicit examples with quadratic in momenta integrals can be constructed by means of the Maupertuis' principle. Recently we proved that such an integrability problem can be reduced to a remarkable semi-Hamiltonian system of quasi-<span class="hlt">linear</span> PDEs and to the question of the existence of smooth periodic solutions for this system. Our main result of the present paper states that any Liouville metric with the zero magnetic field on the 2-torus can be analytically deformed to a Riemannian metric with a small magnetic field so that the magnetic geodesic <span class="hlt">flow</span> on an energy level is integrable by means of an integral quadratic in momenta.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JFM...822..880A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JFM...822..880A"><span>The effect of finite-conductivity Hartmann walls on the <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of Hunt's <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arlt, Thomas; Priede, Jānis; Bühler, Leo</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>We analyse numerically the <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of the fully developed liquid metal <span class="hlt">flow</span> in a square duct with insulating side walls and thin electrically conducting horizontal walls with the wall conductance ratio $c=0.01\\cdots 1$ subject to a vertical magnetic field with the Hartmann numbers up to $Ha=10^{4}.$ In a sufficiently strong magnetic field, the <span class="hlt">flow</span> consists of two jets at the side walls walls and a near-stagnant core with the relative velocity $\\sim(cHa)^{-1}.$ We find that for $Ha\\gtrsim300,$ the effect of wall conductivity on the stability of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> is mainly determined by the effective Hartmann wall conductance ratio $cHa.$ For $c\\ll 1,$ the increase of the magnetic field or that of the wall conductivity has a destabilizing effect on the <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Maximal destabilization of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> occurs at $Ha\\approx30/c.$ In a stronger magnetic field with $cHa\\gtrsim 30,$ the destabilizing effect vanishes and the asymptotic results of Priede et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 649, 115, 2010] for the ideal Hunt's <span class="hlt">flow</span> with perfectly conducting Hartmann walls are recovered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26021750','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26021750"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> optical <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry using a scanned, Bessel beam light-sheet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Collier, Bradley B; Awasthi, Samir; Lieu, Deborah K; Chan, James W</p> <p>2015-05-29</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry instruments have become vital tools for high-throughput analysis of single cells. However, as issues with the cellular labeling techniques often used in <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry have become more of a concern, the development of label-free modalities for cellular analysis is increasingly desired. Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> optical phenomena (NLO) are of growing interest for label-free analysis because of the ability to measure the intrinsic optical response of biomolecules found in cells. We demonstrate that a light-sheet consisting of a scanned Bessel beam is an optimal excitation geometry for efficiently generating NLO signals in a microfluidic environment. The balance of photon density and cross-sectional area provided by the light-sheet allowed significantly larger two-photon fluorescence intensities to be measured in a model polystyrene microparticle system compared to measurements made using other excitation focal geometries, including a relaxed Gaussian excitation beam often used in conventional <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.318b2033Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.318b2033Q"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability of plane Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flow</span> over a generalized Stokes layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quadrio, Maurizio; Martinelli, Fulvio; Schmid, Peter J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability of plane Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flow</span> subject to spanwise velocity forcing applied at the wall is studied. The forcing is stationary and sinusoidally distributed along the streamwise direction. The long-term aim of the study is to explore a possible relationship between the modification induced by the wall forcing to the stability characteristic of the unforced Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flow</span> and the signifcant capabilities demonstrated by the same forcing in reducing turbulent friction drag. We present in this paper the statement of the mathematical problem, which is considerably more complex that the classic Orr-Sommerfeld-Squire approach, owing to the streamwise-varying boundary condition. We also report some preliminary results which, although not yet conclusive, describe the effects of the wall forcing on modal and non-modal characteristics of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4448227','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4448227"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Optical <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Cytometry Using a Scanned, Bessel Beam Light-Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Collier, Bradley B.; Awasthi, Samir; Lieu, Deborah K.; Chan, James W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry instruments have become vital tools for high-throughput analysis of single cells. However, as issues with the cellular labeling techniques often used in <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry have become more of a concern, the development of label-free modalities for cellular analysis is increasingly desired. Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> optical phenomena (NLO) are of growing interest for label-free analysis because of the ability to measure the intrinsic optical response of biomolecules found in cells. We demonstrate that a light-sheet consisting of a scanned Bessel beam is an optimal excitation geometry for efficiently generating NLO signals in a microfluidic environment. The balance of photon density and cross-sectional area provided by the light-sheet allowed significantly larger two-photon fluorescence intensities to be measured in a model polystyrene microparticle system compared to measurements made using other excitation focal geometries, including a relaxed Gaussian excitation beam often used in conventional <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometers. PMID:26021750</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JFM...347..171S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JFM...347..171S"><span>An analysis of rotating shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> using <span class="hlt">linear</span> theory and DNS and LES results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salhi, A.; Cambon, C.</p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>The development of turbulence is investigated in the presence of a mean plane shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> (rate S) rotating with angular velocity vector (rate [Omega]) perpendicular to its plane. An important motivation was generalizing the work by Lee, Kim & Moin (1990) to rotating shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>, in particular detailed comparisons of homogeneous rapid distortion theory (RDT) results and the databases of homogeneous and channel <span class="hlt">flow</span> direct numerical simulations (DNS). <span class="hlt">Linear</span> analysis and related RDT are used starting from the <span class="hlt">linearized</span> equations governing the fluctuating velocity field. The parameterization based on the value of the Bradshaw Richardson number B=R(1+R) (with R=[minus sign]2[Omega]/S) is checked against complete <span class="hlt">linear</span> solutions. Owing to the pressure fluctuation, the dynamics is not governed entirely by the parameter B, and the subsequent breaking of symmetry (between the R and [minus sign]1 [minus sign]R cases) is investigated. New analytical solutions for the ‘two-dimensional energy components’ [script E](l)ij =Eij(kl=0, t) (i.e. the limits at kl=0 of the one-dimensional energy spectra) are calculated by inviscid and viscous RDT, for various ratios [Omega]/S and both streamwise l=1 and spanwise l=3 directions. Structure effects (streak-like tendencies, dimensionality) in rotating shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> are discussed through these quantities and more conventional second-order statistics. In order to compare in a quantitative way RDT solutions for single-point statistics with available large-eddy simulation (LES) data (Bardina, Ferziger & Reynolds 1983), an ‘effective viscosity’ model (following Townsend) is used, yielding an impressive agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThCFD.tmp...20T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThCFD.tmp...20T"><span>The <span class="hlt">linearized</span> pressure Poisson equation for global instability analysis of incompressible <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Theofilis, Vassilis</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">linearized</span> pressure Poisson equation (LPPE) is used in two and three spatial dimensions in the respective matrix-forming solution of the BiGlobal and TriGlobal eigenvalue problem in primitive variables on collocated grids. It provides a disturbance pressure boundary condition which is compatible with the recovery of perturbation velocity components that satisfy exactly the <span class="hlt">linearized</span> continuity equation. The LPPE is employed to analyze instability in wall-bounded <span class="hlt">flows</span> and in the prototype open Blasius boundary layer <span class="hlt">flow</span>. In the closed <span class="hlt">flows</span>, excellent agreement is shown between results of the LPPE and those of global <span class="hlt">linear</span> instability analyses based on the time-stepping nektar++, Semtex and nek5000 codes, as well as with those obtained from the FreeFEM++ matrix-forming code. In the flat plate boundary layer, solutions extracted from the two-dimensional LPPE eigenvector at constant streamwise locations are found to be in very good agreement with profiles delivered by the NOLOT/PSE space marching code. Benchmark eigenvalue data are provided in all <span class="hlt">flows</span> analyzed. The performance of the LPPE is seen to be superior to that of the commonly used pressure compatibility (PC) boundary condition: at any given resolution, the discrete part of the LPPE eigenspectrum contains converged and not converged, but physically correct, eigenvalues. By contrast, the PC boundary closure delivers some of the LPPE eigenvalues and, in addition, physically wrong eigenmodes. It is concluded that the LPPE should be used in place of the PC pressure boundary closure, when BiGlobal or TriGlobal eigenvalue problems are solved in primitive variables by the matrix-forming approach on collocated grids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhFl...29f2106A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhFl...29f2106A"><span>Characterization of <span class="hlt">linear</span> interfacial waves in a turbulent gas-liquid pipe <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ayati, A. A.; Farias, P. S. C.; Azevedo, L. F. A.; de Paula, I. B.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The evolution of interfacial waves on a stratified <span class="hlt">flow</span> was investigated experimentally for air-water <span class="hlt">flow</span> in a horizontal pipe. Waves were introduced in the liquid level of stratified <span class="hlt">flow</span> near the pipe entrance using an oscillating plate. The mean height of liquid layer and the fluctuations superimposed on this mean level were captured using high speed cameras. Digital image processing techniques were used to detect instantaneous interfaces along the pipe. The driving signal of the oscillating plate was controlled by a D/A board that was synchronized with acquisitions. This enabled to perform phase-locked acquisitions and to use ensemble average procedures. Thereby, it was possible to measure the temporal and spatial evolution of the disturbances introduced in the <span class="hlt">flow</span>. In addition, phase-locked measurements of the velocity field in the liquid layer were performed using standard planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The velocity fields were extracted at a fixed streamwise location, whereas the measurements of the liquid level were performed at several locations along the pipe. The assessment of the setup was important for validation of the methodology proposed in this work, since it aimed at providing results for further comparisons with theoretical models and numerical simulations. Therefore, the work focuses on validation and characterization of interfacial waves within the <span class="hlt">linear</span> regime. Results show that under controlled conditions, the wave development can be well captured and reproduced. In addition, <span class="hlt">linear</span> waves were observed for liquid level oscillations lower than about 1.5% of the pipe diameter. It was not possible to accurately define an amplitude threshold for the appearance of nonlinear effects because it strongly depended on the wave frequency. According to the experimental findings, longer waves display characteristics similar to <span class="hlt">linear</span> waves, while short ones exhibit a more complex evolution, even for low amplitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ShWav..27..623C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ShWav..27..623C"><span>Effect of clustering on <span class="hlt">linear</span> plug nozzle <span class="hlt">flow</span> field for overexpanded internal jet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chutkey, K.; Viji, M.; Verma, S. B.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Experiments were carried out to analyze the <span class="hlt">flow</span> field development of a <span class="hlt">linear</span> plug nozzle wherein the internal nozzle was operating in the overexpanded regime. Steady and unsteady pressure measurements were taken along with the schlieren and oil <span class="hlt">flow</span> visualization techniques to describe the <span class="hlt">flow</span> field. Over the range of pressure ratios considered, the overexpanded shock pattern from the internal nozzle has been explained with regard to differential end conditions on either side of the core jet. The unsteady characteristics of the pressure fluctuations have been discussed with respect to the foot of the overexpansion shock on the plug surface. The effect of internal nozzle clustering on the plug nozzle <span class="hlt">flow</span> field has been studied for two different cluster nozzles. The cluster module jet wave interactions along the spanwise direction have been explained with respect to the limiting streamline pattern on the plug surface. In addition to these, the base <span class="hlt">flow</span> characteristics for these overexpanded internal nozzle pressure ratios have been discussed for two different truncated plug lengths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DPPBP8030X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DPPBP8030X"><span>Self-regulating Drift wave -- Zonal <span class="hlt">Flow</span> turbulence in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> plasma device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Jinlin; Chen, Ran; Hu, Guanghai; Jin, Xiaoli; Li, Hong; Liu, Wandong; Yu, Changxuan</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Here we report new and interesting results about the DW-ZF system in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> plasma device with much better control environments to illustrate important Zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> physics: (1) The three-dimensional spectral features of the LFZF have been provided. In particular, it is identified that the LFZF damping is dominated by ion-neutral collision in our case. Also experimental evidence of the shearing effect of ZF on DW has been given. (2) A zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> dominated state of the DW-ZF system has been achieved. Theoretically, it has been predicted that a significant portion of the turbulence energy can be stored in the Zonal <span class="hlt">Flows</span> for the case of low collisionality plasmas. In our experiments we achieve a zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> dominated state, in which the maximum ratio of the ZF energy to the total turbulence energy is about 80%, which seems to support the hypothesis of zonostropic state in geostrophic turbulence. (3) The self-regulating dynamics in the DW-ZF system is clearly elucidated. The evolution of the energy partition ratio of drift-wave turbulence and zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> is investigated with varying magnetic field strength, which is found consistent with the general prey-predator model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ShWav.tmp....2C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ShWav.tmp....2C"><span>Effect of clustering on <span class="hlt">linear</span> plug nozzle <span class="hlt">flow</span> field for overexpanded internal jet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chutkey, K.; Viji, M.; Verma, S. B.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Experiments were carried out to analyze the <span class="hlt">flow</span> field development of a <span class="hlt">linear</span> plug nozzle wherein the internal nozzle was operating in the overexpanded regime. Steady and unsteady pressure measurements were taken along with the schlieren and oil <span class="hlt">flow</span> visualization techniques to describe the <span class="hlt">flow</span> field. Over the range of pressure ratios considered, the overexpanded shock pattern from the internal nozzle has been explained with regard to differential end conditions on either side of the core jet. The unsteady characteristics of the pressure fluctuations have been discussed with respect to the foot of the overexpansion shock on the plug surface. The effect of internal nozzle clustering on the plug nozzle <span class="hlt">flow</span> field has been studied for two different cluster nozzles. The cluster module jet wave interactions along the spanwise direction have been explained with respect to the limiting streamline pattern on the plug surface. In addition to these, the base <span class="hlt">flow</span> characteristics for these overexpanded internal nozzle pressure ratios have been discussed for two different truncated plug lengths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..DFD.AM003R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..DFD.AM003R"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability analysis of immiscible two-phase <span class="hlt">flow</span> in porous media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riaz, Amir</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability analysis of immiscible displacements is carried out for both viscously and gravitationally unstable two-phase <span class="hlt">flows</span> in porous media with very large adverse viscosity ratios. Capillary dispersion is the proper dissipative mechanism in this case which sets both the preferred length scale and the band width of the spectrum of unstable length scales. The growth rate, the most dangerous and the cutoff wavenumbers, all scale <span class="hlt">linearly</span> with the capillary number. We show that the instability is governed by fluid properties across the shock rather than those across the full Buckley--Leverett profile. The shock total mobility ratio provides a sufficient condition for the onset of instability; however, it is not an appropriate criterion for predicting the magnitude of the growth rate, particularly for large viscosity ratios. The details of the relative permeability functions are observed to have a significant influence on the stability characteristics. For neutrally buoyant <span class="hlt">flows</span> the maximum growth rate scales <span class="hlt">linearly</span> with the viscosity ratio while the most dangerous and the cutoff wavenumbers scale with the square root of the viscosity ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhFl...15.2843F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhFl...15.2843F"><span>On three-dimensional <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flow</span> of Bingham fluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frigaard, Ian; Nouar, Cherif</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>Plane channel Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a Bingham fluid is characterized by the Bingham number, B, which describes the ratio of yield and viscous stresses. Unlike purely viscous non-Newtonian fluids, which modify hydrodynamic stability studies only through the dissipation and the basic <span class="hlt">flow</span>, inclusion of a yield stress additionally results in a modified domain and boundary conditions for the stability problem. We investigate the effects of increasing B on the stability of the <span class="hlt">flow</span>, using eigenvalue bounds that incorporate these features. As B→∞ we show that three-dimensional <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability can be achieved for a Reynolds number bound of form Re=O(B3/4), for all wavelengths. For long wavelengths this can be improved to Re=O(B), which compares well with computed <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability results for two-dimensional disturbances [J. Fluid Mech. 263, 133 (1994)]. It is also possible to find bounds of form Re=O(B1/2), which derive from purely viscous dissipation acting over the reduced domain and are comparable with the nonlinear stability bounds in J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. 100, 127 (2001). We also show that a Squire-like result can be derived for the plane channel <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Namely, if the equivalent eigenvalue bounds for a Newtonian fluid yield a stability criterion, then the same stability criterion is valid for the Bingham fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span>, but with reduced wavenumbers and Reynolds numbers. An application of these results is to bound the regions of parameter space in which computational methods need to be used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370366','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370366"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> analysis on the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Takahashi, Kazuya; Yamada, Shoichi</p> <p>2014-10-20</p> <p>We analyzed the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion <span class="hlt">flows</span>. We have in mind an application to the post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Such non-spherical perturbations have been suggested by a series of papers by Arnett, who has numerically investigated violent convections in the outer layers of pre-collapse stars. Moreover, Couch and Ott demonstrated in their numerical simulations that such perturbations may lead to a successful supernova even for a progenitor that fails to explode without fluctuations. This study investigated the <span class="hlt">linear</span> growth of perturbations during the infall onto a stalled shock wave. The <span class="hlt">linearized</span> equations are solved as an initial and boundary value problem with the use of a Laplace transform. The background is a Bondi accretion <span class="hlt">flow</span> whose parameters are chosen to mimic the 15 M {sub ☉} progenitor model by Woosley and Heger, which is supposed to be a typical progenitor of CCSNe. We found that the perturbations that are given at a large radius grow as they <span class="hlt">flow</span> down to the shock radius; the density perturbations can be amplified by a factor of 30, for example. We analytically show that the growth rate is proportional to l, the index of the spherical harmonics. We also found that the perturbations oscillate in time with frequencies that are similar to those of the standing accretion shock instability. This may have an implication for shock revival in CCSNe, which will be investigated in our forthcoming paper in more detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-EC98-44440-4.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-EC98-44440-4.html"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) dumps water after first in-flight cold <span class="hlt">flow</span> test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-03-04</p> <p>The NASA SR-71A successfully completed its first cold <span class="hlt">flow</span> flight as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/Lockheed Martin <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California on March 4, 1998. During a cold <span class="hlt">flow</span> flight, gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen are cycled through the <span class="hlt">linear</span> aerospike engine to check the engine's plumbing system for leaks and to check the engine operating characterisitics. Cold-<span class="hlt">flow</span> tests must be accomplished successfully before firing the rocket engine experiment in flight. The SR-71 took off at 10:16 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty-seven minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.58 before landing at Edwards at 12:13 p.m. PST. "I think all in all we had a good mission today," Dryden LASRE Project Manager Dave Lux said. Flight crew member Bob Meyer agreed, saying the crew "thought it was a really good flight." Dryden Research Pilot Ed Schneider piloted the SR-71 during the mission. Lockheed Martin LASRE Project Manager Carl Meade added, "We are extremely pleased with today's results. This will help pave the way for the first in-flight engine data-collection flight of the LASRE."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT........21E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT........21E"><span>Parallel simulations of vortex-induced vibrations in turbulent <span class="hlt">flow</span>: <span class="hlt">Linear</span> and nonlinear models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evangelinos, Constantinos</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>In this work unstructured spectral/hp element based direct numerical simulation (DNS) techniques are used to simulate vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of flexible cylinders. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> structural models are employed for tension- dominated structures (cables) and bending stiffness- dominated structures (beams). <span class="hlt">Flow</span>-structure interactions are studied in transitional (200-300) and turbulent (1000) Reynolds numbers. Structural responses as well as hydrodynamic forces are analyzed and their relationship with the near wake <span class="hlt">flow</span> structures is examined. The following conclusions were reached: (1)A Reynolds number effect exists for the observed oscillation amplitude. (2)The phase relationship between cross- <span class="hlt">flow</span> displacement and coefficient of lift is correlated with both the magnitudes of lift forces and displacement. (3)Cables enhance transition to turbulent <span class="hlt">flow</span>, while beams (and rigidly vibrating cylinders) delay it. In the transition regime beams oscillate with 70% of the amplitude of cables. (4)Oblique and parallel shedding appear to coexist in the turbulent wake of cables and beams with a traveling wave structural response. The corresponding wake structure behind a cylinder with pinned ends vibrating as a standing wave, displays lambda-type vortices similar to those seen at lower (laminar) Reynolds numbers. (5)Cables and beams at a Reynolds number of 1000 give: (a)extremely similar velocity spectra, (b)differing autocorrelation profiles and large <span class="hlt">flow</span> structures, and (c)differing structural responses. (6)The empirical formula for the coefficient of drag due to Skop et al. (1977) is shown to be in disagreement with the experimental data; a modified formula fits the results much better. A non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> set of equations for the finite amplitude vibrations of a string are also derived and investigated. It is combined with an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) <span class="hlt">flow</span> solver and applied to model simulations of low Reynolds number (100) <span class="hlt">flow</span> past flexible cylinders with pinned ends</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JFM...466..113W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JFM...466..113W"><span>The <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of a core annular <span class="hlt">flow</span> in an asymptotically corrugated tube</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Hsien-Hung; Rumschitzki, David S.</p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>This paper examines the core annular <span class="hlt">flow</span> of two immiscible fluids in a straight circular tube with a small corrugation, in the limit where the ratio [epsilon] of the mean undisturbed annulus thickness to the mean core radius and the corrugation (characterized by the parameter [sigma]) are both asymptotically small and where the surface tension is small. It is motivated by the problems of liquid liquid displacement in irregular rock pores such as occur in secondary oil recovery and in the evolution of the liquid film lining the bronchii in the lungs whose diameters vary over different generations of branching. We investigate the asymptotic base <span class="hlt">flow</span> in this limit and consider the <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of its leading order (in the corrugation parameter) solution. For the chosen scalings of the non-dimensional parameters the core's base <span class="hlt">flow</span> slaves that of the annulus. The equation governing the leading-order interfacial position for a given wall corrugation function shows a competition between shear and capillarity. The former tends to align the interface shape with that of the wall and the latter tends to introduce a phase shift, which can be of either sign depending on whether the circumferential or the longitudinal component of capillarity dominates. The asymptotic <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of this leading-order base <span class="hlt">flow</span> reduces to a single partial differential equation with non-constant coefficients deriving from the non-uniform base <span class="hlt">flow</span> for the time evolution of an interfacial disturbance. Examination of a single mode k wall function allows the use of Floquet theory to analyse this equation. Direct numerical solutions of the above partial differential equation agree with the predictions of the Floquet analysis. The resulting spectrum is periodic in [alpha]- space, [alpha] being the disturbance wavenumber space. The presence of a small corrugation not only modifies (at order [sigma]2) the primary eigenvalue of the system. In addition, short-wave order-one disturbances that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT.......196C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT.......196C"><span>The measurement of low-frequency <span class="hlt">linear</span> viscoelastic properties of polyolefins using creeping squeeze <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cua, Edwin Matthew Chua</p> <p></p> <p>The characterization of the low-frequency <span class="hlt">linear</span> viscoelastic properties of polymers is a classical problem in rheometry, especially for broad molecular weight (MW), fractional melt-<span class="hlt">flow</span> index (MFI) polyolefins with small time-temperature shift factors. By interconversion of high-temperature, low-shear steady-viscosity data in the terminal <span class="hlt">flow</span> regime into low-frequency data using the Cox-Merz rule, the experimental window is expanded towards lower frequencies. A squeeze-<span class="hlt">flow</span> apparatus using Newton interferometry as a drift-free transducer to measure the gap between a spherical lens and a flat glass plate with high spatial resolution was constructed. Trials with a Newtonian silicone oil and a viscoelastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) gum were undertaken to examine the various experimental factors that might contribute to errors in the calculation of the viscosity. After taking into account those factors during the runs with PDMS gum, the squeeze-<span class="hlt">flow</span>-derived viscosities at the terminal <span class="hlt">flow</span> regime (at shear rates accessible to a commercial rheometer) were in good agreement with low frequency dynamic data. To achieve much lower shear rates for the runs with polyolefins, an increase in the working gap range was made by switching from Newton interferometry to Fizeau interferometry. A hermetically sealed high vacuum chamber was built to allow high-temperature runs with polyolefins with minimal degradation. Interconversion of the measured viscosities of a broad MW, 1.04 MFI high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with the squeeze <span class="hlt">flow</span> apparatus resulted in complex viscosity data at ˜10-5 rad/s, expanding the experimental window by 2 decades. The squeeze-<span class="hlt">flow</span> derived complex viscosity data was used to decide which of the two popular viscosity models was more accurate in predicting the zero-shear rate viscosity based on its fit to dynamic data limited to higher frequencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/433402','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/433402"><span>Accelerated solution of non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> problems using Chebyshev iteration polynomial based RK recursions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lorber, A.A.; Carey, G.F.; Bova, S.W.; Harle, C.H.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The connection between the solution of <span class="hlt">linear</span> systems of equations by iterative methods and explicit time stepping techniques is used to accelerate to steady state the solution of ODE systems arising from discretized PDEs which may involve either physical or artificial transient terms. Specifically, a class of Runge-Kutta (RK) time integration schemes with extended stability domains has been used to develop recursion formulas which lead to accelerated iterative performance. The coefficients for the RK schemes are chosen based on the theory of Chebyshev iteration polynomials in conjunction with a local <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis. We refer to these schemes as Chebyshev Parameterized Runge Kutta (CPRK) methods. CPRK methods of one to four stages are derived as functions of the parameters which describe an ellipse {Epsilon} which the stability domain of the methods is known to contain. Of particular interest are two-stage, first-order CPRK and four-stage, first-order methods. It is found that the former method can be identified with any two-stage RK method through the correct choice of parameters. The latter method is found to have a wide range of stability domains, with a maximum extension of 32 along the real axis. Recursion performance results are presented below for a model <span class="hlt">linear</span> convection-diffusion problem as well as non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span> problems discretized by both finite-difference and finite-element methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990089305','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990089305"><span>Asymptotic Behavior of Ensemble-Averaged <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Disturbances in Homogeneous Shear <span class="hlt">Flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thacker, W. D.; Grosch, C E.; Gatski, T. B.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>In order to expand the predictive capability of single-point turbulence closure models too account for the early-stage transition regime, a methodology for the formulation and calibration of model equations for the ensemble-averaged disturbance kinetic energy and energy dissipation rate is presented. The calibration is based on homogeneous shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> where disturbances can be described by rapid distort,ion theory (RDT). The relationship between RDT and <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability theory is exploit,c d in order to obtain a closed set, of modeled equations. The <span class="hlt">linear</span> disturbance equations are solved directly so that, the numerical simulation yields a database from which the closure coefficient,s in the ensemble-averaged disturbance equations can he determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DPPUI1002Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DPPUI1002Z"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> Paradigm for Drift Wave - Zonal <span class="hlt">Flow</span> interplay: coherence, chaos and turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zonca, Fulvio</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> equations for the slow space-time evolution of the radial drift wave (DW) envelope and zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> (ZF) amplitude have been self-consistently derived for a model nonuniform tokamak equilibrium within the coherent 4-wave drift wave-zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> modulation interaction model of Chen, Lin and White(chen00). For the sake of simplicity, in this work we assume electrostatic fluctuations; but our formalism is readily extended to electromagnetic fluctuations(chen01). In the local limit, i.e. neglecting equilibrium profile variations, the coherent 4-wave DW-ZF modulation interaction model has successfully demonstrated spontaneous generation of ZFs and non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> DW/ITG-ZF dynamics in toroidal plasmas(chen00). The present work is an extension of previous analyses to allow both (slow) temporal and spatial variations of the DW/ITG radial envelope; thus, it naturally incorporates the effects of equilibrium variations; i.e., turbulence spreading and size-dependence of the saturated wave intensities and transport coefficients(lin99). This approach makes it possible to treat equilibrium profile variations and non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> interactions on the same footing, assuming that coupling among different DWs on the shortest non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> time scale is mediated by ZF only. At this level, the competition between <span class="hlt">linear</span> drive/damping, DW spreading due to finite <span class="hlt">linear</span> (and nonlinear) group velocity(lin02,chen02,kim02) and non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> energy transfer between DWs and ZF, determines the saturation levels of the fluctuating fields. Despite the coherence of the underlying non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> dynamics at this level, this system exhibits both chaotic behavior and intermittency, depending on system size and proximity to marginal stability(chen02). The present model can be further extended to include longer time-scale physics such as 3-wave interactions and collisionless damping of zonal <span class="hlt">flows</span>. 9 chen00 Liu Chen, Zhihong Lin and Roscoe White, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3129, (2000). chen01 L. Chen, Z. Lin, R.B. White and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JFM...481..149H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JFM...481..149H"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> feedback control and estimation of transition in plane channel <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Högberg, Markus; Bewley, Thomas R.; Henningson, Dan S.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">linear</span> control theory has recently been established as a viable tool for developing effective, spatially localized convolution kernels for the feedback control and estimation of <span class="hlt">linearized</span> Navier Stokes systems. In the present paper, the effectiveness of these kernels for significantly expanding the basin of attraction of the laminar state in a subcritical nonlinear channel <span class="hlt">flow</span> system is quantified using direct numerical simulations for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re_{CL}=2000, 3000 and 5000) and for a variety of initial conditions of physical interest. This is done by quantifying the change in the transition thresholds (see Reddy et al. 1998) when feedback control is applied. Such transition thresholds provide a relevant measure of performance for transition control strategies even in the nonlinear regime. Initial <span class="hlt">flow</span> perturbations with streamwise vortices, oblique waves, and random excitations over an array of several Fourier modes are considered. It is shown that the minimum amplitude of these initial <span class="hlt">flow</span> perturbations that is sufficient to excite nonlinear instability, and thereby promote transition to turbulence, is significantly increased by application of the control feedback. The kernels used to apply the feedback are found to decay exponentially with distance far from the origin, as predicted by the analysis of Bamieh, Paganini & Dahleh (2002). In the present paper, it is demonstrated via numerical simulation that truncation of these spatially localized convolution kernels to spatially compact kernels with finite non-zero support does not significantly degrade the effectiveness of the control feedback. In addition to the new state-feedback control results, exponential convergence of a localized physical-space state estimator with wall measurements is also demonstrated. The estimator and the full-state feedback controller are then combined to obtain a wall-information-based <span class="hlt">linear</span> compensator. The compensator performance is also quantified, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21190082','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21190082"><span>Modeling and experiments on differential pumping in <span class="hlt">linear</span> plasma generators operating at high gas <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eck, H. J. N. van; Koppers, W. R.; Rooij, G. J. van; Goedheer, W. J.; Cardozo, N. J. Lopes; Kleyn, A. W.; Engeln, R.; Schram, D. C.</p> <p>2009-03-15</p> <p>The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used to investigate the efficiency of differential pumping in <span class="hlt">linear</span> plasma generators operating at high gas <span class="hlt">flows</span>. Skimmers are used to separate the neutrals from the plasma beam, which is guided from the source to the target by a strong axial magnetic field. In this way, the neutrals are prevented to reach the target region. The neutral flux to the target must be lower than the plasma flux to enable ITER relevant plasma-surface interaction (PSI) studies. It is therefore essential to control the neutral gas dynamics. The DSMC method was used to model the expansion of a hot gas in a low pressure vessel where a small discrepancy in shock position was found between the simulations and a well-established empirical formula. Two stage differential pumping was modeled and applied in the <span class="hlt">linear</span> plasma devices Pilot-PSI and PLEXIS. In Pilot-PSI a factor of 4.5 pressure reduction for H{sub 2} has been demonstrated. Both simulations and experiments showed that the optimum skimmer position depends on the position of the shock and therefore shifts for different gas parameters. The shape of the skimmer has to be designed such that it has a minimum impact on the shock structure. A too large angle between the skimmer and the forward direction of the gas <span class="hlt">flow</span> leads to an influence on the expansion structure. A pressure increase in front of the skimmer is formed and the <span class="hlt">flow</span> of the plasma beam becomes obstructed. It has been shown that a skimmer with an angle around 53 deg. gives the best performance. The use of skimmers is implemented in the design of the large <span class="hlt">linear</span> plasma generator Magnum-PSI. Here, a three stage differentially pumped vacuum system is used to reach low enough neutral pressures near the target, opening a door to PSI research in the ITER relevant regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040112623&hterms=interferon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dinterferon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040112623&hterms=interferon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dinterferon"><span><span class="hlt">Routine</span> detection of Epstein-Barr virus specific T-cells in the peripheral blood by <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The ability to detect cytomegalovirus-specific T-cells (CD4(+)) in the peripheral blood by <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry has been recently described by Picker et al. In this method, cells are incubated with viral antigen and responding (cytokine producing) T-cells are then identified by <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry. To date, this technique has not been reliably used to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T-cells primarily due to the superantigen/mitogenic properties of the virus which non-specifically activate T-cells. By modifying culture conditions under which the antigens are presented, we have overcome this limitation and developed an assay to detect and quantitate EBV-specific T-cells. The detection of cytokine producing T-cells by <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry requires an extremely strong signal (such as culture in the presence of PMA and ionomycin). Our data indicate that in modified culture conditions (early removal of viral antigen) the non-specific activation of T-cells by EBV is reduced, but antigen presentation will continue uninhibited. Using this method, EBV-specific T-cells may be legitimately detected using <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry. No reduction in the numbers of antigen-specific T-cells was observed by the early removal of target antigen when verified using cytomegalovirus antigen (a virus with no non-specific T-cell activation properties). In EBV-seropositive individuals, the phenotype of the EBV-specific cytokine producing T-cells was evaluated using four-color <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry and found to be CD45(+), CD3(+), CD4(+), CD45RA(-), CD69(+), CD25(-). This phenotype indicates the stimulation of circulating previously unactivated memory T-cells. No cytokine production was observed in CD4(+) T-cells from EBV-seronegative individuals, confirming the specificity of this assay. In addition, the use of four color cytometry (CD45, CD3, CD69, IFNgamma/IL-2) allows the total quantitative assessment of EBV-specific T-cells while monitoring the interference of EBV non-specific mitogenic activity. This method may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040112623&hterms=Virus&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DVirus','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040112623&hterms=Virus&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DVirus"><span><span class="hlt">Routine</span> detection of Epstein-Barr virus specific T-cells in the peripheral blood by <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The ability to detect cytomegalovirus-specific T-cells (CD4(+)) in the peripheral blood by <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry has been recently described by Picker et al. In this method, cells are incubated with viral antigen and responding (cytokine producing) T-cells are then identified by <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry. To date, this technique has not been reliably used to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T-cells primarily due to the superantigen/mitogenic properties of the virus which non-specifically activate T-cells. By modifying culture conditions under which the antigens are presented, we have overcome this limitation and developed an assay to detect and quantitate EBV-specific T-cells. The detection of cytokine producing T-cells by <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry requires an extremely strong signal (such as culture in the presence of PMA and ionomycin). Our data indicate that in modified culture conditions (early removal of viral antigen) the non-specific activation of T-cells by EBV is reduced, but antigen presentation will continue uninhibited. Using this method, EBV-specific T-cells may be legitimately detected using <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry. No reduction in the numbers of antigen-specific T-cells was observed by the early removal of target antigen when verified using cytomegalovirus antigen (a virus with no non-specific T-cell activation properties). In EBV-seropositive individuals, the phenotype of the EBV-specific cytokine producing T-cells was evaluated using four-color <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry and found to be CD45(+), CD3(+), CD4(+), CD45RA(-), CD69(+), CD25(-). This phenotype indicates the stimulation of circulating previously unactivated memory T-cells. No cytokine production was observed in CD4(+) T-cells from EBV-seronegative individuals, confirming the specificity of this assay. In addition, the use of four color cytometry (CD45, CD3, CD69, IFNgamma/IL-2) allows the total quantitative assessment of EBV-specific T-cells while monitoring the interference of EBV non-specific mitogenic activity. This method may</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960016110','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960016110"><span>A parametric study of supersonic laminar <span class="hlt">flow</span> for swept wings using <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cummings, Russell M.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Tu, Eugene L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A parametric study to predict the extent of laminar <span class="hlt">flow</span> on the upper surface of a generic swept-back wing (NACA 64A010 airfoil section) at supersonic speeds was conducted. The results were obtained by using surface pressure predictions from an Euler/Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code coupled with a boundary layer code, which predicts detailed boundary layer profiles, and finally with a <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability code to determine the extent of laminar <span class="hlt">flow</span>. The parameters addressed are Reynolds number, angle of attack, and leading-edge wing sweep. The results of this study show that an increase in angle of attack, for specific Reynolds numbers, can actually delay transition. Therefore, higher lift capability, caused by the increased angle of attack, as well as a reduction in viscous drag due to the delay in transition is possible for certain flight conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24978768','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24978768"><span>Entropy analysis reveals a simple <span class="hlt">linear</span> relation between laser speckle and blood <span class="hlt">flow</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miao, Peng; Chao, Zhen; Zhang, Yiguang; Li, Nan; Thakor, Nitish V</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Dynamic laser speckles contain motion information of scattering particles which can be estimated by laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA). In this work, an entropy-based method was proposed to provide a more robust estimation of motion speed. An in vitro <span class="hlt">flow</span> simulation experiment confirmed a simple <span class="hlt">linear</span> relation between entropy, exposure time, and speed. A multimodality optical imaging setup is developed to validate the advantages of the entropy method based on laser speckle imaging, green light imaging, and fluorescence imaging. The entropy method overcomes traditional LASCA with less noisy interference, and extracts more visible and detailed vasculatures in vivo. Furthermore, the entropy method provides a more accurate estimation and a stable pattern of blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> activations in the rat's somatosensory area under multitrial hand paw stimulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17942354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17942354"><span>Visualization of conformational changes of <span class="hlt">linear</span> short-chain polyethylenes under shear and elongational <span class="hlt">flows</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, J M; Edwards, B J; Keffer, D J</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>We have performed nonequilibrium molecular dynamic simulations of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> short-chain polyethylene liquids C(24)H(50), C(50)H(102), C(78)H(158), and C(128)H(258) under homogenous shear and elongational <span class="hlt">flows</span>. We present visualizations of the molecular structure of each of the four liquids under shear and elongation, and compare them with their equilibrium static structures. These graphics provide a structural understanding of the various statistical measures that have been used in the literature to characterize the change in chain conformation as a function of strain rate and chain length. Moreover, these graphics allow a visualization of the inherent chain dynamics and orientation induced by shear and elongational <span class="hlt">flows</span>. We discuss the molecular-level mechanisms apparent in the graphics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT........61A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT........61A"><span>Finite element fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span> computations through porous media employing quasi-<span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear viscoelastic models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alakus, Bayram</p> <p></p> <p>Mathematical modeling involving porous heterogeneous media is important in a number of composite manufacturing processes, such as resin transfer molding (RTM), injection molding and the like. Of interest here are process modeling issues as related to composites manufacturing by RTM, because of the ability of the method to manufacture consolidated net shapes of complex geometric parts. In this research, we propose a mathematical model by utilizing the local volume averaging technique to establish the governing equations and therein provide finite element computational developments to predict the <span class="hlt">flow</span> behavior of a viscous and viscoelastic fluid through a porous fiber network. The developments predict the velocity, pressure, and polymeric stress by modeling the conservation laws (e.g. mass and momentum) of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> field coupled with constitutive equations for polymeric stress field. The governing equations of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> are averaged for the fluid phase. Furthermore, the simulations target a variety of viscoelastic models (e.g. Newtonian model, Upper-Convected-Maxwell Model, Oldroyd-B model and Giesekus model) to provide a fundamental understanding of the elastic effects on the <span class="hlt">flow</span> field. To solve the complex coupled nonlinear equations of the mathematical model described above, a combination of Newton <span class="hlt">linearization</span> and the Galerkin and Streamline-Upwinding-Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) finite element procedures are employed to accurately capture the representative physics. The formulations are first validated with available test cases of viscoelastic <span class="hlt">flows</span> without porous media. Therein, the simulations are described for viscoelastic <span class="hlt">flow</span> through porous media and the comparative results of different constitutive models are presented and discussed at length.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...49f2011L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...49f2011L"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Harmonic <span class="hlt">flow</span> simulations of a High-Head Francis Turbine test case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lestriez, R.; Amet, E.; Tartinville, B.; Hirsch, C.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>This work investigates the use of the non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> harmonic (NLH) method for a high- head Francis turbine, the Francis99 workshop test case. The NLH method relies on a Fourier decomposition of the unsteady <span class="hlt">flow</span> components in harmonics of Blade Passing Frequencies (BPF), which are the fundamentals of the periodic disturbances generated by the adjacent blade rows. The unsteady <span class="hlt">flow</span> solution is obtained by marching in pseudo-time to a steady-state solution of the transport equations associated with the time-mean, the BPFs and their harmonics. Thanks to this transposition into frequency domain, meshing only one blade channel is sufficient, like for a steady <span class="hlt">flow</span> simulation. Notable benefits in terms of computing costs and engineering time can therefore be obtained compared to classical time marching approach using sliding grid techniques. The method has been applied for three operating points of the Francis99 workshop high-head Francis turbine. Steady and NLH <span class="hlt">flow</span> simulations have been carried out for these configurations. Impact of the grid size and near-wall refinement is analysed on all operating points for steady simulations and for Best Efficiency Point (BEP) for NLH simulations. Then, NLH results for a selected grid size are compared for the three different operating points, reproducing the tendencies observed in the experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26274307','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26274307"><span><span class="hlt">Linearized</span> lattice Boltzmann method for micro- and nanoscale <span class="hlt">flow</span> and heat transfer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shi, Yong; Yap, Ying Wan; Sader, John E</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Ability to characterize the heat transfer in <span class="hlt">flowing</span> gases is important for a wide range of applications involving micro- and nanoscale devices. Gas <span class="hlt">flows</span> away from the continuum limit can be captured using the Boltzmann equation, whose analytical solution poses a formidable challenge. An efficient and accurate numerical simulation of the Boltzmann equation is thus highly desirable. In this article, the <span class="hlt">linearized</span> Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation is used to develop a hierarchy of thermal lattice Boltzmann (LB) models based on half-space Gaussian-Hermite (GH) quadrature ranging from low to high algebraic precision, using double distribution functions. Simplified versions of the LB models in the continuum limit are also derived, and are shown to be consistent with existing thermal LB models for noncontinuum heat transfer reported in the literature. Accuracy of the proposed LB hierarchy is assessed by simulating thermal Couette <span class="hlt">flows</span> for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. Effects of the underlying quadrature schemes (half-space GH vs full-space GH) and continuum-limit simplifications on computational accuracy are also elaborated. The numerical findings in this article provide direct evidence of improved computational capability of the proposed LB models for modeling noncontinuum <span class="hlt">flows</span> and heat transfer at small length scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFD.L7006T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFD.L7006T"><span>Localized modelling and feedback control of <span class="hlt">linear</span> instabilities in 2-D wall bounded shear <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tol, Henry; Kotsonis, Marios; de Visser, Coen</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A new approach is presented for control of instabilities in 2-D wall bounded shear <span class="hlt">flows</span> described by the <span class="hlt">linearized</span> Navier-Stokes equations (LNSE). The control design accounts both for spatially localized actuators/sensors and the dominant perturbation dynamics in an optimal control framework. An inflow disturbance model is proposed for streamwise instabilities that drive laminar-turbulent transition. The perturbation modes that contribute to the transition process can be selected and are included in the control design. A reduced order model is derived from the LNSE that captures the input-output behavior and the dominant perturbation dynamics. This model is used to design an optimal controller for suppressing the instability growth. A 2-D channel <span class="hlt">flow</span> and a 2-D boundary layer <span class="hlt">flow</span> over a flat plate are considered as application cases. Disturbances are generated upstream of the control domain and the resulting <span class="hlt">flow</span> perturbations are estimated/controlled using wall shear measurements and localized unsteady blowing and suction at the wall. It will be shown that the controller is able to cancel the perturbations and is robust to unmodelled disturbances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3832825','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3832825"><span>Transthoracic measurement of left coronary artery <span class="hlt">flow</span> reserve improves the diagnostic value of <span class="hlt">routine</span> dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiogram</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wejner-Mik, Paulina; Nouri, Aria; Szymczyk, Ewa; Krzemińska-Pakuła, Maria; Lipiec, Piotr</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Introduction We hypothesized that coronary <span class="hlt">flow</span> reserve (CFR) in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) can be effectively measured during an accelerated dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE) protocol to improve the diagnostic performance of the test. Material and methods In 64 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease scheduled for coronary angiography DASE with concomitant CFR measurement in LAD was performed. Results Coronary <span class="hlt">flow</span> reserve measurement and calculation were feasible in 83% of patients. The positive predictive value of undetectable LAD <span class="hlt">flow</span> was 81% for severe LAD disease. Measured values of CFR were in the range 1.3–4.1 (mean: 2.2 ±0.7). Significantly lower CFR was found in patients with LAD disease (1.97 ±0.62 vs. 2.55 ±0.57, p = 0.0015). The optimal cutoff for detecting ≥ 50% stenosis was CFR ≤ 2.1 (ROC AUC 0.776), corresponding with 68% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In patients with negative DASE results 67% of patients with LAD disease had abnormal CFR, whereas in patients with a positive DASE result 92% of patients with normal LAD had normal CFR. The DASE diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) increased from 75% to 85% when CFR measurement was added to wall motion abnormality (WMA) analysis. No test with both abnormalities was false positive for the detection of coronary disease. Conclusions Incorporation of CFR measurement into WMA-based stress echocardiography is feasible even in an accelerated DASE protocol and can be translated into an approximate gain of 10% in overall test accuracy. PMID:24273560</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20044309','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20044309"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> and nonlinear information <span class="hlt">flow</span> based on time-delayed mutual information method and its application to corticomuscular interaction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jin, Seung-Hyun; Lin, Peter; Hallett, Mark</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>To propose a model-free method to show <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear information <span class="hlt">flow</span> based on time-delayed mutual information (TDMI) by employing uni- and bi-variate surrogate tests and to investigate whether there are contributions of the nonlinear information <span class="hlt">flow</span> in corticomuscular (CM) interaction. Using simulated data, we tested whether our method would successfully detect the direction of information <span class="hlt">flow</span> and identify a relationship between two simulated time series. As an experimental data application, we applied this method to investigate CM interaction during a right wrist extension task. Results of simulation tests show that we can correctly detect the direction of information <span class="hlt">flow</span> and the relationship between two time series without a prior knowledge of the dynamics of their generating systems. As experimental results, we found both <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear information <span class="hlt">flow</span> from contralateral sensorimotor cortex to muscle. Our method is a viable model-free measure of temporally varying causal interactions that is capable of distinguishing <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear information <span class="hlt">flow</span>. With respect to experimental application, there are both <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear information <span class="hlt">flows</span> in CM interaction from contralateral sensorimotor cortex to muscle, which may reflect the motor command from brain to muscle. This is the first study to show separate <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear information <span class="hlt">flow</span> in CM interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26954783','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26954783"><span>An Efficacious Multi-Objective Fuzzy <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Programming Approach for Optimal Power <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Considering Distributed Generation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Warid, Warid; Hizam, Hashim; Mariun, Norman; Abdul-Wahab, Noor Izzri</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a new formulation for the multi-objective optimal power <span class="hlt">flow</span> (MOOPF) problem for meshed power networks considering distributed generation. An efficacious multi-objective fuzzy <span class="hlt">linear</span> programming optimization (MFLP) algorithm is proposed to solve the aforementioned problem with and without considering the distributed generation (DG) effect. A variant combination of objectives is considered for simultaneous optimization, including power loss, voltage stability, and shunt capacitors MVAR reserve. Fuzzy membership functions for these objectives are designed with extreme targets, whereas the inequality constraints are treated as hard constraints. The multi-objective fuzzy optimal power <span class="hlt">flow</span> (OPF) formulation was converted into a crisp OPF in a successive <span class="hlt">linear</span> programming (SLP) framework and solved using an efficient interior point method (IPM). To test the efficacy of the proposed approach, simulations are performed on the IEEE 30-busand IEEE 118-bus test systems. The MFLP optimization is solved for several optimization cases. The obtained results are compared with those presented in the literature. A unique solution with a high satisfaction for the assigned targets is gained. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MFLP technique in terms of solution optimality and rapid convergence. Moreover, the results indicate that using the optimal DG location with the MFLP algorithm provides the solution with the highest quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4783035','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4783035"><span>An Efficacious Multi-Objective Fuzzy <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Programming Approach for Optimal Power <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Considering Distributed Generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Warid, Warid; Hizam, Hashim; Mariun, Norman; Abdul-Wahab, Noor Izzri</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a new formulation for the multi-objective optimal power <span class="hlt">flow</span> (MOOPF) problem for meshed power networks considering distributed generation. An efficacious multi-objective fuzzy <span class="hlt">linear</span> programming optimization (MFLP) algorithm is proposed to solve the aforementioned problem with and without considering the distributed generation (DG) effect. A variant combination of objectives is considered for simultaneous optimization, including power loss, voltage stability, and shunt capacitors MVAR reserve. Fuzzy membership functions for these objectives are designed with extreme targets, whereas the inequality constraints are treated as hard constraints. The multi-objective fuzzy optimal power <span class="hlt">flow</span> (OPF) formulation was converted into a crisp OPF in a successive <span class="hlt">linear</span> programming (SLP) framework and solved using an efficient interior point method (IPM). To test the efficacy of the proposed approach, simulations are performed on the IEEE 30-busand IEEE 118-bus test systems. The MFLP optimization is solved for several optimization cases. The obtained results are compared with those presented in the literature. A unique solution with a high satisfaction for the assigned targets is gained. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MFLP technique in terms of solution optimality and rapid convergence. Moreover, the results indicate that using the optimal DG location with the MFLP algorithm provides the solution with the highest quality. PMID:26954783</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFDL23010Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFDL23010Q"><span><span class="hlt">Flow</span> Structure and Turbulence Characteristics downstream of a Spanwise Suspended <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Canopy through Laboratory Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiao, Jundong; Delavan, Sarah</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Laboratory experiments were conducted to explore the mean <span class="hlt">flow</span> structure and turbulence properties downstream of a spanwise suspended <span class="hlt">linear</span> canopy in a 2-D open channel <span class="hlt">flow</span> using the Particle Tracking Velocimetry technique. This canopy simulated the effect of one long-line structure of a mussel farm. Four experimental scenarios with the approach velocities 50, 80, 110, and 140 mm s-1 were under investigation. Three sub-layers formed downstream of the canopy. An internal canopy layer, where the time-averaged velocity decreases <span class="hlt">linearly</span> with increasing distance downstream, a canopy mixing layer increasing in vertical extent with increasing distance downstream of the canopy, and an external canopy layer with higher velocity under the canopy, which may bring nutrients from the local ambient environment into this layer. The canopy turbulence results in upward momentum transport downstream of the canopy within a distance of 0.60 of the canopy depth and downward momentum transport beyond 1.20 of it. In the scenarios with relatively lower approach velocities 50 and 80 mm s1 , the wake turbulence results in upward momentum transport. The broader goal of this study is to offer guidelines for the design and site selection of more productive mussel farms. The results suggest that distance interval between the parallel long-lines in a mussel farm should be less than 0.6 times the height of a long-line dropper. Also, potential farm locations that are characterized with current velocity from 50 to 80 mm s1 are suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.EE001R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.EE001R"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear optimal perturbation transient growth in plane Couette <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabin, S. M. E.; Caulfield, C. P.; Kerswell, R. R.</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Previous approaches to the question of transient growth have focused upon the study of linearised disturbances, with the assumption that it is the growth in the <span class="hlt">linear</span> regime of <span class="hlt">linear</span> optimal perturbations (LOPs) that nevertheless lead to a nonlinear regime and hence trigger the transition to turbulence. In this study we take a different approach by considering the full nonlinear problem. We look to extend the work considering pipe <span class="hlt">flow</span> of Pringle (C. C. T. Pringle Ph.D. Bristol 2009) and use variational techniques to examine both the spatial structure and the normalised kinetic energy growth (gain) achieved by nonlinear optimal perturbations (NLOPs) in plane Couette <span class="hlt">flow</span>. We show that in certain circumstances the gain achieved by the NLOP is significantly larger and has a noticeably different (and more complex) spatial structure from its counterpart LOP. We investigate the dependence on initial perturbation energy of the maximum predicted gain for selected Reynolds numbers and optimization times and propose that these inherently nonlinear structures may well be more significant in the transition to turbulence than LOPs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010079652&hterms=base+analogs&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbase%2Banalogs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010079652&hterms=base+analogs&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbase%2Banalogs"><span>Modeling Wave Driven Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Oscillations: The Terrestrial QBO and a Solar Analog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mayr, Hans G.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) of the zonal circulation observed in the terrestrial atmosphere at low latitudes is driven by wave mean <span class="hlt">flow</span> interaction as was demonstrated first by Lindzen and Holton (1968), shown in a laboratory experiment by Plumb and McEwan (1978), and modeled by others (e.g., Plumb, Dunkerton). Although influenced by the seasonal cycle of solar forcing, the QBO, in principle, represents a nonlinear <span class="hlt">flow</span> oscillation that can be maintained by a steady source of upward propagating waves. The wave driven non-<span class="hlt">linearity</span> is of third or odd order in the <span class="hlt">flow</span> velocity, which regenerates the fundamental harmonic itself to keep the oscillation going - the fluid dynamical analog of the displacement mechanism in the mechanical clock. Applying Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization (DSP) for gravity waves (GW), we discuss with a global-scale spectral model numerical experiments that elucidate some properties of the QBO and its possible effects on the climatology of the atmosphere. Depending on the period of the QBO, wave filtering can cause interaction with the seasonal variations to produce pronounced oscillations with beat periods around 10 years. Since the seasonal cycle and its variability influence the period of the QBO, it may also be a potent conduit of solar activity variations to lower altitudes. Analogous to the terrestrial QBO, we propose that a <span class="hlt">flow</span> oscillation may account for the 22-year periodicity of the solar magnetic cycle, potentially answering Dicke (1978) who asked, "Is there a chronometer hidden deep inside the Sun?" The oscillation would occur below the convection region, where gravity waves can propagate. Employing a simplified, analytic model, Hines' DSP is applied to estimate the <span class="hlt">flow</span> oscillation. Depending on the adopted horizontal wavelengths of GW's, wave amplitudes less than 10 m/s can be made to produce oscillating zonal <span class="hlt">flows</span> of about 20 m/s that should be large enough to generate a significant oscillation in the magnetic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010079652&hterms=Beats+waves&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBeats%2Bwaves','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010079652&hterms=Beats+waves&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBeats%2Bwaves"><span>Modeling Wave Driven Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Oscillations: The Terrestrial QBO and a Solar Analog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mayr, Hans G.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) of the zonal circulation observed in the terrestrial atmosphere at low latitudes is driven by wave mean <span class="hlt">flow</span> interaction as was demonstrated first by Lindzen and Holton (1968), shown in a laboratory experiment by Plumb and McEwan (1978), and modeled by others (e.g., Plumb, Dunkerton). Although influenced by the seasonal cycle of solar forcing, the QBO, in principle, represents a nonlinear <span class="hlt">flow</span> oscillation that can be maintained by a steady source of upward propagating waves. The wave driven non-<span class="hlt">linearity</span> is of third or odd order in the <span class="hlt">flow</span> velocity, which regenerates the fundamental harmonic itself to keep the oscillation going - the fluid dynamical analog of the displacement mechanism in the mechanical clock. Applying Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization (DSP) for gravity waves (GW), we discuss with a global-scale spectral model numerical experiments that elucidate some properties of the QBO and its possible effects on the climatology of the atmosphere. Depending on the period of the QBO, wave filtering can cause interaction with the seasonal variations to produce pronounced oscillations with beat periods around 10 years. Since the seasonal cycle and its variability influence the period of the QBO, it may also be a potent conduit of solar activity variations to lower altitudes. Analogous to the terrestrial QBO, we propose that a <span class="hlt">flow</span> oscillation may account for the 22-year periodicity of the solar magnetic cycle, potentially answering Dicke (1978) who asked, "Is there a chronometer hidden deep inside the Sun?" The oscillation would occur below the convection region, where gravity waves can propagate. Employing a simplified, analytic model, Hines' DSP is applied to estimate the <span class="hlt">flow</span> oscillation. Depending on the adopted horizontal wavelengths of GW's, wave amplitudes less than 10 m/s can be made to produce oscillating zonal <span class="hlt">flows</span> of about 20 m/s that should be large enough to generate a significant oscillation in the magnetic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B41A0029T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B41A0029T"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Chain Formation by Unicellular Bacteria During Mat Growth Under Low-Energy <span class="hlt">Flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tice, M. M.; Newman, D. K.; Grotzinger, J. P.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Biofilm morphologies and material properties are known to be functions of overlying fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span> strength. It has been hypothesized that microbial mats and stromatolites also respond morphologically to fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span>. We show that microscopic textures of experimentally grown mats of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 respond sensitively to overlying <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Cultures were grown in two chemostats in which growth medium was replaced at a rate much faster than the bacteria's instantaneous growth rate, thus selecting for individuals attached to surfaces. Small petri dishes at the bottoms of each chemostat received innocula at the beginning of the experiment. One chemostat was stirred at a low rate such that there was no measurable <span class="hlt">flow</span> across the tops of the dishes, while the other was stirred at a rate maintaining a <span class="hlt">flow</span> of approximately 0.7 cm/s at 1 cm over the dishes. Cultures were grown for 10 days during which thick biofilms/mats developed in the dishes. In addition to biofilms developed on the petri dish surfaces, cultures in the rapidly stirred chemostat developed thick "streamers" which projected up into and were deflected by the overlying <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Samples were collected from films and, in the rapidly stirred chemostat, from streamers by pipetting and by pinching between two thin bamboo sticks. Samples were examined by fluorescence microscopy with a 40x objective. Without fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span>, cells were only loosely associated and showed little or no spatial organization. Under the modest <span class="hlt">flow</span> set up in the rapidly stirred chemostat, cells in both biofilms and streamers formed long <span class="hlt">linear</span> chains arranged in sheets or tight bundles. These results suggest that hydraulic factors may be significant in shaping mat textures at the scale of 10-100 μm by modifying the spatial associations of groups of cells. If preserved in microcrystalline quartz or carbonate, the chains formed in these experiments could be mistaken for filamentous bacteria. Care must be taken</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/542136','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/542136"><span>Estimating {Omega} from galaxy redshifts: <span class="hlt">Linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> distortions and nonlinear clustering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bromley, B.C. |; Warren, M.S.; Zurek, W.H.</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>We propose a method to determine the cosmic mass density {Omega} from redshift-space distortions induced by large-scale <span class="hlt">flows</span> in the presence of nonlinear clustering. Nonlinear structures in redshift space, such as fingers of God, can contaminate distortions from <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flows</span> on scales as large as several times the small-scale pairwise velocity dispersion {sigma}{sub {nu}}. Following Peacock & Dodds, we work in the Fourier domain and propose a model to describe the anisotropy in the redshift-space power spectrum; tests with high-resolution numerical data demonstrate that the model is robust for both mass and biased galaxy halos on translinear scales and above. On the basis of this model, we propose an estimator of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> growth parameter {beta}={Omega}{sup 0.6}/b, where b measures bias, derived from sampling functions that are tuned to eliminate distortions from nonlinear clustering. The measure is tested on the numerical data and found to recover the true value of {beta} to within {approximately}10{percent}. An analysis of {ital IRAS} 1.2 Jy galaxies yields {beta}=0.8{sub {minus}0.3}{sup +0.4} at a scale of 1000kms{sup {minus}1}, which is close to optimal given the shot noise and finite size of the survey. This measurement is consistent with dynamical estimates of {beta} derived from both real-space and redshift-space information. The importance of the method presented here is that nonlinear clustering effects are removed to enable <span class="hlt">linear</span> correlation anisotropy measurements on scales approaching the translinear regime. We discuss implications for analyses of forthcoming optical redshift surveys in which the dispersion is more than a factor of 2 greater than in the {ital IRAS} data. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Astronomical Society}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FlDyR..48f1409F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FlDyR..48f1409F"><span>Subcritical transition scenarios via <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear localized optimal perturbations in plane Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farano, Mirko; Cherubini, Stefania; Robinet, Jean-Christophe; De Palma, Pietro</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Subcritical transition in plane Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flow</span> is investigated by means of a Lagrange-multiplier direct-adjoint optimization procedure with the aim of finding localized three-dimensional perturbations optimally growing in a given time interval (target time). Space localization of these optimal perturbations (OPs) is achieved by choosing as objective function either a p-norm (with p\\gg 1) of the perturbation energy density in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> framework; or the classical (1-norm) perturbation energy, including nonlinear effects. This work aims at analyzing the structure of <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear localized OPs for Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flow</span>, and comparing their transition thresholds and scenarios. The nonlinear optimization approach provides three types of solutions: a weakly nonlinear, a hairpin-like and a highly nonlinear optimal perturbation, depending on the value of the initial energy and the target time. The former shows localization only in the wall-normal direction, whereas the latter appears much more localized and breaks the spanwise symmetry found at lower target times. Both solutions show spanwise inclined vortices and large values of the streamwise component of velocity already at the initial time. On the other hand, p-norm optimal perturbations, although being strongly localized in space, keep a shape similar to <span class="hlt">linear</span> 1-norm optimal perturbations, showing streamwise-aligned vortices characterized by low values of the streamwise velocity component. When used for initializing direct numerical simulations, in most of the cases nonlinear OPs provide the most efficient route to transition in terms of time to transition and initial energy, even when they are less localized in space than the p-norm OP. The p-norm OP follows a transition path similar to the oblique transition scenario, with slightly oscillating streaks which saturate and eventually experience secondary instability. On the other hand, the nonlinear OP rapidly forms large-amplitude bent streaks and skips the phases</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711027L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711027L"><span>Suspended particulate composition: evolution along a river <span class="hlt">linear</span> and influence of regime <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Meur, Mathieu; Montargès-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Bauer, Allan; Gley, Renaud; Migot, Sylvie; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Razafitianamaharavo, Angelina; Villièras, Frédéric</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Suspended Particulate Matters are recognized to play a crucial role in the transport and fate of chemicals like trace metal elements. The affinity of trace metals with natural SPM is influenced by (i) the nature of metal (ii) physical-chemical conditions of the water column (iii) SPM physical characteristics (grain size, surface area) (iiii) SPM chemical characteristics (elemental composition, mineralogy, organic composition). Some authors observed that the SPM composition was the predominant factor controlling the affinity of trace metals with natural SPM. One purpose of this work is to follow the physical and chemical characteristics of SPM along the river <span class="hlt">linear</span> in order to better understand the affinity between SPM and heavy metals. One other purpose is to study the influence of regime <span class="hlt">flow</span> on SPM physical and chemical composition in order to detect any variation of SPM composition with regime <span class="hlt">flow</span>. SPM were sampled along Moselle river (North East of France) following an urbanization gradient. Two tributaries were also sampled, the Madon river which drains an agricultural catchment and the Fensch stream which <span class="hlt">flows</span> through an ancient steel-making basin. SPM were sampled several times during high <span class="hlt">flow</span> and low <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Particulate matter was extracted on field using continuous <span class="hlt">flow</span> field centrifuge. Frozen-dried samples were then characterized in terms of size distribution, elemental composition (ICP - AES, ICP - MS), mineralogy (XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM), surface properties (gas adsorption techniques) and organic composition (Py-GC-MS and GC-MS). Grain size distribution evidenced the presence of coarser particles during high <span class="hlt">flow</span> but no difference in the grain size distribution could be evidenced between the different stations. The grain size distribution of collected SPM appeared globally identical, although the increase of conductivity due to the junction of Meurthe river . In terms of composition, major element contents in SPM are characterized by the predominance of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDE18003B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDE18003B"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability analysis of axisymmetric <span class="hlt">flow</span> over a sudden expansion in an annular pipe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beladi, Behnaz; Kuhlmann, Hendrik Christoph</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A global temporal <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis is performed of the fully-developed axisymmetric incompressible Newtonian <span class="hlt">flow</span> in an annular pipe with a sudden radially-inward expansion. The geometry is characterized by the radial expansion ratio (radial step height to the outlet gap width) and the outlet radius ratio (inner-to-outer radius). Stability boundaries have been calculated with finite volumes for an outlet radius ratio of 0 . 1 and expansion ratios from 0 . 25 to 0 . 75 . For expansion ratios less than 0 . 55 the most dangerous mode has an azimuthal wave number m = 3 , whereas m = 2 for larger expansion ratios. An a posteriori analysis of the kinetic energy transferred between the basic state and the critical mode allows to check the energy conservation and to identify the physical instability mechanism. For all expansion ratios considered the basic <span class="hlt">flow</span> arises as an annular jet between two separation zones which are located immediately after the step. The jet gradually widens downstream before reattaching to the cylinders. The deceleration of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> associated with the widening of the jet is found to be the primary source of energy for the critical modes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22598952','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22598952"><span>Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics study of ring polymer melts under shear and elongation <span class="hlt">flows</span>: A comparison with their <span class="hlt">linear</span> analogs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yoon, Jeongha; Kim, Jinseong; Baig, Chunggi</p> <p>2016-07-15</p> <p>We present detailed results for the structural and rheological properties of unknotted and unconcatenated ring polyethylene (PE) melts under shear and elongation <span class="hlt">flows</span> via direct atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Short (C{sub 78}H{sub 156}) and long (C{sub 400}H{sub 800}) ring PE melts were subjected to planar Couette <span class="hlt">flow</span> (PCF) and planar elongational <span class="hlt">flow</span> (PEF) across a wide range of strain rates from <span class="hlt">linear</span> to highly nonlinear <span class="hlt">flow</span> regimes. The results are analyzed in detail through a direct comparison with those of the corresponding <span class="hlt">linear</span> polymers. We found that, in comparison to their <span class="hlt">linear</span> analogs, ring melts possess rather compact chain structures at or near the equilibrium state and exhibit a considerably lesser degree of structural deformation with respect to the applied <span class="hlt">flow</span> strength under both PCF and PEF. The large structural resistance of ring polymers against an external <span class="hlt">flow</span> field is attributed to the intrinsic closed-loop configuration of the ring and the topological constraint of nonconcatenation between ring chains in the melt. As a result, there appears to be a substantial discrepancy between ring and <span class="hlt">linear</span> systems in terms of their structural and rheological properties such as chain orientation, the distribution of chain dimensions, viscosity, <span class="hlt">flow</span> birefringence, hydrostatic pressure, the pair correlation function, and potential interaction energies. The findings and conclusions drawn in this work would be a useful guide in future exploration of the characteristic dynamical and relaxation mechanisms of ring polymers in bulk or confined systems under <span class="hlt">flowing</span> conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11016507','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11016507"><span>Can a <span class="hlt">linear</span> electrical analog model of a mechanical valve predict <span class="hlt">flow</span> by using a pressure gradient?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graen, M D; Ewert, D L; Glower, J S; Gray, L A; Koenig, S C</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The objective was to determine whether a previously developed technique for biological aortic valves could predict <span class="hlt">flow</span> through a mechanical valve. An electrical analog model of the aortic valve that includes compliance, resistance, and inertance parameters, and corresponding second order differential equations was used to predict <span class="hlt">flow</span> given a pressure gradient, as previously reported. Simulated pressures and <span class="hlt">flow</span> were recorded by using a pulse duplicator system. The heart rate was varied from 60 to 180 bpm, and the stroke volume was varied from 22 to 67 cc. Resistance, inertance, and compliance parameters of the governing differential equation were estimated by using a least-squares fit to the measured <span class="hlt">flow</span> at 120 bpm and 50 cc stroke volume. By using these parameter estimates, <span class="hlt">flow</span> was calculated for other heart rates and stroke volumes. To achieve a better <span class="hlt">flow</span> prediction, a nonlinear filter (third order polynomial range calibration equation) was applied to the output of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> model (<span class="hlt">flow</span>). The mean error, full-scale error, and spectral error in magnitude and phase between measured and predicted <span class="hlt">flow</span> were compared. Error in mean <span class="hlt">flow</span> ranged from 3% at medium <span class="hlt">flow</span> rates to 90% at low <span class="hlt">flow</span> rates. The maximum and minimum full scale errors were 12% and 5%, respectively. Error in the harmonics of measured and calculated <span class="hlt">flow</span> ranged from 0% to 55%. Larger errors were usually present at the higher harmonics. The agreement between measured and calculated <span class="hlt">flow</span> was better at normal and high <span class="hlt">flows</span> but rather poor at low <span class="hlt">flows</span>. The nonlinear filter (range calibration equation) was unable to account for the discrepancies between the measured and calculated <span class="hlt">flow</span> over all <span class="hlt">flow</span> ranges. It seems that this <span class="hlt">linear</span> model and nonlinear filter have limited application, and an alternate nonlinear approach may produce better results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhFl...26l7101G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhFl...26l7101G"><span>Double-diffusive two-fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span> in a slippery channel: A <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghosh, Sukhendu; Usha, R.; Sahu, Kirti Chandra</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The effect of velocity slip at the walls on the <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability characteristics of two-fluid three-layer channel <span class="hlt">flow</span> (the equivalent core-annular configuration in case of pipe) is investigated in the presence of double diffusive (DD) phenomenon. The fluids are miscible and consist of two solute species having different rates of diffusion. The fluids are assumed to be of the same density, but varying viscosity, which depends on the concentration of the solute species. It is found that the <span class="hlt">flow</span> stabilizes when the less viscous fluid is present in the region adjacent to the slippery channel walls in the single-component (SC) system but becomes unstable at low Reynolds numbers in the presence of DD effect. As the mixed region of the fluids moves towards the channel walls, a new unstable mode (DD mode), distinct from the Tollman Schlichting (TS) mode, arises at Reynolds numbers smaller than the critical Reynolds number for the TS mode. We also found that this mode becomes more prominent when the mixed layer overlaps with the critical layer. It is shown that the slip parameter has nonmonotonic effect on the stability characteristics in this system. Through energy budget analysis, the dual role of slip is explained. The effect of slip is influenced by the location of mixed layer, the log-mobility ratio of the faster diffusing scalar, diffusivity, and the ratio of diffusion coefficients of the two species. Increasing the value of the slip parameter delays the first occurrence of the DD-mode. It is possible to achieve stabilization or destabilization by controlling the various physical parameters in the <span class="hlt">flow</span> system. In the present study, we suggest an effective and realistic way to control three-layer miscible channel <span class="hlt">flow</span> with viscosity stratification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22723806','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22723806"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> and nonlinear modeling of cerebral <span class="hlt">flow</span> autoregulation using principal dynamic modes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marmarelis, Vz; Shin, Dc; Zhang, R</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Cerebral <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Autoregulation (CFA) is the dynamic process by which cerebral blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> is maintained within physiologically acceptable bounds during fluctuations of cerebral perfusion pressure. The distinction is made with "static" <span class="hlt">flow</span> autoregulation under steady-state conditions of perfusion pressure, described by the celebrated "autoregulatory curve" with a homeostatic plateau. This paper studies the dynamic CFA during changes in perfusion pressure, which attains critical clinical importance in patients with stroke, traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease with a cerebrovascular component. Mathematical and computational models have been used to advance our quantitative understanding of dynamic CFA and to elucidate the underlying physiological mechanisms by analyzing the relation between beat-to-beat data of mean arterial blood pressure (viewed as input) and mean cerebral blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> velocity(viewed as output) of a putative CFA system. Although previous studies have shown that the dynamic CFA process is nonlinear, most modeling studies to date have been <span class="hlt">linear</span>. It has also been shown that blood CO2 tension affects the CFA process. This paper presents a nonlinear modeling methodology that includes the dynamic effects of CO2 tension (or its surrogate, end-tidal CO2) as a second input and quantifies CFA from short data-records of healthy human subjects by use of the modeling concept of Principal Dynamic Modes (PDMs). The PDMs improve the robustness of the obtained nonlinear models and facilitate their physiological interpretation. The results demonstrate the importance of including the CO2 input in the dynamic CFA study and the utility of nonlinear models under hypercapnic or hypocapnic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA158105','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA158105"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Corrections to the <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Theory for the Prediction of the Cavitating <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Around Hydrofoils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-06-01</p> <p>the cavitating propeller program [21]. In this thesis, first the <span class="hlt">linear</span> theory for partial and 17 a, ~ ~ i a T n - - - - - of using the hodograph ...problems has been achieved via the hodograph technique (3]. The extension to non-zero cavitation number * problems has created a lot of diversity in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991A%26A...243..187B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991A%26A...243..187B"><span>Structure and Stability of Steady Protostellar Accretion <span class="hlt">Flows</span> - Part Two - <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Stability Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balluch, M.</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>Recent developments concerning spherically symmetric (1D-) numerical models of protostellar evolution show that steady protostellar accretion <span class="hlt">flows</span> (resp. their shockfronts) may be unstable at least in the very early (Tscharnuter 1987a) and late stages (Balluch 1988) of accretion. A global, <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis of the structure of steady protostellar accretion <span class="hlt">flows</span> with a shock discontinuity (Balluch 1990) is therefore presented to investigate such <span class="hlt">flows</span> by different methods. Thereby three characteristic wave types, the radiation-, radiation diffusion- and acoustic modes were found. In the `ideal case' of a perfect gas law and constant opacity, the shockfront appears to be oscillatory unstable due to critical cooling as long as the mass flux rate is larger than a critical one of Mṡcrit = 10-6 Msun yr-1. In the `real case' with more realistic constitutive relations, an additional vibrational instability occurs due to the κ-mechanism in the outer layers of the core. This is shown to be the case in the whole range of core masses between 0.01 and 1 Msun, mass <span class="hlt">flow</span> rates between 10-3 and 10-7 Msun yr-1 and different outer boundary conditions (corresponding to different states of the surrounding interstellar cloud). Analysing the first, outer protostellar cores before they get dynamically unstable due to H2-dissociation in their interiors, similar instabilities as mentioned above were found. Now the unstable κ-behaviour is due to dust instead of the deep ionisation zone as in the case of second, inner cores. According to the <span class="hlt">linear</span> analysis, the instabilities should first appear in the velocity and the radiation flux in the settling zone. In the case of first, outer cores, these variations should be accompanied by an oscillation of the radiation flux in the region upstream from the shock up to r = 1014 cm. Sooner or later, the shockfront should oscillate in both cases too. These results are finally compared with the characteristics of the accretion shock</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.454..142J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.454..142J"><span>Are eruptions from <span class="hlt">linear</span> fissures and caldera ring dykes more likely to produce pyroclastic <span class="hlt">flows</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jessop, D. E.; Gilchrist, J.; Jellinek, A. M.; Roche, O.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Turbulent volcanic jets are produced by highly-energetic explosive eruptions and may form buoyant plumes that rise many tens of kilometres into the atmosphere to form umbrella clouds or collapse to generate ground-hugging pyroclastic <span class="hlt">flows</span>. Ash injected into the atmosphere can be transported for many hundreds of kilometres with the potential to affect climate, disrupt global air travel and cause respiratory health problems. Pyroclastic <span class="hlt">flows</span>, by contrast, are potentially catastrophic to populations and infrastructure close to the volcano. Key to which of these two behaviours will occur is the extent to which the mechanical entrainment and mixing of ambient air into the jet by large (entraining) eddies forming the jet edge changes the density of the air-ash mixture: low entrainment rates lead to pyroclastic <span class="hlt">flows</span> and high entrainment rates give rise to buoyant plumes. Recent experiments on particle-laden (multi-phase) volcanic jets from flared and straight-sided circular openings suggest that the likelihood for buoyant plumes will depend strongly on the shape and internal geometry of the vent region. This newly recognised sensitivity of the fate of volcanic jets to the structure of the vent is a consequence of a complex dynamic coupling between the jet and entrained solid particles, an effect that has generally been overlooked in previous studies. Building on this work, here we use an extensive series of experiments on multi-phase turbulent jets from analogue <span class="hlt">linear</span> fissures and annular ring fractures to explore whether the restrictive vent geometry during cataclysmic caldera-forming (CCF) eruptions will ultimately lead a relatively greater frequency of pyroclastic <span class="hlt">flows</span> than eruptions from circular vents on stratovolcanoes. Our results, understood through scaling analyses and a one-dimensional theoretical model, show that entrainment is enhanced where particle motions contribute angular momentum to entraining eddies. However, because the size of the entraining</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPA....5h7157K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPA....5h7157K"><span><span class="hlt">Flow</span> and heat transfer to modified second grade fluid over a non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> stretching sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khan, Masood; Rahman, Masood ur</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The objective of the present work is to analyze the two-dimensional boundary layer <span class="hlt">flow</span> and heat transfer of a modified second grade fluid over a non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> stretching sheet of constant surface temperature. The modelled momentum and energy equations are deduced to a system of ordinary differential equations by employing suitable transformations in boundary layer region and integrated numerically by fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method. Additionally, the analytic solutions of the governing problem are presented for some special cases. The secured results make it clear that the power-law index reduces both the momentum and thermal boundary layers. While the incremented values of the generalized second grade parameter leads to an increase in the momentum boundary layer and a decrease in the thermal boundary layer. To see the validity of the present results we have made a comparison with the previously published results as a special case with an outstanding compatibility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhPl...23e5710D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhPl...23e5710D"><span>Dynamics of <span class="hlt">flows</span>, fluctuations, and global instability under electrode biasing in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> plasma device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Desjardins, T. R.; Gilmore, M.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Grid biasing is utilized in a large-scale helicon plasma to modify an existing instability. It is shown both experimentally and with a <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis to be a hybrid drift-Kelvin-Helmholtz mode. At low magnetic field strengths, coherent fluctuations are present, while at high magnetic field strengths, the plasma is broad-band turbulent. Grid biasing is used to drive the once-coherent fluctuations to a broad-band turbulent state, as well as to suppress them. There is a corresponding change in the <span class="hlt">flow</span> shear. When a high positive bias (10Te) is applied to the grid electrode, a large-scale ( n ˜/n ≈50 % ) is excited. This mode has been identified as the potential relaxation instability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JFS....16..739S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JFS....16..739S"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> and Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilevered Cylinders in Axial <span class="hlt">Flow</span>. Part 3: Nonlinear Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Semler, C.; Lopes, J. L.; Augu, N.; Païdoussis, M. P.</p> <p>2002-08-01</p> <p>The dynamics of a cantilevered cylinder in axial <span class="hlt">flow</span> are explored, by means of the equations derived in Part 2 of this three-part study, and using as numerical tools the finite difference method and AUTO in order to solve the discretized equations. The <span class="hlt">linear</span> dynamics is considered first, focusing on the effect of some key parameters on stability. Then, the nonlinear dynamics is examined by means of concrete examples with parameters close to those in the experiments of Part 1, by means of bifurcation diagrams, phase-plane plots and Poincaré maps. The agreement between theory and experiment is qualitatively good and quantitatively reasonable, in terms of the critical values for the various bifurcations, and the amplitudes and frequencies of the motions observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDL32006E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDL32006E"><span>Characterization of <span class="hlt">linear</span>-like Orr bursts in fully turbulent channel <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Encinar, Miguel P.; Jimenez, Javier</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The linearised Orr-Sommerfield equation predicts that initially small perturbations of the cross-shear velocity become transiently amplified when tilted by the effect of a mean shear. Such transient behaviour can also be found in the large-scale structures of fully developed nonlinear shear turbulence, although affected by the non <span class="hlt">linearity</span> of the <span class="hlt">flow</span>. We investigate the dynamics of the bursting structures in properly filtered large-box turbulent channels at Reτ = 950 , and find that all velocity components play an important role in their formation. This implies that their underlying geometry is three dimensional. We explore the latter using spatio-temporal conditionally averaged structures that show the formation of tilted rollers at the moment of the burst, and reveal a relation between the Orr-like bursts and the vertical momentum transfer. Funded by the ERC COTURB project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC98-44440-4&hterms=competitiveness&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcompetitiveness','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC98-44440-4&hterms=competitiveness&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcompetitiveness"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) dumps water after first in-flight cold <span class="hlt">flow</span> test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The NASA SR-71A successfully completed its first cold <span class="hlt">flow</span> flight as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/Lockheed Martin <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California on March 4, 1998. During a cold <span class="hlt">flow</span> flight, gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen are cycled through the <span class="hlt">linear</span> aerospike engine to check the engine's plumbing system for leaks and to check the engine operating characterisitics. Cold-<span class="hlt">flow</span> tests must be accomplished successfully before firing the rocket engine experiment in flight. The SR-71 took off at 10:16 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty-seven minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.58 before landing at Edwards at 12:13 p.m. PST. 'I think all in all we had a good mission today,' Dryden LASRE Project Manager Dave Lux said. Flight crew member Bob Meyer agreed, saying the crew 'thought it was a really good flight.' Dryden Research Pilot Ed Schneider piloted the SR-71 during the mission. Lockheed Martin LASRE Project Manager Carl Meade added, 'We are extremely pleased with today's results. This will help pave the way for the first in-flight engine data-collection flight of the LASRE.' The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 <span class="hlt">linear</span> aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092172','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092172"><span>A Vector Study of <span class="hlt">Linearized</span> Supersonic <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Applications to Nonplanar Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Martin, John C</p> <p>1953-01-01</p> <p>A vector study of the partial-differential equation of steady <span class="hlt">linearized</span> supersonic <span class="hlt">flow</span> is presented. General expressions which relate the velocity potential in the stream to the conditions on the disturbing surfaces, are derived. In connection with these general expressions the concept of the finite part of an integral is discussed. A discussion of problems dealing with planar bodies is given and the conditions for the solution to be unique are investigated. Problems concerning nonplanar systems are investigated, and methods are derived for the solution of some simple nonplanar bodies. The surface pressure distribution and the damping in roll are found for rolling tails consisting of four, six, and eight rectangular fins for the Mach number range where the region of interference between adjacent fins does not affect the fin tips.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780019144','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780019144"><span>A Mach line panel method for computing the <span class="hlt">linearized</span> supersonic <span class="hlt">flow</span> over planar wings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ehlers, F. E.; Rubbert, P. E.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A method is described for solving the <span class="hlt">linearized</span> supersonic <span class="hlt">flow</span> over planar wings using panels bounded by two families of Mach lines. Polynomial distributions of source and doublet strength lead to simple, closed form solutions for the aerodynamic influence coefficients, and a nearly triangular matrix yields rapid solutions for the singularity parameters. The source method was found to be accurate and stable both for analysis and design boundary conditions. Similar results were obtained with the doublet method for analysis boundary conditions on the portion of the wing downstream of the supersonic leading edge, but instabilities in the solution occurred for the region containing a portion of the subsonic leading edge. Research on the method was discontinued before this difficulty was resolved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhFl...26d2105T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhFl...26d2105T"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability analysis of thin liquid film <span class="hlt">flow</span> over a heterogeneously heated substrate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tiwari, Naveen; Awasthi, Anmol; Davis, Jeffrey M.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of a thin film of volatile liquid <span class="hlt">flowing</span> over a surface with embedded, regularly spaced heaters is investigated. The temperature gradients at the upstream edges of the heaters induce gradients in surface tension that create a pronounced non-uniformity in the film profile due to the formation of capillary ridges. The Governing equations for the evolution of the film thickness are derived within the lubrication approximation, and three important parameters that affect the dynamics and stability of the film are identified. The computed two-dimensional, steady solutions for the local film thickness reveal that due to evaporation there is a slight change in the height of capillary ridge at subsequent heaters downstream. Using a <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis, it is shown that, as for a single heater, the film is susceptible to two types of instabilities. A rivulet instability leads to spanwise-periodic rivulets, and an oscillating thermocapillary instability leads to streamwise, time-periodic oscillations in the film thickness. The critical Marangoni number is calculated for both types of instability for a range of parameter values. The effect of the number of heaters, heater width, and gap between the heaters on the critical Marangoni number is computed and analyzed. For small evaporation rates and less volatile films, the presence of multiple heaters has almost no noticeable effect on the film stability. For larger evaporation rates and more volatile films, additional heaters decrease the Marangoni number at instability onset. The destabilizing effect of multiple heaters is sensitive to the heater geometry and spacing. Furthermore, the limitations of streamwise periodic boundary conditions for analyzing the stability of such <span class="hlt">flows</span> are discussed. Computations on the transient and nonlinear growth of perturbations are also presented and indicate that the results of eigenanalysis are physically determinant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006CzJPh..56B.267K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006CzJPh..56B.267K"><span>Energy transportation via MITL by the <span class="hlt">linear</span> current <span class="hlt">flow</span> density up to 7 MA/cm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korolev, V. D.; Bakshaev, Yu. L.; Bartov, A. V.; Blinov, P. I.; Bryzgunov, V. A.; Chernenko, A. S.; Dan'ko, S. A.; Kalinin, Yu. G.; Kingsep, A. S.; Kazakov, E. D.; Smirnov, V. P.; Smirnova, E. A.; Ustroev, G. I.</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>The transmission properties of the magnetically self-insulated vacuum transporting line (MITL) were studied on the S-300 pulsed power machine (3 MA, 100 ns) at the high <span class="hlt">linear</span> current <span class="hlt">flow</span> density up to dI/db = 7 MA/cm. Experiments were carried out with the short line sections with 10 ÷ 15 mm length and 3 ÷ 5 mm vacuum gap. For measuring of the plasma parameters, the frame ICT photography with the nanosecond temporal resolution in the SXR range and ICT (Image Converter Tube) chronography in visible range were used. The X-ray radiation in various ranges was recorded by the XRD with thin filters (SXR) and by the semiconductor detectors (HXR). The information about current transmission efficiency was obtained by means of magnetic loops and low-inductance shunt. It was determined that dense plasma arose on both anode and cathode when the <span class="hlt">linear</span> current <span class="hlt">flow</span> density was low enough, dI/db ≤ 1 MA/cm. A dense plasma moves across the vacuum gap with the velocity (1 ÷ 2) × 106 cm/s. By recording the current and hard X-ray radiation it was found that electron losses in the current front did not exceed 10 ÷ 100 kA. Under strong magnetization of electrons r H = mvc/eB < d, these losses could be due to the motion of fast plasma component, which velocity exceeds 107 cm/s. Such a rare plasma sheath formed on the cathode by dI/db ≥ 1 MA/cm. Thereby the successful physical modeling of the recyclable MITL related to the Sandia Laboratories’ Conceptual Project of fusion reactor on the base of fast Z-pinch has been brought about.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...797...94L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...797...94L"><span>Conduction in Low Mach Number <span class="hlt">Flows</span>. I. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> and Weakly Nonlinear Regimes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lecoanet, Daniel; Brown, Benjamin P.; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Burns, Keaton J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Vasil, Geoffrey M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Thermal conduction is an important energy transfer and damping mechanism in astrophysical <span class="hlt">flows</span>. Fourier's law, in which the heat flux is proportional to the negative temperature gradient, leading to temperature diffusion, is a well-known empirical model of thermal conduction. However, entropy diffusion has emerged as an alternative thermal conduction model, despite not ensuring the monotonicity of entropy. This paper investigates the differences between temperature and entropy diffusion for both <span class="hlt">linear</span> internal gravity waves and weakly nonlinear convection. In addition to simulating the two thermal conduction models with the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations, we also study their effects in the reduced "soundproof" anelastic and pseudoincompressible (PI) equations. We find that in the <span class="hlt">linear</span> and weakly nonlinear regime, temperature and entropy diffusion give quantitatively similar results, although there are some larger errors in the PI equations with temperature diffusion due to inaccuracies in the equation of state. Extrapolating our weakly nonlinear results, we speculate that differences between temperature and entropy diffusion might become more important for strongly turbulent convection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364855"><span>CONDUCTION IN LOW MACH NUMBER <span class="hlt">FLOWS</span>. I. <span class="hlt">LINEAR</span> AND WEAKLY NONLINEAR REGIMES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lecoanet, Daniel; Brown, Benjamin P.; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Burns, Keaton J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Vasil, Geoffrey M.</p> <p>2014-12-20</p> <p>Thermal conduction is an important energy transfer and damping mechanism in astrophysical <span class="hlt">flows</span>. Fourier's law, in which the heat flux is proportional to the negative temperature gradient, leading to temperature diffusion, is a well-known empirical model of thermal conduction. However, entropy diffusion has emerged as an alternative thermal conduction model, despite not ensuring the monotonicity of entropy. This paper investigates the differences between temperature and entropy diffusion for both <span class="hlt">linear</span> internal gravity waves and weakly nonlinear convection. In addition to simulating the two thermal conduction models with the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations, we also study their effects in the reduced ''soundproof'' anelastic and pseudoincompressible (PI) equations. We find that in the <span class="hlt">linear</span> and weakly nonlinear regime, temperature and entropy diffusion give quantitatively similar results, although there are some larger errors in the PI equations with temperature diffusion due to inaccuracies in the equation of state. Extrapolating our weakly nonlinear results, we speculate that differences between temperature and entropy diffusion might become more important for strongly turbulent convection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DFDM20003S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DFDM20003S"><span>Direct numerical simulation of turbulent <span class="hlt">flows</span> over superhydrophobic surfaces with gas pockets using <span class="hlt">linearized</span> boundary conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seo, Jongmin; Bose, Sanjeeb; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo; Mani, Ali</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Superhydrophobic surfaces are shown to be effective for surface drag reduction under laminar regime by both experiments and simulations (see for example, Ou and Rothstein, Phys. Fluids 17:103606, 2005). However, such drag reduction for fully developed turbulent <span class="hlt">flow</span> maintaining the Cassie-Baxter state remains an open problem due to high shear rates and <span class="hlt">flow</span> unsteadiness of turbulent boundary layer. Our work aims to develop an understanding of mechanisms leading to interface breaking and loss of gas pockets due to interactions with turbulent boundary layers. We take advantage of direct numerical simulation of turbulence with slip and no-slip patterned boundary conditions mimicking the superhydrophobic surface. In addition, we capture the dynamics of gas-water interface, by deriving a proper <span class="hlt">linearized</span> boundary condition taking into account the surface tension of the interface and kinematic matching of interface deformation and normal velocity conditions on the wall. We will show results from our simulations predicting the dynamical behavior of gas pocket interfaces over a wide range of dimensionless surface tensions. Supported by the Office of Naval Research and the Kwanjeong Educational Scholarship Foundation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16496083','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16496083"><span>A robust method for detection of <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear interactions: application to renal blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Feng, Lei; Siu, Kin; Moore, Leon C; Marsh, Donald J; Chon, Ki H</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>We have developed a method that can identify switching dynamics in time series, termed the improved annealed competition of experts (IACE) algorithm. In this paper, we extend the approach and use it for detection of <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear interactions, by employing histograms showing the frequency of switching modes obtained from the IACE, then examining time-frequency spectra. This extended approach is termed Histogram of improved annealed competition of experts-time frequency (HIACE-TF). The hypothesis is that frequent switching dynamics in HIACE-TF results are due to interactions between different dynamic components. To validate this assertion, we used both simulation examples as well as application to renal blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> data. We compared simulation results to a time-phase bispectrum (TPB) approach, which can also be used to detect time-varying quadratic phase coupling between various components. We found that the HIACE-TF approach is more accurate than the TPB in detecting interactions, and remains accurate for signal-to-noise ratios as low as 15 dB. With all 10 data sets, comprised of volumetric renal blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> data, we also validated the feasibility of the HIACE-TF approach in detecting nonlinear interactions between the two mechanisms responsible for renal autoregulation. Further validation of the HIACE-TF approach was achieved by comparing it to a realistic mathematical model that has the capability to generate either the presence or the absence of nonlinear interactions between two renal autoregulatory mechanisms.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482463','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482463"><span>A comparative numerical analysis of <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear aerodynamic sound generation by vortex disturbances in homentropic constant shear <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hau, Jan-Niklas Oberlack, Martin; Chagelishvili, George; Khujadze, George; Tevzadze, Alexander</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>Aerodynamic sound generation in shear <span class="hlt">flows</span> is investigated in the light of the breakthrough in hydrodynamics stability theory in the 1990s, where generic phenomena of non-normal shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> systems were understood. By applying the thereby emerged short-time/non-modal approach, the sole <span class="hlt">linear</span> mechanism of wave generation by vortices in shear <span class="hlt">flows</span> was captured [G. D. Chagelishvili, A. Tevzadze, G. Bodo, and S. S. Moiseev, “<span class="hlt">Linear</span> mechanism of wave emergence from vortices in smooth shear <span class="hlt">flows</span>,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3178-3181 (1997); B. F. Farrell and P. J. Ioannou, “Transient and asymptotic growth of two-dimensional perturbations in viscous compressible shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>,” Phys. Fluids 12, 3021-3028 (2000); N. A. Bakas, “Mechanism underlying transient growth of planar perturbations in unbounded compressible shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>,” J. Fluid Mech. 639, 479-507 (2009); and G. Favraud and V. Pagneux, “Superadiabatic evolution of acoustic and vorticity perturbations in Couette <span class="hlt">flow</span>,” Phys. Rev. E 89, 033012 (2014)]. Its source is the non-normality induced <span class="hlt">linear</span> mode-coupling, which becomes efficient at moderate Mach numbers that is defined for each perturbation harmonic as the ratio of the shear rate to its characteristic frequency. Based on the results by the non-modal approach, we investigate a two-dimensional homentropic constant shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> and focus on the dynamical characteristics in the wavenumber plane. This allows to separate from each other the participants of the dynamical processes — vortex and wave modes — and to estimate the efficacy of the process of <span class="hlt">linear</span> wave-generation. This process is analyzed and visualized on the example of a packet of vortex modes, localized in both, spectral and physical, planes. Further, by employing direct numerical simulations, the wave generation by chaotically distributed vortex modes is analyzed and the involved <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear processes are identified. The generated acoustic field is anisotropic in the wavenumber</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhFl...27l6101H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhFl...27l6101H"><span>A comparative numerical analysis of <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear aerodynamic sound generation by vortex disturbances in homentropic constant shear <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hau, Jan-Niklas; Chagelishvili, George; Khujadze, George; Oberlack, Martin; Tevzadze, Alexander</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Aerodynamic sound generation in shear <span class="hlt">flows</span> is investigated in the light of the breakthrough in hydrodynamics stability theory in the 1990s, where generic phenomena of non-normal shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> systems were understood. By applying the thereby emerged short-time/non-modal approach, the sole <span class="hlt">linear</span> mechanism of wave generation by vortices in shear <span class="hlt">flows</span> was captured [G. D. Chagelishvili, A. Tevzadze, G. Bodo, and S. S. Moiseev, "<span class="hlt">Linear</span> mechanism of wave emergence from vortices in smooth shear <span class="hlt">flows</span>," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3178-3181 (1997); B. F. Farrell and P. J. Ioannou, "Transient and asymptotic growth of two-dimensional perturbations in viscous compressible shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>," Phys. Fluids 12, 3021-3028 (2000); N. A. Bakas, "Mechanism underlying transient growth of planar perturbations in unbounded compressible shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>," J. Fluid Mech. 639, 479-507 (2009); and G. Favraud and V. Pagneux, "Superadiabatic evolution of acoustic and vorticity perturbations in Couette <span class="hlt">flow</span>," Phys. Rev. E 89, 033012 (2014)]. Its source is the non-normality induced <span class="hlt">linear</span> mode-coupling, which becomes efficient at moderate Mach numbers that is defined for each perturbation harmonic as the ratio of the shear rate to its characteristic frequency. Based on the results by the non-modal approach, we investigate a two-dimensional homentropic constant shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> and focus on the dynamical characteristics in the wavenumber plane. This allows to separate from each other the participants of the dynamical processes — vortex and wave modes — and to estimate the efficacy of the process of <span class="hlt">linear</span> wave-generation. This process is analyzed and visualized on the example of a packet of vortex modes, localized in both, spectral and physical, planes. Further, by employing direct numerical simulations, the wave generation by chaotically distributed vortex modes is analyzed and the involved <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear processes are identified. The generated acoustic field is anisotropic in the wavenumber plane, which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FrEaS...4...72G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FrEaS...4...72G"><span>Energetics of slope <span class="hlt">flows</span>: <span class="hlt">linear</span> and weakly nonlinear solutions of the extended Prandtl model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Güttler, Ivan; Marinović, Ivana; Večenaj, Željko; Grisogono, Branko</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Prandtl model succinctly combines the 1D stationary boundary-layer dynamics and thermodynamics of simple anabatic and katabatic <span class="hlt">flows</span> over uniformly inclined surfaces. It assumes a balance between the along-the-slope buoyancy component and adiabatic warming/cooling, and the turbulent mixing of momentum and heat. In this study, energetics of the Prandtl model is addressed in terms of the total energy (TE) concept. Furthermore, since the authors recently developed a weakly nonlinear version of the Prandtl model, the TE approach is also exercised on this extended model version, which includes an additional nonlinear term in the thermodynamic equation. Hence, interplay among diffusion, dissipation and temperature-wind interaction of the mean slope <span class="hlt">flow</span> is further explored. The TE of the nonlinear Prandtl model is assessed in an ensemble of solutions where the Prandtl number, the slope angle and the nonlinearity parameter are perturbed. It is shown that nonlinear effects have the lowest impact on variability in the ensemble of solutions of the weakly nonlinear Prandtl model when compared to the other two governing parameters. The general behavior of the nonlinear solution is similar to the <span class="hlt">linear</span> solution, except that the maximum of the along-the-slope wind speed in the nonlinear solution reduces for larger slopes. Also, the dominance of PE near the sloped surface, and the elevated maximum of KE in the <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear energetics of the extended Prandtl model are found in the PASTEX-94 measurements. The corresponding level where KE>PE most likely marks the bottom of the sublayer subject to shear-driven instabilities. Finally, possible limitations of the weakly nonlinear solutions of the extended Prandtl model are raised. In <span class="hlt">linear</span> solutions, the local storage of TE term is zero, reflecting the stationarity of solutions by definition. However, in nonlinear solutions, the diffusion, dissipation and interaction terms (where the height of the maximum interaction is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=17795','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=17795"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> coupling between cerebral blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> and oxygen consumption in activated human cortex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoge, Richard D.; Atkinson, Jeff; Gill, Brad; Crelier, Gérard R.; Marrett, Sean; Pike, G. Bruce</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, within a specific cortical unit, fractional changes in cerebral blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) are coupled through an invariant relationship during physiological stimulation. This aim was achieved by simultaneously measuring relative changes in these quantities in human primary visual cortex (V1) during graded stimulation with patterns designed to selectively activate different populations of V1 neurons. Primary visual cortex was delineated individually in each subject by using phase-encoded retinotopic mapping. <span class="hlt">Flow</span>-sensitive alternating inversion recovery MRI, in conjunction with blood oxygenation-sensitive MRI and hypercapnic calibration, was used to monitor CBF and CMRO2. The stimuli used included (i) diffuse isoluminant chromatic displays; (ii) high spatial-frequency achromatic luminance gratings; and (iii) radial checkerboard patterns containing both color and luminance contrast modulated at different temporal rates. Perfusion responses to each pattern were graded by varying luminance and/or color modulation amplitudes. For all stimulus types, fractional changes in blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> and oxygen uptake were found to be <span class="hlt">linearly</span> coupled in a consistent ratio of approximately 2:1. The most potent stimulus produced CBF and CMRO2 increases of 48 ± 5% and 25 ± 4%, respectively, with no evidence of a plateau for oxygen consumption. Estimation of aerobic ATP yields from the observed CMRO2 increases and comparison with the maximum possible anaerobic ATP contribution indicate that elevated energy demands during brain activation are met largely through oxidative metabolism. PMID:10430955</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33C0814S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33C0814S"><span>Direct Forecasting of Subsurface <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Response from Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Dynamic Data By <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Least-Squares in Canonical Functional Principal Component Space.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Satija, A.; Caers, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hydrogeological forecasting problems, like many subsurface forecasting problems, often suffer from the scarcity of reliable data yet complex prior information about the underlying earth system. Assimilating and integrating this information into an earth model requires using iterative parameter space exploration techniques or Monte Carlo Markov Chain techniques. Since such an earth model needs to account for many large and small scale features of the underlying system, as the system gets larger, iterative modeling can become computationally prohibitive, in particular when the forward model would allow for only a few hundred model evaluations. In addition, most modeling methods do not include the purpose for which inverse method are built, namely, the actual forecast and usually focus only on data and model. In this study, we present a technique to extract features of the earth system informed by time-varying dynamic data (data features) and those that inform a time-varying forecasting variable (forecast features) using Functional Principal Component Analysis. Canonical Coefficient Analysis is then used to examine the relationship between these features using a <span class="hlt">linear</span> model. When this relationship suggests that the available data informs the required forecast, a simple <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression can be used on the <span class="hlt">linear</span> model to directly estimate the posterior of the forecasting problem, without any iterative inversion of model parameters. This idea and method is illustrated using an example of contaminant <span class="hlt">flow</span> in an aquifer with complex prior, large dimension and non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> & transport model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PPCF...54f5011H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PPCF...54f5011H"><span>Perpendicular wavenumber dependence of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of global ion temperature gradient modes on E × B <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, P.; Saarelma, S.; McMillan, B.; Peeters, A.; Verwichte, E.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Sheared E × B <span class="hlt">flows</span> are known to stabilize turbulence. This paper investigates how the <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of the ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) mode depends on k⊥ in both circular and MHD geometry. We study the effects of both rotation profiles of constant shear and of purely toroidal <span class="hlt">flow</span> taken from experiment, using the global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code NEMORB. We find that in order to effectively stabilize the <span class="hlt">linear</span> mode, the fastest growing mode requires a shearing rate (γE) around 1-2 times its <span class="hlt">linear</span> growth rate without <span class="hlt">flow</span> (γ0), while both longer and shorter wavelength modes need much larger <span class="hlt">flow</span> shear compared with their static <span class="hlt">linear</span> growth rates. Modes with kθρi < 0.2 need γE as much as 10 times their γ0. This variation exists in both large-aspect ratio circular cross-section and small-aspect ratio MHD geometries, with both analytic constant shear and experimental <span class="hlt">flow</span> profiles. There is an asymmetry in the suppression with respect to the sign of γE, due to competition between equilibrium profile variation and <span class="hlt">flow</span> shear. The maximum growth rate for cases using the experimental profile in MAST equilibria occurs at shearing rates of 10% the experimental level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27412867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27412867"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Fractional <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Reserve Evaluation During Coronary Angiography on Management Strategy and Clinical Outcome: One-Year Results of the POST-IT.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baptista, Sergio Bravo; Raposo, Luís; Santos, Lino; Ramos, Ruben; Calé, Rita; Jorge, Elisabete; Machado, Carina; Costa, Marco; Infante de Oliveira, Eduardo; Costa, João; Pipa, João; Fonseca, Nuno; Guardado, Jorge; Silva, Bruno; Sousa, Maria-João; Silva, João Carlos; Rodrigues, Alberto; Seca, Luís; Fernandes, Renato</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Penetration of fractional <span class="hlt">flow</span> reserve (FFR) in clinical practice varies extensively, and the applicability of results from randomized trials is understudied. We describe the extent to which the information gained from <span class="hlt">routine</span> FFR affects patient management strategy and clinical outcome. Nonselected patients undergoing coronary angiography, in which at least 1 lesion was interrogated by FFR, were prospectively enrolled in a multicenter registry. FFR-driven change in management strategy (medical therapy, revascularization, or additional stress imaging) was assessed per-lesion and per-patient, and the agreement between final and initial strategies was recorded. Cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or unplanned revascularization (MACE) at 1 year was recorded. A total of 1293 lesions were evaluated in 918 patients (mean FFR, 0.81±0.1). Management plan changed in 406 patients (44.2%) and 584 lesions (45.2%). One-year MACE was 6.9%; patients in whom all lesions were deferred had a lower MACE rate (5.3%) than those with at least 1 lesion revascularized (7.3%) or left untreated despite FFR≤0.80 (13.6%; log-rank P=0.014). At the lesion level, deferral of those with an FFR≤0.80 was associated with a 3.1-fold increase in the hazard of cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/target lesion revascularization (P=0.012). Independent predictors of target lesion revascularization in the deferred lesions were proximal location of the lesion, B2/C type and FFR. <span class="hlt">Routine</span> FFR assessment of coronary lesions safely changes management strategy in almost half of the cases. Also, it accurately identifies patients and lesions with a low likelihood of events, in which revascularization can be safely deferred, as opposed to those at high risk when ischemic lesions are left untreated, thus confirming results from randomized trials. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01835808. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22403225','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22403225"><span>Response analysis of a laminar premixed M-flame to <span class="hlt">flow</span> perturbations using a <span class="hlt">linearized</span> compressible Navier-Stokes solver</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blanchard, M.; Schuller, T.; Sipp, D.; Schmid, P. J.</p> <p>2015-04-15</p> <p>The response of a laminar premixed methane-air flame subjected to <span class="hlt">flow</span> perturbations around a steady state is examined experimentally and using a <span class="hlt">linearized</span> compressible Navier-Stokes solver with a one-step chemistry mechanism to describe combustion. The unperturbed flame takes an M-shape stabilized both by a central bluff body and by the external rim of a cylindrical nozzle. This base <span class="hlt">flow</span> is computed by a nonlinear direct simulation of the steady reacting <span class="hlt">flow</span>, and the flame topology is shown to qualitatively correspond to experiments conducted under comparable conditions. The flame is then subjected to acoustic disturbances produced at different locations in the numerical domain, and its response is examined using the <span class="hlt">linearized</span> solver. This <span class="hlt">linear</span> numerical model then allows the componentwise investigation of the effects of <span class="hlt">flow</span> disturbances on unsteady combustion and the feedback from the flame on the unsteady <span class="hlt">flow</span> field. It is shown that a wrinkled reaction layer produces hydrodynamic disturbances in the fresh reactant <span class="hlt">flow</span> field that superimpose on the acoustic field. This phenomenon, observed in several experiments, is fully interpreted here. The additional perturbations convected by the mean <span class="hlt">flow</span> stem from the feedback of the perturbed flame sheet dynamics onto the <span class="hlt">flow</span> field by a mechanism similar to that of a perturbed vortex sheet. The different regimes where this mechanism prevails are investigated by examining the phase and group velocities of <span class="hlt">flow</span> disturbances along an axis oriented along the main direction of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> in the fresh reactant <span class="hlt">flow</span> field. It is shown that this mechanism dominates the low-frequency response of the wrinkled shape taken by the flame and, in particular, that it fully determines the dynamics of the flame tip from where the bulk of noise is radiated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20136193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20136193"><span>A frequency domain <span class="hlt">linearized</span> Navier-Stokes equations approach to acoustic propagation in <span class="hlt">flow</span> ducts with sharp edges.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kierkegaard, Axel; Boij, Susann; Efraimsson, Gunilla</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>Acoustic wave propagation in <span class="hlt">flow</span> ducts is commonly modeled with time-domain non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> Navier-Stokes equation methodologies. To reduce computational effort, investigations of a <span class="hlt">linearized</span> approach in frequency domain are carried out. Calculations of sound wave propagation in a straight duct are presented with an orifice plate and a mean <span class="hlt">flow</span> present. Results of transmission and reflections at the orifice are presented on a two-port scattering matrix form and are compared to measurements with good agreement. The wave propagation is modeled with a frequency domain <span class="hlt">linearized</span> Navier-Stokes equation methodology. This methodology is found to be efficient for cases where the acoustic field does not alter the mean <span class="hlt">flow</span> field, i.e., when whistling does not occur.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1181184','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1181184"><span>Hydrodynamic effects and receptor interactions of platelets and their aggregates in <span class="hlt">linear</span> shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tandon, P; Diamond, S L</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>We have modeled platelet aggregation in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> by accounting for two body collision hydrodynamics, platelet activation and receptor biology. Considering platelets and their aggregates as unequal-sized spheres with DLVO interactions (psi(platelet) = -15 mV, Hamaker constant = 10(-19) J), detailed hydrodynamics provided the <span class="hlt">flow</span> field around the colliding platelets. Trajectory calculations were performed to obtain the far upstream cross-sectional area and the particle flux through this area provided the collision frequency. Only a fraction of platelets brought together by a shearing fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span> were held together if successfully bound by fibrinogen cross-bridging GPIIb/IIIa receptors on the platelet surfaces. This fraction was calculated by modeling receptor-mediated aggregation using the formalism of Bell (Bell, G. I. 1979. A theoretical model for adhesion between cells mediated by multivalent ligands. Cell Biophys. 1:133-147) where the forward rate of bond formation dictated aggregation during collision and was estimated from the diffusional limited rate of lateral association of receptors multiplied by an effectiveness factor, eta, to give an apparent rate. For a value of eta = 0.0178, we calculated the overall efficiency (including both receptor binding and hydrodynamics effects) for equal-sized platelets with 50,000 receptors/platelet to be 0.206 for G = 41.9 s(-1), 0.05 for G = 335 s(-1), and 0.0086 for G = 1920 s(-1), values which are in agreement with efficiencies determined from initial platelet singlet consumption rates in <span class="hlt">flow</span> through a tube. From our analysis, we predict that bond formation proceeds at a rate of approximately 0.1925 bonds/microm2 per ms, which is approximately 50-fold slower than the diffusion limited rate of association. This value of eta is also consistent with a colloidal stability of unactivated platelets at low shear rates. Fibrinogen was calculated to mediate aggregation quite efficiently at low shear rates but not at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JFM...493...31O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JFM...493...31O"><span>On the <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of swept attachment-line boundary layer <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Part 2. Non-modal effects and receptivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Obrist, Dominik; Schmid, Peter J.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>Following the study of the spectral properties of <span class="hlt">linearized</span> swept Hiemenz <span class="hlt">flow</span> (see Part 1, Obrist & Schmid 2003) we investigate the potential of swept Hiemenz <span class="hlt">flow</span> to support transiently growing perturbations owing to the non-normal nature of the underlying <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability operator. Transient amplification of perturbation energy is found for polynomial orders higher than zero, and a catalytic role of the continuous modes in increasing transient growth is demonstrated. The adjoint stability equations are derived and used in a numerical receptivity experiment to illustrate the scattering of vortical free-stream disturbances into the least stable boundary layer mode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810053698&hterms=Methods+work&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMethods%2Bwork','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810053698&hterms=Methods+work&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMethods%2Bwork"><span>PAN AIR - A higher order panel method for predicting subsonic or supersonic <span class="hlt">linear</span> potential <span class="hlt">flows</span> about arbitrary configurations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carmichael, R. L.; Erickson, L. L.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>PAN AIR is a computer program for predicting subsonic or supersonic <span class="hlt">linear</span> potential <span class="hlt">flow</span> about arbitrary configurations. It uses <span class="hlt">linear</span> source and quadratic doublet strength distributions. These higher-order distributions have been implemented in a manner that greatly reduces the numerical stability problems that have plagued earlier attempts to make surface paneling methods work successfully for supersonic <span class="hlt">flow</span>. PAN AIR's problem-solving capability, numerical approach, modeling features, and program architecture are described. Numerical results are presented for a variety of geometries at supersonic Mach numbers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhFl...27j5103A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhFl...27j5103A"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability of optimal streaks in the log-layer of turbulent channel <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alizard, Frédéric</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The importance of secondary instability of streaks for the generation of vortical structures attached to the wall in the logarithmic region of turbulent channels is studied. The streaks and their <span class="hlt">linear</span> instability are computed by solving equations associated with the organized motion that include an eddy-viscosity modeling the effect of incoherent fluctuations. Three friction Reynolds numbers, Reτ = 2000, 3000, and 5000, are investigated. For all <span class="hlt">flow</span> cases, optimal streamwise vortices (i.e., having the highest potential for <span class="hlt">linear</span> transient energy amplification) are used as initial conditions. Due to the lift-up mechanism, these optimal perturbations lead to the nonlinear growth of streaks. Based on a Floquet theory along the spanwise direction, we observe the onset of streak secondary instability for a wide range of spanwise wavelengths when the streak amplitude exceeds a critical value. Under neutral conditions, it is shown that streak instability modes have their energy mainly concentrated in the overlap layer and propagate with a phase velocity equal to the mean streamwise velocity of the log-layer. These neutral log-layer modes exhibit a sinuous pattern and have characteristic sizes that are proportional to the wall distance in both streamwise and spanwise directions, in agreement with the Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis (A. Townsend, the structure of turbulent shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>, Cambridge university press, 1976 2nd edition). In particular, for a distance from the wall varying from y+ ≈ 100 (in wall units) to y ≈ 0.3h, where h is half the height of the channel, the neutral log-layer modes are self-similar with a spanwise width of λz ≈ y/0.3 and a streamwise length of λx ≈ 3λz, independently of the Reynolds number. Based on this observation, it is suggested that compact vortical structures attached to the wall can be ascribed to streak secondary instabilities. In addition, spatial distributions of fluctuating vorticity components show that the onset</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25871198','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25871198"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability of a circular Couette <span class="hlt">flow</span> under a radial thermoelectric body force.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoshikawa, H N; Meyer, A; Crumeyrolle, O; Mutabazi, I</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The stability of the circular Couette <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a dielectric fluid is analyzed by a <span class="hlt">linear</span> perturbation theory. The fluid is confined between two concentric cylindrical electrodes of infinite length with only the inner one rotating. A temperature difference and an alternating electric tension are applied to the electrodes to produce a radial dielectrophoretic body force that can induce convection in the fluid. We examine the effects of superposition of this thermoelectric force with the centrifugal force including its thermal variation. The Earth's gravity is neglected to focus on the situations of a vanishing Grashof number such as microgravity conditions. Depending on the electric field strength and of the temperature difference, critical modes are either axisymmetric or nonaxisymmetric, occurring in either stationary or oscillatory states. An energetic analysis is performed to determine the dominant destabilizing mechanism. When the inner cylinder is hotter than the outer one, the circular Couette <span class="hlt">flow</span> is destabilized by the centrifugal force for weak and moderate electric fields. The critical mode is steady axisymmetric, except for weak fields within a certain range of the Prandtl number and of the radius ratio of the cylinders, where the mode is oscillatory and axisymmetric. The frequency of this oscillatory mode is correlated with a Brunt-Väisälä frequency due to the stratification of both the density and the electric permittivity of the fluid. Under strong electric fields, the destabilization by the dielectrophoretic force is dominant, leading to oscillatory nonaxisymmetric critical modes with a frequency scaled by the frequency of the inner-cylinder rotation. When the outer cylinder is hotter than the inner one, the instability is again driven by the centrifugal force. The critical mode is axisymmetric and either steady under weak electric fields or oscillatory under strong electric fields. The frequency of the oscillatory mode is also correlated with the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=artificial+AND+intelligence&pg=3&id=EJ1137122','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=artificial+AND+intelligence&pg=3&id=EJ1137122"><span><span class="hlt">Routine</span> Responses to Disruption of <span class="hlt">Routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Guha, Mahua</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>"Organisational <span class="hlt">routines</span>" is a widely studied research area. However, there is a dearth of research on disruption of <span class="hlt">routines</span>. The few studies on disruption of <span class="hlt">routines</span> discussed problem-solving activities that are carried out in response to disruption. In contrast, this study develops a theory of "solution <span class="hlt">routines</span>" that are a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22760302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22760302"><span>Assessment of a protocol for <span class="hlt">routine</span> simultaneous myocardial blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> measurement and standard myocardial perfusion imaging with rubidium-82 on a high count rate positron emission tomography system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tout, Deborah; Tonge, Christine M; Muthu, Sivakumar; Arumugam, Parthiban</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>High count rate positron emission tomography (PET) systems offer the potential for accurate myocardial blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> (MBF) quantification during first-pass dynamic imaging in conjunction with standard rubidium-82 (Rb-82) PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We investigate the feasibility of this using a Siemens Biograph mCT. Current <span class="hlt">routine</span> clinical PET MPI is performed with 1480 MBq (40 mCi) Rb-82. Dynamic first-pass images from 217 consecutive patients were reviewed for evidence of detector saturation, indicating that count rate limits had been exceeded. Phantom acquisitions in the presence of high count rates were performed to assess the effect of detector saturation on quantitative accuracy. Accurate MBF quantification and perfusion imaging using current protocols was successful in 85% of clinical cases. Detector block saturation was observed in 15% of cases, and phantom acquisitions indicate that saturation may have an adverse effect on quantitative accuracy. Visualization of transit or pooling of Rb-82 in the vessels in the axilla was the most consistent feature when saturation occurred. Reduction of administered activity to 1110 MBq (30 mCi) and subsequent evaluation of 159 patients ensured successful MBF quantification while maintaining good diagnostic quality perfusion imaging in 99% of cases. MBF quantification and good-quality standard perfusion imaging can be performed on a high count rate PET system using a single-acquisition protocol. The administered activity requires optimization and we recommend 1110 MBq for PET MPI with a Biograph mCT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.HD005R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.HD005R"><span>Simulations of the Motion of Arbitrarily Shaped Fibers in a <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Shear <span class="hlt">Flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roshchenko, Andriy; Finlay, Warren; Minev, Peter</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Fibrous airborne particles cause severe adverse health effects when inhaled and deposited in human lungs. For this reason, fiber deposition in the lungs has been studied by numerous authors. However, a complete mechanistic model of fiber dynamics in the lungs has not yet been presented. One of the problems yet to be addressed involves the dynamics of arbitrarily shaped fibers in the lungs. Here, a two-grid fictitious domain method was used for direct simulations of arbitrarily shaped high aspect ratio fibers in <span class="hlt">linear</span> shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>, including an improved microscale grid resolution scheme and a Lagrangian-Eulerian approach whereby we transform the equations from a laboratory coordinate system to one fixed with the microgrid. Our simulations show the expected Jeffery orbits for straight, symmetric fibers. However, for asymmetric fiber shapes we observe a surprising secondary rotation that is out of the shear plane. Our findings suggest that studies of deposition efficiencies of fibrous aerosols should account for possible increases in deposition due to asymmetrical aerosol particles or their aggregations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0356/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0356/report.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> ground-water <span class="hlt">flow</span>, flood-wave response program for programmable calculators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kernodle, John Michael</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Two programs are documented which solve a discretized analytical equation derived to determine head changes at a point in a one-dimensional ground-water <span class="hlt">flow</span> system. The programs, written for programmable calculators, are in widely divergent but commonly encountered languages and serve to illustrate the adaptability of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> model to use in situations where access to true computers is not possible or economical. The analytical method assumes a semi-infinite aquifer which is uniform in thickness and hydrologic characteristics, bounded on one side by an impermeable barrier and on the other parallel side by a fully penetrating stream in complete hydraulic connection with the aquifer. Ground-water heads may be calculated for points along a line which is perpendicular to the impermeable barrie and the fully penetrating stream. Head changes at the observation point are dependent on (1) the distance between that point and the impermeable barrier, (2) the distance between the line of stress (the stream) and the impermeable barrier, (3) aquifer diffusivity, (4) time, and (5) head changes along the line of stress. The primary application of the programs is to determine aquifer diffusivity by the flood-wave response technique. (Woodard-USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3603..240I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3603..240I"><span>Combined SERS and <span class="hlt">flow</span> <span class="hlt">linear</span> dichroism approach to monitoring the interaction of pharmaceuticals with their target</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ianoul, Anatoli I.; Fleury, Fabrice; Duval, Olivier; Jardillier, Jean-Claude; Alix, Alain J.; Nabiev, Igor R.</p> <p>1999-04-01</p> <p>Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and <span class="hlt">Flow</span> <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Dichroism (FLD) technique have been employed to study the anticancer agent fagaronine and its derivative ethoxidine - double inhibitors of DNA topoisomerases I and II. Cooperative use of two methods permitted (i) to determine the molecular determinants of the drug-DNA interactions; (ii) to monitor in real time the process of topo I inhibition by these anticancer agents. FLD technique allowed us to identify the mode of drug interactions with the DNA as a 'major groove intercalation' and to determine orientation of the drugs chromophores within the complexes. Using SERS spectroscopy we have determined the drugs molecular determinants interacting with the DNA. FLD was also used for real time monitoring of the process of sc DNA relaxation by topo I and of inhibition of relaxation with the pharmaceuticals. Ethoxidine was found to exhibit the same activity of inhibition of sc DNA relaxation as fagaronine at the 10-fold less concentration. The proposed SERS-FLD combined approach demonstrates the new perspectives for screening new pharmaceuticals due to its relative simplicity and low expense, high sensitivity and selectivity, and, finally, possibility of real-time monitoring of the structure-function correlation within the series of drug derivatives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JCoPh.224..352M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JCoPh.224..352M"><span><span class="hlt">Linearized</span> acoustic perturbation equations for low Mach number <span class="hlt">flow</span> with variable density and temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Munz, Claus-Dieter; Dumbser, Michael; Roller, Sabine</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>When the Mach number tends to zero the compressible Navier-Stokes equations converge to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, under the restrictions of constant density, constant temperature and no compression from the boundary. This is a singular limit in which the pressure of the compressible equations converges at leading order to a constant thermodynamic background pressure, while a hydrodynamic pressure term appears in the incompressible equations as a Lagrangian multiplier to establish the divergence-free condition for the velocity. In this paper we consider the more general case in which variable density, variable temperature and heat transfer are present, while the Mach number is small. We discuss first the limit equations for this case, when the Mach number tends to zero. The introduction of a pressure splitting into a thermodynamic and a hydrodynamic part allows the extension of numerical methods to the zero Mach number equations in these non-standard situations. The solution of these equations is then used as the state of expansion extending the expansion about incompressible <span class="hlt">flow</span> proposed by Hardin and Pope [J.C. Hardin, D.S. Pope, An acoustic/viscous splitting technique for computational aeroacoustics, Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 6 (1995) 323-340]. The resulting <span class="hlt">linearized</span> equations state a mathematical model for the generation and propagation of acoustic waves in this more general low Mach number regime and may be used within a hybrid aeroacoustic approach.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/76152','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/76152"><span>Gas-liquid annular <span class="hlt">flow</span> under microgravity conditions: <span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability as a tool for <span class="hlt">flow</span> regime identification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Best, F.R.; Carron, I.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>A single parameter has been developed that predicts the highly nonlinear state of a microgravity <span class="hlt">flow</span> with a confidence of up to 95% in differentiating slug <span class="hlt">flow</span> from other regimes for different fluids of radically different properties such as air/water and Freon-11, -12, and -114. The authors have also shown that by taking the best data available based on current knowledge, it was possible to predict the <span class="hlt">flow</span> regime in experiments with an accuracy of at least 85%, whether the <span class="hlt">flow</span> was slug or bubbly, slug/annular and annular <span class="hlt">flow</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLB..773...68A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLB..773...68A"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> and non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> mode in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Alba, J. L. B.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altenkamper, L.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; An, M.; Andrei, C.; Andreou, D.; Andrews, H. A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Anwar, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barioglio, L.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boca, G.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buhler, P.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Capon, A. A.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cerello, P.; Chandra, S.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Chowdhury, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Concas, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Costanza, S.; Crkovská, J.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; de Souza, R. D.; Degenhardt, H. F.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; di Bari, D.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; di Ruzza, B.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Doremalen, L. V. V.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Duggal, A. K.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eulisse, G.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabbietti, L.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garg, K.; Garg, P.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Gay Ducati, M. B.; Germain, M.; Ghosh, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Greiner, L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosa, F.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Gruber, L.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Guzman, I. B.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hassan, H.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hills, C.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hohlweger, B.; Horak, D.; Hornung, S.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Iga Buitron, S. A.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Isakov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jaelani, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jercic, M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Ketzer, B.; Khabanova, Z.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Khatun, A.; Khuntia, A.; Kielbowicz, M. M.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kundu, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lai, Y. S.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lavicka, R.; Lazaridis, L.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Lehner, S.; Lehrbach, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lim, B.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lindsay, S. W.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Litichevskyi, V.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Llope, W. J.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Loncar, P.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, J. A. L.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Masson, E.; Mastroserio, A.; Mathis, A. M.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzilli, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mihaylov, D.; Mihaylov, D. L.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Montes, E.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Münning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Myers, C. J.; Myrcha, J. W.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Narayan, A.; Naru, M. U.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Negrao de Oliveira, R. A.; Nellen, L.; Nesbo, S. V.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nobuhiro, A.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Ohlson, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pacik, V.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Panebianco, S.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Pathak, S. P.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Peng, X.; Pereira, L. G.; Pereira da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Pezzi, R. P.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pliquett, F.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pozdniakov, V.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Rana, D. B.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Ratza, V.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Rokita, P. S.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosas, E. D.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Rotondi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rueda, O. V.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Rustamov, A.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Saha, S. K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandoval, A.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Sas, M. H. P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scheid, H. S.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M. O.; Schmidt, M.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sett, P.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shahoyan, R.; Shaikh, W.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S.; Szabo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thakur, D.; Thakur, S.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Tikhonov, A.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Tripathy, S.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Tropp, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Umaka, E. N.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; van der Maarel, J.; van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vázquez Doce, O.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Vértesi, R.; Vickovic, L.; Vigolo, S.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Voscek, D.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wenzel, S. C.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Willems, G. A.; Williams, M. C. S.; Willsher, E.; Windelband, B.; Witt, W. E.; Yalcin, S.; Yamakawa, K.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zmeskal, J.; Zou, S.; Alice Collaboration</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The second and the third order anisotropic <span class="hlt">flow</span>, V2 and V3, are mostly determined by the corresponding initial spatial anisotropy coefficients, ε2 and ε3, in the initial density distribution. In addition to their dependence on the same order initial anisotropy coefficient, higher order anisotropic <span class="hlt">flow</span>, Vn (n > 3), can also have a significant contribution from lower order initial anisotropy coefficients, which leads to mode-coupling effects. In this Letter we investigate the <span class="hlt">linear</span> and non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> modes in higher order anisotropic <span class="hlt">flow</span> Vn for n = 4, 5, 6 with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurements are done for particles in the pseudorapidity range | η | < 0.8 and the transverse momentum range 0.2 <pT < 5.0 GeV / c as a function of collision centrality. The results are compared with theoretical calculations and provide important constraints on the initial conditions, including initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations, as well as the ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density of the produced system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhFl...26c3303S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhFl...26c3303S"><span>Rotational motion of a thin axisymmetric disk in a low Reynolds number <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Vikram; Koch, Donald L.; Subramanian, Ganesh; Stroock, Abraham D.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The motion of thin, torque-free axisymmetric rigid particles with fore-aft symmetry in low Reynolds number <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flows</span> is investigated. The rotational motion of such a particle is fully determined by the effective aspect ratio (κe), defined as the aspect ratio of a spheroid having the same period of rotation as that of the particle. We determine the effective aspect ratio for a family of shapes given by, y(ρ) = κ(1 - ρ2)α where α is a positive parameter, ρ is the radial distance from the particle center in polar coordinates, y is half the thickness of the particle, κ is the aspect ratio of the particle defined as the ratio of the thickness (L) of the particle parallel to the axis of symmetry to its diameter (d) perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. This family includes an oblate spheroid (α =1/2) and the shape approaches a blunt circular cylinder shape as α → 0. For a thin particle, the effective aspect ratio scales like smash{GA^{1/2}}, where GA is the torque non-dimensionalized by μγd3 acting on a particle held in a fixed alignment in a simple shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> with its longer dimensions in the <span class="hlt">flow</span>-vorticity plane. Here, μ is the fluid viscosity and γ is the shear rate. Starting with the integral representation of the Stokes <span class="hlt">flow</span>, an analysis based on a matched asymptotic expansions approach is performed to determine the scaling of the torque acting on a stationary particle in simple shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> with κ as the small parameter. Using boundary element method simulations, the exact torques are calculated and the scaling obtained from the analysis is verified. We find that there are two regions of interest that contribute to the torque, a flat outer region covering most of the disk area and a boundary layer region of large slope at the edge. For α >1/4, the torque is dominated by the stresses acting on the flat surface of the particle and is O(κ2) to the leading order. For these shapes, the effective aspect ratio scales like the aspect ratio of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JSV...237..641A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JSV...237..641A"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing <span class="hlt">Flowing</span> Fluid. Part Iv: Large-Amplitude Vibrations with <span class="hlt">Flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>The response of a shell conveying fluid to harmonic excitation, in the spectral neighbourhood of one of the lowest natural frequencies, is investigated for different <span class="hlt">flow</span> velocities. The theoretical model has already been presented in Part I of the present study. Non-<span class="hlt">linearities</span> due to moderately large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using Donnell's non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> shallow-shell theory. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> potential <span class="hlt">flow</span> theory is applied to describe the fluid-structure interaction by using the model proposed by Paı̈doussis and Denise. For different amplitudes and frequencies of the excitation and for different <span class="hlt">flow</span> velocities, the following are investigated numerically: (1) periodic response of the system; (2) unsteady and stochastic motion; (3) loss of stability by jumps to bifurcated branches. The effect of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> velocity on the non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> periodic response of the system has also been investigated. Poincaré maps and bifurcation diagrams are used to study the unsteady and stochastic dynamics of the system. Amplitude modulated motions, multi-periodic solutions, chaotic responses, cascades of bifurcations as the route to chaos and the so-called “blue sky catastrophe” phenomenon have all been observed for different values of the system parameters; the latter two have been predicted here probably for the first time for the dynamics of circular cylindrical shells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22350833','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22350833"><span>A Nth-order <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm for extracting diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> indices in heterogeneous tissues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang</p> <p>2014-09-29</p> <p>Conventional semi-infinite analytical solutions of correlation diffusion equation may lead to errors when calculating blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> index (BFI) from diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements in tissues with irregular geometries. Very recently, we created an algorithm integrating a Nth-order <span class="hlt">linear</span> model of autocorrelation function with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon migrations in homogenous tissues with arbitrary geometries for extraction of BFI (i.e., αD{sub B}). The purpose of this study is to extend the capability of the Nth-order <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm for extracting BFI in heterogeneous tissues with arbitrary geometries. The previous <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm was modified to extract BFIs in different types of tissues simultaneously through utilizing DCS data at multiple source-detector separations. We compared the proposed <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm with the semi-infinite homogenous solution in a computer model of adult head with heterogeneous tissue layers of scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain. To test the capability of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm for extracting relative changes of cerebral blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> (rCBF) in deep brain, we assigned ten levels of αD{sub B} in the brain layer with a step decrement of 10% while maintaining αD{sub B} values constant in other layers. Simulation results demonstrate the accuracy (errors < 3%) of high-order (N ≥ 5) <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm in extracting BFIs in different tissue layers and rCBF in deep brain. By contrast, the semi-infinite homogenous solution resulted in substantial errors in rCBF (34.5% ≤ errors ≤ 60.2%) and BFIs in different layers. The Nth-order <span class="hlt">linear</span> model simplifies data analysis, thus allowing for online data processing and displaying. Future study will test this <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm in heterogeneous tissues with different levels of blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> variations and noises.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25378708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25378708"><span>A Nth-order <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm for extracting diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> indices in heterogeneous tissues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang</p> <p>2014-09-29</p> <p>Conventional semi-infinite analytical solutions of correlation diffusion equation may lead to errors when calculating blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> index (BFI) from diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements in tissues with irregular geometries. Very recently, we created an algorithm integrating a Nth-order <span class="hlt">linear</span> model of autocorrelation function with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon migrations in homogenous tissues with arbitrary geometries for extraction of BFI (i.e., αDB ). The purpose of this study is to extend the capability of the Nth-order <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm for extracting BFI in heterogeneous tissues with arbitrary geometries. The previous <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm was modified to extract BFIs in different types of tissues simultaneously through utilizing DCS data at multiple source-detector separations. We compared the proposed <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm with the semi-infinite homogenous solution in a computer model of adult head with heterogeneous tissue layers of scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain. To test the capability of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm for extracting relative changes of cerebral blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> (rCBF) in deep brain, we assigned ten levels of αDB in the brain layer with a step decrement of 10% while maintaining αDB values constant in other layers. Simulation results demonstrate the accuracy (errors < 3%) of high-order (N ≥ 5) <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm in extracting BFIs in different tissue layers and rCBF in deep brain. By contrast, the semi-infinite homogenous solution resulted in substantial errors in rCBF (34.5% ≤ errors ≤ 60.2%) and BFIs in different layers. The Nth-order <span class="hlt">linear</span> model simplifies data analysis, thus allowing for online data processing and displaying. Future study will test this <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm in heterogeneous tissues with different levels of blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> variations and noises.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..203P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..203P"><span>Geomorphological descriptions of seasonal processes on Mars: <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Gullies and Recurrent Diffusing <span class="hlt">Flows</span> on the intra-crater dunes fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pasquon, K.; Gargani, J.; Massé, M.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Gullies are seasonal processes located on the intra-crater dunes fields. They are mainly located between 43°40'S and 52°2'S on dunes with a slight slope (˜13°) facing SSW (mainly between 150°N and 260°N). The progression of <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Gullies happens every years between the end of winter and the beginning of spring (between Ls 167.4° and Ls 216.6°), when the CO finally defrosts on the dunes fields. Each year, a Recurrent Diffusing <span class="hlt">Flow</span> spreads on <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Gullies area from the end of winter (Ls 167.4°) to the beginning of autumn (Ls 21.9°), with a maximum activity between Ls 167.4° and Ls 192.3°. This <span class="hlt">flow</span> takes an active part in the <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Gullies creation/upkeep and could participate to the pits development. We highlight an albedo decrease of 42% during the pits activity. This important and very transient decreasing could be hardly explained by a dry movement only. We thus suggest that the Recurrent Diffusing <span class="hlt">Flows</span> could be linked to the presence of a fluid or a liquid spreading in the shallow sub-surface. A link between CO cycle and the <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Gullies could be consistent with their development timing. Brines participation can't be excluded.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ExFl...44..939L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ExFl...44..939L"><span>Investigation of <span class="hlt">flow</span> separation in a transonic-fan <span class="hlt">linear</span> cascade using visualization methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lepicovsky, J.</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>An extensive experimental study into the nature of the separated <span class="hlt">flows</span> on the blade suction surface of modern transonic fans is described in this paper. The study was a subtask of a larger experimental effort focused on blade flutter excited by <span class="hlt">flow</span> separation in the blade tip region. The tip sections of airfoils on transonic fan blades are designed for precompression and consequently they differ from sections on the rest of the blade. The blade tip section was modeled by a low aspect ratio blade and therefore most of the blade tested was exposed to the secondary <span class="hlt">flow</span> effects. The aim of this work was to supply reliable data on <span class="hlt">flow</span> separation on transonic fan blades for validation of future analytical studies. The experimental study focused on two visualization techniques: surface <span class="hlt">flow</span> visualization using dye oils and schlieren (and shadowgraph) <span class="hlt">flow</span> visualization. The following key observations were made during the study. For subsonic inlet <span class="hlt">flow</span>, the <span class="hlt">flow</span> on the suction surface of the blade was separated over a large portion of the blade, and the separated area increased with increasing inlet Mach number. For the supersonic inlet <span class="hlt">flow</span> condition, the <span class="hlt">flow</span> was attached from the leading edge up to the point where a bow shock from the upper neighboring blade imposed on the blade surface. Downstream, there was a separated <span class="hlt">flow</span> region in which air <span class="hlt">flowed</span> in the direction opposite the inlet <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Finally, past the separated <span class="hlt">flow</span> region, the <span class="hlt">flow</span> reattached to the blade surface. For subsonic inlet <span class="hlt">flow</span>, the low cascade solidity resulted in an increased area of separated <span class="hlt">flow</span>. For supersonic <span class="hlt">flow</span> conditions, the low solidity resulted in an improvement in <span class="hlt">flow</span> over the suction surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T13G2705D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T13G2705D"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> analysis of two-phase media undergoing multidimensional shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>: insights into partially molten regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diez, M.; Hogg, A. J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The dynamics of lithospheric partially molten regions undergoing deformation at convergent and divergent tectonic boundaries is an outstanding problem involving different processes and the crossing of many spatial scales. At the same time, it governs the origins of explosive volcanism at volcanic arcs, modulates orogenesis by controlling plutonism and the dynamics of lithospheric shear zones, and possibly plays a role in the focusing of magmatism at mid ocean ridges. In the last two decades or so, field studies of exposed once partially molten regions, such as lower crustal migmatitic domains, reveal in many cases that they organized into vein and channel networks in connection with lithospheric shear zones that eventually fed plutons at shallower crustal levels. Essentially, upon melting, melt in the pores of a partially molten region undergoing tectonic shearing segregates into small cm-scale veins that coalesce into meter-scale structures. In the case of protoliths such as metamorphic tectonites, melt segregates following the foliation and lineation accumulating in melt-rich layer or rods that effectively transport magma that feeds plutons at shallower levels. At the same time, some of these melt-impregnated structures localize deformation producing weakening and enhancing displacement along an intersecting shear zone. With the long-term aim of building a consistent and comprehensive hypothesis of how this tectono-magmatic coupling occurs in nature, we have started deriving multidimensional <span class="hlt">linear</span> solutions of a two-phase mixture undergoing shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Although the theory allows for any kind of multidimensional shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>, we start with two-dimensional simple and pure shear cases to gain fundamental insights. We also introduce damage or the storage of surface energy as microcracks, defects etc. For simplicity, as a starting point, we assume a homogenous anisotropy of the initial mixture, with the intention of exploring anisotropy in future analyses. Thus as it</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC98-44440-13&hterms=competitiveness&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcompetitiveness','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC98-44440-13&hterms=competitiveness&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcompetitiveness"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) during first in-flight cold <span class="hlt">flow</span> test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>This photograph shows the LASRE pod on the upper rear fuselage of an SR-71 aircraft during take-off of the first flight to experience an in-flight cold <span class="hlt">flow</span> test. The flight occurred on 4 March 1998. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 <span class="hlt">linear</span> aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the aerodynamic <span class="hlt">flow</span> with the engine plume</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010016660','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010016660"><span>Investigation of <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Separation in a Transonic-fan <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Cascade Using Visualization Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lepicovsky, Jan; Chima, Rodrick V.; Jett, Thomas A.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Weiland, Kenneth E.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>An extensive study into the nature of the separated <span class="hlt">flows</span> on the suction side of modem transonic fan airfoils at high incidence is described in the paper. Suction surface.<span class="hlt">flow</span> separation is an important <span class="hlt">flow</span> characteristic that may significantly contribute to stall flutter in transonic fans. Flutter in axial turbomachines is a highly undesirable and dangerous self-excited mode of blade oscillations that can result in high cycle fatigue blade failure. The study basically focused on two visualization techniques: surface <span class="hlt">flow</span> visualization using dye oils, and schlieren (and shadowgraph) <span class="hlt">flow</span> visualization. The following key observations were made during the study. For subsonic inlet <span class="hlt">flow</span>, the <span class="hlt">flow</span> on the suction side of the blade is separated over a large portion of the blade, and the separated area increases with increasing inlet Mach number. For the supersonic inlet <span class="hlt">flow</span> condition, the <span class="hlt">flow</span> is attached from the leading edge up to the point where a bow shock from the upper neighboring blade hits the blade surface. Low cascade solidity, for the subsonic inlet <span class="hlt">flow</span>, results in an increased area of separated <span class="hlt">flow</span>. For supersonic <span class="hlt">flow</span> conditions, a low solidity results in an improvement in <span class="hlt">flow</span> over the suction surface. Finally, computational results modeling the transonic cascade flowfield illustrate our ability to simulate these <span class="hlt">flows</span> numerically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/401706','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/401706"><span>Applying non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> dynamics to atrial appendage <span class="hlt">flow</span> data to understand and characterize atrial arrhythmia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chandra, S.; Grimm, R.A.; Katz, R.; Thomas, J.D.</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to better understand and characterize left atrial appendage <span class="hlt">flow</span> in atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation and flutter are the most common cardiac arrhythmias affecting 15% of the older population. The pulsed Doppler velocity profile data was recorded from the left atrial appendage of patients using transesophageal echocardiography. The data was analyzed using Fourier analysis and nonlinear dynamical tools. Fourier analysis showed that appendage mechanical frequency ({ital f{sub f}}) for patients in sinus rhythm was always lower (around1 Hz) than that in atrial fibrillation (5-8 Hz). Among patients with atrial fibrillation spectral power below {ital f{sub f}} was significantly different suggesting variability within this group of patients. Results that suggested the presence of nonlinear dynamics were: a) the existence of two arbitrary peak frequencies {ital f{sub 1}, f{sub 2}}, and other peak frequencies as <span class="hlt">linear</span> combinations thereof ({ital mf{sub 1}{+-}nf{sub 2}}), and b) the similarity between the spectrum of patient data and that obtained using the Lorenz equation. Nonlinear analysis tools, including Phase plots and differential radial plots, were also generated from the velocity data using a delay of 10. In the phase plots, some patients displayed a torus-like structure, while others had a more random-like pattern. In the differential radial plots, the first set of patients (with torus-like phase plots) showed fewer values crossing an arbitrary threshold of 10 than did the second set (8 vs. 27 in one typical example). The outcome of cardioversion was different for these two set of patients. Fourier analysis helped to: differentiate between sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation, understand the characteristics of the wide range of atrial fibrillation patients, and provide hints that atrial fibrillation could be a nonlinear process. Nonlinear dynamical tools helped to further characterize and sub-classify atrial fibrillation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713491F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713491F"><span>Total synthesis of feglymycin based on a <span class="hlt">linear</span>/convergent hybrid approach using micro-<span class="hlt">flow</span> amide bond formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fuse, Shinichiro; Mifune, Yuto; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Feglymycin is a naturally occurring, anti-HIV and antimicrobial 13-mer peptide that includes highly racemizable 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycines (Dpgs). Here we describe the total synthesis of feglymycin based on a <span class="hlt">linear</span>/convergent hybrid approach. Our originally developed micro-<span class="hlt">flow</span> amide bond formation enabled highly racemizable peptide chain elongation based on a <span class="hlt">linear</span> approach that was previously considered impossible. Our developed approach will enable the practical preparation of biologically active oligopeptides that contain highly racemizable amino acids, which are attractive drug candidates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPA....5g7148M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPA....5g7148M"><span>Model for <span class="hlt">flow</span> of Casson nanofluid past a non-<span class="hlt">linearly</span> stretching sheet considering magnetic field effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mustafa, M.; Khan, Junaid Ahmad</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Present work deals with the magneto-hydro-dynamic <span class="hlt">flow</span> and heat transfer of Casson nanofluid over a non-<span class="hlt">linearly</span> stretching sheet. Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> temperature distribution across the sheet is considered. More physically acceptable model of passively controlled wall nanoparticle volume fraction is accounted. The arising mathematical problem is governed by interesting parameters which include Casson fluid parameter, magnetic field parameter, power-law index, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Prandtl number and Schmidt number. Numerical solutions are computed through fourth-fifth-order-Runge-Kutta integration approach combined with the shooting technique. Both temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are increasing functions of Casson fluid parameter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5133696','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5133696"><span>Total synthesis of feglymycin based on a <span class="hlt">linear</span>/convergent hybrid approach using micro-<span class="hlt">flow</span> amide bond formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fuse, Shinichiro; Mifune, Yuto; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Feglymycin is a naturally occurring, anti-HIV and antimicrobial 13-mer peptide that includes highly racemizable 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycines (Dpgs). Here we describe the total synthesis of feglymycin based on a <span class="hlt">linear</span>/convergent hybrid approach. Our originally developed micro-<span class="hlt">flow</span> amide bond formation enabled highly racemizable peptide chain elongation based on a <span class="hlt">linear</span> approach that was previously considered impossible. Our developed approach will enable the practical preparation of biologically active oligopeptides that contain highly racemizable amino acids, which are attractive drug candidates. PMID:27892469</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhFl...23i4105L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhFl...23i4105L"><span>Investigation of the effect of external periodic <span class="hlt">flow</span> pulsation on a cylinder wake using <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Liang; Papadakis, George</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to investigate the receptivity of cylinder wake to external periodic <span class="hlt">flow</span> pulsation at low Reynolds number using <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis. The inlet <span class="hlt">flow</span> pulsation appears as a forcing term in the linearised equation set. The full non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> N-S equations as well as the linearised set for small perturbations around the time-averaged <span class="hlt">flow</span> are solved using an in-house finite volume solver. The results are first validated against reference data for growth rate and frequency of the most unstable eigenmode for <span class="hlt">flow</span> past a fixed cylinder with steady base <span class="hlt">flow</span> at various Reynolds numbers. A special numerical technique is developed to separate the components of the solution in the wake that vary with the natural shedding frequency and the external pulsating frequency. The developed approach requires temporal integration over one period of vortex shedding and solution of a 4×4 <span class="hlt">linear</span> system at every cell of the domain. The results show that both cross-stream and streamwise velocity components in the near cylinder region are strongly affected by <span class="hlt">flow</span> pulsation, and its effect is spatially localised in the near wake. Increasing the pulsation frequency reduces the spatial extent within which pulsation plays an important role. A symmetric shedding pattern is established and at every period of external pulsation, two pairs of symmetric vortices are shed from the top and bottom of the cylinder. The width of the wake periodically widens and narrows, which is similar to "wake breathing" observed in a streamwise oscillating cylinder.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPBI3001D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPBI3001D"><span>Dynamics of Fluctuations, <span class="hlt">Flows</span> and Global Stability Under Electrode Biasing in a <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Plasma Device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Desjardins, Tiffany</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Various bias electrodes have been inserted into the Helicon-Cathode (HelCat) device at the University of New Mexico, in order to affect intrinsic drift-wave turbulence and <span class="hlt">flows</span>. The goal of the experiments was to suppress and effect the intrinsic turbulence and with detailed measurements, understand the changes that occur during biasing. The drift-mode in HelCat varies from coherent at low magnetic field (<1kG) to broad-band turbulent at high magnetic fields (>1kG). The first electrode consists of 6 concentric rings set in a ceramic substrate; these rings act as a boundary condition, sitting at the end of the plasma column 2-m away from the source. A negative bias has been found to have no effect on the fluctuations, but a positive bias (Vr>5Te) is required in order to suppress the drift-mode. Two molybdenum grids can also be inserted into the plasma and sit close to the source. Floating or grounding a grid results in suppressing the drift-mode of the system. A negative bias (>-5Te) is found to return the drift-mode, and it is possible to drive a once coherent mode into a broad-band turbulent one. From a bias voltage of -5Te<Vg<5Te, the plasma is found to be quiescent. A positive bias greater the 5Te is found to excite a new mode, which is identified as a parallel-driven Kelvin-Helmholtz mode. At high positive bias, Vg>10Te, a new large-scale global mode is excited. This mode exhibits fluctuations in the ion saturation current, as well as in the potential, with a magnitude >50%. This mode has been identified as the potential relaxation instability (PRI). In order to better understand the modes and changes observed in the plasma, a <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability code, LSS, was employed. As well, a 1D3V-PIC code utilizing Braginskii's equations was also utilized to understand the high-bias instability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19019371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19019371"><span>Wave intensity amplification and attenuation in non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span>: implications for the calculation of local reflection coefficients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mynard, Jonathan; Penny, Daniel J; Smolich, Joseph J</p> <p>2008-12-05</p> <p>Local reflection coefficients (R) provide important insights into the influence of wave reflection on vascular haemodynamics. Using the relatively new time-domain method of wave intensity analysis, R has been calculated as the ratio of the peak intensities (R(PI)) or areas (R(CI)) of incident and reflected waves, or as the ratio of the changes in pressure caused by these waves (R(DeltaP)). While these methods have not yet been compared, it is likely that elastic non-<span class="hlt">linearities</span> present in large arteries will lead to changes in the size of waves as they propagate and thus errors in the calculation of R(PI) and R(CI). To test this proposition, R(PI), R(CI) and R(DeltaP) were calculated in a non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> computer model of a single vessel with various degrees of elastic non-<span class="hlt">linearity</span>, determined by wave speed and pulse amplitude (DeltaP(+)), and a terminal admittance to produce reflections. Results obtained from this model demonstrated that under <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> conditions (i.e. as DeltaP(+)-->0), R(DeltaP) is equivalent to the square-root of R(PI) and R(CI) (denoted by R(PI)(p) and R(CI)(p)). However for non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span>, pressure-increasing (compression) waves undergo amplification while pressure-reducing (expansion) waves undergo attenuation as they propagate. Consequently, significant errors related to the degree of elastic non-<span class="hlt">linearity</span> arise in R(PI) and R(CI), and also R(PI)(p) and R(CI)(p), with greater errors associated with larger reflections. Conversely, R(Delta)(P) is unaffected by the degree of non-<span class="hlt">linearity</span> and is thus more accurate than R(PI) and R(CI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...633371A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...633371A"><span>Eddy, drift wave and zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> dynamics in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> magnetized plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arakawa, H.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasuya, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Yamada, T.; Lesur, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Turbulence and its structure formation are universal in neutral fluids and in plasmas. Turbulence annihilates global structures but can organize <span class="hlt">flows</span> and eddies. The mutual-interactions between <span class="hlt">flow</span> and the eddy give basic insights into the understanding of non-equilibrium and nonlinear interaction by turbulence. In fusion plasma, clarifying structure formation by Drift-wave turbulence, driven by density gradients in magnetized plasma, is an important issue. Here, a new mutual-interaction among eddy, drift wave and <span class="hlt">flow</span> in magnetized plasma is discovered. A two-dimensional solitary eddy, which is a perturbation with circumnavigating motion localized radially and azimuthally, is transiently organized in a drift wave – zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> (azimuthally symmetric band-like shear <span class="hlt">flows</span>) system. The excitation of the eddy is synchronized with zonal perturbation. The organization of the eddy has substantial impact on the acceleration of zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5024127','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5024127"><span>Eddy, drift wave and zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> dynamics in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> magnetized plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arakawa, H.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasuya, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Yamada, T.; Lesur, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Turbulence and its structure formation are universal in neutral fluids and in plasmas. Turbulence annihilates global structures but can organize <span class="hlt">flows</span> and eddies. The mutual-interactions between <span class="hlt">flow</span> and the eddy give basic insights into the understanding of non-equilibrium and nonlinear interaction by turbulence. In fusion plasma, clarifying structure formation by Drift-wave turbulence, driven by density gradients in magnetized plasma, is an important issue. Here, a new mutual-interaction among eddy, drift wave and <span class="hlt">flow</span> in magnetized plasma is discovered. A two-dimensional solitary eddy, which is a perturbation with circumnavigating motion localized radially and azimuthally, is transiently organized in a drift wave – zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> (azimuthally symmetric band-like shear <span class="hlt">flows</span>) system. The excitation of the eddy is synchronized with zonal perturbation. The organization of the eddy has substantial impact on the acceleration of zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span>. PMID:27628894</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26894690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26894690"><span>Rotating <span class="hlt">Flow</span> of Magnetite-Water Nanofluid over a Stretching Surface Inspired by Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Thermal Radiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mustafa, M; Mushtaq, A; Hayat, T; Alsaedi, A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Present study explores the MHD three-dimensional rotating <span class="hlt">flow</span> and heat transfer of ferrofluid induced by a radiative surface. The base fluid is considered as water with magnetite-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Novel concept of non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> radiative heat flux is considered which produces a non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> energy equation in temperature field. Conventional transformations are employed to obtain the self-similar form of the governing differential system. The arising system involves an interesting temperature ratio parameter which is an indicator of small/large temperature differences in the <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Numerical simulations with high precision are determined by well-known shooting approach. Both uniform stretching and rotation have significant impact on the solutions. The variation in velocity components with the nanoparticle volume fraction is non-monotonic. Local Nusselt number in Fe3O4-water ferrofluid is larger in comparison to the pure fluid even at low particle concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4760931','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4760931"><span>Rotating <span class="hlt">Flow</span> of Magnetite-Water Nanofluid over a Stretching Surface Inspired by Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Thermal Radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mustafa, M.; Mushtaq, A.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Present study explores the MHD three-dimensional rotating <span class="hlt">flow</span> and heat transfer of ferrofluid induced by a radiative surface. The base fluid is considered as water with magnetite-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Novel concept of non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> radiative heat flux is considered which produces a non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> energy equation in temperature field. Conventional transformations are employed to obtain the self-similar form of the governing differential system. The arising system involves an interesting temperature ratio parameter which is an indicator of small/large temperature differences in the <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Numerical simulations with high precision are determined by well-known shooting approach. Both uniform stretching and rotation have significant impact on the solutions. The variation in velocity components with the nanoparticle volume fraction is non-monotonic. Local Nusselt number in Fe3O4–water ferrofluid is larger in comparison to the pure fluid even at low particle concentration. PMID:26894690</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105955','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105955"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">flow</span> network analysis code for block type VHTR core by <span class="hlt">linear</span> theory method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, J. H.; Yoon, S. J.; Park, J. W.; Park, G. C.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) is high-efficiency nuclear reactor which is capable of generating hydrogen with high temperature of coolant. PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor) type reactor consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks. The <span class="hlt">flow</span> paths in the prismatic VHTR core consist of coolant holes, bypass gaps and cross gaps. Complicated <span class="hlt">flow</span> paths are formed in the core since the coolant holes and bypass gap are connected by the cross gap. Distributed coolant was mixed in the core through the cross gap so that the <span class="hlt">flow</span> characteristics could not be modeled as a simple parallel pipe system. It requires lot of effort and takes very long time to analyze the core <span class="hlt">flow</span> with CFD analysis. Hence, it is important to develop the code for VHTR core <span class="hlt">flow</span> which can predict the core <span class="hlt">flow</span> distribution fast and accurate. In this study, steady state <span class="hlt">flow</span> network analysis code is developed using <span class="hlt">flow</span> network algorithm. Developed <span class="hlt">flow</span> network analysis code was named as FLASH code and it was validated with the experimental data and CFD simulation results. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12537413','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12537413"><span>Clinical application in <span class="hlt">routine</span> practice of the proximal <span class="hlt">flow</span> convergence method to calculate the mitral surface area in mitral valve stenosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bennis, Ahmed; Drighil, Abdennasser; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Drighil, Asmaa; Chraibi, Nacer</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography planimetry, the Doppler pression half-time (PHT), and the continuity equation methods were used to estimate mitral valve area (MVA) in patients with mitral stenosis (MS). Recently, the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method has been shown to be accurate for calculating MVA. The purpose of this study is (1) to compare in a large non-selected population the accuracy of the PISA and planimetry methods for echocardiographic estimation of MVA; (2) to determine the effect of atrial fibrillation (AF), Wilkins score, associated mitral regurgitation (MR), aortic regurgitation (AR), and of commissural calcifications on the accuracy of the PISA method. One hundred and eight consecutive patients with rheumatic MS were studied (76 females and 32 males; mean age: 36 +/- 12 years); 64 were in sinus rhythm; 51 had associated MR and 46 had AR. By the PISA method. MVA was calculated assuming a uniform radius <span class="hlt">flow</span> convergence region along a hemispherical surface. The mean value of 2D MVA was 1.32 +/- 0.59 cm2 (0.4-3.1 cm2) and that of PISA MVA 1.33 +/- 0.62 cm2 (0.38-3 cm2). MVA calculated using the PISA method correlated well with 2D MVA (r = 0.93, y = 0.97x + 0.04, p < 0.0001, SEE = 0.21 cm2). The correlation was also good in patients with AF (r = 0.93, y = 0.99x + 0.03, p < 0.0001, SEE = 0.21 cm2), with MR (r = 0.94, y = 1.0 14x + 0.003, p < 0.0001, SEE = 0.19 cm2), with AR (r = 0.93, y = 0.90x + 0.11, p < 0.0001, SEE = 0.2 cm2), when Wilkins score was >8 (r = 0.92, = 0.96x + 0.06, p < 0.0001, SEE = 0.19 cm2), and in patients with commissural calcifications (r = 0.90, y = 0.88x + 0.009, p < 0.0001, SEE = 0.20 cm2). Our study shows that in <span class="hlt">routine</span> practice, MVA calculated by the PISA method correlated well with the area obtained by planimetry even in the presence of commissural calcifications, associated MR, AR, AF and of high Wilkins score. Therefore, the PISA method provides a reliable measurement of the MVA in MS under different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PhDT.......239S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PhDT.......239S"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> <span class="hlt">Flow</span>, Fracture, Mechanical Quenching, and Computer Modeling of a Glass Cylinder Pressed Between Parallel Plates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sakoske, George Emil</p> <p></p> <p>Analytical, experimental, and computer modeling studies are conducted for axial pressing of a glass cylinder between parallel plates. The classic "no-slip" parallel plate equation is derived from fundamental fluid mechanics with no geometric limitations and its validity is proved for transient and steady state low Reynold's number <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Similarly, a "perfect-slip" solution yields the fiber elongation equation sigma = 3etadotvarepsilon. These limiting boundary conditions are studied experimentally by pressing directly on graphite and mica providing slip mechanisms, and non-deformable metal discs for no-slip. <span class="hlt">Linear</span>, non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span>, and elastic fracture are observed by varying time scale over which strain is applied, theta, in relationship to glass structural relaxation time, tau. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> is measured for tau<<theta in a soda-lime glass over the range 10 ^{7.5}<=eta_{rm o}<= 10^{12.8} Pa cdotsec. Shear components of tau ~20 sec non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> agree with other non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> viscometric studies. A bond breakage and re -formation rate process model is applied to better fit "steady -state" viscosity strain-rate results. Initial t ~0 and transient data demonstrate complex time, stress, strain, strain-rate behavior. An energy balance shows viscous dissipation contributes significantly to viscosity decreases measured during forced rate pressing of glass cylinders. Rate dependent <span class="hlt">flow</span> shapes are filmed. Mica did not significantly reduce loads but allows more <span class="hlt">flow</span> before fracture. Ability to transmit shearing stresses and breakdown of "slip" boundary material is discussed. Fracture occurs as stresses increase within the sample for increasing time and rates. Cracks are driven by hoop and radial stresses where the origin and mode is a function of pressing rate. A Maxwell fluid finite element model is developed which uses experimental parameters as input. FEM results show general agreement with analytical solutions. A viscous heating analysis brings insight to stress overshoot</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1014743','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1014743"><span><span class="hlt">Flow</span> of a non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> (density-gradient-dependent) viscous fluid with heat generation, viscous dissipation and radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Massoudi, Mehrdad; Phuoc, Tran X.</p> <p>2008-09-25</p> <p>In this paper, we study the <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a compressible (density-gradient-dependent) non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The convective heat transfer is also considered where a source team, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/937225','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/937225"><span><span class="hlt">Flow</span> of a non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> (density-gradient-dependent) viscous fluid with heat generation, viscous dissipation and radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Massoudi, Mehrdad; Tran, P.X.</p> <p>2008-09-22</p> <p>In this paper, we study the <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a compressible (density-gradient-dependent) non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The convective heat transfer is also considered where a source term, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22612525','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22612525"><span>Investigation of electrodes under <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a submicrosecond current pulse with <span class="hlt">linear</span> density up to 3 MA/cm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Branitskii, A. V.; Grabovskii, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M. Sasorov, P. V.; Tkachenko, S. I.; Frolov, I. N.</p> <p>2016-12-15</p> <p>The states of current-carrying elements at the transmission of megaampere current into load are studied. It is determined that the expansion velocity of plasma generated at the outer surface of cylindrical tubes produced of stainless steel, at <span class="hlt">flowing</span> through them of submicrosecond current pulses with <span class="hlt">linear</span> density of 3 MA/cm is 5.5 km/s. The evolution of various modes of instability is analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhFl...18j3102F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhFl...18j3102F"><span>Monodomain dynamics for rigid rod and platelet suspensions in strongly coupled coplanar <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> and magnetic fields. II. Kinetic theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Forest, M. Gregory; Sircar, Sarthok; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Ruhai</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>We establish reciprocity relations of the Doi-Hess kinetic theory for rigid rod macromolecular suspensions governed by the strong coupling among an excluded volume potential, <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span>, and a magnetic field. The relation provides a reduction of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> and field driven Smoluchowski equation: from five parameters for coplanar <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flows</span> and magnetic field, to two field parameters. The reduced model distinguishes <span class="hlt">flows</span> with a rotational component, which map to simple shear (with rate parameter) subject to a transverse magnetic field (with strength parameter), and irrotational <span class="hlt">flows</span>, for which the reduced model consists of a triaxial extensional <span class="hlt">flow</span> (with two extensional rate parameters). We solve the Smoluchowski equation of the reduced model to explore: (i) the effect of introducing a coplanar magnetic field on each sheared monodomain attractor of the Doi-Hess kinetic theory and (ii) the coupling of coplanar extensional <span class="hlt">flow</span> and magnetic fields. For (i), we show each sheared attractor (steady and unsteady, with peak axis in and out of the shearing plane, periodic and chaotic orbits) undergoes its own transition sequence versus magnetic field strength. Nonetheless, robust predictions emerge: out-of-plane degrees of freedom are arrested with increasing field strength, and a unique <span class="hlt">flow</span>-aligning or tumbling/wagging limit cycle emerges above a threshold magnetic field strength or modified geometry parameter value. For (ii), irrotational <span class="hlt">flows</span> coupled with a coplanar magnetic field yield only steady states. We characterize all (generically biaxial) equilibria in terms of an explicit Boltzmann distribution, providing a natural generalization of analytical results on pure nematic equilibria [P. Constantin, I. Kevrekidis, and E. S. Titi, Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal. 174, 365 (2004); P. Constantin, I. Kevrekidis, and E. S. Titi, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems 11, 101 (2004); P. Constantin and J. Vukadinovic, Nonlinearity 18, 441 (2005); H. Liu, H. Zhang, and P</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21120431','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21120431"><span>The role of plasma elongation on the <span class="hlt">linear</span> damping of zonal <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Angelino, P.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Bottino, A.</p> <p>2008-06-15</p> <p>Drift wave turbulence is known to self-organize to form axisymmetric macroscopic <span class="hlt">flows</span>. The basic mechanism for macroscopic <span class="hlt">flow</span> generation is called inverse energy cascade. Essentially, it is an energy transfer from the short wavelengths to the long wavelengths in the turbulent spectrum due to nonlinear interactions. A class of macroscopic <span class="hlt">flows</span>, the poloidally symmetric zonal <span class="hlt">flows</span>, is widely recognized as a key constituent in nearly all cases and regimes of microturbulence, also because of the realization that zonal <span class="hlt">flows</span> are a critical agent of self-regulation for turbulent transport. In tokamaks and other toroidal magnetic confinement systems, axisymmetric <span class="hlt">flows</span> exist in two branches, a zero frequency branch and a finite frequency branch, named Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs). The finite frequency is due to the geodesic curvature of the magnetic field. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests strong GAM activity in most devices. Theoretical investigation of the GAMs is still an open field of research. Part of the difficulty of modelling the GAMs stems from the requirement of running global codes. Another issue is that one cannot determine a simple one to one relation between turbulence stabilization and GAM activity. This paper focuses on the study of ion temperature gradient turbulence in realistic tokamak magnetohydrodynamic equilibria. Analytical and numerical analyses are applied to the study of geometrical effects on zonal <span class="hlt">flows</span> oscillations. Results are shown on the effects of the plasma elongation on the GAM amplitude and frequency and on the zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> residual amplitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhPl...15f2306A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhPl...15f2306A"><span>The role of plasma elongation on the <span class="hlt">linear</span> damping of zonal <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Angelino, P.; Garbet, X.; Villard, L.; Bottino, A.; Jolliet, S.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grandgirard, V.; McMillan, B. F.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Tran, T. M.</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Drift wave turbulence is known to self-organize to form axisymmetric macroscopic <span class="hlt">flows</span>. The basic mechanism for macroscopic <span class="hlt">flow</span> generation is called inverse energy cascade. Essentially, it is an energy transfer from the short wavelengths to the long wavelengths in the turbulent spectrum due to nonlinear interactions. A class of macroscopic <span class="hlt">flows</span>, the poloidally symmetric zonal <span class="hlt">flows</span>, is widely recognized as a key constituent in nearly all cases and regimes of microturbulence, also because of the realization that zonal <span class="hlt">flows</span> are a critical agent of self-regulation for turbulent transport. In tokamaks and other toroidal magnetic confinement systems, axisymmetric <span class="hlt">flows</span> exist in two branches, a zero frequency branch and a finite frequency branch, named Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs). The finite frequency is due to the geodesic curvature of the magnetic field. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests strong GAM activity in most devices. Theoretical investigation of the GAMs is still an open field of research. Part of the difficulty of modelling the GAMs stems from the requirement of running global codes. Another issue is that one cannot determine a simple one to one relation between turbulence stabilization and GAM activity. This paper focuses on the study of ion temperature gradient turbulence in realistic tokamak magnetohydrodynamic equilibria. Analytical and numerical analyses are applied to the study of geometrical effects on zonal <span class="hlt">flows</span> oscillations. Results are shown on the effects of the plasma elongation on the GAM amplitude and frequency and on the zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> residual amplitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/227036','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/227036"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> hydrotectonic phenomena: Part I - fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span> in open fractures under dynamical stress loading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Archambeau, C.B.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A fractured solid under stress loading (or unloading) can be viewed as behaving macroscopically as a medium with internal, hidden, degrees of freedom, wherein changes in fracture geometry (i.e. opening, closing and extension) and <span class="hlt">flow</span> of fluid and gas within fractures will produce major changes in stresses and strains within the solid. Likewise, the <span class="hlt">flow</span> process within fractures will be strongly coupled to deformation within the solid through boundary conditions on the fracture surfaces. The effects in the solid can, in part, be phenomenologically represented as inelastic or plastic processes in the macroscopic view. However, there are clearly phenomena associated with fracture growth and open fracture fluid <span class="hlt">flows</span> that produce effects that can not be described using ordinary inelastic phenomenology. This is evident from the fact that a variety of energy release phenomena can occur, including seismic emissions of previously stored strain energy due to fracture growth, release of disolved gas from fluids in the fractures resulting in enhanced buoyancy and subsequent energetic <span class="hlt">flows</span> of gas and fluids through the fracture system which can produce raid extension of old fractures and the creation of new ones. Additionally, the <span class="hlt">flows</span> will be modulated by the opening and closing of fractures due to deformation in the solid, so that the <span class="hlt">flow</span> process is strongly coupled to dynamical processes in the surrounding solid matrix, some of which are induced by the <span class="hlt">flow</span> itself.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSV...373..132X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSV...373..132X"><span>Numerical study of acoustic instability in a partly lined <span class="hlt">flow</span> duct using the full <span class="hlt">linearized</span> Navier-Stokes equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xin, Bo; Sun, Dakun; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Lined ducts are extensively applied to suppress noise emission from aero-engines and other turbomachines. The complex noise/<span class="hlt">flow</span> interaction in a lined duct possibly leads to acoustic instability in certain conditions. To investigate the instability, the full <span class="hlt">linearized</span> Navier-Stokes equations with eddy viscosity considered are solved in frequency domain using a Galerkin finite element method to compute the sound transmission in shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> in the lined duct as well as the <span class="hlt">flow</span> perturbation over the impedance wall. A good agreement between the numerical predictions and the published experimental results is obtained for the sound transmission, showing that a transmission peak occurs around the resonant frequency of the acoustic liner in the presence of shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>. The eddy viscosity is an important influential factor that plays the roles of both providing destabilizing and making coupling between the acoustic and <span class="hlt">flow</span> motions over the acoustic liner. Moreover, it is shown from the numerical investigation that the occurrence of the sound amplification and the magnitude of transmission coefficient are closely related to the realistic velocity profile, and we find it essential that the actual variation of the velocity profile in the axial direction over the liner surface be included in the computation. The simulation results of the periodic <span class="hlt">flow</span> patterns possess the proper features of the convective instability over the liner, as observed in Marx et al.'s experiment. A quantitative comparison between numerical and experimental results of amplitude and phase of the instability is performed. The corresponding eigenvalues achieve great agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24827326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24827326"><span>Instability of Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flow</span> at extreme Mach numbers: <span class="hlt">linear</span> analysis and simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xie, Zhimin; Girimaji, Sharath S</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>We develop the perturbation equations to describe instability evolution in Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flow</span> at the limit of very high Mach numbers. At this limit the equation governing the <span class="hlt">flow</span> is the pressure-released Navier-Stokes equation. The ensuing semianalytical solution is compared against simulations performed using the gas-kinetic method (GKM), resulting in excellent agreement. A similar comparison between analytical and computational results of small perturbation growth is performed at the incompressible (zero Mach number) limit, again leading to excellent agreement. The study accomplishes two important goals: it (i) contrasts the small perturbation evolution in Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flows</span> at extreme Mach numbers and (ii) provides important verification of the GKM simulation scheme.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000557&hterms=algebra&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dalgebra','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000557&hterms=algebra&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dalgebra"><span>Computer Program For <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Algebra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Collection of <span class="hlt">routines</span> provided for basic vector operations. Basic <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable <span class="hlt">routines</span> for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical <span class="hlt">linear</span> algebra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000557&hterms=basic+algebra&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbasic%2Balgebra','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000557&hterms=basic+algebra&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbasic%2Balgebra"><span>Computer Program For <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Algebra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Collection of <span class="hlt">routines</span> provided for basic vector operations. Basic <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable <span class="hlt">routines</span> for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical <span class="hlt">linear</span> algebra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3734138','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3734138"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Interactions between Consumers and <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Determine the Probability of Plant Community Dominance on Maine Rocky Shores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Silliman, Brian R.; McCoy, Michael W.; Trussell, Geoffrey C.; Crain, Caitlin M.; Ewanchuk, Patrick J.; Bertness, Mark D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although consumers can strongly influence community recovery from disturbance, few studies have explored the effects of consumer identity and density and how they may vary across abiotic gradients. On rocky shores in Maine, recent experiments suggest that recovery of plant- or animal- dominated community states is governed by rates of water movement and consumer pressure. To further elucidate the mechanisms of consumer control, we examined the species-specific and density-dependent effects of rocky shore consumers (crabs and snails) on community recovery under both high (mussel dominated) and low <span class="hlt">flow</span> (plant dominated) conditions. By partitioning the direct impacts of predators (crabs) and grazers (snails) on community recovery across a <span class="hlt">flow</span> gradient, we found that grazers, but not predators, are likely the primary agent of consumer control and that their impact is highly non-<span class="hlt">linear</span>. Manipulating snail densities revealed that herbivorous and bull-dozing snails (Littorina littorea) alone can control recovery of high and low <span class="hlt">flow</span> communities. After ∼1.5 years of recovery, snail density explained a significant amount of the variation in macroalgal coverage at low <span class="hlt">flow</span> sites and also mussel recovery at high <span class="hlt">flow</span> sites. These density-dependent grazer effects were were both non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> and <span class="hlt">flow</span>-dependent, with low abundance thresholds needed to suppress plant community recovery, and much higher levels needed to control mussel bed development. Our study suggests that consumer density and identity are key in regulating both plant and animal community recovery and that physical conditions can determine the functional forms of these consumer effects. PMID:23940510</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.H33F0518B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.H33F0518B"><span>Coupled versus Decoupled Solution Approaches for Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Fluid <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Processes in Heterogeneous Porous and Fractured Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burri, A.; Geiger, S.; Coumou, D.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Many fluid-<span class="hlt">flow</span> processes in the Earth's crust, such as multiphase <span class="hlt">flow</span> or convection due to temperature and/or concentration gradients, are non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> in nature. Studying these processes using numerical simulations is challenging. On one hand, numerical methods must be robust and able to deal with the non-<span class="hlt">linearities</span> efficiently. On the other hand, they must be capable of resolving orders of magnitude variations in permeability and geologically complex structures that often occur in the Earth's subsurface. This usually requires high-resolution meshes, possibly with up to several million degrees of freedom. Traditionally numerical methods have solved such <span class="hlt">flow</span> processes fully coupled, i.e. solving for the independent variables simultaneously using iterative techniques to account for the non-<span class="hlt">linearities</span>. While these approaches have solved challenging problems, they have the disadvantage that the global solution matrices are ill conditioned and hence not always suitable for fast matrix solvers such as algebraic multigrid solvers. Furthermore, iterative techniques such as Newton's method may fail to converge. Numerical approaches that are capable of resolving geologically complex structures, for example the finite element method, require upwind-weighting schemes to model advection-dominated fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Such upwinding techniques, however, may reduce the geometric flexibility of the finite element method, fail to converge if the permeability varies over more than two orders of magnitude, or smear out shock fronts in advection-dominated <span class="hlt">flows</span>. Here we present the solutions of a decoupled approach, based on a combination of finite volume and finite element methods, and a fully coupled approach, based on an upwind-weighted finite element method, for a variety of non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span> problems. The results are compared for accuracy, robustness, and speed. They show that, in general, the decoupled approach is computationally more efficient and robust, because it does not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhFl...16.4727R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhFl...16.4727R"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability analysis of immiscible two-phase <span class="hlt">flow</span> in porous media with capillary dispersion and density variation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riaz, Amir; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability analysis of immiscible displacements is carried out for both viscously and gravitationally unstable two-phase <span class="hlt">flows</span> in porous media with very large adverse viscosity ratios. Capillary dispersion is the proper dissipative mechanism in this case which sets both the preferred length scale and the band width of the spectrum of unstable length scales. The growth rate, the most dangerous and the cutoff wavenumbers, all scale <span class="hlt">linearly</span> with the capillary number. We show that the instability is governed by fluid properties across the shock rather than those across the full Buckley-Leverett profile. The shock total mobility ratio provides a sufficient condition for the onset of instability; however, it is not an appropriate criterion for predicting the magnitude of the growth rate, particularly for large viscosity ratios. The details of the relative permeability functions are observed to have a significant influence on the stability characteristics. For neutrally buoyant <span class="hlt">flows</span> the maximum growth rate scales <span class="hlt">linearly</span> with the viscosity ratio while the most dangerous and the cutoff wavenumbers scale with the square root of the viscosity ratio. In the case of displacements with density contrast, the maximum growth rate scales with the square of the unstable gravity number while the most dangerous and the cutoff wavenumbers scale with an exponent of 1.2, for all viscosity ratios. A marginal stability curve is computed for stable and unstable regions in the parameter space of the viscosity ratio and the gravity number. It is found that <span class="hlt">flows</span> with unstable viscosity contrasts are more readily stabilized with buoyancy as compared to the viscous stabilization of gravitationally unstable <span class="hlt">flows</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoTPh..66..687R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoTPh..66..687R"><span>Free Convective Nonaligned Non-Newtonian <span class="hlt">Flow</span> with Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> Thermal Radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rana, S.; Mehmood, R.; Narayana, PV S.; Akbar, N. S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The present study explores the free convective oblique Casson fluid over a stretching surface with non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> thermal radiation effects. The governing physical problem is modelled and transformed into a set of coupled non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> ordinary differential equations by suitable similarity transformation, which are solved numerically with the help of shooting method keeping the convergence control of 10-5 in computations. Influence of pertinent physical parameters on normal, tangential velocity profiles and temperature are expressed through graphs. Physical quantities of interest such as skin friction coefficients and local heat flux are investigated numerically.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970024916','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970024916"><span>Effect of Coannular <span class="hlt">Flow</span> on <span class="hlt">Linearized</span> Euler Equation Predictions of Jet Noise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hixon, R.; Shih, S.-H.; Mankbadi, Reda R.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>An improved version of a previously validated <span class="hlt">linearized</span> Euler equation solver is used to compute the noise generated by coannular supersonic jets. Results for a single supersonic jet are compared to the results from both a normal velocity profile and an inverted velocity profile supersonic jet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhFl...29b4105S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhFl...29b4105S"><span>Effects of viscosity and conductivity stratification on the <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability and transient growth within compressible Couette <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saikia, Bijaylakshmi; Ramachandran, Ashwin; Sinha, Krishnendu; Govindarajan, Rama</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Accurate prediction of laminar to turbulent transition in compressible <span class="hlt">flows</span> is a challenging task, as it can be affected by a combination of factors. Compressibility causes large variations in thermodynamic as well as transport properties of a gas, which in turn are known to affect <span class="hlt">flow</span> stability. We study the stratification of individual transport properties and their combined behavior. We also examine the effect of a change in the magnitude of viscosity and conductivity on <span class="hlt">flow</span> stability. The Couette <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a perfect gas is our model problem and both modal and non-modal analyses are carried out. We notice a large destabilizing role of the increase in the conductivity value and a dramatic stabilizing effect of mean viscosity stratification, over a range of free-stream Mach number, Reynolds number, Prandtl number, and disturbance wavenumber. In the combined case, viscosity stratification plays a dominant role. We find this to be the case for finite-time transient growth in the parameter regime below <span class="hlt">linear</span> instability as well as asymptotically at large time. A budget of the transient growth energy amplification is also shown to identify the effects of transport properties on the constituents of perturbation energy. The extensive results presented in this paper, we believe should motivate those studying more realistic <span class="hlt">flows</span> to examine how these contrasting effects of stratification come together.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DFD.D8005F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DFD.D8005F"><span>Particle behavior in <span class="hlt">linear</span> shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>: an experimental and numerical study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fathi, Nima; Ingber, Marc; Vorobieff, Peter</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>We study particle behavior in low Reynolds number <span class="hlt">flows</span>. Our experimental setup can produce both Couette <span class="hlt">flow</span> and Pouseuille <span class="hlt">flow</span> at low Reynolds numbers. Spherical particles are suspended in gravity-stratified Newtonian fluid. Their predominantly two-dimensional motion is driven by moving belts (and/or piston) that produce shear in the fluids. Particle migration and translational velocity have been studied. The irreversibility of particle motion has been investigated. The experimental results are compared to the numerical simulations performed with discrete phase element method (DPM). Particle trajectories with the same boundary conditions in viscous fluids have been studied. The irreversibility in numerical simulation has been modeled for different cases. Results show the particle migration is a function of shear rate, particle size, degree of symmetry of the fluid domain, and also of the initial starting position, the latter playing an important role in the irreversibility of particle motion. This research is partly supported by Procter & Gamble.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017FlDyR..49b5502S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017FlDyR..49b5502S"><span>Vortex-induced vibrations of a square cylinder under <span class="hlt">linear</span> shear <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Wenjuan; Zhou, Dai; Tu, Jiahuang; Han, Zhaolong</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the numerical vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a square cylinder which is connected to a 2-DOF mass-spring system and is immersed in the planar shear <span class="hlt">flow</span> by employing a characteristic-based split (CBS) finite element method (FEM). The reduced mass of the square cylinder is M r = 2, while the reduced velocity, U r, is changed from 3 to 12 with an increment of ΔU r = 1. The effects of some key parameters on the cylinder dynamic responses, vibrating frequencies, the <span class="hlt">flow</span> patterns as well as the energy transferred between the fluid and cylinder are revealed. In this study, the key parameters are selected as follows: shear ratio (k = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) and Reynolds numbers (Re = 80 and 160). Numerical results demonstrate that the X-Y trajectories of the cylinder mainly appear as a symmetrical figure ‘8’ in uniform <span class="hlt">flow</span> (k = 0) and an unsymmetrical figure ‘8’ and ‘O’ in shear <span class="hlt">flows</span> (k = 0.05 and 0.1). The maximum oscillation amplitudes of the square cylinder in both the inline and transverse directions have distinct characteristics compared to that of a circular cylinder. Two kinds of <span class="hlt">flow</span> patterns, ‘2S’ and ‘P + S’, are mainly observed under the shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Also, the mean values of the energy of the cylinder system increase with the reduced velocity, while the root mean square (rms) of the energy reaches its peak value at reduced velocity U r = 5.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA198721','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA198721"><span>Coupling <span class="hlt">Linearized</span> Far-Field Boundary Conditions with Nonlinear Near-Field Solutions in Transonic <span class="hlt">Flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-02-29</p> <p>Plate and a NACA 64A010 Airfoil Section . 31 3. Spatial Variations of Velocity Potentials on a Flat Plate and MBB-A3 Airfoil Section ........ 32 4...39 14. Steady <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Field Mach Number Variation for a NACA 64A010 Airfoil at a 10 Angle of Attack w ith M = 0.80...44 22. Steady <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Field Mach Number Variation for a NACA 64A010 Airfoil at a 10 Angle of Attack 23. W ith M = 0.78</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28615234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28615234"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Fractional <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Reserve on Management Decision and 1-Year Clinical Outcome of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes: PRIME-FFR (Insights From the POST-IT [Portuguese Study on the Evaluation of FFR-Guided Treatment of Coronary Disease] and R3F [French FFR Registry] Integrated Multicenter Registries - Implementation of FFR [Fractional <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Reserve] in <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Practice).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Belle, Eric; Baptista, Sergio-Bravo; Raposo, Luís; Henderson, John; Rioufol, Gilles; Santos, Lino; Pouillot, Christophe; Ramos, Ruben; Cuisset, Thomas; Calé, Rita; Teiger, Emmanuel; Jorge, Elisabete; Belle, Loic; Machado, Carina; Barreau, Didier; Costa, Marco; Hanssen, Michel; Oliveira, Eduardo; Besnard, Cyril; Costa, João; Dallongeville, Jean; Pipa, João; Sideris, Georgios; Fonseca, Nuno; Bretelle, Christophe; Guardado, Jorge; Lhoest, Nicolas; Silva, Bruno; Barnay, Pierre; Sousa, Maria-João; Leborgne, Laurent; Silva, João Carlos; Vincent, Flavien; Rodrigues, Alberto; Seca, Luís; Fernandes, Renato; Dupouy, Patrick</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Fractional <span class="hlt">flow</span> reserve (FFR) is not firmly established as a guide to treatment in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Primary goals were to evaluate the impact of integrating FFR on management decisions and on clinical outcome of patients with ACS undergoing coronary angiography, as compared with patients with stable coronary artery disease. R3F (French FFR Registry) and POST-IT (Portuguese Study on the Evaluation of FFR-Guided Treatment of Coronary Disease), sharing a common design, were pooled as PRIME-FFR (Insights From the POST-IT and R3F Integrated Multicenter Registries - Implementation of FFR in <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Practice). Investigators prospectively defined management strategy based on angiography before performing FFR. Final decision after FFR and 1-year clinical outcome were recorded. From 1983 patients, in whom FFR was prospectively used to guide treatment, 533 sustained ACS (excluding acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction). In ACS, FFR was performed in 1.4 lesions per patient, mostly in left anterior descending (58%), with a mean percent stenosis of 58±12% and a mean FFR of 0.82±0.09. In patients with ACS, reclassification by FFR was high and similar to those with non-ACS (38% versus 39%; P=NS). The pattern of reclassification was different, however, with less patients with ACS reclassified from revascularization to medical treatment compared with those with non-ACS (P=0.01). In ACS, 1-year outcome of patients reclassified based on FFR (FFR against angiography) was as good as that of nonreclassified patients (FFR concordant with angiography), with no difference in major cardiovascular event (8.0% versus 11.6%; P=0.20) or symptoms (92.3% versus 94.8% angina free; P=0.25). Moreover, FFR-based deferral to medical treatment was as safe in patients with ACS as in patients with non-ACS (major cardiovascular event, 8.0% versus 8.5%; P=0.83; revascularization, 3.8% versus 5.9%; P=0.24; and freedom from angina, 93.6% versus 90.2%; P=0.35). These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960048688','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960048688"><span>Experimental investigation of unsteady <span class="hlt">flows</span> at large incidence angles in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> oscillating cascade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buffum, Daniel H.; King, Aaron J.; Capece, Vincent R.; El-Aini, Yehia M.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The aerodynamics of a cascade of airfoils oscillating in torsion about the midchord is investigated experimentally at a large mean incidence angle and, for reference, at a low mean incidence angle. The airfoil section is representative of a modern, low aspect ratio, fan blade tip section. Time-dependent airfoil surface pressure measurements were made for reduced frequencies up to 0.8 for out-of-phase oscillations at Mach numbers up to 0.8 and chordal incidence angles of 0 deg and 10 deg. For the 10 deg chordal incidence angle, a separation bubble formed at the leading edge of the suction surface. The separated <span class="hlt">flow</span> field was found to have a dramatic effect on the chordwise distribution of the unsteady pressure. In this region, substantial deviations from the attached <span class="hlt">flow</span> data were found with the deviations becoming less apparent in the aft region of the airfoil for all reduced frequencies. In particular, near the leading edge the separated <span class="hlt">flow</span> had a strong destabilizing influence while the attached <span class="hlt">flow</span> had a strong stabilizing influence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA521994','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA521994"><span>High Frequency Excitation for Cavity <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Control: Combined Experiments and <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Stability Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-06-30</p> <p>34High amplitude vortex-induced pulsations in a gas transport system", Journal of Sound and Vibration 184, 343 (1995). 7 W. W. Martin, M. Padmanabhan...and E. Naudascher, "Fluid-dynamic excitation involving <span class="hlt">flow</span> instability", Journal of the Hydraulics Division 101, 681 (1975). 8 D. Rockwell and E</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4157864','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4157864"><span>On Three-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Flow</span> and Heat Transfer over a Non-<span class="hlt">Linearly</span> Stretching Sheet: Analytical and Numerical Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Khan, Junaid Ahmad; Mustafa, Meraj; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article studies the viscous <span class="hlt">flow</span> and heat transfer over a plane horizontal surface stretched non-<span class="hlt">linearly</span> in two lateral directions. Appropriate wall conditions characterizing the non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> variation in the velocity and temperature of the sheet are employed for the first time. A new set of similarity variables is introduced to reduce the boundary layer equations into self-similar forms. The velocity and temperature distributions are determined by two methods, namely (i) optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) and (ii) fourth-fifth-order Runge-Kutta integration based shooting technique. The analytic and numerical solutions are compared and these are found in excellent agreement. Influences of embedded parameters on momentum and thermal boundary layers are sketched and discussed. PMID:25198696</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25198696','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25198696"><span>On three-dimensional <span class="hlt">flow</span> and heat transfer over a non-<span class="hlt">linearly</span> stretching sheet: analytical and numerical solutions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khan, Junaid Ahmad; Mustafa, Meraj; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article studies the viscous <span class="hlt">flow</span> and heat transfer over a plane horizontal surface stretched non-<span class="hlt">linearly</span> in two lateral directions. Appropriate wall conditions characterizing the non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> variation in the velocity and temperature of the sheet are employed for the first time. A new set of similarity variables is introduced to reduce the boundary layer equations into self-similar forms. The velocity and temperature distributions are determined by two methods, namely (i) optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) and (ii) fourth-fifth-order Runge-Kutta integration based shooting technique. The analytic and numerical solutions are compared and these are found in excellent agreement. Influences of embedded parameters on momentum and thermal boundary layers are sketched and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875612','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875612"><span>Predictions of <span class="hlt">flow</span> through an isothermal serpentine passage with <span class="hlt">linear</span> eddy-viscosity Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Laskowski, Gregory Michael</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Flows</span> with strong curvature present a challenge for turbulence models, specifically eddy viscosity type models which assume isotropy and a <span class="hlt">linear</span> and instantaneous equilibrium relation between stress and strain. Results obtained from three different codes and two different <span class="hlt">linear</span> eddy viscosity turbulence models are compared to a DNS simulation in order to gain some perspective on the turbulence modeling capability of SIERRA/Fuego. The Fuego v2f results are superior to the more common two-layer k-e model results obtained with both a commercial and research code in terms of the concave near wall behavior predictions. However, near the convex wall, including the separated region, little improvement is gained using the v2f model and in general the turbulent kinetic energy prediction is fair at best.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA207793','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA207793"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Stability of Relativistic Space-Charge <span class="hlt">Flow</span> in a Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line Oscillator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-04-01</p> <p>New Mexico, 1987. 20. Muller, D.E., Math. Tables Aids Comput . 10, p. 208, 1956. 21. Henrici , P., Elements of Numerical Analysis , John Wiley & Sons...Dmn(w, k0 ), computes the associated determinant, and iteratively calculates th- complex roots i (i=1,2,3,...) of Eq. 62. The wi are calculated with a...velocity) In this case, wave amplification occurs at the expense of electron energy. - 0, , We present a <span class="hlt">linear</span> analysis of the microwave i stability in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvF...1h3603P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvF...1h3603P"><span>Thermosolutal Marangoni effects on the inclined <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a binary liquid with variable density. I. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pascal, J. P.; D'Alessio, S. J. D.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We consider the stability of a binary liquid film <span class="hlt">flowing</span> down a heated incline. A theoretical model is implemented which captures the Soret effect and the dependence of surface tension on both temperature and solutal concentration. The model also allows for variation in the density of the liquid mixture with thermal and solutal differences. A <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis is performed with asymptotic and numerical results being obtained. The coupling of the effect of a variable density with the thermosolutal-Marangoni instability and the Soret effect is investigated. Good agreement with previous results for the constant density case is found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JFM...493....1O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JFM...493....1O"><span>On the <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of swept attachment-line boundary layer <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Part 1. Spectrum and asymptotic behaviour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Obrist, Dominik; Schmid, Peter J.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>The temporal stability of swept attachment-line boundary layer <span class="hlt">flow</span> based on a swept Hiemenz <span class="hlt">flow</span> model is studied. Starting from the global stability problem and motivated by analytical free-stream solutions, a Hermite expansion is employed in the chordwise coordinate direction which results in coupled local stability problems. A complete study of the temporal spectrum is presented and the discrete and continuous modes are classified according to their symmetry, chordwise polynomial order and asymptotic decay. Uniform, Görtler Hämmerlin and higher-order modes are described in detail. Estimates are given for the location of the continuous spectrum, and bounds are derived for the validity of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> approximation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092109','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092109"><span>Airfoil profiles for minimum pressure drag at supersonic velocities -- general analysis with application to <span class="hlt">linearized</span> supersonic <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chapman, Dean R</p> <p>1952-01-01</p> <p>A theoretical investigation is made of the airfoil profile for minimum pressure drag at zero lift in supersonic <span class="hlt">flow</span>. In the first part of the report a general method is developed for calculating the profile having the least pressure drag for a given auxiliary condition, such as a given structural requirement or a given thickness ratio. The various structural requirements considered include bending strength, bending stiffness, torsional strength, and torsional stiffness. No assumption is made regarding the trailing-edge thickness; the optimum value is determined in the calculations as a function of the base pressure. To illustrate the general method, the optimum airfoil, defined as the airfoil having minimum pressure drag for a given auxiliary condition, is calculated in a second part of the report using the equations of <span class="hlt">linearized</span> supersonic <span class="hlt">flow</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H53F1768N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H53F1768N"><span>Tracer-aided modelling to explore non-<span class="hlt">linearities</span> in <span class="hlt">flow</span> paths, hydrological connectivity and faecal contamination risk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neill, A. J.; Tetzlaff, D.; Strachan, N.; Soulsby, C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The non-<span class="hlt">linearities</span> of runoff generation processes are strongly influenced by the connectivity of hillslopes and channel networks, particularly where overland <span class="hlt">flow</span> is an important runoff mechanism. Despite major advances in understanding hydrological connectivity and runoff generation, the role of connectivity in the contamination of potable water supplies by faecal pathogens from grazing animals remains unclear. This is a water quality issue with serious implications for public health. Here, we sought to understand the dynamics of hydrological connectivity, <span class="hlt">flow</span> paths and linked faecal pathogen transport in a montane catchment in Scotland with high deer populations. We firstly calibrated, within an uncertainty framework, a parsimonious tracer-aided hydrological model to daily discharge and stream isotope data. The model, developed on the basis of past empirical and tracer studies, conceptualises the catchment as three interacting hydrological source areas (dynamic saturation zone, dynamic hillslope, and groundwater) for which water fluxes, water ages and storage-based connectivity can be simulated. We next coupled several faecal indicator organism (FIO; a common indicator of faecal pathogen contamination) behaviour and transport schemes to the robust hydrological models. A further calibration was then undertaken based on the ability of each coupled model to simulate daily FIO concentrations. This gave us a final set of coupled behavioural models from which we explored how in-stream FIO dynamics could be related to the changing connectivity between the three hydrological source areas, <span class="hlt">flow</span> paths, water ages and consequent dominant runoff generation processes. We found that high levels of FIOs were transient and episodic, and strongly correlated with periods of high connectivity through overland <span class="hlt">flow</span>. This non-<span class="hlt">linearity</span> in connectivity and FIO flux was successfully captured within our dynamic, tracer-aided hydrological model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA566189','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA566189"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Algebraic Modeling of Power <span class="hlt">Flow</span> in the HMP500-3 Transmission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Vehicle. Power transmission and steering is accomplished through the interaction of six planetary gear sets and two variable displacement hydrostatic...pump / motor units (HSUs). Power <span class="hlt">flow</span> in the HMPT500-3 is extremely complex, with numerous feedback paths within the planetary gear train. Without a...tracked vehicle transmission. Power transmission and steering is accomplished through the interaction of six planetary gear sets and two variable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA566810','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA566810"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Algebraic Modeling of Power <span class="hlt">Flow</span> in the HMPT500-3 Transmission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Vehicle. Power transmission and steering is accomplished through the interaction of six planetary gear sets and two variable displacement hydrostatic...pump / motor units (HSUs). Power <span class="hlt">flow</span> in the HMPT500-3 is extremely complex, with numerous feedback paths within the planetary gear train. Without a...tracked vehicle transmission. Power transmission and steering is accomplished through the interaction of six planetary gear sets and two variable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023432','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023432"><span>1r2dinv: A finite-difference model for inverse analysis of two dimensional <span class="hlt">linear</span> or radial groundwater <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bohling, G.C.; Butler, J.J.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We have developed a program for inverse analysis of two-dimensional <span class="hlt">linear</span> or radial groundwater <span class="hlt">flow</span> problems. The program, 1r2dinv, uses standard finite difference techniques to solve the groundwater <span class="hlt">flow</span> equation for a horizontal or vertical plane with heterogeneous properties. In radial mode, the program simulates <span class="hlt">flow</span> to a well in a vertical plane, transforming the radial <span class="hlt">flow</span> equation into an equivalent problem in Cartesian coordinates. The physical parameters in the model are horizontal or x-direction hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy ratio (vertical to horizontal conductivity in a vertical model, y-direction to x-direction in a horizontal model), and specific storage. The program allows the user to specify arbitrary and independent zonations of these three parameters and also to specify which zonal parameter values are known and which are unknown. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to estimate parameters from observed head values. Particularly powerful features of the program are the ability to perform simultaneous analysis of heads from different tests and the inclusion of the wellbore in the radial mode. These capabilities allow the program to be used for analysis of suites of well tests, such as multilevel slug tests or pumping tests in a tomographic format. The combination of information from tests stressing different vertical levels in an aquifer provides the means for accurately estimating vertical variations in conductivity, a factor profoundly influencing contaminant transport in the subsurface. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027333','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027333"><span>Estimation of streamflow, base <span class="hlt">flow</span>, and nitrate-nitrogen loads in Iowa using multiple <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Nineteen variables, including precipitation, soils and geology, land use, and basin morphologic characteristics, were evaluated to develop Iowa regression models to predict total streamflow (Q), base <span class="hlt">flow</span> (Qb), storm <span class="hlt">flow</span> (Qs) and base <span class="hlt">flow</span> percentage (%Qb) in gauged and ungauged watersheds in the state. Discharge records from a set of 33 watersheds across the state for the 1980 to 2000 period were separated into Qb and Qs. Multiple <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression found that 75.5 percent of long term average Q was explained by rainfall, sand content, and row crop percentage variables, whereas 88.5 percent of Qb was explained by these three variables plus permeability and floodplain area variables. Qs was explained by average rainfall and %Qb was a function of row crop percentage, permeability, and basin slope variables. Regional regression models developed for long term average Q and Qb were adapted to annual rainfall and showed good correlation between measured and predicted values. Combining the regression model for Q with an estimate of mean annual nitrate concentration, a map of potential nitrate loads in the state was produced. Results from this study have important implications for understanding geomorphic and land use controls on streamflow and base <span class="hlt">flow</span> in Iowa watersheds and similar agriculture dominated watersheds in the glaciated Midwest. (JAWRA) (Copyright ?? 2005).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22273421','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22273421"><span>Extraction of diffuse correlation spectroscopy <span class="hlt">flow</span> index by integration of Nth-order <span class="hlt">linear</span> model with Monte Carlo simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shang, Yu; Lin, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang; Li, Ting; Chen, Lei; Toborek, Michal</p> <p>2014-05-12</p> <p>Conventional semi-infinite solution for extracting blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> index (BFI) from diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements may cause errors in estimation of BFI (αD{sub B}) in tissues with small volume and large curvature. We proposed an algorithm integrating Nth-order <span class="hlt">linear</span> model of autocorrelation function with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon migrations in tissue for the extraction of αD{sub B}. The volume and geometry of the measured tissue were incorporated in the Monte Carlo simulation, which overcome the semi-infinite restrictions. The algorithm was tested using computer simulations on four tissue models with varied volumes/geometries and applied on an in vivo stroke model of mouse. Computer simulations shows that the high-order (N ≥ 5) <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm was more accurate in extracting αD{sub B} (errors < ±2%) from the noise-free DCS data than the semi-infinite solution (errors: −5.3% to −18.0%) for different tissue models. Although adding random noises to DCS data resulted in αD{sub B} variations, the mean values of errors in extracting αD{sub B} were similar to those reconstructed from the noise-free DCS data. In addition, the errors in extracting the relative changes of αD{sub B} using both <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm and semi-infinite solution were fairly small (errors < ±2.0%) and did not rely on the tissue volume/geometry. The experimental results from the in vivo stroke mice agreed with those in simulations, demonstrating the robustness of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm. DCS with the high-order <span class="hlt">linear</span> algorithm shows the potential for the inter-subject comparison and longitudinal monitoring of absolute BFI in a variety of tissues/organs with different volumes/geometries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=john+AND+monaghan&pg=3&id=EJ768819','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=john+AND+monaghan&pg=3&id=EJ768819"><span>Revisiting <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Questions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>What is a <span class="hlt">routine</span> question? The focus of this paper is <span class="hlt">routine</span> questions and time (in years) since a hitherto <span class="hlt">routine</span> question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL53015D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL53015D"><span>Convective <span class="hlt">flows</span> generated by evaporation: experiments, <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis and numerical simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunstan, Jocelyn; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Park, Simon; Goldstein, Raymond E.</p> <p></p> <p>A novel form of convection was observed in a suspension of non-motile Photobacterium phosphoreum bacteria. The pattern resembles classical bioconvection, however this strain has limited if any motility, which excludes this possible explanation. After performing a series of control experiments we found that the convection was actually driven by the evaporation of the salty bacterial medium, and the same kind of plumes were observed using polystyrene beads suspended in water with salt added. A mathematical model was formulated for the process and studied using a <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis and finite element method simulations, reproducing most of the observed experimental features. From the <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis, a threshold in salt concentration to observe convective motion was obtained, as well as the wavelength of the pattern at the onset of the instability. This was complemented by finite element simulations, which produced plume dynamics remarkably similar to the experimental observations. Evaporation-driven convection on the millimeter scale has not been studied extensively, and its effect may have been underestimated in other experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DFD.A9005O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DFD.A9005O"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> and nonlinear instability and ligament dynamics in 3D laminar two-layer liquid/liquid <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Valluri, Prashant; Scott, David; Bethune, Iain; Spelt, Peter</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>We consider the <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear stability of two-phase density-matched but viscosity contrasted fluids subject to laminar Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flow</span> in a channel, paying particular attention to the formation of three-dimensional waves. The Orr-Sommerfeld-Squire analysis is used along with DNS of the 3D two-phase Navier-Stokes equations using our newly launched TPLS Solver (http://edin.ac/10cRKzS). For the parameter regimes considered, we demonstrate the existence of two distinct mechanisms whereby 3D waves enter the system, and dominate at late time. There exists a direct route, whereby 3D waves are amplified by the standard <span class="hlt">linear</span> mechanism; for certain parameter classes, such waves grow at a rate less than but comparable to that of most-dangerous two-dimensional mode. Additionally, there is a weakly nonlinear route, whereby a purely spanwise wave couples to a streamwise mode and grows exponentially. We demonstrate these mechanisms in isolation and in concert. Consideration is also given to the ultimate state of these waves: persistent three-dimensional nonlinear waves are stretched and distorted by the base <span class="hlt">flow</span>, thereby producing regimes of ligaments, ``sheets,'' or ``interfacial turbulence.'' HECToR RAP/dCSE Project e174, HPC-Europa 2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApNan.tmp..115A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApNan.tmp..115A"><span><span class="hlt">Flow</span> patterns in <span class="hlt">linear</span> state of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a rotating nanofluid layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agarwal, Shilpi; Bhadauria, B. S.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>In this paper, we study the <span class="hlt">flow</span> patterns of a rotating, horizontal layer of a Newtonian nanofluid. The nanofluid layer incorporates the effect of Brownian motion along with thermophoresis. In order to find the expressions for streamlines, isotherms, and iso-nanohalines, a minimal representation of the truncated Fourier series of two terms, has been used. The results obtained imply that the magnitude of the streamlines, and the contours of the isotherms and the iso-nanohalines, turn flatter and concentrated near the boundaries for large value of Ra cr , indicating a delay in the onset of convection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2370541','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2370541"><span>Elf for electronic <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> control of variable speed ground ULV applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dame, D A; Curtis, G A</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>The Elf device delivered the appropriate ground ULV rate at variable road speeds ranging from 4 to 21 mph (6 to 32 kph), and shut off automatically at higher and lower speeds. The system is designed to be compatible with vehicles equipped with digital as well as standard speedometers and can be calibrated at any speed within its operating range. Although not used in these studies, Elf has a distance calibration feature designed to enhance the accuracy of the transducer and thus to yield greater <span class="hlt">flow</span> precision than could be achieved with the transducer alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA568780','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA568780"><span>High-Accuracy Methods for Numerical <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Analysis Using Adaptive Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Wavelets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>20 s; x s; 5 and - 20 s; y s; 10 with a 600 x 600 grid . The Mach number of vortex is 0.39 and the initial vortex core is located at (- 5,-5). This...vortex interaction problem [8]. TI1e domain is set as - 20 ~x~ 5 and - 20 ~ y ~ 10 with a Published Paper in AJK 2011 5 400X400 grid . The... 20 ~x~5 and - 205 y 510 with a 400x 400 grid . The initial velocity, density and pressure distributions of a vortex <span class="hlt">flow</span> are presented in Eq. (11</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22113324','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22113324"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> analysis of time dependent properties of Child-Langmuir <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rokhlenko, A.</p> <p>2013-01-15</p> <p>We continue our analysis of the time dependent behavior of the electron <span class="hlt">flow</span> in the Child-Langmuir system, removing an approximation used earlier. We find a modified set of oscillatory decaying modes with frequencies of the same order as the inverse of the electron transient time. This range (typically MHz) allows simple experimental detection and maybe exploitation. We then study the time evolution of the current in response to a slow change of the anode voltage where the same modes of oscillations appear too. The cathode current in this case is systematically advanced or retarded depending on the direction of the voltage change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED369081.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED369081.pdf"><span>Making <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Letters Have Positive Effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walsh, S. M.</p> <p></p> <p>While few business people dispute the importance of carefully crafting persuasive, demanding, conciliatory, and bad-news letters, the regular <span class="hlt">flow</span> of <span class="hlt">routine</span> communications receives very little meaningful consideration or scrutiny. These <span class="hlt">routine</span> communications (letters, inquiries, requests, collection letters, complaints, confirmations,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021372&hterms=stratified&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dstratified','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021372&hterms=stratified&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dstratified"><span>Alfven wave resonances and <span class="hlt">flow</span> induced by non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> Alfven waves in a stratified atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stark, B. A.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A nonlinear, time-dependent, ideal MHD code has been developed and used to compute the <span class="hlt">flow</span> induced by nonlinear Alfven waves propagating in an isothermal, stratified, plane-parallel atmosphere. The code is based on characteristic equations solved in a Lagrangian frame and is highly accurate. Results show that resonance behavior of Alfven waves exists in the presence of a continuous density gradient and that the waves with periods corresponding to resonant peaks exert considerably more force on the medium than off-resonance periods; this leads to enhanced <span class="hlt">flow</span>. If only off-peak periods are considered, the relationship between the wave period and induced longitudinal velocity shows that short period WKB waves push more on the background medium than longer period, non-WKB, waves. The results also show the development of the longitudinal waves produced by the finite amplitude of the Alfven waves. The longitudinal wave becomes strong as the Alfven wave relative amplitude grows above 10 percent and will lead to strong damping of the Alfven waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/565756','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/565756"><span>Higher order nonlocal formalism for <span class="hlt">linear</span> analysis of a magnetized multispecies plasma with inhomogeneous <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gavrishchaka, V.V.; Ganguli, G.I.; Bakshi, P.M.; Koepke, M.E.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The formalism necessary to study the collective properties of a plasma system with inhomogeneous <span class="hlt">flows</span> is nonlocal and generally in the form of an integrodifferential equation. Usually the eigenvalue condition is reduced to a second-order differential equation for simplicity. While the gross physical behavior of the system can be obtained from the second-order differential equation level of description, higher-order corrections are necessary for greater accuracy. The limit in which the scale-size of the velocity inhomogeneity is large compared to the ion gyroradius is considered and a transverse <span class="hlt">flow</span> profile sharply localized in space ({open_quotes}top-hat{close_quotes} profile) is assumed. In this limit, a simple analytical method for the solution of the general eigenvalue condition to all orders is developed. A comparison of the properties of the solutions obtained from the second-order differential equation level of description with those obtained from higher orders is presented. Both the resonant (dissipative) and the nonresonant (reactive) effects of velocity shear are considered. It is found that while the overall features are well represented by the second-order level of description, the higher-order corrections moderate the destabilizing effects due to velocity shear, which can be quite significant in some cases. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16503783','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16503783"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">linear</span> polarized light irradiation near the stellate ganglion in skin blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> of fingers in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Chih-Hung; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Yu, Hsin-Su</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of <span class="hlt">linear</span> polarized light irradiation near the stellate ganglion area on cutaneous blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> in fingers of patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. Sympathetic overactivity is known to be present in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. Recently introduced <span class="hlt">linear</span> polarized light irradiation is designed to simulate noninvasive stellate ganglion block to decrease sympathetic output. Five patients with progressive systemic sclerosis and three normal healthy controls were studied. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> polarized light (Super Lizer) was irradiated near the stellate ganglion on the right side of the neck at 358 J/cm(2) for 10 min. Then, laser Doppler flowmetry, laser Doppler imager, and capillary microscopy were used to measure the cutaneous blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> of the right fourth finger for 30 min. No significant alternations of the skin blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> between normal controls and patients with progressive systemic sclerosis after <span class="hlt">linear</span> polarized light irradiation were detected. The effect of <span class="hlt">linear</span> polarized light on the microcirculation of patients with progressive systemic sclerosis was minimal and transient. The effect of <span class="hlt">linear</span> polarized light in treating patients with progressive systemic sclerosis may not result from the improvement of skin blood <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Therefore, the use of <span class="hlt">linear</span> polarized light in those patients to increase cutaneous blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> should not be overemphasized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2818869','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2818869"><span>Electric and <span class="hlt">flow</span> <span class="hlt">linear</span> dichroism of unfolded and condensed chromatin: a comparative study at low and intermediate ionic strength.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hagmar, P; Marquet, R; Colson, P; Kubista, M; Nielsen, P; Norden, B; Houssier, C</p> <p>1989-08-01</p> <p>Identical samples containing polynucleosomal chains of chicken erythrocyte (CE) and Ehrlich ascites tumour (EA) chromatin were studied under various ionic conditions with regard to electric <span class="hlt">linear</span> dichroism (ELD) and <span class="hlt">flow</span> <span class="hlt">linear</span> dichroism (FLD). Both orientation techniques consistently confirmed that, in the limit of very low ionic strength and in the absence of multivalent cations, the reduced <span class="hlt">linear</span> dichroism of chromatin is negative in the DNA-base absorption band, as expected for an extended zig-zag polynucleosomal conformation. With increasing electrolyte content, both ELD and FLD decreased drastically in amplitude, but in contrast to the ELD which remains negative in an intermediate range of low ionic strength (0.1-0.5 mM Mg2+) the FLD changes sign and becomes positive. The ELD and FLD amplitudes decrease with higher Mg2+ concentrations and FLD even vanishes in the region of 0.2-0.4 mM; both signals are positive above 0.4-0.5 mM Mg2+. The origin of the dissimilarities between ELD and FLD observations is still not fully understood. Several possibilities are considered: ELD signals are more influenced than FLD by the presence of short chromatin chains, nucleosomes and small pieces of naked DNA, while FLD is more susceptible to the presence of large, easily orientable, scattering aggregates. Different preferred orientation directions of the chromatin fibre with respect to electric and hydrodynamic fields may also be involved. Finally, FLD and ELD probably "see" different features of the chromatin structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24725611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24725611"><span>Prediction of respective contribution of <span class="hlt">linear</span> electron <span class="hlt">flow</span> and PGR5-dependent cyclic electron <span class="hlt">flow</span> to non-photochemical quenching induction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sato, Ryoichi; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Masuda, Shinji</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In chloroplasts, regulated formation of the proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane (ΔpH) is important for controlling non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), which is crucial for plants to perform photosynthesis under fluctuating light conditions. The ΔpH is generated by two electron <span class="hlt">flows</span>: the <span class="hlt">linear</span> electron <span class="hlt">flow</span> (LEF) and the cyclic electron <span class="hlt">flow</span> (CEF). The Arabidopsis CEF mutant, pgr5, showed significantly lower NPQ values than those observed in WT, indicating that ΔpH, generated by the PGR5-dependent CEF, has a crucial role in controlling NPQ. However, the respective significance of LEF and CEF for ΔpH formation is largely unknown. Here we applied computer simulation to reproduce NPQ induction kinetics and estimate the respective contribution of LEF and PGR5-dependent CEF to the dynamics of ΔpH formation. The results indicate that the contribution of CEF to total ΔpH formation for induction of NPQ varies from 60-80%. The simulation also suggested a role of the PGR5-dependent CEF in accelerating electron transfer in the cytochrome b6f complex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990ltt..proc..389T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990ltt..proc..389T"><span>An investigation of the non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> instability of <span class="hlt">flow</span> near a swept attachment-line</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Theofilis, V.; Duck, P. W.; Poll, D. I. A.</p> <p></p> <p>The present investigation of the nature of the attachment-line boundary layer formed on the windward surface of an infinite swept cylinder, relative to the transition to turbulence, proceeds numerically by using an initial-value approach that departs from the specified spatial- and time-dependence of previous efforts. The full, two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved under the conventional assumptions as to the form of the stagnation point and of the Hiemenz <span class="hlt">flows</span>. Attention is given to the time-periodic form for the low quantities. The accuracy of all solution methods is noted to critically depend on the choice of the appropriate grids in the y- and z-directions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940033879&hterms=Back+Corrector&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBack%2BCorrector','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940033879&hterms=Back+Corrector&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBack%2BCorrector"><span>The piecewise-<span class="hlt">linear</span> predictor-corrector code - A Lagrangian-remap method for astrophysical <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lufkin, Eric A.; Hawley, John F.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>We describe a time-explicit finite-difference algorithm for solving the nonlinear fluid equations. The method is similar to existing Eulerian schemes in its use of operator-splitting and artificial viscosity, except that we solve the Lagrangian equations of motion with a predictor-corrector and then remap onto a fixed Eulerian grid. The remap is formulated to eliminate errors associated with coordinate singularities, with a general prescription for remaps of arbitrary order. We perform a comprehensive series of tests on standard problems. Self-convergence tests show that the code has a second-order rate of convergence in smooth, two-dimensional <span class="hlt">flow</span>, with pressure forces, gravity, and curvilinear geometry included. While not as accurate on idealized problems as high-order Riemann-solving schemes, the predictor-corrector Lagrangian-remap code has great flexibility for application to a variety of astrophysical problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1259452','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1259452"><span>Traveling wave <span class="hlt">linear</span> accelerator with RF power <span class="hlt">flow</span> outside of accelerating cavities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dolgashev, Valery A.</p> <p>2016-06-28</p> <p>A high power RF traveling wave accelerator structure includes a symmetric RF feed, an input matching cell coupled to the symmetric RF feed, a sequence of regular accelerating cavities coupled to the input matching cell at an input beam pipe end of the sequence, one or more waveguides parallel to and coupled to the sequence of regular accelerating cavities, an output matching cell coupled to the sequence of regular accelerating cavities at an output beam pipe end of the sequence, and output waveguide circuit or RF loads coupled to the output matching cell. Each of the regular accelerating cavities has a nose cone that cuts off field propagating into the beam pipe and therefore all power <span class="hlt">flows</span> in a traveling wave along the structure in the waveguide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940033879&hterms=Geometry+Riemann&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGeometry%2BRiemann','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940033879&hterms=Geometry+Riemann&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGeometry%2BRiemann"><span>The piecewise-<span class="hlt">linear</span> predictor-corrector code - A Lagrangian-remap method for astrophysical <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lufkin, Eric A.; Hawley, John F.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>We describe a time-explicit finite-difference algorithm for solving the nonlinear fluid equations. The method is similar to existing Eulerian schemes in its use of operator-splitting and artificial viscosity, except that we solve the Lagrangian equations of motion with a predictor-corrector and then remap onto a fixed Eulerian grid. The remap is formulated to eliminate errors associated with coordinate singularities, with a general prescription for remaps of arbitrary order. We perform a comprehensive series of tests on standard problems. Self-convergence tests show that the code has a second-order rate of convergence in smooth, two-dimensional <span class="hlt">flow</span>, with pressure forces, gravity, and curvilinear geometry included. While not as accurate on idealized problems as high-order Riemann-solving schemes, the predictor-corrector Lagrangian-remap code has great flexibility for application to a variety of astrophysical problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..93c3116D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..93c3116D"><span>Dispersive-to-nondispersive transition and phase-velocity transient for <span class="hlt">linear</span> waves in plane wake and channel <span class="hlt">flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Santi, Francesca; Fraternale, Federico; Tordella, Daniela</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In this study we analyze the phase and group velocity of three-dimensional <span class="hlt">linear</span> traveling waves in two sheared <span class="hlt">flows</span>: the plane channel and the wake <span class="hlt">flows</span>. This was carried out by varying the wave number over a large interval of values at a given Reynolds number inside the ranges 20-100, 1000-8000, for the wake and channel <span class="hlt">flow</span>, respectively. Evidence is given about the possible presence of both dispersive and nondispersive effects which are associated with the long and short ranges of wavelength. We solved the Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire eigenvalue problem and observed the least stable mode. It is evident that, at low wave numbers, the least stable eigenmodes in the left branch of the spectrum behave in a dispersive manner. By contrast, if the wave number is above a specific threshold, a sharp dispersive-to-nondispersive transition can be observed. Beyond this transition, the dominant mode belongs to the right branch of the spectrum. The transient behavior of the phase velocity of small three-dimensional traveling waves was also considered. Having chosen the initial conditions, we then show that the shape of the transient highly depends on the transition wavelength threshold value. We show that the phase velocity can oscillate with a frequency which is equal to the frequency width of the eigenvalue spectrum. Furthermore, evidence of intermediate self-similarity is given for the perturbation field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhFl...28k4103H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhFl...28k4103H"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability of buoyant convective <span class="hlt">flow</span> in a vertical channel with internal heat sources and a transverse magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hudoba, A.; Molokov, S.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability of buoyant convective <span class="hlt">flow</span> of an electrically conducting fluid in a vertical channel owing to internal heat sources has been studied. The <span class="hlt">flow</span> takes place in a transverse, horizontal magnetic field. The results show that up to four different local minima may be present in the neural stability curve. Up to two of these modes may be the most unstable depending, critically, on the value of the Hartmann number. Over a wide range of moderate to high Hartmann numbers, thermal waves dominate the instability. As the Hartmann number increases, however, this mode is strongly damped. Then the so-called Hartmann mode takes over, which involves the characteristic Hartmann layers at the walls appearing due to modification of the basic velocity profile by the magnetic field. Overall, for liquid metals at high magnetic fields, the basic <span class="hlt">flow</span> is very stable. Variation of the Prandtl number in a wide range has also been performed as, depending on the type of an electrically conducting fluid (liquid metal or various kinds of electrolytes), the Prandtl number varies over several orders of magnitude. As may be expected, the increase of the Prandtl number lowers the instability threshold for the thermal waves.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ResPh...7..189H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ResPh...7..189H"><span>MHD <span class="hlt">flow</span> of Powell-Eyring nanofluid over a non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> stretching sheet with variable thickness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayat, T.; Ullah, Ikram; Alsaedi, A.; Farooq, M.</p> <p></p> <p>This research explores the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer <span class="hlt">flow</span> of Powell-Eyring nanofluid past a non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> stretching sheet of variable thickness. An electrically conducting fluid is considered under the characteristics of magnetic field applied transverse to the sheet. The mathematical expressions are accomplished via boundary layer access, Brownian motion and thermophoresis phenomena. The <span class="hlt">flow</span> analysis is subjected to a recently established conditions requiring zero nanoparticles mass flux. Adequate transformations are implemented for the reduction of partial differential systems to the ordinary differential systems. Series solutions for the governing nonlinear <span class="hlt">flow</span> of momentum, temperature and nanoparticles concentration have been executed. Physical interpretation of numerous parameters is assigned by graphical illustrations and tabular values. Moreover the numerical data of drag coefficient and local heat transfer rate are executed and discussed. It is investigated that higher wall thickness parameter results in the reduction of velocity distribution. Effects of thermophoresis parameter on temperature and concentration profiles are qualitatively similar. Both the temperature and concentration profiles are enhanced for higher values of thermophoresis parameter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/376248','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/376248"><span>A <span class="hlt">linearized</span> corrosion double-layer model for laminar <span class="hlt">flow</span> electrification of hydrocarbon liquids in metal pipes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, H.; Radke, C.J.; Touchard, G.G.</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>When a hydrocarbon liquid <span class="hlt">flows</span> through a metal pipe, an axial streaming current is generated, convected along the pipe, and spilled out into a collection vessel. <span class="hlt">Flow</span> electrification raises explosion concerns in the petroleum industry. A metal/liquid interface corrosion-reaction model is developed for the <span class="hlt">flow</span> electrification of low-conductivity liquids in metal pipes. In the proposed model, impurity anions participate in corrosion reaction at the wall, leaving a net positive ion concentration in the diffuse electrical double layer. Convection of this positive charge constitutes the streaming current. Theoretical calculations for the convected space charge density demonstrate a velocity-dependent entrance effect that diminishes in pipes of larger radii, in agreement with experimental data for heptane in stainless steel pipes. Far downstream, the proposed model also correctly predicts that the convected space charge density falls with increasing pipe radius. As in previous work, the convected space charge density far downstream, is found to be <span class="hlt">linear</span> with the {zeta}-potential. However, the proposed model is self-consistent in that the {zeta}-potential arises as part of the calculation and is not an adjustable constant characteristic only of the metal/hydrocarbon interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAP...115qB533H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAP...115qB533H"><span>High shear rate <span class="hlt">flow</span> in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> stroke magnetorheological energy absorber</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, W.; Wereley, N. M.; Hiemenz, G. J.; Ngatu, G. T.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>To provide adaptive stroking load in the crew seats of ground vehicles to protect crew from blast or impact loads, a magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) or shock absorber was developed. The MREA provides appropriate levels of controllable stroking load for different occupant weights and peak acceleration because the viscous stroking load generated by the MREA force increases with velocity squared, thereby reducing its controllable range at high piston velocity. Therefore, MREA behavior at high piston velocity is analyzed and validated experimentally in order to investigate the effects of velocity and magnetic field on MREA performance. The analysis used to predict the MREA force as a function of piston velocity squared and applied field is presented. A conical fairing is mounted to the piston head of the MREA in order reduce predicted inlet <span class="hlt">flow</span> loss by 9% at nominal velocity of 8 m/s, which resulted in a viscous force reduction of nominally 4%. The MREA behavior is experimentally measured using a high speed servo-hydraulic testing system for speeds up to 8 m/s. The measured MREA force is used to validate the analysis, which captures the transient force quite accurately, although the peak force is under-predicted at the peak speed of 8 m/s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21463607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21463607"><span>Interactions between a luminescent conjugated polyelectrolyte and amyloid fibrils investigated with <span class="hlt">flow</span> <span class="hlt">linear</span> dichroism spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wigenius, Jens; Andersson, Mats R; Esbjörner, Elin K; Westerlund, Fredrik</p> <p>2011-04-29</p> <p>Luminescent conjugated polyelectrolytes (LCPs) have emerged as novel stains to detect and distinguish between various amyloidogenic species, including prefibrillar aggregates and mature fibril deposits, both in vitro and in histological tissue samples, offering advantages over traditional amyloid stains. We here use <span class="hlt">linear</span> dichroism (LD) spectroscopy under shear alignment to characterize interactions between the LCP poly(3-thiophene acetic acid) (PTAA) and amyloid fibrils. The positive signature in the LD spectrum of amyloid-bound PTAA suggests that it binds in the grooves between adjacent protein side-chains in the amyloid fibril core, parallel to the fibril axis, similar to thioflavin-T and congo red. Moreover, using LD we record the absorption spectrum of amyloid-bound PTAA in isolation from free dye showing a red-shift by ca 30 nm compared to in solution. This has important implications for the use of PTAA as an amyloid probe in situ and in vitro and we demonstrate how to obtain optimal amyloid-specific fluorescence read-outs using PTAA. We use the shift in maximum absorption to estimate the fraction of bound PTAA at a given concentration. PTAA binding reaches saturation when added in 36 times excess and at this concentration the PTAA density is 4-5 monomer units per insulin monomer in the fibril. Finally, we demonstrate that changes in LD intensity can be related to alterations in persistence length of amyloid fibrils resulting from changes in solution conditions, showing that this technique is useful to assess macroscopic properties of these biopolymers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22407992','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22407992"><span>Observation of fluctuation-driven particle flux reduction by low-frequency zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> magnetized plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, R.; Xie, J. L. Yu, C. X.; Liu, A. D.; Lan, T.; Li, H.; Liu, W. D.; Zhang, S. B.; Kong, D. F.; Hu, G. H.</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>Low-frequency zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> (ZF) has been observed in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> magnetic plasma device, exhibiting significant intermittency. Using the conditional analysis method, a time-averaged fluctuation-induced particle flux was observed to consistently decrease as ZF increased in amplitude. A dominant fraction of the flux, which is driven by drift-wave harmonics, is reversely modulated by ZF in the time domain. Spectra of the flux, together with each of the related turbulence properties, are estimated subject to two conditions, i.e., when potential fluctuation series represents a strong ZF intermittency or a very weak ZF component. Comparison of frequency-domain results demonstrates that ZF reduces the cross-field particle transport primarily by suppressing the density fluctuation as well as decorrelating density and potential fluctuations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110016729','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110016729"><span><span class="hlt">Routines</span> for Computing Pressure Drops in Venturis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>de Quay, Laurence</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>A set of computer-program <span class="hlt">routines</span> has been developed for calculating pressure drops and recoveries of <span class="hlt">flows</span> through standard venturis, nozzle venturis, and orifices. Relative to prior methods used for such calculations, the method implemented by these <span class="hlt">routines</span> offers greater accuracy because it involves fewer simplifying assumptions and is more generally applicable to wide ranges of <span class="hlt">flow</span> conditions. These <span class="hlt">routines</span> are based on conservation of momentum and energy equations for real nonideal fluids, the properties of which are calculated by curve-fitting subroutines based on empirical properties data. These <span class="hlt">routines</span> are capable of representing cavitating, choked, non-cavitating, and unchoked <span class="hlt">flow</span> conditions for liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. For a computation of <span class="hlt">flow</span> through a given venturi, nozzle venturi, or orifice, the <span class="hlt">routines</span> determine which <span class="hlt">flow</span> condition occurs: First, they calculate a throat pressure under the assumption that the <span class="hlt">flow</span> is unchoked or non-cavitating, then they calculate the throat pressure under the assumption that the <span class="hlt">flow</span> is choked or cavitating. The assumption that yields the higher throat pressure is selected as the correct one.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1987/4061/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1987/4061/report.pdf"><span>AQMAN; <span class="hlt">linear</span> and quadratic programming matrix generator using two-dimensional ground-water <span class="hlt">flow</span> simulation for aquifer management modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lefkoff, L.J.; Gorelick, S.M.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A FORTRAN-77 computer program code that helps solve a variety of aquifer management problems involving the control of groundwater hydraulics. It is intended for use with any standard mathematical programming package that uses Mathematical Programming System input format. The computer program creates the input files to be used by the optimization program. These files contain all the hydrologic information and management objectives needed to solve the management problem. Used in conjunction with a mathematical programming code, the computer program identifies the pumping or recharge strategy that achieves a user 's management objective while maintaining groundwater hydraulic conditions within desired limits. The objective may be <span class="hlt">linear</span> or quadratic, and may involve the minimization of pumping and recharge rates or of variable pumping costs. The problem may contain constraints on groundwater heads, gradients, and velocities for a complex, transient hydrologic system. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> superposition of solutions to the transient, two-dimensional groundwater <span class="hlt">flow</span> equation is used by the computer program in conjunction with the response matrix optimization method. A unit stress is applied at each decision well and transient responses at all control locations are computed using a modified version of the U.S. Geological Survey two dimensional aquifer simulation model. The program also computes discounted cost coefficients for the objective function and accounts for transient aquifer conditions. (Author 's abstract)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16494250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16494250"><span><span class="hlt">Flows</span> of dioxins and furans in coastal food webs: inverse modeling, sensitivity analysis, and applications of <span class="hlt">linear</span> system theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saloranta, Tuomo M; Andersen, Tom; Naes, Kristoffer</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Rate constant bioaccumulation models are applied to simulate the <span class="hlt">flow</span> of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the coastal marine food web of Frierfjorden, a contaminated fjord in southern Norway. We apply two different ways to parameterize the rate constants in the model, global sensitivity analysis of the models using Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (Extended FAST) method, as well as results from general <span class="hlt">linear</span> system theory, in order to obtain a more thorough insight to the system's behavior and to the <span class="hlt">flow</span> pathways of the PCDD/Fs. We calibrate our models against observed body concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the food web of Frierfjorden. Differences between the predictions from the two models (using the same forcing and parameter values) are of the same magnitude as their individual deviations from observations, and the models can be said to perform about equally well in our case. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the success or failure of the models in predicting the PCDD/F concentrations in the food web organisms highly depends on the adequate estimation of the truly dissolved concentrations in water and sediment pore water. We discuss the pros and cons of such models in understanding and estimating the present and future concentrations and bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic food webs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21709867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21709867"><span>A new highly adaptable design of shear-<span class="hlt">flow</span> device for orientation of macromolecules for <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Dichroism (LD) measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lundahl, P Johan; Kitts, Catherine C; Nordén, Bengt</p> <p>2011-08-21</p> <p>This article presents a new design of <span class="hlt">flow</span>-orientation device for the study of bio-macromolecules, including DNA and protein complexes, as well as aggregates such as amyloid fibrils and liposome membranes, using <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Dichroism (LD) spectroscopy. The design provides a number of technical advantages that should make the device inexpensive to manufacture, easier to use and more reliable than existing techniques. The degree of orientation achieved is of the same order of magnitude as that of the commonly used concentric cylinders Couette <span class="hlt">flow</span> cell, however, since the device exploits a set of flat strain-free quartz plates, a number of problems associated with refraction and birefringence of light are eliminated, increasing the sensitivity and accuracy of measurement. The device provides similar shear rates to those of the Couette cell but is superior in that the shear rate is constant across the gap. Other major advantages of the design is the possibility to change parts and vary sample volume and path length easily and at a low cost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPU10013G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPU10013G"><span>Recent Experimental and Numerical Results on Turbulence, <span class="hlt">Flows</span> and Global Stability Under Biasing in a Magnetized <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gilmore, M.; Desjardins, T. R.; Fisher, D. M.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Ongoing experiments and numerical modeling on the effects of <span class="hlt">flow</span> shear on electrostatic turbulence in the presence of electrode biasing are being conducted in helicon plasmas in the <span class="hlt">linear</span> HelCat (Helicon-Cathode) device. It is found that changes in <span class="hlt">flow</span> shear, affected by electrode biasing through Er x Bz rotation, can strongly affect fluctuation dynamics, including fully suppressing the fluctuations or inducing chaos. The fundamental underlying instability, at least in the case of low magnetic field, is identified as a hybrid resistive drift-Kelvin-Helmholtz mode. At higher magnetic fields, multiple modes (resistive drift, rotation-driven interchange and/or Kelvin-Helmholtz) are present, and interact nonlinearly. At high positive electrode bias (V >10Te), a large amplitude, global instability, identified as the potential relaxation instability is observed. Numerical modeling is also being conducted, using a 3 fluid global Braginskii solver for no or moderate bias cases, and a 1D PIC code for high bias cases. Recent experimental and numerical results will be presented. Supported by U.S. National Science Foundation Award 1500423.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvF...2c3902V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvF...2c3902V"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability of horizontal, laminar fully developed, quasi-two-dimensional liquid metal duct <span class="hlt">flow</span> under a transverse magnetic field and heated from below</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vo, Tony; Pothérat, Alban; Sheard, Gregory J.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>This study considers the <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard <span class="hlt">flows</span> subjected to a transverse magnetic field, to understand the instabilities that arise from the complex interaction between the effects of shear, thermal stratification, and magnetic damping. This fundamental study is motivated in part by the desire to enhance heat transfer in the blanket ducts of nuclear fusion reactors. In pure magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">flows</span>, the imposed transverse magnetic field causes the <span class="hlt">flow</span> to become quasi-two-dimensional and exhibit disturbances that are localized to the horizontal walls. However, the vertical temperature stratification in Rayleigh-Bénard <span class="hlt">flows</span> feature convection cells that occupy the interior region, and therefore the addition of this aspect provides an interesting point for investigation. The <span class="hlt">linearized</span> governing equations are described by the quasi-two-dimensional model proposed by Sommeria and Moreau [J. Fluid Mech. 118, 507 (1982), 10.1017/S0022112082001177], which incorporates a Hartmann friction term, and the base <span class="hlt">flows</span> are considered fully developed and one-dimensional. The neutral stability curves for critical Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers, Rec and Rac, respectively, as functions of Hartmann friction parameter H have been obtained over 10-2≤H ≤104 . Asymptotic trends are observed as H →∞ following Rec∝H1 /2 and Rac∝H . The <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis reveals multiple instabilities which alter the <span class="hlt">flow</span> both within the Shercliff boundary layers and the interior <span class="hlt">flow</span>, with structures consistent with features from plane Poiseuille and Rayleigh-Bénard <span class="hlt">flows</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215490U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215490U"><span>Hybrid concept for the parameterization of the cascade of <span class="hlt">linear</span> reservoirs for river <span class="hlt">flow</span> routing using artificial neural networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Úrek, Peter Å.; Szolgay, Jan; Čistý, Milan</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The lack of hydraulic and morphological data in many cases does not allow for using hydraulic methods for the simulation of the flood wave transformation between two river cross-sections. Under such conditions, as a rational alternative to hydraulic routing, hydrological routing models appear to be a suitable in the practice for <span class="hlt">flow</span> forecasting. These models, beside numerical hydraulic models (and also models belonging to the class of non-storage routing methods), are in operational use in Slovakia. Usually, the morphological and hydraulic characteristics of the modelled river reaches and of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> conditions are reflected in the routing model parameters, which are estimated by calibration and are kept constant for a given model during the simulation. In this contribution a new hybrid concept of model parameterization of the KLN model is presented. The KLN model is based on the state-space representation of the cascade of <span class="hlt">linear</span> reservoirs. In the multilinear concept the travel-time parameter of the model was allowed to vary during simulation according to changing <span class="hlt">flow</span> conditions. The model parameter changes in time according to an assumed relationship between the travel time of flood peaks and of selected characteristics of the flood wave. This relationship was estimated using artificial neural networks (ANN). In order to include all several possible effects, several setups of the ANN, which could possibly affect the model parameter, were tested. The ANN was trained to estimate the optimal values of model parameter and is used on- line during the routing procedure. The proposed hybrid concept is compared with other models used in practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066258','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066258"><span>Effect of fluid and particle inertia on the rotation of an oblate spheroidal particle suspended in <span class="hlt">linear</span> shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosén, T; Do-Quang, M; Aidun, C K; Lundell, F</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This work describes the inertial effects on the rotational behavior of an oblate spheroidal particle confined between two parallel opposite moving walls, which generate a <span class="hlt">linear</span> shear <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Numerical results are obtained using the lattice Boltzmann method with an external boundary force. The rotation of the particle depends on the particle Reynolds number, Re(p)=Gd(2)ν(-1) (G is the shear rate, d is the particle diameter, ν is the kinematic viscosity), and the Stokes number, St=αRe(p) (α is the solid-to-fluid density ratio), which are dimensionless quantities connected to fluid and particle inertia, respectively. The results show that two inertial effects give rise to different stable rotational states. For a neutrally buoyant particle (St=Re(p)) at low Re(p), particle inertia was found to dominate, eventually leading to a rotation about the particle's symmetry axis. The symmetry axis is in this case parallel to the vorticity direction; a rotational state called log-rolling. At high Re(p), fluid inertia will dominate and the particle will remain in a steady state, where the particle symmetry axis is perpendicular to the vorticity direction and has a constant angle ϕ(c) to the <span class="hlt">flow</span> direction. The sequence of transitions between these dynamical states were found to be dependent on density ratio α, particle aspect ratio r(p), and domain size. More specifically, the present study reveals that an inclined rolling state (particle rotates around its symmetry axis, which is not aligned in the vorticity direction) appears through a pitchfork bifurcation due to the influence of periodic boundary conditions when simulated in a small domain. Furthermore, it is also found that a tumbling motion, where the particle symmetry axis rotates in the <span class="hlt">flow</span>-gradient plane, can be a stable motion for particles with high r(p) and low α.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870005741','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870005741"><span>Applicability of <span class="hlt">linearized</span>-theory attached-<span class="hlt">flow</span> methods to design and analysis of flap systems at low speeds for thin swept wings with sharp leading edges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Low-speed experimental force and data on a series of thin swept wings with sharp leading edges and leading and trailing-edge flaps are compared with predictions made using a <span class="hlt">linearized</span>-theory method which includes estimates of vortex forces. These comparisons were made to assess the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">linearized</span>-theory methods for use in the design and analysis of flap systems in subsonic <span class="hlt">flow</span>. Results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">linearized</span>-theory, attached-<span class="hlt">flow</span> methods (with approximate representation of vortex forces) can form the basis of a rational system for flap design and analysis. Even attached-<span class="hlt">flow</span> methods that do not take vortex forces into account can be used for the selection of optimized flap-system geometry, but design-point performance levels tend to be underestimated unless vortex forces are included. Illustrative examples of the use of these methods in the design of efficient low-speed flap systems are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.702W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.702W"><span>A Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Mixed Spectral Finite-Difference 3-D Model of Planetary Boundary-Layer <span class="hlt">Flow</span> over Complex Terrain and Its Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weng, W.; Taylor, P. A.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Based on the early <span class="hlt">linear</span> and Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Mixed Spectral Finite-Difference (MSFD and NLMSFD) models, a 3-D non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> model of planetary boundary-layer <span class="hlt">flow</span> (NLMSFD-PBL) was developed to study neutral PBL <span class="hlt">flow</span> over complex terrain. The model assumes upwind or zero-order profiles of mean and turbulence variables about which perturbation quantities are calculated due to the effects of the terrain. In early models, the mean zero-order wind profile was assumed to be a simple logarithmic surface-layer profile and Reynolds stresses were constant throughout the depth of the model domain. This formally limits the applications of model to the surface-layer <span class="hlt">flow</span>. The new model utilizes the results of early 1-D planetary boundary layer model of Weng and Taylor as the zero-order or upstream profiles of mean and turbulent quantities. The limitations associated with the original MSFD/NLMSFD model (e.g. logarithmic wind profile and constant shear stress layer) are relaxed. The effect of earth's rotation is also included in the model. Model results for planetary boundary-layer <span class="hlt">flow</span> over complex terrain are discussed, particularly, the <span class="hlt">flow</span> over Askervein hill - the site of a detailed and much referenced field study of <span class="hlt">flow</span> over hills in the 1980s. This type of modelling of <span class="hlt">flow</span> over complex terrain has important applications for wind energy resource assessment and wind farm design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12210603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12210603"><span>Improved <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometric method to enumerate residual cells: minimal <span class="hlt">linear</span> detection limits for platelets, erythrocytes, and leukocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pichler, J; Printz, D; Scharner, D; Trbojevic, D; Siekmann, J; Fritsch, G</p> <p>2002-08-15</p> <p>Increasing demand for quality control of blood products requires more sensitive methods to enumerate residual cells. Presently, the reported threshold (in cells per microliter) is 400 for red blood cells, 30-500 for platelets, and 1 for leukocytes. To examine precision and <span class="hlt">linearity</span> in enumerating residual platelets and red blood cells, EDTA-anticoagulated blood from healthy donors was serially diluted with serum, stained in TruCount tubes using a no-lyse/no-wash procedure and a monoclonal antibody cocktail against the CD42a (FL1) and glycophorin-A (FL2) epitopes, and analyzed by <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometry. Leukocyte counts were determined in separate tubes. Cell preparation and analysis were performed once for 20 blood samples each and 20 times using the same specimen. Acquisition from the same tube was performed separately for platelets (threshold on FL1) and red blood cells (threshold on FL2). Multiparameter analysis was used for data evaluation. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> results were obtained for platelets per microliter between 3,410 and 5 and for red blood cells per microliter between 54,000 and 3. For the lower cell concentrations, the coefficient of variation was 16.7% for platelets and 10.9% for red blood cells. The presented method allows the distinction between physiologically intact and ghost red blood cells. The method represents a reliable, sensitive, and accurate approach to quantify platelets and red blood cells in diluted blood. It can be applied to enumerate residual cells in plasma products and meets the increasing demand for quality control in blood components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000890.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000890.htm"><span>Indoor fitness <span class="hlt">routine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... health care provider before starting an exercise program . Circuit Training Circuit training is 1 type of <span class="hlt">routine</span> ... your hips and knees until your thighs are parallel to the floor. Return to starting position. 15 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930022266','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930022266"><span>Daily exercise <span class="hlt">routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Viewgraphs on daily exercise <span class="hlt">routines</span> are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003723.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003723.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Routine</span> sputum culture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, <span class="hlt">routine</span>. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2182F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2182F"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> law of rockglacier creep determined from geomorphological observations: A case study from the Murtèl rockglacier (Engadin, SE Switzerland)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frehner, Marcel; Amschwand, Dominik; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Rockglaciers consist of unconsolidated rock fragments (silt/sand-rock boulders) with interstitial ice; hence their creep behavior (i.e., rheology) may deviate from the simple and well-known <span class="hlt">flow</span>-laws for pure ice. Here we constrain the non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> viscous <span class="hlt">flow</span> law that governs rockglacier creep based on geomorphological observations. We use the Murtèl rockglacier (upper Engadin valley, SE Switzerland) as a case study, for which high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM), time-lapse borehole deformation data, and geophysical soundings exist that reveal the exterior and interior architecture and dynamics of the landform. Rockglaciers often feature a prominent furrow-and-ridge topography. For the Murtèl rockglacier, Frehner et al. (2015) reproduced the wavelength, amplitude, and distribution of the furrow-and-ridge morphology using a <span class="hlt">linear</span> viscous (Newtonian) <span class="hlt">flow</span> model. Arenson et al. (2002) presented borehole deformation data, which highlight the basal shear zone at about 30 m depth and a curved deformation profile above the shear zone. Similarly, the furrow-and-ridge morphology also exhibits a curved geometry in map view. Hence, the surface morphology and the borehole deformation data together describe a curved 3D geometry, which is close to, but not quite parabolic. We use a high-resolution DEM to quantify the curved geometry of the Murtèl furrow-and-ridge morphology. We then calculate theoretical 3D <span class="hlt">flow</span> geometries using different non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> viscous <span class="hlt">flow</span> laws. By comparing them to the measured curved 3D geometry (i.e., both surface morphology and borehole deformation data), we can determine the most adequate <span class="hlt">flow</span>-law that fits the natural data best. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> viscous models result in perfectly parabolic <span class="hlt">flow</span> geometries; non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> creep leads to localized deformation at the sides and bottom of the rockglacier while the deformation in the interior and top are less intense. In other words, non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> creep results in non-parabolic <span class="hlt">flow</span> geometries. Both the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810000117&hterms=basic+algebra&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbasic%2Balgebra','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810000117&hterms=basic+algebra&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbasic%2Balgebra"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span>-Algebra Programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The Basic <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable <span class="hlt">routines</span> for performing basic operations of numerical <span class="hlt">linear</span> algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving <span class="hlt">linear</span> algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810000117&hterms=linear+algebra&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dlinear%2Balgebra','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810000117&hterms=linear+algebra&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dlinear%2Balgebra"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span>-Algebra Programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The Basic <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable <span class="hlt">routines</span> for performing basic operations of numerical <span class="hlt">linear</span> algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving <span class="hlt">linear</span> algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960028557','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960028557"><span>High Reynolds number analysis of flat plate and separated afterbody <span class="hlt">flow</span> using non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> turbulence models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carlson, John R.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The ability of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes method, PAB3D, to simulate the effect of Reynolds number variation using non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> explicit algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence modeling was assessed. Subsonic flat plate boundary-layer <span class="hlt">flow</span> parameters such as normalized velocity distributions, local and average skin friction, and shape factor were compared with DNS calculations and classical theory at various local Reynolds numbers up to 180 million. Additionally, surface pressure coefficient distributions and integrated drag predictions on an axisymmetric nozzle afterbody were compared with experimental data from 10 to 130 million Reynolds number. The high Reynolds data was obtained from the NASA Langley 0.3m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. There was generally good agreement of surface static pressure coefficients between the CFD and measurement. The change in pressure coefficient distributions with varying Reynolds number was similar to the experimental data trends, though slightly over-predicting the effect. The computational sensitivity of viscous modeling and turbulence modeling are shown. Integrated afterbody pressure drag was typically slightly lower than the experimental data. The change in afterbody pressure drag with Reynolds number was small both experimentally and computationally, even though the shape of the distribution was somewhat modified with Reynolds number.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp...39L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp...39L"><span>KNN-based local <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression for the analysis and simulation of low <span class="hlt">flow</span> extremes under climatic influence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Taesam; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Yoon, Sunkwon</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Climate change frequently causes highly nonlinear and irregular behaviors in hydroclimatic systems. The stochastic simulation of hydroclimatic variables reproduces such irregular behaviors and is beneficial for assessing their impact on other regimes. The objective of the current study is to propose a novel method, a k-nearest neighbor (KNN) based on the local <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression method (KLR), to reproduce nonlinear and heteroscedastic relations in hydroclimatic variables. The proposed model was validated with a nonlinear, heteroscedastic, lag-1 time dependent test function. The validation results of the test function show that the key statistics, nonlinear dependence, and heteroscedascity of the test data are reproduced well by the KLR model. In contrast, a traditional resampling technique, KNN resampling (KNNR), shows some biases with respect to key statistics, such as the variance and lag-1 correlation. Furthermore, the proposed KLR model was used to simulate the annual minimum of the consecutive 7-day average daily mean <span class="hlt">flow</span> (Min7D) of the Romaine River, Quebec. The observed and extended North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index is incorporated into the model. The case study results of the observed period illustrate that the KLR model sufficiently reproduced key statistics and the nonlinear heteroscedasticity relation. For the future period, a lower mean is observed, which indicates that drier conditions other than normal might be expected in the next decade in the Romaine River. Overall, it is concluded that the KLR model can be a good alternative for simulating irregular and nonlinear behaviors in hydroclimatic variables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdWR...77...69S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdWR...77...69S"><span>Direct forecasting of subsurface <span class="hlt">flow</span> response from non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> dynamic data by <span class="hlt">linear</span> least-squares in canonical functional principal component space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Satija, Aaditya; Caers, Jef</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Inverse modeling is widely used to assist with forecasting problems in the subsurface. However, full inverse modeling can be time-consuming requiring iteration over a high dimensional parameter space with computationally expensive forward models and complex spatial priors. In this paper, we investigate a prediction-focused approach (PFA) that aims at building a statistical relationship between data variables and forecast variables, avoiding the inversion of model parameters altogether. The statistical relationship is built by first applying the forward model related to the data variables and the forward model related to the prediction variables on a limited set of spatial prior models realizations, typically generated through geostatistical methods. The relationship observed between data and prediction is highly non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> for many forecasting problems in the subsurface. In this paper we propose a Canonical Functional Component Analysis (CFCA) to map the data and forecast variables into a low-dimensional space where, if successful, the relationship is <span class="hlt">linear</span>. CFCA consists of (1) functional principal component analysis (FPCA) for dimension reduction of time-series data and (2) canonical correlation analysis (CCA); the latter aiming to establish a <span class="hlt">linear</span> relationship between data and forecast components. If such mapping is successful, then we illustrate with several cases that (1) simple regression techniques with a multi-Gaussian framework can be used to directly quantify uncertainty on the forecast without any model inversion and that (2) such uncertainty is a good approximation of uncertainty obtained from full posterior sampling with rejection sampling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.456.4247H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.456.4247H"><span>Cosmic <span class="hlt">flows</span> and the expansion of the local Universe from non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> phase-space reconstructions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heß, Steffen; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In this work, we investigate the impact of cosmic <span class="hlt">flows</span> and density perturbations on Hubble constant H0 measurements using non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> phase-space reconstructions of the Local Universe (LU). In particular, we rely on a set of 25 precise constrained N-body simulations based on Bayesian initial conditions reconstructions of the LU using the Two-Micron Redshift Survey galaxy sample within distances of about 90 h-1 Mpc. These have been randomly extended up to volumes enclosing distances of 360 h-1 Mpc with augmented Lagrangian perturbation theory (750 simulations in total), accounting in this way for gravitational mode coupling from larger scales, correcting for periodic boundary effects, and estimating systematics of missing attractors (σlarge = 134 s-1 km). We report on Local Group (LG) speed reconstructions, which for the first time are compatible with those derived from cosmic microwave background-dipole measurements: |vLG| = 685 ± 137 s-1 km. The direction (l, b) = (260.5° ± 13.3°, 39.1 ± 10.4°) is found to be compatible with the observations after considering the variance of large scales. Considering this effect of large scales, our local bulk <span class="hlt">flow</span> estimations assuming a Λ cold dark matter model are compatible with the most recent estimates based on velocity data derived from the Tully-Fisher relation. We focus on low-redshift supernova measurements out to 0.01 < z < 0.025, which have been found to disagree with probes at larger distances. Our analysis indicates that there are two effects related to cosmic variance contributing to this tension. The first one is caused by the anisotropic distribution of supernovae, which aligns with the velocity dipole and hence induces a systematic boost in H0. The second one is due to the inhomogeneous matter fluctuations in the LU. In particular, a divergent region surrounding the Virgo Supercluster is responsible for an additional positive bias in H0. Taking these effects into account yields a correction of ΔH0 = -1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40..245S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40..245S"><span>Extensive <span class="hlt">linear</span> ridge networks in Nili Fossae and Nilosyrtis, Mars: implications for fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span> in the ancient crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saper, Lee; Mustard, John F.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><title type="main">Abstract<p label="1">We have undertaken high-resolution mapping of the distribution, physical characteristics, orientation, and stratigraphic occurrence of >4000 <span class="hlt">linear</span> ridge segments in two study areas, the Nilosyrtis highlands and the Nili Fossae region covering 1 × 105 km2. Ridges are typically hundreds of meters in length, meters in width, and up to tens of meters in height. Ridges form intersecting networks of anastomosing and bifurcating segments and consequently have variable orientations. Ridges are expressed in altered and brecciated basement materials on the floors and rims of impact craters deeply eroded by fluvial and other processes. The ridge-bearing basement is the lowest exposed stratigraphic unit and is overlain by a relatively unaltered mafic cap rock. Ridges are observed to terminate at the contact of these two units. We interpret the ridges to represent a complex of fractures, faults, shear zones, clastic and melt-bearing dikes, and pseudotachylytes that have been variably indurated by fluid percolation and mineralization. The fluid conduits were hardened relative to the host rock and are expressed as ridges due to differential erosion. The orientations of the exhumed ridges record the state of stress in the crust at the time of formation. In Nili Fossae, a significant population of ridges is aligned with the orientations of the Nili Fossae graben, indicating that their emplacement may be related to crustal loading of the Isidis Basin after the impact event. The association of ridges with the hydrated mineral-bearing basement suggests that, in the postimpact environment, the fractures served as conduits of preferential fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span>, which were cemented by mineral precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=291545','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=291545"><span><span class="hlt">Routine</span> DNA testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Routine</span> DNA testing. It’s done once you’ve Marker-Assisted Breeding Pipelined promising Qantitative Trait Loci within your own breeding program and thereby established the performance-predictive power of each DNA test for your germplasm under your conditions. By then you are ready to screen your par...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Effective+AND+classroom+AND+management&id=EJ1121072','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Effective+AND+classroom+AND+management&id=EJ1121072"><span>Motivation through <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Documentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Koth, Laurie J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This informed commentary article offers a simple, effective classroom management strategy in which the teacher uses <span class="hlt">routine</span> documentation to motivate students both to perform academically and to behave in a manner consistent with established classroom rules and procedures. The pragmatic strategy is grounded in literature, free to implement,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000232&hterms=routine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Droutine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000232&hterms=routine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Droutine"><span>Graph-Plotting <span class="hlt">Routine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kantak, Anil V.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Plotter <span class="hlt">routine</span> for IBM PC (AKPLOT) designed for engineers and scientists who use graphs as integral parts of their documentation. Allows user to generate graph and edit its appearance on cathode-ray tube. Graph may undergo many interactive alterations before finally dumped from screen to be plotted by printer. Written in BASIC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=routine&pg=2&id=EJ1122171','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=routine&pg=2&id=EJ1122171"><span>Learning from Homeschooling <span class="hlt">Routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thomas, Jesse</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study provides a rare opportunity to look inside the homeschool and to observe the <span class="hlt">routines</span> of homeschooling families from across the United States. With more than 1000 survey participants, and nine parents selected for interviews, the compiled data were analyzed through open coding techniques. Meaningful aspects that arose from the routines…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=routine+AND+definition&pg=4&id=EJ427728','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=routine+AND+definition&pg=4&id=EJ427728"><span>When Denial Becomes <span class="hlt">Routine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kuper, Leo</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Claims denial of genocide has become a <span class="hlt">routine</span> defense as a result of the United Nations definition of international crimes. Describes grounds for denial by various governments and list arguments they have made to justify genocidal policies. Argues some academics assist in the process of denial by using revisionist strategies. (NL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ascl.soft05006K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ascl.soft05006K"><span>PROPER: Optical propagation <span class="hlt">routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krist, John E.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>PROPER simulates the propagation of light through an optical system using Fourier transform algorithms (Fresnel, angular spectrum methods). Distributed as IDL source code, it includes <span class="hlt">routines</span> to create complex apertures, aberrated wavefronts, and deformable mirrors. It is especially useful for the simulation of high contrast imaging telescopes (extrasolar planet imagers like TPF).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=classroom+AND+management+AND+strategies&id=EJ1121072','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=classroom+AND+management+AND+strategies&id=EJ1121072"><span>Motivation through <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Documentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Koth, Laurie J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This informed commentary article offers a simple, effective classroom management strategy in which the teacher uses <span class="hlt">routine</span> documentation to motivate students both to perform academically and to behave in a manner consistent with established classroom rules and procedures. The pragmatic strategy is grounded in literature, free to implement,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=homeschooling&pg=3&id=EJ1122171','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=homeschooling&pg=3&id=EJ1122171"><span>Learning from Homeschooling <span class="hlt">Routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thomas, Jesse</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study provides a rare opportunity to look inside the homeschool and to observe the <span class="hlt">routines</span> of homeschooling families from across the United States. With more than 1000 survey participants, and nine parents selected for interviews, the compiled data were analyzed through open coding techniques. Meaningful aspects that arose from the routines…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JFM...603..245K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JFM...603..245K"><span>Analytic study of developing <span class="hlt">flows</span> in a tube laden with non-evaporating and evaporating drops via a modified <span class="hlt">linearization</span> of the two-phase momentum equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khosid, S.; Tambour, Y.</p> <p></p> <p>A novel modification of the classical Langhaar <span class="hlt">linearization</span> of the mutually coupled momentum equations for developing two-phase <span class="hlt">flows</span> in circular ducts is presented. This modification enables us to treat: (i) <span class="hlt">flows</span> developing from spatially periodic initial velocity distributions without the presence of droplets, and (ii) two-phase <span class="hlt">flows</span> in which monosize, non-evaporating and evaporating droplets suspended in a developing gas <span class="hlt">flow</span> of an initially uniform velocity distribution exchange momentum with the host-gas <span class="hlt">flow</span>. New solutions are presented for the downstream evolution in the velocity profiles which develop from spatially periodic initial velocity distributions that eventually reach the fully developed Poiseuille velocity profile. These solutions are validated by employing known numerical procedures, providing strong support for the physical underpinnings of the present modified <span class="hlt">linearization</span>. New solutions are also presented for the evolution in drop velocities and vapour spatial distributions for evaporating droplets suspended in an initially uniform velocity profile of the host gas. Asymptotic solutions are presented for the <span class="hlt">flow</span> region which lies very close to the inlet of the tube, where the relative velocity between the droplets and the host gas is high, and thus the velocity fields of the two phases are mutually coupled. These solutions provide new explicit formulae for the droplet velocity field as a function of the initial conditions and droplet diameter (relative to the tube diameter) for non-evaporating drops, and also as a function of evaporation rate for evaporating drops.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA413838','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA413838"><span>Development of an Experimental Test Section for Forcing Unsteady <span class="hlt">Flow</span> in a <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Compressor Cascade using Circular Rods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>adapted from a Nonlinear Regression <span class="hlt">routine</span> from Chapra and Canale[55]. This Gauss-Newton based algorithm was designed to allow data points to be curve...Press, 1995. 54. Pointwise, “Gridgen Version 14 User Manual,” 2002. 55. Chapra , Steven C., Canale Raymond P. Numerical Methods for Engineers (2nd Edi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1595194','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1595194"><span>#4: No <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Interventions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lothian, Judith; Amis, Debby; Crenshaw, Jeannette; Goer, Henci</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In this position paper—one of six care practice papers published by Lamaze International and reprinted here with permission—the benefit of no <span class="hlt">routine</span> interventions during birth is discussed and presented as an evidence-based practice that helps promote, protect, and support normal birth. The paper is written for childbearing women and their families. It presents evidence related to restrictions on eating and drinking, use of intravenous fluids, continuous electronic fetal monitoring, artificial rupture of the membranes, augmentation of labor, and epidural analgesia. The accompanying commentary—written by an award-winning medical writer—supports and expands on the benefits of no <span class="hlt">routine</span> interventions during birth. Lamaze International recommends that laboring women avoid restrictions on eating and drinking. The organization also recommends avoidance of IVs, continuous electronic fetal monitoring, epidurals, and efforts to speed up labor, unless a clear indication for their use is evident. PMID:17273385</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850000284&hterms=routine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Droutine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850000284&hterms=routine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Droutine"><span>An Interactive Plotting <span class="hlt">Routine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bowdish, D. W.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Routine</span> called CRTRPM meets needs of applications programer to plot data in interactive environment on Tektronix graphics terminal. CRTRPM designed specifically for applications where data is viewed and responded to at terminal. CRTRPM produces from one to four grids on terminal screen at one time, with from one to ten plots of X-Y data on each grid. CRTRPM written in FORTRAN V for interactive execution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750015818','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750015818"><span>Application of local <span class="hlt">linearization</span> and the transonic equivalence rule to the <span class="hlt">flow</span> about slender analytic bodies at Mach numbers near 1.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tyson, R. W.; Muraca, R. J.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The local <span class="hlt">linearization</span> method for axisymmetric <span class="hlt">flow</span> is combined with the transonic equivalence rule to calculate pressure distribution on slender bodies at free-stream Mach numbers from .8 to 1.2. This is an approximate solution to the transonic <span class="hlt">flow</span> problem which yields results applicable during the preliminary design stages of a configuration development. The method can be used to determine the aerodynamic loads on parabolic arc bodies having either circular or elliptical cross sections. It is particularly useful in predicting pressure distributions and normal force distributions along the body at small angles of attack. The equations discussed may be extended to include wing-body combinations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ArRMA.221.1449Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ArRMA.221.1449Z"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Inviscid Damping for Monotone Shear <span class="hlt">Flows</span> in a Finite Periodic Channel, Boundary Effects, Blow-up and Critical Sobolev Regularity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zillinger, Christian</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In a previous article (Zillinger, <span class="hlt">Linear</span> inviscid damping for monotone shear <span class="hlt">flows</span>, 2014), we have established <span class="hlt">linear</span> inviscid damping for a large class of monotone shear <span class="hlt">flows</span> in a finite periodic channel and have further shown that boundary effects asymptotically lead to the formation of singularities of derivatives of the solution as {t → infty}. As the main results of this article, we provide a detailed description of the singularity formation and establish stability in all sub-critical fractional Sobolev spaces and blow-up in all super-critical spaces. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of the blow-up to the problem of nonlinear inviscid damping in a finite periodic channel, where high regularity would be essential to control nonlinear effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JDE...252..459D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JDE...252..459D"><span><span class="hlt">Linearized</span> stationary incompressible <span class="hlt">flow</span> around rotating and translating bodies: Asymptotic profile of the velocity gradient and decay estimate of the second derivatives of the velocity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deuring, Paul; Kračmar, Stanislav; Nečasová, Šárka</p> <p></p> <p>We consider a system arising by <span class="hlt">linearization</span> of a model for stationary viscous incompressible <span class="hlt">flow</span> around a translating and rotating body. An asymptotic profile of the gradient of the velocity is derived. The leading term of the profile involves derivatives of a fundamental solution constructed by R.B. Guenther and E.A. Thomann (2006) [23], for the system in question. In addition, we establish decay estimates of the second derivatives of the velocity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16108693','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16108693"><span>Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics of the rheological and structural properties of <span class="hlt">linear</span> and branched molecules. Simple shear and poiseuille <span class="hlt">flows</span>; instabilities and slip.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castillo-Tejas, Jorge; Alvarado, Juan F J; González-Alatorre, Guillermo; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel; Sanchez, Isaac C; Macias-Salinas, Ricardo; Manero, Octavio</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations are performed for <span class="hlt">linear</span> and branched chain molecules to study their rheological and structural properties under simple shear and Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flows</span>. Molecules are described by a spring-monomer model with a given intermolecular potential. The equations of motion are solved for shear and Poiseuille <span class="hlt">flows</span> with Lees and Edward's [A. W. Lees and S. F. Edwards, J. Phys. C 5, 1921 (1972)] periodic boundary conditions. A multiple time-scale algorithm extended to nonequilibrium situations is used as the integration method, and the simulations are performed at constant temperature using Nose-Hoover [S. Nose, J. Chem. Phys. 81, 511 (1984)] dynamics. In simple shear, molecules with <span class="hlt">flow</span>-induced ellipsoidal shape, having significant segment concentrations along the gradient and neutral directions, exhibit substantial <span class="hlt">flow</span> resistance. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> molecules have larger zero-shear-rate viscosity than that of branched molecules, however, this behavior reverses as the shear rate is increased. The relaxation time of the molecules is associated with segment concentrations directed along the gradient and neutral directions, and hence it depends on structure and molecular weight. The results of this study are in qualitative agreement with other simulation studies and with experimental data. The pressure (Poiseuille) <span class="hlt">flow</span> is induced by an external force F(e) simulated by confining the molecules in the region between surfaces which have attractive forces. Conditions at the boundary strongly influence the type of the slip <span class="hlt">flow</span> predicted. A parabolic velocity profile with apparent slip on the wall is predicted under weakly attractive wall conditions, independent of molecular structure. In the case of strongly attractive walls, a layer of adhered molecules to the wall produces an abrupt distortion of the velocity profile which leads to slip between fluid layers with magnitude that depends on the molecular structure. Finally, the molecular deformation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850020261','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850020261"><span>Examination of the Circle Spline <span class="hlt">Routine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dolin, R. M.; Jaeger, D. L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The Circle Spline <span class="hlt">routine</span> is currently being used for generating both two and three dimensional spline curves. It was developed for use in ESCHER, a mesh generating <span class="hlt">routine</span> written to provide a computationally simple and efficient method for building meshes along curved surfaces. Circle Spline is a parametric <span class="hlt">linear</span> blending spline. Because many computerized machining operations involve circular shapes, the Circle Spline is well suited for both the design and manufacturing processes and shows promise as an alternative to the spline methods currently supported by the Initial Graphics Specification (IGES).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22495050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22495050"><span><span class="hlt">Routine</span> vaccination against chickenpox?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella and herpes zoster. In 1995 a varicella vaccine was licensed in the USA and was incorporated into the <span class="hlt">routine</span> vaccination programme for children; a decline of varicella among children and adults, and a reduction in associated hospitalisation, complications and mortality, has resulted. In the UK, a policy of targeted vaccination of at-risk groups has been in place since the vaccine was introduced. Here we review the evidence for the different approaches to VZV vaccination policy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005StaUN..40.....C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005StaUN..40.....C"><span>CHR -- Character Handling <span class="hlt">Routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.</p> <p></p> <p>This document describes the Character Handling <span class="hlt">Routine</span> library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDG27004A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDG27004A"><span>Similarity Solution for High Weissenberg Number <span class="hlt">Flow</span> of Upper-Convected Maxwell Fluid on a <span class="hlt">Linearly</span> Stretching Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ashrafi, Nariman; Mohamadali, Meysam</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>High Weissenberg boundary layer <span class="hlt">flow</span> of viscoelastic fluids on a stretching surface has been studied. The <span class="hlt">flow</span> is considered to be steady, low inertial, and two-dimensional. Upon proper scaling and by means of an exact similarity transformation, the nonlinear momentum and constitutive equations of each layer transform into the respective system of highly nonlinear and coupled ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions to the resulting boundary value problem are obtained using an efficient shooting technique in conjunction with a variable stepping method for different values of pressure gradients. It is observed that, unlike the Newtonian <span class="hlt">flows</span>, in order to maintain a potential <span class="hlt">flow</span>, normal stresses must inevitably develop. The velocity field and stresses distributions over plate are presented for difference values of pressure gradient and Weissenberg numbers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JThSc..24...49G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JThSc..24...49G"><span>Aero-thermal performances of leakage <span class="hlt">flows</span> injection from the endwall slot in <span class="hlt">linear</span> cascade of high-pressure turbine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghopa, Wan Aizon W.; Harun, Zambri; Funazaki, Ken-ichi; Miura, Takemitsu</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The existence of a gap between combustor and turbine endwall in the real gas turbine induces to the leakages phenomenon. However, the leakages could be used as a coolant to protect the endwall surfaces from the hot gas since it could not be completely prevented. Thus, present study investigated the potential of leakage <span class="hlt">flows</span> as a function of film cooling. In present study, the <span class="hlt">flow</span> field at the downstream of high-pressure turbine blade has been investigated by 5-holes pitot tube. This is to reveal the aerodynamic performances under the influenced of leakage <span class="hlt">flows</span> while the temperature measurement was conducted by thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC). Experimental has significantly captured theaerodynamics effect of leakage <span class="hlt">flows</span> near the blade downstream. Furthermore, TLC measurement illustrated that the film cooling effectiveness contours were strongly influenced by the secondary <span class="hlt">flows</span> behavior on the endwall region. Aero-thermal results were validated by the numerical simulation adopted by commercial software, ANSYS CFX 13. Both experimental and numerical simulation indicated almost similar trendinaero and also thermal behavior as the amount of leakage <span class="hlt">flows</span> increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/calipso/tools/user_provided_routines','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/calipso/tools/user_provided_routines"><span>CALIPSO User-Provided <span class="hlt">Routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... data files. These <span class="hlt">routines</span> are written in Interactive Data Language (IDL). A README file demonstrating use of the <span class="hlt">routines</span> is also available. Interactive Data Language (IDL) is available from  Exelis Visual Information Solutions . ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15837496','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15837496"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability of a surfactant-laden annular film in a time-periodic pressure-driven <span class="hlt">flow</span> through a capillary.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wei, Hsien-Hung; Halpern, David; Grotberg, James B</p> <p>2005-05-15</p> <p>This paper analyzes the effect of surfactant on the <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of an annular film in a capillary undergoing a time-periodic pressure gradient force. The annular film is thin compared to the radius of the tube. An asymptotic analysis yields a coupled set of equations with time-periodic coefficients for the perturbed fluid-fluid interface and the interfacial surfactant concentration. Wei and Rumschitzki (submitted for publication) previously showed that the interaction between a surfactant and a steady base <span class="hlt">flow</span> could induce a more severe instability than a stationary base state. The present work demonstrates that time-periodic base <span class="hlt">flows</span> can modify the features of the steady-<span class="hlt">flow</span>-based instability, depending on surface tension, surfactant activity, and oscillatory frequency. For an oscillatory base <span class="hlt">flow</span> (with zero mean), the growth rate decreases monotonically as the frequency increases. In the low-frequency limit, the growth rate approaches a maximum corresponding to the growth rate of a steady base <span class="hlt">flow</span> having the same amplitude. In the high-frequency limit, the growth rate reaches a minimum corresponding to the growth rate in the limit of a stationary base state. The underlying mechanisms are explained in detail, and extension to other time-periodic forms is further exploited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMMM..417..189M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMMM..417..189M"><span>Numerical solutions for magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">flow</span> of nanofluid over a bidirectional non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> stretching surface with prescribed surface heat flux boundary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B. J.; Gorla, R. S. Reddy; Abbasi, F. M.; Shehzad, S. A.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Numerical solutions of three-dimensional <span class="hlt">flow</span> over a non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> stretching surface are developed in this article. An electrically conducting <span class="hlt">flow</span> of viscous nanoliquid is considered. Heat transfer phenomenon is accounted under thermal radiation, Joule heating and viscous dissipation effects. We considered the variable heat flux condition at the surface of sheet. The governing mathematical equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential systems through suitable dimensionless variables. A well-known shooting technique is implemented to obtain the results of dimensionless velocities and temperature. The obtained results are plotted for multiple values of pertinent parameters to discuss the salient features of these parameters on fluid velocity and temperature. The expressions of skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and analyzed comprehensively through numerical values. A comparison of present results with the previous results in absence of nanoparticle volume fraction, mixed convection and magnetic field is computed and an excellent agreement noticed. We also computed the results for both <span class="hlt">linear</span> and non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> stretching sheet cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NucFu..57h6047X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NucFu..57h6047X"><span>E  ×  B <span class="hlt">flow</span> shear drive of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> low-n modes of EHO in the QH-mode regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Wang, Y. F.; Wu, X. Q.; Chen, Xi; Peng, Y.-K. Martin; Guo, H. Y.; Burrell, K. H.; Garofalo, A. M.; Osborne, T. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Wang, H. Q.; Chen, R.; Yan, N.; Wang, L.; Ding, S. Y.; Shao, L. M.; Hu, G. H.; Li, Y. L.; Lan, H.; Yang, Q. Q.; Chen, L.; Ye, Y.; Xu, J. C.; Li, J.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>A new model for the edge harmonic oscillations (EHOs) in the quiescent H-mode regime has been developed, which successfully reproduces the recent observations in the DIII-D tokamak. In particular, at high E  ×  B <span class="hlt">flow</span> shear only a few low-n kink modes remain unstable at the plasma edge, consistent with the EHO behavior, while at low E  ×  B <span class="hlt">flow</span> shear, the unstable mode spectrum is significantly broadened, consistent with the low-n broadband electromagnetic turbulence behavior. The model is based on a new mechanism for destabilizing low-n kink/peeling modes by the E  ×  B <span class="hlt">flow</span> shear, which underlies the EHOs, separately from the previously found Kelvin-Helmholtz drive. We find that the differential advection of mode vorticity by sheared E  ×  B <span class="hlt">flows</span> modifies the 2D pattern of mode electrostatic potential perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, which in turn causes a radial expansion of the mode structure, an increase of field line bending away from the mode rational surface, and a reduction of inertial stabilization. This enhances the kink drive as the parallel wavenumber increases significantly away from the rational surface at the plasma edge where the magnetic shear is also strong. This destabilization is also shown to be independent of the sign of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> shear, as observed experimentally, and has not been taken into account in previous pedestal <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analyses. Verification of the veracity of this EHO mechanism will require analysis of the nonlinear evolution of low-n kink/peeling modes so destabilized in the <span class="hlt">linear</span> regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810000297&hterms=routine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Droutine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810000297&hterms=routine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Droutine"><span>Environmental-Analysis <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Library</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parker, K.; Torian, J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Program available from COSMIC contains library of <span class="hlt">routines</span> that simulate environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS). Through interactive dialogue with program, user selects <span class="hlt">routines</span> to be assembled into simulation of particular ECLSS under consideration. Program is modular, and allows addition of new <span class="hlt">routines</span> as they are required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ResPh...7..204B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ResPh...7..204B"><span>Effects of temperature dependent conductivity and absorptive/generative heat transfer on MHD three dimensional <span class="hlt">flow</span> of Williamson fluid due to bidirectional non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> stretching surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilal, S.; Khalil-ur-Rehman; Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif; Khan, Mair</p> <p></p> <p>Present work is communicated to identify characteristics of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional boundary layer <span class="hlt">flow</span> of Williamson fluid confined by a bidirectional stretched surface. Conductivity of working fluid is assumed to be temperature dependent. Generative/absorptive heat transfer is also taken into account. Mathematical model is formulated in the form of partial expressions and then transmuted into ordinary differential equations with the help of newfangled set of similarity transformations. The resulting non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> differential system of equations is solved numerically with the aid of Runge-Kutta algorithm supported by shooting method. <span class="hlt">Flow</span> features are exemplified quantitatively through graphs. Scintillating results for friction factor and convective heat transfer are computed and scrutinized tabularly. Furthermore, the accuracy of present results is tested with existing literature and we found an excellent agreement. It is inferred that velocity along x-direction mounts whereas along y-direction depreciates for incrementing values of stretching ratio parameter. Moreover, it is also elucidated that non-<span class="hlt">linearity</span> index tends to decrement the velocity and thermal distributions of fluid <span class="hlt">flow</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CoTPh..67..723R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CoTPh..67..723R"><span>Effects of Variable Thermal Conductivity and Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> Thermal Radiation Past an Eyring Powell Nanofluid <span class="hlt">Flow</span> with Chemical Reaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramzan, M.; Bilal, M.; Kanwal, Shamsa; Chung, Jae Dong</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Present analysis discusses the boundary layer <span class="hlt">flow</span> of Eyring Powell nanofluid past a constantly moving surface under the influence of nonlinear thermal radiation. Heat and mass transfer mechanisms are examined under the physically suitable convective boundary condition. Effects of variable thermal conductivity and chemical reaction are also considered. Series solutions of all involved distributions using Homotopy Analysis method (HAM) are obtained. Impacts of dominating embedded <span class="hlt">flow</span> parameters are discussed through graphical illustrations. It is observed that thermal radiation parameter shows increasing tendency in relation to temperature profile. However, chemical reaction parameter exhibits decreasing behavior versus concentration distribution. Supported by the World Class 300 Project (No. S2367878) of the SMBA (Korea)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JSV...228.1103A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JSV...228.1103A"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing <span class="hlt">Flowing</span> Fluid, Part II: Large-Amplitude Vibrations Without <span class="hlt">Flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>The non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> response of empty and fluid-filled circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitations is investigated. Both modal and point excitations have been considered. The model is suitable to study simply supported shells with and without axial constraints. Donnell's non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> shallow-shell theory is used. The boundary conditions on radial displacement and the continuity of circumferential displacement are exactly satisfied. The radial deflection of the shell is expanded by using a basis of seven <span class="hlt">linear</span> modes. The effect of internal quiescent, incompressible and inviscid fluid is investigated. The equations of motion, obtained in Part I of this study, are studied by using a code based on the collocation method. The validation of the present model is obtained by comparison with other authoritative results. The effect of the number of axisymmetric modes used in the expansion on the response of the shell is investigated, clarifying questions open for a long time. The results show the occurrence of travelling wave response in the proximity of the resonance frequency, the fundamental role of the first and third axisymmetric modes in the expansion of the radial deflection with one longitudinal half-wave, and limit cycle responses. Modes with two longitudinal half-waves are also investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IJNMF..28.1139B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IJNMF..28.1139B"><span>A Navier-Stokes solver for complex three-dimensional turbulent <span class="hlt">flows</span> adopting non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> modelling of the Reynolds stresses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Botte, V.; Tourlidakis, A.; Elder, R. L.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>A non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> modelling of the Reynolds stresses has been incorporated into a Navier-Stokes solver for complex three-dimensional geometries. A k- model, adopting a modelling of the turbulent transport which is not based on the eddy viscosity, has been written in generalised co-ordinates and solved with a finite volume approach, using both a GMRES solver and a direct solver for the solution of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> systems of equations. An additional term, quadratic in the main strain rate, has been introduced into the modelling of the Reynolds stresses to the basic Boussinesq's form; the corresponding constant has been evaluated through comparison with the experimental data. The computational procedure is implemented for the <span class="hlt">flow</span> analysis in a 90° square section bend and the obtained results show that with the non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> modelling a much better agreement with the measured data is obtained, both for the velocity and the pressure. The importance of the convection scheme is also discussed, showing how the effect of the non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> correction added to the Reynolds stresses is effectively hidden by the additional numerical diffusion introduced by a low-order convection scheme as the first-order upwind scheme, thus making the use of higher order schemes necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012036','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012036"><span>A <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Programming Approach to Routing Control in Networks of Constrained Nonlinear Positive Systems with Concave <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arneson, Heather M.; Dousse, Nicholas; Langbort, Cedric</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We consider control design for positive compartmental systems in which each compartment's outflow rate is described by a concave function of the amount of material in the compartment.We address the problem of determining the routing of material between compartments to satisfy time-varying state constraints while ensuring that material reaches its intended destination over a finite time horizon. We give sufficient conditions for the existence of a time-varying state-dependent routing strategy which ensures that the closed-loop system satisfies basic network properties of positivity, conservation and interconnection while ensuring that capacity constraints are satisfied, when possible, or adjusted if a solution cannot be found. These conditions are formulated as a <span class="hlt">linear</span> programming problem. Instances of this <span class="hlt">linear</span> programming problem can be solved iteratively to generate a solution to the finite horizon routing problem. Results are given for the application of this control design method to an example problem. Key words: <span class="hlt">linear</span> programming; control of networks; positive systems; controller constraints and structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DPPUP1068L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DPPUP1068L"><span>On the effect of a non-uniform longitudinal ion <span class="hlt">flow</span> on the <span class="hlt">linear</span> ITG mode stability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lontano, Maurizio; Lazzaro, Enzo; Varischetti, Maria Cecilia</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>A one-dimensional model for slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes, in the presence of an inhomogeneous equilibrium plasma velocity along the main magnetic field direction, has been formulated in the frame of a two-fluid guiding-center approximation. The physical effects of a magnetic field gradient and of the line curvature are included by means of a gravitational drift velocity. The magnetic shear across the plasma slab is also taken into account. The <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability of slow plasma dynamics, under the assumptions of quasi-neutrality and adiabatic electrons, is described by means of a third-degree dispersion relation. Generally speaking, the presence of a sheared longitudinal ion velocity leads to the <span class="hlt">linear</span> destabilization of the ITG modes, especially for flat equilibrium density profiles. Transverse quasi-<span class="hlt">linear</span> fluxes of ion thermal energy and longitudinal momentum are calculated for different equilibrium profiles of the density, temperature, momentum, and magnetic shear. Plasma configurations leading to zero transverse (or even negative) momentum fluxes are exploited and discussed in the light of their experimental implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdWR...96..127B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdWR...96..127B"><span>Stability analysis of unstructured finite volume methods for <span class="hlt">linear</span> shallow water <span class="hlt">flows</span> using pseudospectra and singular value decomposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beljadid, Abdelaziz; Mohammadian, Abdolmajid; Qiblawey, Hazim</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The discretization of the shallow water system on unstructured grids can lead to spurious modes which usually can affect accuracy and/or cause stability problems. This paper introduces a new approach for stability analysis of unstructured <span class="hlt">linear</span> finite volume schemes for <span class="hlt">linear</span> shallow water equations with the Coriolis Effect using spectra, pseudospectra, and singular value decomposition. The discrete operator of the scheme is the principal parameter used in the analysis. It is shown that unstructured grids have a large influence on operator normality. In some cases the eigenvectors of the operator can be far from orthogonal, which leads to amplification of solutions and/or stability problems. Large amplifications of the solution can be observed, even for discrete operators which respect the condition of asymptotic stability, and in some cases even for Lax-Richtmyer stable methods. The pseudospectra are shown to be efficient for the verification of stability of finite volume methods for <span class="hlt">linear</span> shallow water equations. In some cases, the singular value decomposition is employed for further analysis in order to provide more information about the existence of unstable modes. The results of the analysis can be helpful in choosing the type of mesh, the appropriate placements of the variables of the system on the grid, and the suitable discretization method which is stable for a wide range of modes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730002236','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730002236"><span>Modular thermal analyzer <span class="hlt">routine</span>, volume 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oren, J. A.; Phillips, M. A.; Williams, D. R.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The Modular Thermal Analyzer <span class="hlt">Routine</span> (MOTAR) is a general thermal analysis <span class="hlt">routine</span> with strong capabilities for performing thermal analysis of systems containing <span class="hlt">flowing</span> fluids, fluid system controls (valves, heat exchangers, etc.), life support systems, and thermal radiation situations. Its modular organization permits the analysis of a very wide range of thermal problems for simple problems containing a few conduction nodes to those containing complicated <span class="hlt">flow</span> and radiation analysis with each problem type being analyzed with peak computational efficiency and maximum ease of use. The organization and programming methods applied to MOTAR achieved a high degree of computer utilization efficiency in terms of computer execution time and storage space required for a given problem. The computer time required to perform a given problem on MOTAR is approximately 40 to 50 percent that required for the currently existing widely used <span class="hlt">routines</span>. The computer storage requirement for MOTAR is approximately 25 percent more than the most commonly used <span class="hlt">routines</span> for the most simple problems but the data storage techniques for the more complicated options should save a considerable amount of space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598557"><span>Drainage-system development in consecutive melt seasons at a polythermal, Arctic glacier, evaluated by <span class="hlt">flow</span>-recession analysis and <span class="hlt">linear</span>-reservoir simulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hodgkins, Richard; Cooper, Richard; Tranter, Martyn; Wadham, Jemma</p> <p>2013-07-26</p> <p>[1] The drainage systems of polythermal glaciers play an important role in high-latitude hydrology, and are determinants of ice <span class="hlt">flow</span> rate. <span class="hlt">Flow</span>-recession analysis and <span class="hlt">linear</span>-reservoir simulation of runoff time series are here used to evaluate seasonal and inter-annual variability in the drainage system of the polythermal Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard, in 1999 and 2000. <span class="hlt">Linear-flow</span> recessions are pervasive, with mean coefficients of a fast reservoir varying from 16 (1999) to 41 h (2000), and mean coefficients of an intermittent, slow reservoir varying from 54 (1999) to 114 h (2000). Drainage-system efficiency is greater overall in the first of the two seasons, the simplest explanation of which is more rapid depletion of the snow cover. Reservoir coefficients generally decline during each season (at 0.22 h d(-1) in 1999 and 0.52 h d(-1) in 2000), denoting an increase in drainage efficiency. However, coefficients do not exhibit a consistent relationship with discharge. Finsterwalderbreen therefore appears to behave as an intermediate case between temperate glaciers and other polythermal glaciers with smaller proportions of temperate ice. <span class="hlt">Linear</span>-reservoir runoff simulations exhibit limited sensitivity to a relatively wide range of reservoir coefficients, although the use of fixed coefficients in a spatially lumped model can generate significant subseasonal error. At Finsterwalderbreen, an ice-marginal channel with the characteristics of a fast reservoir, and a subglacial upwelling with the characteristics of a slow reservoir, both route meltwater to the terminus. This suggests that drainage-system components of significantly contrasting efficiencies can coexist spatially and temporally at polythermal glaciers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4282401','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4282401"><span>Drainage-system development in consecutive melt seasons at a polythermal, Arctic glacier, evaluated by <span class="hlt">flow</span>-recession analysis and <span class="hlt">linear</span>-reservoir simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hodgkins, Richard; Cooper, Richard; Tranter, Martyn; Wadham, Jemma</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>[1] The drainage systems of polythermal glaciers play an important role in high-latitude hydrology, and are determinants of ice <span class="hlt">flow</span> rate. <span class="hlt">Flow</span>-recession analysis and <span class="hlt">linear</span>-reservoir simulation of runoff time series are here used to evaluate seasonal and inter-annual variability in the drainage system of the polythermal Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard, in 1999 and 2000. <span class="hlt">Linear-flow</span> recessions are pervasive, with mean coefficients of a fast reservoir varying from 16 (1999) to 41 h (2000), and mean coefficients of an intermittent, slow reservoir varying from 54 (1999) to 114 h (2000). Drainage-system efficiency is greater overall in the first of the two seasons, the simplest explanation of which is more rapid depletion of the snow cover. Reservoir coefficients generally decline during each season (at 0.22 h d−1 in 1999 and 0.52 h d−1 in 2000), denoting an increase in drainage efficiency. However, coefficients do not exhibit a consistent relationship with discharge. Finsterwalderbreen therefore appears to behave as an intermediate case between temperate glaciers and other polythermal glaciers with smaller proportions of temperate ice. <span class="hlt">Linear</span>-reservoir runoff simulations exhibit limited sensitivity to a relatively wide range of reservoir coefficients, although the use of fixed coefficients in a spatially lumped model can generate significant subseasonal error. At Finsterwalderbreen, an ice-marginal channel with the characteristics of a fast reservoir, and a subglacial upwelling with the characteristics of a slow reservoir, both route meltwater to the terminus. This suggests that drainage-system components of significantly contrasting efficiencies can coexist spatially and temporally at polythermal glaciers. PMID:25598557</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJP..131..395E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJP..131..395E"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> heat and mass transfer in a MHD Homann nanofluid <span class="hlt">flow</span> through a porous medium with chemical reaction, heat generation and uniform inflow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>EL-Dabe, N. T.; Attia, H. A.; Essawy, M. A. I.; Ramadan, A. A.; Abdel-Hamid, A. H.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The steady MHD axisymmetric <span class="hlt">flow</span> of an incompressible viscous electrically conducting nanofluid impinging on a permeable plate is investigated with heat and mass transfer. An external uniform magnetic field as well as a uniform inflow, in the presence of either suction or injection, are applied normal to the plate. The effects of heat (generation/absorption) and chemical reaction have been accentuated. This study indicates the incorporated influence of both the thermophoresis phenomenon and the Brownian behavior. Numerical solutions for the governing non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> momentum, energy and nanoparticle equations have been obtained. The rates of heat and mass transfer are presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23659980','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23659980"><span>Investigations on the calculation of the third moments of elution peaks: II-<span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span> speed dependence of external mass transfer coefficient.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Hong; Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges</p> <p>2013-06-14</p> <p>This work is a systematic investigation of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> velocity dependence of the external mass transfer coefficient provided by fitting experimental results to the solution of the GR (General Rate) model that was previously derived. The second and third statistical moments of eluted peaks were measured at different <span class="hlt">flow</span> rates, under different experimental conditions and analyzed. The results of this analysis confirm the validity of this dependence under our current experimental conditions. The other mass transfer parameters provided by the GR model were determined. The variations of these parameters with the experimental conditions were measured. The results are discussed and interpreted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.CY003S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.CY003S"><span>Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">linear</span> instability in pressure-driven two-layer channel <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a Newtonian and a Herschel-Bulkley fluid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sahu, Kirti; Matar, Omar</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>We investigate the three-dimensional <span class="hlt">linear</span> characteristics of pressure-driven two-layer channel <span class="hlt">flow</span>, focussing on the range of parameters for which Squire's theorem does not exist, wherein a Newtonian fluid layer overlies a layer of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. The modified Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations in each layers are derived and solved using an efficient spectral collocation method. Our results demonstrate the presence of three-dimensional instabilities for situations where the square root of the viscosity ratio is larger than the thickness ratio of the two layers; these "interfacial" mode instabilities are also present when density stratification is destabilising. These results may be of particular interest to researchers studying the transient growth and nonlinear stability of two-fluid <span class="hlt">flows</span>. We also show that the "shear" modes, which are present at sufficiently large Reynolds numbers, are most unstable to two-dimensional disturbances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhFl...22k2103S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhFl...22k2103S"><span>Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">linear</span> instability in pressure-driven two-layer channel <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a Newtonian and a Herschel-Bulkley fluid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sahu, K. C.; Matar, O. K.</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The three-dimensional <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability characteristics of pressure-driven two-layer channel <span class="hlt">flow</span> are considered, wherein a Newtonian fluid layer overlies a layer of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. We focus on the parameter ranges for which Squire's theorem for the two-layer Newtonian problem does not exist. The modified Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations in each layer are derived and solved using an efficient spectral collocation method. Our results demonstrate the presence of three-dimensional instabilities for situations where the square root of the viscosity ratio is larger than the thickness ratio of the two layers; these "interfacial" mode instabilities are also present when density stratification is destabilizing. These results may be of particular interest to researchers studying the transient growth and nonlinear stability of two-fluid non-Newtonian <span class="hlt">flows</span>. We also show that the "shear" modes, which are present at sufficiently large Reynolds numbers, are most unstable to two-dimensional disturbances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22688018','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22688018"><span>A <span class="hlt">flowing</span> liquid test system for assessing the <span class="hlt">linearity</span> and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D</p> <p>2012-08-15</p> <p>The development of a methodology for testing the time response, <span class="hlt">linearity</span> and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. <span class="hlt">Flow</span> from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in <span class="hlt">flowing</span> saline and stored blood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870049982&hterms=air+instability&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dair%2Binstability','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870049982&hterms=air+instability&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dair%2Binstability"><span>The evolution of instabilities in the axisymmetric jet. I - The <span class="hlt">linear</span> growth of disturbances near the nozzle. II - The <span class="hlt">flow</span> resulting from the interaction between two waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, J.; Wygnanski, I.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The modal distribution of coherent structures evolving near the nozzle of a circular jet was studied experimentally and theoretically, with particular attention given to the effects produced on the instability modes by transverse curvature, <span class="hlt">flow</span> divergence, inhomogeneous inflow conditions, and the detailed shape of the mean velocity profile. Experiments were performed using a specially constructed air-jet facility; hot-wire anemometers were used in conjunction with Disa Model 55P11 sensors for <span class="hlt">flow</span> measurements. The <span class="hlt">linear</span> model used as a transfer function is capable of predicting the spectral distribution of the velocity perturbations in a jet. Consideration was also given to studies of leading nonlinear interactions generated by waves externally superimposed on an axisymmetric jet; theoretical predictions were verified experimentally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.H52A..01E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.H52A..01E"><span>Simulation of <span class="hlt">Linear-Flow</span> Behavior Surrounding Large-Discharge Springs in the Great Valley Cambro-Ordovician Aquifer, West Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Early, J. S.; Donovan, J. J.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>The Cambro-Ordovician carbonate aquifer in the Great Valley Region of Berkeley and Jefferson counties, West Virginia, is highly productive but threatened by acute water quality degradation as a result of rapid population growth. A regional-scale equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was developed using MODFLOW and MODPATH to simulate <span class="hlt">flow</span> in the vicinity of high-discharge springs and community wells. The simulation approach was to develop an initial simplistic steady-state EPM solution using uniform K values distributed by surface-exposed geologic formation, consistent with a large calibration dataset; then this calibrated solution would be adjusted to address local issues involving large-scale heterogeneity, inferred in past studies. The initial simulation employed no anisotropy although its sensitivity was evaluated. A large database of springflows, surface-water baseflow, and target wells was available for calibration. The simulations were calibrated using two independent datasets: 1) hydraulic heads in wells, specifying <span class="hlt">flows</span> at springs, and 2) estimated long-term average spring <span class="hlt">flows</span>, specifying heads at springs. These calibrations did not agree; the first method produced excessive drawdowns around springs, while the second yielded very high K values and extremely low hydraulic gradients. The constant-flux method for springs was deemed more consistent with field reality but required implementation of high-contrast heterogeneity in the vicinity of springs, but not wells, to eliminate anomalous drawdown. A <span class="hlt">linear</span> series of high-K zones was added to simulate suspected karst fracture zones and/or conduits; however, the orientation, style, and location of <span class="hlt">linear-flow</span> zones are unknown. Simulation of variations in position and orientation of high-K karst zones shows that distinctive head patterns and transient discharge behavior may result from size, length, and relative K contrast of such zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJNMF..24..441B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJNMF..24..441B"><span>Mixed Transform Finite Element Method for Solving the Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Equation for <span class="hlt">Flow</span> in Variably Saturated Porous Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baca, R. G.; Chung, J. N.; Mulla, D. J.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>A new computational method is developed for numerical solution of the Richards equation for <span class="hlt">flow</span> in variably saturated porous media. The new method, referred to as the mixed transform finite element method, employs the mixed formulation of the Richards equation but expressed in terms of a partitioned transform. An iterative finite element algorithm is derived using a Newton-Galerkin weak statement. Specific advantages of the new method are demonstrated with applications to a set of one- dimensional test problems. Comparisons with the modified Picard method show that the new method produces more robust solutions for a broad range of soil- moisture regimes, including <span class="hlt">flow</span> in desiccated soils, in heterogeneous media and in layered soils with formation of perched water zones. In addition, the mixed transform finite element method is shown to converge faster than the modified Picard method in a number of cases and to accurately represent pressure head and moisture content profiles with very steep fronts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19518522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19518522"><span>Ultradiscrete optimal velocity model: a cellular-automaton model for traffic <span class="hlt">flow</span> and <span class="hlt">linear</span> instability of high-flux traffic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kanai, Masahiro; Isojima, Shin; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Tokihiro, Tetsuji</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, we propose the ultradiscrete optimal velocity model, a cellular-automaton model for traffic <span class="hlt">flow</span>, by applying the ultradiscrete method for the optimal velocity model. The optimal velocity model, defined by a differential equation, is one of the most important models; in particular, it successfully reproduces the instability of high-flux traffic. It is often pointed out that there is a close relation between the optimal velocity model and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mkdV) equation, a soliton equation. Meanwhile, the ultradiscrete method enables one to reduce soliton equations to cellular automata which inherit the solitonic nature, such as an infinite number of conservation laws, and soliton solutions. We find that the theory of soliton equations is available for generic differential equations and the simulation results reveal that the model obtained reproduces both absolutely unstable and convectively unstable <span class="hlt">flows</span> as well as the optimal velocity model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvE..79e6108K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvE..79e6108K"><span>Ultradiscrete optimal velocity model: A cellular-automaton model for traffic <span class="hlt">flow</span> and <span class="hlt">linear</span> instability of high-flux traffic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanai, Masahiro; Isojima, Shin; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Tokihiro, Tetsuji</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, we propose the ultradiscrete optimal velocity model, a cellular-automaton model for traffic <span class="hlt">flow</span>, by applying the ultradiscrete method for the optimal velocity model. The optimal velocity model, defined by a differential equation, is one of the most important models; in particular, it successfully reproduces the instability of high-flux traffic. It is often pointed out that there is a close relation between the optimal velocity model and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mkdV) equation, a soliton equation. Meanwhile, the ultradiscrete method enables one to reduce soliton equations to cellular automata which inherit the solitonic nature, such as an infinite number of conservation laws, and soliton solutions. We find that the theory of soliton equations is available for generic differential equations and the simulation results reveal that the model obtained reproduces both absolutely unstable and convectively unstable <span class="hlt">flows</span> as well as the optimal velocity model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JSV...237..617A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JSV...237..617A"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing <span class="hlt">Flowing</span> Fluid. Part Iii: Truncation Effect Without <span class="hlt">Flow</span> and Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>The response of simply supported circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of one of the lowest natural frequencies is investigated by using improved mode expansions with respect to those assumed in Parts I and II of the present study. Two cases are studied: (1) shells in vacuo; and (2) shells filled with stagnant water. The improved expansions allow checking the accuracy of the solutions previously obtained and giving definitive results within the limits of Donnell's non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> shallow-shell theory. The improved mode expansions include: (1) harmonics of the circumferential mode number n under consideration, and (2) only the principal n, but with harmonics of the longitudinal mode included. The effect of additional longitudinal modes is absolutely insignificant in both the driven and companion mode responses. The effect of modes with 2 n circumferential waves is very limited on the trend of non-<span class="hlt">linearity</span>, but is significant in the response with companion mode participation in the case of lightly damped shells (empty shells). In particular, the travelling wave response appears for much lower vibration amplitudes and presents a frequency range without stable responses, corresponding to a beating phenomenon. A liquid (water) contained in the shell generates a much stronger softening behaviour of the system. Experiments with a water-filled circular cylindrical shell made of steel are in very good agreement with the present theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15046472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15046472"><span>Standard, <span class="hlt">routine</span> and non-<span class="hlt">routine</span> processes in health care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lillrank, Paul; Liukko, Matti</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Quality management methods have been introduced into health care with variable success. Industrial approaches, such as standardization, are not always applicable professional services, because of fundamental differences in conceptions of aims and the predictability of the results of action. Processes in health care can be classified into standard, <span class="hlt">routine</span> and non-<span class="hlt">routine</span> depending on the level of repetition and amount of variation, variety and uncertainty. Quality problems are different in each type: standard processes may produce deviations from targets, <span class="hlt">routines</span> errors in classification, and non-<span class="hlt">routines</span> failures in interpretation. Different management approaches for each type are discussed. A metaphor to assist discussion, The Broom, is introduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod.107...64B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod.107...64B"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> and nonlinear properties of reduced two-layer models for non-hydrostatic free-surface <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bai, Yefei; Cheung, Kwok Fai</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A two-layer model with uniform non-hydrostatic pressure in the bottom produces favorable dispersion properties for coastal wave transformation at the computational requirements of a one-layer model. We derive the nonlinear governing equations and the corresponding dispersion relation, shoaling gradient, and super- and sub-harmonics to understand the theoretical performance of this reduced model. With the layer interface near the bottom, the dispersion relation shows an extended applicable range into deeper water at the expense of a slight overestimation of the celerity in intermediate water depth. The shoaling gradient rapidly converges to the exact solution in the shallow and intermediate depth range. These complementary characteristics allow identification of an optimal interface position for both <span class="hlt">linear</span> wave properties. The resulting model exhibits good nonlinear performance in shallow and intermediate water depth and produces super- and sub-harmonics comparable to a two-layer model. Numerical tests involving standing waves show the reduced model has smaller discretization errors in the dispersion relation comparing to a one-layer model. Case studies of regular wave transformation over a submerged bar and a uniform slope provide comparison with laboratory data and demonstrate the <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear properties derived from the governing equations. The good shoaling and nonlinear properties give rise to accurate waveforms in both cases, while dispersion errors from the governing equations and numerical schemes accumulate over time leading to phase shifts of the modeled waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA109487','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA109487"><span>LINOPT: A FORTRAN <span class="hlt">Routine</span> for Solving <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Programming Problems,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-10-09</p> <p>MD 20910 2R44EA501 I I. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO AOORESS 12. REPORT DATE 9 October 1981 ’I. NUMBER OF PAGES 46 11. MONITORING AGENCY NAME...block /XXXLP/, which must accordingly be a common block in the calling program. ROUNDOFF CONTROL In the program there are three input variables which...can be used to control roundoff error accummulations. EPS is a tolerance used in checking constraint violations. H is also used to zero out</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880056488&hterms=Film+theory&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DFilm%2Btheory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880056488&hterms=Film+theory&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DFilm%2Btheory"><span>A new <span class="hlt">linearized</span> theory of laminar film condensation of two phase annular <span class="hlt">flow</span> in a capillary pumped loop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hsu, Y. K.; Swanson, T.; Mcintosh, R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Future large space based facilities, such as Space Station, will require energy management systems capable of transporting tens of kilowatts of heat over a hundred meters or more. This represents better than an order of magnitude improvement over current technology. Two-phase thermal systems are currently being developed to meet this challenge. Condensation heat transfer plays a very important role in this system. The present study attempts an analytic solution to the set of <span class="hlt">linearized</span> partial differential equations. The axial velocity and temperature functions were found to be Bessel functions which have oscillatory behavior. This result agrees qualitatively with the experimental evidence from tests at both NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880056488&hterms=bessel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dbessel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880056488&hterms=bessel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dbessel"><span>A new <span class="hlt">linearized</span> theory of laminar film condensation of two phase annular <span class="hlt">flow</span> in a capillary pumped loop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hsu, Y. K.; Swanson, T.; Mcintosh, R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Future large space based facilities, such as Space Station, will require energy management systems capable of transporting tens of kilowatts of heat over a hundred meters or more. This represents better than an order of magnitude improvement over current technology. Two-phase thermal systems are currently being developed to meet this challenge. Condensation heat transfer plays a very important role in this system. The present study attempts an analytic solution to the set of <span class="hlt">linearized</span> partial differential equations. The axial velocity and temperature functions were found to be Bessel functions which have oscillatory behavior. This result agrees qualitatively with the experimental evidence from tests at both NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25448535','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25448535"><span>Electron-transfer kinetics in cyanobacterial cells: methyl viologen is a poor inhibitor of <span class="hlt">linear</span> electron <span class="hlt">flow</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sétif, Pierre</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The inhibitor methyl viologen (MV) has been widely used in photosynthesis to study oxidative stress. Its effects on electron transfer kinetics in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cells were studied to characterize its electron-accepting properties. For the first hundreds of flashes following MV addition at submillimolar concentrations, the kinetics of NADPH formation were hardly modified (less than 15% decrease in signal amplitude) with a significant signal decrease only observed after more flashes or continuous illumination. The dependence of the P700 photooxidation kinetics on the MV concentration exhibited a saturation effect at 0.3 mM MV, a concentration which inhibits the recombination reactions in photosystem I. The kinetics of NADPH formation and decay under continuous light with MV at 0.3 mM showed that MV induces the oxidation of the NADP pool in darkness and that the yield of <span class="hlt">linear</span> electron transfer decreased by only 50% after 1.5-2 photosystem-I turnovers. The unexpectedly poor efficiency of MV in inhibiting NADPH formation was corroborated by in vitro flash-induced absorption experiments with purified photosystem-I, ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP(+)-oxidoreductase. These experiments showed that the second-order rate constants of MV reduction are 20 to 40-fold smaller than the competing rate constants involved in reduction of ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP(+)-oxidoreductase. The present study shows that MV, which accepts electrons in vivo both at the level of photosystem-I and ferredoxin, can be used at submillimolar concentrations to inhibit recombination reactions in photosystem-I with only a moderate decrease in the efficiency of fast reactions involved in <span class="hlt">linear</span> electron transfer and possibly cyclic electron transfer.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JFS....22..557L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JFS....22..557L"><span>Modal analysis of measurements from a large-scale VIV model test of a riser in <span class="hlt">linearly</span> sheared <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lie, H.; Kaasen, K. E.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Large-scale model testing of a tensioned steel riser in well-defined sheared current was performed at Hanøytangen outside Bergen, Norway in 1997. The length of the model was 90 m and the diameter was 3 cm. The aim of the present work is to look into this information and try to improve the understanding of vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) for cases with very high order of responding modes, and in particular to study if and under which circumstances the riser motions would be single-mode or multi-mode. The measurement system consisted of 29 biaxial gauges for bending moment. The signals are processed to yield curvature and displacement and further to identify modes of vibration. A modal approach is used successfully employing a combination of signal filtering and least-squares fitting of precalculated mode-shapes. As a part of the modal analysis, it is demonstrated that the equally spaced instrumentation limited the maximum mode number to be extracted to be equal to the number of instrumentation locations. This imposed a constraint on the analysis of in-line (IL) vibration, which occurs at higher frequencies and involves higher modes than cross-<span class="hlt">flow</span> (CF). The analysis has shown that in general the riser response was irregular (i.e. broad-banded) and that the degree of irregularity increases with the <span class="hlt">flow</span> speed. In some tests distinct spectral peaks could be seen, corresponding to a dominating mode. No occurrences of single-mode (lock-in) were seen. The IL response is more broad-banded than the CF response and contains higher frequencies. The average value of the displacement r.m.s over the length of the riser is computed to indicate the magnitude of VIV motion during one test. In the CF direction the average displacement is typically 1/4 of the diameter, almost independent of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> speed. For the IL direction the values are in the range 0.05 0.08 of the diameter. The peak frequency taken from the spectra of the CF displacement at riser midpoint show approximately</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012KARJ...24...11Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012KARJ...24...11Y"><span>A comparison study on high-order bounded schemes: <span class="hlt">Flow</span> of PTT-<span class="hlt">linear</span> fluid in a lid-driven square cavity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yapici, Kerim</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>In this computational study, the convergence, stability and order of accuracy of several different numerical schemes are assessed and compared. All of the schemes considered were developed using a normalized variable diagram. Two test cases are considered: (1) two-dimensional steady incompressible laminar <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a Newtonian fluid in a square lid-driven cavity; and (2) creeping <span class="hlt">flow</span> of a PTT-<span class="hlt">linear</span> fluid in a lid-driven square cavity. The governing equations are discretized to varying degrees of refinement using uniform grids, and solved by using the finite volume technique. The momentum interpolation method (MIM) is employed to evaluate the face velocity. Coupled mass and momentum conservation equations are solved through an iterative SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation) algorithm. Among the higher-order and bounded schemes considered in the present study, only the CLAM, COPLA, CUBISTA, NOTABLE, SMART and WACEB schemes provide a steady converged solution to the prescribed tolerance of 1×10-5 at all studied Weissenberg ( We) numbers, using a very fine mesh structure. It is found that the CLAM, COPLA, CUBISTA, SMART and WACEB schemes provide about the same order of accuracy that is slightly higher than that of the NOTABLE scheme at low and high Weissenberg numbers. Moreover, <span class="hlt">flow</span> structures formed in the cavity, i.e. primary vortex, are captured accurately up to We = 5 by all converged schemes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880000187&hterms=algebra&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dalgebra','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880000187&hterms=algebra&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dalgebra"><span>Ada <span class="hlt">Linear</span>-Algebra Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Routines</span> provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include <span class="hlt">linear</span>-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/calipso/tools/read_calipso_altitudes','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/calipso/tools/read_calipso_altitudes"><span>Lidar Altitude Data Read <span class="hlt">Routine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-19</p> <p>... Profile products. It is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) and uses HDF <span class="hlt">routine</span> calls to read the altitude data which are ... Data Read <span class="hlt">routine</span>  (1.5 KB) Interactive Data Language (IDL) is available from  Exelis Visual Information Solutions . ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070010029','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070010029"><span>Documentation and Control of <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Separation on a Low Pressure Turbine <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Cascade of Pak-B Blades Using Plasma Actuators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Corke, Thomas c.; Thomas, FLint, O.; Huang, Junhui</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This work involved the documentation and control of <span class="hlt">flow</span> separation that occurs over low pressure turbine (LPT) blades at low Reynolds numbers. A specially constructed <span class="hlt">linear</span> cascade was utilized to study the <span class="hlt">flow</span> field over a generic LPT cascade consisting of Pratt & Whitney "Pak-B" shaped blades. <span class="hlt">Flow</span> visualization, surface pressure measurements, LDV measurements, and hot-wire anemometry were conducted to examine the <span class="hlt">flow</span> fields with and without separation control. Experimental conditions were chosen to give a range of chord Reynolds numbers (based on axial chord and inlet velocity) from 10,000 to 100,000, and a range of freestream turbulence intensities from u'/U(infinity) = 0.08 to 2.85 percent. The blade pressure distributions were measured and used to identify the region of separation that depends on Reynolds number and the turbulence intensity. Separation control was performed using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators. Both steady and unsteady actuation were implemented and found to work well. The comparison between the steady and unsteady actuators showed that the unsteady actuators worked better than the steady ones. For the steady actuators, it was found that the separated region is significantly reduced. For the unsteady actuators, where the signal was pulsed, the separation was eliminated. The total pressure losses (a low Reynolds number) was reduced by approximately a factor of two. It was also found that lowest plasma duty cycle (10 percent in this work) was as effective as the highest plasma duty cycle (50 percent in this work). The mechanisms of the steady and unsteady plasma actuators were studied. It was suggested by the experimental results that the mechanism for the steady actuators is turbulence tripping, while the mechanism for the unsteady actuators is to generate a train of spanwise structures that promote mixing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23411327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23411327"><span>Determination of tartrazine in beverage samples by stopped-<span class="hlt">flow</span> analysis and three-way multivariate calibration of non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> kinetic-spectrophotometric data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schenone, Agustina V; Culzoni, María J; Marsili, Nilda R; Goicoechea, Héctor C</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The performance of MCR-ALS was studied in the modeling of non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> kinetic-spectrophotometric data acquired by a stopped-<span class="hlt">flow</span> system for the quantitation of tartrazine in the presence of brilliant blue and sunset yellow FCF as possible interferents. In the present work, MCR-ALS and U-PCA/RBL were firstly applied to remove the contribution of unexpected components not included in the calibration set. Secondly, a polynomial function was used to model the non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> data obtained by the implementation of the algorithms. MCR-ALS was the only strategy that allowed the determination of tartrazine in test samples accurately. Therefore, it was applied for the analysis of tartrazine in beverage samples with minimum sample preparation and short analysis time. The proposed method was validated by comparison with a chromatographic procedure published in the literature. Mean recovery values between 98% and 100% and relative errors of prediction values between 4% and 9% were indicative of the good performance of the method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhD...45a5101F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhD...45a5101F"><span>Microcrystalline thin-film solar cell deposition on moving substrates using a <span class="hlt">linear</span> VHF-PECVD reactor and a cross-<span class="hlt">flow</span> geometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flikweert, A. J.; Zimmermann, T.; Merdzhanova, T.; Weigand, D.; Appenzeller, W.; Gordijn, A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A concept for high-rate plasma deposition (PECVD) of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon on moving substrates (dynamic deposition) is developed and evaluated. The chamber allows for substrates up to a size of 40 × 40 cm2. The deposition plasma is sustained between <span class="hlt">linear</span> VHF electrodes (60 MHz) and a moving substrate. Due to the gas <span class="hlt">flow</span> geometry and the high degree of source gas depletion, from the carrier's point of view the silane concentration varies when passing the electrodes. This is known to lead to different growth conditions which can induce transitions from microcrystalline to amorphous growth. The effect of different silane concentrations is simulated at a standard RF showerhead electrode by intentionally varying the silane concentration during deposition in static mode. This variation may decrease the layer quality of microcrystalline silicon, due to a shift of the crystallinity away from the optimum. However, adapting the input silane concentration, state-of-the-art solar cells are obtained. Microcrystalline cells (ZnO : Al/Ag back contacts) produced by the <span class="hlt">linear</span> VHF plasma sources show an efficiency of 7.9% and 6.6% for depositions in static and dynamic mode, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OptEn..56g5104K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OptEn..56g5104K"><span>Two-phase coating <span class="hlt">flows</span> of a non-Newtonian fluid with <span class="hlt">linearly</span> varying temperature at the boundaries-an exact solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khan, Zeeshan; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Khan, Ilyas; Islam, Saeed; Siddiqui, Nasir</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>We have explored double-layer-coated fiber optics using two-phase immiscible non-Newtonian fluid as a polymeric material. We have considered two layers, the first layer is assumed of soft material and the second consists of hard material. Resin <span class="hlt">flows</span> are driven by fast-moving glass fiber and the pressurization at the coating die inlet. Two cases of temperature <span class="hlt">linearly</span> varying at the boundaries have been discussed. The assumption of fully developed <span class="hlt">flow</span> of non-Newtonian fluid permits an exact solution to the Navier-Stokes equations. The thickness of the secondary coating resin and the shear stress on the glass fiber, which are two basic output variables of practical concern, have been examined by several input parameters: two geometric parameters, i.e., radius of the glass fiber Rw and radius of the coating die Rd; two operational parameters, i.e., the velocity ratio U and power indices n1,2; the non-Newtonian parameter S1,2; and the nondimensional parameters H and ϕ. The comparison of the present work with published result predicts the close agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/254958','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/254958"><span>Collective communication <span class="hlt">routines</span> in PVM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Donato, J.M.; Geist, G.A.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>The collective communication <span class="hlt">routines</span> of scatter, gather, and reduce are frequently implemented as part of the native library for parallel architectures. These operations have been implemented in PVM for use among a heterogeneous system of workstations and parallel computers forming a virtual parallel machine. In the case of the Intel Paragon machines, the PVM implementation of the reduce operation utilizes the corresponding native mode library <span class="hlt">routines</span> whenever possible. This paper describes the implementation of these collective communication <span class="hlt">routines</span> in PVM including the utilization of the Intel Paragon native mode operations. Performance data is also given comparing the use of the native Intel Paragon collective <span class="hlt">routines</span> and the PVM implementation on top of these <span class="hlt">routines</span> on a dedicated Intel Paragon. For our timing results an average latency of 109 {mu}s is incurred using PVM as compared to the native Intel global sum <span class="hlt">routine</span>. This extra startup is independent of the size of the message being sent and the number of nodes in the group. It is demonstrated that the use of static groups is preferable in time efficiency over the use of dynamic groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA160481','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA160481"><span><span class="hlt">Routines</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-05-01</p> <p>Melser and Michie (1970), 135-151. Sacerdoti, Earl D, [1977], A structure for plans and behavior, Elsevier. * Sartre , Jean - Paul , [1976], Critique of...theorem proving to problem solving," Artificial Intelligence, 2 (3) 189-208. Fitts, Paul M and Michael I Posner, [1967], Human performance, Brooks/Cole...Laing, R D and A Esterson, [1964], Sanity, Madness, and the Family, Tavistock. Laird, John E, Paul Rosenbloom, and Allen Newell, [1984], Towards</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20082768','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20082768"><span>Modeling the performance of "up-<span class="hlt">flow</span> anaerobic sludge blanket" reactor based wastewater treatment plant using <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear approaches--a case study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Kunwar P; Basant, Nikita; Malik, Amrita; Jain, Gunja</p> <p>2010-01-18</p> <p>The paper describes <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear modeling of the wastewater data for the performance evaluation of an up-<span class="hlt">flow</span> anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Partial least squares regression (PLSR), multivariate polynomial regression (MPR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) modeling methods were applied to predict the levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the UASB reactor effluents using four input variables measured weekly in the influent wastewater during the peak (morning and evening) and non-peak (noon) hours over a period of 48 weeks. The performance of the models was assessed through the root mean squared error (RMSE), relative error of prediction in percentage (REP), the bias, the standard error of prediction (SEP), the coefficient of determination (R(2)), the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (E(f)), and the accuracy factor (A(f)), computed from the measured and model predicted values of the dependent variables (BOD, COD) in the WWTP effluents. Goodness of the model fit to the data was also evaluated through the relationship between the residuals and the model predicted values of BOD and COD. Although, the model predicted values of BOD and COD by all the three modeling approaches (PLSR, MPR, ANN) were in good agreement with their respective measured values in the WWTP effluents, the nonlinear models (MPR, ANNs) performed relatively better than the <span class="hlt">linear</span> ones. These models can be used as a tool for the performance evaluation of the WWTPs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6442344','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6442344"><span>Prediction of <span class="hlt">flow</span> rates through an orifice at pressures corresponding to the transition between molecular and isentropic <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DeMuth, S.F.; Watson, J.S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A model of compressible <span class="hlt">flow</span> through an orifice, in the region of transition from free molecular to isentropic expansion <span class="hlt">flow</span>, has been developed and tested for accuracy. The transitional or slip regime is defined as the conditions where molecular interactions are too many for free molecular <span class="hlt">flow</span> modeling, yet not great enough for isentropic expansion <span class="hlt">flow</span> modeling. Due to a lack of literature establishing a well-accepted model for predicting transitional <span class="hlt">flow</span>, it was felt such work would be beneficial. The model is nonlinear and cannot be satisfactorily <span class="hlt">linearized</span> for a <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression analysis. Consequently, a computer <span class="hlt">routine</span> was developed which minimized the sum of the squares of the residual <span class="hlt">flow</span> for the nonlinear model. The results indicate an average accuracy within 15% of the measured <span class="hlt">flow</span> throughout the range of test conditions. Furthermore, the results of the regression analysis indicate that the transitional regime lies between Knudsen numbers of approximately 2 and 45. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7351H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7351H"><span>Balancing the (carbon) budget: Using <span class="hlt">linear</span> inverse models to estimate carbon <span class="hlt">flows</span> and mass-balance 13C:15N labelling experiments in low oxygen sediments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hunter, William Ross; Van Oevelen, Dick; Witte, Ursula</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Over 1 million km2 of seafloor experience permanent low-oxygen conditions within oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). OMZs are predicted to grow as a consequence of climate change, potentially affecting oceanic biogeochemical cycles. The Arabian Sea OMZ impinges upon the western Indian continental margin at bathyal depths (150 - 1500m) producing a strong depth dependent oxygen gradient at the sea floor. The influence of the OMZ upon the short term processing of organic matter by sediment ecosystems was investigated using in situ stable isotope pulse chase experiments. These deployed doses of 13C:15N labeled organic matter onto the sediment surface at four stations from across the OMZ (water depth 540 - 1100 m; [O2] = 0.35 - 15 μM). In order to prevent experimentally anoxia, the mesocosms were not sealed. 13C and 15N labels were traced into sediment, bacteria, fauna and 13C into sediment porewater DIC and DOC. However, the DIC and DOC flux to the water column could not be measured, limiting our capacity to obtain mass-balance for C in each experimental mesocosm. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Inverse Modeling (LIM) provides a method to obtain a mass-balanced model of carbon <span class="hlt">flow</span> that integrates stable-isotope tracer data with community biomass and biogeochemical flux data from a range of sources. Here we present an adaptation of the LIM methodology used to investigate how ecosystem structure influenced carbon <span class="hlt">flow</span> across the Indian margin OMZ. We demonstrate how oxygen conditions affect food-web complexity, affecting the linkages between the bacteria, foraminifera and metazoan fauna, and their contributions to benthic respiration. The food-web models demonstrate how changes in ecosystem complexity are associated with oxygen availability across the OMZ and allow us to obtain a complete carbon budget for the stationa where stable-isotope labelling experiments were conducted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840019629','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840019629"><span>PAN AIR: A computer program for predicting subsonic or supersonic <span class="hlt">linear</span> potential <span class="hlt">flows</span> about arbitrary configurations using a higher order panel method. Volume 1: Theory document (version 1.1)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Magnus, A. E.; Epton, M. A.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Panel aerodynamics (PAN AIR) is a system of computer programs designed to analyze subsonic and supersonic inviscid <span class="hlt">flows</span> about arbitrary configurations. A panel method is a program which solves a <span class="hlt">linear</span> partial differential equation by approximating the configuration surface by a set of panels. An overview of the theory of potential <span class="hlt">flow</span> in general and PAN AIR in particular is given along with detailed mathematical formulations. Fluid dynamics, the Navier-Stokes equation, and the theory of panel methods were also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1114561','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1114561"><span>How to Handle '<span class="hlt">Routine</span>' Inspections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chris T. Brown</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Nondestructive examination (NDE) utilized for preservice or inservice inspection provides valuable information relating to the quality and integrity of fabricated components. This document describes the importance of detailed preparation for nondestructive examination regardless of the complexity, periodicity or <span class="hlt">routine</span> nature of the examinations/inspections being performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790024441','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790024441"><span>A fast <span class="hlt">routine</span> for computing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jayroe, R. R., Jr.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">routine</span> for calculating multidimensional histograms of multivariate data using a combination table look up and search procedure is described. The software was originally developed to computer four-dimensional histograms from LANDSAT multispectral imagery, but the concept can be used on other types of data and the program can be modified for the desired type of output information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=industrial+AND+psychology&pg=5&id=EJ801689','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=industrial+AND+psychology&pg=5&id=EJ801689"><span>Learning <span class="hlt">Routines</span> in Innovation Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hoeve, Aimee; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This paper aims to generate both a theoretical and an empirical basis for a research model that serves in further research as an analytical tool for understanding the complex phenomenon of learning at different levels in a work organisation. The key concept in this model is the <span class="hlt">routine</span> concept of Nelson and Winter.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=multidisciplinary+AND+team+AND+review&pg=4&id=EJ801689','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=multidisciplinary+AND+team+AND+review&pg=4&id=EJ801689"><span>Learning <span class="hlt">Routines</span> in Innovation Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hoeve, Aimee; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This paper aims to generate both a theoretical and an empirical basis for a research model that serves in further research as an analytical tool for understanding the complex phenomenon of learning at different levels in a work organisation. The key concept in this model is the <span class="hlt">routine</span> concept of Nelson and Winter.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/tools/misr_ascii','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/tools/misr_ascii"><span>MISR Conversion to ASCII <span class="hlt">Routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... These <span class="hlt">routines</span> are written in Exelis Visual Information Solutions IDL programming language. They can be run either with a licensed ... with IDL and is available from  Exelis Visual Information Solutions . The IDL VM software can be downloaded from this site or ordered ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940003155&hterms=method+scientist&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmethod%2Bscientist','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940003155&hterms=method+scientist&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmethod%2Bscientist"><span>MATHEMATICAL <span class="hlt">ROUTINES</span> FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kantak, A. V.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this package is to provide the scientific and engineering community with a library of programs useful for performing <span class="hlt">routine</span> mathematical manipulations. This collection of programs will enable scientists to concentrate on their work without having to write their own <span class="hlt">routines</span> for solving common problems, thus saving considerable amounts of time. This package contains sixteen subroutines. Each is separately documented with descriptions of the invoking subroutine call, its required parameters, and a sample test program. The functions available include: maxima, minima, and sort of vectors; factorials; random number generator (uniform or Gaussian distribution); complimentary error function; fast Fourier Transformation; Simpson's Rule integration; matrix determinate and inversion; Bessel function (J Bessel function for any order, and modified Bessel function for zero order); roots of a polynomial; roots of non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> equation; and the solution of first order ordinary differential equations using Hamming's predictor-corrector method. There is also a subroutine for using a dot matrix printer to plot a given set of y values for a uniformly increasing x value. This package is written in FORTRAN 77 (Super Soft Small System FORTRAN compiler) for batch execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series under MS-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 28K of 8 bit bytes for all subroutines. This program was developed in 1986.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940003155&hterms=mathematical+functions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmathematical%2Bfunctions','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940003155&hterms=mathematical+functions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmathematical%2Bfunctions"><span>MATHEMATICAL <span class="hlt">ROUTINES</span> FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kantak, A. V.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this package is to provide the scientific and engineering community with a library of programs useful for performing <span class="hlt">routine</span> mathematical manipulations. This collection of programs will enable scientists to concentrate on their work without having to write their own <span class="hlt">routines</span> for solving common problems, thus saving considerable amounts of time. This package contains sixteen subroutines. Each is separately documented with descriptions of the invoking subroutine call, its required parameters, and a sample test program. The functions available include: maxima, minima, and sort of vectors; factorials; random number generator (uniform or Gaussian distribution); complimentary error function; fast Fourier Transformation; Simpson's Rule integration; matrix determinate and inversion; Bessel function (J Bessel function for any order, and modified Bessel function for zero order); roots of a polynomial; roots of non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> equation; and the solution of first order ordinary differential equations using Hamming's predictor-corrector method. There is also a subroutine for using a dot matrix printer to plot a given set of y values for a uniformly increasing x value. This package is written in FORTRAN 77 (Super Soft Small System FORTRAN compiler) for batch execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series under MS-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 28K of 8 bit bytes for all subroutines. This program was developed in 1986.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT........54W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT........54W"><span>Detached-eddy simulation of <span class="hlt">flow</span> non-<span class="hlt">linearity</span> of fluid-structural interactions using high order schemes and parallel computation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Baoyuan</p> <p></p> <p>The objective of this research is to develop an efficient and accurate methodology to resolve <span class="hlt">flow</span> non-<span class="hlt">linearity</span> of fluid-structural interaction. To achieve this purpose, a numerical strategy to apply the detached-eddy simulation (DES) with a fully coupled fluid-structural interaction model is established for the first time. The following novel numerical algorithms are also created: a general sub-domain boundary mapping procedure for parallel computation to reduce wall clock simulation time, an efficient and low diffusion E-CUSP (LDE) scheme used as a Riemann solver to resolve discontinuities with minimal numerical dissipation, and an implicit high order accuracy weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme to capture shock waves. The Detached-Eddy Simulation is based on the model proposed by Spalart in 1997. Near solid walls within wall boundary layers, the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved. Outside of the wall boundary layers, the 3D filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved based on large eddy simulation(LES). The Spalart-Allmaras one equation turbulence model is solved to provide the Reynolds stresses in the RANS region and the subgrid scale stresses in the LES region. An improved 5th order finite differencing weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme with an optimized epsilon value is employed for the inviscid fluxes. The new LDE scheme used with the WENO scheme is able to capture crisp shock profiles and exact contact surfaces. A set of fully conservative 4th order finite central differencing schemes are used for the viscous terms. The 3D Navier-Stokes equations are discretized based on a conservative finite differencing scheme. The unfactored line Gauss-Seidel relaxation iteration is employed for time marching. A general sub-domain boundary mapping procedure is developed for arbitrary topology multi-block structured grids with grid points matched on sub-domain boundaries. Extensive numerical experiments</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6843039','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6843039"><span>Memos trace <span class="hlt">routine</span> radiation overexposures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lobsenz, G.</p> <p>1994-03-09</p> <p>Workers at the Energy Department's Fernald plant <span class="hlt">routinely</span> received [open quotes]gross,[close quotes] [open quotes]unacceptable[close quotes] and [open quotes]undue[close quotes] radiation exposures during uranium processing operations from the 1950s through the early 1970s, according to internal Fernald memos. The documents come to light as DOE continues to pay hundreds of thousands of dollars every month to defend its former Fernald contractor, NLO Inc., from a workers' lawsuit seeking compensation for alleged injuries from poor safety practices at the Ohio facility. DOE officials have contended the NLO defense effort is justified because there is no evidence that any former Fernald workers have suffered injury as a result of radiation exposures at the plant. However, the internal Fernald memos document major concerns expressed by Fernald health officials about unsafe working conditions at the plant and what appear in some cases to be <span class="hlt">routine</span> overexposures of workers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15723546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15723546"><span>Two-state folding of horse ferrocytochrome c: analyses of <span class="hlt">linear</span> free energy relationship, chevron curvature, and stopped-<span class="hlt">flow</span> burst relaxation kinetics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, Rajesh; Bhuyan, Abani K</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Ferrocytchrome c is a classic two-state fast folder. This assurance comes from extensive equilibrium and kinetic folding studies carried out under strictly anaerobic conditions at 22 degrees C. Conventional guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)-induced unfolding transitions monitored by the use of a sizable set of optical probes do not reveal the accumulation of any intermediate to a detectable level. The GdnHCl dependence of unfolding free energy (DeltaG(D)) is <span class="hlt">linear</span> over the full range of the denaturant concentration. The GdnHCl folding chevron is characterized by curvatures in both folding and unfolding limbs. However, refolding rates as a function of urea in the presence of different concentrations of GdnHCl yield m(++)f values (the kinetic m-value) that are quantitatively identical. This result, analyzed in terms of the denaturant dependence of the difference in the extent of solvent exposure between a relatively fixed transition state and the preceding state involved in the transition, suggests that the chevron curvature is not related to differential accumulation of a folding intermediate with varying concentration of GdnHCl in the refolding medium. Denaturant dependence of stopped-<span class="hlt">flow</span> burst signals recorded in normal refolding experiments (pH 7, 22 degrees C) is essentially identical with that recorded in simulating experiments in which the protein stays steadily unfolded even in the denaturant-diluted medium (pH 1.5-2, 22 or 43 degrees C depending on the use of urea or GdnHCl), and they match the denaturant dependence of equilibrium signals for the unfolded protein. The results demonstrate that the burst phase does not entail an early folding intermediate. Rather, the folding kinetics are essentially two-state. These results are central to the phenomenological description of protein folding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA594171','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA594171"><span>Network <span class="hlt">Flows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p>Researchers have suggested other solution strategies, using ideas from nonlinear progamming for solving this general separable convex cost <span class="hlt">flow</span> problems. Some...plane methods and branch and bound procedures of integer programming, primal-dual methods of <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear programming, and polyhedral methods...Combinatorial Optimization: Networks and Matroids), Bazaraa and Jarvis [1978] (<span class="hlt">Linear</span> Programming and Network <span class="hlt">Flows</span>), Minieka [1978] (Optimization Algorithms for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Day%2c+AND+Dorothy&pg=6&id=EJ578029','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Day%2c+AND+Dorothy&pg=6&id=EJ578029"><span>Decision Making: A <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hewes, Dorothy W.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Describes a <span class="hlt">linear</span> process of decision making to enhance management skills of day care directors. Includes decision-processing <span class="hlt">flow</span> chart compiled from several professional disciplines to help managers recognize flexibility of <span class="hlt">linear</span> system. Provides analysis of <span class="hlt">flow</span>-chart steps to balance both artistic and pragmatic considerations. (LBT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1357527','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1357527"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> osmosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Diamond, Jared M.</p> <p>1966-01-01</p> <p>1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water <span class="hlt">flow</span> has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water <span class="hlt">flow</span> was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water <span class="hlt">flow</span>. 3. Water <span class="hlt">flow</span> in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water <span class="hlt">flow</span> increased <span class="hlt">linearly</span> with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water <span class="hlt">flow</span> was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water <span class="hlt">flow</span> is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> osmosis in other tissues, <span class="hlt">flow</span>-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water <span class="hlt">flow</span>. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1204...83S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1204...83S"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Accelerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sidorin, Anatoly</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">linear</span> accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the <span class="hlt">linear</span> accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF <span class="hlt">linear</span> accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21366925','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21366925"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Accelerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sidorin, Anatoly</p> <p>2010-01-05</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">linear</span> accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the <span class="hlt">linear</span> accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF <span class="hlt">linear</span> accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1787171','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1787171"><span>Supercritical fluid chromatography in the <span class="hlt">routine</span> stability control of antipruritic preparations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anton, K; Bach, M; Geiser, A</p> <p>1991-08-16</p> <p>A recently developed system for supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), based on independent <span class="hlt">flow</span> and pressure control and suitable for packed and capillary columns, was tested on a <span class="hlt">routine</span> level for the reliable, accurate and precise determination of active pharmaceutical substances in stability control. Only packed columns were used for this analysis. The chromatographic figures of merit and the validation data of the active substance alone and in two different dosage forms (accuracy, 98.8-99.2%; precision, 0.6%; <span class="hlt">linearity</span> of response, 0.998-0.999) are comparable with the former liquid chromatographic methods. Economical (reduction of analysis time, fewer experimental steps and less sample pre-separation) and ecological (carbon dioxide of organic solvents) advantages make SFC an attractive alternative to liquid chromatography in the determination of crotamiton.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22071590','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22071590"><span>Global <span class="hlt">routine</span> vaccination coverage, 2010.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-11-11</p> <p>The Expanded Program on Immunization was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1974 to ensure universal access to <span class="hlt">routinely</span> recommended childhood vaccines. Six vaccine-preventable diseases initially were targeted: tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and measles. In 1974, fewer than 5% of the world's infants were fully immunized; by 2005, global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine (DTP3) was 79%, but many children, especially those living in poorer countries, still were not being reached. That year, WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) developed the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS), with the aim of decreasing vaccine-preventable disease--related morbidity and mortality by improving national immunization programs. One goal of GIVS was for all countries to achieve 90% national DTP3 coverage by 2010. This report summarizes the status of vaccination coverage globally and regionally in 2010 and progress toward meeting the GIVS goal. In 2010, 130 (67%) countries had achieved 90% DTP3 coverage, and an estimated 85% of infants worldwide had received at least 3 doses of DTP vaccine. However, 19.3 million children were not fully vaccinated and remained at risk for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis and other vaccine-preventable causes of morbidity and mortality; approximately 50% of these children live in India, Nigeria, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite the overall improvement in vaccination coverage during the past 37 years, <span class="hlt">routine</span> vaccination programs need to be strengthened globally, especially in countries with the greatest numbers of unvaccinated children.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11219558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11219558"><span><span class="hlt">Routine</span> screening for postpartum depression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Georgiopoulos, A M; Bryan, T L; Wollan, P; Yawn, B P</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common and often overlooked condition. Validated screening tools for PPD exist but are not commonly used. We present the 1-year outcome of a project to implement universal PPD screening at the 6-week postpartum visit. Universal screening with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was implemented in all community postnatal care sites. One-year outcome assessments (diagnosis and treatment of PPD) were completed for a sample of the women screened using medical record review of all care they received during the first year postpartum. Sixty-eight (20%) of the 342 women whose medical records were reviewed had been given a documented diagnosis of postpartum depression, resulting in an estimated population rate of 10.7%. Depression was diagnosed in 35% of the women with elevated EPDS scores (> or =10) compared with 5% of the women with low EPDS scores (<10) in the first year postpartum. Treatment was provided for all women diagnosed with depression, including drug therapy for 49% and counseling for 78%. Four women were hospitalized for depression. Some degree of suicidal ideation was noted on the EPDS by 48 women but acknowledged in the chart of only 10 women, including 1 with an immediate hospitalization. The rate of diagnosis of postpartum depression in this community increased from 3.7% before the <span class="hlt">routine</span> use of EPDS screening to 10.7% following screening. A high EPDS score was predictive of a diagnosis of postpartum depression, and the implementation of <span class="hlt">routine</span> EPDS screening at 6 weeks postpartum was associated with an increase in the rate of diagnosed postpartum depression in this community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162856.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162856.html"><span><span class="hlt">Routine</span> Checkup Should Assess Fitness, Too</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... news/fullstory_162856.html <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Checkup Should Assess Fitness, Too Cardiorespiratory test would help gauge patients' heart ... checked regularly, but an exercise expert says cardiorespiratory fitness should also be part of a <span class="hlt">routine</span> medical ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=go&pg=3&id=EJ1144313','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=go&pg=3&id=EJ1144313"><span><span class="hlt">Routines</span> Are the Foundation of Classroom Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lester, Robin Rawlings; Allanson, Patricia Bolton; Notar, Charles E.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Classroom management is the key to learning. <span class="hlt">Routines</span> are the foundation of classroom management. Students require structure in their lives. <span class="hlt">Routines</span> provide that in all of their life from the time they awake until the time they go to bed. <span class="hlt">Routines</span> in a school and in the classroom provide the environment for learning to take place. The paper is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=routine&pg=6&id=EJ805577','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=routine&pg=6&id=EJ805577"><span>Children's Daily <span class="hlt">Routines</span> during Kindergarten Transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wildenger, Leah K.; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Fiese, Barbara H.; Eckert, Tanya L.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Routines</span> are an important feature of family life and functioning in families with young children. Common daily <span class="hlt">routines</span> such as dinnertime, bedtime, and waking activities are powerful organizers of family behavior and may be instrumental to children and families during times of transition, such as elementary school entry. Daily <span class="hlt">routines</span> were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol4-sec1017-20.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol4-sec1017-20.pdf"><span>10 CFR 1017.20 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> access.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> access. 1017.20 Section 1017.20 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.20 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> access. (a) Authorized... disseminate the UCNI under the provisions of this section. (b) Requirements for <span class="hlt">routine</span> access. To be eligible...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=product+AND+mix&pg=2&id=ED559778','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=product+AND+mix&pg=2&id=ED559778"><span>Evolutionary Dynamics of Digitized Organizational <span class="hlt">Routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liu, Peng</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation explores the effects of increased digitization on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational <span class="hlt">routines</span>. Do <span class="hlt">routines</span> become more flexible, or more rigid, as the mix of digital technologies and human actors changes? What are the mechanisms that govern the evolution of <span class="hlt">routines</span>? The dissertation theorizes about the effects of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flexible+AND+mechanism&pg=4&id=ED559778','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flexible+AND+mechanism&pg=4&id=ED559778"><span>Evolutionary Dynamics of Digitized Organizational <span class="hlt">Routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liu, Peng</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation explores the effects of increased digitization on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational <span class="hlt">routines</span>. Do <span class="hlt">routines</span> become more flexible, or more rigid, as the mix of digital technologies and human actors changes? What are the mechanisms that govern the evolution of <span class="hlt">routines</span>? The dissertation theorizes about the effects of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1366372','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1366372"><span>The <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Fitting of Kinetic Data to Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Berman, Mones; Shahn, Ezra; Weiss, Marjory F.</p> <p>1962-01-01</p> <p>A mathematical formalism is presented for use with digital computers to permit the <span class="hlt">routine</span> fitting of data to physical and mathematical models. Given a set of data, the mathematical equations describing a model, initial conditions for an experiment, and initial estimates for the values of model parameters, the computer program automatically proceeds to obtain a least squares fit of the data by an iterative adjustment of the values of the parameters. When the experimental measures are <span class="hlt">linear</span> combinations of functions, the <span class="hlt">linear</span> coefficients for a least squares fit may also be calculated. The values of both the parameters of the model and the coefficients for the sum of functions may be unknown independent variables, unknown dependent variables, or known constants. In the case of dependence, only <span class="hlt">linear</span> dependencies are provided for in <span class="hlt">routine</span> use. The computer program includes a number of subroutines, each one of which performs a special task. This permits flexibility in choosing various types of solutions and procedures. One subroutine, for example, handles <span class="hlt">linear</span> differential equations, another, special non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> functions, etc. The use of analytic or numerical solutions of equations is possible. PMID:13867975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3060337','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3060337"><span>Taking a new biomarker into <span class="hlt">routine</span> use – A perspective from the <span class="hlt">routine</span> clinical biochemistry laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sturgeon, Catharine; Hill, Robert; Hortin, Glen L; Thompson, Douglas</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>There is increasing pressure to provide cost-effective healthcare based on “best practice.” Consequently, new biomarkers are only likely to be introduced into <span class="hlt">routine</span> clinical biochemistry departments if they are supported by a strong evidence base and if the results will improve patient management and outcome. This requires convincing evidence of the benefits of introducing the new test, ideally reflected in fewer hospital admissions, fewer additional investigations and/or fewer clinic visits. Carefully designed audit and cost-benefit studies in relevant patient groups must demonstrate that introducing the biomarker delivers an improved and more effective clinical pathway. From the laboratory perspective, pre-analytical requirements must be thoroughly investigated at an early stage. Good stability of the biomarker in relevant physiological matrices is essential to avoid the need for special processing. Absence of specific timing requirements for sampling and knowledge of the effect of medications that might be used to treat the patients in whom the biomarker will be measured is also highly desirable. Analytically, automation is essential in modern high-throughput clinical laboratories. Assays must therefore be robust, fulfilling standard requirements for <span class="hlt">linearity</span> on dilution, precision and reproducibility, both within- and between-run. Provision of measurements by a limited number of specialized reference laboratories may be most appropriate, especially when a new biomarker is first introduced into <span class="hlt">routine</span> practice. PMID:21137030</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJB...69..571H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJB...69..571H"><span>Analytical calculation of critical perturbation amplitudes and critical densities by non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> stability analysis of a simple traffic <span class="hlt">flow</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Helbing, D.; Moussaid, M.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Driven many-particle systems with nonlinear interactions are known to often display multi-stability, i.e. depending on the respective initial condition, there may be different outcomes. Here, we study this phenomenon for traffic models, some of which show stable and <span class="hlt">linearly</span> unstable density regimes, but areas of metastability in between. In these areas, perturbations larger than a certain critical amplitude will cause a lasting breakdown of traffic, while smaller ones will fade away. While there are common methods to study <span class="hlt">linear</span> instability, non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> instability had to be studied numerically in the past. Here, we present an analytical study for the optimal velocity model with a stepwise specification of the optimal velocity function and a simple kind of perturbation. Despite various approximations, the analytical results are shown to reproduce numerical results very well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740011436','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740011436"><span>ELAS: A general-purpose computer program for the equilibrium problems of <span class="hlt">linear</span> structures. Volume 2: Documentation of the program. [subroutines and <span class="hlt">flow</span> charts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Utku, S.</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>A general purpose digital computer program for the in-core solution of <span class="hlt">linear</span> equilibrium problems of structural mechanics is documented. The program requires minimum input for the description of the problem. The solution is obtained by means of the displacement method and the finite element technique. Almost any geometry and structure may be handled because of the availability of <span class="hlt">linear</span>, triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, hexahedral, conical, triangular torus, and quadrilateral torus elements. The assumption of piecewise <span class="hlt">linear</span> deflection distribution insures monotonic convergence of the deflections from the stiffer side with decreasing mesh size. The stresses are provided by the best-fit strain tensors in the least squares at the mesh points where the deflections are given. The selection of local coordinate systems whenever necessary is automatic. The core memory is used by means of dynamic memory allocation, an optional mesh-point relabelling scheme and imposition of the boundary conditions during the assembly time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15099862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15099862"><span><span class="hlt">Routine</span> CMV screening during pregnancy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Collinet, P; Subtil, D; Houfflin-Debarge, V; Kacet, N; Dewilde, A; Puech, F</p> <p>2004-05-10</p> <p>Cytomegalovirus (CMV) screening during pregnancy has been widely discussed for several years, but still no consensus has been agreed. With a number of live births of 750,000 per year in France, we would expect 7500 infected infants at birth per year (rate of congenital infection of 1%). Among infected infants at birth, the number of severely infected foetuses would be approximately 75, the number of infants with severe sequelae would be 480, 675 approximately would present with hearing loss and the number of asymptomatic infants would be 6270. Five different preventive methods for congenital CMV infection are possible: (1) <span class="hlt">Routine</span> CMV screening at the beginning of pregnancy for primary prevention. (2) Secondary prevention by antenatal diagnosis of congenital CMV infection complications. (3) Tertiary prevention by serological testing during pregnancy. (4) Tertiary prevention by serological screening at birth. (5) Tertiary prevention: Hearing loss screening at birth. The aims of this review are to define the advantages and disadvantages of these different methods of CMV screening during pregnancy and to determine if the current available information would make systematic testing acceptable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27855146','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27855146"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Vaccination Coverage, 2015.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Casey, Rebecca M; Dumolard, Laure; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Diallo, Mamadou S; Hampton, Lee M; Wallace, Aaron S</p> <p>2016-11-18</p> <p>In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization* to provide protection against six vaccine-preventable diseases through <span class="hlt">routine</span> infant immunization (1). Based on 2015 WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates, global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP3), the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) and the third dose of polio vaccine (Pol3) has remained stable (84%-86%) since 2010. From 2014 to 2015, estimated global coverage with the second MCV dose (MCV2) increased from 39% to 43% by the end of the second year of life and from 58% to 61% when older age groups were included. Global coverage was higher in 2015 than 2010 for newer or underused vaccines, including rotavirus vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rubella vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, and 3 doses of hepatitis B (HepB3) vaccine. Coverage estimates varied widely by WHO Region, country, and district; in addition, for the vaccines evaluated (MCV, DTP3, Pol3, HepB3, Hib3), wide disparities were found in coverage by country income classification. Improvements in equity of access are necessary to reach and sustain higher coverage and increase protection from vaccine-preventable diseases for all persons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25738745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25738745"><span><span class="hlt">Routine</span> outcome measures in Canada.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kisely, Steve; Adair, Carol E; Lin, Elizabeth; Marriott, Brian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Canada is a federal country of 10 provinces and three territories. High level information on mental health conditions and service use has mostly been generated from administrative data collected by provinces and territories. These include four major types - hospital admissions and discharges, physician billings, ambulatory care services, and drug databases. At the national level, the Canadian Institute for Health Information brings together this information to produce indicators of outcome. Although these data provide information on patient and health system characteristics, they do not capture the full spectrum of formal and informal mental healthcare. These include changes in health status, functioning, community integration and quality of life. As a result, some jurisdictions have begun to implement more standardized measures of outcome such as the clinician-rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales or the inpatient Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health. In this paper we provide an overview of mental-health-related data sources in Canada, highlight some of the more progressive practices beginning to emerge, and conclude with some thoughts about how the <span class="hlt">routine</span> measurement and reporting of mental health outcomes in Canada might be advanced including efforts at engaging both clinicians and decision-makers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4158365','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4158365"><span><span class="hlt">LINEAR</span> ACCELERATOR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.</p> <p>1959-02-17</p> <p>Improvements in <span class="hlt">linear</span> particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a <span class="hlt">linear</span> ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA19278.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA19278.html"><span>Debris <span class="hlt">Flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-04-14</p> <p>This image captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows downslope movement of material from the hill at the top of the image. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> ridges and channels are visible on the surface to the debris <span class="hlt">flow</span> deposit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26212357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26212357"><span>Downstairs gene <span class="hlt">flow</span>: the effects of a <span class="hlt">linear</span> sequence of waterfalls on the only population of the endangered minnow Astyanax xavante.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reis, K V; Venere, P C; Sampaio, I; Rêgo, P S; Vallinoto, M; Souza, I L</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity and structure of the only known population of minnow Astyanax xavante, which inhabits a stretch of river including several waterfalls. The FST values among the samples were not significant, except between two populations separated by a 30 m waterfall. Nevertheless, haplotype and nucleotide diversity increased in the downstream direction, indicating that gene <span class="hlt">flow</span> is unidirectional, which indicates this genetic pattern as downstairs gene <span class="hlt">flow</span>, as it has the effect of increasing genetic diversity in the downstream direction. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22523451','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22523451"><span>Immunophenotyping of posttraumatic neutrophils on a <span class="hlt">routine</span> haematology analyser.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Groeneveld, Kathelijne Maaike; Heeres, Marjolein; Leenen, Loek Petrus Hendrikus; Huisman, Albert; Koenderman, Leo</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Flow</span> cytometry markers have been proposed as useful predictors for the occurrence of posttraumatic inflammatory complications. However, currently the need for a dedicated laboratory and the labour-intensive analytical procedures make these markers less suitable for clinical practice. We tested an approach to overcome these limitations. Neutrophils of healthy donors were incubated with antibodies commonly used in trauma research: CD11b (MAC-1), L-selectin (CD62L), FcγRIII (CD16), and FcγRII (CD32) in active form (MoPhab A27). <span class="hlt">Flow</span> cytometric analysis was performed both on a FACSCalibur, a standard <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometer, and on a Cell-Dyn Sapphire, a <span class="hlt">routine</span> haematology analyser. There was a high level of agreement between the two types of analysers, with 41% for FcγRIII, 80% for L-selectin, 98% for CD11b, and even a 100% agreement for active FcγRII. Moreover, analysis on the <span class="hlt">routine</span> haematology analyser was possible in less than a quarter of the time in comparison to the <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometer. Analysis of neutrophil phenotype on the Cell-Dyn Sapphire leads to the same conclusion compared to a standard <span class="hlt">flow</span> cytometer. The markedly reduced time necessary for analysis and reduced labour intensity constitutes a step forward in implementation of this type of analysis in clinical diagnostics in trauma research. Copyright © 2012 Kathelijne Maaike Groeneveld et al.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6603626','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6603626"><span>Simplified <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Equation Solvers users manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gropp, W. ); Smith, B. )</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>The solution of large sparse systems of <span class="hlt">linear</span> equations is at the heart of many algorithms in scientific computing. The SLES package is a set of easy-to-use yet powerful and extensible <span class="hlt">routines</span> for solving large sparse <span class="hlt">linear</span> systems. The design of the package allows new techniques to be used in existing applications without any source code changes in the applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22622096','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22622096"><span>Parental employment, family <span class="hlt">routines</span> and childhood obesity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, Patricia M</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) data from kindergarten through eighth grade, this paper investigate the relationships among maternal employment, family <span class="hlt">routines</span> and obesity. More hours worked by the mother tend to be negatively related to positive <span class="hlt">routines</span> like eating meals as a family or at regular times, or having family rules about hours of television watched. Many of these same <span class="hlt">routines</span> are significantly related to the probability of being obese, implying that family <span class="hlt">routines</span> may be a mechanism by which maternal employment intensity affects children's obesity. However, inclusion of family <span class="hlt">routines</span> in the obesity regression does not appreciably change the estimated effect of maternal employment hours. Thus, the commonly estimated deleterious effect of maternal employment on children's obesity cannot be explained by family <span class="hlt">routines</span>, leaving the exact mechanisms an open question for further exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880010894&hterms=Calculation+linear&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCalculation%2Blinear','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880010894&hterms=Calculation+linear&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCalculation%2Blinear"><span>Calculation of the distributed loads on the blades of individual multiblade propellers in axial <span class="hlt">flow</span> using <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear lifting surface theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pesetskaya, N. N.; Timofeev, I. YA.; Shipilov, S. D.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>In recent years much attention has been given to the development of methods and programs for the calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics of multiblade, saber-shaped air propellers. Most existing methods are based on the theory of lifting lines. Elsewhere, the theory of a lifting surface is used to calculate screw and lifting propellers. In this work, methods of discrete eddies are described for the calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics of propellers using the <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear theories of lifting surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880010894&hterms=timofeev&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dtimofeev','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880010894&hterms=timofeev&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dtimofeev"><span>Calculation of the distributed loads on the blades of individual multiblade propellers in axial <span class="hlt">flow</span> using <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear lifting surface theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pesetskaya, N. N.; Timofeev, I. YA.; Shipilov, S. D.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>In recent years much attention has been given to the development of methods and programs for the calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics of multiblade, saber-shaped air propellers. Most existing methods are based on the theory of lifting lines. Elsewhere, the theory of a lifting surface is used to calculate screw and lifting propellers. In this work, methods of discrete eddies are described for the calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics of propellers using the <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear theories of lifting surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018446','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018446"><span>PAN AIR: A Computer Program for Predicting Subsonic or Supersonic <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Potential <span class="hlt">Flows</span> About Arbitrary Configurations Using a Higher Order Panel Method. Volume 1; Theory Document (Version 1.1)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Magnus, Alfred E.; Epton, Michael A.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>An outline of the derivation of the differential equation governing <span class="hlt">linear</span> subsonic and supersonic potential <span class="hlt">flow</span> is given. The use of Green's Theorem to obtain an integral equation over the boundary surface is discussed. The engineering techniques incorporated in the PAN AIR (Panel Aerodynamics) program (a discretization method which solves the integral equation for arbitrary first order boundary conditions) are then discussed in detail. Items discussed include the construction of the compressibility transformations, splining techniques, imposition of the boundary conditions, influence coefficient computation (including the concept of the finite part of an integral), computation of pressure coefficients, and computation of forces and moments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/656456','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/656456"><span>Optimized groundwater containment using <span class="hlt">linear</span> programming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Durham, L.A.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>Groundwater extraction systems are typically installed to contain contaminant plumes. These systems are expensive to install and maintain. A traditional approach to designing such a wellfield is to use a series of trial-and-error simulations to test the effects of various well locations and pump rates. However, optimal locations and pump rates of extraction wells are difficult to determine when the objectives of the potential pumping scheme and the site hydrogeology are considered. This paper describes a case study of an application of <span class="hlt">linear</span> programming theory to determine optimal well placement and pump rates. Calculations were conducted by using ModMan to link a calibrated MODFLOW <span class="hlt">flow</span> model with LINDO, a <span class="hlt">linear</span> programming package. Past activities at the site under study included disposal of contaminants in pits. Several groundwater plumes have been identified, and others may be present. The area of concern is bordered on three sides by a wetland, which receives a portion of its input water budget as groundwater discharge from the disposal area. The objective function of the optimization was to minimize the rate of groundwater extraction while preventing discharge to the marsh across a user-specified boundary. In this manner, the optimization <span class="hlt">routine</span> selects well locations and pump rates to produce a groundwater divide along this boundary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1331673','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1331673"><span>DoE Plasma Center for Momentum Transport and <span class="hlt">Flow</span> Self-Organization in Plasmas: Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> Emergent Structure Formation in magnetized Plasmas and Rotating Magnetofluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Forest, Cary B.</p> <p>2016-11-10</p> <p>This report covers the UW-Madison activities that took place within a larger DoE Center Administered and directed by Professor George Tynan at the University of California, San Diego. The work at Wisconsin will also be covered in the final reporting for the entire center, which will be submitted by UCSD. There were two main activities, one experimental and one that was theoretical in nature, as part of the Center activities at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. First, the Center supported an experimentally focused postdoc (Chris Cooper) to carry out fundamental studies of momentum transport in rotating and weakly magnetized plasma. His experimental work was done on the Plasma Couette Experiment, a cylindrical plasma confinement device, with a plasma <span class="hlt">flow</span> created through electromagnetically stirring plasma at the plasma edge facilitated by arrays of permanent magnets. Cooper's work involved developing optical techniques to measure the ion temperature and plasma <span class="hlt">flow</span> through Doppler-shifted line radiation from the plasma argon ions. This included passive emission measurements and development of a novel ring summing Fabry-Perot spectroscopy system, and the active system involved using a diode laser to induce fluorescence. On the theoretical side, CMTFO supported a postdoc (Johannes Pueschel) to carry out a gyrokinetic extension of residual zonal <span class="hlt">flow</span> theory to the case with magnetic fluctuations, showing that magnetic stochasticity disrupts zonal <span class="hlt">flows</span>. The work included a successful comparison with gyrokinetic simulations. This work and its connection to the broader CMTFO will be covered more thoroughly in the final CMTFO report from Professor Tynan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JFM...485..115M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JFM...485..115M"><span>Small inertial effects on a spherical bubble, drop or particle moving near a wall in a time-dependent <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">flow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Magnaudet, Jacques</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>The problem of a spherical drop of arbitrary density and viscosity moving near a wall under the effect of a body force is analysed theoretically in the limit where the wall lies in the inner region of the <span class="hlt">flow</span> disturbance, the distance between the drop and the wall being large compared to the drop radius. The drop may move in an arbitrary direction with respect to the wall, and the undisturbed <span class="hlt">flow</span> field is assumed to comprise a steady uniform shear or solid-body rotation and a time-dependent uniform stream, the variations of which take place over time scales large compared to the viscous diffusion time. An exact force balance with no limitation on the magnitude of inertial effects is obtained by using the reciprocal theorem. Explicit expressions for the contributions of temporal acceleration, slip and shear or rotation to the total hydrodynamic force are derived in the limit of small-but-finite inertial effects. The connection between these near-wall results and inertial lift and drag corrections in an unbounded <span class="hlt">flow</span> is discussed. Situations of particular interest in which the lift force results from a combination of contributions due to unsteadiness and advection, like the case of a particle moving near the bottom wall of a centrifuge, are also examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Embedded&pg=4&id=EJ1129877','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Embedded&pg=4&id=EJ1129877"><span>Unlearning Established Organizational <span class="hlt">Routines</span>--Part I</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fiol, Marlena; O'Connor, Edward</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this two-part paper is to develop a process model of unlearning established organizational <span class="hlt">routines</span>. The model traces the interactions among three unlearning sub-processes: ostensive aspects of initial destabilization of an established <span class="hlt">routine</span>; performative aspects of ongoing discarding-from-use of old behaviors and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Organizational+AND+psychology&pg=5&id=EJ1129877','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Organizational+AND+psychology&pg=5&id=EJ1129877"><span>Unlearning Established Organizational <span class="hlt">Routines</span>--Part I</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fiol, Marlena; O'Connor, Edward</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this two-part paper is to develop a process model of unlearning established organizational <span class="hlt">routines</span>. The model traces the interactions among three unlearning sub-processes: ostensive aspects of initial destabilization of an established <span class="hlt">routine</span>; performative aspects of ongoing discarding-from-use of old behaviors and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol15-sec4287-107.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol15-sec4287-107.pdf"><span>7 CFR 4287.107 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing. 4287.107 Section 4287.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Loans § 4287.107 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing. The lender is responsible for servicing the entire loan and for...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol2-sec71-87.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol2-sec71-87.pdf"><span>10 CFR 71.87 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations. 71.87 Section 71.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.87 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations. Before each shipment of licensed material, the licensee shall...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol15-sec4287-107.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol15-sec4287-107.pdf"><span>7 CFR 4287.107 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing. 4287.107 Section 4287.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Loans § 4287.107 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing. The lender is responsible for servicing the entire loan and for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol2-sec71-87.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol2-sec71-87.pdf"><span>10 CFR 71.87 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations. 71.87 Section 71.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.87 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations. Before each shipment of licensed material, the licensee shall...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol2-sec71-87.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol2-sec71-87.pdf"><span>10 CFR 71.87 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations. 71.87 Section 71.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.87 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations. Before each shipment of licensed material, the licensee shall...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol2-sec71-87.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol2-sec71-87.pdf"><span>10 CFR 71.87 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations. 71.87 Section 71.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.87 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations. Before each shipment of licensed material, the licensee shall...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol23-sec141-621.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol23-sec141-621.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.621 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> monitoring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS....621 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> monitoring. (a) Monitoring. (1) If you submitted an IDSE report, you must begin monitoring...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol2-sec71-87.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol2-sec71-87.pdf"><span>10 CFR 71.87 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations. 71.87 Section 71.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.87 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> determinations. Before each shipment of licensed material, the licensee shall...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol15-sec4287-107.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol15-sec4287-107.pdf"><span>7 CFR 4287.107 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing. 4287.107 Section 4287.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Loans § 4287.107 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing. The lender is responsible for servicing the entire loan and for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol15-sec4287-107.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol15-sec4287-107.pdf"><span>7 CFR 4287.107 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing. 4287.107 Section 4287.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Loans § 4287.107 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing. The lender is responsible for servicing the entire loan and for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol24-sec141-621.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol24-sec141-621.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.621 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> monitoring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS....621 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> monitoring. (a) Monitoring. (1) If you submitted an IDSE report, you must begin monitoring...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol15-sec4287-107.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol15-sec4287-107.pdf"><span>7 CFR 4287.107 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing. 4287.107 Section 4287.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Loans § 4287.107 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> servicing. The lender is responsible for servicing the entire loan and for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol24-sec141-621.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol24-sec141-621.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.621 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> monitoring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS....621 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> monitoring. (a) Monitoring. (1) If you submitted an IDSE report, you must begin monitoring...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol23-sec141-621.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol23-sec141-621.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.621 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> monitoring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS....621 <span class="hlt">Routine</span> monitoring. (a) Monitoring. (1) If you submitted an IDSE report, you must begin monitoring...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Exercise+AND+energy+AND+levels&pg=2&id=EJ925234','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Exercise+AND+energy+AND+levels&pg=2&id=EJ925234"><span>Active Movement Warm-Up <span class="hlt">Routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up <span class="hlt">routine</span> is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up <span class="hlt">routines</span> can be used with all grade levels…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5876413','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5876413"><span>SVI: Super-VIOR interface <span class="hlt">routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alleva, D.</p> <p>1987-10-21</p> <p>This document describes a set of <span class="hlt">routines</span> for a VME DMA module called the Super-VIOR. The Super-VIOR interface <span class="hlt">routines</span>, also called the SVI <span class="hlt">routines</span>, are written in PILS and run under a Valet-plus system. These <span class="hlt">routines</span> enable a program to set up, execute, and monitor DMA operations. The Super-VIOR Interface <span class="hlt">Routines</span> are written in PILS, a high level language similar to BASIC and Pascal which is powerful and fast enough for most applications. One of the most powerful features of the Valet/PILS system is the ability to set up exception vectors and exception handlers directly in a program. This feature is used to handle interrupts from the MC68450 (a 4 channel, 16 bit DMA controller) and the interface's front panel. This document is divided into ten sections, the first being the introduction. The remaining sections detail the interface registers, channel initiation, polling and interrupts, status reporting, front panel interrupts, the configuration <span class="hlt">routines</span>, the operation control <span class="hlt">routines</span>, the status reporting <span class="hlt">routines</span>, and special comments on the MC68450.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warmup&id=EJ925234','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warmup&id=EJ925234"><span>Active Movement Warm-Up <span class="hlt">Routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up <span class="hlt">routine</span> is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up <span class="hlt">routines</span> can be used with all grade levels…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1065664.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1065664.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Routinizing</span> Lexical Phrases on Spoken Discourse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Osman, Nazira Binti; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">routinizing</span> lexical phrases to a group of second language learners. A group of proficiency class students were drilled or <span class="hlt">routinized</span> with semi-fixed and fixed phrases which are commonly used in problem-solving group discussion. Basic frequency counts and interview were carried out to see improvement in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED304214.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED304214.pdf"><span>Daily <span class="hlt">Routines</span> of Young Children. (Draft).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rossbach, Hans-Guenther</p> <p></p> <p>This pilot study of the structural characteristics of daily <span class="hlt">routines</span> of young children also explored aspects of conceptual framework and research instruments. Four data collection instruments were developed. Two of the three retrospective measures used were questionnaires for mothers about their child's <span class="hlt">routine</span> on the previous day. The other…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21346994','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21346994"><span>Metadata extraction <span class="hlt">routines</span> for improving infobutton performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hulse, Nathan C; Haug, Peter J</p> <p>2010-11-13</p> <p>Infobuttons have been proven as an effective means for providing quick, context-specific links to pertinent information resources at the point of care. Current infobutton manager implementations, however, lack the ability to exchange metadata, are limited to a relatively small set of information providers, and are targeted primarily for a clinician audience. As part of a local effort to implement infobuttons for patient use via a tethered personal health record, we present a series of metadata extraction <span class="hlt">routines</span>. These <span class="hlt">routines</span> were constructed to extract key pieces of information from health information providers on the Internet, including content coverage, language availability, and readability scores. The extraction <span class="hlt">routines</span> were tested using thirty different disease conditions against eight different providers. The <span class="hlt">routines</span> yielded 183 potential infobutton targets and associated metadata for each. The capabilities of the extraction <span class="hlt">routines</span> will be expanded to cover new types of metadata in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110016753','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110016753"><span>Improved Electrohydraulic <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Actuators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamtil, James</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>A product line of improved electrohydraulic <span class="hlt">linear</span> actuators has been developed. These actuators are designed especially for use in actuating valves in rocket-engine test facilities. They are also adaptable to many industrial uses, such as steam turbines, process control valves, dampers, motion control, etc. The advantageous features of the improved electrohydraulic <span class="hlt">linear</span> actuators are best described with respect to shortcomings of prior electrohydraulic <span class="hlt">linear</span> actuators that the improved ones are intended to supplant. The <span class="hlt">flow</span> of hydraulic fluid to the two ports of the actuator cylinder is controlled by a servo valve that is controlled by a signal from a servo amplifier that, in turn, receives an analog position-command signal (a current having a value between 4 and 20 mA) from a supervisory control system of the facility. As the position command changes, the servo valve shifts, causing a greater <span class="hlt">flow</span> of hydraulic fluid to one side of the cylinder and thereby causing the actuator piston to move to extend or retract a piston rod from the actuator body. A <span class="hlt">linear</span> variable differential transformer (LVDT) directly linked to the piston provides a position-feedback signal, which is compared with the position-command signal in the servo amplifier. When the position-feedback and position-command signals match, the servo valve moves to its null position, in which it holds the actuator piston at a steady position.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23829722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23829722"><span>Preconditioned quantum <span class="hlt">linear</span> system algorithm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clader, B D; Jacobs, B C; Sprouse, C R</p> <p>2013-06-21</p> <p>We describe a quantum algorithm that generalizes the quantum <span class="hlt">linear</span> system algorithm [Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 150502 (2009)] to arbitrary problem specifications. We develop a state preparation <span class="hlt">routine</span> that can initialize generic states, show how simple ancilla measurements can be used to calculate many quantities of interest, and integrate a quantum-compatible preconditioner that greatly expands the number of problems that can achieve exponential speedup over classical <span class="hlt">linear</span> systems solvers. To demonstrate the algorithm's applicability, we show how it can be used to compute the electromagnetic scattering cross section of an arbitrary target exponentially faster than the best classical algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=prader+AND+willi+AND+syndrome&pg=2&id=EJ1062623','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=prader+AND+willi+AND+syndrome&pg=2&id=EJ1062623"><span>Increased Exposure to Rigid <span class="hlt">Routines</span> Can Lead to Increased Challenging Behavior Following Changes to Those <span class="hlt">Routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bull, Leah E.; Oliver, Chris; Callaghan, Eleanor; Woodcock, Kate A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with preference for <span class="hlt">routine</span> and challenging behavior following changes to <span class="hlt">routines</span>. We examine individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, who show elevated levels of this behavior, to better understand how previous experience of a <span class="hlt">routine</span> can affect challenging behavior elicited by disruption to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heart&pg=4&id=EJ1062623','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heart&pg=4&id=EJ1062623"><span>Increased Exposure to Rigid <span class="hlt">Routines</span> Can Lead to Increased Challenging Behavior Following Changes to Those <span class="hlt">Routines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bull, Leah E.; Oliver, Chris; Callaghan, Eleanor; Woodcock, Kate A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with preference for <span class="hlt">routine</span> and challenging behavior following changes to <span class="hlt">routines</span>. We examine individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, who show elevated levels of this behavior, to better understand how previous experience of a <span class="hlt">routine</span> can affect challenging behavior elicited by disruption to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482489','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482489"><span>Fast and local non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> evolution of steep wave-groups on deep water: A comparison of approximate models to fully non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adcock, T. A. A.; Taylor, P. H.</p> <p>2016-01-15</p> <p>The non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> Schrödinger equation and its higher order extensions are <span class="hlt">routinely</span> used for analysis of extreme ocean waves. This paper compares the evolution of individual wave-packets modelled using non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> Schrödinger type equations with packets modelled using fully non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> potential <span class="hlt">flow</span> models. The modified non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> Schrödinger Equation accurately models the relatively large scale non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> changes to the shape of wave-groups, with a dramatic contraction of the group along the mean propagation direction and a corresponding extension of the width of the wave-crests. In addition, as extreme wave form, there is a local non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> contraction of the wave-group around the crest which leads to a localised broadening of the wave spectrum which the bandwidth limited non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> Schrödinger Equations struggle to capture. This limitation occurs for waves of moderate steepness and a narrow underlying spectrum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1830b0014M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1830b0014M"><span><span class="hlt">Flow</span> and heat transfer of nanofluid over a stretching sheet with non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> velocity in the presence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madaki, A. G.; Roslan, R.; Kandasamy, R.; Chowdhury, M. S. H.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In this paper, the effects of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, chemical reaction, heat generation, magnetohydrodynamic and thermal radiation has been included in the model of nanofluid <span class="hlt">flow</span> and heat transfer over a moving surface with variable thickness. The similarity transformation is used to transform the governing boundary layer equations into ordinary differential equations (ODE). Both optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) and Runge-Kutta fourth order method with shooting technique are employed to solve the resulting ODEs. For different values of the pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles have been studied and details are given in tables and graphs respectively. A comparison with the previous study is made, where an excellent agreement is achieved. The results demonstrate that the radiation parameter N increases, with the increase in both the temperature and the thermal boundary layer thickness respectively. While the nanoparticles concentration profiles increase with the influence of generative chemical reaction γ < 0, while it decreases with destructive chemical reaction γ > 0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230583','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230583"><span>Non <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Conjugate Gradient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Newman, Gregory A.; Commer, Michael</p> <p>2006-11-17</p> <p>Software that simulates and inverts electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a time harmonic source field excitation arising from the following antenna geometery: loops and grounded bipoles, as well as point electric and magnetic dioples. The inversion process is carried out using a non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria. The software is an upgrade from the code NLCGCS_MP ver 1.0. The upgrade includes the following components: Incorporation of new 1 D field sourcing <span class="hlt">routines</span> to more accurately simulate the 3D electromagnetic field for arbitrary geologic& media, treatment for generalized finite length transmitting antenna geometry (antennas with vertical and horizontal component directions). In addition, the software has been upgraded to treat transverse anisotropy in electrical conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EOSTr..83..110R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EOSTr..83..110R"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Elastic Waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Revenough, Justin</p> <p></p> <p>Elastic waves propagating in simple media manifest a surprisingly rich collection of phenomena. Although some can't withstand the complexities of Earth's structure, the majority only grow more interesting and more important as remote sensing probes for seismologists studying the planet's interior. To fully mine the information carried to the surface by seismic waves, seismologists must produce accurate models of the waves. Great strides have been made in this regard. Problems that were entirely intractable a decade ago are now <span class="hlt">routinely</span> solved on inexpensive workstations. The mathematical representations of waves coded into algorithms have grown vastly more sophisticated and are troubled by many fewer approximations, enforced symmetries, and limitations. They are far from straightforward, and seismologists using them need a firm grasp on wave propagation in simple media. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Elastic Waves, by applied mathematician John G. Harris, responds to this need.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PPCF...59c4007O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PPCF...59c4007O"><span>Plasma detachment in <span class="hlt">linear</span> devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohno, N.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Plasma detachment research in <span class="hlt">linear</span> devices, sometimes called divertor plasma simulators, is reviewed. Pioneering works exploring the concept of plasma detachment were conducted in <span class="hlt">linear</span> devices. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> devices have contributed greatly to the basic understanding of plasma detachment such as volume plasma recombination processes, detached plasma structure associated with particle and energy transport, and other related issues including enhancement of convective plasma transport, dynamic response of plasma detachment, plasma <span class="hlt">flow</span> reversal, and magnetic field effect. The importance of plasma detachment research using <span class="hlt">linear</span> devices will be highlighted aimed at the design of future DEMO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4309533','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4309533"><span><span class="hlt">LINEAR</span> ACCELERATOR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Colgate, S.A.</p> <p>1958-05-27</p> <p>An improvement is presented in <span class="hlt">linear</span> accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7204661','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7204661"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">flow</span> and loss processes at the ends of a <span class="hlt">linear</span> theta pinch. Progress report, June 1, 1979-September 30, 1980</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>York, T.M.; Klevans, E.H.</p> <p>1980-05-01</p> <p>Experimental and analytical studies of particle and energy loss at the ends of a <span class="hlt">linear</span> theta pinch have been carried out. A study of transients occurring in the formation of reversed trapped fields within the coil, and of transients in the end region of a 25 cm long device was completed. A 1-D code has proven to be highly accurate in describing loss events and defining transport mechanisms in different experiments and is described here. A study of loss along field lines in a 50 cm long device has generated new information on loss velocity, axial and radial temperature gradients, and has established an initial effort in understanding thermal loss to the walls. Rotation and parallel trapped fields have been added to the existing 0-D code. A new technique crowbar switch and magnetic field prediction code have been developed. Direct measurment of electron velocity with Thomson scattering was accomplished experimentally. A Nd-glass laser system, frequency doubled, is being developed for low density diagnostics. Theoretical results that accurately predict confinement in FRX devices are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03667&hterms=Cloud+technology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DCloud%2Btechnology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03667&hterms=Cloud+technology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DCloud%2Btechnology"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><p/> [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Clouds <p/> These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image. <p/> Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. <p/> Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A <span class="hlt">linear</span> shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. <p/> NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090110&hterms=definition+territory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddefinition%2Bterritory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090110&hterms=definition+territory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddefinition%2Bterritory"><span>Habitual <span class="hlt">routines</span> in task-performing groups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gersick, C. J.; Hackman, J. R.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Groups, like individuals, often develop habitual <span class="hlt">routines</span> for dealing with frequently encountered stimuli. Although such <span class="hlt">routines</span> are consequential for group life and work, little is known about them. This paper reconnoiters the territory of habitual behavior in groups that perform work within organizations. We offer a definition of group habits, identify their functions and dysfunctions, suggest how they develop and are maintained, and identify the circumstances when they are likely to be altered or abandoned. Throughout, we give special attention to the social nature of habitual <span class="hlt">routines</span> in groups, to the interaction between habitual behavior and group life cycle phenomena, and to the role of the organizational context in prompting, shaping, and terminating habitual <span class="hlt">routines</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000613.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000613.htm"><span>Taking medicine at home - create a <span class="hlt">routine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000613.htm Taking medicine at home - create a <span class="hlt">routine</span> To use the ... teeth. Find Ways to Help You Remember Your Medicines You can: Set the alarm on your clock, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090110&hterms=Group+work&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DGroup%2Bwork','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090110&hterms=Group+work&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DGroup%2Bwork"><span>Habitual <span class="hlt">routines</span> in task-performing groups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gersick, C. J.; Hackman, J. R.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Groups, like individuals, often develop habitual <span class="hlt">routines</span> for dealing with frequently encountered stimuli. Although such <span class="hlt">routines</span> are consequential for group life and work, little is known about them. This paper reconnoiters the territory of habitual behavior in groups that perform work within organizations. We offer a definition of group habits, identify their functions and dysfunctions, suggest how they develop and are maintained, and identify the circumstances when they are likely to be altered or abandoned. Throughout, we give special attention to the social nature of habitual <span class="hlt">routines</span> in groups, to the interaction between habitual behavior and group life cycle phenomena, and to the role of the organizational context in prompting, shaping, and terminating habitual <span class="hlt">routines</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24725709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24725709"><span>Between-centre variability in transfer function analysis, a widely used method for <span class="hlt">linear</span> quantification of the dynamic pressure-<span class="hlt">flow</span> relation: the CARNet study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meel-van den Abeelen, Aisha S S; Simpson, David M; Wang, Lotte J Y; Slump, Cornelis H; Zhang, Rong; Tarumi, Takashi; Rickards, Caroline A; Payne, Stephen; Mitsis, Georgios D; Kostoglou, Kyriaki; Marmarelis, Vasilis; Shin, Dae; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Ainslie, Philip N; Gommer, Erik; Müller, Martin; Dorado, Alexander C; Smielewski, Peter; Yelicich, Bernardo; Puppo, Corina; Liu, Xiuyun; Czosnyka, Marek; Wang, Cheng-Yen; Novak, Vera; Panerai, Ronney B; Claassen, Jurgen A H R</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Transfer function analysis (TFA) is a frequently used method to assess dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) using spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood <span class="hlt">flow</span> velocity (CBFV). However, controversies and variations exist in how research groups utilise TFA, causing high variability in interpretation. The objective of this study was to evaluate between-centre variability in TFA outcome metrics. 15 centres analysed the same 70 BP and CBFV datasets from healthy subjects (n=50 rest; n=20 during hypercapnia); 10 additional datasets were computer-generated. Each centre used their in-house TFA methods; however, certain parameters were specified to reduce a priori between-centre variability. Hypercapnia was used to assess discriminatory performance and synthetic data to evaluate effects of parameter settings. Results were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression. A large non-homogeneous variation was found in TFA outcome metrics between the centres. Logistic regression demonstrated that 11 centres were able to distinguish between normal and impaired CA with an AUC>0.85. Further analysis identified TFA settings that are associated with large variation in outcome measures. These results indicate the need for standardisation of TFA settings in order to reduce between-centre variability and to allow accurate comparison between studies. Suggestions on optimal signal processing methods are proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1493.1023B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1493.1023B"><span><span class="hlt">Linear</span> stability of a non slipping gas <span class="hlt">flow</span> in a rectangular lined duct with respect to perturbations of the initial value by indefinitely differentiable disturbances having compact support</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balint, Agneta M.; Balint, Stefan; Szabo, Robert</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>This paper comments on a number of inaccuracies in the article by Brambley [E.J. Brambley, Fundamental problems with the model of uniform <span class="hlt">flow</span> over acoustic linings, Journal of Sound and Vibration 322(2009)1026-1037] concerning the new concept of "well-posed partial differential equation" introduced in the paper. In particular, the neglect of specifying: the initial and boundary conditions; meaning of solution; conditions assuring existence and uniqueness of the solution; topology in the space of the solutions necessary for analyze the continuous dependence on the initial data and Lyapunov stability. It is shown that, due to the above inaccuracies, the concept introduced by Brambley is confusing, i.e. depending on the set of initial data, boundary conditions, meaning of solution and topology, the same equation can be ill-posed or it can be well-posed. In our paper the concept of well-posed problem, introduced by Hadamard long times ago, is refreshed and applied in the case of rectangular lined duct. Sufficient conditions for that the Briggs-Bers stability criterion can be applied are given. The requirement appearing here, concerning the existence of a finite upper bound of the set of exponential growth rates, is necessary only for assuring the existence of the Laplace transform of the solutions of the partial differential equation from a considered set and not for that the partial differential equation be well-posed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26964851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26964851"><span>Improving care coordination using organisational <span class="hlt">routines</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prætorius, Thim</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to systematically apply theory of organisational <span class="hlt">routines</span> to standardised care pathways. The explanatory power of <span class="hlt">routines</span> is used to address open questions in the care pathway literature about their coordinating and organising role, the way they change and can be replicated, the way they are influenced by the organisation and the way they influence health care professionals. Theory of <span class="hlt">routines</span> is systematically applied to care pathways in order to develop theoretically derived propositions. Care pathways mirror <span class="hlt">routines</span> by being recurrent, collective and embedded and specific to an organisation. In particular, care pathways resemble standard operating procedures that can give rise to recurrent collective action patterns. In all, 11 propositions related to five categories are proposed by building on these insights: care pathways and coordination, change, replication, the organisation and health care professionals. Research limitations/implications - The paper is conceptual and uses care pathways as illustrative instances of hospital <span class="hlt">routines</span>. The propositions provide a starting point for empirical research. The analysis highlights implications that health care professionals and managers have to consider in relation to coordination, change, replication, the way the organisation influences care pathways and the way care pathways influence health care professionals. Originality/value - Theory on organisational <span class="hlt">routines</span> offers fundamental, yet unexplored, insights into hospital processes, including in particular care coordination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012160','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012160"><span>Comment on 'A reinterpretation of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> heat <span class="hlt">flow</span> and heat production relationship for the exponential model of the heat production in the crust' by R.N. Singh & J.G. Negi.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lachenbruch, A.H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>In their recent paper, Singh & Negi, (This journal, 57, 741-744) contend that if thd slope of the empirical <span class="hlt">linear</span> relation between heat <span class="hlt">flow</span> and heat production is interpreted as the decay-length of an exponential depth-distribution of sources, a discrepancy rises, whereas if it is interpreted as the depth of a step distribution, it does not. I should like to point out that their discrepancy follows from their arbitrary assumption of one of a range of physical possibilities unconstrained by the observations; with an equally valid alternate assumption (Lachenbruch 1970) the discrepancy disappears. In any case such discrepancies are probably minor compared to physical difficulties that arise from the step model, and to uncertainties introduced by other assumptions in any simple model.-Author</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930042201&hterms=Thulium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DThulium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930042201&hterms=Thulium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DThulium"><span>Giant suppression of flux-<span class="hlt">flow</span> resistivity in heavy-ion irradiated Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10 films - Influence of <span class="hlt">linear</span> defects on vortex transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Budhani, R. C.; Suenaga, M.; Liou, S. H.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A large shift of the onset of flux-<span class="hlt">flow</span> resistivity and the irreversibility line H(irr)(T) to higher temperatures is observed in Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10 films containing <span class="hlt">linear</span> defects created by Ag(+21) ion irradiation. The H(irr)(T), which has a characteristic L shape in highly anisotropic Tl and Bi based cuprates, becomes more like that of YBa2Cu3O7 in the presence of these defects. The Jc at 77 K also shows a large increase as a result of flux localization at the defects. The transport data indicate that in the H-T plane above H(irr)(T) of the unirradiated material, an ensemble of unoccupied defects is required for effective pinning of each flux line in the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014471','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014471"><span>Reciprocating <span class="hlt">linear</span> motor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A reciprocating <span class="hlt">linear</span> motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current <span class="hlt">flow</span> perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited <span class="hlt">linear</span> displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GMD....10.3547D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GMD....10.3547D"><span>Implementation of a physically based water percolation <span class="hlt">routine</span> in the Crocus/SURFEX (V7.3) snowpack model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Amboise, Christopher J. L.; Müller, Karsten; Oxarango, Laurent; Morin, Samuel; Schuler, Thomas V.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>We present a new water percolation <span class="hlt">routine</span> added to the one-dimensional snowpack model Crocus as an alternative to the empirical bucket <span class="hlt">routine</span>. This <span class="hlt">routine</span> solves the Richards equation, which describes <span class="hlt">flow</span> of water through unsaturated porous snow governed by capillary suction, gravity and hydraulic conductivity of the snow layers. We tested the Richards <span class="hlt">routine</span> on two data sets, one recorded from an automatic weather station over the winter of 2013-2014 at Filefjell, Norway, and the other an idealized synthetic data set. Model results using the Richards <span class="hlt">routine</span> generally lead to higher water contents in the snow layers. Snow layers often reached a point at which the ice crystals' surface area is completely covered by a thin film of water (the transition between pendular and funicular regimes), at which feedback from the snow metamorphism and compaction <span class="hlt">routines</span> are expected to be nonlinear. With the synthetic simulation 18 % of snow layers obtained a saturation of > 10 % and 0.57 % of layers reached saturation of > 15 %. The Richards <span class="hlt">routine</span> had a maximum liquid water content of 173.6 kg m-3 whereas the bucket <span class="hlt">routine</span> had a maximum of 42.1 kg m-3. We found that wet-snow processes, such as wet-snow metamorphism and wet-snow compaction rates, are not accurately represented at higher water contents. These <span class="hlt">routines</span> feed back on the Richards <span class="hlt">routines</span>, which rely heavily on grain size and snow density. The parameter sets for the water retention curve and hydraulic conductivity of snow layers, which are used in the Richards <span class="hlt">routine</span>, do not represent all the snow types that can be found in a natural snowpack. We show that the new <span class="hlt">routine</span> has been implemented in the Crocus model, but due to feedback amplification and parameter uncertainties, meaningful applicability is limited. Updating or adapting other <span class="hlt">routines</span> in Crocus, specifically the snow compaction <span class="hlt">routine</span> and the grain metamorphism <span class="hlt">routine</span>, is needed before Crocus can accurately simulate the snowpack using the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910028147&hterms=routine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Droutine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910028147&hterms=routine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Droutine"><span>Toward the <span class="hlt">routine</span> aerodynamic analysis of complex configurations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Madson, Michael D.; Erickson, Larry L.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>An evaluation is made of the ability of the TranAir CFD code to <span class="hlt">routinely</span> compute the aerodynamic characteristics of complex subsonic and supersonic aircraft configurations. TranAir solves the full-potential equation for transonic <span class="hlt">flow</span> about completely arbitrary geometries, using the surface-paneling PanAir technique in geometry definition. The uniform global grid may be locally refined in regions where <span class="hlt">flow</span> properties are rapidly changing, such as regions where shocks arise, and around wing leading edges. Unlike panel method codes, TranAir solutions are not undermined by small-perturbation assumptions. Illustrative results are presented for such configurations as the F-16A with wingtip-mounted missiles and underwing fuel tanks, a generic fighter configuration, and a model of NASA-Ames' 12-ft Pressure Wind Tunnel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17956365','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17956365"><span>Subjective refraction: the mechanism underlying the <span class="hlt">routine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harris, W F</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">routine</span> of subjective refraction is usually understood, explained and taught in terms of the relative positions of line or point foci and the retina. This paper argues that such an approach makes unnecessary and sometimes invalid assumptions about what is actually happening inside the eye. The only assumption necessary in fact is that the subject is able to guide the refractionist to (or close to) the optimum power for refractive compensation. The <span class="hlt">routine</span> works even in eyes in which the interval of Sturm does not behave as supposed; it would work, in fact, regardless of the structure of the eye. The idealized subjective refraction <span class="hlt">routine</span> consists of two steps: the first finds the best sphere (the stigmatic component) and the second finds the remaining Jackson cross-cylinder (the antistigmatic component). The model makes use of the concept of symmetric dioptric power space. The second part of the refraction <span class="hlt">routine</span> can be performed with Jackson cross-cylinders alone. However, it is usually taught and practiced using spheres, cylinders and Jackson cross-cylinders in a procedure that is not easy to understand and learn. Recognizing that this part of the <span class="hlt">routine</span> is equivalent to one involving Jackson cross-cylinders only allows one to teach and understand the procedure more naturally and easily.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20678663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20678663"><span>Kinetics independent spectrometric analysis using non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> calibration modelling and exploitation of concentration gradients generated by a <span class="hlt">flow</span>-batch system for albumin and total protein determination in blood serum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Souza, Margarida C; Martins, Valdomiro L; Almeida, Luciano F; Pessoa Neto, Osmundo D; Gaião, Edvaldo N; Araujo, Mario Cesar U</p> <p>2010-08-15</p> <p>An automatic method for kinetics independent spectrometric analysis is proposed in this study. It uses a non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> calibration model that explores concentration gradients generated by a <span class="hlt">flow</span>-batch analyser (FBA) for the samples, dye, and the single standard solution. The procedure for obtaining the gradients of the dye and standard solution is performed once at the beginning of analysis. The same procedure is applied thereafter for each sample. For illustration, the proposed automatic methodology was applied to determine total protein and albumin in blood serum by using the Biuret and Bromocresol Green (BCG) methods. The measurements were made by using a laboratory-made photometer based on a red and green bicolour LED (Light-Emitting Diode) and a phototransistor, coupled to a "Z" form <span class="hlt">flow</span> cell. The sample throughput was about 50 h(-1) for albumin and 60 h(-1) for total protein, consuming about 7 microL of sample, 2.6 mL of BCG and 1.2 mL of biuret reagents for each determination. Applying the paired t-test for results from the proposed analyser and the reference method, no statistic differences at 95% confidence level were found. The absolute standard deviation was usually smaller than 0.2 g dL(-1). The proposed method is valuable for the determination of total protein and albumin; and can also be used in other determinations where kinetic effects may or may not exist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4720613','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4720613"><span>Implementing <span class="hlt">Routine</span> HIV Screening in Three Chicago Hospitals: Lessons Learned</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rucker, Monique Glover; Allgood, Kristi L.; Sinclair, Donna; Lawal, Rukiyat; Tobin, Audra; Pitrak, David; Glick, Nancy R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective This study describes <span class="hlt">routine</span> HIV screening implementation and outcomes in three hospitals in Chicago, Illinois. Methods Retrospective data from three hospitals were examined, and <span class="hlt">routine</span> testing procedures, testing volume, reactive test results, and linkage-to-care outcomes were documented. Results From January 2012 through March 2014, 40,788 HIV tests were administered at the three hospitals: 18,603 (46%) in the emergency department (ED), 7,546 (19%) in the inpatient departments, and 14,639 (36%) in outpatient clinics. The screened patients varied from 1% to 22% of the total eligible patient population across hospitals. A total of 297 patients tested positive for HIV for a seropositivity rate of 0.7%; 129 (43%) were newly diagnosed and 168 (57%) were previously diagnosed, with 64% of those previously diagnosed out of care at the time of screening. The inpatient areas had the highest seropositivity rate (0.6%). The percentage of newly diagnosed patients overall who were linked to care was 77%. Of newly diagnosed patients, 51% had ≥1 missed opportunity for testing (with a mean of 3.8 visits since 2006), and 30% of patients with missed opportunities were late testers (baseline CD4+ counts <200 cells per cubic millimeter). Conclusion <span class="hlt">Routine</span> screening is an essential tool for identifying new infections and patients with known infection who are out of care. Hospitals need to provide HIV screening in inpatient and outpatient settings—not just EDs—to decrease missed opportunities. <span class="hlt">Routine</span> screening success will be driven by how notification and testing are incorporated into the normal medical <span class="hlt">flow</span>, the level of leadership buy-in, the ability to conduct quality assurance, and local testing laws. PMID:26862237</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/4600','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/4600"><span><span class="hlt">Routine</span> Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bechtel Nevada</p> <p>1999-12-31</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring <span class="hlt">routine</span> effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting <span class="hlt">routine</span> radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840012158','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840012158"><span>Modeling material failure with a vectorized <span class="hlt">routine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cramer, S. M.; Goodman, J. R.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The computational aspects of modelling material failure in structural wood members are presented with particular reference to vector processing aspects. Wood members are considered to be highly orthotropic, inhomogeneous, and discontinuous due to the complex microstructure of wood material and the presence of natural growth characteristics such as knots, cracks and cross grain in wood members. The simulation of strength behavior of wood members is accomplished through the use of a special purpose finite element/fracture mechanics <span class="hlt">routine</span>, program STARW (Strength Analysis <span class="hlt">Routine</span> for Wood). Program STARW employs quadratic finite elements combined with singular crack tip elements in a finite element mesh. Vector processing techniques are employed in mesh generation, stiffness matrix formation, simultaneous equation solution, and material failure calculations. The paper addresses these techniques along with the time and effort requirements needed to convert existing finite element code to a vectorized version. Comparisons in execution time between vectorized and nonvectorized <span class="hlt">routines</span> are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910065238&hterms=routine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Droutine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910065238&hterms=routine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Droutine"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">routine</span> pilot-controller communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morrow, Daniel G.; Lee, Alfred; Rodvold, Michelle</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Although pilot-controller communication is central to aviation safety, this area of aviation human factors has not been extensively researched. Most research has focused on what kinds of communication problems occur. A more complete picture of communication problems requires understanding how communication usually works in <span class="hlt">routine</span> operations. A sample of <span class="hlt">routine</span> pilot-controller communication in the TRACON environment is described. After describing several dimensions of <span class="hlt">routine</span> communication, three kinds of communication problems are treated: inaccuracies such as incorrect readbacks, procedural deviations such as missing callsigns and readbacks, and nonroutine transactions where pilot and controller must deal with misunderstandings or other communication problems. Preliminary results suggest these problems are not frequent events in daily operations. However, analysis of the problems that do occur suggest some factors that may cause them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910065238&hterms=communication+event&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcommunication%2Bevent','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910065238&hterms=communication+event&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcommunication%2Bevent"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">routine</span> pilot-controller communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morrow, Daniel G.; Lee, Alfred; Rodvold, Michelle</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Although pilot-controller communication is central to aviation safety, this area of aviation human factors has not been extensively researched. Most research has focused on what kinds of communication problems occur. A more complete picture of communication problems requires understanding how communication usually works in <span class="hlt">routine</span> operations. A sample of <span class="hlt">routine</span> pilot-controller communication in the TRACON environment is described. After describing several dimensions of <span class="hlt">routine</span> communication, three kinds of communication problems are treated: inaccuracies such as incorrect readbacks, procedural deviations such as missing callsigns and readbacks, and nonroutine transactions where pilot and controller must deal with misunderstandings or other communication problems. Preliminary results suggest these problems are not frequent events in daily operations. However, analysis of the problems that do occur suggest some factors that may cause them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950023403','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950023403"><span>ANSYS duplicate finite-element checker <span class="hlt">routine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ortega, R.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>An ANSYS finite-element code <span class="hlt">routine</span> to check for duplicated elements within the volume of a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element mesh was developed. The <span class="hlt">routine</span> developed is used for checking floating elements within a mesh, identically duplicated elements, and intersecting elements with a common face. A space shuttle main engine alternate turbopump development high pressure oxidizer turbopump finite-element model check using the developed subroutine is discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided for duplicate element checking of 3D finite-element models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/362601','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/362601"><span><span class="hlt">Routine</span> environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1998</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McKinney, S.M.</p> <p>1997-11-24</p> <p>This document provides the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) and the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) a schedule in accordance with the HNF-PRO-454, Inactive Waste Sites` HNF-PRO-455, Solid Waste 3 Management4 and BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements, of monitoring and sampling, <span class="hlt">routines</span> for the near-facility environmental monitoring program during calendar year (CY) 1998. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Environmental Monitoring and investigations and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1999. The outside perimeter road surveys of 200 East and West Area and the rail survey from the 300 Area to Columbia Center will be performed in the year 2000 per agreement with Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. This schedule does not discuss staffing needs, nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific <span class="hlt">routines</span>. Personnel performing <span class="hlt">routines</span> to meet this schedule shall communicate any need for 1332 assistance in completing these <span class="hlt">routines</span> to Radiological Control management and Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. After each <span class="hlt">routine</span> survey is completed, a copy of the survey record, maps, and data sheets will be forwarded to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. These <span class="hlt">routine</span> surveys will not be considered complete until this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013809','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013809"><span>Support <span class="hlt">Routines</span> for In Situ Image Processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deen, Robert G.; Pariser, Oleg; Yeates, Matthew C.; Lee, Hyun H.; Lorre, Jean</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This software consists of a set of application programs that support ground-based image processing for in situ missions. These programs represent a collection of utility <span class="hlt">routines</span> that perform miscellaneous functions in the context of the ground data system. Each one fulfills some specific need as determined via operational experience. The most unique aspect to these programs is that they are integrated into the large, in situ image processing system via the PIG (Planetary Image Geometry) library. They work directly with space in situ data, understanding the appropriate image meta-data fields and updating them properly. The programs themselves are completely multimission; all mission dependencies are handled by PIG. This suite of programs consists of: (1)marscahv: Generates a <span class="hlt">linearized</span>, epi-polar aligned image given a stereo pair of images. These images are optimized for 1-D stereo correlations, (2) marscheckcm: Compares the camera model in an image label with one derived via kinematics modeling on the ground, (3) marschkovl: Checks the overlaps between a list of images in order to determine which might be stereo pairs. This is useful for non-traditional stereo images like long-baseline or those from an articulating arm camera, (4) marscoordtrans: Translates mosaic coordinates from one form into another, (5) marsdispcompare: Checks a Left Right stereo disparity image against a Right Left disparity image to ensure they are consistent with each other, (6) marsdispwarp: Takes one image of a stereo pair and warps it through a disparity map to create a synthetic opposite- eye image. For example, a right eye image could be transformed to look like it was taken from the left eye via this program, (7) marsfidfinder: Finds fiducial markers in an image by projecting their approximate location and then using correlation to locate the markers to subpixel accuracy. These fiducial markets are small targets attached to the spacecraft surface. This helps verify, or improve, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-17/pdf/2012-17364.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-17/pdf/2012-17364.pdf"><span>77 FR 41993 - Privacy Act of 1974; Proposed New <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Use-HUD's <span class="hlt">Routine</span> Use Inventory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-17</p> <p>... System. ] HUD/HS-16 Single Family Neighborhood Watch Early Warning System. HUD/HS-22 Housing Counseling... Information Officer, is establishing 24 ``blanket'' <span class="hlt">routine</span> uses to be applicable to more than one HUD system... blanket <span class="hlt">routine</span> use proposal applicable to all its systems of records. This proposal provides an update to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730044595&hterms=differential+ordinary+equation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Ddifferential%2Bordinary%2Bequation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730044595&hterms=differential+ordinary+equation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Ddifferential%2Bordinary%2Bequation"><span>On the stability of numerical integration <span class="hlt">routines</span> for ordinary differential equations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Glover, K.; Willems, J. C.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Numerical integration methods for the solution of initial value problems for ordinary vector differential equations may be modelled as discrete time feedback systems. The stability criteria discovered in modern control theory are applied to these systems and criteria involving the <span class="hlt">routine</span>, the step size and the differential equation are derived. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> multistep, Runge-Kutta, and predictor-corrector methods are all investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22structured+computer%22&id=EJ894185','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22structured+computer%22&id=EJ894185"><span>Action Selection in Complex <span class="hlt">Routinized</span> Sequential Behaviors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ruh, Nicolas; Cooper, Richard P.; Mareschal, Denis</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We report two experiments in which errors and interaction latencies were recorded during <span class="hlt">routinization</span> of hierarchically structured computer-based tasks. Experiment 1 demonstrates that action selection is slowed at subtask transitions, especially when selecting lower frequency actions. This frequency effect is compounded by concurrent performance…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED321871.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED321871.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Routines</span>. Infant/Toddler Caregiving: A Guide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gonzalez-Mena, Janet</p> <p></p> <p>Intended for use in conjunction with videos illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide focuses on how the daily <span class="hlt">routines</span> of caring for infants and toddlers can become opportunities for promoting the child's learning and development and for deepening the relationship between child and caregiver. Special attention is given to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol22-sec141-621.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol22-sec141-621.pdf"><span>40 CFR 141.621 - <span class="hlt">Routine</span> monitoring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Routine</span> monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=procrastination&pg=7&id=EJ778573','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=procrastination&pg=7&id=EJ778573"><span>Individual Values, Learning <span class="hlt">Routines</span> and Academic Procrastination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Background: Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured <span class="hlt">routines</span> for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. Aims: The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17971288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17971288"><span>Individual values, learning <span class="hlt">routines</span> and academic procrastination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured <span class="hlt">routines</span> for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. The model tested in this study posits that postmodern value orientations are positively related to procrastination and to a lack of daily <span class="hlt">routines</span> concerning the performance of academic activities. In contrast, modern values are negatively related to procrastination and positively to learning <span class="hlt">routines</span>. Academic procrastination, in-turn, should be associated with the tendency to prefer leisure activities to schoolwork in case of conflicts between these two life domains. Seven hundred and four students from 6th and 8th grade with a mean age of 13.5 years participated in the study. The sample included students from all tracks of the German educational system. Students completed a questionnaire containing two value prototypes as well as scales on learning <span class="hlt">routines</span> and procrastination. Decisions in motivational conflicts were measured using two vignettes. Results from structural equation modelling supported the proposed model for the whole sample as well as for each school track. A planned course of the day can prevent procrastination and foster decisions for academic tasks in case of conflicts. Students' learning takes place within a societal context and reflects the values held in the respective culture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4081682','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4081682"><span>Is <span class="hlt">routine</span> drainage necessary after pancreaticoduodenectomy?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Yong-Jian; Li, Ji; Yang, Feng; Di, Yang; Yao, Lie; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>With the development of imaging technology and surgical techniques, pancreatic resections to treat pancreatic tumors, ampulla tumors, and other pancreatic diseases have increased. Pancreaticoduodenectomy, one type of pancreatic resection, is a complex surgery with the loss of pancreatic integrity and various anastomoses. Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy such as pancreatic fistulas and anastomosis leakage are common and significantly associated with patient outcomes. Pancreatic fistula is one of the most important postoperative complications; this condition can cause intraperitoneal hemorrhage, septic shock, or even death. An effective way has not yet been found to avoid the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. In most medical centers, the frequency of pancreatic fistula has remained between 9% and 13%. The early detection and <span class="hlt">routine</span> drainage of anastomotic fistulas, pancreatic fistulas, bleeding, or other intra-abdominal fluid collections after pancreatic resections are considered as important and effective ways to reduce postoperative complications and the mortality rate. However, many recent studies have argued that <span class="hlt">routine</span> drainage after abdominal operations, including pancreaticoduodenectomies, does not affect the incidence of postoperative complications. Although inserting drains after pancreatic resections continues to be a <span class="hlt">routine</span> procedure, its necessity remains controversial. This article reviews studies of the advantages and disadvantages of <span class="hlt">routine</span> drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy and discusses the necessity of this procedure. PMID:25009383</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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